Sample records for highly sensitive uplc-ms

  1. Simple, Sensitive, High-Throughput Method for the Quantification of Mitragynine in Rat Plasma Using UPLC-MS and Its Application to an Intravenous Pharmacokinetic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep K. Vuppala; Sai P. Boddu; Edward B. Furr; Christopher R. McCurdy; Bonnie A. Avery

    A simple, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method was developed and\\u000a validated for the quantification of mitragynine in rat plasma using amitriptyline hydrochloride as an internal standard. Sample\\u000a preparation involved a one-step liquid–liquid extraction using methyl t-butyl ether. Mitragynine was separated on an Acquity UPLC™ BEH HILIC column using isocratic elution with a mobile phase of 10 mM

  2. An UPLC-MS/MS method for highly sensitive high-throughput analysis of phytohormones in plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phytohormones are the key metabolites participating in the regulation of multiple functions of plant organism. Among them, jasmonates, as well as abscisic and salicylic acids are responsible for triggering and modulating plant reactions targeted against pathogens and herbivores, as well as resistance to abiotic stress (drought, UV-irradiation and mechanical wounding). These factors induce dramatic changes in phytohormone biosynthesis and transport leading to rapid local and systemic stress responses. Understanding of underlying mechanisms is of principle interest for scientists working in various areas of plant biology. However, highly sensitive, precise and high-throughput methods for quantification of these phytohormones in small samples of plant tissues are still missing. Results Here we present an LC-MS/MS method for fast and highly sensitive determination of jasmonates, abscisic and salicylic acids. A single-step sample preparation procedure based on mixed-mode solid phase extraction was efficiently combined with essential improvements in mobile phase composition yielding higher efficiency of chromatographic separation and MS-sensitivity. This strategy resulted in dramatic increase in overall sensitivity, allowing successful determination of phytohormones in small (less than 50 mg of fresh weight) tissue samples. The method was completely validated in terms of analyte recovery, sensitivity, linearity and precision. Additionally, it was cross-validated with a well-established GC-MS-based procedure and its applicability to a variety of plant species and organs was verified. Conclusion The method can be applied for the analyses of target phytohormones in small tissue samples obtained from any plant species and/or plant part relying on any commercially available (even less sensitive) tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation. PMID:23173950

  3. Sensitive UPLC-MS-MS assay for 21 benzodiazepine drugs and metabolites, zolpidem and zopiclone in serum or plasma.

    PubMed

    Marin, Stephanie J; Roberts, Mark; Wood, Michelle; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method to quantitate 21 benzodiazepines, zolpidem and zopiclone in serum and plasma. After liquid-liquid extraction, an Acquity UPLC with a TQ Detector and BEH C18 column was used (Waters, Milford, MA). The injection-to-injection run time was 7.5 min. Forty-eight authentic serum and plasma patient specimens were analyzed and results compared to those obtained using a previously published method. Average r(2) values for linearity (1 to 1,000 ng/mL over five days) were all above 0.995, except ?-hydroxytriazolam (0.993). Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation values were within ± 15% and the percent deviation from the expected concentrations were within ± 11%. Recovery ranged from 62 to 89%. Matrix effects ranged from -28% to +6%. The limits of detection were 1 ng/mL, except for lorazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam (5 ng/mL). Ion ratios were ± 15% for all analytes. For authentic patient specimens (n = 48, 76 positive results), there was excellent correlation between the UPLC-MS-MS results and the previous method. The best least-squares fit had an equation of y = 1.0708x + 1.6521, r(2) = 0.9822. This UPLC-MS-MS method is suitable for the quantification of benzodiazepines and hypnotics in serum and plasma, and offers fast, reliable and sensitive results. PMID:22833647

  4. Development of a rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the determination of TM-2 in beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongli; Zhao, Yunli; Men, Lei; Yang, Mingjing; Liu, Hui; Shao, Yanjie; Wang, Pei; Tang, Xing; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of TM-2, which was a novel semi-synthetic taxane derivative in beagle dog plasma. Cabazitaxel was chosen as internal standard. Following extraction by methyl tert-butyl ether, the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Thermo Syncronis C18 column (50?×?2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) by gradient elution within a runtime of 3.5 min. The mobile phase consisted of (A) acetonitrile and (B) 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate in water. The detection was accomplished using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The MS/MS ion transitions were monitored at m/z 812.39???551.35 for TM-2 and 836.36???555.26 for IS, respectively. The method was linear for TM-2 (r?=?0.9924) ranging from 2.5 to 1000 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were within 8.0 and 17.6%, respectively, and the accuracy (relative error) was less than 2.3%. The extraction recovery ranged from 83.1 to 97.1%. The reliable method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of TM-2 in beagle dogs after intravenous drip with different doses of 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:24828525

  5. A simple and sensitive assay for eflornithine quantification in rat brain using pre-column derivatization and UPLC-MS/MS detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sihyung; Peng, Kuan-Wei; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2015-06-01

    Eflornithine (?-difluoromethylornithine) has been used to treat second-stage (or meningoencephalitic-stage) human African trypanosomiasis and currently is under clinical development for cancer prevention. In this study, a new ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based assay was developed and validated for the quantification of eflornithine in rat brain. To improve chromatographic retention and MS detection, eflornithine was derivatized with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate for 5?min at room temperature prior to injection. Derivatized eflornithine was separated on a reverse-phase C18 UPLC column with a 6-min gradient; elution occurred at approximately 1.5?min. Prior to derivatization, eflornithine was reproducibly extracted from rat brain homogenate by methanol protein precipitation (~70% recovery). Derivatized eflornithine was stable in the autosampler (6?°C) for at least 24?h. This new assay had acceptable intra- and interday accuracy and precision over a wide dynamic range (5000-fold) and excellent sensitivity with a lower limit of quantification of 0.1?µm (18?ng/mL) using only 10??L of rat brain homogenate. The validated eflornithine assay was applied successfully to determine eflornithine distribution in different regions of rat brain in an in situ rat brain perfusion study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25365958

  6. A selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS approach for trace level quantification of four potential genotoxic impurities in zolmitriptan drug substance.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, A; Venugopal, N; Madhavi, G; Gangadhara Reddy, K; Madhavi, V

    2013-10-01

    The pivotal task of pharmaceutical industry is to separate and quantify the potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs) rising from the process of drug production. For trace level quantification of these PGIs we need to develop sensitive and selective analytical methods. APP, NPA, NPP and MNA have been highlighted as PGIs in zolmitriptan. A sensitive and selective UPLC-MS/MS method has developed for identification and quantification of four PGIs viz. APP, NPA, NPP and MNA in zolmitriptan. The method utilizes Hypersil BDS C8 column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.0 ?m) with electrospray ionization in selected ion recording (SIR) mode for quantitation of four PGIs. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and is able to quantitate APP at 0.1 ppm and NPA, NPP and MNA at 0.15 ppm with respect to 5.0mg/mL of zolmitriptan. The proposed method is specific, linear, accurate and precise. The method is linear in the range of 0.1-2.0 ppm for APP and 0.15-2.0 ppm for NPA, NPP and MNA, which matches the range of LOQ-200% of estimated permitted level (1.0 ppm). The correlation coefficient obtained was >0.999 in each case. The impurities were not present in the studied three pure and formulation batches of zolmitriptan. The accuracy of the method was ranged between 98.1 and 102.8% for four PGIs. This method is a good quality control tool for quantitation of four APP, NPA, NPP and MNA PGIs at very low levels in zolmitriptan. PMID:23816589

  7. A rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of HZ08 in rat plasma and tissues: application to a pharmacokinetic study of liposome injections.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Sun, Miaomiao; Hang, Taijun; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Xia; Deng, Xin; Ge, Liang; Qian, Hai; Ya, Ding; Huang, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein leads to tumor multidrug resistance (MDR). HZ08, a novel tetrahydro-isoquinoline derivate, was discovered to inhibit the MDR in the cancer cell lines of MCF-7/ADM, K562/ADM and KBV in our previous studies. A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for determination of HZ08 in rat plasma and tissues after intravenous administration of HZ08 liposome injection at different doses. The analytes were extracted from plasma and tissues using protein precipitation by acetonitrile with clotrimazole as internal standard. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Thermo BDS HYPERSIL C18 column (100 mm × 4.6mm, 2.4 ?m) at a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min using 0.2% ammonium acetate solution (containing 0.1% formic acid) and methanol as mobile phase. The total run time was 4 min. The tandem mass detection was applied with electrospray ionization in positive ion selected reaction monitoring mode. The ion transitions monitored were m/z 523.5 to 342.3 for HZ08 and 277.1 to 165.1 for the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curves obtained were linear in different matrices, and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) achieved was 1 ng/ml for rat plasma and 0.25 ng/ml for rat tissues, respectively. The RSDs for intra- and inter-day precision were less than 15%. Extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability were satisfactory in rat plasma and tissues. The developed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of HZ08 liposome injection following intravenous administration of 1, 3, 10mg/kg to Sprague-Dawley rats. The data profiles revealed that HZ08 had linear pharmacokinetic properties at the tested doses, and was rapidly distributed into the systemic circulation with wide distribution throughout the body followed by a rapid elimination phase. The major distribution tissues of HZ08 in rats were lung, spleen and liver. These results provided constructive contribution to support the clinical evaluation. PMID:25305722

  8. UPLC-MS(E) application in disease biomarker discovery: the discoveries in proteomics to metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Yong; Lin, Rui-Chao

    2014-05-25

    In the last decade, proteomics and metabolomics have contributed substantially to our understanding of different diseases. Proteomics and metabolomics aims to comprehensively identify proteins and metabolites to gain insight into the cellular signaling pathways underlying disease and to discover novel biomarkers for screening, early detection and diagnosis, as well as for determining prognoses and predicting responses to specific treatments. For comprehensive analysis of cellular proteins and metabolites, analytical methods of wider dynamic range higher resolution and good sensitivity are required. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(Elevated Energy) (UPLC-MS(E)) is currently one of the most versatile techniques. UPLC-MS(E) is an established technology in proteomics studies and is now expanding into metabolite research. MS(E) was used for simultaneous acquisition of precursor ion information and fragment ion data at low and high collision energy in one analytical run, providing similar information to conventional MS(2). In this review, UPLC-MS(E) application in proteomics and metabolomics was highlighted to assess protein and metabolite changes in different diseases, including cancer, neuropsychiatric pharmacology studies from clinical trials and animal models. In addition, the future prospects for complete proteomics and metabolomics are discussed. PMID:24631021

  9. Determination of caramel colorants' by-products in liquid foods by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Goscinny, Séverine; Hanot, Vincent; Trabelsi, Hasna; Van Loco, Joris

    2014-01-01

    2-Methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole (2-MI and 4-MI), 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl) imidazole (THI) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are neo-formed compounds generated during the manufacture of caramel colours and are transferred to the processed food. These contaminants are known to have a toxicological profile that may pose health risks. Hence, to characterise THI, 2- and 4-MI and 5-HMF levels in liquid foods, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and sample preparation was divided into two analytical strategies depending on the concentration range expected in the type of foods targeted. For the determination of the imidazole substitutes (THI, 2- and 4-MI), a sample enrichment and clean-up step by strong cation solid-phase extraction was developed. This method is capable of quantifying over a range of 5 ng ml?¹ (LOQ) to 500 ng ml?¹ with recoveries of 75.4-112.4% and RSDs of 1.5-15%. For determination of 5-HMF, a standard addition method was applied covering the linear range of 0.25-30 µg ml?¹ with RSDs from 2.8% (for intraday precision) to 9.2% (for intermediate precision). The validated analytical methods were applied to 28 liquid food samples purchased from local markets. THI was found only in the beer samples at levels up to 141.2 ng ml?¹. For 2-MI, non-quantifiable traces were observed for all samples, while 4-MI was observed in all samples with large concentration variations (from < LOQ to 563.9 ng ml?¹). 5-HMF was found at expected concentrations, except for a sherry vinegar sample (113 µg ml?¹), which required a high level of dilution before following the standard addition protocol. PMID:25060737

  10. Therapeutic monitoring of amphotericin B in Saudi ICU patients using UPLC MS/MS assay.

    PubMed

    Al-Quadeib, Bushra T; Radwan, Mahasen A; Siller, Lidija; Mutch, Elaine; Horrocks, Ben; Wright, Matthew; Alshaer, Abdulaziz

    2014-12-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is the first-line agent for the treatment of life-threatening invasive fungal infections. The aim of this study was to monitor AmB in critically ill Saudi patients in ICU after i.v. administration of 0.68 ± 0.1 mg/kg/day Fungizone®. A selective, sensitive and precise UPLC MS/MS method was developed to measure AmB concentrations in these patients. Seven ICU patients with creatinine clearance (ClCr) >40 mL/min were included. AmB levels were analyzed using a Waters Aquity UPLC MS/MS system, a BEH Shield RP18 column and detection via electrospray ionization source with positive ionization mode. The precision and accuracy of the developed UPLC method in the concentration range of 200-4000 ng/mL show no significant difference among inter- and-intra-day analysis (p > 0.05). Linearity was observed over the investigated range with correlation coefficient, r > 0.995 (n = 6/day). The pharmacokinetics of AmB in these patients, at steady state, showed a high terminal half-life of 124.6 ± 73.4 h, with a highest concentration of 513.9 ± 281.1 ng/mL, a lowest concentration 316.4 ± 129.0 ng/mL and a mean clearance 91.1 ± 39.2 mL/h/kg. The pharmacokinetics of AmB in critically ill Saudi patients in ICU was studied using a fully validated assay. A weak correlation (r = -0.22) of AmB Cl with ClCr was obtained, which suggests the need for further investigation in a larger population. PMID:24733605

  11. Profiling counterfeit Cialis, Viagra and analogs by UPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rafael S; Mariotti, Kristiane de Cássia; Holzschuh, Maribete H; Romão, Wanderson; Limberger, Renata P; Mayorga, Paulo

    2013-06-10

    In this work, the chemical profile of 43 commercial samples of tablets for male erectile dysfunction (Viagra, Cialis, Lazar, Libiden, Maxfil, Plenovit, Potent 75, Rigix, Vimax, Pramil 75 and Pramil) and 65 counterfeit samples (Viagra and Cialis) were obtained from UPLC-MS data. Methanol extracts of crushed tablets were investigated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with diode array detection (DAD) coupled with eletrospray ionization in the positive ion mode (ESI(+)) quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-Tof) mass spectrometry (MS). A validated method was employed for the simultaneous determination of sildenafil citrate (SLD) and tadalafil (TAD). The ultra-chromatograms obtained with method provide high resolution of MS, and are a quick (less to 1.5 min) and reliable tool in the distinction between authentic and counterfeit tablets. It was observed in most cases the presence of other active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) than specified on the package (TAD and SLD). Additionally, high concentrations of TAD and SLD were detected in counterfeit samples when compare with observed values for a typical commercial product. Chemometric methods were employed and the samples were grouped in five groups as function of API content. PMID:23683904

  12. Folate analysis in foods by UPLC-MS/MS: development and validation of a novel, high throughput quantitative assay; folate levels determined in Australian fortified breads.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Bucknall, Martin P; Arcot, Jayashree

    2011-08-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, optimised and validated for the quantification of synthetic folic acid (FA), also called pteroyl-L: -glutamic acid or vitamin B9 and naturally occurring 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) found in folate-fortified breads. Optimised sample preparation prior to analysis involved addition of (13)C(5) labelled internal standards, treatments with ?-amylase and rat serum, solid-phase extraction using aromatic-selective cartridges and ultra-filtration. Analytes were separated on a Waters ACQUITY HSS T3 column during a 6-min run and analysed by positive ion electrospray selected reaction monitoring MS/MS. Standard calibration curves for the two analytes were linear over the range of 0.018-14 ?g FA/g of fresh bread (r(2) = 0.997) and 9.3-900 ng 5-MTHF/g of fresh bread (r(2) = 0.999). The absolute recoveries were 90% and 76% for FA and 5-MTHF, respectively. Intra-day coefficients of variation were 3% for FA and 18% for 5-MTHF. The limit of detection was 9.0 ng/g for FA and 4.3 ng/g for 5-MTHF, determined using pre-extracted tapioca starch as the blank matrix. The assay is rugged, fast, accurate and sensitive, applicable to a variety of food matrices and is capable of the detection and quantification of the naturally occurring low levels of 5-MTHF in wheat breads. The findings of this study revealed that the FA range in Australian fortified breads was 79-110 ?g/100 g of fresh bread and suggest that the flour may not have the mandated FA fortification level (200-300 ?g/100 g of flour), though this cannot be determined conclusively from experimental bread data alone, as variable baking losses have been documented by other authors. PMID:21667347

  13. UPLC–MS\\/MS quantification of nanoformulated ritonavir, indinavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz in mouse serum and tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangeng Huang; Nagsen Gautam; Sai Praneeth R. Bathena; Upal Roy; JoEllyn McMillan; Howard E. Gendelman; Yazen Alnouti

    2011-01-01

    Animal pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution assays of antiretroviral therapeutic drugs require accurate drug quantification in biological fluids and tissues. Here we report a simple, rapid, and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS\\/MS) method for quantification of commonly used antiretroviral drugs ritonavir (RTV), indinavir (IDV), atazanavir (ATV), and efavirenz (EFV) in mouse serum and tissues (liver, kidney, lung, and

  14. Simultaneous determination of 38 veterinary antibiotic residues in raw milk by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Han, R W; Zheng, N; Yu, Z N; Wang, J; Xu, X M; Qu, X Y; Li, S L; Zhang, Y D; Wang, J Q

    2015-08-15

    A selective and rapid method has been developed to determine, simultaneously, 38 veterinary antibiotic residues in raw milk by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). One milliliter of raw milk was diluted with 0.5 mL water and 3 mL acetonitrile, then purified using an Oasis HLB cartridge. The eluates were evaporated by nitrogen drying and then reconstituted to 4 mL with water/acetonitrile (8:1) before being injected into the UPLC-MS/MS system. The results indicated recoveries of 68-118% for 14 ?-lactams, 79-118% for eight quinolones, 71-106% for eight sulfonamides, 76-116% for four tetracyclines, 78-106% for three macrolides, and 88-103% for one lincosamides, with coefficients of variation less than 15% for intraday and interday precisions. The limit of quantification for all antibiotics was 0.03-10 ?g kg(-1). This methodology was then applied to field-collected real raw milk samples and trace levels of four antibiotics were detected. PMID:25794729

  15. Comparative analysis of quinolizidine alkaloids from different parts of Sophora alopecuroides seeds by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanqing; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Sophora alopecuroides L. have been utilized as a crude drug in China for thousands of years. Quinolizidine alkaloids are the main bioactive components of this plant. To determine the distribution and content of quinolizidine alkaloids in different seed organs (seed coat and cotyledon), a reliable method has been established using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Seven constituents, namely cytisine, oxymatrine, oxysophocarpine, sophoridine, sophoramine, matrine, and sophocarpine, were simultaneously determined in 10 min. The proposed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability as well as recovery. The analysis results showed there were remarkable differences in the distribution and contents of the chemical markers between seed coat and cotyledon. The established approach could be helpful for the quality control of S. alopecuroides seeds, and also for the determination of this type class of alkaloids in other medicinal herbs. The present study can provide necessary information for the rational utilization of S. alopecuroides resources. PMID:22613581

  16. Graphene based pipette tip solid phase extraction of marine toxins in shellfish muscle followed by UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Gong, Like; Baibado, Joewel T; Dong, Wei; Wang, Yixuan; Dai, Zhiyuan; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2013-11-15

    Graphene is a novel carbonic material with great potentials for the use as sorbent due to its ultrahigh surface area. Herein, we report the use of graphene as sorbent in solid-phase extraction (SPE) using pipette tip as cartridge namely GPT-SPE, together with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), for the analysis of lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs), including yessotoxins (YTX), okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), gymnodimine (GYM), spirolides-1 (SPX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and azaspiracid-1 (AZA1) in shellfish. The GPT-SPE procedure was optimized and the performance of graphene was fully validated. Results with high-sensitivity and good reproducibility was obtained and compared with that of other sorbents like C18 silica, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), commercial Oasis HLB, and Strata-X for the extraction of LMTs, which showed superiority and advantages of graphene, such as good recoveries, stability and compatibility with various solvents. In order to exhibit the potentials of graphene as an excellent sorbent material, 67 mussel samples from six coastal cities of China were analyzed. OA was found to be the dominant contaminant, while YTX was also detected with low level. PMID:24148472

  17. From cells to muropeptide structures in 24?h: Peptidoglycan mapping by UPLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Kühner, Daniel; Stahl, Mark; Demircioglu, Dogan D.; Bertsche, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PGN) is ubiquitous in nearly all bacterial species. The PGN sacculus protects the cells against their own internal turgor making PGN one of the most important targets for antibacterial treatment. Within the last sixty years PGN composition has been intensively studied by various methods. The breakthrough was the application of HPLC technology on the analysis of muropeptides. However, preparation of pure PGN relied on a very time consuming method of about one week. We established a purification protocol for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria which can be completely performed in plastic reaction tubes yielding pure muropeptides within 24?hours. The muropeptides can be analyzed by UPLC-MS, allowing their immediate determination. This new rapid method provides the feasibility to screen PGN composition even in high throughput, making it a highly useful tool for basic research as well as for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25510564

  18. A rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of serum androsterone glucuronide, etiocholanolone glucuronide, and androstan-3?, 17? diol 17-glucuronide in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Bertin, Jonathan; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Dury, Alain Y; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-05-01

    Quantification of steroidal glucuronide conjugates by the indirect methods of immunoassay and GC-MS/MS may underestimate some conjugates since hydrolysis is needed in sample processing. In the present work, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous direct quantification of androsterone glucuronide, etiocholanolone glucuronide, and androstan-3?, 17? diol 17-glucuronide in postmenopausal women's serum. The quantification limits are 0.1ng/mL for 3?-diol-17G and 4ng/mL for both ADT-G and Etio-G, respectively, with an extraction from 200?L serum while the total run time is less than 6min for all three glucuronides. In this method, solid phase extraction is used for sample preparation. The assay has been validated in compliance with EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method development and validation. The recovery of glucuronides in stripped serum is consistent with that in unstripped serum, where the average difference in stripped and unstripped is less than 10%. A linear regression model fits well the standard curves of all three compounds with R?0.99 where the weighting factor is 1/X. Interday accuracy and CV for all levels of QCs are within the range of 15% in both stripped and unstripped serum while all calibration curves are within the range of 6% except for LLOQs, which are within the range of 9%. Other parameters have also been assessed such as selectivity, matrix, lipemic and hemolysis effects as well as stabilities in solution and matrix. Incurred sample reanalysis has been performed with a result of over 93% within 20% of the original values. This reliable, sensitive and fast method is ready for large-scale clinical sample assays. PMID:25701608

  19. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS Method to Monitor Cephapirin Excretion in Dairy Cows following Intramammary Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F.; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg?1 and 0.96 µg L?1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%). Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg?1) of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L?1). Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P?=?0.03). Peak excretion (2.69 mg) was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P?=?0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from dairy farms. PMID:25375097

  20. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method to monitor cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion.

    PubMed

    Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg(-1) and 0.96 µg L(-1) for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%). Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg(-1)) of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L(-1)). Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03). Peak excretion (2.69 mg) was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from dairy farms. PMID:25375097

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of hexazinone and its determination in water via UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mei, Mei; Du, Zhenxia; Xu, Ruifen; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Haojie; Qu, Shuping

    2012-06-30

    Degradation of hexazinone has been investigated by means of photocatalysis of mixed-phase crystal nano-TiO(2). Influences of adsorption, amount of nano-TiO(2), pH and irradiation time on the photocatalytic process are studied. Results show that hexazinone is totally degraded within 40min of irradiation under pH neutral conditions. This compares favorably with Degussa P25 TiO(2) when conducted under the same experimental conditions. Preliminary photocatalytic kinetic information for hexazinone degradation is proposed. First order kinetics is obtained for the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation reactions, which fit the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. A rapid, sensitive and accurate UPLC-MS/MS technique is developed and utilized to determine the level of hexazinone in water in support of the degradation kinetics study. The results indicate a limit of detection (LOD) at 0.05?g/l and the recoveries between 90.2 and 98.5% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 12%. A LC-MS/MS technique is used to trace the degradation process. Complete degradation is achieved into final products including nontoxic water, carbon dioxide and urea. A probable pathway for the total photocatalytic degradation of hexazinone is proposed. PMID:22551636

  2. Detection of ?-methylphenethylamine, a novel doping substance, by means of UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cho?bi?ski, Piotr; Wicka, Mariola; Kowalczyk, Katarzyna; Jarek, Anna; Kaliszewski, Pawe?; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Bulska, Ewa; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2014-06-01

    Novel substances of expected doping activity are constantly introduced to the market. ?-Methylphenethylamine (BMPEA) is classified as a doping agent by the World Anti-Doping Agency as it is a positional isomer of amphetamine. In this work, the development and application of a simple and rapid analytical procedure that enables discrimination between both isomers is described. The analytes of interest were extracted from urine by a two-step liquid-liquid extraction and then analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS under isocratic conditions. The entire analytical procedure was validated by evaluating its selectivity, discrimination capabilities, carry-over, sensitivity, and influence of matrix effects on its performance. Application of the method resulted in detection of BMPEA in eight anti-doping samples, including the first report of adverse analytical finding regarding its use. Further analysis showed that BMPEA may be eliminated unchanged along with its phase II conjugates, the hydrolysis of which may considerably improve detection capabilities of the method. Omission of the hydrolysis step may therefore, produce false-negative results. Testing laboratories should also carefully examine their LC/MS/MS-based amphetamine and BMPEA findings as both isomers fragment yielding comparable collision-induced dissociation spectra and their insufficient chromatographic separation may result in misidentification. This is of great importance in case of forensic analyses as BMPEA is not controlled by the public law, and its manufacturing, distribution, and use are legal. PMID:24633566

  3. [Determination of twelve active compounds in Qili Qiangxin capsules by UPLC-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Ouyang, Yue; Li, Song; Liu, Min-Yan; Qiao, Li; Zhao, Shao-Hua

    2014-05-01

    In order to establish an UPLC-MS method for determination of twelve active compounds in Qili Qiangxin capsules including astragaloside, calycosin-7-0-glucoside, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rd, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rf, periplocin, periplocoside H1, hesperidin, narirutin, isoquercitrin, the chromatographic separations were performedon a Phenomenex UPLC Kinetex C18 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 2.6 microm) with gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acidat a flow rate of 0.4 mL x min(-1). The temperature was set as 40 degrees C and injection volume was 5 microL. The monitoring of all analytes was achieved under the negative ionization mode with TOF-MS and TOF-MS/MS method. The twelve analytes showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9990) within the test ranges, the average recoveries were 98.0%-102%, respectively, and the RSD were less than 3.9%, respectively. The established method is simple, rapid, and sensitive, and can be used for quality control of Qili Qiangxin capsules. PMID:25282889

  4. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (uplc-ms/ms) for the rapid, simultaneous analysis of thiamin, riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide and pyridoxal in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel, rapid and sensitive Ultra Performance Liquid-Chromatography tandem Mass-Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of several B-vitamins in human milk was developed. Resolution by retention time or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for thiamin, riboflavin, flavin a...

  5. Brain distribution pharmacokinetics and integrated pharmacokinetics of Panax Notoginsenoside R1, Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Re and Rd in rats after intranasal administration of Panax Notoginseng Saponins assessed by UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingli; Li, Pengyue; Wang, Zhen; Cheng, Yanke; Wu, Huichao; Yang, Bing; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang

    2014-10-15

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) constitute the main active components of a traditional Chinese medicine, Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi). To investigate brain distribution of Panax Notoginsenoside R1, Ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Re, and Rd, and the integrated PNS in rats, their contents in cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, hippocampus and olfactory bulb were simultaneously measured by UPLC-MS/MS. Sample preparation was carried out by the protein precipitation technique with an internal Digoxin standard. The method described here was highly efficient, with short run time, excellent specificity and sensitivity, and successfully applied for pharmacokinetics studies. NGR1, GRg1, GRb1, GRe and GRd from PNS have been detected in all six brain regions studied and quantified accurately. These findings provide more insight for further understanding of the main ways from the nasal cavity to brain as well as the migration of nasally applied drugs into the CNS parenchyma. PMID:25203723

  6. EtG/EtS in Urine from sexual assault victims determined by UPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Solfrid; Helland, Arne; Hagemann, Cecilie; Michelsen, Lisbeth; Spigset, Olav

    2013-05-01

    In cases of sexual assault, victims often present too late for the detection of ethanol in biological samples. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in urine. Sample preparation prior to UPLC-MS-MS analysis was a simple sample dilution. The calibration ranges were 0.2-20 mg/L, and between-assay relative standard deviations were in the range of 0.7-7.0% at concentrations of 0.3, 3.0 and 7.0 mg/L. Urine samples were analyzed from 59 female patients presenting to the Sexual Assault Centre at St. Olav University Hospital in Trondheim, Norway between November 2010 and October 2011. EtG and EtS results were fully concordant, and positive in 45 of the 48 cases with self-reported alcohol intake. In contrast, ethanol was detectable in only 20 of these cases, corresponding to sensitivities of 94 and 42%, respectively. Of the patients reporting no alcohol intake, none had positive EtG/EtS findings. These data show that analysis of EtG and EtS greatly increases the detection window of alcohol ingestion in cases of sexual assault, and may shed additional light on the involvement of ethanol in such cases. The victims' self-reported intake of alcohol seems to be reliable in this study, according to the EtG/EtS findings. PMID:23467259

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Aliskiren Hemifumarate, Amlodipine Besylate and Hydrochlorothiazide in Spiked Human Plasma Using UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, Walid M; Elkady, Ehab F; El-Zaher, Asmaa A; El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Patonay, Gabor

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of aliskiren hemifumarate (ALS), amlodipine besylate (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) in spiked human plasma using valsartan as an internal standard (IS). Liquid-liquid extraction was used for purification and pre-concentration of analytes. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in ammonium acetate buffer (0.02 M, pH 3.5) and methanol (25:75, v/v), flowing through XBridge BEH (50 × 2.1 mm ID, 5 µm) C18 column, at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were measured using an electrospray source in the positive ion mode for ALS and AML, whereas HCZ and IS were measured in negative ion mode. Validation of the method was performed as per US-FDA guidelines with linearity in the range of 2.0-400.0, 0.3-25.0 and 5.0-400.0 ng mL(-1) for ALS, AML and HCZ, respectively. In human plasma, ALS, AML and HCZ were stable for at least 1 month at -70 ± 5°C and for at least 6 h at ambient temperature. After extraction from plasma, the reconstituted samples of ALS, AML and HCZ were stable in the autosampler at ambient temperature for 6 h. The LC-MS/MS method is suitable for bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic studies of this combination. PMID:25575509

  8. Ultrafast quantification of ?-lactam antibiotics in human plasma using UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Mieke; Stove, Veronique; De Waele, Jan J; Verstraete, Alain G

    2015-01-26

    There is an increasing interest in monitoring plasma concentrations of ?-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a fast ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (UPLC-MS/MS) for simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, meropenem and piperacillin with minimal turn around time. Sample clean-up included protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing 5 deuterated internal standards, and subsequent dilution of the supernatant with water after centrifugation. Runtime was only 2.5 min. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system using a BEH C18 column (1.7 ?m, 100 mm × 2.1 mm) applying a binary gradient elution of water and methanol both containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate on a Water TQD instrument in MRM mode. All compounds were detected in electrospray positive ion mode and could be quantified between 1 and 100 mg/L for amoxicillin and cefuroxime, between 0.5 and 80 mg/L for meropenem and ceftazidime, and between 1 and 150 mg/L for piperacillin. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, matrix effect and recovery and has been compared to a previously published UPLC-MS/MS method. PMID:25531875

  9. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ractopamine residues in retinal tissue of treated food-producing pigs.

    PubMed

    Vuli?, Ana; Pleadin, Jelka; Perši, Nina; Mili?, Dinka; Radeck, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Ractopamine is a ?(2)-adrenergic agonist, which reduces fat deposition and promotes muscle growth in animals for meat production. In the European Union countries, systematic monitoring and control of this contaminant residue is regularly performed by use of validated analytical methods of detection in different biological materials. The aim of the present study was to assess persistence of ractopamine in retina as a pigmented tissue by determination of its residues using UPLC-MS/MS as a quantitative confirmatory method after pig exposure to a ractopamine dose of 0.51 mg/kg b.w. Experimental group (n=9) of pigs were orally administered ractopamine for 28 days and then randomly sacrificed (n=3) on days 1, 3 and 8 of treatment discontinuation, whereas control animals (n=3) were left untreated. Study results showed mean ractopamine residue concentrations of 110.36 ?g/kg, 67.11 ?g/kg and 89.93 ?g/kg on days 1, 3 and 8 after withdrawal, respectively, indicating high accumulation of ractopamine in retina despite a low dose applied. These data pointed to high affinity of ractopamine for binding to the pigmented segment of the eye, thus supporting the use of pigmented tissues as matrices in the regulatory monitoring of this ?(2)-adrenergic agonist. PMID:22483331

  10. Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Niancui; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Min

    2014-07-15

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features of each component. Tissue distribution results showed that ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin mostly distributed in liver and kidney both in herb couple and single herb distributed most in liver and kidney. Compared with single herb, RRHC could increase or decrease the concentrations of five components at different time points compared with the sing herb. The results indicated the method was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of different combination of RRHC in rats. The compatibility of two Chinese herbs could alter the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of major bio-active components in the single herb. The results might be helpful for further investigation of compatibility mechanism of RRHC. PMID:24927419

  11. A method of analysis for T-2 toxin and neosolaniol by UPLC-MS/MS in apple fruit inoculated with Trichothecium roseum.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yamei; Xue, Huali; Bi, Yang; Li, Yongcai; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ying; Shen, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Trichothecenes are one of the most important groups of mycotoxins produced by Trichothecium roseum, which causes core rot of apple. A reliable and sensitive method was developed and successfully applied for the rapid detection of trichothecenes including T-2 toxin and neosolaniol in harvested apple using UPLC-MS/MS. After the extraction of the two mycotoxins from the apple matrix with methanol/water (80/20, v/v), the concentrated extracts were cleaned-up by PriboFast M270 columns and then analysed by UPLC-MS/MS. T-2 toxin and neosolaniol were effectively separated as unique peaks. The validity of this method was established by its linearity (R(2) ? 0.9995), precision (relative standard deviation ? 3.6%), accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection of 2-5 ?g kg(-1), limit of quantification of 5-10 ?g kg(-1) and average recovery of 73-96%. Levels of T-2 toxin were found in the range 7.1-128.4 µg kg(-1) in the core rot lesion of three cultivars apple (cvs. Red Delicious, Fuji and Ralls). T-2 was detected not only in the lesion, but also in the tissue without any disease symptoms. However, neosolaniol was only detected in the lesion on 'Red Delicious' apples. In addition, the concentration of T-2 toxin in the susceptible cultivar (cv. Fuji) was significantly higher than that in the resistant one (cv. Ralls). This method proved to be suitable at detecting T-2 and neosolaniol simultaneously in apples infected with T. roseum. PMID:25254921

  12. Quantitative UPLC-MS/MS analysis of the gut microbial co-metabolites phenylacetylglutamine, 4-cresyl sulphate and hippurate in human urine: INTERMAP Study

    PubMed Central

    Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Clarke, Philip A.; Bictash, Magda; Brown, Ian J.; Fidock, Mark; Ryckmans, Thomas; Yap, Ivan K. S.; Chan, Queenie; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the gut microbiome in human health, and non-invasive measurement of gut dysbiosis are of increasing clinical interest. New high-throughput methods are required for the rapid measurement of gut microbial metabolites and to establish reference ranges in human populations. We used ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) -- positive and negative electrospray ionization modes, multiple reaction monitoring transitions -- to simultaneously measure three urinary metabolites (phenylacetylglutamine, 4-cresyl sulphate and hippurate) that are potential biomarkers of gut function, among multi-ethnic US men and women aged 40–59 from the INTERMAP epidemiologic study (n = 2000, two timed 24-hr urine collections/person). Metabolite concentrations were quantified via stable isotope labeled internal standards. The assay was linear in the ranges 1ng/mL (lower limit of quantification) to 1000ng/mL (phenylacetylglutamine and 4-cresyl sulfate) and 3ng/mL to 3000ng/mL (hippurate). These quantitative data provide new urinary reference ranges for population-based human samples: mean (standard deviation) 24-hr urinary excretion for phenylacetylglutamine was: 1283.0 (751.7) ?mol/24-hr (men), 1145.9 (635.5) ?mol/24-hr (women); for 4-cresyl sulphate, 1002.5 (737.1) ?mol/24-hr (men), 1031.8 (687.9) ?mol/24-hr (women); for hippurate, 6284.6 (4008.1) ?mol/24-hr (men), 4793.0 (3293.3) ?mol/24-hr (women). Metabolic profiling by UPLC-MS/MS in a large sample of free-living individuals has provided new data on urinary reference ranges for three urinary microbial co-metabolites, and demonstrates the applicability of this approach to epidemiological investigations. PMID:23946767

  13. UPLC-MS-MS Method for the Determination of N -(2,6-Dimethoxypyridine-3-yl)-9-methylcarbazole-3-sulfonamide in Rat Plasma and Its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin LiYinghua SunXiaohong Liu; Yinghua Sun; Xiaohong Liu; Yanhua Liu; Jin Sun; Zhonggui He

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is first to develop a sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry\\u000a (UPLC-MS-MS) method for the determination of a new synthesized tubulin ligand, N-(2,6-dimethoxypyridine-3-yl)-9-methylcarbazole-3-sulfonamide (IG-105), in rat plasma. The analyte and internal standard (carbamazepine)\\u000a were extracted by liquid\\/liquid extraction with petroleum ether\\/diethyl ether (2:1, v\\/v). The chromatographic separation was\\u000a performed on an Acquity UPLC

  14. Large Scale Non-targeted Metabolomic Profiling of Serum by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Broeckling, Corey D.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    Non-targeted metabolite profiling by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) is a powerful technique to investigate metabolism. The approach offers an unbiased and in-depth analysis that can enable the development of diagnostic tests, novel therapies, and further our understanding of disease processes. The inherent chemical diversity of the metabolome creates significant analytical challenges and there is no single experimental approach that can detect all metabolites. Additionally, the biological variation in individual metabolism and the dependence of metabolism on environmental factors necessitates large sample numbers to achieve the appropriate statistical power required for meaningful biological interpretation. To address these challenges, this tutorial outlines an analytical workflow for large scale non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum by UPLC-MS. The procedure includes guidelines for sample organization and preparation, data acquisition, quality control, and metabolite identification and will enable reliable acquisition of data for large experiments and provide a starting point for laboratories new to non-targeted metabolite profiling by UPLC-MS. PMID:23524330

  15. Determination of Glucocorticoids in UPLC-MS in Environmental Samples from an Occupational Setting.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Enrico; Negri, Sara; Bellinzona, Massimo; Martino, Silvia; Di Tuccio, Marcello; Grignani, Elena; Cottica, Danilo; Imbriani, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures to glucocorticoids are still a neglected issue in some work environments, including pharmaceutical plants. We developed an analytical method to quantify simultaneously 21 glucocorticoids using UPLC coupled with mass spectrometry to provide a basis to carry out environmental monitoring. Samples were taken from air, hand-washing tests, pad-tests and wipe-tests. This paper reports the contents of the analytical methodology, along with the results of this extensive environmental and personal monitoring of glucocorticoids. The method in UPLC-MS turned out to be suitable and effective for the aim of the study. Wipe-test and pad-test desorption was carried out using 50?mL syringes, a simple technique that saves time without adversely affecting analyte recovery. Results showed a widespread environmental pollution due to glucocorticoids. This is of particular concern. Evaluation of the dose absorbed by each worker and identification of a biomarker for occupational exposure will contribute to assessment and prevention of occupational exposure. PMID:25821468

  16. Determination of ?-6 and ?-3 PUFA metabolites in human urine samples using UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ai; Fukuda, Hayato; Shiida, Narumi; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Furugen, Ayako; Ogura, Jiro; Shuto, Satoshi; Mano, Nariyasu; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-02-01

    The ?-6 and ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the precursors of various bioactive lipid mediators including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, isoprostanes, lipoxins, and resolvins (Rvs). These lipid mediators play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. The quantitative determination of PUFA metabolites seems necessary for disease research and for developing biomarkers. However, there is a paucity of analytical methods for the quantification of ?-6 and ?-3 PUFA metabolites—the specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) present in the human urine. We developed a method for the quantification of ?-6 and ?-3 PUFA metabolites present in human urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS). The developed method shows good linearity, with a correlation coefficient >0.99 for all of the analytes. The validation results indicate that our method is adequately reliable, accurate, and precise. The method was successfully used to examine urine samples obtained from 43 healthy volunteers. We could identify 20 PUFA metabolites, and this is the first report of the quantitative determination of RvD1, 17(R)-RvD1, 11-dehydro thromboxane B3, RvE2, and 5(S)-HETE in human urine. The urinary 8-iso PGF(2?) and PGE2 levels were significantly higher in the men smokers than in the men nonsmokers (p?

  17. Determination of a novel anticancer c-Met inhibitor LS-177 in rat plasma and tissues with a validated UPLC-MS/MS method: application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study.

    PubMed

    Ju, Ping; Liu, Zhenzhen; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Simin; Zhang, Lunhui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gu, Liqiang; Tang, Xing; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-07-01

    LS-177 is a novel small-molecule kinase inhibitor employed to interrupt the c-Met signaling pathway. A rapid and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for determination of LS-177 in rat plasma and tissues. The biosamples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether and separated on a C18 column (50?×?4.6?mm, 2.6?µm) using a gradient elution mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid water. Under the optimal conditions, the selectivity of the method was satisfactory with no endogenous interference. The intraday and interday precisions (relative standard deviation) were <10.5% and the accuracy (relative error) was from -12.5 to 12.5% at all quality control levels. Excellent recovery and negligible matrix effects were observed. Stability studies showed that LS-177 was stable during the preparation and analytical processes. The UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies. The results indicated that there was no significant drug accumulation after multiple-dose oral administration of LS-177. The tissue distribution study exhibited significant higher uptakes of LS-177 in stomach, intestine, lung and liver among all of the tissues. The results in pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution may provide a meaningful basis for clinical application. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25472760

  18. Partial least-squares-discriminant analysis differentiating Chinese wolfberries by UPLC-MS and flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiying; Jiang, Qianqian; Shi, Haiming; Niu, Yuge; Gao, Boyan; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-09-17

    Lycium barbarum L. fruits (Chinese wolfberries) were differentiated for their cultivation locations and the cultivars by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques combined with chemometrics analyses. The partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to the data projection and supervised learning with validation. The samples formed clusters in the projected data. The prediction accuracies by PLS-DA with bootstrapped Latin partition validation were greater than 90% for all models. The chemical profiles of Chinese wolfberries were also obtained. The differentiation techniques might be utilized for Chinese wolfberry authentication. PMID:25152955

  19. Differentiating organically and conventionally grown oregano using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (headspace-GC-FID), and flow injection mass spectrum (FIMS) fingerprints combined with multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Qin, Fang; Ding, Tingting; Chen, Yineng; Lu, Weiying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-08-13

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS), and headspace gas chromatography (headspace-GC) combined with multivariate data analysis techniques were examined and compared in differentiating organically grown oregano from that grown conventionally. It is the first time that headspace-GC fingerprinting technology is reported in differentiating organically and conventionally grown spice samples. The results also indicated that UPLC-MS, FIMS, and headspace-GC-FID fingerprints with OPLS-DA were able to effectively distinguish oreganos under different growing conditions, whereas with PCA, only FIMS fingerprint could differentiate the organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. UPLC fingerprinting provided detailed information about the chemical composition of oregano with a longer analysis time, whereas FIMS finished a sample analysis within 1 min. On the other hand, headspace GC-FID fingerprinting required no sample pretreatment, suggesting its potential as a high-throughput method in distinguishing organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. In addition, chemical components in oregano were identified by their molecular weight using QTOF-MS and headspace-GC-MS. PMID:25050447

  20. Separation and quantitation of three acidic herbicide residues in tobacco and soil by dispersive solid-phase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Tao, Xiaoqiu; Pang, Su; Yang, Xue; Tang, GangLing; Bian, Zhaoyang

    2014-01-01

    A method for the determination of three acidic herbicides, dicamba, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) in tobacco and soil has been developed based on the use of liquid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction (dispersive-SPE) followed by UPLC-MS/MS. Two percentage of (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile as the extraction helped partitioning of analytes into the acetonitrile phase. The extract was then cleaned up by dispersive-SPE using primary secondary amine as selective sorbents. Quantitative analysis was done in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using stable isotope-labeled internal standards for each compound. A separate internal standard for each analyte is required to minimize sample matrix effects on each analyte, which can lead to poor analyte recoveries and decreases in method accuracy and precision. The total analysis time was <4 min. The linear range of the method was from 1 to 100 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection of each herbicide varied from 0.012 to 0.126 ng g(-1). The proposed method is faster, more sensitive and selective than the traditional methods and more accurate and robust than the published LC-MS/MS methods. PMID:24366907

  1. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of Atractylenolide I, II and III in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Baizhufuling extract and Atractylodis extract by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yan, Han; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qili; Yang, Mingjing; Wang, Xiaorui; Wang, Yang; Yu, Zhiguo; Zhao, Yunli

    2015-07-01

    A simple and rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Atractylenolide I, II and III in rat plasma. Plasma samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, using schisandrin as internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.9?m) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid-water (50:50, v/v). The detection was carried out by ESI-MS (positive ionization mode) and low-energy collision dissociation tandem mass spectrometric analyses using the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode. The quantification was performed using the transitions of the protonated molecule?product ion at m/z 231.0?185.1 for Atractylenolide I, at m/z 233.1?187.1 for Atractylenolide II and at m/z 249.1?231.1 for Atractylenolide III, respectively. Method validation revealed excellent linearity over investigated range together with satisfactory intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy, matrix effects and extraction recoveries. This method was successfully applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic study of Atractylenolide I, II and III in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Baizhufuling extract and Atractylodis extract. PMID:26001909

  2. Advantages of on-line SPE coupled with UPLC/MS/MS1 for determining the fate of pesticides and2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Advantages of on-line SPE coupled with UPLC/MS/MS1 for determining the fate of pesticides and2 techniques were validated for both 18 pesticides22 and their degradates and 17 pharmaceuticals for pesticides and24 metabolites have been obtained, with linearity range up to 1 µg.L-1.The limits of25

  3. [Simultaneous determination of 9 major components of dachengqi tang in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Shen, Feng-Yun; Wei, Hui-Zhen; Sun, Yong-Bing; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Lv, Shang; Gao, Meng; Zeng, Lian-Qing; Rao, Yi

    2014-06-01

    The study established a UPLC-MS/MS method that is used for simultaneous determination nine major bioactive compounds of Dachengqi Tang in rat plasma. Using Aglient C18 column (2.1 mm x 50 mm,1.7 microm) was chromatographed, using methanol-5 mmol x L(-1) ammonium formate mobile phase gradient, elution 0.3 mL x min(-1). In the plasma pre-treatment process, not only the method of methanol and acetonitrile protein precipitation was investigated, and different factors extraction solvent, the type of the scroll time, the number and the type of extraction solvent, the extraction volume of the extraction solution of liquid-liquid extraction is investigated. Finally, with ibuprofen as an internal standard, using ethyl acetate liquid-liquid extraction method pretreatment blood, N2 dry reconstituted supernatant after centrifugation UPLC-MS/MS analysis, in electrospray ionization (ESI) negative mode, using multiple reaction monitoring mode for testing. The linear range of emodin, rhein, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, magnolol, honokiol, hesperidin and hesperitin is 0.33-660, 0.40-792, 0.41-827, 0.34-680, 0.45-907, 0.46-927, 0.43-867, 0.34-683, 0.39-787 microg x L(-1) respectively, good linear relationship; and extraction recovery were greater than 69.39%, days after the day of the RSD is less than 15%. This method can be used to study the rat gastric large bearing gas after Dachengqi Tang, the simultaneous determination of nine components in plasma for its pharmacokinetics and efficacy material base to provide a theoretical basis. PMID:25244773

  4. Simultaneous determination of icariin, naringin and osthole in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application for pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Gushudan capsules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuejuan; Li, Ning; Deng, Ying; Zhao, Longshan; Guo, Xingjie; Li, Famei; Xiong, Zhili

    2015-07-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of icariin, naringin and osthole in rat plasma. Plasma samples pretreatment involved a one-step liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of ethyl acetate-methyl tert-butyl ether (3:1, ?/?). The separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column with a gradient mobile phase system of methanol and water. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) by multiple reactions monitoring (MRM), with the transitions at m/z 513.3?366.8 (icariin), m/z 579.3?150.9 (naringin), m/z 245.1?189.0 (osthole) and m/z 237.1?194.1 (IS), respectively. A good linear response was observed over the concentration ranges of 1.06-424ng/ml, 2.10-525ng/ml and 1.05-1.05×10(3)ng/ml with lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1.06, 2.10 and 1.05ng/ml for icariin, naringin and osthole, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions (R.S.D.) were within 14.3%, and the accuracy (R.E.) ranged from -4.1% to 4.6% at three quality control levels. The sensitive and selective method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study of icarrin, naringin and osthole in rats after oral administration of Gushudan capsule. PMID:26000860

  5. A UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of three monoterpene glycosides and four alkaloids in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan and single herb extract.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yu; Wu, Yun; Wang, Fenrong; Ma, Wen; Bian, Qiaoxia; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of three monoterpene glycosides (paeoniflorin, alibiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin) and four alkaloids (tetrahydropalmatine, corydaline, dehydrocorydaline and berberine), the main active ingredients of Radix Paeoniae Rubra extract (RPE) and Corydalis yanhusuo extract (CYE) in Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these active ingredients in normal and arthritic rats orally administrated with HLXLD or RPE/CYE alone. The analytes and internal standard (IS) (geniposide) were separated on a XBridge C18 column (150?×?4.6?mm, 3.5?µm) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.01% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.6?ml/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on Acquity UPLC-MS/MS system with an electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mode via polarity switching between negative (for monoterpene glycosides) and positive (for alkaloids) ionization mode. The lower limits of quantification were 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.02 and 0.01?ng/ml for paeoniflorin, alibiflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, tetrahydropalmatine, corydaline, dehydrocorydaline and berberine, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 83.1%. The validated method has been successfully applied to determination of the analytes. Results showed that there were remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic properties of the analytes between herbal formula and single herb group, normal and arthritic group. PMID:25800193

  6. Comparison of sample preparation methods, validation of an UPLC-MS/MS procedure for the quantification of tetrodotoxin present in marine gastropods and analysis of pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Nzoughet, Judith Kouassi; Campbell, Katrina; Barnes, Paul; Cooper, Kevin M; Chevallier, Olivier P; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-02-15

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent marine neurotoxins reported. The global distribution of this toxin is spreading with the European Atlantic coastline now being affected. Climate change and increasing pollution have been suggested as underlying causes for this. In the present study, two different sample preparation techniques were used to extract TTX from Trumpet shells and pufferfish samples. Both extraction procedures (accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and a simple solvent extraction) were shown to provide good recoveries (80-92%). A UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of TTX and validated following the guidelines contained in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for chemical contaminant analysis. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose. This study is the first report on the use of ASE as a mean for TTX extraction, the use of UPLC-MS/MS for TTX analysis, and the validation of this method for TTX in gastropods. PMID:23194566

  7. Simultaneous determination of acetaminophen and dihydrocodeine in human plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: Its pharmacokinetic application.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiangjun; Lou, Dan; Su, Ding; Liu, Zebin; Gao, Pengtao; Zhang, Nan-Sheng

    2015-06-15

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to determine acetaminophen (AAP) and dihydrocodeine (DHC) in human plasma simultaneously. Plasma samples were prepared using protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the two analytes and the internal standard midazolam were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column and mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a QTrap5500 mass spectrometer coupled with an electro-spray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode. The MRM transitions of m/z 151.2?110.0 and m/z 302.3?199.2 were used to quantify for AAP and DHC, respectively. The linearity of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 50-10000ng/mL for AAP, and 1-100ng/mL for DHC in human plasma, respectively. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 50ng/mL and 1ng/mL for AAP and DHC in human plasma, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of intra and inter precision were less than 10% for both AAP and DHC. The analysis time of per sample was 1.0min. The developed and validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of AAP (500mg) with DHC (20mg) capsule in Chinese healthy volunteers (N=20). PMID:25965875

  8. Analysis of Different Fates of DNA Adducts in Adipocytes Post-sulfur Mustard Exposure in Vitro and in Vivo Using a Simultaneous UPLC-MS/MS Quantification Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Yajiao; Chen, Jia; Guo, Lei; Xu, Bin; Wang, Lili; Xu, Hua; Xie, Jianwei

    2015-06-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a powerful alkylating vesicant that can rapidly penetrate skin, ocular, and lung bronchus mucous membranes and react with numerous nucleophiles in vivo. Although the lesion mechanisms of SM remain unclear, DNA damage is believed to be the most crucial factor in initiating SM-induced toxicity. Four major DNA adducts were identified for retrospective detection and DNA lesion evaluation, namely, N(7)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (N(7)-HETEG), bis(2-ethyl-N(7)-guanine)thioether (Bis-G), N(3)-(2-hydroxyethylthioethyl)-2'-adenine (N(3)-HETEA), and O(6)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (O(6)-HETEG). Because of previous observations that the levels of SM-DNA adducts were relatively higher in adipose-rich organs, such as the brain, we focused on the in vitro and in vivo fates of the DNA adducts in exposed adipocytes. A UPLC-MS/MS method developed in our laboratory was used to profile the N(7)-HETEG, Bis-G, and N(3)-HETEA levels in human mature adipocytes (HA-s) that had differentiated from human subcutaneous preadipocytes (HPA-s). This method was also used to profile three other cell lines related to the targeting of major tissues, including human keratinocytes (HaCaT), human hepatocytes (L-02), and human lung fibroblasts (HLF). Long-lasting adduct persistence and a high proportion of Bis-G were found in exposed adipocytes in vitro. The survival properties of exposed adipocytes were also tested. At the same time, the fate of SM-DNA adducts in vivo was characterized using a rat model exposed to 1 and 10 mg/kg doses of SM. The level of DNA adducts in the exposed adipose tissue (AT) was much lower than those in other organs studied in our previous work. The adduct persistence behavior was observed in AT with an extremely high proportion of Bis-G, which was higher than N(7)-HETEG. In light of these results, we suggest that an adipose-rich environment may promote the formation of Bis-G and that adipocyte-specific DNA repair mechanisms may result in adduct persistence and the survival of adipocytes after SM exposure. These conclusions should be further investigated. PMID:25955432

  9. Two rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) methods with common sample pretreatment for therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressants compared to immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Tszyrsznic, Wlodzimierz; Borowiec, Agnieszka; Pawlowska, Emilia; Jazwiec, Radoslaw; Zochowska, Dorota; Bartlomiejczyk, Irena; Zegarska, Jolanta; Paczek, Leszek; Dadlez, Michal

    2013-06-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressive agents is a critical and essential part of patient therapy after organ transplantation. We have developed high-throughput, robust, and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) methods with common pretreatment procedures for simultaneous quantification of four immunosuppressive agents (everolimus, sirolimus, tacrolimus, and cyclosporin A) in whole blood and one immunosuppressant (mycophenolic acid) in plasma. The new approach used in this work is based on improved sample preparation procedures allowing the analysis of five immunosuppressive drugs. Whole blood was prepared by transferring 100?L of blood into a 1.5-mL silanized conical test tube. Zinc sulfate solution (150?L), containing deuterated internal standards, was added to perform hemolysis. The samples were vortexing for 10s, followed by the addition of 250?L acetonitrile, containing internal standard for cyclosporin A, to precipitate proteins. The mixture was vortexed for 1min and centrifuged for 2min at 14,000rpm. The whole supernatant was transferred to a vial. To prepare blood plasma, the hemolysis step involving the addition of zinc sulfate was omitted and, instead of acetonitrile, methanol was used as the solvent for the internal standard (mycophenolic acid-d3). The volumes of chemicals used in this procedure were the same as those used in the procedure for immunosuppressants in whole blood. The basic validation parameters for the analytical methods were limits of detection (0.5ng/mL for everolimus, sirolimus and tacrolimus, 25ng/mL for cyclosporin A and 100ng/mL for mycophenolic acid), precision (<15%), recovery (>84%), repeatability and reproducibility. Possible mutual ion suppression was eliminated in the presence of internal standards. The method developed for the quantitation of immunosuppressants in whole blood was used to analyze 276 patient samples containing tacrolimus and 55 samples containing cyclosporin A. The results from LC/MS/MS were compared to those obtained from immunoassays of the same samples. Immunoassays significantly overestimated the concentrations of immunosuppressants. PMID:23584041

  10. An improved UPLC-MS/MS platform for quantitative analysis of glycerophosphoinositol in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Grauso, Laura; Mariggiò, Stefania; Corda, Daniela; Fontana, Angelo; Cutignano, Adele

    2015-01-01

    The glycerophosphoinositols constitute a class of biologically active lipid-derived mediators whose intracellular levels are modulated during physiological and pathological cell processes. Comprehensive assessment of the role of these compounds expands beyond the cellular biology of lipids and includes rapid and unambiguous measurement in cells and tissues. Here we describe a sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantitative analysis of the most abundant among these phosphoinositide derivatives in mammalian cells, the glycerophosphoinositol (GroPIns). The method has been developed in mouse Raw 264.7 macrophages with limits of quantitation at 3 ng/ml. Validation on the same cell line showed excellent response in terms of linear dynamic range (from 3 to 3,000 ng/ml), intra-day and inter-day precision (coefficient of variation ? 7.10%) and accuracy (between 98.1 and 109.0%) in the range 10-320 ng/ml. As proof of concept, a simplified analytical platform based on this method and external calibration was also tested on four stimulated and unstimulated cell lines, including Raw 264.7 macrophages, Jurkat T-cells, A375MM melanoma cells and rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. The results indicate a wide variation in GroPIns levels among different cell lines and stimulation conditions, although the measurements were always in line with the literature. No significant matrix effects were observed thus indicating that the here proposed method can be of general use for similar determinations in cells of different origin. PMID:25860666

  11. Rapid and high-throughput determination of endogenous cytokinins in Oryza sativa by bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles-based magnetic solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bao-Dong; Zhu, Jiu-Xia; Gao, Qiang; Luo, Dan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-05-01

    A rapid method was developed for determination of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) based on magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). We illustrated the hydrophilic character of bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles that were directly used as a MSPE sorbent for rapid enrichment of endogenous CKs from complex plant extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bare Fe3O4 directly used as efficient extraction sorbent to enrich target CKs based on hydrophilic interaction. Under the optimized conditions, a rapid, sensitive and high-throughput method for the determination of 16 CKs was established by combination of MSPE with UPLC-MS/MS. Good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficients (r) from 0.9902 to 0.9998. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1.2 pg mL(-1) to 391.3 pg mL(-1) and 4.1 pg mL(-1) to 1304.3 pg mL(-1), respectively. 16 CKs could be successfully determined in spiked sample with 80.6-117.3% recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 16.6%. Finally, 10 endogenous CKs were successfully quantified in 50mg Oryza sativa sample using the developed MSPE-UPLC-MS/MS method. PMID:24685168

  12. Development of a UPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical method for the pharmacokinetic study of (-)-epiafzelechin, a flavan-3-ol with osteoprotective activity, in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka Chun; Law, Man Chun; Wong, Man Sau; Chan, Tak Hang

    2014-09-15

    (-)-Epiafzelechin is a flavan-3-ol commonly found in plant source. Biological studies suggested that (-)-epiafzelechin may have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and bone-protective effect. However, it's in vivo efficacy remains to be demonstrated. A specific detection method for (-)-epiafzelechin was successfully developed by using UPLC-MS/MS to quantify the amount of (-)-epiafzelechin present in mice plasma after a liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate. The separation was achieved by using a reversed-phase C18 column with a 16 min gradient elution protocol consisting of water (0.1%, v/v, formic acid) and 0-70% ACN (0.1%, v/v, formic acid). The lower limit of quantitation for (-)-epiafzelechin was found to be 12.5 ng/mL. This method exhibited a good linearity (r(2)=0.992). The intra-day and inter-day precision were within 12%, while the accuracy was between 97.6 and 113. 4%. A quantity of 10mg/kg synthetic (-)-epiafzelechin was administered to C57BL/6J mice by intravenous (i.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections and the blood was collected at different time points. The plasma was then analyzed by the UPLC-MS/MS method, and the plasma drug concentration-time curves for i.v. and i.p. (-)-epiafzelechin injection were constructed. The maximum concentrations (Cmax) of (-)-epiafzelechin in blood by i.v. and i.p. injection were found to be 10.6 and 6.0 ?g/mL, respectively, while the time for reaching Cmax in i.p. injection was found to be 15 min. The distribution half-lives of (-)-epiafzelechin after i.v. and i.p. injection were found to be 7.0 and 12.6 min, respectively. Some of the PK parameters were found to be similar in both i.v. and i.p. injections of (-)-epiafzelechin owing to its high solubility in water. PMID:25108364

  13. Validation of a fast method for quantitative analysis of elvitegravir, raltegravir, maraviroc, etravirine, tenofovir, boceprevir and 10 other antiretroviral agents in human plasma samples with a new UPLC-MS/MS technology.

    PubMed

    Djerada, Zoubir; Feliu, Catherine; Tournois, Claire; Vautier, Damien; Binet, Laurent; Robinet, Arnaud; Marty, Hélène; Gozalo, Claire; Lamiable, Denis; Millart, Hervé

    2013-12-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiretrovirals requires accurate and precise analysis of plasma drug concentrations. This work describes a simple, fast and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of the commonly used protease inhibitors such as amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, indinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and tipranavir, tenofovir a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), the non-NRTI such as efavirenz, nevirapine, etravirine, the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc as well as the more recent antiretrovirals, the integrase inhibitors such as raltegravir, elvitegravir and the new direct acting anti-HCV boceprevir. Adapted deuterated internal standard was added to plasma aliquots (100?l) prior to protein precipitation with methanol and acetonitrile. This method employed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization mode. All compounds eluted within 4.2-min run time. Calibration curves were validated, with correlation coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.997, for analysis of therapeutic concentrations reported in the literature. Inter- and intra-assay variations were <15%. Evaluation of accuracy shows a deviation <15% from target concentration at each quality control level. No significant matrix effect was observed for any of the antiretroviral studied. This new validated method fulfills all criteria for TDM of 15 antiretrovirals and boceprevir drugs and was successfully applied in routine TDM of antiretrovirals. PMID:23995753

  14. Simultaneous determination of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid and geniposide in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after administration of Reduning injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanjuan; Wen, Jing; Zheng, Weihua; Zhao, Longshan; Fu, Xiaohuan; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiong, Zhili; Li, Famei; Xiao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A simple, specific and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was established and validated for simultaneous determination of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid and geniposide in rat plasma using puerarin as an internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were pretreated by a one-step direct protein precipitation procedure with acetonitrile after acidified using as little as 50??L plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100?×?2.1?mm, 1.7?µm) at a flow rate of 0.2?mL/min by a gradient elution, using 0.2% acetic acid-methanol as mobile phase. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring via electrospray ionization source with negative ion mode. Calibration curves showed good linearity (r?>?0.995) over wide concentration ranges. The intra- and inter-day precisions were <15%, and the accuracy was within ±8.0%. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the four bioactive components in rats after intravenous administration of Reduning injection. PMID:24842397

  15. A UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, and ligustrazine in rat plasma, and its application to pharmacokinetic studies of Shenxiong glucose injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lin; Gong, Zipeng; Lu, Yuan; Xie, Yumin; Huang, Yong; Liu, Yue; Lan, Yanyu; Wang, Aimin; Wang, Yonglin

    2015-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the four major active ingredients, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, and ligustrazine, in the traditional Chinese medicine Shenxiong glucose injection in rat plasma. Acidified and alkalized plasma samples were extracted using ethyl acetate, and separated on a Waters C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7?m) by using a gradient mobile phase system of acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid and luteoloside as an internal standard. Electrospray ionization in the positive-ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring were used to identify and quantitate the active components. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.994) over the concentration range, with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) between 0.02 and 0.21?g/mL. The precision of the in vivo study was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and the percentage of relative standard deviation was within 15%. Moreover, satisfactory extraction efficiency was obtained (between 83.94 and 117.81%) by liquid-liquid extraction. The validated method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study in rats after intravenous administration of Shenxiong glucose injection. The results showed that the four bioactive ingredients in Shenxiong glucose injection have linear pharmacokinetic properties in rats after intravenous injection within the administered dose range and partially different ones compared to single ingredient. PMID:26118621

  16. First Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Greek Shellfish by UPLC-MS/MS Potentially Linked to the Presence of the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum

    PubMed Central

    Vlamis, Aristidis; Katikou, Panagiota; Rodriguez, Ines; Rey, Verónica; Alfonso, Amparo; Papazachariou, Angelos; Zacharaki, Thetis; Botana, Ana M.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    During official shellfish control for the presence of marine biotoxins in Greece in year 2012, a series of unexplained positive mouse bioassays (MBA) for lipophilic toxins with nervous symptomatology prior to mice death was observed in mussels from Vistonikos Bay–Lagos, Rodopi. This atypical toxicity coincided with (a) absence or low levels of regulated and some non-regulated toxins in mussels and (b) the simultaneous presence of the potentially toxic microalgal species Prorocentrum minimum at levels up to 1.89 × 103 cells/L in the area’s seawater. Further analyses by different MBA protocols indicated that the unknown toxin was hydrophilic, whereas UPLC-MS/MS analyses revealed the presence of tetrodotoxins (TTXs) at levels up to 222.9 ?g/kg. Reviewing of official control data from previous years (2006–2012) identified a number of sample cases with atypical positive to asymptomatic negative MBAs for lipophilic toxins in different Greek production areas, coinciding with periods of P. minimum blooms. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of retained sub-samples from these cases revealed that TTXs were already present in Greek shellfish since 2006, in concentrations ranging between 61.0 and 194.7 ?g/kg. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported detection of TTXs in European bivalve shellfish, while it is also the first work to indicate a possible link between presence of the toxic dinoflagellate P. minimum in seawater and that of TTXs in bivalves. Confirmed presence of TTX, a very heat-stable toxin, in filter-feeding mollusks of the Mediterranean Sea, even at lower levels to those inducing symptomatology to humans, indicates that this emerging risk should be seriously taken into account by the EU to protect the health of shellfish consumers. PMID:26008234

  17. First Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Greek Shellfish by UPLC-MS/MS Potentially Linked to the Presence of the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum.

    PubMed

    Vlamis, Aristidis; Katikou, Panagiota; Rodriguez, Ines; Rey, Verónica; Alfonso, Amparo; Papazachariou, Angelos; Zacharaki, Thetis; Botana, Ana M; Botana, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    During official shellfish control for the presence of marine biotoxins in Greece in year 2012, a series of unexplained positive mouse bioassays (MBA) for lipophilic toxins with nervous symptomatology prior to mice death was observed in mussels from Vistonikos Bay-Lagos, Rodopi. This atypical toxicity coincided with (a) absence or low levels of regulated and some non-regulated toxins in mussels and (b) the simultaneous presence of the potentially toxic microalgal species Prorocentrum minimum at levels up to 1.89 × 103 cells/L in the area's seawater. Further analyses by different MBA protocols indicated that the unknown toxin was hydrophilic, whereas UPLC-MS/MS analyses revealed the presence of tetrodotoxins (TTXs) at levels up to 222.9 ?g/kg. Reviewing of official control data from previous years (2006-2012) identified a number of sample cases with atypical positive to asymptomatic negative MBAs for lipophilic toxins in different Greek production areas, coinciding with periods of P. minimum blooms. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of retained sub-samples from these cases revealed that TTXs were already present in Greek shellfish since 2006, in concentrations ranging between 61.0 and 194.7 ?g/kg. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported detection of TTXs in European bivalve shellfish, while it is also the first work to indicate a possible link between presence of the toxic dinoflagellate P. minimum in seawater and that of TTXs in bivalves. Confirmed presence of TTX, a very heat-stable toxin, in filter-feeding mollusks of the Mediterranean Sea, even at lower levels to those inducing symptomatology to humans, indicates that this emerging risk should be seriously taken into account by the EU to protect the health of shellfish consumers. PMID:26008234

  18. Simultaneous determination of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate and triamcinolone acetonide in beagle dog plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a long-term pharmacokinetic study of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate lipid emulsion injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Mingjing; Wu, Panpan; Guan, Jiao; Men, Lei; Lin, Hongli; Tang, Xing; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the pharmacokinetics of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate (TAP) which is a lipid-soluble prodrug of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), a rapid, simple, sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TAP and TA in beagle dog plasma. After simple liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes and internal standard (dexamethasone, DEX) were separated on Phenomenex Luna C18 column (50 mm × 2.1mm, 1.7 ?m) using a mobile phase consisting of solvent A (acetonitrile) and solvent B (0.1% ammonia solution) at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min with gradient elution. Acquisition of mass spectrometric data was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization using the ion transitions of m/z 673.5?397.3, 435.3?415.3 and 393.3?355.3 for TAP, TA and IS, respectively. The method was of satisfactory specificity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy over the concentration range of 1-1,000 ng/ml for TAP and 0.5-500 ng/ml for TA. The intra- and inter-day precisions for both TAP and TA were 3.2% to 18.7% and the accuracy was in the range of -8.4% to 6.8%. The mean recoveries of TAP, TA and IS were 86.7-104.7%. The method was successfully applied to a long-term pharmacokinetic study of TAP and TA after 28-day repeated intravenous administration of TAP lipid emulsion injection to beagle dogs. PMID:25497892

  19. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of 7-hydroxymitragynine, a ?-opioid agonist, in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Vuppala, Pradeep K.; Jamalapuram, Seshulatha; Furr, Edward B.; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Avery, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated to determine the concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine in rat plasma. Following a single step liquid-liquid extraction of plasma samples using chloroform, 7-hydroxymitragynine and the internal standard (tryptoline) were separated on an Acquity UPLC™ BEH C18 (1.7 ?m, 2.1 mm×50 mm) column using an isocratic elution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% acetic acid in water and 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile (10:90, v/v). The run was 2.5 min. The analysis was carried out under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using positive electrospray ionization. Protonated ions [M+H]+ and their respective product ions were monitored at the following transitions: 415>190 for 7-hydroxymitragynine and 173>144 for the internal standard. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 10 to 4000 ng/mL (r2=0.999) with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 10 ng/mL. The extraction recoveries ranged from 62.0% to 67.3% at concentrations (20, 600, 3200 ng/mL). Intra- and inter-day assay precisions (relative standard deviation) were less than 15% and the accuracy was within 96.5% to 104.0%. This validated method was successfully applied to quantify 7-hydroxymitragynine in rat plasma following intravenous administration. PMID:23893615

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Typhaneoside and Isorhamnetin-3-O-Neohesperidoside in Rats After Oral Administration of Pollen Typhae Extract by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sali; Ni, Boran; Feng, Lijun; Yin, Xingbin; Dou, Haoran; Fu, Jing; Lin, Longfei; Ni, Jian

    2015-07-01

    For the first time, a selective and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography method with tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) detection for simultaneous determination of typhaneoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside in rat plasma was developed and validated, which was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of Pollen Typhae extract. The separation was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC(TM) BEH C18 column with gradient elution using mobile phase including acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid). The flow rate was 0.4 mL/min. The detection was conducted by means of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The assays were linear over the concentration range of 0.5-100 ng/mL, and the lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL for typhaneoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside. The method was validated in terms of intra- and interday precision (<9.37%), accuracy (within ±10.91%), linearity, specificity and stability, and has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of Pollen Typhae extract in rats after oral administration. PMID:25349196

  1. A rapid miniaturized residue analytical method for the determination of zoxamide and its two acid metabolites in ginseng roots using UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Podhorniak, Lynda V

    2014-04-30

    A miniaturized residue method was developed for the analysis of the fungicide zoxamide and its metabolites in dried ginseng root. The zoxamide metabolites, 3,5-dichloro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (DCBC) and 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid (DCHB), are small acid molecules that have not been previously extracted from the ginseng matrix with common multiresidue methods. The presented extraction method effectively and rapidly recovers both the zoxamide parent compound and its acid metabolites from fortified ginseng root. The metabolites are extracted with an alkaline glycine buffer and the aqueous ginseng mixture is partitioned with ethyl acetate. In addition, this method avoids the use of derivatization of the small acid molecules by using UPLC-MS/MS instrumental analysis. In a quantitative validation of the analytical method at three levels for zoxamide (0.007 (LOD), 0.02 (LOQ), and 0.2 mg/kg) and four levels (0.07 (LOD), 0.2 (LOQ), and 0.6 and 6 mg/kg) for both metabolites, acceptable method performances were achieved with recoveries ranging from 86 to 107% (at levels of LOQ and 3×, 10×, and 30× the LOQ) with <20% RSD for the three analytes in accordance with international guidelines.1. PMID:24552297

  2. A novel UPLC-MS-MS method for simultaneous determination of seven uremic retention toxins with cardiovascular relevance in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Boelaert, Jente; Lynen, Frédéric; Glorieux, Griet; Eloot, Sunny; Van Landschoot, Maria; Waterloos, Marie-Anne; Sandra, Pat; Vanholder, Raymond

    2013-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a devastating illness characterized by accumulation of uremic retention solutes in the body. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a simple, rapid, and robust UPLC-MS-MS method for simultaneous determination, in serum, of seven organic acid uremic retention toxins, namely uric acid (UA), hippuric acid (HA), indoxylsulfate (IS), p-cresylglucuronide (pCG), p-cresylsulfate (pCS), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF). Isotopically labeled internal standards (d(5)-HA; 1,3-(15)N(2)-UA, and d(5)-IAA) were used to correct for variations in sample preparation and system performance. Separation on a C18 column was followed by negative electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometric detection. Accuracy was below the 15 % threshold. Within-day precision varied from 0.60 to 4.54 % and between-day precision was below 13.33 % for all compounds. The applicability of the method was evaluated by analyzing 78 serum samples originating both from healthy controls and from patients at different stages of CKD. These results were compared with those obtained by use of conventional HPLC-PDA-FLD methods. A good correlation was obtained between both methods for all compounds. PMID:23307120

  3. Determination of Serotonin and Dopamine Metabolites in Human Brain Microdialysis and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples by UPLC-MS/MS: Discovery of Intact Glucuronide and Sulfate Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Suominen, Tina; Uutela, Päivi; Ketola, Raimo A.; Bergquist, Jonas; Hillered, Lars; Finel, Moshe; Zhang, Hongbo; Laakso, Aki; Kostiainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    An UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), their phase I metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC and HVA, and their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates in human brain microdialysis samples obtained from two patients with acute brain injuries, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from four patients with obstructive hydrocephalus, and a lumbar CSF sample pooled mainly from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia in preparation for orthopedic surgery. The method was validated by determining the limits of detection and quantification, linearity, repeatability and specificity. The direct method enabled the analysis of the intact phase II metabolites of 5-HT and DA, without hydrolysis of the conjugates. The method also enabled the analysis of the regioisomers of the conjugates, and several intact glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were identified and quantified for the first time in the human brain microdialysis and CSF samples. We were able to show the presence of 5-HIAA sulfate, and that dopamine-3-O-sulfate predominates over dopamine-4-O-sulfate in the human brain. The quantitative results suggest that sulfonation is a more important phase II metabolism pathway than glucuronidation in the human brain. PMID:23826355

  4. Pesticide multiresidue analysis in cereal grains using modified QuEChERS method combined with automated direct sample introduction GC-TOFMS and UPLC-MS/MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Mastovska, Katerina; Dorweiler, Kelly J; Lehotay, Steven J; Wegscheid, Jennifer S; Szpylka, Kelli A

    2010-05-26

    The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation method was modified to accommodate various cereal grain matrices (corn, oat, rice, and wheat) and provide good analytical results (recoveries in the range of 70-120% and RSDs <20%) for the majority of the target pesticides (about 180 analytes). The method consists of a 1 h shaking of a milled sample (2.5-5 g) in 20 mL of 1:1 (v/v) water/acetonitrile (or 25 mL of 1.5:1 water/acetonitrile in the case of rice) to provide simultaneous matrix swelling and analyte extraction. Then, a MgSO(4)/NaCl salt mixture (4:1, w/w) is added to the extract to induce phase separation and force the pesticides into the upper acetonitrile layer, a 1 mL aliquot of which is subsequently cleaned up using dispersive solid phase extraction with 150 mg of PSA, 50 mg of C(18), and 150 mg of MgSO(4). GC-amenable pesticides were analyzed using gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) and the automated direct sample introduction technique for a large volume injection of the extracts. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was employed for the analysis of LC-amenable pesticides. This method was implemented in a routine laboratory, providing about 3-fold increased sample throughput, 40-50% reduction in the cost of disposable materials and in the operation costs, 1:100 solvent waste reduction, and increased scope of the analysis versus the traditional approach based on the Luke method. PMID:20028018

  5. Development and validation of UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of gestodene and ethinyl estradiol in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zhili; Sun, Xiaohong; Huo, Taoguang; Li, Ning; Zheng, Yan; Sun, Yi

    2010-02-01

    A selective and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography method with tandem mass spectrometric detection for simultaneous determination of gestodene (GES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in rat plasma was developed and validated. GES, EE and the internal standard, norgestrel, were extracted with ethyl acetate, derivatized (EE only) with dansyl chloride and then back-extracted into diethyl ether-hexane (2:1, v/v). The separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column with gradient elution using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (both containing 0.1% formic acid). The detection was carried out by means of electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry in positive ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring. Calibration curves of GES and EE were linear (r(2) >or= 0.99) over the concentration ranges 1.59-159 and 0.196-78.4 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were not more than 6.9 and 12.9% for GES and 10.6 and 9.0% for EE, and the accuracies were -2.5-8.0% for GES, and -7.2-0.19% for EE, respectively. The method herein described was superior to previous methods and was applicable to the pharmacokinetic study of GES and EE in rats. PMID:19591119

  6. Assessment of nicotine for second hand smoke exposure in some public places in Romania by UPLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Air nicotine monitoring is a well-known procedure for estimation of exposure to second hand smoke. Few research studies were realized in Romania to evaluate environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure of humans in different public places. The levels of airborne nicotine from environmental tobacco smoke and urinary cotinine and nicotine levels of some subjects were analyzed. In order to better implement/enforce the European legislation regarding the interdiction of smoking in the public places the national authorities need a rapid and reliable analytical method to quickly asses the state of the pollution with cigarette smoke of these populated areas. Results The nicotine concentration in the air from different types of public buildings was determined. The median concentration of nicotine in the air from 32 pubs where the smoking was allowed was 590 ng?·?L-1, comparing with the pubs where the smoking was not permitted (22 locations) where the median concentration of nicotine was only 32 ng?·?L-1. Similarly, the median concentration of nicotine in restaurants where the smoking was allowed (23 locations) was 510 ng?·?L-1, in comparison with the restaurants where the smoking was prohibited (11 places) where the median value was 19 ng?·?L-1. The lowest concentrations of nicotine were found in high schools (8 locations, median concentration 7.4 ng?·?L-1), universities (5 locations, 23 ng?·?L-1) and hospitals (6 locations, 16 ng?·?L-1). Conclusions The method was validated and gave good linearity, precision, accuracy and limit of detection. The buildings included hospitals, high schools, universities, pubs and restaurants. The presence of air nicotine was recorded in all buildings studied. The highest median levels of air nicotine were found in pubs and restaurants. The presence of air nicotine in indoor public buildings indicates weak implementation of the smoke free law in Romania. PMID:24839459

  7. Development and validation of a sample stabilization strategy and a UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of acetylcholine (ACh), histamine (HA), and its metabolites in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhua; Tingley, F David; Tseng, Elaine; Tella, Max; Yang, Xin; Groeber, Elizabeth; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Wenlin; Schmidt, Christopher J; Steenwyk, Rick

    2011-07-15

    A UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of acetylcholine (ACh), histamine (HA), tele-methylhistamine (t-mHA), and tele-methylimidazolacetic acid (t-MIAA) in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The biological stability of ACh in rat CSF was investigated. Following fit-for-purpose validation, the method was applied to monitor the drug-induced changes in ACh, HA, t-mHA, and t-MIAA in rat CSF following administration of donepezil or prucalopride. The quantitative method utilizes hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) Core-Shell HPLC column technology and a UPLC system to achieve separation with detection by positive ESI LC-MS/MS. This UPLC-MS/MS method does not require extraction or derivatization, utilizes a stable isotopically labeled internal standard (IS) for each analyte, and allows for rapid throughput with a 4 min run time. Without an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor present, ACh was found to have 1.9±0.4 min in vitro half life in rat CSF. Stability studies and processing modification, including the use of AChE inhibitor eserine, extended this half life to more than 60 min. The UPLC-MS/MS method, including stabilization procedure, was validated over a linear concentration range of 0.025-5 ng/mL for ACh and 0.05-10 ng/mL for HA, t-mHA, and t-MIAA. The intra-run precision and accuracy for all analytes were 1.9-12.3% CV and -10.2 to 9.4% RE, respectively, while inter-run precision and accuracy were 4.0-16.0% CV and -5.3 to 13.4% RE, respectively. By using this developed and validated method, donepezil caused increases in ACh levels at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4h post dose as compared to the corresponding vehicle group, while prucalopride produced approximately 1.6- and 3.1-fold increases in the concentrations of ACh and t-mHA at 1h post dose, respectively, compared to the vehicle control. Overall, this methodology enables investigations into the use of CSF ACh and HA as biomarkers in the study of these neurotransmitter systems and related drug discovery efforts. PMID:21684223

  8. [Determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of di (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethyl ammonium compounds (DHTDMAC) in textile auxiliaries by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted and diluted with acidified methanol by 5% (v/v) formic acid under ultrasonic assistance. The separation was performed on an Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid solution and methanol as the mobile phases. Identification and quantification were achieved by UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results indicated that the calibration curve of DHTDMAC showed good linear relationship between peak area and mass concentration in the range of 10-280 microg/L with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9991. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N= 10) of this method were 3 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries from three typical textile auxiliary matrices including dispersant, antistatic agent and fabric softener, at three spiked levels were in the range of 97.2%-108.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.5%-4.6%. The method is sensitive, accurate, simple and effective for the analysis of DHTDMAC in textile auxiliaries. PMID:25958671

  9. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  10. HILIC-UPLC-MS/MS combined with hierarchical clustering analysis to rapidly analyze and evaluate nucleobases and nucleosides in Ginkgo biloba leaves.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Zhou, Guisheng; Tang, Yuping; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2015-02-01

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been widely used in dietary supplements and more recently in some foods and beverages. In addition to the well-known flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones, G. biloba leaves are also rich in nucleobases and nucleosides. To determine the content of nucleobases and nucleosides in G. biloba leaves at trace levels, a reliable method has been established by using hydrophilic interaction ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) working in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Eleven nucleobases and nucleosides were simultaneously determined in seven min. The proposed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, and repeatability, as well as recovery. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) was performed to evaluate and classify the samples according to the contents of the eleven chemical constituents. The established approach could be helpful for evaluation of the potential values as dietary supplements and the quality control of G. biloba leaves, which might also be utilized for the investigation of other medicinal herbs containing nucleobases and nucleosides. PMID:24665003

  11. Comparative pharmacokinetics of active alkaloids after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract and Wuji Wan formulas in rat using a UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Li, Yuejie; Wang, Yajie; Yang, Qing; Dong, Yu; Weng, Xiaogang; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yiwei; Gong, Zipeng; Zhang, Ruijie

    2015-03-01

    Wuji Wan (WJW), containing Rhizoma Coptidis (Huanglian in Chinese, HL), Frutus Evodiae Rutaecarpae (Wuzhuyu, WZY) and Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, BS), is a classical traditional Chinese medical formula employed in treating intestinal disorders. Berberine (BBR) and palmatine (PMT) are the major active alkaloids in HL and have analgesic and anti-microbial effects. A sensitive, specific and validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of BBR and PMT in rat plasma and in situ intestinal perfusion solution. In comparison with the pharmacokinetic parameters of BBR and PMT, t 1/2, C max, T max, AUC, CL and MRT after intragastric (i.g.) administration with HL extract alone, those remarkably changed after i.g. administration with WJW formulas 1 and 2 (herb proportions are 12:2:3 and 12:1:12). Particularly, the oral bioavailability of PMT in WJW formula 1 was significantly increased. In rat intestinal perfusion experiments, the apparent permeability coefficient value of PMT was (1.45 ± 0.72) × 10(-5) cm/s when perfusion with HL was performed, and the value was significantly increased to (3.92 ± 0.52) × 10(-5) cm/s on perfusion with WJW formula 1. These results indicate that the pharmacokinetic parameters and absorption of BBR and PMT are affected by the other herbs or ingredients from WJW formulas. PMID:24577954

  12. Determination of free and total warfarin concentrations in plasma using UPLC MS/MS and its application to a patient samples.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Mahasen A; Bawazeer, Ghada A; Aloudah, Nouf M; AlQuadeib, Bushra T; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2012-01-01

    Warfarin is routinely monitored by assessing its pharmacologic effects on the international normalized ratio. However, having a patient with INR not responding to increasing warfarin dose mandates a direct measurement of warfarin concentrations (total and free) for better patient clinical management of warfarin therapy. Therefore, a new fully validated specific, precise and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of free and total warfarin in human plasma. Free warfarin was measured in plasma filtrate, prepared by ultrafiltration, and sample pretreatment involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Linear response (r(2) ?0.99) was observed over the studied range of free and total warfarin, with the lower limit of detection of 0.25 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation) values were <10% and the accuracy (relative error) was ?6.6 for free and total warfarin. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between inter- and intra-day studies for the free and total warfarin, which confirmed the reproducibility of the assay method. The mean extraction efficiency was 88.6-107.2% of free and total warfarin. The assay was sensitive to follow warfarin pharmacokinetics (free and total) in a patient with resistance to warfarin up to 24 h after a daily dose of warfarin. PMID:21374651

  13. Natural occurrence of fumonisins and ochratoxin A in some herbs and spices commercialized in Poland analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Bocianowski, Jan; Goli?ski, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Unsanitary conditions during harvesting, drying, packing and storage stages in production and processing of spices and herbs could introduce mycotoxin contamination. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and fumonisins in popular spices and herbs was studied, using liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, ergosterol as a factor indicating fungal development was also analysed. A total of 79 different samples commercialized in Poland were randomly purchased from popular markets were tested for mycotoxins. The frequency of samples with fumonisins was lower (31%) than ochratoxin A (49%). Free from mycotoxins were samples of bay leaf and white mustard. ERG content - in spice samples with high concentration level of mycotoxins - was also significantly higher than in samples with little to no mycotoxins. PMID:24010625

  14. Study of the ESI and APCI interfaces for the UPLC-MS/MS analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lina; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Zhong; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shuying

    2014-02-01

    In this work, 53 selected pesticides of different chemical groups were extracted from Chinese herbal medicines and determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using both electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Extracts were obtained using the acetonitrile-based quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) sample preparation technique. Cleanup was performed by dispersive solid-phase extraction using primary secondary amine, graphitized carbon black, and octadecylsilane. Two atmospheric-pressure interfaces, ESI and APCI, were checked and compared. The validation study, including detection limits, linearity, and matrix effects, was conducted on fritillaria, radix ginseng, folium isatidis, semen persicae, and flos lonicerae in multiple reaction monitoring mode. These matrices represent a variety of plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Fritillaria and radix ginseng were chosen as representatives for roots, folium isatidis was chosen as a representative for leaves, semen persicae was chosen as a representative for seeds, and flos lonicerae was chosen as a representative for flowers. The limits of detection for pesticides were lower in the UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method than in the UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS method. Matrix effects on the two ionizations were evaluated for the five matrices. Soft signal enhancement in UHPLC-APCI-MS/MS and signal suppression in UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS were observed. PMID:24346143

  15. Dose-Independent ADME Properties and Tentative Identification of Metabolites of ?-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana in Mice by Automated Microsampling and UPLC-MS/MS Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Chul; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    The information about a marker compound's pharmacokinetics in herbal products including the characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) is closely related to the efficacy/toxicity. Also dose range and administration route are critical factors to determine the ADME profiles. Since the supply of a sufficient amount of a marker compound in in vivo study is still difficult, pharmacokinetic investigations which overcome the limit of blood collection in mice are desirable. Thus, we have attempted to investigate concurrently the ADME and proposed metabolite identification of ?-mangostin, a major constituent of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L, in mice with a wide dose range using an in vitro as well as in vivo automated micro-sampling system together. ?-mangostin showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics at intravenous doses of 5–20 mg/kg and oral doses of 10–100 mg/kg. The gastrointestinal absorption of ?-mangostin was poor and the distribution of ?-mangostin was relatively high in the liver, intestine, kidney, fat, and lung. ?-mangostin was extensively metabolized in the liver and intestine. With regards to the formation of metabolites, the glucuronidated, bis-glucuronidated, dehydrogenated, hydrogenated, oxidized, and methylated ?-mangostins were tentatively identified. We suggest that these dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics of ?-mangostin in mice provide an important basis for preclinical applications of ?-mangostin as well as mangosteen. In addition, these experimental methods can be applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of natural products in mice. PMID:26176540

  16. Highly sensitive plasmonic silver nanorods.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Arpad; Rosman, Christina; Khalavka, Yuriy; Becker, Jan; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Sönnichsen, Carsten

    2011-09-27

    We compare the single-particle plasmonic sensitivity of silver and gold nanorods with similar resonance wavelengths by monitoring the plasmon resonance shift upon changing the environment from water to 12.5% sucrose solution. We find that silver nanoparticles have 1.2 to 2 times higher sensitivity than gold, in good agreement with simulations based on the boundary-elements-method (BEM). To exclude the effect of particle volume on sensitivity, we test gold rods with increasing particle width at a given resonance wavelength. Using the Drude-model of optical properties of metals together with the quasi-static approximation (QSA) for localized surface plasmons, we show that the dominant contribution to higher sensitivity of silver is the lower background polarizability of the d-band electrons and provide a simple formula for the sensitivity. We improve the reversibility of the silver nanorod sensors upon repeated cycles of environmental changes by blocking the high energy parts of the illumination light. PMID:21851108

  17. High-sensitivity magnetoresistive transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Bharat B.; Krahn, Donald R.

    1991-04-01

    Magnetoresistive transducers, combined with appropriate signal conditioning, can be used to detect magnetic-field changes from small currents, geomagnetic anomalies, and perturbations in the earth's field from ferromagnetic objects. Two different designs of transducers are reported on-herringbone type, and barberpole biased type. Sensitivities as high as 3.5 mV/V/Oe have been obtained. The highest reported value seen in published literature is 1.75 mV/V/Oe (Philips Technical Publication 268), whereas values around 1.0 mV/V/Oe are typical. These high-sensitivity transducers are designed and fabricated based on previously published theoretical analysis [B. Pant, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 414 (1990)] of the response of thin magnetoresistive strips to external fields. This analysis indicates that to increase the sensitivity of these transducers one must reduce the ratio of strip thickness to its width and rotate the easy axis away from the long dimension of the strip wherever appropriate. The theoretical and experimental curves of bias field versus sensitivity for the herringbone design, and the transfer function for the barberpole design, are reported.

  18. Highly sensitive integrated optical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Lützow, Peter; Weiland, Martin; Pergande, Daniel; Schröder, Henning

    2014-03-01

    Optical sensor systems for biological and medical applications have been widely developed in order to satisfy the current requirements such as a miniaturization, cost reduction, label-free detection and fast response. Here, we demonstrate a highly sensitive optical sensor based on two cascaded microring resonators (MRRs) exploiting the Vernier effect. The architecture consists of a filter MRR connected to a sensor MRR via a common waveguide. The external medium of the filter MRR is isolated with a top cladding layer, while the sensor MRR interacts with the analyte sample via an opening. The sensor chip, that includes an array of five cascaded MRRs, was designed and fabricated on a silicon nitride platform. A first test has been performed with sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations in deionized (DI) water providing a sensitivity of 1.03 nm/% (6317 nm/RIU). A limit of detection of 3.16 x 10-6 RIU was demonstrated for the current sensor, respectively. Several concentrations of isopropanol in ethanol ranging from 0% to 10% were also investigated. These preliminary measurements show a sensitivity as high as 0.95 nm/% at ~1535 nm compared to 0.02 nm/% from a single sensor MRR. For a moderated alignment between the chip and cleaved optical fibers, tapered grating couplers are included at the ends of waveguides. Hence, by combining the Vernier effect and the silicon nitride material, cascaded MRRs will be a powerful optical configuration for biosensing applications in a wide operating wavelength range.

  19. Simultaneous determination of 11 ?-agonists in human urine using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with isotope dilution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Guo, Tao; Wang, Shanshan; Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Rusong

    2015-04-01

    The misuse of ?-agonists constitutes a potential risk to public health and has been forbidden in many countries. In this study, we describe a method for specific, sensitive and rapid detection of ?-agonists in human urine. Urine samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, without any additional purification step, and analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) with Clenbuterol-D9 and Salbuterol-D3 as internal standards. The intra- and interday precision values of the method were all <5.60% and the accuracy ranged from 94.5 to 109%. Extraction recovery for 11 ?-agonists varied from 66.7 to 108%. One UPLC-MS-MS analysis could be completed within 12 min and the limits of detection for 11 ?-agonists were 0.1 ng/mL in the experiment. ?-Agonists in human urines from 24 volunteers were analyzed by our validated method and 1.70 ng/mL salbutamol was detected in one volunteer. The application of UPLC-MS-MS method in ?-agonists detection of human urine will be helpful in veterinary control of ?-agonists and for studying the effect of ?-agonists on human health. PMID:25542892

  20. High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection†

    PubMed Central

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    High sensitivity nanosensors utilize optical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic relaxation properties to push detection limits of biomarkers below previously possible concentrations. The unique properties of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are exploited to design biomarker diagnostics. High-sensitivity recognition is achieved by signal and target amplification along with thorough pre-processing of samples. In this tutorial review, we introduce the type of detection signals read by nanosensors to detect extremely small concentrations of biomarkers and provide distinctive examples of high-sensitivity sensors. The use of such high-sensitivity nanosensors can offer earlier detection of disease than currently available to patients and create significant improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:22187721

  1. High sensitivity flatted mandrel hydrophone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lun K.; de Bruijn, Dick

    1994-03-01

    An axial flatted mandrel type of fiber optic hydrophone, named as Mark VI, has been constructed and tested. The sensor is based on a Michelson type interferometer and is built with polarization-maintaining fiber optic components to suppress signal fading due to changes in polarization. The sensitivity is tested in a range from 200 Hz to 1500 Hz. Up to 1000 Hz the sensitivity is found to be 275 mrad/Pa or higher. With 0.8 m of sensing fiber the normalized sensitivity is found to be -277 dB re 1/(mu) Pa, which is one of the highest ever reported. Up to 1000 Hz the noise level of the Mark VI is about 10 dB below Seastate Zero.

  2. Multi-drug and metabolite quantification in postmortem blood by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry: comparison with nominal mass technology.

    PubMed

    Rosano, Thomas G; Na, Seo; Ihenetu, Kenneth; Swift, Thomas A; Wood, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is being applied in postmortem drug screening as an alternative to nominal mass spectrometry, and additional evaluation in quantitative casework is needed. We report quantitative analysis of benzoylecgonine, citalopram, cocaethylene, cocaine, codeine, dextromethorphan, dihydrocodeine, diphenhydramine, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, meperidine, methadone, morphine, oxycodone and oxymorphone in postmortem blood by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS(E)/time-of-flight (TOF). The method employs analyte-matched deuterated internal standardization and MS(E) acquisition of precursor and product ions at low (6 eV) and ramped (10-40 eV) collision energies, respectively. Quantification was performed using precursor ion data obtained with a mass extraction window of ± 5 ppm. Fragment and residual precursor ion acquisitions at ramped collision energies were evaluated as additional analyte identifiers. Extraction recovery of >60% and matrix effect of <20% were determined for all analytes and internal standards. Defined limits of detection (10 ng/mL) and quantification (25 ng/mL) were validated along with a linearity analytical range of 25-3,000 ng/mL (R(2) > 0.99) for all analytes. Parallel UPLC-MS(E)/TOF and UPLC-MS/MS analysis showed comparable precision and bias along with concordance of 253 positive (y = 1.002x + 1.523; R(2) = 0.993) and 2,269 negative analyte findings in 159 postmortem cases. Analytical performance and correlation studies demonstrate accurate quantification by UPLC-MS(E)/TOF and extended application of HRMS in postmortem casework. PMID:25217537

  3. Fast, high sensitivity dewpoint hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A dewpoint/frostpoint hygrometer that uses a surface moisture-sensitive sensor as part of an RF oscillator circuit with feedback control of the sensor temperature to maintain equilibrium at the sensor surface between ambient water vapor and condensed water/ice. The invention is preferably implemented using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device in an RF oscillator circuit configured to generate a condensation-dependent output signal, a temperature sensor to measure the temperature of the SAW device and to distinguish between condensation-dependent and temperature-dependent signals, a temperature regulating device to control the temperature of the SAW device, and a feedback control system configured to keep the condensation-dependent signal nearly constant over time in the presence of time-varying humidity, corrected for temperature. The effect of this response is to heat or cool the surface moisture-sensitive device, which shifts the equilibrium with respect to evaporation and condensation at the surface of the device. The equilibrium temperature under feedback control is a measure of dewpoint or frostpoint.

  4. Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

    2005-01-01

    A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

  5. Highly sensitive Hall sensor in CMOS technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Blanchard; F De Montmollin; J Hubin; R. S Popovic

    2000-01-01

    We present a highly sensitive Hall device fabricated in a standard CMOS technology and combined with integrated flux concentrators acting as magnetic amplifiers. The active area of the Hall plate is in a buried n-well with a shape optimized by removing the parts less sensitive to the magnetic field. The effect of the shape of the concentrators is studied. This

  6. High-throughput LC-MS/MS based simultaneous determination of polyamines including N-acetylated forms in human saliva and the diagnostic approach to breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Haruhito; Mochizuki, Toshiki; Inoue, Koichi; Toyama, Tatsuya; Yoshimoto, Nobuyasu; Endo, Yumi; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2013-12-17

    The determination of polyamines and their N-acetylated forms was performed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The polyamines efficiently reacted with 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-F) in 0.1 M borax (pH 9.3) at 60 °C for 30 min. The resulting derivatives were analyzed by electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS and sensitively detected by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Furthermore, a rapid separation of the polyamine derivatives within 10 min was performed by UPLC using an antipressurized column packed with 1.7-?m octadecylsilyl (ODS) silica gel. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) on the SRM chromatograms were at the attomole level (9-43 amol). This procedure was used to successfully determine 11 polyamines, including their N-acetylated forms, in the saliva of patients with primary and relapsed breast cancer and healthy volunteers. The level of several polyamines (Ac-PUT, Ac-SPD, Ac-SPM, DAc-SPD, and DAc-SPM) increases in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, the levels of three polyamines (Ac-SPM, DAc-SPD, and DAc-SPM) were significantly higher only in the relapsed patients. The present method proved highly sensitive and is characterized by specificity and feasibility for sample analysis. Consequently, the proposed method is useful for the noninvasive salivary diagnosis of cancer patients and could be applied to determine polyamines in several specimens of biological nature. PMID:24274257

  7. UV/VUV high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, A. N.; Anderson, L. W.; Mullman, K. L.; Lawler, J. E.

    1998-09-01

    High sensitivity absorption spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic technique for reactive glow discharges plasmas. Absolute column densities of many chemical radicals have been measured in both deposition and etching plasmas. Modern photodiode or charge-coupled device (CCD) detector arrays vastly increase the sensitivity of traditional absorption experiments enabling one to observe fractional absorptions of ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation less than 0.0001. Stable arc lamps provide a continuum source in some experiments, but experiments at very high spectral resolution or at VUV wavelengths require the greater spectral radiance of synchrotron radiation. High sensitivity absorption spectroscopy has been applied to intense glow discharges used for lighting, for diamond film deposition, and for both depositing and etching Si films. Absorption spectroscopy provides absolute column densities, is useful for transitions that do not fluoresce, and approaches the sensitivity of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in glow discharges under some conditions.

  8. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS assay for quantitative analysis of the ghrelin receptor inverse agonist PF-5190457 in human or rat plasma and rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Mwlod; Leggio, Lorenzo; El-Kattan, Ayman; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    PF-5190457 is a ghrelin receptor inverse agonist that is currently undergoing clinical development for the treatment of alcoholism. Our aim was to develop and validate a simple and sensitive assay for quantitative analysis of PF-5190457 in human or rat plasma and rat brain using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analyte and stable isotope internal standard were extracted from 50 ?L plasma or rat brain homogenate by protein precipitation using 0.1 % formic acid in acetonitrile. Chromatography was carried out on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm?×?50 mm) column with 1.7 ?m particle size and 130 Å pore size. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and total chromatographic run time was 2.2 min. The mobile phase consisted of a gradient mixture of water: acetonitrile 95:5 % (v/v) containing 0.1 % formic acid (solvent A) and 100 % acetonitrile containing 0.1 % formic acid (solvent B). Multiple reaction monitoring was carried out in positive electro-spray ionization mode using m/z 513.35???209.30 for PF-5190457 and m/z 518.47???214.43 for the internal standard. The recovery ranged from 102 to 118 % with coefficient of variation (CV) less than 6 % for all matrices. The calibration curves for all matrices were linear over the studied concentration range (R (2)???0.998, n?=?3). The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL in rat or human plasma and 0.75 ng/g in rat brain. Intra- and inter-run mean percent accuracies were between 85 and 115 % and percent imprecision was ?15 %. The assays were successfully utilized to measure the concentration of PF-5190457 in pre-clinical and clinical pharmacology studies of the compound. PMID:25943263

  9. Absolute quantification of UGT1A1 in various tissues and cell lines using isotope label-free UPLC-MS/MS method determines its turnover number and correlates with its glucuronidation activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Gao, Song; Wu, Baojian; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1 is a major phase II metabolism enzyme responsible for glucuronidation of drugs and endogenous compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression level of UGT1A1 in human liver microsomes and human cell lines by using an isotope label-free LC-MS/MS method. A Waters Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system coupled with an API 5500Qtrap mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two signature peptides (Pep-1, and Pep-2) were employed to quantify UGT1A1 by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. Standard addition method was used to validate the assay to account for the matrix effect. 17?-Estradiol was used as the marker substrate to determine UGT1A1 activities. The validated method has a linear range of 200-0.0195nM for both signature peptides. The precision, accuracy, and matrix effect were in acceptable ranges. UGT1A1 expression levels were then determined using 8 individual human liver microsomes, a pooled human liver microsomes, three UGT1A1 genotyped human liver microsomes, and four cell lines (Caco-2, MCF-7, Hela, and HepG2). The correlations study showed that the UGT1A1 protein levels were strongly correlated with its glucuronidation activities in human liver microsomes (R(2)=0.85) and in microsomes prepared from cell lines (R(2)=0.95). Isotope-labeled peptides were not necessary for LC-MS/MS quantitation of proteins. The isotope label-free absolute quantification method used here had good accuracy, sensitivity, linear range, and reproducibility, and were used successfully for the accurate determination of UGT1A1 from tissues and cell lines. PMID:24055854

  10. High Sensitivity deflection detection of nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Sanii, Babak; Ashby, Paul

    2009-10-28

    A critical limitation of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is the lack of a high-sensitivity position detection mechanism. We introduce a noninterferometric optical approach to determine the position of nanowires with a high sensitivity and bandwidth. Its physical origins and limitations are determined by Mie scattering analysis. This enables a dramatic miniaturization of detectable cantilevers, with attendant reductions to the fundamental minimum force noise in highly damping environments. We measure the force noise of an 81{+-}9??nm radius Ag{sub 2}Ga nanowire cantilever in water at 6{+-}3??fN/{radical}Hz.

  11. Highly sensitive beam steering with plasmonic antenna.

    PubMed

    Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we design and study a highly sensitive beam steering device that integrates a spiral plasmonic antenna with a subwavelength metallic waveguide. The short effective wavelength of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) mode supported by the metallic waveguide is exploited to dramatically miniaturize the device and improve the sensitivity of the beam steering. Through introducing a tiny displacement of feed point with respect to the geometrical center of the spiral plasmonic antenna, the direction of the radiation can be steered at considerably high angles. Simulation results show that steering angles of 8°, 17° and 34° are obtainable for a displacement of 50 nm, 100 nm and 200 nm, respectively. Benefiting from the reduced device size and the shorter SPP wavelength, the beam steering sensitivity of the beam steering is improved by 10-fold compared with the case reported previously. This miniature plasmonic beam steering device may find many potential applications in quantum optical information processing and integrated photonic circuits. PMID:25091405

  12. High-Sensitivity Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hoi Cheong (Steve).

    Recent advances in the vapor phase materials processing have lead to more stringent requirements for diagnostics tools. A new diagnostic tool aimed at meeting some of the new requirements is developed by utilizing high sensitivity diode laser absorption spectroscopy. By suppressing sensitivity limiting etalon fringes while preserving the true absorption signal, the fundamental while noise limited sensitivity of laser absorption spectroscopy is restored. The enhancement of absorption signal to background fringe ratio is obtained by proper control of the operational parameters of a dual modulation scheme dubbed Combined Wavelength and Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy (CWFMS). This dual modulation scheme combines the spectral selectivity of wavelength modulation spectroscopy and the high sensitivity of frequency modulation spectroscopy into one. In addition to the high sensitivity obtained, the scheme provides multiple orders of signals. Any two of those consecutive orders can form a pair of signals for measuring the absorbance and locking the laser frequency simultaneously. One of these two orders has an absolute maximum at the absorption peak while the other is zero crossing and antisymmetric about the absorption peak. The sensitivity of CWFMS has been measured by using several lead-salt diode lasers and an AlGaAs diode laser and white noise limited detection was achieved. CWFMS was applied to two different processing environments namely plasma processing and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. For plasma processing, characteristics of SF_6 and rm C_2F_6 plasmas were studied. The detection of plasma etching end-point was demonstrated. For metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The high resolution spectra of methylsilazane during pyrolysis were obtained and analysed to identify a vibrational excited state and methane as a by-product.

  13. Rapid and sensitive hormonal profiling of complex plant samples by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant hormones play a pivotal role in several physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence, and the determination of endogenous concentrations of hormones is essential to elucidate the role of a particular hormone in any physiological process. Availability of a sensitive and rapid method to quantify multiple classes of hormones simultaneously will greatly facilitate the investigation of signaling networks in controlling specific developmental pathways and physiological responses. Due to the presence of hormones at very low concentrations in plant tissues (10-9 M to 10-6 M) and their different chemistries, the development of a high-throughput and comprehensive method for the determination of hormones is challenging. Results The present work reports a rapid, specific and sensitive method using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS) to analyze quantitatively the major hormones found in plant tissues within six minutes, including auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxyic acid (the ethylene precursor), jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Sample preparation, extraction procedures and UPLC-MS/MS conditions were optimized for the determination of all plant hormones and are summarized in a schematic extraction diagram for the analysis of small amounts of plant material without time-consuming additional steps such as purification, sample drying or re-suspension. Conclusions This new method is applicable to the analysis of dynamic changes in endogenous concentrations of hormones to study plant developmental processes or plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in complex tissues. An example is shown in which a hormone profiling is obtained from leaves of plants exposed to salt stress in the aromatic plant, Rosmarinus officinalis. PMID:22098763

  14. Diaphragm based high sensitive FBG pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengal Rao, P.; Srimannarayana, K.; Sai Shankar, M.; Kishore, P.

    2013-06-01

    A high sensitive pressure sensor based on Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) integrated with a thin metal diaphragm was designed and demonstrated. To enhance the pressure sensitivity FBG is firmly glued across the diameter of the diaphragm. Under pressure, the diaphragm deforms and produces an induced strain along the length of the fiber causes shift in Bragg wavelength of the FBG. Pressure measurement is made by measuring the Bragg wavelength shift against change in pressure. The sensor was tested up to the maximum pressure of 140 psi and the corresponding pressure sensitivity was found to be 0.0204 nm/psi, which is approximately 970 times higher than that can be achieved with a bare FBG. The experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical results and possess good linearity and repeatability. This sensor can be used for the measurement of medium pressure, liquid level and depth of underwater.

  15. Highly sensitive and selective ammonia gas sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Hyun Yun; Chul Han Kwon; Hyung-Ki Hong; Seung-Ryeol Kim; Kyuchung Lee; Ho Geun Song; Ji Eon Kim

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated and examined an ammonia gas sensor with high sensitivity using thick-film technology. The sensing material of the gas sensor is FeOx-WO3-SnO2 oxide semiconductor. The sensor exhibits resistance increase upon exposure to low concentration of ammonia gas. The resistance of the sensor is decreased, on the other hand, for exposure to reducing gases such as ethyl alcohol, methane,

  16. High sensitivity thermal sensors on insulating diamond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Job; A. V. Denisenko; A. M. Zaitsev; A. A. Melnikov; M. Werner; W. R. Fahrner

    1996-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material to develop sensors for applications in harsh environments. To increase the sensitivity of diamond temperature sensors the effect of thermionic hole emission (TE) over an energetic barrier formed in the interface between highly boron-doped p-type and intrinsic insulating diamond areas has been suggested. To study the TE of holes a p-i-p diode has been fabricated

  17. Sensitivity testing of liquid high explosives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1961-01-01

    This article describes a test procedure for a liquid high explosive. The liquid to be tested is NTN, a mixture of nitromethane, tetranitomethane, and 1-nitropropane in 52, 33.3, and 14.7 weight per cent. The test is to study the sensitivity of the explosive to shock by firing it in projectiles from a M1A1 155mm howlitzer, with a charge such that

  18. High sensitive materials in medical holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Snashall, E.; Osanlou, O.; Osanlou, R.; Mirlis, E.; Shi, Lishen; Bjelkhagen, H.

    2015-02-01

    High sensitivity is defined in relation to the energy required to perform holographic recording. High sensitivity in silver halide materials is their main advantage over other similarly high resolving power holographic recording materials. This work reports progress on the development of silver halide based 'true colour holographic imaging', under a microscope. A thin layer of ultrafine grains of silver halide crystals of around 10 nm average diameter, dispersed in a colloid and coated on a substrate is used as the recording media. The significance of this method so far, is in its ability to produce 'true colour' three-dimensional images of specimen. The recordings have an appreciable depth, permitting the observer to scan through the image under a microscope, as one might with a real specimen sample. Current methods could perform ' True colour holographic imaging' directly under a microscope. The recording methodology has the potential for deeper complex and scattering media imaging, using very small pulses of appropriate laser wavelengths. The methodology, using novel nanosize panchromatic recording media consisting of dispersed fine nano grain crystals, could potentially revolutionise related medical imaging techniques. Future development of digital media will allow it to be utilized in this manner.

  19. Photodetector having high speed and sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Mariella, Jr., Raymond P. (Danville, CA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention provides a photodetector having an advantageous combination of sensitivity and speed; it has a high sensitivity while retaining high speed. In a preferred embodiment, visible light is detected, but in some embodiments, x-rays can be detected, and in other embodiments infrared can be detected. The present invention comprises a photodetector having an active layer, and a recombination layer. The active layer has a surface exposed to light to be detected, and comprises a semiconductor, having a bandgap graded so that carriers formed due to interaction of the active layer with the incident radiation tend to be swept away from the exposed surface. The graded semiconductor material in the active layer preferably comprises Al.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x As. An additional sub-layer of graded In.sub.1-y Ga.sub.y As may be included between the Al.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x As layer and the recombination layer. The recombination layer comprises a semiconductor material having a short recombination time such as a defective GaAs layer grown in a low temperature process. The recombination layer is positioned adjacent to the active layer so that carriers from the active layer tend to be swept into the recombination layer. In an embodiment, the photodetector may comprise one or more additional layers stacked below the active and recombination layers. These additional layers may include another active layer and another recombination layer to absorb radiation not absorbed while passing through the first layers. A photodetector having a stacked configuration may have enhanced sensitivity and responsiveness at selected wavelengths such as infrared.

  20. High Sensitivity Imprint Measurements on Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max

    2005-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instability seeded by laser non-uniformity (laser imprint) is an important factor in performance of direct-drive ICF targets. Most of the imprint occurs during the initial low-intensity (``foot'') part of the pulse, necessary to compress the target to achieve high gain. Experiments are carried out on Nike KrF laser with induced spatial incoherence (ISI) smoothing. The amount of imprint is varied by changing the uniformity the foot of the pulse. The resulting Raleigh-Taylor (RT) amplified areal mass non-uniformity is measured by face-on x-ray radiography using Bragg reflection from a curved crystal coupled to an x-ray streak camera. The streak camera was recently retrofitted with a new high sensitivity CCD camera. The sensitivity of the CCD has enabled it to be fiberoptically coupled directly to the streak camera output, without an image intensifier and lens coupling. This gave an increased overall spatial resolution as well as lower noise. Because of the strong short wavelength component of RT amplified imprint, the increased resolution and lower noise resulted in much lower noise floor in the measurement. Experimental results are compared with 2D simulations using FAST hydrocode for a range of foot uniformities and intensities. Work supported by the U. S. DOE/NNSA.

  1. Simultaneous determination of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters in PC12 cells and rats models of Parkinson's disease using a sensitizing derivatization reagent by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xian-En; Zhu, Shuyun; Yang, Hongmei; You, Jinmao; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2015-07-15

    Multi-analytes simultaneous monitoring of amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitters (NTs) has important scientific significance for their related pathology, physiology and drug screening. In this work, in virtue of a mass spectrometry sensitizing reagent 10-ethyl-acridone-3-sulfonyl chloride (EASC) as derivatization reagent, an Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of six amino acid NTs, two monoamine ones and its one metabolite. The simple and rapid derivatization reaction was innovatively combined with plasma preparation by using EASC acetonitrile solution as protein precipitant. This interesting combination brought the advantages of speediness, simpleness and high-throughput in a cost-effective way. Under the optimized conditions, LODs (0.004-3.80nM) and LOQs (0.014-13.3nM) of EASC derivatized-NTs were calculated and found to be significantly lower than those of direct UHPLC-MS/MS detection about 11.5-275.0 and 14.4-371.4 times, respectively. Moreover, EASC derivatization significantly improved chromatographic resolution and matrix effect when compared with direct UPLC-MS/MS detection method without derivatization. Meanwhile, it also brought acceptable precision (3.0-13.0%, peak area CVs%), accuracy (86.4-112.9%), recovery (88.3-107.8%) and stability (3.8-8.5%, peak area CVs%) results. This method was successfully applied for the antiparkinsonian effect evaluation of levodopa and Ginsenoside Rg1 using PC12 cells and rats models by measuring multiple NTs. This provided a new method for the NTs related studies in the future. PMID:26021847

  2. Design of High Resolution High Sensitivity EMCCD Camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaohua Yang; Ming'an Guo; Binkang Li; Jingtao Xia; Qunshu Wang; Fengrong Sun

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution and high sensitivity camera was developed using back illuminated, frame transfer on-chip electron multiplying gain CCD(EMCCD) with 1024x1024 pixels named CCD201 from E2V technologies. The CCD timing generated by a CPLD affords the normal EMCCD diver timing via a vertical clock driver chip EL7156. A programmable control voltage power source is adopted for the electron multiplying voltage

  3. High sensitivity amplifier/discriminator for PWC's

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.

    1983-01-01

    The facility support group at Fermilab is designing and building a general purpose beam chamber for use in several locations at the laboratory. This pwc has 128 wires per plane spaced 1 mm apart. An initial production of 25 signal planes is anticipated. In proportional chambers, the size of the signal depends exponentially on the charge stored per unit of length along the anode wire. As the wire spacing decreases, the capacitance per unit length decreases, thereby requiring increased applied voltage to restore the necessary charge per unit length. In practical terms, this phenomenon is responsible for difficulties in constructing chambers with less than 2 mm wire spacing. 1 mm chambers, therefore, are frequently operated very near to their breakdown point and/or a high gain gas containing organic compounds such as magic gas is used. This argon/iso-butane mixture has three drawbacks: it is explosive when exposed to the air, it leaves a residue on the wires after extended use and is costly. An amplifier with higher sensitivity would reduce the problems associated with operating chambers with small wire spacings and allow them to be run a safe margin below their breakdown voltage even with an inorganic gas mixture such as argon/CO2, this eliminating the need to use magic gas. Described here is a low cost amplifier with a usable threshold of less than 0.5 ..mu..A. Data on the performance of this amplifier/discriminator in operation on a prototype beam chamber are given. This data shows the advantages of the high sensitivity of this design.

  4. Demonstration of high sensitivity laser ranging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, Pamela S.; Christian, Kent D.; Field, Christopher T.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a high sensitivity semiconductor laser ranging system developed for the Gravity and Magnetic Earth Surveyor (GAMES) for measuring variations in the planet's gravity field. The GAMES laser ranging instrument (LRI) consists of a pair of co-orbiting satellites, one which contains the laser transmitter and receiver and one with a passive retro-reflector mounted in an drag-stabilized housing. The LRI will range up to 200 km in space to the retro-reflector satellite. As the spacecraft pair pass over the spatial variations in the gravity field, they experience along-track accelerations which change their relative velocity. These time displaced velocity changes are sensed by the LRI with a resolution of 20-50 microns/sec. In addition, the pair may at any given time be drifting together or apart at a rate of up to 1 m/sec, introducing a Doppler shift into the ranging signals. An AlGaAs laser transmitter intensity modulated at 2 GHz and 10 MHz is used as fine and medium ranging channels. Range is measured by comparing phase difference between the transmit and received signals at each frequency. A separate laser modulated with a digital code, not reported in this paper, will be used for coarse ranging to unambiguously determine the distance up to 200 km.

  5. Quantification of patulin in fruit leathers by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA).

    PubMed

    Maragos, Chris M; Busman, Mark; Ma, Liang; Bobell, John

    2015-07-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin commonly found in certain fruit and fruit products. For this reason many countries have established regulatory limits pertaining to, in particular, apple juice and apple products. Fruit leathers are produced by dehydrating fruit puree, leaving a sweet product that has a leathery texture. A recent report in the literature described the detection of patulin at substantial levels in fruit leathers. To investigate this further, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA) method was developed for the sensitive detection of patulin in fruit leathers. Investigations were also made of the suitability of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for detection of patulin from the surface of fruit leathers. Results indicated DART-MS was insufficiently sensitive for quantification from the surface of home-style apple leathers, although patulin spiked onto the surface of leather or peel could be detected. The UPLC-PDA method was used to determine the fate of patulin during the preparation of home-made fruit leathers. Interestingly, when a home-style process was used, the patulin was not destroyed, but rather increased in concentration as the puree was dehydrated. The UPLC-PDA method was also used to screen for patulin in commercial fruit leathers. Of the 36 products tested, 14 were above the limit of detection (3.5 ?g kg(-1)) and nine were above the limit of quantification (12 ?g kg(-1)). Positive samples were confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS. Only one sample was found above the US regulatory limit for single-strength apple juice products (50 ?g kg(-1)). These results suggest patulin can be concentrated during preparation and can be found in fruit leathers. The limited survey suggests that patulin is fairly prevalent in such commercial products, but that the levels are usually low. PMID:25832782

  6. Microstructured graphene arrays for highly sensitive flexible tactile sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bowen; Niu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hong; Leow, Wan Ru; Wang, Hua; Li, Yuangang; Zheng, Liyan; Wei, Jun; Huo, Fengwei; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-09-24

    A highly sensitive tactile sensor is devised by applying microstructured graphene arrays as sensitive layers. The combination of graphene and anisotropic microstructures endows this sensor with an ultra-high sensitivity of -5.53 kPa(-1) , an ultra-fast response time of only 0.2 ms, as well as good reliability, rendering it promising for the application of tactile sensing in artificial skin and human-machine interface. PMID:24895228

  7. A high sensitive phosphor for dosimetric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kore, Bhushan P.; Dhoble, N. S.; Lochab, S. P.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    In this study a novel TL phosphor CaMg3(SO4)4:Dy3+ was prepared by acid distillation method. The TL response of this phosphor towards ?-rays and carbon ion beam was tested. Good dosimetric glow curve was observed which is stable against both the type of radiations. The CaMg3(SO4)4:Dy3+ phosphor doped with 0.2 mol% of Dy3+, irradiated with ?-ray shows nearly equal sensitivity to that of commercially available CaSO4:Dy TLD phosphor whereas 3.5 times more sensitivity than CaSO4:Dy, when irradiated with carbon ion beam. The change in glow peak intensities and glow peak temperature with variation in irradiation species and energy of ion beam is discussed here. The effect of these on trapping parameters is also illustrated.

  8. High-Sensitivity GaN Microchemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Yang, Baohua; Liao, Anna; Moon, Jeongsun; Prokopuk, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Systematic studies have been performed on the sensitivity of GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) sensors using various gate electrode designs and operational parameters. The results here show that a higher sensitivity can be achieved with a larger W/L ratio (W = gate width, L = gate length) at a given D (D = source-drain distance), and multi-finger gate electrodes offer a higher sensitivity than a one-finger gate electrode. In terms of operating conditions, sensor sensitivity is strongly dependent on transconductance of the sensor. The highest sensitivity can be achieved at the gate voltage where the slope of the transconductance curve is the largest. This work provides critical information about how the gate electrode of a GaN HEMT, which has been identified as the most sensitive among GaN microsensors, needs to be designed, and what operation parameters should be used for high sensitivity detection.

  9. Freely suspended nanocomposite membranes as highly sensitive sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaoyang Jiang; Sergiy Markutsya; Yuri Pikus; Vladimir V. Tsukruk

    2004-01-01

    Highly sensitive sensor arrays are in high demand for prospective applications in remote sensing and imaging. Measuring microscopic deflections of compliant micromembranes and cantilevers is developing into one of the most versatile approaches for thermal, acoustic and chemical sensing. Here, we report on an innovative fabrication of compliant nanocomposite membranes with nanoscale thickness showing extraordinary sensitivity and dynamic range, which

  10. High-sensitivity optical measurement of mechanical Brownian motion

    E-print Network

    Y. Hadjar; P. F. Cohadon; C. G. Aminoff; M. Pinard; A. Heidmann

    1999-09-03

    We describe an experiment in which a laser beam is sent into a high-finesse optical cavity with a mirror coated on a mechanical resonator. We show that the reflected light is very sensitive to small mirror displacements. We have observed the Brownian motion of the resonator with a very high sensitivity.

  11. High-sensitivity uncooled microcantilever infrared imaging arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Hunter; Gregory Maurer; Lijun Jiang; Gregory Simelgor

    2006-01-01

    The design and operation of an advanced bimorph microcantilever based infrared imaging detector are presented. This technology has the potential to achieve very high sensitivities due to its inherent high responsivity and low noise sensor and detection electronics. The sensor array is composed of bimaterial, thermally sensitive microcantilever structures that are the moving elements of variable plate capacitors. The heat

  12. Piezoelectric composite lattices with high sensitivity Roderic Lakes

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    Piezoelectric composite lattices with high sensitivity Roderic Lakes Department of Engineering and is unbounded. adapted from Lakes, R. S., "Piezoelectric composite lattices with high sensitivity ", Philosophical Magazine Letters, 94, (1), 37-44 (2014). 1 1 lakes@engr.wisc.edu 1 #12;1 Introduction 1

  13. Highly linear, sensitive analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, J.; Finley, W. R.

    1969-01-01

    Analog-to-digital converter converts 10 volt full scale input signal into 13 bit digital output. Advantages include high sensitivity, linearity, low quantitizing error, high resistance to mechanical shock and vibration loads, and temporary data storage capabilities.

  14. High-sensitivity photoacoustic leak testing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eric; Dowling, David R; Whelan, Timothy; Spiesberger, John L

    2003-10-01

    The photoacoustic effect may be exploited for the detection and localization of gas leaks from otherwise sealed components. The technique involves filling the test component with a tracer gas, and radiating the component to produce photoacoustic sound from any leak site where tracer gas is present. This paper describes demonstration experiments utilizing 10.6-micro radiation from a carbon-dioxide laser and sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer gas for photoacoustic leak testing at leak rates between 6 x 10(-5) cm3/s (1 cm3 in 4.6 h) and 5 x 10(-9) cm3/s (1 cm3 in 6.3 years). The technique may reach or exceed the capabilities of the most sensitive commercial leak test systems using helium mass-spectrometers. In addition, comparison of the measured results to a simple scaling law suggests that tracer gas cloud geometry influences the photoacoustic signal amplitude. PMID:14587593

  15. Chemoreceptor sensitivity and maladaptation to high altitude in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Mathew; P. M. Gopinathan; S. S. Purkayastha; J. Sen Gupta; H. S. Nayar

    1983-01-01

    Summary  Studies were carried out to find out the role of chemoreceptor sensitivity in the causation of maladaptation syndromes on acute exposure to altitude. The experiments were done in two phases. In phase I, the responses in chemoreceptor sensitivity were studied in altitude acclimatized subjects and compared with those who suffered from either High Altitude Pulmonary Oedema (HAPO) or Acute Mountain

  16. Highly sensitive ammonium tetraazidoaurates(III).

    PubMed

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard; Galvez-Ruiz, Juan-Carlos; Nöth, Heinrich

    2005-12-26

    The preparation and characterization of selected ammonium and methylammonium tetraazidoaurates(III) are reported. All ammonium salts were shown to be highly explosive materials. The first crystal structure of such an ammonium salt, that of [Me(4)N][Au(N(3))(4)], features polymeric units of the anion, which are linked by weak Au...Au interactions. PMID:16363826

  17. Development of a high sensitivity accelerometer for the Mica platform.

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., B.F.

    Development of a high sensitivity accelerometer for the Mica platform. RUIZ-SANDOVAL Manuel of the computation to be done locally on the sensor's embedded microprocessor. The Mica Mote platform, along

  18. High-Sensitivity Detection with Tunable Diode Lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Thomas Cassidy

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes methods for high-sensitivity detection of trace gases using tunable diode lasers (TDL). TDL absorption spectrometers have been widely used to acquire infrared spectra since 1970. However, high-sensitivity measurements have been limited mainly to the detection of low-pressure gases by harmonic techniques. The detection of atmospheric-pressure gases and the development of a rapid sweep technique for the accumulation

  19. ULTRAHIGH-SPEED, HIGH-SENSITIVITY, PORTABLE CCD COLOR CAMERA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ohtake; K. Kitamura; T. Arai; J. Yonai; T. Hayashida; T. Kurita; K. Tanioka; H. Maruyama; Y. Mita; J. Namiki; T. Yanagi; T. Yoshida; H. van Kuijk; Jan T. Bosiers; T. Goji Etoh

    We have been developing ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity broadcast cameras that are capable of capturing clear, smooth, slow-motion video even in conditions with limited lighting, such as at professional baseball games played at night. In 2003, we developed the first broadcast color camera using three 80,000- pixel ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity charge-coupled devices (CCDs). This camera is capable of ultrahigh-speed video recording at up

  20. Development of a high-sensitivity radiation detector for chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Huber; S. M. Hanrahan; W. W. Moses; S. E. Derenzo; B. W. Reutter; J. P. O'Neil; G. T. Gullberg

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclide techniques will be increasingly important for the development of biofuels, since they can both uniquely characterize metabolic pathways and image large model systems. We are investigating the application of nuclear medical imaging tools and techniques to biofuel development, using high-sensitivity chromatographic radiation detectors and compounds radiolabeled with short-lived, cyclotron-produced, positron-emitting isotopes (e.g., 11C). The application of high-sensitivity radiation detectors

  1. High sensitivity background absorption measurements in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, Nathan; Silva, Junior R.; Wang, Chengao; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Melgaard, Seth D.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2015-03-01

    Laser cooling in InGaP|GaAs double heterostructures (DHS) has been a sought after goal. Even though very high external quantum efficiency (EQE) has been achieved, background absorption has remained a bottleneck in achieving net cooling. The purpose of this study is to gain more insight into the source of the background absorption for InGaP|GaAs DHS as well as GaAs|AlGaAs DBRs by employing an excite-probe thermal Z-scan measurement.

  2. High sensitivity optomechanical reference accelerometer over 10 kHz

    E-print Network

    Felipe Guzman Cervantes; Lee Kumanchik; Jon Pratt; Jacob Taylor

    2014-08-28

    We present an optically-detected mechanical accelerometer that achieves a sensitivity of 100 ng/rtHz over a bandwidth of 10kHz and is traceable. We have incorporated a Fabry-Perot fiber-optic micro-cavity that is currently capable of measuring the test-mass displacement with sensitivities of 200 am/rtHz, and whose length determination enables traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The compact size and high mQ-product achieved combined with the high sensitivity and simplicity of the implemented optical detection scheme highlight our device and this category of accelerometers, outlining a path for high sensitivity reference acceleration measurements and observations in seismology and gravimetry.

  3. Performance Characterization of a Miniature, High Sensitivity Gamma Ray Camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter D. Olcott; Frezghie Habte; Angela M. Foudray; Craig S. Levin

    2007-01-01

    A compact, hand-held gamma camera with excellent intrinsic and extrinsic performance has been developed for the rapid identification and localization of sentinel lymph nodes during the surgical staging of cancer. The camera comprises a 5times5 cm2 field of view NaI (Tl) pixellated crystal array, a high sensitivity lead (2.0 cm thick) hexagonal parallel-hole collimator, a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT),

  4. Characterization of a High Sensitivity Composite Silicon Bolometer

    E-print Network

    Migdall, Alan

    Characterization of a High Sensitivity Composite Silicon Bolometer G. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall diameter by 0,05 mm thick sapphire disk with its front surface coated with gold black for high absorption of the absorber. As JB ___c Figure 1. Electronic schematic of the bolometer. shown in Figure 1, the silicon sensor

  5. High-sensitivity Compton imaging with position-sensitive Si and Ge detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, K.; Burks, M.; Cork, C.; Cunningham, M.; Chivers, D.; Hull, E.; Krings, T.; Manini, H.; Mihailescu, L.; Nelson, K.; Protic, D.; Valentine, J.; Wright, D.

    2007-08-01

    We report on the development of high-sensitivity and compact Compton imaging systems built of large and position-sensitive Si(Li) and HPGe detectors. The primary goal of this effort is to provide improved capabilities in the passive detection of nuclear materials for homeland security. Our detectors are implemented in double-sided strip configuration, which—along with digital signal processing—provides energies and three-dimensional position information of individual ?-ray interactions. ?-Ray tracking algorithms then determine the scattering sequence of the ?-ray, which in turn allows us—employing the Compton scattering formula—to reconstruct a cone of possible incident angles and ultimately an image. This Compton imaging concept enables large-field-of-view ?-ray imaging without the use of a heavy collimator or aperture. The intrinsically high-energy resolution of the detectors used, the excellent position resolution we have demonstrated, both combined with the high efficiency of large-volume detectors is the basis for high Compton imaging sensitivity. These capabilities are being developed to identify and localize potential threat sources and to potentially increase the sensitivity in detecting weak sources out of the midst of natural, medical, or commercial sources. ?-ray imaging provides a new degree of freedom to distinguish between spatial and temporal background fluctuations and compact threat sources.

  6. Highly sensitive suspended-gate ion sensitive transistor for the detection of pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendriaa, F.; Le Bihan, F.; Salaun, A. C.; Mohammed-Brahim, T.; Bonnaud, O.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a new device for the pH detection. It is based on a suspended polysilicon gate field effect transistor (SGFET). The sensitive layer is made of silicon nitride as for ISFET technology. The suspended bridge, used as gate electrode, is formed with doped polysilicon covered with silicon nitride layers for electrical insulation. The layers are deposited by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD). Surface micro-technology allows to obtain a small height (0.5?m) suspended-bridge. In this case, the solution penetrates under the gate. The high field effect in the gap between the gate and the channel is enough to change the charges distribution. Very high pH sensitivity, greater than 200 mV/pH, is found with this new structure and it is much higher than the usual Nernstian sensitivity of ISFETs. The device concept, electrical characteristics, and the effect of the thickness of the gap between the bridge and the sensitive layer on the pH sensitivity are discussed in this study.

  7. High sensitivity, low voltage silicon photodetectors compatible with silicon integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Wahl; D. Rogers; S. Tiwari

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. The work reports a new high responsivity high sensitivity, high frequency and low voltage photodetector capable of operating at 850 nm and lower wavelengths at multi-GHz frequencies, while providing compatibility with silicon system-on-chip technology. By decoupling the carrier generation process from the carrier collection process, silicon can provide performance characteristics that are either comparable of superior

  8. Highly sensitive tactile sensors integrated with organic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jiseok; Nga Ng, Tse; Soo Kim, Woo

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a highly sensitive capacitive pressure sensor composed of a polymer dielectric film with a nano-needle structure. The nano-needle polymer films were prepared by facile fabrication methods including breath figures formation followed by stamping. The pressure sensitivity of the sensor reached 1.76 kPa-1 in the low pressure range (<1 kPa), which is comparable to the sensitivity of human skin. Analysis of the geometries and densities effect was shown, and the nano-needle film showed better sensitivity in comparison to films with hemispherical or conical structures. The pressure sensors were integrated with printed organic thin film transistors to enable flexible, large-area tactile sensing applications.

  9. Analytical Glycobiology at High Sensitivity: Current Approaches and Directions

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Milos V.; Alley, William R.; Mann, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the analytical advances made during the last several years in the structural and quantitative determinations of glycoproteins in complex biological mixtures. The main analytical techniques used in the fields of glycomics and glycoproteomics involve different modes of mass spectrometry and their combinations with capillary separation methods such as microcolumn liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The needs for high-sensitivity measurements have been emphasized in the oligosaccharide profiling used in the field of biomarker discovery through MALDI mass spectrometry. High-sensitivity profiling of both glycans and glycopeptides from biological fluids and tissue extracts has been aided significantly through lectin preconcentration and the uses of affinity chromatography. PMID:22945852

  10. High-sensitivity cardiac troponins in everyday clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays are increasingly being used in many countries worldwide, however, a generally accepted definition of high-sensitivity is still pending. These assays enable cTn measurement with a high degree of analytical sensitivity with a low analytical imprecision at the low measuring range of cTn assays (coefficient of variation of < 10% at the 99th percentile upper reference limit). One of the most important advantages of these new assays is that they allow novel, more rapid approaches to rule in or rule out acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) than with previous cTn assay generations which are still more commonly used in practice worldwide. hs-cTn is also more sensitive for the detection of myocardial damage unrelated to acute myocardial ischemia. Therefore, the increase in early diagnostic sensitivity of hs-cTn assays for ACS comes at the cost of a reduced ACS specificity, because more patients with other causes of acute or chronic myocardial injury without overt myocardial ischemia are detected than with previous cTn assays. As hs-cTn assays are increasingly being adopted in clinical practice and more hs-cTn assays are being developed, this review attempts to synthesize the available clinical data to make recommendations for their everyday clinical routine use. PMID:24772257

  11. Invention of highly sensitive HARP camera tube and its application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tanioka

    2003-01-01

    In 1985, I found that when an amorphous selenium (a-Se) photoconductive target for camera tubes is operated in a strong electric field of about 108 V\\/m, continuous and stable avalanche multiplication takes place, allowing high sensitivity to be obtained with little picture degradation. Based on this discovery, we went on to develop a new kind of camera tube called HARP

  12. A-PET: a high sensitivity animal PET camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Surti; J. S. Karp; A. E. Perkins; R. Freifelder; G. Muehllehner

    2002-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown that PET is capable of obtaining in vivo metabolic images of small animals. These serve as models to study the development and progress of diseases within humans. Imaging small animals requires not only image resolution better than 2mm, but also high sensitivity in order to image ligands with low specific activity or radiochemical

  13. Improvement of sensitivity in high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hashimoto; K. Nakajima; M. Suzuki; K. Sasakawa; K. Kimura

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity (limit of detection) of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS) is mainly determined by the background noise of the spectrometer. There are two major origins of the background noise in HRBS, one is the stray ions scattered from the inner wall of the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer and the other is the dark noise of the microchannel plate

  14. High throughput modular chambers for rapid evaluation of anesthetic sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Sun; Jingqiu Chen; Gregory Pruckmayr; James E Baumgardner; David M Eckmann; Roderic G Eckenhoff; Max B Kelz

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anesthetic sensitivity is determined by the interaction of multiple genes. Hence, a dissection of genetic contributors would be aided by precise and high throughput behavioral screens. Traditionally, anesthetic phenotyping has addressed only induction of anesthesia, evaluated with dose-response curves, while ignoring potentially important data on emergence from anesthesia. METHODS: We designed and built a controlled environment apparatus to permit

  15. A high sensitivity inductive sensor for blade tip clearance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Zhe, Jiang

    2014-06-01

    A multiplexed inductive sensor consisting of multiple mini-sized planar spiral coils for detecting multiple tip clearances of rotor blades is presented. The sensor measures the tip clearances by monitoring the inductance changes of planar spiral coils caused by the passage of the rotor blades. A resonance frequency division multiplexing technique and parallel LC resonance measurement were applied to the multiple sensor coils, making it feasible to measure multiple tip clearances using only one set of measurement electronics with high sensitivity and resolution. The results from tests conducted on a bench-top test rig have demonstrated that the sensor is capable of simultaneously measuring multiple tip clearances from 0 to 5 mm with a 10 ?m resolution at a high rotary speed up to 80?000 RPM. With its high resolution, high sensitivity and capability of monitoring a large number of tip clearances simultaneously, this sensor can potentially be used for advanced active tip clearance control in turbine machinery.

  16. Towards highly sensitive strain sensing based on nanostructured materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dzung Viet Dao; Tung Thanh Bui; Koichi Nakamura; Van Thanh Dau; Takeo Yamada; Kenji Hata; Susumu Sugiyama

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents our recent theoretical and experimental study of piezo-effects in nanostructured materials for highly sensitive, high resolution mechanical sensors. The piezo-effects presented here include the piezoresistive effect in a silicon nanowire (SiNW) and single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film, as well as the piezo-optic effect in a Si photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity. Firstly, the electronic energy band

  17. NK sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells determined by a highly sensitive coupled luminescent method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogbomo, Henry [Institut fuer Medizinische Virologie, Zentrum der Hygiene, Klinikum der J.W. Goethe-Universitaet Paul Ehrlich Str. 40 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Hahn, Anke [Institut fuer Medizinische Virologie, Zentrum der Hygiene, Klinikum der J.W. Goethe-Universitaet Paul Ehrlich Str. 40 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Geiler, Janina [Institut fuer Medizinische Virologie, Zentrum der Hygiene, Klinikum der J.W. Goethe-Universitaet Paul Ehrlich Str. 40 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Michaelis, Martin [Institut fuer Medizinische Virologie, Zentrum der Hygiene, Klinikum der J.W. Goethe-Universitaet Paul Ehrlich Str. 40 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Doerr, Hans Wilhelm [Institut fuer Medizinische Virologie, Zentrum der Hygiene, Klinikum der J.W. Goethe-Universitaet Paul Ehrlich Str. 40 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Cinatl, Jindrich [Institut fuer Medizinische Virologie, Zentrum der Hygiene, Klinikum der J.W. Goethe-Universitaet Paul Ehrlich Str. 40 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: Cinatl@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2006-01-06

    The measurement of natural killer (NK) cells toxicity against tumor or virus-infected cells especially in cases with small blood samples requires highly sensitive methods. Here, a coupled luminescent method (CLM) based on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase release from injured target cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of interleukin-2 activated NK cells against neuroblastoma cell lines. In contrast to most other methods, CLM does not require the pretreatment of target cells with labeling substances which could be toxic or radioactive. The effective killing of tumor cells was achieved by low effector/target ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1. CLM provides highly sensitive, safe, and fast procedure for measurement of NK cell activity with small blood samples such as those obtained from pediatric patients.

  18. Highly Mass-Sensitive Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators (FPAR)

    PubMed Central

    Arapan, Lilia; Alexieva, Gergana; Avramov, Ivan D.; Radeva, Ekaterina; Strashilov, Vesseline; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2011-01-01

    The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN) film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO)-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented. PMID:22163994

  19. Highly mass-sensitive thin film plate acoustic resonators (FPAR).

    PubMed

    Arapan, Lilia; Alexieva, Gergana; Avramov, Ivan D; Radeva, Ekaterina; Strashilov, Vesseline; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2011-01-01

    The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN) film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO)-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented. PMID:22163994

  20. Porous silicon ring resonator for compact, high sensitivity biosensing applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A.; Hu, Shuren; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    A ring resonator is patterned on a porous silicon slab waveguide to produce a compact, high quality factor biosensor with a large internal surface area available for enhanced recognition of biological and chemical molecules. The porous nature of the ring resonator allows molecules to directly interact with the guided mode. Quality factors near 10,000 were measured for porous silicon ring resonators with a radius of 25 ?m. A bulk detection sensitivity of 380 nm/RIU was measured upon exposure to salt water solutions. Specific detection of nucleic acid molecules was demonstrated with a surface detection sensitivity of 4 pm/nM.

  1. High sensitivity of positron annihilation to thermal oxidation of polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kenji; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Nanasawa, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the high sensitivity of positron annihilation to compositional changes related to the thermal degradation of polyethylene (PE). Positron annihilation ?-ray and lifetime measurements were conducted for PE films with and without antioxidant (1000-ppm Ciba® IRGANOX® 1076), subjected to heat treatment at 100 °C for different periods, to a maximum of 30 days. For the film without antioxidant, the positron Doppler parameter (S) and ortho-positronium formation probability (Io-Ps) appreciably decreased with increased heat treatment times, whereas they barely changed for the film with antioxidant. This, together with the Fourier transform infrared measurements, demonstrated that the variations of S and Io-Ps are caused by the thermal oxidation of PE. The S parameter was found to be sensitive to the early stage of degradation, where the carbonyl concentration is inferred to be lower than 100 ppm. The high sensitivity results from the large positron mobility in PE and from the high positron affinity of oxygen-containing polar groups. This work provides the basis for an application of positron annihilation to sensitive detection of the initial degradation of PE and other nonpolar polymers.

  2. A novel high-sensitivity FBG pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhenhua; Fu, Tao; Leng, Jinsong

    2007-07-01

    A novel pressure sensor based on FBG is designed in this paper. Not only in normal environment, also does it accurately work in water and petrol where other conventional sensors can not work normally. In this paper, the principle of the novel sensor is introduced, and two experiments are further performed: One is keeping the sensor flatly in the gastight silo whose pressure is supplied by an air compressing engine, and the other one is keeping the sensor in liquid. The analysis of the result data demonstrates that the sensor possesses high sensitivity, high linearity, high precision and repeatability. Its experimental linearity and sensitivity approach 0.99858 and 5.35×10 -3MPa -1, respectively. It is also discussed using the sensor to measure the volume in tank.

  3. High-sensitivity three-mode optomechanical transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Fang, Q.; Susmithan, S.; Miao, H.; Ju, L.; Fan, Y.; Blair, D.; Hosken, D. J.; Munch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Slagmolen, B. J. J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 (Australia); Centre for Gravitational Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    Three-mode optomechanical interactions have been predicted to allow the creation of very high sensitivity transducers in which very strong optical self-cooling and strong optomechanical quantum entanglement are predicted. Strong coupling is achieved by engineering a transducer in which both the pump laser and a single signal sideband frequency are resonantly enhanced. Here we demonstrate that very high sensitivity can be achieved in a very simple system consisting of a Fabry-Perot cavity with CO{sub 2} laser thermal tuning. We demonstrate a displacement sensitivity of {approx}1x10{sup -17} m/{radical}(Hz), which is sufficient to observe a thermally excited acoustic mode in a 5.6 kg sapphire mirror with a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 20 dB. It is shown that a measurement sensitivity of {approx}2x10{sup -20} m/{radical}(Hz) limited by the quantum shot noise is achievable with optimization of the cavity parameters.

  4. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  5. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with Unprecedentedly High Photocurrent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Shin, Hee-Won; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Ko, Min Jae; Sul, Soohwan; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The reported photocurrent density (JSC) of PbS quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell was less than 19 mA/cm2 despite the capability to generate 38?mA/cm2, which results from inefficient electron injection and fast charge recombination. Here, we report on a PbS:Hg QD-sensitized solar cell with an unprecedentedly high JSC of 30?mA/cm2. By Hg2+ doping into PbS, JSC is almost doubled with improved stability. Femtosecond transient study confirms that the improved JSC is due to enhanced electron injection and suppressed charge recombination. EXAFS reveals that Pb-S bond is reinforced and structural disorder is reduced by interstitially incorporated Hg2+, which is responsible for the enhanced electron injection, suppressed recombination and stability. Thanks to the extremely high JSC, power conversion efficiency of 5.6% is demonstrated at one sun illumination. PMID:23308343

  6. Results from a High-Sensitivity Search for Cosmic Axions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hagmann; D. Kinion; W. Stoeffl; K. van Bibber; E. Daw; H. Peng; Leslie J. Rosenberg; J. Laveigne; P. Sikivie; N. S. Sullivan; D. B. Tanner; F. Nezrick; Michael S. Turner; D. M. Moltz; J. Powell; N. A. Golubev

    1998-01-01

    We report the first results of a high-sensitivity \\\\(~10-23 W\\\\) search for light halo axions through their conversion to microwave photons. At the 90% confidence level, we exclude a Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov axion of mass 2.9×10-6 to 3.3×10-6 eV as the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy.

  7. Structural Glycomic Analyses at High Sensitivity: A Decade of Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, William R.; Novotny, Milos V.

    2013-06-01

    The field of glycomics has recently advanced in response to the urgent need for structural characterization and quantification of complex carbohydrates in biologically and medically important applications. The recent success of analytical glycobiology at high sensitivity reflects numerous advances in biomolecular mass spectrometry and its instrumentation, capillary and microchip separation techniques, and microchemical manipulations of carbohydrate reactivity. The multimethodological approach appears to be necessary to gain an in-depth understanding of very complex glycomes in different biological systems.

  8. NETD test of high-sensitivity infrared camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingwen Li; Debin Pan; Changcheng Yang; Yan Luo

    2007-01-01

    Infrared camera has more and more application in military, judicature, rescue, industry, hospital and science. Nowadays the NETD (Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference) of high-sensitivity cooled infrared camera is less than 10 mK. If we test the NETD from the analog video output port of infrared camera using 8-bit and 10-bit ADC frame grabber, the NETD accuracy is 7.81 mK and

  9. An embedded high sensitivity navigation receiver for GPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yangchun Shi; Lingwen Zhang; YouBao Liu

    2011-01-01

    A high sensitivity navigation receiver based on FPGA and DSP was presented in this paper, which performed to mitigate cross correlations between multiple satellite signals. The hardware was consisted of RF parts, FPGA and DSP. The core chips were SPARTAN3 and TMS320VC5402, which were adapted to process navigation data and calculate user position. The RF Front-End received the navigation signal

  10. Sensitivity analysis of high temperature spectral emissivity measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselý, Z.; Honnerová, P.; Martan, J.; Honner, M.

    2015-07-01

    Computer model of temperature distribution in the sample in high temperature spectral emissivity measurement method is introduced. Sensitivity analysis is performed using computer model to determine the effect of various measurement method parameters on the sample temperatures. The effects of measured and reference coating thicknesses, measured coating emissivity and sample surface temperature are analyzed. The utilization of temperature difference between reference coating surface and the interface of reference and measured coatings for total emissivity uncertainty of measured coating is demonstrated.

  11. High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang

    2013-07-20

    We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone. PMID:23872750

  12. High sensitive volumetric imaging of renal microcirculation in vivo using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Zhongwei; Jung, Yeongri; Jia, Yali; An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-03-01

    We present a non-invasive, label-free imaging technique called Ultrahigh Sensitive Optical Microangiography (UHSOMAG) for high sensitive volumetric imaging of renal microcirculation. The UHS-OMAG imaging system is based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), which uses a 47000 A-line scan rate CCD camera to perform an imaging speed of 150 frames per second that takes only ~7 seconds to acquire a 3D image. The technique, capable of measuring slow blood flow down to 4 um/s, is sensitive enough to image capillary networks, such as peritubular capillaries and glomerulus within renal cortex. We show superior performance of UHS-OMAG in providing depthresolved volumetric images of rich renal microcirculation. We monitored the dynamics of renal microvasculature during renal ischemia and reperfusion. Obvious reduction of renal microvascular density due to renal ischemia was visualized and quantitatively analyzed. This technique can be helpful for the assessment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which relates to abnormal microvasculature.

  13. Sensitivity to Error Fields in NSTX High Beta Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Menard, Jonathan E.; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Buttery, Richard J.; Sabbagh, Steve A.; Bell, Steve E.; LeBlanc, Benoit P.

    2011-11-07

    It was found that error field threshold decreases for high ? in NSTX, although the density correlation in conventional threshold scaling implies the threshold would increase since higher ? plasmas in our study have higher plasma density. This greater sensitivity to error field in higher ? plasmas is due to error field amplification by plasmas. When the effect of amplification is included with ideal plasma response calculations, the conventional density correlation can be restored and threshold scaling becomes more consistent with low ? plasmas. However, it was also found that the threshold can be significantly changed depending on plasma rotation. When plasma rotation was reduced by non-resonant magnetic braking, the further increase of sensitivity to error field was observed.

  14. Highly sensitive detection of blood by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Samantha; Bertino, Massimo F; Ye, Dexian; White, Lauren S; Seashols, Sarah J

    2013-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy for forensic body fluid analysis has received some attention due to the nondestructive nature and potential application for identification at the crime scene; however, its usage has been limited by low detection sensitivity. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was evaluated for blood identification for forensic applications. Specifically, a SERS-active substrate was fabricated, composed of nickel nanotips coated with Ag nanoparticles. Compared with a conventional substrate, the SERS substrate enhanced Raman scattering by more than two orders of magnitude and allowed blood to be identified to a dilution of 1:100,000. Blood was also successfully detected by swabbing the SERS substrate directly on mock evidence. Most importantly, Raman spectra obtained by swabbing the SERS substrate on blood stains were free of luminescence even when blood was deposited on luminescent fabrics. The nondestructive character, simplicity of sample preparation, and high sensitivity make SERS a prime candidate for field and laboratory-based blood identification. PMID:23488826

  15. High derivatives for fast sensitivity analysis in linear magnetodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Petin, P. [ENSIEG, Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. d`Electrotechnique de Grenoble] [ENSIEG, Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. d`Electrotechnique de Grenoble; [FRMASOFT+CSI, Lyon (France); Coulomb, J.L. [ENSIEG, Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. d`Electrotechnique de Grenoble] [ENSIEG, Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Lab. d`Electrotechnique de Grenoble; Conraux, P. [FRAMASOFT+CSI, Lyon (France)] [FRAMASOFT+CSI, Lyon (France)

    1997-03-01

    In this article, the authors present a method of sensitivity analysis using high derivatives and Taylor development. The principle is to find a polynomial approximation of the finite elements solution towards the sensitivity parameters. While presenting the method, they explain why this method is applicable with special parameters only. They applied it on a magnetodynamic problem, simple enough to be able to find the analytical solution with a formal calculus tool. They then present the implementation and the good results obtained with the polynomial, first by comparing the derivatives themselves, then by comparing the approximate solution with the theoretical one. After this validation, the authors present results on a real 2D application and they underline the possibilities of reuse in other fields of physics.

  16. Development of High Efficient Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2011-03-01

    We are developing a low cost and easy process to fabricate double-layer porous metal oxide thin films on flexible substrates for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. }The research addresses on the formulation of Ti O2 precursor to create smooth and continuous porous thin films on large size plastic or metal foil substrates enabling excellent adhesion, robust mechanics, and chemical stability. A second layer built on the underline porous nanocrystalline Ti O2 thin films are primarily used as bedding to receive more organic sensitizers. A variety of blending of polymer and Ti alkoxide precursors at different concentrations has been studied. After depositing the mixture on the substrates such as Al foils, samples are annealed to remove polymer residues leading to a porous nanocrystalline structure. Photo-electricity conversion efficiency of the fabricated solar cells will be tested under one sun illumination. Acknowledge support from NASA Seed Grant and NSF MU-ADVANCE.

  17. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The work done on this project focused on two LAMPF experiments. The MEGA experiment is a high-sensitivity search for the lepton family number violating decay mu yields e(gamma) to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = (mu yields e(gamma))/(mu e(nu)(sub mu)(nu)(sub e)) approximately 10(exp -13), will be over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The second is a precision measurement of the Michel (rho) parameter from the positron energy spectrum of mu yields e(nu)(sub mu)(nu)(sub e) to test the predictions V-A theory of weak interactions. In this experiment, the uncertainty in the measurement of the Michel (rho) parameter is expected to be a factor of three lower than the present reported value. The detectors are operational, and data taking has begun.

  18. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Koetke, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    The work done on this project was focussed mainly on LAMPF experiment E969 known as the MEGA experiment, a high sensitivity search for the lepton family number violating decay {mu} {yields} e{gamma} to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = ({mu}{yields}e{gamma})/({mu}{yields}e {nu}{sub {mu}} {nu}{sub e}) {approx}10{sup {minus}13} is over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The work done on MEGA during this period was divided between that done at Valparaiso University and that done at LAMPF. In addition, some contributions were made to a proposal to the LAMPF PAC to perform a precision measurement of the Michel {rho} parameter, described below.

  19. High sensitivity tests of the standard model for electroweak interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetke, D. D.; Manweiler, R. W.; Shirvelstanislaus, T. D.

    The work done on this project was focused on two LAMPF experiments. The MEGA experiment, a high-sensitivity search for the lepton-family-number-violating decay mu yields e(gamma) to a sensitivity which, measured in terms of the branching ratio, BR = (mu yields e(gamma))/(mu yields e v(sub mu) v(sub e)) approximately 10(sup -13), is over two orders of magnitude better than previously reported values. The second is a precision measurement of the Michel rho parameter from the positron energy spectrum of mu yields e v(sub mu) v(sub e) to test the V-A theory of weak interactions. The uncertainty in the measurement of the Michel rho parameter is expected to be a factor of three lower than the present reported value.

  20. FRET-Enabled Optical modulation for High Sensitivity Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Chris I.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Khalil, Andrew M.; Hull, Nathan P.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer is utilized to engineer donor photophysics for facile signal amplification and selective fluorescence recovery from high background. This is generalized such that many different fluorophores can be used in optical modulation schemes to drastically improve fluorescence imaging sensitivity. Dynamic, simultaneous, direct excitation of the acceptor brightens and optically modulates higher energy donor emission. The externally-imposed modulation waveform enables selective donor fluorescence extraction through demodulation. By incorporating an acceptor with significant, spectrally-shifted, dark state population, necessary excitation intensities are quite low and agree well with simulated enhancements. Enhancement vs. modulation frequency directly yields dark state lifetimes in a simple ensemble measurement. Using the long-lived Cy5 dark state in conjunction with Cy3 donors, we demonstrate image extraction from a large background to yield ?10-fold sensitivity improvements through Synchronously Amplified Fluorescence Image Recovery (SAFIRe). PMID:20397664

  1. Polarization mode beating techniques for high-sensitivity intracavity sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Garcia, Andrea

    Several industries, including semiconductor, space, defense, medical, chemical and homeland security, demand precise and accurate measurements in the nanometer and sub-nanometer scale. Optical interferometers have been widely investigated due to its dynamic-range, non-contact and high-precision features. Although commercially available interferometers can have sub-nanometer resolution, the practical accuracy exceeds the nanometer range. The fast development of nanotechnology requires more sensitive, reliable, compact and lower cost alternatives than those in existence. This work demonstrates a compact, versatile, accurate and cost-effective fiber laser sensor based on intracavity polarization mode beating (PMB) techniques for monitoring intracavity phase changes with very high sensitivity. Fiber resonators support two orthogonal polarization modes that can behave as two independent lasing channels within the cavity. The fiber laser incorporates an intracavity polarizing beamsplitter that allows for adjusting independently the polarization modes. The heterodyne detection of the laser output produces a beating (PMB) signal, whose frequency is a function of the phase difference between the polarization modes. The optical phase difference is transferred from the optical frequency to a much lower frequency and thus electronic methods can be used to obtain very precise measurements. Upon changing the pathlength of one mode, changes iu the PMB frequency can be effectively measured. Furthermore, since the polarization nodes share the same cavity, the PMB technique provides a simple means to achieve suppression of common mode noise and laser source instabilities. Frequency changes of the PMB signal are evaluated as a function of displacement, intracavity pressure and air density. Refractive index changes of 10 -9 and sub-nanometer displacement measurements are readily attained. Increased refractive index sensitivity and sub-picometer displacement can be reached owing to the high finesse and resolution of the system. Experimental changes in the refractive index of air as a function of pressure are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. An alternative fiber laser configuration, which incorporates non-reciprocal elements, allows measuring the optical activity of enantiomeric mixtures using PMB techniques. The sensitivity attained through PMB techniques demonstrates a potential method for ultra-sensitive biochemical sensing and explosive detection.

  2. Development of an underwater high sensitivity cherenkov detector: Sea urchin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerini, Ugo; McGibney, Donald; Roberts, Arthur; Winston, Roland

    1982-12-01

    The need for a high gain, high sensitivity Cherenkov light sensor to be used in a deep underwater muon and neutrino detector (DUMAND) array has led to the design of the Sea Urchin detector. In this design a spherical photocathode PMTis optically coupled through a glass hemisphere to a large number of glass spines, each of which is filled with a wavelength-shifting (WLS) solution of a high quantum efficiency phosphor. The Cherenkov radiation is observed in the spine, isotropically re-radiated at a longer wavelength, and a fraction of the fluorescent light is internally reflected in the spine, and guided to the photomultiplier concentrically located in the glass hemisphere. Experiments measuring the optical characteristics of the spines and computer programs simulating light transformation and detection cross sections are described. Overall optical gains in the range 5-10 are achieved. The WLS solution is inexpensive, and may have other applications.

  3. Highly stretchable and sensitive unidirectional strain sensor via laser carbonization.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Rahim; Ochoa, Manuel; Yu, Wuyang; Ziaie, Babak

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and low-cost technique for fabricating highly stretchable (up to 100% strain) and sensitive (gauge factor of up to 20?000) strain sensors. Our technique is based on transfer and embedment of carbonized patterns created through selective laser pyrolization of thermoset polymers, such as polyimide, into elastomeric substrates (e.g., PDMS or Ecoflex). Embedded carbonized materials are composed of partially aligned graphene and carbon nanotube (CNT) particles and show a sharp directional anisotropy, which enables the fabrication of extremely robust, highly stretchable, and unidirectional strain sensors. Raman spectrum of pyrolized carbon regions reveal that under optimal laser settings, one can obtain highly porous carbon nano/microparticles with sheet resistances as low as 60 ?/?. Using this technique, we fabricate an instrumented latex glove capable of measuring finger motion in real-time. PMID:25686021

  4. High refractive index and temperature sensitivity LPGs for high temperature operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, I. M.; Gouveia, C.; Jana, Surnimal; Bera, Susanta; Baptista, J. M.; Moreira, Paulo; Biwas, Palas; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Jorge, Pedro A. S.

    2013-11-01

    A fiber optic sensor for high sensitivity refractive index and temperature measurement able to withstand temperature up to 450 °C is reported. Two identical LPG gratings were fabricated, whereas one was coated with a high refractive index (~1.78) sol-gel thin film in order to increase its sensitivity to the external refractive index. The two sensors were characterized and compared in refractive index and temperature. Sensitivities of 1063 nm/RIU (1.338 - 1.348) and 260 pm/°C were achieved for refractive index and temperature, respectively.

  5. High-sensitivity molecular organometallic resist for EUV (MORE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, James; Murphy, Michael; Del Re, Ryan; Sortland, Miriam; Dousharm, Levi; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed organometallic carboxylate compounds [RnM(O2CR')2] capable of acting as negativetone EUV resists. Overall, the best and fastest resists contain antimony, are pentavalent and the carboxylate group contains a polymerizable olefin (e.g. acrylate, methacrylate or styrenecarboxylate). Evidence suggests that high sensitivity is achieved through the polymerization of olefins in the exposed region. We have performed a systematic sensitivity study of molecules of the type RnM(O2CR')2 where we have studied seven R groups, four main group metals (M), and three polymerizable carboxylate groups (O2CR'). We found that the greatest predictor of sensitivity of the RnSb(O2CR')2 resists is their level of polymerizable olefins. We mathematically define the polymerizable olefin loading (POL) as the ratio of the number of olefins vs. the number of non-hydrogen atoms. Linear and log plots of Emax vs. POL for a variety of molecules of the type R3Sb(O2CR')2 lend insight into the behaviour of these resists.

  6. Interface engineering of a highly sensitive solution processed organic photodiode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Chan Eon; Chung, Dae Sung

    2014-09-14

    We report on tuning of the interfacial properties of a highly sensitive organic photodiode by introducing a buffer layer between the anode and the semiconductor layer. The effects of different buffer layers consisting of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM), PEDOT:PSS, and pentacene on the morphology and crystallinity of the upper-deposited bulk heterojunction semiconductor layer are carefully analyzed combined with electrical analysis. The active layer is controlled to be nearly homogeneous and to have low crystallinity by using a SAM or PEDOT:PSS buffer layers, whereas a highly crystalline morphology is realized by using the pentacene buffer layer. When exposed to light pulses, the external quantum efficiency and thus the photocurrent are slightly higher for the PEDOT:PSS-based photodiode; however the dark current is the lowest for the pentacene-based photodiode. We discuss the origin of the high sensitivity (a detectivity of 1.3 × 10(12) Jones and a linear dynamic range of 95 dB) of the pentacene-based photodiode, particularly in terms of the morphology-driven low dark current. PMID:25069515

  7. High-sensitivity piezoelectric perovskites for magnetoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, Harvey; Algueró, Miguel; Del Campo, Rubén; Vila, Eladio; Ramos, Pablo; Dollé, Mickael; Romaguera-Barcelay, Yonny; Pérez De La Cruz, Javier; Castro, Alicia

    2015-02-01

    A highly topical set of perovskite oxides are high-sensitivity piezoelectric ones, among which Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between ferroelectric rhombohedral and tetragonal polymorphic phases is reckoned a case study. Piezoelectric ceramics are used in a wide range of mature, electromechanical transduction technologies like piezoelectric sensors, actuators and ultrasound generation, to name only a few examples, and more recently for demonstrating novel applications like magnetoelectric composites. In this case, piezoelectric perovskites are combined with magnetostrictive materials to provide magnetoelectricity as a product property of the piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism of the component phases. Interfaces play a key issue, for they control the mechanical coupling between the piezoresponsive phases. We present here main results of our investigation on the suitability of the high sensitivity MPB piezoelectric perovskite BiScO3–PbTiO3 in combination with ferrimagnetic spinel oxides for magnetoelectric composites. Emphasis has been put on the processing at low temperature to control reactions and interdiffusion between the two oxides. The role of the grain size effects is extensively addressed.

  8. High sensitivity charge amplifier for ion beam uniformity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  9. Ultra high resolution ultra high sensitive optical micro-angiography based on super continuum light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Lin; Qin, Jia; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time utilizing a super continuum light source to achieve ultra high sensitive Optical Micro-Angiography (UHS-OMAG) system. The broad band light with central wavelength around 800nm, emitted from the super continuum light source, could provide a ~2?m coherence gate for the system. Based on a fast CMOS camera, we could successfully develop a high speed (~70 kHz line rate) Fourier Domain Optical coherence tomography system. Applying the ultra high sensitive OMAG algorithm onto the system, we could visualize blood vessel networks buried within the tissue bed in a high resolution and high sensitivity mode. The modality is performed on imaging the human finger nail fold and the mouse pinna to obtain both high resolution structure image and detailed blood perfusion map. The excellent performance shows a great potential of our system in future biological imaging application.

  10. Design and optimization of a high-speed, high-sensitivity, spinning disk confocal microscopy system.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Ryan G; Sisan, Daniel R; Urbach, Jeffrey S

    2008-01-01

    We describe the principles, design, and systems integration of a flexible, high-speed, high-sensitivity, high-resolution confocal spinning disk microscopy (SDCM) system. We present several artifacts unique to high-speed SDCM along with techniques to minimize them. We show example experimental results from a specific implementation capable of generating 3-D image stacks containing 30 2-D slices at 30 stacks per second. This implementation also includes optics for differential interference contrast (DIC), phase, and bright-field imaging, as well as an optical trap with sensitive force and position measurement. PMID:19021437

  11. Highly Sensitive Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Directly from Patient Blood

    PubMed Central

    Banada, Padmapriya P.; Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Shah, Darshini; Burday, Michele; Mazzella, Fermina M.; Alland, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs) can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing – polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform as a model diagnostic system. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD) of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU) per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs), plasma or whole blood), using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive) as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs) (71% samples positive) or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive). Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75–0.96) and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92–1). Conclusions We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture. PMID:22363564

  12. Coumarin-bearing triarylamine sensitizers with high molar extinction coefficient for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Changjian; Gao, Jianrong; Cui, Yanhong; Li, Ting; Han, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Coumarin unit is introduced into triarylamine and three organic sensitizers are designed and synthesized with triarylamine bearing coumarin moiety as the electron donor, conjugated system containing thiophene unit as the ?-bridge, and cyanoacetic acid moiety as the electron acceptor. The light-harvesting capabilities and photovoltaic performance of these dyes are investigated systematically with the comparison of different ?-bridges. High molar extinction coefficients are observed in these triarylamine dyes and the photocurrent and photovoltage are increased with the introduction of another thiophene or benzene. Optimal photovoltaic performance (? = 6.24%, Voc = 690 mV, Jsc = 14.33 mA cm-2, and ff = 0.63) is observed in the DSSC based on dye with thiophene-phenyl unit as the ?-conjugated bridge under 100 mW cm-2 simulated AM 1.5 G solar irradiation.

  13. High Sensitivity Micro-Elastometry: Applications in Blood Coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gongting; Krebs, Charles R.; Lin, Feng-Chang; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Highly sensitive methods for the assessment of clot structure can aid in our understanding of coagulation disorders and their risk factors. Rapid and simple clot diagnostic systems are also needed for directing treatment in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. Here we demonstrate a method for micro-elastometry, named Resonant Acoustic Spectroscopy with Optical Vibrometry (RASOV), which measures the clot elastic modulus (CEM) from the intrinsic resonant frequency of a clot inside a microwell. We observed a high correlation between the CEM of human blood measured by RASOV and a commercial Thromboelastograph (TEG), (R=0.966). Unlike TEG, RASOV requires only 150 ?L of sample and offers improved repeatability. Since CEM is known to primarily depend upon fibrin content and network structure, we investigated the CEM of purified clots formed with varying amounts of fibrinogen and thrombin. We found that RASOV was sensitive to changes of fibrinogen content (0.5–6 mg/mL), as well as to the amount of fibrinogen converted to fibrin during clot formation. We then simulated plasma hypercoagulability via hyperfibrinogenemia by spiking whole blood to 150% and 200% of normal fibrinogen levels, and subsequently found that RASOV could detect hyperfibrinogenemia-induced changes in CEM and distinguish these conditions from normal blood. PMID:23649979

  14. Flat Panel Detectors for High Sensitivity X-ray Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Robert

    2004-03-01

    Flat panel, amorphous silicon transistor arrays are changing the technology for medical x-ray imaging. New materials, devices and structures can increase the performance of these radiation image sensors, extending the range of applications. We show that higher sensitivity is achieved with polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors based on the high atomic number materials, HgI2 and PbI_2. These detectors can operate near the theoretical sensitivity, and achieve single photon detection, although with low energy resolution. Including an amplifier in each pixel improves the signal-to-noise, and is accomplished using the higher device performance of laser recrystallized polysilicon. A pixel-level source follower amplifier is shown to add enough gain to overcome other noise sources. Another recent development is the use of a flat panel transistor array as the collection electrode for a gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector. The high gain of a GEM allows detection of the ionization track of a single x-ray photon, and forms the basis for x-ray polarization detection.

  15. Highly Sensitive Detection of Urinary Cadmium to Assess Personal Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Argun, Avni A.; Banks, Ashley; Merlen, Gwendolynne; Tempelman, Linda A.; Becker, Michael F.; Schuelke, Thomas; Dweik, Badawi

    2013-01-01

    A series of Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) ultramicroelectrode arrays were fabricated and investigated for their performance as electrochemical sensors to detect trace level metals such as cadmium. The steady-state diffusion behavior of these sensors was validated using cyclic voltammetry followed by electrochemical detection of cadmium in water and in human urine to demonstrate high sensitivity (>200 ?A/ppb/cm2) and low background current (<4 nA). When an array of ultramicroelectrodes was positioned with optimal spacing, these BDD sensors showed a sigmoidal diffusion behavior. They also demonstrated high accuracy with linear dose dependence for quantification of cadmium in a certified reference river water sample from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as well as in a human urine sample spiked with 0.25–1 ppb cadmium. PMID:23561905

  16. Sensitivity study of reliable, high-throughput resolution metricsfor photoresists

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2007-07-30

    The resolution of chemically amplified resists is becoming an increasing concern, especially for lithography in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regime. Large-scale screening and performance-based down-selection is currently underway to identify resist platforms that can support shrinking feature sizes. Resist screening efforts, however, are hampered by the absence of reliable resolution metrics that can objectively quantify resist resolution in a high-throughput fashion. Here we examine two high-throughput metrics for resist resolution determination. After summarizing their details and justifying their utility, we characterize the sensitivity of both metrics to two of the main experimental uncertainties associated with lithographic exposure tools, namely: limited focus control and limited knowledge of optical aberrations. For an implementation at EUV wavelengths, we report aberration and focus limited error bars in extracted resolution of {approx} 1.25 nm RMS for both metrics making them attractive candidates for future screening and down-selection efforts.

  17. Dynamics of Pulsating and Cellular Flames Using a High-Speed, High Sensitivity Camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Gorman

    2002-01-01

    A high-speed, high sensitivity camera has been assembled to record the spatiotemporal dynamics of pulsating and cellular flames at frequencies above 15 Hz, the Nyquist frequency of standard videotape. A high-speed CCD camera has been equipped with an image intensifier to record the dynamics of low-intensity, high frequency pulsating flames and to combine both electronic and video data on each

  18. On chip, high-sensitivity thermal sensor based on high-Q polydimethylsiloxane-coated microresonator

    E-print Network

    Li, Bei-Bei; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Jiang, Xue-Feng; Li, Yan; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-01-01

    A high-sensitivity thermal sensing is demonstrated by coating a layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the surface of a silica toroidal microresonator on a silicon wafer. Possessing high-Q whispering gallery modes (WGMs), the PDMS-coated microresonator is highly sensitive to the temperature change of the surroundings. We find that, when the PDMS layer becomes thicker, the WGM experiences a transition from red- to blue-shift with temperature increasing due to the negative thermal-optic coefficient of PDMS. The measured sensitivity (0.151 nm/K) is one order of magnitude higher than pure silica microcavity sensors. The ultra-high resolution of the thermal sensor is also analyzed to reach 10-4 K.

  19. High sensitivity tracking of CD-SEM performance: QSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, S.; Huang, Jaffee; Yushmanov, P.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of CD-SEMs directly affects the measured values of critical dimensions (CDs) at the time of their measurement. Tracking the performance of CD-SEMs is necessary to establish trust in their results and provide guidance for preventive maintenance and tune-ups. When the measured CDs are out of specification in manufacturing, it is crucial to determine whether this is due to process variation or the metrology tool itself. Multiple methods that use linewidth measurements have been employed thus far; however, they suffer from linewidth variations on the wafer, as well as from variations of line edge and linewidth roughness. Here, we report a method that is capable of providing a quantitative extraction of the SEM performance based on advanced algorithms. The method is independent of linewidth, line edge roughness and linewidth roughness, and has high sensitivity. This software, QSEM, was developed to automatically evaluate image quality and assign a value to that quality. The image quality value is based on multiple factors such as noise, sharpness, analysis of histograms, and contrast. The sensitivity of the software was evaluated; a good correlation between image quality results and linewidth variation due to SEM performance was established. Using QSEM to analyze SEM images allows the performance of CDSEMs to be tracked for proper calibration and preventive maintenance, as well as to resolve the dispute between failure in the process or the metrology.

  20. Highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of pyrogallol compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwal, Shamsa; Fu, Xiaohong; Su, Xingguang

    2009-12-01

    A highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescent method for the direct determination of pyrogallol compounds has been developed. Proposed method is based on the enhanced effect of pyrogallol compounds on the chemiluminescence signals of KMnO 4-H 2O 2 system in slightly alkaline medium. Three important pyrogallol compounds, pyrogallic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid, have been detected by this method, and the possible mechanism of the CL reaction is also discussed. The proposed method is simple, convenient, rapid (60 samples h -1), and sensitive, has a linear range of 8 × 10 -10 mol L -1 to 1 × 10 -5 mol L -1, for pyrogallic acid, with a detection limit of 6 × 10 -11 mol L -1, 4 × 10 -8 mol L -1 to 5 × 10 -3 mol L -1 for gallic acid with a detection limit of 9 × 10 -10 mol L -1, and 8 × 10 -8 mol L -1 to 5 × 10 -2 mol L -1 for tannic acid, with a detection limit of 2 × 10 -9 mol L -1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 15) was 0.8, 1.1 and 1.3% for 5 × 10 -6 mol L -1 pyrogallic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of pyrogallol compounds in tea and coffee samples.

  1. Luminescent Lanthanide Reporters for High-Sensitivity Novel Bioassays.

    SciTech Connect

    Anstey, Mitchell; Fruetel, Julia A.; Foster, Michael E.; Hayden, Carl C.; Buckley, Heather L.; Arnold, John

    2013-09-01

    Biological imaging and assay technologies rely on fluorescent organic dyes as reporters for a number of interesting targets and processes. However, limitations of organic dyes such as small Stokes shifts, spectral overlap of emission signals with native biological fluorescence background, and photobleaching have all inhibited the development of highly sensitive assays. To overcome the limitations of organic dyes for bioassays, we propose to develop lanthanide-based luminescent dyes and demonstrate them for molecular reporting applications. This relatively new family of dyes was selected for their attractive spectral and chemical properties. Luminescence is imparted by the lanthanide atom and allows for relatively simple chemical structures that can be tailored to the application. The photophysical properties offer unique features such as narrow and non-overlapping emission bands, long luminescent lifetimes, and long wavelength emission, which enable significant sensitivity improvements over organic dyes through spectral and temporal gating of the luminescent signal.Growth in this field has been hindered due to the necessary advanced synthetic chemistry techniques and access to experts in biological assay development. Our strategy for the development of a new lanthanide-based fluorescent reporter system is based on chelation of the lanthanide metal center using absorbing chromophores. Our first strategy involves %22Click%22 chemistry to develop 3-fold symmetric chelators and the other involves use of a new class of tetrapyrrole ligands called corroles. This two-pronged approach is geared towards the optimization of chromophores to enhance light output.

  2. High sensitivity, low profile neutron detector for safeguards measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, H.S.; Abraham, J.R.; Thompson, R.C.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A neutron detector has been constructed and tested at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the purpose of making fast, high sensitivity measurements of neutron emitters in portal applications. The system is based upon glass fiber optic scintillators loaded with lithium-6 and operated to detect thermal neutrons. Due to their compact size. physical flexibility, freedom from microphonic pickup, and complete lack of environmental and safety concerns, these fibers are very suitable for some applications. The electronics needed for these fibers is somewhat more complex than for helium-3 proportional counters, but the entire electronics package (including the controlling computer) has been shrunk into a space of 20 {times} 25 {times} 2 cm. The prototype sensor is about 180 {times} 60 {times} 7 cm, but a final design now under construction measures 200 {times} 28 {times} 2.54 cm. The new, smaller detectors will be capable of ganging to achieve any needed sensitivity and will each weigh about 16 kg. The principles of operation of the fiber will be discussed as will the operational mode of the detector.

  3. Simultaneous determination of didanosine and its amino acid prodrug, valdidanosine by hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: Application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongtian Yan; Jin Sun; Jinling Wang; Youjun Xu; Yannan Chang; Ping Meng; Meng Zhu; Qiang Fu; Yongbing Sun; Zhonggui He

    2010-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS\\/MS) method with hydrophilic interaction chromatography has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of didanosine and valdidanosine (L-valine amino acid ester prodrug of didanosine) in rat plasma. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) column was employed to extract the analytes from rat plasma, with high extraction recovery (>85%) for both didanosine

  4. Highly sensitive hot electron bolometer based on disordered graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qi; Gao, Teng; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Yi; Chen, Jianhui; Liu, Gerui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan; Wu, Xiaosong; Yu, Dapeng

    2013-12-01

    A bolometer is a device that makes an electrical resistive response to the electromagnetic radiation resulted from a raise of temperature due to heating. The combination of the extremely weak electron-phonon interactions along with its small electron heat capacity makes graphene an ideal material for applications in ultra-fast and sensitive hot electron bolometer. However, a major issue is that the resistance of pristine graphene weakly depends on the electronic temperature. We propose using disordered graphene to obtain a strongly temperature dependent resistance. The measured electrical responsivity of the disordered graphene bolometer reaches 6 × 106 V/W at 1.5 K, corresponding to an optical responsivity of 1.6 × 105 V/W. The deduced electrical noise equivalent power is 1.2 , corresponding to the optical noise equivalent power of 44 . The minimal device structure and no requirement for high mobility graphene make a step forward towards the applications of graphene hot electron bolometers.

  5. A wavelength modulation system for highly sensitive absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iwamitsu, K; Aihara, S; Shimamoto, T; Fujii, A; Akai, I

    2012-07-01

    We developed a newly designed wavelength modulation (WM) system for highly sensitive absorption spectroscopy. In our system, the WM is realized by yawing an output mirror in a monochromator. In order to control an amplitude ?? of the WM in a wide range, we employed a forced vibration of a permanent magnet driven by a magnetic field of a solenoid. Our system has an advantage of that the WM amplitude ?? can be adjusted in extensively wide range from 0.08 nm to 11 nm only by tuning a driving frequency of the applying current to the solenoid, because we utilize a resonance phenomenon of the forced vibration for adjustment of the WM amplitude. By using our system, we measured WM absorption spectra of a Cu(2)O thin film and found clearly spectral structures for weak 2-4P excitonic resonances in the WM absorption spectra. PMID:22852665

  6. A novel, highly sensitive method for assessing gap junctional coupling.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mingli; Li, Yaqiao; Paul, David L

    2013-10-30

    To assess gap junctional intercellular communication we have developed a tracer-based methodology which is both highly sensitive and potentially adaptable for in vivo measurements. We found that injection of serotonin revealed significantly more intercellular communication than that injection of the most permeant synthetic tracer currently in use, neurobiotin. Furthermore, mechanical tracer loading steps can be replaced by transfection with human serotonin transporter and the inclusion of serotonin in the medium. Tracer and transporter are detected using immunocytochemical techniques and the presence of cells that are tracer-positive but transporter-negative indicates junctional communication. Tracer loading in vivo using transgenesis, electroporation or viral transduction to direct expression of transporter should be more easily accomplished than with mechanical loading methods. PMID:23958747

  7. Highly sensitive hot electron bolometer based on disordered graphene

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qi; Gao, Teng; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Yi; Chen, Jianhui; Liu, Gerui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan; Wu, Xiaosong; Yu, Dapeng

    2013-01-01

    A bolometer is a device that makes an electrical resistive response to the electromagnetic radiation resulted from a raise of temperature due to heating. The combination of the extremely weak electron-phonon interactions along with its small electron heat capacity makes graphene an ideal material for applications in ultra-fast and sensitive hot electron bolometer. However, a major issue is that the resistance of pristine graphene weakly depends on the electronic temperature. We propose using disordered graphene to obtain a strongly temperature dependent resistance. The measured electrical responsivity of the disordered graphene bolometer reaches 6 × 106?V/W at 1.5?K, corresponding to an optical responsivity of 1.6 × 105?V/W. The deduced electrical noise equivalent power is 1.2 , corresponding to the optical noise equivalent power of 44?. The minimal device structure and no requirement for high mobility graphene make a step forward towards the applications of graphene hot electron bolometers. PMID:24346418

  8. Highly sensitive restriction enzyme assay and analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Lam, Liza; Iino, Ryota; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2008-08-01

    Biological assays at the single molecule level are crucial to fundamental studies of DNA-protein mechanisms. In order to cater for high throughput applications, one area of immense research potential is single-molecule bioassays where miniaturized devices are developed to perform rapid and effective biological reactions and analyses. With the success of various emerging technologies for engineering miniaturized structures down to the nanoscale level, supported by specialized equipment for detection, many investigations in the field of life science that were once thought impossible can now be actively explored. In this review, the significance of downscaling to the single-molecule level is firstly presented in selected examples, with the focus placed on restriction enzyme assays. To determine the effectiveness of single-molecule restriction enzyme reactions, simple and direct analytical methods based on DNA stretching have often been reliably employed. DNA stretching can be realized based on a number of working principles related to the physical forces exerted on the DNA samples. We then discuss two examples of a nanochannel system and a microchamber system where single-molecule restriction enzyme digestion and DNA stretching have been integrated, which possess prospective capabilities of developing into highly sensitive and high-throughput restriction enzyme assays. Finally, we take a brief look at the general trends in technological development in this field by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of performing assays at bulk, microscale and single-molecule levels. PMID:18427787

  9. A new porphyrin sensitizer with phenolic binding group for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liguo; Wang, Hongjie; Wang, Shuo; Wen, Liping; Zhai, Jin; Wei, Tianxin

    2014-12-01

    A novel zinc porphyrin (5,10,15-tri-dodecoxyphenyl-20-(4-hydroxyphenyl-azo-benzenyl)-porphyrinatozinc (tdhab-ZnP)) with benzenyl-azo-phenolic group, able to adsorb on the nanocrystalline-TiO2 film, has been synthesized. We constructed a dye-sensitized solar cell based on the nanocrystalline-TiO2 hierarchical structure film, with a power conversion efficiency of 4.15 % and a high current density of 14 mA/cm2 under AM 1.5 irradiation. UV-Vis absorption spectra measurements indicated that the tdhab-ZnP molecules formed a charge transfer complex with TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) through the phenolic group. Cyclic voltammetry measurement showed that the charge separation resulting from the tdhab-ZnP excited singlet state to the conduction band (CB) of TiO2 and charge shifting from the I-/I{3/-} couple to the porphyrin radical cation were thermodynamically feasible.

  10. Determination of nine environmental phenols in urine by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjian; Zhu, Pengfei; Xu, Bin; Zhao, Rencheng; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Xiaojiao; Tang, Rong; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Wang, Shoulin; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to determine nine environmental phenols, including bisphenol A, 2,3,4-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxyphenylether), 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol, 4-n-nolyphenol and benzophenone-3 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone) in human urine using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS). The analytes were extracted and preconcentrated with solid-phase extraction, and then quantified with UPLC-electrospray ionization (negative ion mode)-MS-MS using multiple reaction monitoring mode. Limits of detection of the nine phenols ranged from 0.02 to 0.90 ng/mL. This method was further validated by the determination of phenols in 325 human urine samples that generated data regarding the exposure of various phenols to Chinese adults without occupational exposure to phenols. PMID:22989423

  11. Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers by UPLC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a structurally complex and bioactive group of tannins. Detailed analysis of PA concentration, composition, and structure typically requires the use of one or more time-consuming analytical methods. For example, the commonly employed thiolysis and phloroglucinolysis method...

  12. Depletion of Urinary Zilpaterol Residues in Horses as Measured by ELISA and UPLC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three horses were dosed with dietary zilpaterol and the urine concentration measured from withdrawal day 0 to withdrawal day 21. The analyses were carried out using both enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple-quadrupole-tandem mass spect...

  13. High-sensitivity CCD-based X-ray detector.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Walter C; Stewart, Alexander; Stanton, Martin; Naday, Istvan; Ingersoll, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The detector is designed for imaging measurements requiring relatively high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. The detector can discriminate single X-ray photons, yet has the wide dynamic range ( approximately 10000:1) associated with integrating detectors. A GdO2S2 phosphor screen converts the incoming X-ray image into an optical image. The optical image is coupled (without demagnification) to the CCD image sensor using a fiber optic faceplate. The CCD (Philips Semiconductors) has an area of 4.9 x 8.6 cm with 4000 x 7000 12 microm pixels. A single 12 keV X-ray photon produces a signal of 100 e-. With 2 x 2 pixel binning, the total noise per 24 microm pixel in a 100 s image is approximately 30 e- the detective quantum efficiency is >0.6 at 1 X-ray photon per pixel, and the full image can be read out in <4 s. The spatial resolution is 50 microm. The CCD readout system is fully computer-controlled, allowing flexible operation in time-resolved experiments. The detector has been characterized using visible-light images, X-ray images and time-resolved muscle diffraction measurements. PMID:11779944

  14. Comparing standard Bonner spheres and high-sensitivity Bonner cylinders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Wei; Yuan, Ming-Chen; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2014-10-01

    Standard Bonner spheres and proposed high-sensitivity Bonner cylinders were calibrated in a neutron calibration room, using a (252)Cf source. The Bonner sphere system consists of 11 polyethylene (PE) spheres of various diameters and 4 extended spheres that comprise embedded metal shells. Similar to the design of Bonner spheres, a set of Bonner cylinders was assembled using a large cylindrical (3)He tube as the central probe, which was wrapped using various thicknesses of PE. A layer of lead was employed inside one of the PE cylinders to increase the detection efficiency of high-energy neutrons. The central neutron probe used in the Bonner cylinders exhibited an efficiency of ?17.9 times higher than that of the Bonner spheres. However, compared with the Bonner spheres, the Bonner cylinders are not fully symmetric in their geometry, exhibiting angular dependence in their responses to incoming neutrons. Using a series of calculations and measurements, this study presents a systematic comparison between Bonner spheres and cylinders in terms of their response functions, detection efficiencies, angular dependences and spectrum unfolding. PMID:24366247

  15. Accelerated Sensitivity Analysis in High-Dimensional Stochastic Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A.; Pantazis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Existing sensitivity analysis approaches are not able to handle efficiently stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters and species, which are typical in the modeling and simulation of complex biochemical phenomena. In this paper, a two-step strategy for parametric sensitivity analysis for such systems is proposed, exploiting advantages and synergies between two recently proposed sensitivity analysis methodologies for stochastic dynamics. The first method performs sensitivity analysis of the stochastic dynamics by means of the Fisher Information Matrix on the underlying distribution of the trajectories; the second method is a reduced-variance, finite-difference, gradient-type sensitivity approach relying on stochastic coupling techniques for variance reduction. Here we demonstrate that these two methods can be combined and deployed together by means of a new sensitivity bound which incorporates the variance of the quantity of interest as well as the Fisher Information Matrix estimated from the first method. The first step of the proposed strategy labels sensitivities using the bound and screens out the insensitive parameters in a controlled manner. In the second step of the proposed strategy, a finite-difference method is applied only for the sensitivity estimation of the (potentially) sensitive parameters that have not been screened out in the first step. Results on an epidermal growth factor network with fifty parameters and on a protein homeostasis with eighty parameters demonstrate that the proposed strategy is able to quickly discover and discard the insensitive parameters and in the remaining potentially sensitive parameters it accurately estimates the sensitivities. The new sensitivity strategy can be several times faster than current state-of-the-art approaches that test all parameters, especially in “sloppy” systems. In particular, the computational acceleration is quantified by the ratio between the total number of parameters over the number of the sensitive parameters. PMID:26161544

  16. Highly sensitive and multiplexed platforms for allergy diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, Margo R.

    Allergy is a disorder of the immune system caused by an immune response to otherwise harmless environmental allergens. Currently 20% of the US population is allergic and 90% of pediatric patients and 60% of adult patients with asthma have allergies. These percentages have increased by 18.5% in the past decade, with predicted similar trends for the future. Here we design sensitive, multiplexed platforms to detect allergen-specific IgE using the Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS) for various clinical settings. A microarray platform for allergy diagnosis allows for testing of specific IgE sensitivity to a multitude of allergens, while requiring only small volumes of patient blood sample. However, conventional fluorescent microarray technology is limited by i) the variation of probe immobilization, which hinders the ability to make quantitative, assertive, and statistically relevant conclusions necessary in immunodiagnostics and ii) the use of fluorophore labels, which is not suitable for some clinical applications due to the tendency of fluorophores to stick to blood particulates and require daily calibration methods. This calibrated fluorescence enhancement (CaFE) method integrates the low magnification modality of IRIS with enhanced fluorescence sensing in order to directly correlate immobilized probe (major allergens) density to allergen-specific IgE in patient serum. However, this platform only operates in processed serum samples, which is not ideal for point of care testing. Thus, a high magnification modality of IRIS was adapted as an alternative allergy diagnostic platform to automatically discriminate and size single nanoparticles bound to specific IgE in unprocessed, characterized human blood and serum samples. These features make IRIS an ideal candidate for clinical and diagnostic applications, such a POC testing. The high magnification (nanoparticle counting) modality in conjunction with low magnification of IRIS in a combined instrument offers four significant advantages compared to existing sensing technologies: IRIS i) corrects for any variation in probe immobilization, ii) detects proteins from attomolar to nanomolar concentrations in unprocessed biological samples, iii) unambiguously discriminates nanoparticles tags on a robust and physically large sensor area, iv) detects protein targets with conjugated nanoparticle tags (~40nm diameter), which minimally affect assay kinetics compared to conventional microparticle tagging methods, and v) utilizes components that make the instrument inexpensive, robust, and portable. This platform was successfully validated on patient serum and whole blood samples with documented allergy profiles (ImmunoCAPRTM, ThermoFisher Scientific).

  17. Frequency Comb Vernier Spectroscopy for Broadband, High-Resolution, High-Sensitivity Absorption and Dispersion Spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Gohle; Björn Stein; Albert Schliesser; Thomas Udem; Theodor W. Hänsch

    2007-01-01

    A femtosecond frequency comb provides a vast number of equidistantly spaced narrow band laser modes that can be simultaneously tuned and frequency calibrated with 15 digit accuracy. Our Vernier spectrometer utilizes all of theses modes in a massively parallel manner to rapidly record both absorption and dispersion spectra with a sensitivity that is provided by a high finesse broadband optical

  18. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Brian E, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3 be efficiently implemented in optimized dye-sensitized solar cells, but also highlights the need to design highly

  19. A high-speed and high-resolution CMOS optical position sensitive device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanam Upendranath; Massimo Gottardi; Alessandro Zorat

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture of a novel CMOS Position Sensitive Device designed to achieve high subpixel resolution and high accuracy in position estimation. The core of the device is a two-dimensional smart sensor suitable for 3-D measurements which is obtained by setting multiple linear sensors side by side, in a sort of a “pixel-slice” parallel architecture; the layout of

  20. Highly sensitive hot electron bolometer based on disordered graphene.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi; Gao, Teng; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Yi; Chen, Jianhui; Liu, Gerui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan; Wu, Xiaosong; Yu, Dapeng

    2013-01-01

    A bolometer is a device that makes an electrical resistive response to the electromagnetic radiation resulted from a raise of temperature due to heating. The combination of the extremely weak electron-phonon interactions along with its small electron heat capacity makes graphene an ideal material for applications in ultra-fast and sensitive hot electron bolometer. However, a major issue is that the resistance of pristine graphene weakly depends on the electronic temperature. We propose using disordered graphene to obtain a strongly temperature dependent resistance. The measured electrical responsivity of the disordered graphene bolometer reaches 6 × 10(6) V/W at 1.5 K, corresponding to an optical responsivity of 1.6 × 10(5) V/W. The deduced electrical noise equivalent power is 1.2 fW/?Hz, corresponding to the optical noise equivalent power of 44 fW/?Hz. The minimal device structure and no requirement for high mobility graphene make a step forward towards the applications of graphene hot electron bolometers. PMID:24346418

  1. Highly sensitive hot electron bolometer based on disordered graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaosong; Han, Qi; Gao, Teng; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Yi; Chen, Jianhui; Liu, Gerui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan; Yu, Dapeng

    2014-03-01

    A bolometer is a device that makes an electrical resistive response to the electromagnetic radiation resulted from a raise of temperature due to heating. The combination of the extremely weak electron-phonon interactions along with its small electron heat capacity makes graphene an ideal material for applications in ultra-fast and sensitive hot electron bolometer. However, a major issue is that the resistance of pristine graphene weakly depends on the electronic temperature. We propose using disordered graphene to obtain a strongly temperature dependent resistance. The measured electrical responsivity of the disordered graphene bolometer reaches 6 ×106 V/W at 1.5 K, corresponding to an optical responsivity of 1 . 6 ×105 V/W. The deduced electrical noise equivalent power is 1.2 fW/?{ Hz}, corresponding to the optical noise equivalent power of 44 fW/?{ Hz}. The minimal device structure and no requirement of high mobility for graphene make a step forward towards the applications of graphene hot electron bolometers.

  2. Highly sensitive biosensing using a supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) instrument.

    PubMed

    Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Rankl, Michael; Seeger, Stefan

    2003-08-15

    We present a new optical biosensor for probing molecular binding to a water/glass interface. The system is designed to measure the kinetics of surface reactions down to low analyte concentrations straightforwardly. The selective detection of surface bound fluorescence is achieved by collecting supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF) emission of surface bound molecules into the glass. Thereby the expansion of the detection volume into the aqueous probe is reduced to about one sixth of the fluorescence wavelength, consequently bulk fluorescence from the solution is rejected successfully. The SAF-signal is captured by a parabolic glass lens, which leads to high spatial collection efficiency and detection sensitivity. The sensor has an inverted optical design and is compatible with common glass cover slips, which strongly facilitates operation for the user working in the biological and biochemical fields. The performance of the system is demonstrated by real time measurements of antibody-antigen reactions. Rate constants of the reaction were extracted. Antigen concentrations were detected down to 10(-13) mol/l. PMID:12788562

  3. Design of high sensitivity detector for underwater communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, J. S.; Ong, J. S. L.; Ng, J. S.; Krysa, A. B.; Bastiman, F.; David, J. P. R.

    2013-11-01

    Al0.52In0.48P is the largest bandgap material in III-V non-nitride semiconductors that is lattice matched to a readily available substrate (GaAs). Having a bandgap narrower than that of GaN enables it to detect wavelengths around 480 nm. Such wavelengths have the best transmittance underwater and may be used as a carrier in underwater communication systems. We present an Al0.52In0.48P homo-junction Separate-Absorption-Multiplication-Avalanche-Photodiode (SAMAPD) as a high sensitivity detector for such an application. By increasing the neutral and space-charge region thicknesses, the peak response wavelength can be tuned to longer wavelengths with a narrower full-width-half-maximum (FWHM). The quantum efficiency of the detector reduces with FWHM and this is compensated by having an avalanche gain. At room temperature, the SAM-APD has a dark current of <20 pA for a 210 ?m radius device up to 99.9% of breakdown voltage. The structure gives a narrow spectral FWHM of 22 nm with centre wavelength of 482 nm. An external quantum efficiency of 33% and 6410% at 482 nm is obtained at bias voltage of -19 V and -92.6 V respectively.

  4. High sensitivity DNA detection using gold nanoparticle functionalised polyaniline nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Spain, Elaine; Kojima, Robert; Kaner, Richard B; Wallace, Gordan G; O'Grady, Justin; Lacey, Katrina; Barry, Thomas; Keyes, Tia E; Forster, Robert J

    2011-01-15

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibres (PANI-NF) have been modified with chemically grown gold nanoparticles to give a nanocomposite material (PANI-NF-AuNP) and deposited on gold electrodes. Single stranded capture DNA was then bound to the gold nanoparticles and the underlying gold electrode and allowed to hybridise with a complementary target strand that is uniquely associated with the pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), that causes mastitis. Significantly, cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that deposition of the gold nanoparticles increases the area available for DNA immobilisation by a factor of approximately 4. EPR reveals that the addition of the Au nanoparticles efficiently decreases the interactions between adjacent PANI chains and/or motional broadening. Finally, a second horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelled DNA strand hybridises with the target allowing the concentration of the target DNA to be detected by monitoring the reduction of a hydroquinone mediator in solution. The sensors have a wide dynamic range, excellent ability to discriminate DNA mismatches and a high sensitivity. Semi-log plots of the pathogen DNA concentration vs. faradaic current were linear from 150×10(-12) to 1×10(-6) mol L(-1) and pM concentrations could be detected without the need for molecular, e.g., PCR or NASBA, amplification. PMID:21159503

  5. ASIC for High Rate 3D Position Sensitive Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.; Fried, J.; He, Z.; Herman, C.; Zhang, F.

    2010-06-16

    We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discrimination with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.

  6. Horizontal Hall effect sensor with high maximum absolute sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-B. Kammerer; L. Hebrard; V. Frick; P. Poure; F. Braun

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity of conventional Hall sensors is strongly limited by the well known short-circuit effect. Many researches were devoted to reduce offset and noise but few works were carried out to improve sensitivity. Here, a new shape of integrated horizontal Hall device is presented. This particular shape has been developed to minimize the short-circuit effect of the sensor, allowing one to

  7. High-Sensitivity Magnetic Resonance by Bolometer Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schmidt; I. Solomon

    1966-01-01

    It is shown that spin magnetic resonance can be observed by a rise in the temperature of the sample, with a sensitivity equal to or better than with the more conventional electromagnetic detection methods.An experimental demonstration is provided by a crude bolometer made of a thin copper wire with a small sample of DPPH glued in the center. A sensitivity

  8. HIGH SENSITIVITY MEMS BIOCHEMICAL SENSOR USING PMN-PT Presented to the

    E-print Network

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    of the sensor for exposure to multiple chemical agents. The PMMA functionalized PMN-PT is approximately 6HIGH SENSITIVITY MEMS BIOCHEMICAL SENSOR USING PMN-PT _______________ A Thesis Presented Sensitivity MEMS Biochemical Sensor Using PMN-PT _____________________________________________ Samuel K

  9. Very high polarimetric sensitivity to strain of second order mode of highly birefringent microstructured fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasilowski, Tomasz; Skorupski, Krzysztof; Makara, Mariusz; Statkiewicz-Barabach, Gabriela; Mergo, Pawel; Marc, Pawel; Jaroszewicz, Leszek

    2011-05-01

    Microstructured fibres (MSF) or photonic crystal fibres (PCF) possess a number of unique properties enabling a wide range of novel applications either in the telecommunication or in the sensing domain. In this paper we show that highly birefringent (HB) MSF with a dedicated design that allows inscribing fibre Bragg gratings in the MSF core can serve as pressure or stress transducers with extremely large sensitivity of second order mode, while exhibiting a low sensitivity to temperature drifts. Therefore, Bragg gratings inscribed in such MSF may offer a viable alternative to traditional optical fibre sensors of much lower stress sensitivity that require temperature compensation mechanisms and that are not intrinsically capable of distinguishing stress and temperature.

  10. A High-Sensitivity Current Sensor Utilizing CrNi Wire and Microfiber Coils

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaodong; Li, Jie; Sun, Li-Peng; Shen, Xiang; Jin, Long; Guan, Bai-ou

    2014-01-01

    We obtain an extremely high current sensitivity by wrapping a section of microfiber on a thin-diameter chromium-nickel wire. Our detected current sensitivity is as high as 220.65 nm/A2 for a structure length of only 35 ?m. Such sensitivity is two orders of magnitude higher than the counterparts reported in the literature. Analysis shows that a higher resistivity or/and a thinner diameter of the metal wire may produce higher sensitivity. The effects of varying the structure parameters on sensitivity are discussed. The presented structure has potential for low-current sensing or highly electrically-tunable filtering applications. PMID:24824372

  11. Stochastic sensitivity measure for mistuned high-performance turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Pierre, Christophe

    1992-01-01

    A stochastic measure of sensitivity is developed in order to predict the effects of small random blade mistuning on the dynamic aeroelastic response of turbomachinery blade assemblies. This sensitivity measure is based solely on the nominal system design (i.e., on tuned system information), which makes it extremely easy and inexpensive to calculate. The measure has the potential to become a valuable design tool that will enable designers to evaluate mistuning effects at a preliminary design stage and thus assess the need for a full mistuned rotor analysis. The predictive capability of the sensitivity measure is illustrated by examining the effects of mistuning on the aeroelastic modes of the first stage of the oxidizer turbopump in the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Results from a full analysis mistuned systems confirm that the simple stochastic sensitivity measure predicts consistently the drastic changes due to misturning and the localization of aeroelastic vibration to a few blades.

  12. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell performances by molecular engineering: highly efficient ?-extended organic sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Grisorio, Roberto; De Marco, Luisa; Agosta, Rita; Iacobellis, Rosabianca; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Manca, Michele; Mastrorilli, Piero; Gigli, Giuseppe; Suranna, Gian Paolo

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with the synthesis and characterization of two ?-extended organic sensitizers (G1 and G2) for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. The materials are designed with a D-A-?-A structure constituted by i)?a triarylamine group as the donor part, ii)?a dithienyl-benzothiadiazole chromophore followed by iii)?a further ethynylene-thiophene (G1) or ethynylene-benzene (G2) ?-spacer and iv)?a cyano-acrylic moiety as acceptor and anchoring part. An unusual structural extension of the ?-bridge characterizes these structures. The so-configured sensitizers exhibit a broad absorption profile, the origin of which is supported by density functional theory. The absence of hypsochromic shifts as a consequence of deprotonation as well as notable optical and electrochemical stabilities are also observed. Concerning the performances in devices, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicates that the structural modification of the ?-spacer mainly increases the electron lifetime of G2 with respect to G1. In devices, this feature translates into a superior power conversion efficiency of G2, reaching 8.1%. These results are comparable to those recorded for N719 and are higher with respect to literature congeners, supporting further structural engineering of the ?-bridge extension in the search for better performing ?-extended organic sensitizers. PMID:25056642

  13. High-sensitivity imaging with multi-mode twin beams

    E-print Network

    E. Brambilla; L. Caspani; O. Jedrkiewicz; L. A. Lugiato; A. Gatti

    2007-09-29

    Twin entangled beams produced by single-pass parametric down-conversion (PDC) offer the opportunity to detect weak amount of absorption with an improved sensitivity with respect to standard techniques which make use of classical light sources. We propose a differential measurement scheme which exploits the spatial quantum correlation of type II PDC to image a weak amplitude object with a sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit imposed by shot-noise.

  14. Horizontal Hall effect sensor with high maximum absolute sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Baptiste Kammerer; Luc Hébrard; Vincent Frick; Philippe Poure; Francis Braun

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of conventional Hall effect sensors is strongly limited by the well-known short-circuit effects. Many researches were devoted to reduce offset and noise, but few works were carried out to improve the sensitivity. Here, a new shape of integrated horizontal Hall effect device is presented. This particular shape has been developed in order to minimize the short-circuit effects in

  15. Sensitive, high-strain, high-rate bodily motion sensors based on graphene-rubber composites.

    PubMed

    Boland, Conor S; Khan, Umar; Backes, Claudia; O'Neill, Arlene; McCauley, Joe; Duane, Shane; Shanker, Ravi; Liu, Yang; Jurewicz, Izabela; Dalton, Alan B; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2014-09-23

    Monitoring of human bodily motion requires wearable sensors that can detect position, velocity and acceleration. They should be cheap, lightweight, mechanically compliant and display reasonable sensitivity at high strains and strain rates. No reported material has simultaneously demonstrated all the above requirements. Here we describe a simple method to infuse liquid-exfoliated graphene into natural rubber to create conducting composites. These materials are excellent strain sensors displaying 10(4)-fold increases in resistance and working at strains exceeding 800%. The sensitivity is reasonably high, with gauge factors of up to 35 observed. More importantly, these sensors can effectively track dynamic strain, working well at vibration frequencies of at least 160 Hz. At 60 Hz, we could monitor strains of at least 6% at strain rates exceeding 6000%/s. We have used these composites as bodily motion sensors, effectively monitoring joint and muscle motion as well and breathing and pulse. PMID:25100211

  16. Cavity Enhanced Optical Vernier Spectroscopy, Broad Band, High Resolution, High Sensitivity

    E-print Network

    Gohle, Christoph; Schliesser, Albert; Udem, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2007-01-01

    A femtosecond frequency comb provides a vast number of equidistantly spaced narrow band laser modes that can be simultaneously tuned and frequency calibrated with 15 digits accuracy. Our Vernier spectrometer utilizes all of theses modes in a massively parallel manner to rapidly record both absorption and dispersion spectra with a sensitivity that is provided by a high finesse broad band optical resonator and a resolution that is only limited by the frequency comb line width while keeping the required setup simple.

  17. Improvement in the light sensitivity of the ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD with a microlens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, T.,; Yonai, J.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Kitagawa, S.; Hatade, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Iida, K.

    2008-02-01

    We are advancing the development of ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs for broadcast use that are capable of capturing smooth slow-motion videos in vivid colors even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. We have already developed a 300,000 pixel, ultrahigh-speed CCD, and a single CCD color camera that has been used for sports broadcasts and science programs using this CCD. However, there are cases where even higher sensitivity is required, such as when using a telephoto lens during a baseball broadcast or a high-magnification microscope during science programs. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at further increasing the sensitivity of CCDs using the light-collecting effects of a microlens array.

  18. Research on a novel high sensitivity MOEMS deformable nano-grating accelerometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Zhang; Zhikai Fan; Lishuang Feng; Qunyan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    With the development of the military field, there is growing interest in extremely high sensitivity. For meeting this desire, we design a novel high sensitivity MOEMS (Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-System) accelerometer which is based on laterally deformable nano-grating. Calculations predict that this sensitivity could be improved by up to two orders of magnitude in future design and it can reach as high as

  19. Pajarito Monitor: a high-sensitivity monitoring system for highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.; Garcia, C. Jr.; Martinez, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Pajarito Monitor for Special Nuclear Material is a high-sensitivity gamma-ray monitoring system for detecting small quantities of highly enriched uranium transported by pedestrians or motor vehicles. The monitor consists of two components: a walk-through personnel monitor and a vehicle monitor. The personnel monitor has a plastic-scintillator detector portal, a microwave occupancy monitor, and a microprocessor control unit that measures the radiation intensity during background and monitoring periods to detect transient diversion signals. The vehicle monitor examines stationary motor vehicles while the vehicle's occupants pass through the personnel portal to exchange their badges. The vehicle monitor has four groups of large plastic scintillators that scan the vehicle from above and below. Its microprocessor control unit measures separate radiation intensities in each detector group. Vehicle occupancy is sensed by a highway traffic detection system. Each monitor's controller is responsible for detecting diversion as well as serving as a calibration and trouble-shooting aid. Diversion signals are detected by a sequential probability ratio hypothesis test that minimizes the monitoring time in the vehicle monitor and adapts itself well to variations in individual passage speed in the personnel monitor. Designed to be highly sensitive to diverted enriched uranium, the monitoring system also exhibits exceptional sensitivity for plutonium. 6 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  1. Highly sensitive silicon crystal torque sensor operating at the thermal noise limit

    E-print Network

    Schiller, Stephan

    , Brownian noise of the detector represents the desirable ultimate limit to their sensitivity. A review of the measurement and data analysis strategies, developed to im- prove the sensitivity of these detectors, canHighly sensitive silicon crystal torque sensor operating at the thermal noise limit L. Haiberger, M

  2. Review paper: Toward highly efficient quantum-dot-and dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-print Network

    Park, Byungwoo

    Review paper: Toward highly efficient quantum-dot- and dye-sensitized solar cells Hongsik Choi Interface control Light harvesting Tandem solar cell a b s t r a c t Dye- and quantum-dot-sensitized solar technologies of silicon-based solar cells should be resolved [7]. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been

  3. High sensitivity wavefront sensing with the non-linear curvature WFS

    E-print Network

    Guyon, Olivier

    1 High sensitivity wavefront sensing with the non-linear curvature WFS Olivier Guyon University to use the WFS in open loop - possible to "dial in" large offset aberrations Sensitivity: The WFS should requirements. #12;Wavefront Sensor Options... Linearity, dynamical range and sensitivity Linear, large

  4. Loss Engineered High Sensitivity Photonic Crystal Microcavities for Multiplexed Detection of Biomolecules

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ray

    with conventional L3 type cavity. Multiplexing capability of detection was demonstrated by the simultaneous sensingLoss Engineered High Sensitivity Photonic Crystal Microcavities for Multiplexed Detection structure to detect different antibodies on each arm. High quality factor Q ~9300 and high sensitivity of 8

  5. Simulated heat storage in a perennially ice-covered high Arctic lake: Sensitivity to climate change

    E-print Network

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    Simulated heat storage in a perennially ice-covered high Arctic lake: Sensitivity to climate change transfer in one of these lakes (Lake A, latitude 83.0°N, longitude 75.4°W) was simulated using a high storage in a perennially ice-covered high Arctic lake: Sensitivity to climate change, J. Geophys. Res

  6. Highly sensitive flexible pressure sensors with microstructured rubber dielectric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Stoltenberg, Randall M.; Chen, Christopher V. H.-H.; Barman, Soumendra; Muir, Beinn V. O.; Sokolov, Anatoliy N.; Reese, Colin; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-10-01

    The development of an electronic skin is critical to the realization of artificial intelligence that comes into direct contact with humans, and to biomedical applications such as prosthetic skin. To mimic the tactile sensing properties of natural skin, large arrays of pixel pressure sensors on a flexible and stretchable substrate are required. We demonstrate flexible, capacitive pressure sensors with unprecedented sensitivity and very short response times that can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas by microstructuring of thin films of the biocompatible elastomer polydimethylsiloxane. The pressure sensitivity of the microstructured films far surpassed that exhibited by unstructured elastomeric films of similar thickness, and is tunable by using different microstructures. The microstructured films were integrated into organic field-effect transistors as the dielectric layer, forming a new type of active sensor device with similarly excellent sensitivity and response times.

  7. Single Cell Proteomics with Ultra-High Sensitivity Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M

    2005-02-16

    This project was a joint LDRD project between PAT, CMS and NAI with the objective to develop an instrument that analyzes the biochemical composition of single cells in real-time using bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) combined with advanced laser desorption and ionization techniques. Applications include both biological defense, fundamental cell biology and biomedical research. BAMS analyzes the biochemical composition of single, micrometer-sized particles (such as bacterial cells or spores) that can be directly sampled from air or a suspension. BAMS is based on an earlier development of aerosol time of flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) by members of our collaboration [1,2]. Briefly, in ATOFMS and BAMS aerosol particles are sucked directly from the atmosphere into vacuum through a series of small orifices. As the particles approach the ion source region of the mass spectrometer, they cross and scatter light from two CW laser beams separated by a known distance. The timing of the two bursts of scattered light created by each ''tracked'' particle reveals the speed, location and size of the particle. This information then enables the firing of a high-intensity laser such that the resulting laser pulse desorbs and ionizes molecules from the tracked particle just as it reaches the center of the ion source region. The full spectrum of ions is then measured using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The ability to rapidly analyze individual particles is clearly applicable to the rapid detection of aerosolized biological warfare agents so long as agent particles can be made to produce mass spectra that are distinct from the spectra of harmless background particles. The pattern of ions formed is determined by the properties of the laser pulse, the particle, and, in aerosol matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), also the MALDI matrix used. As a result, it is critical that the properties of the laser pulses used for desorption and ionization be carefully chosen. The work on this LDRD project was centered on demonstrating the usefulness of mass signatures obtained by BAMS for identification of biological agents and discrimination from background. To accomplish this goal this work also included a thorough study of the origins of the observed mass signatures (i.e. peak identification and dependence on bacterial growth conditions) and their dependence on laser parameters. Such a fundamental understanding of the mass signatures and their dependence on laser parameters is required for optimizing the desorption/ionization process and the bioaerosol mass spectrometer in order to increase the sensitivity and specificity of this method for practical CBNP applications.

  8. Miniature highly-birefringent microfiber loop with extremely-high refractive index sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lipeng; Li, Jie; Tan, Yanzhen; Shen, Xiang; Xie, Xiaodong; Gao, Shuai; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2012-04-23

    A miniature polarimetric interferometer with the twist of a highly-birefringent microfiber is demonstrated. Good transmission spectral characteristics, which are co-governed by the birefringence and the twist degree of the microfiber, are investigated. The structure exhibits extremely-high sensitivity of around 24,373 nm per refractive-index unit and excellent temperature stability of better than 0.005 nm/°C. Featured with compactness, reconfigurability, stability, robustness, and compatibility with other fiberized components, our device has potential in tunable filtering, sensing, multi-wavelength lasing, and etc. PMID:22535109

  9. A Coupled-Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Method for High-Fidelity Aero-Structural Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joaquim R. R. A. Martins; Juan J. Alonso; James J. Reuther

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an adjoint method for sensitivity analysis that is used in an aero-structural aircraft design framework. The aero-structural analysis uses high-fidelity models of both the aerodynamics and the structures. Aero-structural sensitivities are computed using a coupled-adjoint approach that is based on previously developed single discipline sensitivity analysis. Alternative strategies for coupled sensitivity analysis are also discussed. The aircraft

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Allergen microarrays on high-sensitivity silicon slides

    E-print Network

    substrate for allergy diagnosis, in the detection of specific IgE in serum samples of subjects to discriminate between the allergy and no allergy status in 30 well-characterized serum samples. We found allergens. Keywords Protein microarrays . Diagnosis . Fluorescence . Allergy. Sensitivity. Specificity. ROC

  11. High sensitivity surface plasmon resonace sensor based on phase detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G Nelson; K. S Johnston; S. S Yee

    1996-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance sensing technique based on optical heterodyne phase detection is presented. The theoretical sensitivity of this new method is compared with traditioal surface plasmon resonance technique. The results of phase detection modeling shows a strong dependence on sensor film thickness. With a practical configuration, the resolution of refractive index is predicted to be 5 × 10?7 refractive

  12. High-sensitivity uncooled microcantilever infrared imaging arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Hunter; Robert A. Amantea; Lawrence A. Goodman; David B. Kharas; Sergey Gershtein; James R. Matey; Steven N. Perna; Young Yu; Nagi Maley; Lawrence K. White

    2003-01-01

    The structure and operation of a new uncooled thermal infrared imaging detector is described which is composed of bimaterial, thermally sensitive microcantilever structures that are the moving elements of variable plate capacitors. The heat sensing microcantilever structures are integrated with CMOS control and amplification electronics to produce a low cost imager that is compatible with silicon IC foundry processing and

  13. High-sensitivity damage detection based on enhanced nonlinear dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bogdan I. Epureanu; Shih-Hsun Yin; Mark M. Derriso

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of detecting damage in the work-frame of structural health monitoring is increasing the sensitivity of the monitored feature to the presence, location, and extent of damage. Distinct from previous techniques of obtaining information about the monitored structure - such as measuring frequency response functions - the approach proposed herein is based on an active

  14. High-sensitivity damage detection based on enhanced nonlinear dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bogdan I. Epureanu; Shih-Hsun Yin; Mark M. Derriso

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of detecting damage in the framework of structural health monitoring is increasing the sensitivity of the monitored feature to the presence, location, and extent of damage. Distinct from previous techniques of obtaining information about the monitored structure---such as measuring frequency response functions---the approach proposed herein is based on an active interrogation of the system.

  15. High sensitivity gas sensor based on high-Q suspended polymer photonic crystal nanocavity

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenson, Hannah, E-mail: hannahac@mit.edu; Desjardins, Pierre; Gan, Xuetao; Englund, Dirk, E-mail: englund@mit.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    We present high-sensitivity, multi-use optical gas sensors based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity. These devices are implemented in versatile, flexible polymer materials which swell when in contact with a target gas, causing a measurable cavity length change. This change causes a shift in the cavity resonance, allowing precision measurements of gas concentration. We demonstrate suspended polymer nanocavity sensors and the recovery of sensors after the removal of stimulant gas from the system. With a measured quality factor exceeding 10{sup 4}, we show measurements of gas concentration as low as 600 parts per million (ppm) and an experimental sensitivity of 10?ppm; furthermore, we predict detection levels in the parts-per-billion range for a variety of gases.

  16. Novel Characteristics of Photodamage to PSII in a High-Light-Sensitive Symbiodinium Phylotype.

    PubMed

    Karim, Widiastuti; Seidi, Azadeh; Hill, Ross; Chow, Wah S; Minagawa, Jun; Hidaka, Michio; Takahashi, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    Dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with many marine invertebrates, including reef-building corals. Symbiodinium is genetically diverse, and acquiring suitable Symbiodinium phylotypes is crucial for the host to survive in habitat environments, such as high-light conditions. The sensitivity of Symbiodinium to high light differs among Symbiodinium phylotypes, but the mechanism that controls light sensitivity has not yet been fully resolved. In the present study using high-light-tolerant and -sensitive Symbiodinium phylotypes, we examined what determines sensitivity to high light. In growth experiments under different light intensities, Symbiodinium CS-164 (clade B1) and CCMP2459 (clade B2) were identified as high-light-tolerant and -sensitive phylotypes, respectively. Measurements of the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and the maximum photosynthetic oxygen production rate after high-light exposure demonstrated that CCMP2459 is more sensitive to photoinhibition of PSII than CS-164, and tends to lose maximum photosynthetic activity faster. Measurement of photodamage to PSII under light of different wavelength ranges demonstrated that PSII in both Symbiodinium phylotypes was significantly more sensitive to photodamage under shorter wavelength regions of light spectra (<470 nm). Importantly, PSII in CCMP2459, but not CS-164, was also sensitive to photodamage under the regions of light spectra around 470-550 and 630-710 nm, where photosynthetic antenna proteins of Symbiodinium have light absorption peaks. This finding indicates that the high-light-sensitive CCMP2459 has an extra component of photodamage to PSII, resulting in higher sensitivity to high light. Our results demonstrate that sensitivity of PSII to photodamage differs among Symbiodinium phylotypes and this determines their sensitivity to high light. PMID:25759327

  17. Extremely high frequency sensitivity in a ‘simple’ ear

    PubMed Central

    Moir, Hannah M.; Jackson, Joseph C.; Windmill, James F. C.

    2013-01-01

    An evolutionary war is being played out between the bat, which uses ultrasonic calls to locate insect prey, and the moth, which uses microscale ears to listen for the approaching bat. While the highest known frequency of bat echolocation calls is 212 kHz, the upper limit of moth hearing is considered much lower. Here, we show that the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is capable of hearing ultrasonic frequencies approaching 300 kHz; the highest frequency sensitivity of any animal. With auditory frequency sensitivity that is unprecedented in the animal kingdom, the greater wax moth is ready and armed for any echolocation call adaptations made by the bat in the on-going bat–moth evolutionary war. PMID:23658005

  18. Extremely high frequency sensitivity in a 'simple' ear.

    PubMed

    Moir, Hannah M; Jackson, Joseph C; Windmill, James F C

    2013-08-23

    An evolutionary war is being played out between the bat, which uses ultrasonic calls to locate insect prey, and the moth, which uses microscale ears to listen for the approaching bat. While the highest known frequency of bat echolocation calls is 212 kHz, the upper limit of moth hearing is considered much lower. Here, we show that the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is capable of hearing ultrasonic frequencies approaching 300 kHz; the highest frequency sensitivity of any animal. With auditory frequency sensitivity that is unprecedented in the animal kingdom, the greater wax moth is ready and armed for any echolocation call adaptations made by the bat in the on-going bat-moth evolutionary war. PMID:23658005

  19. A high sensitivity titration calorimeter using pyroelectric sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Merabet; H. K. Yuen; W. A. Grote; K. L. Deppermann

    1994-01-01

    A new sensitive isothermal titration microcalorimeter using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) as detector has been developed.\\u000a Heat pulses of less than 0.4 ?J can be detected and the baseline noise level (p-p) is 40 nW. The calorimeter is constructed with one reaction cell (0.7 ml) insulated by several radiation shields inside a\\u000a vacuum chamber. The performance of the instrument was examined

  20. Temperature-independent FBG pressure sensor with high sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihui Liu; Hao Zhang; Qida Zhao; Yuliang Liu; Fang Li

    2007-01-01

    This study develops a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensor partly shielded with a metal tube. The thermal-strain cross effect is avoided and its pressure sensitivity is increased to ?2.44×10?3 MPa, about 1200 times as that of a bare fiber grating. Due to its good sensing linearity, this sensor can be applied in the measurement of hydraulic pressure and vibration.

  1. Development of a rapid screening method to determine primary aromatic amines in kitchen utensils using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Paseiro-Cerrato, R; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2014-01-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) are a group of substances with undesirable health effects, that are used in a variety of commercial products. Several recent studies, using a number of screening and confirmatory methods, have reported the migration of PAAs from some kitchen utensils into acetic acid 3% (w/v). Many of these methods require significant sample preparation, therefore the aim of this work was to determine if direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) could be utilised as a rapid screening tool for the determination of PAAs in kitchen utensils. DART-MS results from direct analysis of the utensil have been compared with results of PAA migration by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The UPLC-MS/MS method had excellent linearity, appropriate sensitivity (LOD ? 1.5 µg L(-1); LOQ ? 4.5 µg L(-1)), repeatability from 2.4 to 13.2% and acceptable recoveries. DART-MS results were in good agreement with UPLC-MS/MS data, with 100% of non-compliant (PAA positive) samples successfully identified by DART-MS. PMID:24256323

  2. Conceptual design of a high-sensitivity small animal PET camera with 4? coverage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Huber; W. W. Moses

    1999-01-01

    We present a conceptual design of a high-sensitivity PET camera that completely encloses a small animal in a rectangular volume formed by 6 planar banks of detector modules. The 4? geometry and 3 attenuation-length fast scintillators provide significantly higher sensitivity than contemporary animal PET cameras, while the depth of interaction (DOI) measurement and small crystal width achieve isotropic, high spatial

  3. Super-high-sensitive camera tube for HDTV hand-held cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakazu Nanba; Yoshiro Takiguchi; Toshio Yamagishi; Misao Kubota; Saburo Okazaki; Tsutomu Kato; Kenkichi Tanioka; Tadaaki Hirai; Yukio Takasaki

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a compact HDTV camera tube that combines high sensitivity with high resolution and is compact enough for hand-held cameras. This new camera tube employs an 8-micrometers -thick HARP (High-gain Avalanche Rushing amorphous Photoconductor) target. Unlike other photoconductors, this target is unique in that its sensitivity can be increased to very high levels to cope with darker illumination.

  4. JAFFA: High sensitivity transcriptome-focused fusion gene detection.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Nadia M; Majewski, Ian J; Oshlack, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and, as such, structural alterations and fusion genes are common events in the cancer landscape. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a powerful method for profiling cancers, but current methods for identifying fusion genes are optimised for short reads. JAFFA (https://github.com/Oshlack/JAFFA/wiki) is a sensitive fusion detection method that outperforms other methods with reads of 100 bp or greater. JAFFA compares a cancer transcriptome to the reference transcriptome, rather than the genome, where the cancer transcriptome is inferred using long reads directly or by de novo assembling short reads. PMID:26019724

  5. A low-power, high-sensitivity micromachined optical magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhaskar, R.; Knappe, S.; Kitching, J.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate an optical magnetometer based on a microfabricated 87Rb vapor cell in a micromachined silicon sensor head. The alkali atom density in the vapor cell is increased by heating the cell with light brought to the sensor through an optical fiber, and absorbed by colored filters attached to the cell windows. A second fiber-optically coupled beam optically pumps and interrogates the atoms. The magnetometer operates on 140 mW of heating power and achieves a sensitivity below 20 fT/?Hz throughout most of the frequency band from 15 Hz to 100 Hz. Such a sensor can measure magnetic fields from the human heart and brain.

  6. High order sensitivity analysis of complex, coupled systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1990-01-01

    The Sobieszczanski-Sobieski (1988) algorithm is extended to include second- and higher-order derivatives while retaining the obviation of finite-differencing of the system analysis. This is accomplished by means of a recursive application of the same implicit function theorem as in the original algorithm. In optimization, the computational cost of the higher-order derivatives is relative to the aggregate cost of analysis together with a repetition of the first-order sensitivity analysis as often as is required to produce the equivalent information by successive linearizations within move limits.

  7. Imaging sensitivity of three kind of high-sensitivity imaging cameras under short-pulsed light illumination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideyuki TAKAHASHI; Kouichi SAWADA; Koki ABE; Yoshimi TAKAO; Kazutoshi WATANABE

    *** Abstract: As a part of a development of an optical system that enables us to precisely observe negative phototactic fish in situ, characteristics of three different types of a high-sensitivity camera were investigated under short-pulsed light illuminations of different colors. These three types of a camera were Image Intensifier connected with CCD camera, EB-CCD camera, and HARP camera and

  8. Development and validation of sensitive LC-MS/MS assays for quantification of HP-?-CD in human plasma and CSF

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui; Sidhu, Rohini; Fujiwara, Hideji; De Meulder, Marc; de Vries, Ronald; Gong, Yong; Kao, Mark; Porter, Forbes D.; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Carillo-Carasco, Nuria; Xu, Xin; Ottinger, Elizabeth; Woolery, Myra; Ory, Daniel S.; Jiang, Xuntian

    2014-01-01

    2-Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD), a widely used excipient for drug formulation, has emerged as an investigational new drug for the treatment of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease, a neurodegenerative cholesterol storage disorder. Development of a sensitive quantitative LC-MS/MS assay to monitor the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of HP-?-CD required for clinical trials has been challenging owing to the dispersity of the HP-?-CD. To support a phase 1 clinical trial for ICV delivery of HP-?-CD in NPC1 patients, novel methods for quantification of HP-?-CD in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using LC-MS/MS were developed and validated: a 2D-LC-in-source fragmentation-MS/MS (2D-LC-IF-MS/MS) assay and a reversed phase ultra performance LC-MS/MS (RP-UPLC-MS/MS) assay. In both assays, protein precipitation and “dilute and shoot” procedures were used to process plasma and CSF, respectively. The assays were fully validated and in close agreement, and allowed determination of PK parameters for HP-?-CD. The LC-MS/MS methods are ?100-fold more sensitive than the current HPLC assay, and were successfully employed to analyze HP-?-CD in human plasma and CSF samples to support the phase 1 clinical trial of HP-?-CD in NPC1 patients. PMID:24868096

  9. An application of impediography to the high sensitivity and high resolution identification of structural damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Yang, J.; Wang, K. W.; Semperlotti, F.

    2015-06-01

    In this study we explore the use of impediographic techniques to perform damage detection in plate-like metal structures. Impediography relies on the piezo-resistive coupling of the host structure to reconstruct high sensitivity and high resolution maps of the internal electrical conductivity. By exploiting localized strain perturbations generated via focused acoustic waves, the piezo-resistive coupling allows extracting a set of linearly independent boundary voltage data that drastically reduces the ill-conditioning of the inverse problem, therefore increasing the performance. The localized perturbation is achieved by leveraging the concept of frequency selective structure (FSS), that is a dynamically tailored structural element enabling the required acoustic focusing via vibration localization. Based on the FSS approach, the impediographic technique is numerically tested to investigate the performance of the combined approach for structural damage detection. The effects of practical implementation issues, such as limited perturbations and limited boundary data, are also explored.

  10. A new compact, high sensitivity neutron imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF,F-91297 Arpajon (France); Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    We have developed a new small neutron imaging system (SNIS) diagnostic for the OMEGA laser facility. The SNIS uses a penumbral coded aperture and has been designed to record images from low yield (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons) implosions such as those using deuterium as the fuel. This camera was tested at OMEGA in 2009 on a rugby hohlraum energetics experiment where it recorded an image at a yield of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}. The resolution of this image was 54 {mu}m and the camera was located only 4 meters from target chamber centre. We recently improved the instrument by adding a cooled CCD camera. The sensitivity of the new camera has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. The calibration showed that the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by using raw binning detection.

  11. Highly sensitive humidity sensing properties of carbon quantum dots films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ming, Hai; Liu, Ruihua; Han, Xiao [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)] [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhang, Yonglai, E-mail: yonglaizhang@jlu.edu.cn [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? A humidity sensing device was fabricated based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) films. ? The conductivity of the CQDs films shows a linear and rapid response to atmosphere humidity. ? The humidity sensing property was due to the hydrogen bonds between the functional groups on CQDs. -- Abstract: We reported the fabrication of a humidity sensing device based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) film. The conductivity of the CQDs film has a linear and rapid response to relative humidity, providing the opportunity for the fabrication of humidity sensing devices. The mechanism of our humidity sensor was proposed to be the formation of hydrogen bonds between carbon quantum dots and water molecules in the humidity environment, which significantly promote the electrons migration. In a control experiment, this hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the humidity sensitivity of candle soot (i.e. carbon nanoparticles) with and without oxygen containing groups on the surfaces.

  12. Multichannel high-current-sensitivity all-fiber current sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Junzhen; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Baocheng; Huang, Zhangting; Qiu, Yishen

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel all-fiber current sensor using ordinary silica fiber and the fiber loop architecture that can be used to improve current sensitivity. In order to improve the efficiency of the sensor and reduce cost, we present a multichannel all-fiber current sensor based on the principle of time-division multiplexing. To illustrate the principle, we show the typical dual-channel all-fiber current sensor in our experiment. It shows that the currents at two different points can be measured simultaneously. In addition, we find by measurement that the dual-channel fiber current sensor has good linear responses dependence of the variation of the degree of polarization ?P on the current intensity I for two channels respectively. Every channel is affected by the current alone, requires a separate calibration.

  13. Birth weight, current anthropometric markers, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Boscaini, Camile; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5-13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  14. High sensitive and rapid responsive n-type Si: Au sensor for monitoring breath rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuelan Hu; Jiachang Liang; Xing Li; Lihui Jiang; Zhengquan Yang; Yue Chen; Xin Chen; Sheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    ?m- breath sensor with high sensitivity and rapid response was prepared by using n-type Si: Au material. Its sensitivity coefficient and time constant were 4 V.sec\\/L and 38 msec, respectively. Its working principle was based on anomalous resistance effect, which not only increased the sensitivity, but also reduced its time constant greatly. Its signal processing system can select the breath

  15. A High-Sensitivity Small-Animal PET Scanner: Development and Initial Performance Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Min Kao; Qingguo Xie; Yun Dong; Lu Wan; Chin-Tu Chen

    2009-01-01

    An important challenge in positron emission tomography (PET) is the development of dedicated small-animal PET (muPET) systems having high sensitivity. In this paper, we investigate the use of an opposing pair of large-area detectors having high detection efficiency and moderate depth-of-interaction resolution in a compact scanner geometry for achieving a high system sensitivity. Substantial resolution degradations created by this hardware

  16. A Simple, High-Precision, High-Sensitivity Tracer Assay for N(inf2) Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, J. P.; Voss, M.; Kahler, P.; Capone, D. G.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a simple, precise, and sensitive experimental protocol for direct measurement of N(inf2) fixation using the conversion of (sup15)N(inf2) to organic N. Our protocol greatly reduces the limit of detection for N(inf2) fixation by taking advantage of the high sensitivity of a modern, multiple-collector isotope ratio mass spectrometer. This instrument allowed measurement of N(inf2) fixation by natural assemblages of plankton in incubations lasting several hours in the presence of relatively low-level (ca. 10 atom%) tracer additions of (sup15)N(inf2) to the ambient pool of N(inf2). The sensitivity and precision of this tracer method are comparable to or better than those associated with the C(inf2)H(inf2) reduction assay. Data obtained in a series of experiments in the Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea showed excellent agreement between (sup15)N(inf2) tracer and C(inf2)H(inf2) reduction measurements, with the largest discrepancies between the methods occurring at very low fixation rates. The ratio of C(inf2)H(inf2) reduced to N(inf2) fixed was 4.68 (plusmn) 0.11 (mean (plusmn) standard error, n = 39). In these experiments, the rate of C(inf2)H(inf2) reduction was relatively insensitive to assay volume. Our results, the first for planktonic diazotroph populations of the Baltic, confirm the validity of the C(inf2)H(inf2) reduction method as a quantitative measure of N(inf2) fixation in this system. Our (sup15)N(inf2) protocols are comparable to standard C(inf2)H(inf2) reduction procedures, which should promote use of direct (sup15)N(inf2) fixation measurements in other systems. PMID:16535283

  17. Enhanced laboratory sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant using highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Berengut, J C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2010-09-17

    We study atomic systems that are in the frequency range of optical atomic clocks and have enhanced sensitivity to potential time variation of the fine-structure constant ?. The high sensitivity is due to coherent contributions from three factors: high nuclear charge Z, high ionization degree, and significant differences in the configuration composition of the states involved. Configuration crossing keeps the frequencies in the optical range despite the large ionization energies. We discuss a few promising examples that have the largest ? sensitivities seen in atomic systems. PMID:20867622

  18. Enhanced Laboratory Sensitivity to Variation of the Fine-Structure Constant using Highly Charged Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)

    2010-09-17

    We study atomic systems that are in the frequency range of optical atomic clocks and have enhanced sensitivity to potential time variation of the fine-structure constant {alpha}. The high sensitivity is due to coherent contributions from three factors: high nuclear charge Z, high ionization degree, and significant differences in the configuration composition of the states involved. Configuration crossing keeps the frequencies in the optical range despite the large ionization energies. We discuss a few promising examples that have the largest {alpha} sensitivities seen in atomic systems.

  19. High sensitivity capacitive MEMS microphone with spring supported diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Norizan; Iovenitti, Pio; Vinay, Thurai

    2007-12-01

    Capacitive microphones (condenser microphones) work on a principle of variable capacitance and voltage by the movement of its electrically charged diaphragm and back plate in response to sound pressure. There has been considerable research carried out to increase the sensing performance of microphones while reducing their size to cater for various modern applications such as mobile communication and hearing aid devices. This paper reviews the development and current performance of several condenser MEMS microphone designs, and introduces a microphone with spring supported diaphragm to further improve condenser microphone performance. The numerical analysis using Coventor FEM software shows that this new microphone design has a higher mechanical sensitivity compared to the existing edge clamped flat diaphragm condenser MEMS microphone. The spring supported diaphragm is shown to have a flat frequency response up to 7 kHz and more stable under the variations of the diaphragm residual stress. The microphone is designed to be easily fabricated using the existing silicon fabrication technology and the stability against the residual stress increases its reproducibility.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces fradiae ATCC 19609, a Strain Highly Sensitive to Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Klimina, Ksenia M.; Vatlin, Aleksey A.; Zakharevich, Natalia V.; Kasianov, Artem S.

    2014-01-01

    We report here a sequence of the genome of the Streptomyces fradiae ATCC 19609 strain, initially isolated from the soil, which produces tylosin. S. fradiae is highly sensitive to different classes of antibiotics, compared to the sensitivities of other bacteria. We have identified 9 groups of genes directly or indirectly involved in the resistome formation. PMID:25477406

  1. Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes-TiO2 Photoanodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes-TiO2 Photoanodes for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Kadiatou photoanodes for dye- sensitized solar cells (DSCs), based on nanocrystalline TiO2 with limited addition, 25133 Brescia, Italy Solar Cells Laboratory, Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMRE

  2. Nano-sized twins induce high rate sensitivity of flow stress in pure copper

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    Nano-sized twins induce high rate sensitivity of flow stress in pure copper L. Lu a,b , R sensitivity of flow stress and the extent of strengthening in polycrystalline copper containing dif- ferent volume fractions of nano-sized twins, but having the same average grain size. The specimens were produced

  3. Highly sensitive vacuum ion pump current measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Hansknecht, John Christopher (Williamsburg, VA)

    2006-02-21

    A vacuum system comprising: 1) an ion pump; 2) power supply; 3) a high voltage DC--DC converter drawing power from the power supply and powering the vacuum pump; 4) a feedback network comprising an ammeter circuit including an operational amplifier and a series of relay controlled scaling resistors of different resistance for detecting circuit feedback; 5) an optional power block section intermediate the power supply and the high voltage DC--DC converter; and 6) a microprocessor receiving feedback information from the feedback network, controlling which of the scaling resistors should be in the circuit and manipulating data from the feedback network to provide accurate vacuum measurement to an operator.

  4. Methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM): a new approach for sensitive and high-throughput assessment of methylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz K. Wojdacz; Alexander Dobrovic

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we show that high resolution melting analysis (HRM) is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of methylation. Methylated DNA and unmethylated DNA acquire different sequences after bisulphite treatment resulting in PCR products with markedly different melting profiles. We used PCR to amplify both methylated and unmethylated sequences and assessed HRM for the determination of the

  5. UNCERTAINTY AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES FOR VERY HIGH ORDER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    While there may in many cases be high potential for exposure of humans and ecosystems to chemicals released from a source, the degree to which this potential is realized is often uncertain. Conceptually, uncertainties are divided among parameters, model, and modeler during simula...

  6. Development of a High-Sensitivity Radiation Detector for Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S. Huber; Stephen M. Hanrahan; William W. Moses; Steve E. Derenzo; Bryan W. Reutter; James P. O'Neil; Grant T. Gullberg

    2011-01-01

    We describe a radiotracer imaging system for mea- suring the biochemical production rates of organic compounds from animals or plants. It uses a high performance liquid chro- matography (HPLC) column to separate the compounds and a parallel-plane radiation detector to measure the disintegrations from each compound over a period of time. Because the mea- surement time is much longer than

  7. Application of the mirrorball high-sensitivity cytometer to multiplexed assays for antibody drug discovery.

    PubMed

    England, Elizabeth; Newton, Philip; Neal, Frances; Kitching, Lisa; Colley, Caroline; Rossant, Christine J

    2015-04-01

    Highly sensitive, high-throughput assay technologies are required for the identification of antibody therapeutics. Multiplexed assay systems are particularly advantageous because they allow evaluation of several parameters within 1 well, increasing throughput and reducing hands-on laboratory time. The mirrorball (TTP Labtech), using high-throughput fluorometric microvolume assay technology, offers simultaneous scanning with up to 3 lasers as well as laser scatter detection. This makes the mirrorball especially suitable for the development of highly sensitive and multiplexed assays. We have developed bead- and cell-based binding assays that demonstrate how the multilaser capability of the mirrorball can be exploited to enhance assay sensitivity. In addition, using the multilaser simultaneous scanning capability, we have established multiplexed cytokine quantitation assays and antibody-cell binding assays. Our results demonstrate the potential utility of this technology to improve the sensitivity and efficiency of biologics screening, resulting in streamlining of the lead antibody selection process. PMID:25381256

  8. 15Data Corruption by High-Energy Particles Solar flares can severely affect sensitive instruments in

    E-print Network

    15Data Corruption by High-Energy Particles Solar flares can severely affect sensitive instruments in space and corrupt the data that they produce. On July 14, 2000 the sun produced a powerful X-class flare

  9. Impact sensitivity of materials in contact with liquid and gaseous oxygen at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    As a result of the Apollo 13 incident, increased emphasis is being placed on materials compatibility in a high pressure GOX environment. It is known that in addition to impact sensitivity of materials, approximately adiabatic compression conditions can contrive to induce materials reactivity. Test runs at high pressure using the ABMA tester indicate the following: (1) The materials used in the tests showed an inverse relationship between thickness and impact sensitivity. (2) Several materials tested exhibited greater impact sensitivity in GOX than in LOX. (3) The impact sensitivity of the materials tested in GOX, at the pressures tested, showed enhanced impact sensitivity with higher pressure. (4) The rank ordering of the materials tested in LOX up to 1000 psia is the same as the rank ordering resulting from tests in LOX at 14.7 psia.

  10. Wide dynamic range and high-sensitivity CMOS active pixel sensor using output voltage feedback structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sung-Hyun; Bae, Myunghan; Choi, Byoung-Soo; Kim, Jeongyeob; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a novel high-sensitivity and wide dynamic range complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) with an overlapping control gate. The proposed APS has a high-sensitivity gate/bodytied (GBT) photodetector with an overlapping control gate that makes it possible to control the sensitivity of the proposed APS. The floating gate of the GBT photodetector is connected to the n-well and the overlapping control gate is placed on top of the floating gate for varying the sensitivity of the proposed APS. Dynamic range of the proposed APS is significantly increased due to the output voltage feedback structure. Maximum sensitivity of the proposed APS is 50 V/lux•s in the low illumination range and dynamic range is greater than 110 dB. The proposed sensor has been fabricated by using 2-poly 4-metal 0.35 ?m standard CMOS process and its characteristics have been evaluated.

  11. Unique TiO 2 paste for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Opara Krašovec; M. Berginc; M. Ho?evar; M. Topi?

    2009-01-01

    A novel titanium oxide paste based on Pechini sol–gel method and nanocrystalline titanium oxide powder have been successfully developed. Titanium oxide layers possess high inner surface area assuring high dye loading and well-connected nanocrystalline grains assuring good electron transport within the layer. The dye-sensitized layers have been used to assemble dye-sensitized solar cells with acetonitrile- and ionic liquid-based electrolyte. Overall

  12. High Explosive Deonation Threshold Sensitivity Due to Multiple Fragment Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Georgevich, V; Pincosy, P; Chase, J

    2004-01-07

    Fragments, bullets or projectiles can initiate a detonation in a high explosive (HE). For this to happen certain critical conditions need to be exceeded. For a given explosive, these critical conditions are the projectile velocity, the projectile size and shape, and the projectile material properties. A lot of work has been done in the area of metal shaped charge jets and individual fragments impacting the HE. One major gap in understanding initiation phenomena is the effect of multiple fragment impact. This study shows that multiple fragments can lower the fragment size and the kinetic energy thresholds.

  13. Suspended-gate thin film transistor as highly sensitive humidity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaun, A.-C.; Kotb, H. M.; Mohammed-Brahim, T.; Le Bihan, F.; Lhermite, H.; Bendriaa, F.

    2005-07-01

    The paper deals with a very high sensitive integrated humidity sensor compatible with CMOS technology. This sensor is a polysilicon Suspended Gate Thin Film Transistor (SGTFT), fabricated using a low temperature surface micromachining process. Microtechnology technics using sacrificial layer are used to fabricate polysilicon bridge which acts as the transistor gate. Transistors are characterized at various humidity rates and transfer characteristics show highly sensitive dependence with humidity. The small air-gap (0.5 ?m) between the gate and the channel explains the amplifying effect of the sensitivity: threshold voltage shift is more than 17V when the humidity ratio varies from 20 to 70%.

  14. Tenfold improved sensitivity using high refractive-index substrates for surface plasmon sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Micheletto, Ruggero [Nanoscience and Technology, International Graduate School of Art and Sciences, Yokohama City University, Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Department of Electronic Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishigyo-ku, Katsura, 615-8510 Kyoto (Japan); Hamamoto, Katsumi [Department of Electronic Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishigyo-ku, Katsura, 615-8510 Kyoto (Japan); Teramecs Ltd., 97 Higashi Koyanouchi-cho, Takeda, Fushimi-ku, 612-8448 Kyoto (Japan); Fujii, Takashi [Murata Manufactoring Co., Ltd., Higashikotari 1-chome, Nagaokakyo-shi, 617-8555 Kyoto (Japan); Kawakami, Yoichi [Department of Electronic Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishigyo-ku, Katsura, 615-8510 Kyoto (Japan)

    2008-10-27

    Surface plasmon resonance sensors exploit the high sensitivity to local perturbations of plasma waves in a thin metal layer. These devices have a wide range of applications as biomedical, environmental, industrial, and homeland security. We concentrate on the theoretical aspects of the sensing principle. By calculations at various indexes of refraction we proved that using substrate material of higher index, sensitivity and dynamics range improve conspicuously. Finally, we show experimental data taken using a special transparent ceramic material of exceptionally high index of refraction n=2.04. Tests demonstrate sensitivity about one order of magnitude better than those obtained with conventional BK7 glass.

  15. Highly sensitive electronic whiskers based on patterned carbon nanotube and silver nanoparticle

    E-print Network

    Javey, Ali

    class of tactile sensors that complement the functionalities of skin for detecting wind with high present yet another important class of sensor components that can monitor the air- flow, mediate tactile. In essence, an e-whisker device consists of a highly sensitive tactile sensor that is mounted on a high

  16. Heightened sensitivity of a poorly buffered high arctic lake to late-Holocene climatic change

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Heightened sensitivity of a poorly buffered high arctic lake to late-Holocene climatic change Neal; Diatoms; pH; Climate change Introduction Although high arctic lakes and ponds are considered highly investigation was conducted on late Holocene sediments from a poorly buffered lake, informally named "Rock Basin

  17. “Ultra-high resolution optical trap with single fluorophore sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Matthew J; Ha, Taekjip; Chemla, Yann R

    2013-01-01

    We present a single-molecule instrument that combines a timeshared ultra-high resolution dual optical trap interlaced with a confocal fluorescence microscope. In a demonstration experiment, individual single-fluorophore labeled DNA oligonucleotides were observed to bind and unbind to complementary DNA suspended between two trapped beads. Simultaneous with the single-fluorophore detection, coincident angstrom-scale changes in tether extension could be clearly observed. Fluorescence readout allowed us to determine the duplex melting rate as a function of force. The new instrument will enable the simultaneous measurement of angstrom-scale mechanical motion of individual DNA-binding proteins (e.g., single base pair stepping of DNA translocases) along with the detection of fluorescently labeled protein properties (e.g., internal configuration). PMID:21336286

  18. Highly Sensitive Nanoparticle-based Multifunctional Biosensor for Antigen Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siavoshi, Salome

    Precise and selective positioning of nanoparticles gives rise to many applications where assembly of nano building blocks with different biological or chemical functionalization is necessary. One remarkable application is the simultaneous early detection of multiple biomarkers in the field of miniaturized multiplex biosensors. To enable multiplex detection of antigens, nanoparticles with various antibody coatings can be selectively assembled in trenches on different regions on a biochip so that they bind selectively to the specific antigen of interest. The presented work utilizes electric field assisted assembly techniques to assemble nanoparticles with various surface functionalization and coatings. Nanoparticles are assembled into pre-fabricated via and trench patterns generated on a PMMA coated gold surface, using electron-beam lithography. Two techniques have been developed for selective assembly of nanoparticles: sequential size-selective directed assembly and sequential site-selective assembly. Both selective assembly techniques provide fast and reproducible assembly over large areas while achieving high yield. The sequential size-selective assembly is a template-assisted technique where the selectivity is achieved by controlling the size of the nanopatterns and the size of the nanoparticles. The possibility of particle detachment and the factors affecting the sorting efficiency for this technique is studied. We show that a complete sorting can be achieved when the size of the vias is close to the diameter of the nanoparticles and the size distribution of the chosen nanoparticles do not overlap. In the site-selective assembly, the selectivity is achieved by having electrically isolated sites (regions) on the same chip. Electrophoresis is performed for each region in a step by step process. Selective assembly results, for up to four nanoparticles with various coating/functionalization are presented using the site-selective assembly technique. We use the electrophoresis technique to assemble the cancer specific anti-PSA, mAb-2C5 and CEA coated nanoparticles to show that the nanoparticle-based biochip can successfully measure low concentrations of various antigen. The principle of operation of these biosensors is the fluorescence based ELISA. Testing results of the nanoparticle-based biochips indicate very high specificity and the detection limit 200 times smaller than the commercially available devices for antigen detection, laying the foundation for early detection of various diseases. The optimized assembly of antibody coated particles and selective assembly techniques introduced in this work provide the necessary tools for fabricating a miniaturized nanoparticle-based in-vivo multiplex biosensor. The antigen detection results show the great potential for early detection of various diseases using the fabricated in-vivo device.

  19. Coupled Aerodynamic and Structural Sensitivity Analysis of a High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, B. H.; Walsh, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity, finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis. In a previous study, a multi-disciplinary analysis system for a high-speed civil transport was formulated to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, This paper is an extension of the previous study, in which the sensitivity analysis for the coupled aerodynamic and structural analysis problem is formulated and implemented. Uncoupled stress sensitivities computed with a constant load vector in a commercial finite element analysis code are compared to coupled aeroelastic sensitivities computed by finite differences. The computational expense of these sensitivity calculation methods is discussed.

  20. Sensitivity of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment to observe Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. M.

    Ground based telescopes have marginally observed very high energy emission (>100GeV) from gamma-ray bursts(GRB). For instance, Milagrito observed GRB970417a with a significance of 3.7 sigmas over the background. Milagro have not yet observed TeV emission from a GRB with its triggered and untriggered searches or GeV emission with a triggered search using its scalers. These results suggest the need of new observatories with higher sensitivity to transient sources. The HAWC (High Altitute Water Cherenkov) observatory is proposed as a combination of the Milagro tecnology with a very high altitude (>4000m over see level) site. The expected HAWC sensitivity for GRBs is at least >10 times the Milagro sensitivity. In this work HAWC sensitivity for GRBs is discussed for different detector configurations such as altitude, distance between PMTs, depth under water of PMTs, number of PMTs required for a trigger, etc.

  1. BCN nanotubes as highly sensitive torsional electromechanical transducers.

    PubMed

    Garel, Jonathan; Zhao, Chong; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Golberg, Dmitri; Wang, Wenlong; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2014-11-12

    Owing to their mechanically tunable electronic properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely studied as potential components for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS); however, the mechanical properties of multiwall CNTs are often limited by the weak shear interactions between the graphitic layers. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) exhibit a strong interlayer mechanical coupling, but their high electrical resistance limits their use as electromechanical transducers. Can the outstanding mechanical properties of BNNTs be combined with the electromechanical properties of CNTs in one hybrid structure? Here, we report the first experimental study of boron carbonitride nanotube (BCNNT) mechanics and electromechanics. We found that the hybrid BCNNTs are up to five times torsionally stiffer and stronger than CNTs, thereby retaining to a large extent the ultrahigh torsional stiffness of BNNTs. At the same time, we show that the electrical response of BCNNTs to torsion is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of CNTs. These results demonstrate that BCNNTs could be especially attractive building blocks for NEMS. PMID:25275220

  2. High sensitivity microchannel plate detectors for space extreme ultraviolet missions.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, K; Homma, T; Murakami, G; Yoshikawa, I

    2012-08-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) detectors have been widely used as two-dimensional photon counting devices on numerous space EUV (extreme ultraviolet) missions. Although there are other choices for EUV photon detectors, the characteristic features of MCP detectors such as their light weight, low dark current, and high spatial resolution make them more desirable for space applications than any other detector. In addition, it is known that the photocathode can be tailored to increase the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) especially for longer UV wavelengths (100-150 nm). There are many types of photocathode materials available, typically alkali halides. In this study, we report on the EUV (50-150 nm) QDE evaluations for MCPs that were coated with Au, MgF(2), CsI, and KBr. We confirmed that CsI and KBr show 2-100 times higher QDEs than the bare photocathode MCPs, while Au and MgF(2) show reduced QDEs. In addition, the optimal geometrical parameters for the CsI deposition were also studied experimentally. The best CsI thickness was found to be 150 nm, and it should be deposited on the inner wall of the channels only where the EUV photons initially impinge. We will also discuss the techniques and procedures for reducing the degradation of the photocathode while it is being prepared on the ground before being deployed in space, as adopted by JAXA's EXCEED mission which will be launched in 2013. PMID:22938284

  3. (abstract) A Miniature, High-Sensitivity, Electron-Tunneling Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Rockstad, Howard K.; Tang, Tony K.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype low-noise accelerometer has been fabricated with an electron-tunneling transducer. By measuring the tunneling current between an electrode on the proof mass and a feedback-controlled monitor electrode, very small accelerations can be detected with high responsivity. This particular prototype (10x10x1.5 mm) was designed for underwater acoustic measurement from a few hertz to 1 kHz. The measured responsivity below the fundamental device resonance at 100 Hz is roughly 1500 volts per m/s(sup 2) with a measured noise spectral density of 10(sup -6) m/s(sup 2) per root hertz or less between 30 and 300 Hz. The noise floor is controlled primarily by 1/f noise in the tunneling current although the noise floor reaches the theoretical molecular-agitation limit at 100 hertz. The responsivity and directivity of the device were measured in a standard gradient-hydrophone calibrator; the noise floor was determined in a vacuum-ionization chamber assembled from commercial off-the-shelf components; and the detailed dynamics of the proof-mass motion were examined using a heterodyne laser interferometer that was scanned across the surface and synchronously detected with respect to the excitation.

  4. Highly sensitive electronic whiskers based on patterned carbon nanotube and silver nanoparticle composite films.

    PubMed

    Takei, Kuniharu; Yu, Zhibin; Zheng, Maxwell; Ota, Hiroki; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian whiskers present an important class of tactile sensors that complement the functionalities of skin for detecting wind with high sensitivity and navigation around local obstacles. Here, we report electronic whiskers based on highly tunable composite films of carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles that are patterned on high-aspect-ratio elastic fibers. The nanotubes form a conductive network matrix with excellent bendability, and nanoparticle loading enhances the conductivity and endows the composite with high strain sensitivity. The resistivity of the composites is highly sensitive to strain with a pressure sensitivity of up to ?8%/Pa for the whiskers, which is >10× higher than all previously reported capacitive or resistive pressure sensors. It is notable that the resistivity and sensitivity of the composite films can be readily modulated by a few orders of magnitude by changing the composition ratio of the components, thereby allowing for exploration of whisker sensors with excellent performance. Systems consisting of whisker arrays are fabricated, and as a proof of concept, real-time two- and three-dimensional gas-flow mapping is demonstrated. The ultrahigh sensitivity and ease of fabrication of the demonstrated whiskers may enable a wide range of applications in advanced robotics and human-machine interfacing. PMID:24449857

  5. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; LaFreniere, D; Macintosh, B; Doyon, R

    2008-06-02

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  6. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-11-07

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  7. Is sensitivity to reward associated with the malleability of implicit inclinations toward high-fat food?

    PubMed

    Ashby, Casey R; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-08-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of positive and negative priming on implicit approach and avoidance inclinations toward high-fat food stimuli in participants high or low in reward sensitivity, using personalized unipolar variants of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998, "Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, pp. 1464-1480). Participants high in reward sensitivity showed an automatic processing bias that is characterized by a dual vulnerability of being particularly susceptible to priming of the rewarding aspects of high-fat foods, while being unaffected by priming of the negative aspects of those foods. In contrast, participants low in reward sensitivity generally showed no facilitation of implicit-approach inclinations following positive priming, but consistently showed facilitation of implicit-avoidance inclinations following negative priming. These results are consistent with the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory ( J. A. Gray & N. McNaughton, 2000, The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system, 2nd ed., New York, NY, Oxford University Press.) and suggest that the systems mediating reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity are not orthogonal, as predicted by the separable subsystems hypothesis, but can be interdependent, as predicted by the joint subsystems hypothesis. PMID:23527505

  8. A Highly Sensitive Potentiometric Strip-Test for Detecting High Charge Density Impurities in Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Youngjea; Gwon, Kihak; Shin, Jae Ho; Nam, Hakhyun; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Cha, Geun Sig

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of heparin with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) became a matter of grave concern in the medical field after many fatal responses to OSCS tainted heparin products occurred during the 2007 – 2008 period. Even though standard lab-based analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and strong anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) have proven useful for monitoring the OSCS content in heparin products, an easy-to-use, quick, portable, and cost-efficient method is still needed for on-site monitoring during and after the heparin production. In this report, a disposable strip-type electrochemical polyion sensor is described for detection of low levels of OSCS contamination in heparin. A magnetic actuator is incorporated into this simple electrode-based microfluidic device in order to create the mixing effect necessary to achieve equilibrium potential changes of the sensor within a microfluidic channel. The planar membrane electrode detector within the sample channel is prepared with a tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC)-doped PVC membrane essentially equivalent to previously reported polyanion-sensitive electrodes. When the concentration of heparin applied to the single-use strip device is 57 mg/mL (in only 20 ?l of sample), the same concentration recommended in the NMR analysis protocol for detecting OSCS in heparin, the detection limit is 0.005 wt% of OSCS, which is ca. 20 times lower than the reported detection limit of the NMR method. PMID:21500820

  9. Highly sensitive, low-voltage, organic photomultiple photodetectors exhibiting broadband response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang-Chung Chen; Shang-Chieh Chien; Guan-Lin Cious

    2010-01-01

    Highly sensitive polymer photodetectors exhibiting broad spectral responses, ranging from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared (NIR) region, are obtained after incorporating an organic NIR dye into the device active layer. As a result, high external quantum efficiencies (>7000%) and high responsivities (32.4 A\\/W) are achieved at an extremely low operating voltage (-1.5 V). The high photomultiplation could be attribute to

  10. Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Zou, Yi; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Ray T

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), that focus on small and smaller sensors have faced a bottleneck trying to balance two contradictory requirements of resonance quality factor and sensitivity. By simultaneous control of the radiation loss and optical mode volumes, we show that both requirements can be satisfied simultaneously. Microcavity sensors are designed in which resonances show highest Q ? 9300 in the bio-ambient phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as well as highest sensitivity among photonic crystal biosensors. We experimentally demonstrated mass sensitivity 8.8 atto-grams with sensitivity per unit area of 0.8 pg/mm(2). Highest sensitivity, irrespective of the dissociation constant K(d), is demonstrated among all existing label-free optical biosensors in silicon at the concentration of 0.1 ?g/ml. PMID:22748964

  11. Highly asymmetrical porphyrins with enhanced push-pull character for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kurotobi, Kei; Toude, Yuuki; Kawamoto, Kyosuke; Fujimori, Yamato; Ito, Seigo; Chabera, Pavel; Sundström, Villy; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    A porphyrin ?-system has been modulated by enhancing the push-pull character with highly asymmetrical substitution for dye-sensitized solar cells for the first time. Namely, both two diarylamino moieties as a strong electron-donating group and one carboxyphenylethynyl moiety as a strong electron-withdrawing, anchoring group were introduced into the meso-positions of the porphyrin core in a lower symmetrical manner. As a result of the improved light-harvesting property as well as high electron distribution in the anchoring group of LUMO, a push-pull-enhanced, porphyrin-sensitized solar cell exhibited more than 10% power conversion efficiency, which exceeded that of a representative highly efficient porphyrin (i.e., YD2)-sensitized solar cell under optimized conditions. The rational molecular design concept based on highly asymmetric, push-pull substitution will open the possibilities of further improving cell performance in organic solar cells. PMID:24227165

  12. Design of a high-resolution, high-sensitivity PET camera for human brains and small animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Moses; P. R. G. Virador; S. E. Derenzo; R. H. Huesman; T. F. Budinger

    1997-01-01

    The authors present design parameters for a 3-D PET camera with high sensitivity (35 cm detector ring diameter, 15 cm axial field of view) and isotropic high resolution provided by detector modules capable of depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. Detector modules are made of LSO crystals (3 mm square by 30 mm deep)-the small module size and short decay time

  13. Polycrystalline CVD diamond detector: Fast response and high sensitivity with large area

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Linyue, E-mail: liulinyue@gmail.com; Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhong, Yunhong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Ouyang, Xiaoping, E-mail: oyxp@yahoo.com; Zhang, Jianfu [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China) [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Polycrystalline diamond was successfully used to fabricate a large area (diameter up to 46 mm) radiation detector. It was proven that the developed detector shows a fast pulsed response time and a high sensitivity, therefore its rise time is lower than 5 ns, which is two times faster than that of a Si-PIN detector of the same size. And because of the large sensitive area, this detector shows good dominance in fast pulsed and low density radiation detection.

  14. High-sensitivity cytometric detection using fluidic-photonic integrated circuits with array waveguides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Lien; Kai Zhao; Yevgeny Berdichevsky; Yu-Hwa Lo

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a new detection scheme for a microfabricated flow cytometer. The fluidic-photonic integrated circuits (FPICs) that perform flow cytometric detection possess new functionality, such as on-chip excitation, time-of-flight measurement, and above all, greatly enhanced fluorescence detection sensitivity. Using the architecture of space-division waveguide demultiplexer and the technique of cross-correlation analysis, we obtained high detection sensitivity with a simple light

  15. Sensitivity of High-Resolution Simulations of Hurricane Bob (1991) to Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Braun; Wei-Kuo Tao

    2000-01-01

    The fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model is used to simulate Hurricane Bob (1991) using grids nested to high resolution (4 km). Tests are conducted to determine the sensitivity of the simulation to the available planetary boundary layer parameterizations, including the bulk aerodynamic, Blackadar, Medium-Range Forecast (MRF) model, and Burk-Thompson bound- ary layer schemes. Significant sensitivity

  16. Development of High-Sensitivity Ion Trap Ion Mobility Spectrometry Time-of-Flight Techniques

    E-print Network

    Clemmer, David E.

    Development of High-Sensitivity Ion Trap Ion Mobility Spectrometry Time-of-Flight Techniques such high-speed separation is ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). IMS is an analytical method of the approach in the field of proteomics by an on-line, three- dimensional nano-LC-ion mobility-TOF separation

  17. High-sensitivity photodetectors in CMOS technology for 3-D imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian-Franco Dalla Betta; Lucio Pancheri; David Stoppa

    2008-01-01

    We report on avalanche photodiodes in different CMOS submicron technologies. Although their electro-optical characteristics are not optimized in some respects, these photodetectors are appealing for low-cost, high-performance fully integrated systems for high-sensitivity imaging applications.

  18. Real-Time High-Sensitivity Impedance Measurement Interface for Tethered BLM Biosensor Arrays

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    Real-Time High-Sensitivity Impedance Measurement Interface for Tethered BLM Biosensor Arrays Yuksel lipid membrane (tBLM) biosensors. The circuit comprises a small number of high performance components and the current response to membrane resistance (RM) change of the tBLM biosensor is converted to voltage

  19. Opioid-mediated pain sensitivity in mice bred for high voluntary wheel running

    E-print Network

    Garland Jr., Theodore

    Opioid-mediated pain sensitivity in mice bred for high voluntary wheel running Guo Lia , Justin S to drugs that block opioid receptors. We first compared tail-flick latency between High-Runner and C female of the opioid antagonist naloxone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on tail-flick latency during the day (no wheel access). Third

  20. Thyroglobulin measurement using highly sensitive assays in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: a clinical position paper.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Clark, Penelope M; Chiovato, Luca; Duntas, Leonidas; Elisei, Rossella; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Leenhardt, Laurence; Luster, Markus; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Schott, Matthias; Seregni, Ettore; Rimmele, Herald; Smit, Jan; Verburg, Frederik A

    2014-08-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most common endocrine cancer and its incidence has increased in recent decades. Initial treatment usually consists of total thyroidectomy followed by ablation of thyroid remnants by iodine-131. As thyroid cells are assumed to be the only source of thyroglobulin (Tg) in the human body, circulating Tg serves as a biochemical marker of persistent or recurrent disease in DTC follow-up. Currently, standard follow-up for DTC comprises Tg measurement and neck ultrasound combined, when indicated, with an additional radioiodine scan. Measurement of Tg after stimulation by endogenous or exogenous TSH is recommended by current clinical guidelines to detect occult disease with a maximum sensitivity due to the suboptimal sensitivity of older Tg assays. However, the development of new highly sensitive Tg assays with improved analytical sensitivity and precision at low concentrations now allows detection of very low Tg concentrations reflecting minimal amounts of thyroid tissue without the need for TSH stimulation. Use of these highly sensitive Tg assays has not yet been incorporated into clinical guidelines but they will, we believe, be used by physicians caring for patients with DTC. The aim of this clinical position paper is, therefore, to offer advice on the various aspects and implications of using these highly sensitive Tg assays in the clinical care of patients with DTC. PMID:24743400

  1. Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ray

    show highest Q$9300 in the bio-ambient phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as well as highest sensitivity event is then transduced via optical, electrical, mechanical or magnetic means to name a few. Optical

  2. A Highly Sensitive CMOS Digital Hall Sensor for Low Magnetic Field Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue; Pan, Hong-Bin; He, Shu-Zhuan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Integrated CMOS Hall sensors have been widely used to measure magnetic fields. However, they are difficult to work with in a low magnetic field environment due to their low sensitivity and large offset. This paper describes a highly sensitive digital Hall sensor fabricated in 0.18 ?m high voltage CMOS technology for low field applications. The sensor consists of a switched cross-shaped Hall plate and a novel signal conditioner. It effectively eliminates offset and low frequency 1/f noise by applying a dynamic quadrature offset cancellation technique. The measured results show the optimal Hall plate achieves a high current related sensitivity of about 310 V/AT. The whole sensor has a remarkable ability to measure a minimum ±2 mT magnetic field and output a digital Hall signal in a wide temperature range from ?40 °C to 120 °C. PMID:22438758

  3. Ultra-high sensitivity photodetector arrays with integrated amplification and passivation nano-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Mokina, Irina A.; Liu, Feng; Wang, Sean; Zhou, Jack; Lange, Michael; Yang, Weiguo; Gardner, Patrick; Peltz, Leora; Frampton, Robert; Hunt, Jeffrey H.

    2010-02-01

    Miniaturized field-deployable spectrometers used for the rapid analysis of chemical and biological substances require high-sensitivity photo detectors. For example, in a Raman spectroscopy system, the receiver must be capable of high-gain, low-noise detection performance due to the intrinsically weak signals produced by the Raman effects of most substances. We are developing a novel, high-gain hetero-junction phototransistor (HPT) detector which employs two nano-structures simultaneously to achieve 100 times higher sensitivity than InGaAs avalanche photodiodes, the most sensitive commercially available photo-detector in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength range, under their normal operation conditions. Integrated into a detector array, this technology has application for Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), pollution monitoring, pharmaceutical manufacturing by reaction monitoring, chemical & biological transportation safety, and bio-chemical analysis in planetary exploration.

  4. Highly sensitive glucose sensors based on enzyme-modified whole-graphene solution-gated transistors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Liao, Caizhi; Mak, Chun Hin; You, Peng; Mak, Chee Leung; Yan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive glucose detections are convenient techniques for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, which require high performance glucose sensors. However, conventional electrochemical glucose sensors are not sensitive enough for these applications. Here, highly sensitive glucose sensors are successfully realized based on whole-graphene solution-gated transistors with the graphene gate electrodes modified with an enzyme glucose oxidase. The sensitivity of the devices is dramatically improved by co-modifying the graphene gates with Pt nanoparticles due to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the reaction of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of glucose near the gate. The optimized glucose sensors show the detection limits down to 0.5??M and good selectivity, which are sensitive enough for non-invasive glucose detections in body fluids. The devices show the transconductances two orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional silicon field effect transistor, which is the main reason for their high sensitivity. Moreover, the devices can be conveniently fabricated with low cost. Therefore, the whole-graphene solution-gated transistors are a high-performance sensing platform for not only glucose detections but also many other types of biosensors that may find practical applications in the near future. PMID:25655666

  5. Highly sensitive glucose sensors based on enzyme-modified whole-graphene solution-gated transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Liao, Caizhi; Mak, Chun Hin; You, Peng; Mak, Chee Leung; Yan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive glucose detections are convenient techniques for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, which require high performance glucose sensors. However, conventional electrochemical glucose sensors are not sensitive enough for these applications. Here, highly sensitive glucose sensors are successfully realized based on whole-graphene solution-gated transistors with the graphene gate electrodes modified with an enzyme glucose oxidase. The sensitivity of the devices is dramatically improved by co-modifying the graphene gates with Pt nanoparticles due to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the reaction of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of glucose near the gate. The optimized glucose sensors show the detection limits down to 0.5??M and good selectivity, which are sensitive enough for non-invasive glucose detections in body fluids. The devices show the transconductances two orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional silicon field effect transistor, which is the main reason for their high sensitivity. Moreover, the devices can be conveniently fabricated with low cost. Therefore, the whole-graphene solution-gated transistors are a high-performance sensing platform for not only glucose detections but also many other types of biosensors that may find practical applications in the near future. PMID:25655666

  6. HLA-A region in highly sensitized patients: another immune response gene region.

    PubMed

    Bu?in, D; Lindholm, T; Persson, N H

    1992-01-01

    HLA haplotypes were assigned by family typing in 94 prospective kidney transplant recipients. An HLA-A region of the HLA-A, B, DR haplotypes was found in association with high levels of antibodies against lymphocytes. There was a significant difference in the frequency of HLA-B8-positive haplotypes among the patients with regard to the distribution of HLA-A alleles (p = 0.0028); on the same haplotype the A1 and B8 alleles were found in moderately and weakly sensitized patients and HLA-A alleles other than A1 were present with B8 in highly sensitized patients. A significantly higher number of highly sensitized patients when compared with moderately sensitized patients had haplotypes with HLA-A alleles in negative linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B alleles (77 vs. 10%, p = 0.014). The results are in good agreement with a previous suggestion that the interaction between the HLA-A class I and class II regions regulates the immune response. Determination of HLA haplotypes might identify patients at high risk for broad and persisting sensitization. PMID:1303094

  7. Performance evaluation of the ECAT HRRT: an LSO-LYSO double layer high resolution, high sensitivity scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floris H P van Velden; Reina W Kloet; Fred L Buijs; Ronald Boellaard; Adriaan A Lammertsma

    2007-01-01

    The ECAT high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) is a dedicated brain and small animal PET scanner, with design features that enable high image spatial resolution combined with high sensitivity. The HRRT is the first commercially available scanner that utilizes a double layer of LSO\\/LYSO crystals to achieve photon detection with depth-of-interaction information. In this study, the performance of the commercial

  8. RAD51C-deficient cancer cells are highly sensitive to the PARP inhibitor olaparib.

    PubMed

    Min, Ahrum; Im, Seock-Ah; Yoon, Young-Kwang; Song, Sang-Hyun; Nam, Hyun-Jin; Hur, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Tae-You; O'Connor, Mark J; Kim, Woo-Ho; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2013-06-01

    A PARP inhibitor is a rationally designed targeted therapy for cancers with impaired DNA repair abilities. RAD51C is a paralog of RAD51 that has an important role in the DNA damage response. We found that cell lines sensitive to a novel oral PARP inhibitor, olaparib, had low levels of RAD51C expression using microarray analysis, and we therefore hypothesized that low expression of RAD51C may hamper the DNA repair process, resulting in increased sensitivity to olaparib. Compared with the cells with normal RAD51C expression levels, RAD51C-deficient cancer cells were more sensitive to olaparib, and a higher proportion underwent cell death by inducing G2-M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. The restoration of RAD51C in a sensitive cell line caused attenuation of olaparib sensitivity. In contrast, silencing of RAD51C in a resistant cell line enhanced the sensitivity to olaparib, and the number of RAD51 foci decreased with ablated RAD51C expression. We also found the expression of RAD51C was downregulated in cancer cells due to epigenetic changes and RAD51C expression was low in some gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, olaparib significantly suppressed RAD51C-deficient tumor growth in a xenograft model. In summary, RAD51C-deficient cancer cells are highly sensitive to olaparib and offer preclinical proof-of-principle that RAD51C deficiency may be considered a biomarker for predicting the antitumor effects of olaparib. PMID:23512992

  9. High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells with nanomaterials as counter electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoguang Mei; Benhu Fan; Kuan Sun; Jianyong Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with nanocomposites as counter electrode are reported, since nanomaterials have high specific surface and could have high catalysis. Nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and conducting PEDOT:PSS (PEDOT:PSS = poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)) were prepared by dispersing CNTs in aqueous solution of PEDOT:PSS. The dispersion is related to the pi-pi interaction between CNTs and conjugated PEDOT, which is stabilized

  10. A sensitive, simple and robust LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of seven androgen- and estrogen-related steroids in postmenopausal serum.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Bertin, Jonathan; Gonthier, Renaud; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Labrie, Fernand

    2014-10-01

    Steroids were first analyzed by immunoassay-based methods followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS or GC-MS/MS) with derivatization techniques since steroids are neutral and do not ionize at a high level using the electrospray ionization technique. We now report a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of seven steroidal compounds, i.e., estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), testosterone (Testo), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androst-5-ene-3?, 17?-diol (5-diol), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (4-dione). The system used is a UPLC-MS/MS (Qtrap 6500) system. With this method, the sample preparation is the combination of liquid-liquid extraction and a simple selective derivatization for only E1 and E2. This assay method is simple and practically eliminates potential contamination. Low quantification limits of 1pg/mL, 4pg/mL, 50pg/mL, 10pg/mL, 100pg/mL, 500pg/mL and 100pg/mL have been found, respectively for the steroids mentioned above. Without derivatization, DHT sensitivity can be as low as 4pg/mL with S/N?5. A full validation has been performed for the seven compounds in compliance with GLP and FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method development and validation. Recovery of all seven compounds in unstripped serum is similar to that in stripped serum: 72.1-84.7% for E2, 83.6-94.5% for E1, 88.2-90.3% for Testo, 82.0-90.6% for DHT, 84.9-92.0% for 5-diol, 88.1-93.8% for DHEA and 86.2-90.3% for 4-dione, respectively. A good linearity is obtained with R>0.99 for each compound within its calibration range. Accuracies of all levels of QC are within the range of 15% for all seven compounds. The between day variation coefficients are 6.1-8.9% for the low limits of quantification of all seven compounds with 0.7-6.1% for higher levels of QCs for all seven compounds. All results of other test parameters similarly meet the acceptance criteria of EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines. By comparison of GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS data for six derivatized and nonderivatized free steroids, the present data show the crucial importance to use validated assays according to the FDA guidelines to increase specificity, precision and reliability of the absolute values associated with MS/MS-based assays. This method has already been applied to series of samples from clinical trials and is ready for wide clinical use. PMID:25158021

  11. High open circuit voltages of solar cells based on quantum dot and dye hybrid-sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yujie; Zhao, Wanyu; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Fu, Wuyou, E-mail: hari@hpu.edu.cn, E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Bala, Hari, E-mail: hari@hpu.edu.cn, E-mail: fuwy56@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Cultivating Base for Key Laboratory of Environment-friendly Inorganic Materials in University of Henan Province, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China)

    2014-01-06

    A type of solar cell based on quantum dot (QD) and dye hybrid-sensitized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film electrode was designed and reported. The electrode was consisted of a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle (NP) thin film layer sensitized with CdS quantum dot (QD) and an amorphous TiO{sub 2} coated TiO{sub 2} NP thin film layer that sensitized with C106 dye. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} layer was obtained by TiCl{sub 4} post-treatment to improve the properties of solar cells. Research showed that the solar cells fabricated with as-prepared hybrid-sensitized electrode exhibited excellent photovoltaic performances and a fairly high open circuit voltage of 796?mV was achieved.

  12. High-sensitivity monitoring of micromechanical vibration using optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    E-print Network

    Schliesser, A; Rivière, R; Arcizet, O; Kippenberg, T J

    2008-01-01

    The inherent coupling of optical and mechanical modes in high finesse optical microresonators provide a natural, highly sensitive transduction mechanism for micromechanical vibrations. Using homodyne and polarization spectroscopy techniques, we achieve shot-noise limited displacement sensitivities of 10^(-19) m Hz^(-1/2). In an unprecedented manner, this enables the detection and study of a variety of mechanical modes, which are identified as radial breathing, flexural and torsional modes using 3-dimensional finite element modelling. Furthermore, a broadband equivalent displacement noise is measured and found to agree well with models for thermorefractive noise in silica dielectric cavities. Implications for ground-state cooling, displacement sensing and Kerr squeezing are discussed.

  13. High-sensitivity monitoring of micromechanical vibration using optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    E-print Network

    A. Schliesser; G. Anetsberger; R. Rivière; O. Arcizet; T. J. Kippenberg

    2008-05-12

    The inherent coupling of optical and mechanical modes in high finesse optical microresonators provide a natural, highly sensitive transduction mechanism for micromechanical vibrations. Using homodyne and polarization spectroscopy techniques, we achieve shot-noise limited displacement sensitivities of 10^(-19) m Hz^(-1/2). In an unprecedented manner, this enables the detection and study of a variety of mechanical modes, which are identified as radial breathing, flexural and torsional modes using 3-dimensional finite element modelling. Furthermore, a broadband equivalent displacement noise is measured and found to agree well with models for thermorefractive noise in silica dielectric cavities. Implications for ground-state cooling, displacement sensing and Kerr squeezing are discussed.

  14. Fabrication of elliptic microfibers with CO2 laser for high-sensitivity refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Peng; Li, Jie; Gao, Shuai; Jin, Long; Ran, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-06-15

    We propose a convenient method for achieving highly birefringent (HiBi) elliptic microfibers by use of the CO2-laser machining and the flame-brushing techniques. With optimization of fabrication process, a high birefringence of up to 2.10×10(-2) is experimentally obtained. Especially, within a polarization Sagnac interferometer acting as a refractive index (RI) sensor, both positive and abnormal negative sensitivity is measured, dependent on the geometrical variables of the HiBi microfiber. The maximum RI sensitivity is ?195,348??nm/RI-unit around RI=1.35887, which is the highest among the microfiber devices as reported, to our knowledge. PMID:24978529

  15. Chemically attached gold nanoparticle-carbon nanotube hybrids for highly sensitive SERS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beqa, Lule; Singh, Anant Kumar; Fan, Zheng; Senapati, Dulal; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2011-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been shown as one of the most powerful analytical tool with high sensitivity. In this manuscript, we report the chemical design of SERS substrate, based on gold nanoparticles of different shapes-decorated with carbon nanotube with an enhancement factor of 7.5 × 1010. Shape dependent result shows that popcorn shape gold nanoparticle decorated SWCNT is the best choice for SERS substrate due to the existence of 'lightning rod effect' through several sharp edges or corners. Our results provide a good approach to develop highly sensitive SERS substrates and can help to improve the fundamental understanding of SERS phenomena.

  16. Combined taper-and-cylinder optical fiber probes for highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Zhonghuan; Xiao, Xiaosheng; Zhou, Minjuan; Yang, Changxi

    2014-09-01

    A combined taper-and-cylinder optical fiber fabricated by simple tube-etching and modified with silver nanoparticles is developed for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing. It has the advantages of high light transmission efficiency and large interaction areas for light and silver nanoparticles. The detection of rhodamine 6G in remote mode indicates that the sensitivity could realize 10-13 M. The fiber SERS probe with high flexibility and sensitivity shows great potential for molecule detection in various sensing applications.

  17. A high sensitivity humidity sensor based on micro-ring resonator with three coupling points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shi-liang; Wang, Wen-juan; Hu, Chun-hai

    2014-12-01

    A novel high sensitivity humidity sensor based on micro-ring resonator with three coupling points (MRRTCP) is reported. Since the dielectric constant of Polyimide is highly sensible to the relative humidity of the environment, we choose the Polyimide (PI) as the moisture material. The effective refractive index of the sensing part of the sensor changes as the relative humidity of the environment changes, this leading to an obvious shift of the output spectrum. The sensing range of the relative humidity sensor is 0~100%RH, and the sensitivity is 0.0017?m/%RH, and the structure is relatively simple and could be used in micro-scale humidity sensing.

  18. High potential sensitivity in heterodyne amplitude-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Kou, Lili; Ma, Zongmin; Kamijo, Takeshi; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Jun Li, Yan

    2012-05-01

    A surface potential measurement method using amplitude-modulation and heterodyne techniques is proposed. The effect of the stray capacitance between a cantilever and a sample in Kelvin probe force microscopy and the electrostatic force spectroscopy measurements are almost completely removed, because the distance (z) dependence of the modulated electrostatic force increases from 1/z to1/z2. This method improves the sensitivity of short range forces and reduces the surface potential measurement crosstalk that is induced by topographic feedback. This method has the advantage of high potential sensitivity due to the high cantilever Q value under vacuum. Quantitative surface potential measurements are demonstrated.

  19. A Highly Sensitive Refractometric Sensor Based on Cascaded SiN Microring Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Vanessa; Lützow, Peter; Weiland, Martin; Pergande, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a highly sensitive optical sensor based on two cascaded microring resonators exploiting the Vernier effect. The architecture consists of two microrings with a slight difference in their free spectral ranges. This allows the generation of the Vernier effect for achieving ultra-high sensitivities. The sensor chip was fabricated using a silicon nitride platform and characterized with isopropanol/ethanol mixtures. A sensitivity of 0.95 nm/% was found for isopropanol concentrations in ethanol ranging from 0% to 10%. Furthermore, a collection of measurements was carried out using aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) in solutions of different concentrations, confirming a high sensitivity of 10.3 nm/% and a bulk refractive index sensitivity of 6,317 nm/RIU. A limit of detection of 3.16 × 10?6 RIU was determined. These preliminary results show the potential features of cascaded silicon nitride microring resonators for real-time and free-label monitoring of biomolecules for a broad range of applications. PMID:24169543

  20. High-sensitivity compact ultrasonic detector based on a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Amir; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-05-15

    A highly sensitive compact hydrophone, based on a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating, has been developed for the measurement of wideband ultrasonic fields. The grating exhibits a sharp resonance, whose centroid wavelength is pressure sensitive. The resonance is monitored by a continuous-wave (CW) laser to measure ultrasound-induced pressure variations within the grating. In contrast to standard fiber sensors, the high finesse of the resonance--which is the reason for the sensor's high sensitivity--is not associated with a long propagation length. Light localization around the phase shift reduces the effective size of the sensor below that of the grating and is scaled inversely with the resonance spectral width. In our system, an effective sensor length of 270 ?m, pressure sensitivity of 440 Pa, and effective bandwidth of 10 MHz were achieved. This performance makes our design attractive for medical imaging applications, such as optoacoustic tomography, in which compact, sensitive, and wideband acoustic detectors are required. PMID:21593906

  1. High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on adiabatic tapered optical fiber deposited with nanofilm by ALD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Dong, Yanhua; Wang, Tingyun

    2015-06-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thickness of Al2O3 nanofilm is coated around fiber taper precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the high refractive index of the Al2O3 nanofilm, an asymmetry Fabry-Perot like interferometer is constructed along the fiber taper. Based on the ray-optic analysis, total internal reflection happens on the nanofilm-surrounding interface. With the ambient refractive index changing, the phase delay induced by the Goos-Hänchen shift is changed. Correspondingly, the transmission resonant spectrum shifts, which can be utilized for realizing high sensitivity sensor. The high sensitivity sensor with 6008 nm/RIU is demonstrated by depositing 3000 layers Al2O3 nanofilm as the ambient refractive index is close to 1.33. This high sensitivity refractive index sensor is expected to have wide applications in biochemical sensors. PMID:26072758

  2. High-Sensitivity Troponin T: A Biomarker for Diuretic Response in Decompensated Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mário; Almeida, Sofia; Marques, Irene; Bettencourt, Paulo; Carvalho, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Background. Patients presenting with acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and positive circulating cardiac troponins were found to be a high-risk cohort. The advent of high-sensitive troponins resulted in a detection of positive troponins in a great proportion of heart failure patients. However, the pathophysiological significance of this phenomenon is not completely clear. Objectives. The aim of this study is to determine the early evolution and clinical significance of high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) in ADHF. Methods. Retrospective, secondary analysis of a prospective study including 100 patients with ADHF. Results. Globally, high-sensitivity troponin T decreased from day 1 to day 3 (P = 0,039). However, in the subgroup of patients who remained decompensated no significant differences in hsTnT from day 1 to day 3 were observed (P = 0,955), whereas in successfully compensated patients a significant reduction in hsTnT levels was observed (P = 0,025). High-sensitivity troponin T decrease was correlated with NTproBNP reduction (P = 0,007). Patients with hsTnT increase had longer length of stay (P = 0,033). Conclusions. Episodes of ADHF are associated with transient increases in the blood levels of hsTnT that are reduced with effective acute episode treatment. The decrease in hsTnT can translate less myocardial damage along with favourable ADHF treatment. PMID:25247106

  3. Polymer Microring Resonators for High-Sensitivity and Wideband Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sung-Liang; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Ling, Tao; Ashkenazi, Shai; Guo, L. Jay

    2010-01-01

    Polymer microring resonators have been exploited for high-sensitivity and wideband photoacoustic imaging. To demonstrate high-sensitivity ultrasound detection, high-frequency photoacoustic imaging of a 49-?m-diameter black bead at an imaging depth of 5 mm was imaged photoacoustically using a synthetic 2-D array with 249 elements and a low laser fluence of 0.35 mJ/cm2. A bandpass filter with a center frequency of 28 MHz and a bandwidth of 16 MHz was applied to all element data but without signal averaging, and a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.4 dB was obtained. A wideband detector response is essential for imaging reconstruction of multiscale objects, e.g., various sizes of tissues, by using a range of characteristic acoustic wavelengths. A simulation of photoacoustic tomography of beads shows that objects with their boundaries characteristic of high spatial frequencies and the inner structure primarily of low spatial frequency components can be faithfully reconstructed using such a detector. Photoacoustic tomography experiments of 49- and 301-?m-diameter beads were presented. A high resolution of 12.5 ?m was obtained. The boundary of a 301-?m bead was imaged clearly. The results demonstrated that the high sensitivity and broadband response of polymer microring resonators have potential for high resolution and high-fidelity photoacoustic imaging. PMID:19942534

  4. Highly sensitive liquid level monitoring system utilizing polymer fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Marques, Carlos A F; Peng, Gang-Ding; Webb, David J

    2015-03-01

    A novel and highly sensitive liquid level sensor based on a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (POFBG) is experimentally demonstrated. Two different configurations are studied and both configurations show the potential to interrogate liquid level by measuring the strain induced in a POFBG embedded in a silicone rubber diaphragm, which deforms due to hydrostatic pressure variations. The sensor exhibits a highly linear response over the sensing range and a good repeatability. For comparison, a similar sensor using a FBG inscribed in silica fiber is fabricated, which displays a sensitivity that is a factor of 5 smaller than the POFBG. The temperature sensitivity is studied and a novel multi-sensor arrangement proposed which has the potential to provide level readings independent of temperature and the liquid density. PMID:25836830

  5. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

  6. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.

    1997-12-30

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10{sup {minus}13} atm cc/s. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces back streaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium. 2 figs.

  7. Millimeter wave broadband high sensitivity detectors with zero-bias Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changfei, Yao; Ming, Zhou; Yunsheng, Luo; Conghai, Xu

    2015-06-01

    Two broadband detectors at W-band and D-band are analyzed and designed with low barrier Schottky diodes. The input circuit of the detectors is realized by low and high impedance microstrip lines, and their output circuit is composed of a radio frequency (RF) bandstop filter and a tuning line for optimum reflection phase of the RF signal. S-parameters of the complete circuit are exported to a circuit simulator for voltage sensitivity analysis. For the W band detectors, the highest measured voltage sensitivity is 11800 mV/mW at 100 GHz, and the sensitivity is higher than 2000 mV/mW in 80–104 GHz. Measured tangential sensitivity (TSS) is higher than —38 dBm, and its linearity is superior than 0.99992 at 95 GHz. For the D band detector, the highest measured voltage sensitivity is 1600 mV/mW, and the typical sensitivity is 600 mV/mW in 110–170 GHz. TSS is higher than ?29 dBm, and its linearity is superior than 0.99961 at 150 GHz.

  8. Highly sensitive DNA hybridization detection with single nanoparticle flash-lamp darkfield microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhiqin; Cheng, Jing; Cheng, Xiaodong; He, Yan; Yeung, Edward S

    2012-07-01

    We developed a novel method for counting single gold nanoparticles in free solution with flash-lamp darkfield microscopy and demonstrated that it could be applied to highly sensitive DNA hybridization detection based on target DNA induced AuNP aggregation and counts reduction. PMID:22353800

  9. Biosensor based on an enzyme modified electrode for highly-sensitive measurement of polyphenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arkadi Eremenko; Alexander Makower; Wen Jin; Petra Rüger; Frieder Scheller

    1995-01-01

    The use of glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus for highly sensitive measurement of polyphenols, based on bioelectrocatalytic analyte recycling, has been demonstrated. A polyphenol (analyte) is oxidized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode at an anodic potential and is regenerated by immobilized glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the presence of glucose, resulting in an amplified response. The dynamic properties

  10. Real time detection of live microbes using a highly sensitive bioluminescent nitroreductase probe.

    PubMed

    Wong, Roger H F; Kwong, Thomas; Yau, Kwok-Hei; Au-Yeung, Ho Yu

    2015-03-14

    A highly sensitive and selective nitroreductase probe, showing a rapid and strong bioluminescence enhancement (>100-fold in 5 minutes), and its initial application in the real time detection of both Gram positive and Gram negative live bacteria and monitoring of their growth has been reported. PMID:25680085

  11. Quantitation of Rat Lacrimal Secretion: a Novel Sandwich ELISA with High Sensitivity

    E-print Network

    Quantitation of Rat Lacrimal Secretion: a Novel Sandwich ELISA with High Sensitivity SANDHYA SANGHI®cantly on current methods, a rat- and mouse-speci®c sandwich ELISA was developed. For this purpose, chickens, and subsequently optimized for use in a sandwich ELISA. Both antisera detected a wide range of different rat tear

  12. High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sorkhabi, Rana; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Ahoor, Mohamadhossein; Nahaei, Mehriar; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the alterations in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and Tumor Necrosis factor alpha levels in the blood serum of pseudoexfoliation syndrome cases (a disease with similar risk factors as systemic endothelial dysfunction diseases) and to compare the results with healthy individuals. Methods High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and Tumor Necrosis factor alpha levels were determined in 30 cases with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and in 30 control patients of the same age and sex, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The levels of high- sensitivity C-reactive protein and Tumor Necrosis factor alpha in the blood serum of patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (3.95±0.88 mg/l, 3.32±0.99 pg/ml, respectively) were significantly higher than in the control group (2.51±0.79mg/l, 0.43±0.15 pg/ml, respectively) p=0.001, p=0.002. Conclusion The results suggest that increased levels of high- sensitivity C-reactive protein and Tumor Necrosis factor alpha, as markers of inflammation and peripheral endothelial dysfunction in pseudoexfoliation syndrome, may be risk factors for systemic and ocular manifestations of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. PMID:23386939

  13. Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 DESIGN OF BOSSED SILICON MEMBRANES FOR HIGH SENSITIVITY MICROPHONE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    electrical insulation. The mechanical waves are transformed into an electrical signal by the silicon deals with the design optimization of new high sensitivity microphones in SOI technology for gas sensing or aerospace applications. The use of Silicon On Insulator (SOI) substrates enable the achievement of thin

  14. High sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy O enriched carbon dioxide between 5850 and 7000 cm-1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 High sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy of 18 O enriched carbon dioxide between 5850: 15 Number of figures: 10 Key words: Carbon dioxide, CO2, Isotopologue, Global modelling, Cavity Ring More than 19700 transitions belonging to eleven isotopologues of carbon dioxide have been assigned

  15. Highly Sensitive Nitric Oxide Detection Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Jeffrey

    explosives3 so detection of trace amounts of explosive, for example in security screening, also requiresHighly Sensitive Nitric Oxide Detection Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Manish Dubey, Steven and direct detection of NO at these levels is important. NO is also a decomposition product of several

  16. Low cost 24GHz patch array antenna for high sensitivity EM sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Bae Jung; Dae-young Park; Chang Won Jung

    2010-01-01

    A low cost patch array antenna for high sensitivity electromagnetic (EM) sensor is presented. The operating frequency band of the antenna is 24.05~24.25 GHz. Array structure is the symmetrical pattern by Chebyshev polynomial and the feed point is located in the middle of the array. Also, the gain of the array antenna can be increased by controlling the inclined angle

  17. A novel high-throughput on-wafer electromechanical sensitivity characterization system for piezoresistive cantilevers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Tosolini; L. G. Villanueva; F. Perez-Murano; J. Bausells

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present the development of a new set-up that allows on-wafer sensitivity characterization of piezoresistive cantilevers. In this way we reduce considerably the testing time compared to the techniques available up to date but at the same time we maintain a high measurement precision. Moreover it can be easily used for characterization of broad types of batch

  18. Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ray

    Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing Wei for chemical and bio-sensing. Linear L-type microcavities are considered. In contrast to cavities with small mode volumes, but low quality factors for bio-sensing, we showed increasing the length

  19. High Sensitivity Biosensing Based on Symmetric Coupled Cavity Structure of Photonic Crystal Microcavities

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ray

    demonstrate that coupled cavity-waveguide architectures can lead to enhanced experimentally measured detection with the cavity length, thereby reducing the resonance linewidth and thus increasing the ability to detect smallHigh Sensitivity Biosensing Based on Symmetric Coupled Cavity Structure of Photonic Crystal

  20. High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes

    E-print Network

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman, this frequency modulation results in an ampli- tude modulation of the CARS signal, I =I 1 -I 2 , that can, tightly fo- cused, and raster scanned pump and Stokes laser beams, whose difference frequency is rapidly

  1. A high sensitivity SOI electric-field sensor with novel comb-shaped microelectrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pengfei Yang; Chunrong Peng; Haiyan Zhang; Shiguo Liu; Dongming Fang; Shanhong Xia

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive electric-field sensor with novel comb-shaped microelectrodes. The sensor is based on modulating an incident field with a grounded shutter and measuring the induced charge of sensing electrodes. Owing to the shutter covering the side wall of the sensing electrodes, the fringing fields are no longer a factor that reduces the performance of the sensor.

  2. High-Sensitivity Analysis of Human Plasma Proteome by Immobilized Isoelectric Focusing Fractionation Coupled to Mass

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    750 µg of human pituitary proteins.13 Human blood plasma is a complex body fluid and is believedHigh-Sensitivity Analysis of Human Plasma Proteome by Immobilized Isoelectric Focusing is separated by in-gel IEF, then the entire strip is cut into a set of gel sections. Proteins in each gel

  3. Development of a high sensitivity monitor for radionuclides characterization. Final report, August 1995--April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the development of a high sensitivity monitor for radiation, and the feasibility of applying a new radiation imaging concept developed for medical research to soil contamination. The concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor technology as radiation detectors. They are applicable to all types of radiation including tritium.

  4. Incorporation of beams into bossed diaphragm for a high sensitivity and overload micro pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhongliang; Zhao, Yulong; Sun, Lu; Tian, Bian; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a piezoresistive absolute micro pressure sensor, which is of great benefits for altitude location. In this investigation, the design, fabrication, and test of the sensor are involved. By analyzing the stress distribution of sensitive elements using finite element method, a novel structure through the introduction of sensitive beams into traditional bossed diaphragm is built up. The proposed configuration presents its advantages in terms of high sensitivity and high overload resistance compared with the conventional bossed diaphragm and flat diaphragm structures. Curve fittings of surface stress and deflection based on ANSYS simulation results are performed to establish the equations about the sensor. Nonlinear optimization by MATLAB is carried out to determine the structure dimensions. The output signals in both static and dynamic environments are evaluated. Silicon bulk micromachining technology is utilized to fabricate the sensor prototype, and the fabrication process is discussed. Experimental results demonstrate the sensor features a high sensitivity of 11.098 ?V/V/Pa in the operating range of 500 Pa at room temperature, and a high overload resistance of 200 times overpressure to promise its survival under atmosphere. Due to the excellent performance above, the sensor can be applied in measuring the absolute micro pressure lower than 500 Pa.

  5. Incorporation of beams into bossed diaphragm for a high sensitivity and overload micro pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhongliang; Zhao, Yulong; Sun, Lu; Tian, Bian; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a piezoresistive absolute micro pressure sensor, which is of great benefits for altitude location. In this investigation, the design, fabrication, and test of the sensor are involved. By analyzing the stress distribution of sensitive elements using finite element method, a novel structure through the introduction of sensitive beams into traditional bossed diaphragm is built up. The proposed configuration presents its advantages in terms of high sensitivity and high overload resistance compared with the conventional bossed diaphragm and flat diaphragm structures. Curve fittings of surface stress and deflection based on ANSYS simulation results are performed to establish the equations about the sensor. Nonlinear optimization by MATLAB is carried out to determine the structure dimensions. The output signals in both static and dynamic environments are evaluated. Silicon bulk micromachining technology is utilized to fabricate the sensor prototype, and the fabrication process is discussed. Experimental results demonstrate the sensor features a high sensitivity of 11.098 ?V/V/Pa in the operating range of 500 Pa at room temperature, and a high overload resistance of 200 times overpressure to promise its survival under atmosphere. Due to the excellent performance above, the sensor can be applied in measuring the absolute micro pressure lower than 500 Pa. PMID:23387684

  6. Mechanoreceptors in calanoid copepods: designed for high sensitivity T.M. Weatherbya

    E-print Network

    Lenz, Petra H.

    velocities as well as in frequency response. A study of these receptors was initiated to elucidate structure in the dendritic membrane. The rigidity probably contributes to the high frequency sensitivity, and termination, are small and they operate at spatial and temporal scales in the millimeter and millisecond ranges. Thus

  7. Design evaluation of A-PET: A high sensitivity animal PET camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Surti; J. S. Karp; A. E. Perkins; R. Freifelder; G. Muehllehner

    2003-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown that PET is capable of obtaining in vivo metabolic images of small animals. These serve as models to study the development and progress of diseases within humans. Imaging small animals requires not only image resolution better than 2 mm, but also high sensitivity in order to image ligands with low specific activity or

  8. Observation of hard X-ray pulses with a highly sensitive streak camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hara; Y. Tanaka; H. Kitamura; T. Ishikawa

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive X-ray streak camera system, which synchronously operates with the RF signal of the SPring-8 storage ring. The streak camera was installed at an undulator beamline of SPring-8, and the beam loading effect for various electron bunch structures (filling pattern) has been observed. The camera has also been operated as a timing monitor for a

  9. A range-resolved bistatic lidar using a high-sensitive CCD-camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yamaguchi; A. Nomura; Y. Saito; T. Kano

    1992-01-01

    Until now monostatic type lidar systems have been mainly utilized in the field of lidar measurements of the atmosphere. We propose here a range-resolved bistatic lidar system using a high-sensitive cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera. This system has the ability to measure the three dimensional distributions of aerosol, atmospheric density, and cloud by processing the image data of the

  10. Transgenic elimination of high-affinity antidepressant and cocaine sensitivity in the presynaptic

    E-print Network

    Blakely, Randy

    Transgenic elimination of high-affinity antidepressant and cocaine sensitivity in the presynaptic. Psychostimulants, such as cocaine and 3,4-methylene- dioxymethamphetamine (i.e., "ecstasy"), also impact 5-HT and cocaine is eliminated. Our animals possess a modified copy of the 5- HT transporter (i.e., SERT, slc6a4

  11. A highly sensitive near-infrared fluorescent probe for cysteine and homocysteine in living cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanpeng; Liu, Renpu; Chu, Ranran; Wang, Xu; Xu, Kehua; Tang, Bo

    2013-10-14

    A near-infrared fluorescent probe (Cy-O-CHO) for the detection of endogenous Cys/Hcy in living cells was designed and synthesized. Cy-O-CHO exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity to Cys/Hcy under physiological conditions with a detection limit of 7.9 nM for Cys. PMID:23989532

  12. A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We disagree with Mr. Linn?s interpretation of our paper, ?High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness?.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

  13. Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts E. Comini, G for publication 16 July 2002 Gas sensors have been fabricated using the single-crystalline SnO2 nanobelts to environmental polluting species like CO and NO2 , as well as to ethanol for breath analyzers and food control

  14. Label-free biosensing with high sensitivity in dual-core microstructured polymer optical fibers

    E-print Network

    Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

    -silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547­1549 (1996). 2. M. A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detectionLabel-free biosensing with high sensitivity in dual-core microstructured polymer optical fibers

  15. A Low Noise and High Dynamic Charge Sensitive Amplifier-Shaper associated with Silicon Strip

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Low Noise and High Dynamic Charge Sensitive Amplifier-Shaper associated with Silicon Strip (Equivalent Noise Charge) of 412 electrons rms. 75% of the total noise is generated by the small value of the feedback resistor chosen to avoid pile up phenomenon due to the 1E5 hits/s occupancy rate. A cross

  16. A highly sensitive fluorogenic chemodosimeter for rapid visual detection of phosgene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuanjun; Wu, Zhisheng; Yang, Yuhui; Han, Shoufa

    2012-02-11

    A highly sensitive chemodosimeter was identified from a panel of rhodamine derivatives for rapid and visual detection of phosgene with a detection limit of 50 nM triphosgene. Visual detection of gaseous phosgene with chemodosimeter absorbed paper strips was demonstrated. PMID:22227622

  17. High sensitivity mapping of Ti distributions in Hadean zircons T. Mark Harrison , Axel K. Schmitt

    E-print Network

    High sensitivity mapping of Ti distributions in Hadean zircons T. Mark Harrison , Axel K. Schmitt Editor: R.W. Carlson Available online 13 May 2007 Abstract Detrital zircons as old as nearly 4.4 Ga from there exists no known rock record. Ti concentrations of Hadean zircons indicate a spectrum of crystallization

  18. High-throughput antibody screening using high-sensitivity microplate cytometry

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    , particularly cell-based methods.TTP LabTech's Mirrorball® offers equivalent data with minimal change the necessary functionality and sensitivity to perform these assays. Mirrorball® configuration Mirrorball microplate cytometers, Mirrorball offers simultaneous laser scanning, a capability that results in higher

  19. A novel optical method providing for high-sensitivity and high-throughput biomolecular interaction analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory D. VanWiggeren; Maggie A. Bynum; John P. Ertel; Stanley Jefferson; Karla M. Robotti; Evan P. Thrush; Douglas M. Baney; Kevin P. Killeen

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel method for label-free detection of biomolecular interactions based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon. The method enables simultaneous and extremely sensitive analysis of a large number of samples arranged in a 2D array format on the sensor surface. To realize the approach, a prototype of the optical sensor was constructed. With this sensor, interaction kinetics

  20. High Sensitivity to Auxin is a Common Feature of Hairy Root 1

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen Hui; Davioud, Elisabeth; David, Chantal; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène; Tempé, Jacques; Guern, Jean

    1990-01-01

    The responses to auxin of Lycopersicon esculentum roots transformed by (Tl+Tr)-DNA of the Ri plasmid of agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834 and Catharanthus trichophyllus roots transformed by the (Tl+Tr)-DNA, and by Tl- or Tr- DNA alone of the same bacterial strain were compared to that of their normal counterparts. The transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts was measured as a function of the concentration of exogenous naphthalene acetic acid. The sensitivity to auxin expressed by this response was shown to be independent of the measurement conditions and of the basal polarization of isolated protoplasts. According to this electrical response, as well as to the modulation by auxin of proton excretion by root tips and root tip elongation, roots transformed by (Tl+Tr) DNA are 100 to 1000 times more sensitive to exogenous auxin than normal roots, as is the case with normal and transformed roots from Lotus corniculatus (WH Shen, A Petit, J Guern, J Tempé [1988] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 3417-3421). Further-more, transformed roots of C. trichophyllus are not modified in their sensitivity to fusicoccin, illustrating the specificity of the modification of the auxin sensitivity. Roots transformed by the Tr-DNA alone showed the same sensitivity to auxin as normal roots, whereas the roots transformed by the Tl-DNA alone exhibited an auxin sensitivity as high as the roots transformed by (Tl+Tr)-DNA. It was concluded that the high sensitivity to auxin is controlled by the Tl-DNA in agropine type Ri plasmids. PMID:16667748

  1. Highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensor based on silver nanowire-elastomer nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Amjadi, Morteza; Pichitpajongkit, Aekachan; Lee, Sangjun; Ryu, Seunghwa; Park, Inkyu

    2014-05-27

    The demand for flexible and wearable electronic devices is increasing due to their facile interaction with human body. Flexible, stretchable and wearable sensors can be easily mounted on clothing or directly attached onto the body. Especially, highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensors are needed for the human motion detection. Here, we report highly flexible, stretchable and sensitive strain sensors based on the nanocomposite of silver nanowire (AgNW) network and PDMS elastomer in the form of the sandwich structure (i.e., AgNW thin film embedded between two layers of PDMS). The AgNW network-elastomer nanocomposite based strain sensors show strong piezoresistivity with tunable gauge factors in the ranges of 2 to 14 and a high stretchability up to 70%. We demonstrate the applicability of our high performance strain sensors by fabricating a glove integrated with five strain sensors for the motion detection of fingers and control of an avatar in the virtual environment. PMID:24749972

  2. Optical fiber sensor based on capillary wall for highly-sensitive refractive index measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Xinpu; Qian, Siyu

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports a temperature-compensated fiber-optic refractive index (RI) sensor for high sensitivity measurement. The sensor includes a piece of fused-silica capillary (FSC) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), both of which are sandwiched by single-mode fibers (SMFs). When light from the lead-in SMF enters into the wall of the FSC that acts as a RI sensing element, multiple modes are excited and interfere to form fringes collected by the lead-out SMF. The FBG is fabricated adjunct to the FSC to compensate its temperature sensitivity. The FSC based sensor prototype is fabricated and sealed in a flow cell to test its performance. Experimental results show that the sensor is highly sensitive to RI, and the sensitivity in the tested RI range from 1.33 to 1.35 is 698.52 nm/RIU and from 1.35 to 1.37 is 1061.78 nm/RIU. The temperature sensitivity of the FSC is -0.173 nm/°C, which is compensated by the FBG. This capillary wall based sensor can be further developed as a miniaturized fiber optic biosensor for biochemical application.

  3. Identification of Behavioral and Metabolic Factors Predicting Adiposity Sensitivity to Both High Fat and High Carbohydrate Diets in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Even, Patrick Christian; Nadkarni, Nachiket A.; Chaumontet, Catherine; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Individuals exhibit a great variation in their body weight (BW) gain response to a high fat diet. Identification of predictive factors would enable better directed intervention toward susceptible individuals to treat obesity, and uncover potential mechanisms for treatment targeting. We set out to identify predictive behavioral and metabolic factors in an outbred rat model. 12 rats were analyzed in metabolic cages for a period of 5?days during both high carbohydrate diet (HCD), and transition to a high fat diet (HFD). After a recovery period, rats were given a HFD for 6?days to identify those resistant or sensitive to it according to BW gain. Rats were dissected at the end of the study to analyze body composition. This showed that small differences in final BW hid large variations in adiposity, allowing separation of rats into a second classification (final adiposity). Since these rats had been fed a HCD during most of their life, under which most of the adiposity presumably evolved, we considered this carbohydrate-sensitivity or -resistance. Meal size and meal number were found to be good predictors of sensitivity to a HFD, intensity of motor activity and ingestion speed good predictors of sensitivity to a HCD. Rats that were sensitive to the HCD could be resistant to the HFD and vice versa. This points to four types of individuals (carbohydrate/fat resistant/sensitive) though our sample size inhibited deeper investigation of this. This contributes to the idea that to be “obesity prone” does not necessarily need a HFD, it can also happen under a HCD, and be a hidden adiposity change with stable BW. PMID:22203804

  4. Highly sensitive and fast responding CO sensor using SnO 2 nanosheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Sup Moon; Hae-Ryong Kim; Graeme Auchterlonie; John Drennan; Jong-Heun Lee

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive and fast responding CO sensor was fabricated from a sheet-like SnO2. The SnO sheets were prepared by a room temperature reaction between SnCl2, hydrazine and NaOH, and they were subsequently oxidized into SnO2 sheets at high temperature (600°C). The morphology and size of the SnO2 sheets could be controlled during the formation of SnO, which influence the

  5. A high-sensitivity search for extraterrestrial intelligence at lambda 18 CM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tarter; J. Cuzzi; D. Black; T. Clark

    1980-01-01

    A targeted high-sensitivity search for narrow-band signals near a wavelength of 18 cm has been conducted using the 91-m radiotelescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The search included 201 nearby solar-type stars and achieved a frequency resolution of 5.5 Hz over a 1.4-MHz bandwidth. This high spectral resolution was obtained through a non-real-time reduction procedure using a Mark I

  6. Capabilities of high-sensitivity spectral fluorescence-lifetime imaging for resolving spectroscopically overlapping species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Crawford; Lloyd Davis; Brian Canfield

    2009-01-01

    The ability to separate the contributions from spectroscopically overlapping fluorophores has enabled significant breakthroughs in cellular imaging. However, commercial microscopes for this purpose generally use analog light detection with least-squares curve-fitting analysis. Improvements in sensitivity are possible and will lead to new applications. To this end, we have constructed a microscope with a high-throughput Brewster-prism spectrometer and four high-quantum efficiency

  7. Performance evaluation of high sensitive DRE camera for cultural heritage in subdued light conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanzo Ugawa; Takeo Azuma; Taro Imagawa; Yusuke Okada

    2010-01-01

    We proposed a color video generation method for spatio-temporal high resolution video imaging in dark conditions. The method (dual resolutions and exposures(DRE) method) consists of a high sensitive imaging with employing long time exposure and a subsequent spatio-temporal decomposition process which suppresses a motion blur caused by the long time exposure. Imaging step captures RGB color video sequences with different

  8. Label-free highly sensitive detection of (small) molecules by wavelength interrogation of integrated optical chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Cottier; M. Wiki; G. Voirin; H. Gao; R. E. Kunz

    2003-01-01

    A bio-chemical sensor system based on wavelength interrogation of integrated optical sensor chips is presented. The combination of a non-mechanical scanning approach with sensor chips of high quality and stability allows fast and accurate multi-channel measurements. The emphasis of the present paper lies in presenting detailed design considerations, and in reporting the application of the system to several high sensitivity

  9. Designing optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) receivers for high sensitivity and maximally flat frequency response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukunda B. Das; Jau-Wen Chen; Eugene John

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines previously overlooked, but a highly effective, optimization approach to designing transimpedance OEIC receivers based on heterojunction bipolar and field-effect transistors (HBT's & HFET's) with high sensitivity and maximally flat frequency response. It is shown that the 3-dB bandwidth of amplifiers involving single-transistor common-emitter (CE) and common-source (CS) input stages, and the corresponding cascoded input stages can be

  10. Diagnosis of Canine Leptospirosis by a Highly Sensitive FRET-PCR Targeting the lig Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Sudhir K.; Gao, Dongya; Verma, Ashutosh; Wang, Chengming; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Canine leptospirosis is underdiagnosed due to its wide spectrum of clinical presentations and the lack of a rapid and sensitive test for the accurate diagnosis of acute and chronic infections. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive and specific fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-PCR to detect common pathogenic leptospires in dogs, including Leptospira interrogans serovars Autumnalis, Canicola, Copenhageni (Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup) and Pomona, and Leptospira kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa. This PCR targets the lig genes, exclusively found in the pathogenic Leptospira species but not in saprophytic species (L. biflexa). A robust, high-stringency step-down real-time platform was coupled to the highly specific detection of leptospiral DNA by fluorescently labeled FRET probes. This enabled the detection of a single copy of the lig gene in a PCR containing DNA from up to 50 µL canine blood or 400 µL urine. Sensitivity determination by use of limiting serial dilutions of extracted leptospiral DNA indicated that the lig FRET-PCR we established was almost 100-fold more sensitive than the widely accepted lipL32 SYBR assay and 10-fold more sensitive than a 16S rRNA TaqMan assay. Application of this method to 207 dogs with potential leptospiral infection enabled us to diagnose three cases of canine leptospirosis characterized by low amounts of leptospiral DNA in body fluids. Detection of canine leptospirosis with the lig FRET-PCR was more sensitive with the lig FRET-PCR than with the 16S rRNA TaqMan PCR, which detected only 2 of the 3 cases, and the lipL32 SYBR PCR, which detected none of the 3 dogs with leptospirosis. PMID:24586833

  11. Controllable explosion: fine-tuning the sensitivity of high-energy complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Zeng, Dihao; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Cui, Yan; Zhang, Tong-Lai; Li, Zhi-Min; Jin, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Tuning the sensitivity of energetic materials has always been a research topic of interest. A lot of attention has been paid on changing the ligands previously used in traditional high energy density materials (HEDMs). Recently, we have stepped further along this path by thinking from another angle, i.e., changing the metal centre. Herein, we report 4 transition metal complexes bearing the 1,5-diaminotetrazole ligand, which have similar structures but drastically different sensitivities. These differences are apparently due to the different metal centres used. PMID:26088966

  12. Polarimetric fiber grating biosensor for in-situ high-sensitive intracellular density measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Liu, Yu; Chen, Nan-Kuang; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    High sensitivity biological sample measurements have been achieved by using a 12o tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG). Human acute leukemia cells with different intracellular densities and refractive index (RI) ranging from 1.3342 to 1.3344 were clearly discriminated in-situ by using the differential transmission spectrum between two orthogonal polarizations for the last guided mode resonance before "cut-off", with an amplitude variation sensitivity of 1.8×104 dB/RIU and a limit of detection of 2×10-5 RIU. The technique is inherently temperature-insensitive.

  13. Compact highly sensitive multi-species airborne mid-IR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Dirk; Weibring, Petter; Walega, James G.; Fried, Alan; Spuler, Scott M.; Taubman, Matthew S.

    2015-04-01

    We report on the development and airborne field deployment of a mid-IR laser-based spectrometer. The instrument was configured for the simultaneous in situ detection of formaldehyde (CH2O) and ethane (C2H6). Numerous mechanical, optical, electronic, and software improvements over a previous instrument design resulted in reliable highly sensitive airborne operation with long stability times yielding 90 % airborne measurement coverage during the recent air quality study over the Colorado Front Range, FRAPPÉ 2014. Airborne detection sensitivities of ~15 pptv (C2H6) and ~40 pptv (CH2O) were generally obtained for 1 s of averaging for simultaneous detection.

  14. Highly sensitive capacitive immunosensor based on porous silicon-polyaniline structure: Bias dependence on specificity.

    PubMed

    Betty, C A

    2009-10-15

    Porous silicon/polyaniline (PS/PANI) heterostructure has been prepared electrochemically which provides label free, real-time electrical detection with high sensitivity for the specific model biomolecules (mouse IgG/goat antimouse IgG). The sensor structures based on PS/PANI were prepared easily by directly immobilizing the biomolecule through gluteraldehyde coupler. These structures were used to detect specific biomolecule down to at least a picomolar concentration range and were found to be reusable. High sensitivity and easy processability of PS/PANI structures could be understood by the change in surface charge of the silicon channels in the PS structure that occurs by PANI deposition whilst providing covalent binding with biomolecules with its naturally occurring NH groups. The space charge layer in the PS/PANI channels get further modified by the surface charge change created by the specific analyte-antibody binding giving rise to high sensitivity. It was found that a substrate bias in the accumulation region of porous silicon gives the optimum sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19674886

  15. A novel light tracing system with high-precision and high-sensitivity sensors setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Wu, Pin Yi; Tsai, Jen Min; Tseng, Yu Hung; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Hwang, Jiann-Lih

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a novel light source tracing system, which is comprised of a light-tracing board, with four photo-sensors of different incline angles, correspondingly disposed on its four edges, which are adjustable according to the movement range of the light source in order to achieve light-tracing purposes. This system introduces the algorithm of four-edge-sensors with servo motors in each site to improve sensor's sensitivity. The measurement values of light perception can be feedback to the programmable logic controller by wireless transceiver module. After proportional-integral-derivative operation, the system can obtain the situation of light source. In a normal mode, the light source movement range is large, the range of the incline angle of the light sensors are also set to large to obtain wide detection angle. But in a locking mode, the incline angle of the light sensing plane decreases, thus, the measurement range reduces, and the sensitivity is higher.

  16. Plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive rats decreases during high salt intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myrtle Thierry-Palmer; Teclemicael K. Tewolde; Camille Forté; Min Wang; Mohamed A. Bayorh; Nerimiah L. Emmett; Jolanda White; Keri Griffin

    2002-01-01

    Dahl salt-sensitive rats, but not salt-resistant rats, develop hypertension in response to high salt intake. We have previously shown an inverse relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and blood pressure of Dahl salt-sensitive rats during high salt intake. In this study, we report on the relationship between high salt intake and plasma 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25-(OH)2D) concentration of Dahl salt-sensitive

  17. Novel sensor architecture for high-throughput and high-sensitivity biomolecular interaction analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Bynum; G. D. VanWiggeren; E. Thrush; S. Jefferson; K. Robotti; D. M. Baney; K. Killeen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional label-free sensors for biomolecular interaction sensing suffer from two principal shortcomings: poor sensitivity vis-a-vis labeled techniques, and limited throughput. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed a novel sensor based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon. The sensor can detect up to 110 simultaneous independent interactions at 10 Hz with a root-mean-square noise level of 2.6 times 10-8 RIU\\/Hz05.

  18. Hyper-high-sensitivity wash-free magnetoreduction assay on biomolecules using high-Tc superconducting quantum interference devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chieh, J. J.; Yang, S. Y.; Jian, Z. F.; Wang, W. C.; Horng, H. E.; Yang, H. C.; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we develop a platform for assaying biomolecules involving the measurement of alternating current (ac) magnetoreduction of magnetic reagent mixed with a detected sample. The magnetic reagent contains magnetic nanoparticles coated with a given kind of antibody, which associates with conjugated biomolecules. Then, the biomolecules can be quantitatively detected by measuring the ac magnetoreduction of magnetic reagent. To achieve hyper-high-sensitivity assay, a system utilizing a high-transition-temperature rf superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) as a sensor to probe the magnetoreduction of reagent due to the association between biomolecules and magnetic nanoparticles. Examples to assay multiactive epitope, single-active epitope, and small molecules are given to demonstrate the validity of the assay platform, as well as the hyper-high sensitivity.

  19. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, T.; Jensen, R.; Christensen, M. K.; Chorkendorff, I. [Department of Physics, Danish National Research Foundation's Center for Individual Nanoparticle Functionality (CINF), Technical University of Denmark, Building 312, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, T.; Hansen, O. [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-07-15

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m/{Delta}m > 2500. The system design is superior to conventional batch and flow reactors with accompanying product detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry or gas chromatography not only due to the high sensitivity, fast temperature response, high mass resolution, and fast acquisition time of mass spectra but it also allows wide mass range (0-5000 amu in the current configuration). As a demonstration of the system performance we present data from ammonia oxidation on a Pt thin film showing resolved spectra of OH and NH{sub 3}.

  20. Phase-stepping technique for highly sensitive microscopic surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chonglei; Wang, Rong; Wang, Yijia; Zhu, Siwei; Min, Changjun; Yuan, X-C

    2014-02-10

    In this paper, the phase-stepping technique is applied to improve a phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on differential interferometry between focused radially polarized and azimuthally polarized cylindrical vector beams. Detailed analysis is presented for the phase-stepping method, and the least squares unwrapping algorithm is employed to detect the phase distribution in correspondence to the refractive index of sample. Benefiting from the phase-stepping technique, both the measurement speed and sensitivity are improved significantly. The proposed sensor maintains high sensitivity of 9.4×10-7??RIU/1° and a wide dynamic range of 0.35 RIU simultaneously. Furthermore, the real-time binding reaction process of bovine serum albumin with antibody is monitored to verify the system for potential biological applications. PMID:24663261

  1. Highly sensitive curvature sensor based on a multicladding fiber sandwiched dual no-core fibers structure.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanhui; Ma, Lin; Kang, Zexin; Bai, Yunlong; Yin, Bin; Jian, Shuisheng

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a simple, compact, and highly sensitive optical fiber curvature sensor. It consists of dual no-core fibers for coupling energy from the lead-in single-mode fiber (SMF), and recoupling the energy into the lead-out SMF. The sensing section is constituted by multicladding fiber with a length of 5 cm. In the experiment, the spectrum shows a blueshift, and the energy corresponding to the resonant wavelength shows a cosine series with a bending of the sensing segment. The curvature sensitivity around the wavelength of 1550 nm shows -39.02 nm/m(-1) within the curvature range from 0.3 to 2.14 m(-1). The temperature sensitivity is 78.2 pm/°C in the temperature range of 10 °C-60 °C. It implies the possibility of temperature measurement. PMID:25322222

  2. Spectroscopy of highly-ionized atoms using position-sensitive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, K. W.; Livingston, A. E.; Serpa, F. G.; Zacarias, A. S.; Berry, H. G.; Dunford, R. W.; Kanter, E.; Cheng, S.; Suleiman, J.

    1992-09-01

    New results of atomic structure and atomic lifetime measurements in highly-ionized few-electron atoms obtained using position-sensitive detection of extreme ultraviolet emission from excited fast ions are reported. Data are presented from experiments run at the Notre Dame Tandem Accelerator and at the Argonne ATLAS facility using beam foil spectroscopy with a photon-counting position-sensitive imaging detector. The results include excited state lifetimes in Si XI and Si XII involving both resonance transitions and Rydberg transitions, spectra of highly-ionized He-like, Li-like, and Be-like nickel including comparisons of electron capture and excitation processes for charge selected beams, and spectra and lifetimes in highly-charged bromine ions for both allowed and forbidden transitions.

  3. Spectroscopy of highly-ionized atoms using position-sensitive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukla, K. W.; Livingston, A. E.; Serpa, F. G.; Zacarias, A. S.; Berry, H. G.; Dunford, R. W.; Kanter, E.; Cheng, S.; Suleiman, J.; Curtis, L. J.; Träbert, E.

    1993-06-01

    We report new results of atomic structure and atomic lifetime measurements in highly-ionized few electron atoms obtained using position-sensitive detection of extreme ultraviolet emission from excited fast ions. Data is presented from experiments run at the Notre Dame Tandem Accelerator and at the Argonne ATLAS facility using beam-foil spectroscopy with a photon-counting position-sensitive imaging detector. The results include excited state lifetimes in Si XI and Si XII involving both resonance transitions and Rydberg transitions, spectra of high-ionized He-like, Li-like, and Be-like nickel including comparisons of electron capture and excitation processes for charge selected beams and spectra and lifetimes in highly-charged bromine ions for both allowed and forbidden transitions.

  4. Highly sensitive and selective gas sensor using hydrophilic and hydrophobic graphenes.

    PubMed

    Some, Surajit; Xu, Yang; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Qin, Hongyi; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-01-01

    New hydrophilic 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with various oxygen functional groups were employed to maintain high sensitivity in highly unfavorable environments (extremely high humidity, strong acidic or basic). Novel one-headed polymer optical fiber sensor arrays using hydrophilic GO and hydrophobic reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were carefully designed, leading to the selective sensing of volatile organic gases for the first time. The two physically different surfaces of GO and rGO could provide the sensing ability to distinguish between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dichloromethane (MC), respectively, which is the most challenging issue in the area of gas sensors. The eco-friendly physical properties of GO allowed for faster sensing and higher sensitivity when compared to previous results for rGO even under extreme environments of over 90% humidity, making it the best choice for an environmentally friendly gas sensor. PMID:23736838

  5. R and D of crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for high sensitivity double ? decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-12-30

    Experiments to search for neutrinoless double beta decay enters to a new phase when a sensitivity on the level of T{sub 1/2}?10{sup 26}?10{sup 28} yr is required. Scintillating low temperature detectors possess important properties required for high-sensitivity double beta decay experiments: presence of elements of interest, high energy resolution and detection efficiency, low level of background thanks to excellent particle discrimination ability. High concentration of isotope of interest and as low as possible radioactive contamination are important requirements to crystal scintillators. Other crucial issues are maximal output of detectors and minimal loss of enriched materials. Prospects of several scintillation materials, enriched in isotopes promising for double beta decay experiments, are discussed.

  6. High-sensitivity temperature sensing using an implanted single nitrogen-vacancy center array in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Feng, Fupan; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Jihong; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Guo, Liping; Zhang, Wenlong; Song, Xuerui; Guo, Guoping; Fan, Lele; Zou, Chongwen; Lou, Liren; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guanzhong

    2015-04-01

    We presented a high-sensitivity temperature detection using an implanted single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center array in diamond. The high-order thermal Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (TCPMG) method was performed on the implanted single NV center in diamond in a static magnetic field. We demonstrated that under small detunings for the two driving microwave frequencies, the oscillation frequency of the induced fluorescence of the NV center equals approximately the average of the detunings of the two driving fields. On the basis of the conclusion, the zero-field splitting D for the NV center and the corresponding temperature could be determined. The experiment showed that the coherence time for the high-order TCPMG was effectively extended, particularly up to 108 ? s for TCPMG-8, about 14 times the value 7.7 ? s for thermal Ramsey method. This coherence time corresponded to a thermal sensitivity of 10.1 mK/Hz1 /2. We also detected the temperature distribution on the surface of a diamond chip in three different circumstances by using the implanted NV center array with the TCPMG-3 method. The experiment implies the feasibility of using implanted NV centers in high-quality diamonds to detect temperatures in biology, chemistry, materials science, and microelectronic systems with high sensitivity and nanoscale resolution.

  7. The Sensitivity of HAWC to High-Mass Dark Matter Annihilations

    E-print Network

    A. U. Abeysekara; R. Alfaro; C. Alvarez; J. D. Alvarez; R. Arceo; J. C. Arteaga-Velazquez; H. A. Ayala Solares; A. S. Barber; B. M. Baughman; N. Bautista-Elivar; J. Becerra Gonzalez; E. Belmont; S. Y. BenZvi; D. Berley; M. Bonilla Rosales; J. Braun; R. A. Caballero-Lopez; K. S. Caballero-Mora; A. Carraminana; M. Castillo; U. Cotti; J. Cotzomi; E. de la Fuente; C. De Leon; T. DeYoung; R. Diaz Hernandez; L. Diaz-Cruz; J. C. Diaz-Velez; B. L. Dingus; M. A. DuVernois; R. W. Ellsworth; S. F. E.; D. W. Fiorino; N. Fraija; A. Galindo; F. Garfias; M. M. Gonzalez; J. A. Goodman; V. Grabski; M. Gussert; Z. Hampel-Arias; J. P. Harding; C. M. Hui; P. Huentemeyer; A. Imran; A. Iriarte; P. Karn; D. Kieda; G. J. Kunde; A. Lara; R. J. Lauer; W. H. Lee; D. Lennarz; H. Leon Vargas; E. C. Linares; J. T. Linnemann; M. Longo; R. Luna-Garcia; A. Marinelli; H. Martinez; O. Martinez; J. Martinez-Castro; J. A. J. Matthews; J. McEnery; E. Mendoza Torres; P. Miranda-Romagnoli; E. Moreno; M. Mostafa; L. Nellen; M. Newbold; R. Noriega-Papaqui; T. Oceguera-Becerra; B. Patricelli; R. Pelayo; E. G. Perez-Perez; J. Pretz; C. Riviere; D. Rosa-Gonzalez; J. Ryan; H. Salazar; F. Salesa; A. Sandoval; M. Schneider; S. Silich; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; K. Sparks Woodle; R. W. Springer; I. Taboada; P. A. Toale; K. Tollefson; I. Torres; T. N. Ukwatta; L. Villasenor; T. Weisgarber; S. Westerhoff; I. G. Wisher; J. Wood; G. B. Yodh; P. W. Younk; D. Zaborov; A. Zepeda; H. Zhou; K. N. Abazajian

    2014-12-09

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a wide field-of-view detector sensitive to gamma rays of 100 GeV to a few hundred TeV. Located in central Mexico at 19 degrees North latitude and 4100 m above sea level, HAWC will observe gamma rays and cosmic rays with an array of water Cherenkov detectors. The full HAWC array is scheduled to be operational in Spring 2015. In this paper, we study the HAWC sensitivity to the gamma-ray signatures of high-mass (multi- TeV) dark matter annihilation. The HAWC observatory will be sensitive to diverse searches for dark matter annihilation, including annihilation from extended dark matter sources, the diffuse gamma-ray emission from dark matter annihilation, and gamma-ray emission from non-luminous dark matter subhalos. Here we consider the HAWC sensitivity to a subset of these sources, including dwarf galaxies, the M31 galaxy, the Virgo cluster, and the Galactic center. We simulate the HAWC response to gamma rays from these sources in several well-motivated dark matter annihilation channels. If no gamma-ray excess is observed, we show the limits HAWC can place on the dark matter cross-section from these sources. In particular, in the case of dark matter annihilation into gauge bosons, HAWC will be able to detect a narrow range of dark matter masses to cross-sections below thermal. HAWC should also be sensitive to non-thermal cross-sections for masses up to nearly 1000 TeV. The constraints placed by HAWC on the dark matter cross-section from known sources should be competitive with current limits in the mass range where HAWC has similar sensitivity. HAWC can additionally explore higher dark matter masses than are currently constrained.

  8. Application of a sensitivity analysis technique to high-order digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paduano, James D.; Downing, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis technique for multiloop flight control systems is studied. This technique uses the scaled singular values of the return difference matrix as a measure of the relative stability of a control system. It then uses the gradients of these singular values with respect to system and controller parameters to judge sensitivity. The sensitivity analysis technique is first reviewed; then it is extended to include digital systems, through the derivation of singular-value gradient equations. Gradients with respect to parameters which do not appear explicitly as control-system matrix elements are also derived, so that high-order systems can be studied. A complete review of the integrated technique is given by way of a simple example: the inverted pendulum problem. The technique is then demonstrated on the X-29 control laws. Results show linear models of real systems can be analyzed by this sensitivity technique, if it is applied with care. A computer program called SVA was written to accomplish the singular-value sensitivity analysis techniques. Thus computational methods and considerations form an integral part of many of the discussions. A user's guide to the program is included. The SVA is a fully public domain program, running on the NASA/Dryden Elxsi computer.

  9. Faecal elastase 1: a novel, highly sensitive, and specific tubeless pancreatic function test.

    PubMed Central

    Löser, C; Möllgaard, A; Fölsch, U R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Indirect pancreatic function tests available today are unreliable for clinical practice in early chronic pancreatitis due to their low sensitivity in mild and moderate exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. AIM: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and practicability of faecal elastase 1 determination in patients with mild, moderate, and severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency categorised according to the secretin-caerulein test as "gold standard'. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Faecal and duodenal elastase 1 concentration (commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)), faecal chymotrypsin activity, faecal fat analysis, and the secretin-caerulein test were performed on 44 patients with mild (n = 8), moderate (n = 14), and severe (n = 22) exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and 35 patients with gastrointestinal diseases of non-pancreatic origin. Fifty healthy volunteers were studied as normal controls. Morphological examinations were carried out to definitely confirm or exclude chronic pancreatitis. RESULTS: With a cut off of 200 micrograms elastase 1/g stool the sensitivity was 63% for mild, 100% for moderate, 100% for severe, and 93% for all patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and specificity was 93%. Values for chymotrypsin were 64% (sensitivity) and 89% (specificity). Significant (p < 0.001) correlations were found for faecal and duodenal elastase with duodenal lipase, amylase, trypsin, volume, and bicarbonate output. Individual day to day variations of faecal elastase 1 concentrations were very low (mean CV = 15%) and sample storage at room temperature is possible for at least one week. CONCLUSIONS: Faecal elastase 1 determination proved to be a highly sensitive and specific tubeless pancreatic function test. PMID:8944569

  10. Development and validation of ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of lenalidomide in rabbit and human plasma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lenalidomide (LND) is a potent novel thalidomide analog which demonstrated remarkable clinical activity in treatment of multiple myeloma disease via a multiple-pathways mechanism. Validated sensitive method with high throughput is required for the determination of lenalidomide for pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetic studies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is a preeminent analytical tool for rapid biomedical analysis. Results A simple, highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of LND in rabbit and human plasma. After a simple protein precipitation using methanol, LND and carbamazepine (IS) were separated on Acquity UPLC BEH™ C18 column (50?×?2.1 mm, i.d. 1.7 ?m, Waters, USA) using a mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:water:formic acid (65:35:0.1%, v/v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. LND and IS were eluted at 0.71 and 1.92 min, respectively. The mass spectrometric determination was carried out using an electrospray interface operated in the positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 260.1?>?149.0 and m/z 237.0?>?179.0 were used to quantify LND and IS, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.23–1000 ng/mL with a limit of quantitation of 0.23 ng/mL. All the validation parameters were in the ranges acceptable by the guidelines of analytical method validation. Conclusion The proposed UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid and highly sensitive, and hence it could be reliable for pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic study in both animals and humans. PMID:23316845

  11. A highly sensitive, simple determination of serum iron using chromazurol B.

    PubMed

    Garcic, A

    1979-06-01

    A highly sensitive, simple determination of serum iron and binding capacity is described. FeIII/FeII reacts with chromazurol B (CAB) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMA), the resulting substance being a highly coloured ternary complex. Maximal absorbance of the complex occurs at pH 4.6--5.5 at 630 nm. Lambert Beer's law holds between 0 and 80 mumol Fe/l. Molar absorptivity is 1.68 X 10(5) 1 . mol-1 . cm-1 at 630 nm. Interference by other serum components is negligible even at high concentrations. PMID:37005

  12. Short-term selection for acute ethanol tolerance and sensitization from an F 2 population derived from the high and low alcohol-sensitive selectively bred rat lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Radcliffe; Pequita Bludeau; Xin-Sheng Deng; V. Gene Erwin; Richard A. Deitrich

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the inbred high and low alcohol-sensitive rat (IHAS1 and ILAS1) strains. The original development of the strains involved selection for ethanol sensitivity based on duration of the loss of the righting reflex (LORR) after a standard dose of ethanol. This paper confirms some of these QTL using a short-term selection procedure

  13. An UPLC-MS-based metabolomics investigation on the anti-fatigue effect of salidroside in mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chaoyang; Hu, Liming; Tao, Guanjun; Lv, Wenping; Wang, Hongxin

    2015-02-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-based metabolomic approach was developed to study influence of salidroside, an anti-fatigue ingredient from Rhoiola rosea, on urinary metabolic profiling of rats to a single dose of 180 mg/kg per day. Unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal pre-projection to latent structures discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA) on metabolite profiling revealed obvious differentiation between the salidroside treated groups and controls in both positive and negative ion modes. Eleven urinary metabolites contributing to the differentiation were identified as anti-fatigue biomarkers: N-acetylserotonin, 2-Methoxyestrone 3-glucuronide, Taurine, Melatonin, Sorbitol, Geranyl diphosphate, Z-nucleotide, Cortisone, Dihydrocortisol, Sebacic acid, Pregnenolone sulfate. The physiological significance of these biomarkers is discussed. The work showed that metabolomics is a powerful tool in studying the anti-fatigue effects of natural compound salidroside on multiple targets in vivo. PMID:25543286

  14. Determination of Zilpaterol in Horse Urine from Withdrawal Day 0 to Day 21 by UPLC-MS/MS and ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zilpaterol is a beta-adrenergic agonist that is approved in the United States, Mexico and South Africa as a feed additive to increase weight gain and improve feed efficiency of cattle. Beta-adrenergic agonists have a long history of illicit and off-label use in livestock, competitive sport animals,...

  15. An UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of cell wall phenolics in Brassica napus seeds.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Andrej; Henning, Anja; Böttcher, Christoph; Tissier, Alain; Strack, Dieter

    2013-02-13

    The seed residues left after pressing of rapeseed oil are rich in proteins and could be used for human nutrition and animal feeding. These press cakes contain, however, antinutritives, with fiber being the most abundant one. The analysis of fiber phenolic component (localized to seed coat cell walls) is, therefore, important in breeding and food quality control. However, correct structure and content assignments of cell wall-bound phenolics are challenging due to their low stability during sample preparation. Here, a novel LC-MS/MS-based method for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of 66 cell wall-bound phenolics and their derivatives is described. The method was internally standardized, corrected for degradation effects during sample preparation, and cross-validated with a well-established UV-based procedure. This approach was successfully applied to the analysis of cell wall phenolic patterns in different B. napus cultivars and proved to be suitable for marker compound search as well as assay development. PMID:23265434

  16. Ultrasensitive UPLC-MS-MS Method for the Quantitation of Etheno-DNA Adducts in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shiwei; Li, Haibin; Wang, Shaojia; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Shusheng; Zhang, Rongjie; Sun, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are generated from the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous lipid peroxidation. We and others have previously reported that 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine (?dA) and 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine (?dC) are present in human urine and can be utilized as biomarkers of oxidative stress. In this study, we report a new ultrasensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the analysis of ?dA and ?dC in human urine, capable of detecting 0.5 fmol ?dA and 0.3 fmol ?dC in 1.0 mL of human urine, respectively. For validation of the method, 20 human urine samples were analyzed, and the results revealed that the mean levels of ?dA and ?dC (SD) fmol/µmol creatinine are 5.82 ± 2.11 (range 3.0–9.5) for ?dA and 791.4 ± 328.8 (range 116.7–1264.9) for ?dC in occupational benzene-exposed workers and 2.10 ± 1.32 (range 0.6–4.7) for ?dA and 161.8 ± 200.9 (range 1.8–557.5) for ?dC in non-benzene-exposed workers, respectively. The ultrasensitive detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:25337939

  17. Highly sensitive and specific colorimetric detection of cancer cells via dual-aptamer target binding strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Fan, Daoqing; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Erkang

    2015-11-15

    Simple, rapid, sensitive and specific detection of cancer cells is of great importance for early and accurate cancer diagnostics and therapy. By coupling nanotechnology and dual-aptamer target binding strategies, we developed a colorimetric assay for visually detecting cancer cells with high sensitivity and specificity. The nanotechnology including high catalytic activity of PtAuNP and magnetic separation & concentration plays a vital role on the signal amplification and improvement of detection sensitivity. The color change caused by small amount of target cancer cells (10 cells/mL) can be clearly distinguished by naked eyes. The dual-aptamer target binding strategy guarantees the detection specificity that large amount of non-cancer cells and different cancer cells (10(4) cells/mL) cannot cause obvious color change. A detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL with detection linear range from 10 to 10(5) cells/mL was reached according to the experimental detections in phosphate buffer solution as well as serum sample. The developed enzyme-free and cost effective colorimetric assay is simple and no need of instrument while still provides excellent sensitivity, specificity and repeatability, having potential application on point-of-care cancer diagnosis. PMID:26042871

  18. Very broad-band seismic instrumentation for ground and marine high-sensitivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Reale, Andrea; Santoli, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) is a very broad-band high-sensitivity accelerometer, result of a long activity devoted to the development of instruments for space use (room temperature gradiometers ad accelerometers). It can equally well be used for geophysical studies. It is the underlying component of a wide variety of instruments, as a high-sensitivity seismometers (sensitivity 10-10 g-?Hz-- under 10-1 Hz) and field seismometers, gravimeters and gradiometers (which employ a sensitivity 108 g-?Hz- under 10 Hz). Many instruments have been built and operated, in a variety of environments, including the multi-parameter sea-floor station GEOSTAR (GEophysical and Oceanographic Station for Abyssal Research). Following a description of the accelerometer, a review of the various types of measurements will be given, discussing its many applications. These range from seismic measurements to environment characterization (e.g., underground cavities reconnaissance) to geodetic studies. This instrument is therefore suited for use in wide warning networks for e.g. seismic monitoring: its integration into such networks will be discussed.

  19. absorption sensor for sensitive temperature and species measurements in high-temperature gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearrin, R. M.; Ren, W.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    A continuous-wave laser absorption diagnostic, based on the infrared CO2 bands near 4.2 and 2.7 ?m, was developed for sensitive temperature and concentration measurements in high-temperature gas systems using fixed-wavelength methods. Transitions in the respective R-branches of both the fundamental ? 3 band (~2,350 cm-1) and combination ? 1 + ? 3 band (~3,610 cm-1) were chosen based on absorption line-strength, spectral isolation, and temperature sensitivity. The R(76) line near 2,390.52 cm-1 was selected for sensitive CO2 concentration measurements, and a detection limit of <5 ppm was achieved in shock tube kinetics experiments (~1,300 K). A cross-band, two-line thermometry technique was also established utilizing the R(96) line near 2,395.14 cm-1, paired with the R(28) line near 3,633.08 cm-1. This combination yields high temperature sensitivity (?E" = 3,305 cm-1) and expanded range compared with previous intra-band CO2 sensors. Thermometry performance was validated in a shock tube over a range of temperatures (600-1,800 K) important for combustion. Measured temperature accuracy was demonstrated to be better than 1 % over the entire range of conditions, with a standard error of ~0.5 % and µs temporal resolution.

  20. PARP inhibition sensitizes childhood high grade glioma, medulloblastoma and ependymoma to radiation.

    PubMed

    van Vuurden, Dannis G; Hulleman, Esther; Meijer, Olga L M; Wedekind, Laurine E; Kool, Marcel; Witt, Hendrik; Vandertop, Peter W; Würdinger, Thomas; Noske, David P; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Cloos, Jacqueline

    2011-12-01

    Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) is a protein involved in single strand break repair. Recently, PARP inhibitors have shown considerable promise in the treatment of several cancers, both in monotherapy and in combination with cytotoxic agents. Synthetic lethal action of PARP inhibitors has been observed in tumors with mutations in double strand break repair pathways. In addition, PARP inhibition potentially enhances sensitivity of tumor cells to DNA damaging agents, including radiotherapy. Aim of this study is to determine the radiosensitizing properties of the PARP inhibitor Olaparib in childhood medulloblastoma, ependymoma and high grade glioma (HGG). Increased PARP1 expression was observed in medulloblastoma, ependymoma and HGG, as compared to non-neoplastic brain tissue. Pediatric high grade glioma, medulloblastoma and ependymoma gene expression profiling revealed that high PARP1 expression is associated with poor prognosis. Cell growth inhibition assays with Olaparib resulted in differential sensitivity, with IC50 values ranging from 1.4 to 8.4 µM, irrespective of tumor type and PARP1 protein expression. Sensitization to radiation was observed in medulloblastoma, ependymoma and HGG cell lines with subcytotoxic concentrations of Olaparib, which coincided with persistence of double strand breaks. Combining PARP inhibitors with radiotherapy in clinical studies in childhood high grade brain tumors may improve therapeutic outcome. PMID:22184287

  1. Highly-sensitive and label-free indium phosphide biosensor for early phytopathogen diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Alberto L D; Janissen, Richard; Santos, Clelton A; Peroni, Luis A; Stach-Machado, Dagmar R; de Souza, Alessandra A; de Souza, Anete P; Cotta, Mônica A

    2012-01-01

    The development of highly-sensitive and label-free operating semiconductor-based, biomaterial detecting sensors has important applications in areas such as environmental science, biomedical research and medical diagnostics. In the present study, we developed an Indium Phosphide (InP) semiconductor-based resistive biosensor using the change of its electronic properties upon biomaterial adsorption as sensing element. To detect biomaterial at low concentrations, the procedure of functionalization and covalent biomolecule immobilization was also optimized to guarantee high molecule density and high reproducibility which are prerequisite for reliable results. The characterization, such as biomolecular conjugation efficiency, detection concentration limits, receptor:ligand specificity and concentration detection range was analyzed by using three different biological systems: i) synthetic dsDNA and two phytopathogenic diseases, ii) the severe CB-form of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and iii) Xylella fastidiosa, both causing great economic loss worldwide. The experimental results show a sensitivity of 1 pM for specific ssDNA detection and about 2 nM for the specific detection of surface proteins of CTV and X. fastidiosa phytopathogens. A brief comparison with other semiconductor based biosensors and other methodological approaches is discussed and confirms the high sensitivity and reproducibility of our InP based biosensor which could be suitable for reliable early infection diagnosis in environmental and life sciences. PMID:22538056

  2. Sensitive and selective tumor imaging with novel and highly activatable fluorescence strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urano, Yasuteru

    2008-02-01

    Nowadays, several tumor imaging modalities such as MRI, PET and fluorescence imaging techniques have been extensively investigated. One of the central problems associated with these conventional tumor-targeted imaging methods, however, is the fact that the signal contrast between tumor and surrounding tissues relies on the efficient targeting to the tumor and the rapid sequestration or excretion of unbound agent. Among these modalities, only fluorescence imaging technique has a significant feature, in that great signal activation could be achieved which potentially leads to the selective imaging of cancer with higher tumor-to-background ratio. In this symposium, I will present some examples of fluorescence cancer imaging based on highly activatable strategies with using precisely designed novel fluorescence probes. Recently, we developed highly sensitive fluorescence probes for ?-galactosidase which is applicable for living cell system. By utilizing these probes, we could establish a novel and highly activatable strategy for sensitive and selective optical imaging of imbedded tumor in the peritoneum. We took a two step procedure in that a lectin is used to localize ?-galactosidase to cancer cells as an activating enzyme, and subsequent administration of a highly-sensitive fluorescence probe for the enzyme have afforded remarkable fluorescence activation selectively in tumor mass. Since the tumor-targeted enzyme can catalyze numerous substrate turnovers, a great number of fluorescent molecules could be produced and hence the rapid and sensitive detection of tumor in vivo with high tumor-to-background ratio could be achieved. Moreover, the consequent close-up investigation using fluorescence microscopy revealed that cancer microfoci as small as 200 ?m could be successfully visualized.

  3. Robust emergent climate phenomena associated with the high-sensitivity tail.

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, George A.; Levy, Michael Nathan; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2010-12-01

    Because the potential effects of climate change are more severe than had previously been thought, increasing focus on uncertainty quantification is required for risk assessment needed by policy makers. Current scientific efforts focus almost exclusively on establishing best estimates of future climate change. However, the greatest consequences occur in the extreme tail of the probability density functions for climate sensitivity (the 'high-sensitivity tail'). To this end, we are exploring the impacts of newly postulated, highly uncertain, but high-consequence physical mechanisms to better establish the climate change risk. We define consequence in terms of dramatic change in physical conditions and in the resulting socioeconomic impact (hence, risk) on populations. Although we are developing generally applicable risk assessment methods, we have focused our initial efforts on uncertainty and risk analyses for the Arctic region. Instead of focusing on best estimates, requiring many years of model parameterization development and evaluation, we are focusing on robust emergent phenomena (those that are not necessarily intuitive and are insensitive to assumptions, subgrid-parameterizations, and tunings). For many physical systems, under-resolved models fail to generate such phenomena, which only develop when model resolution is sufficiently high. Our ultimate goal is to discover the patterns of emergent climate precursors (those that cannot be predicted with lower-resolution models) that can be used as a 'sensitivity fingerprint' and make recommendations for a climate early warning system that would use satellites and sensor arrays to look for the various predicted high-sensitivity signatures. Our initial simulations are focused on the Arctic region, where underpredicted phenomena such as rapid loss of sea ice are already emerging, and because of major geopolitical implications associated with increasing Arctic accessibility to natural resources, shipping routes, and strategic locations. We anticipate that regional climate will be strongly influenced by feedbacks associated with a seasonally ice-free Arctic, but with unknown emergent phenomena.

  4. High efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells exploiting sponge-like ZnO nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Adriano; Lamberti, Andrea; Gazia, Rossana; Bianco, Stefano; Manfredi, Diego; Shahzad, Nadia; Cappelluti, Federica; Ma, Shuai; Tresso, Elena

    2012-12-21

    Sponge-like nanostructured ZnO layers were successfully employed as photoanodes for the fabrication of highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. The sponge-like ZnO layers were obtained by room temperature radio-frequency magnetron sputtering deposition of metallic zinc, followed by thermal oxidation treatment in an ambient atmosphere. The porous films show a 3D branched nanomorphology, with a feature similar to natural coral. The morphological and optical properties of these layers were studied through field emission scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area measurements, ultraviolet-visible transmittance and absorption spectroscopy. The sponge-like ZnO film presents a high density of branches, with a relatively high specific surface area value, and fine optical transmittance. The morphology of the porous structure provides a high number of adsorption sites for the anchoring of sensitizer molecules, making it suitable for the fabrication of ZnO-based photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The light harvesting performance of the sensitized semiconductor was evaluated by current density vs. voltage measurements, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, open circuit voltage decay and impedance spectroscopy. The modelling of the electrical characteristics evidences a higher electron lifetime and a longer charge diffusion length, if compared to standard TiO(2) nanoparticle based photoanodes. For ZnO films with a thickness up to 18 ?m, a photoconversion efficiency as high as 6.67% and a maximum value of the incident photon-to-electron collection efficiency equal to 87% at 530 nm were demonstrated. PMID:23001064

  5. A high sensitivity ultralow temperature RF conductance and noise measurement setup

    SciTech Connect

    Parmentier, F. D.; Mahe, A.; Denis, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Glattli, D. C.; Placais, B.; Feve, G. [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS UMR 8551, Universite P. et M. Curie, Universite D. Diderot 24, rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-01-15

    We report on the realization of a high sensitivity RF noise measurement scheme to study small current fluctuations of mesoscopic systems at milli-Kelvin temperatures. The setup relies on the combination of an interferometric amplification scheme and a quarter-wave impedance transformer, allowing the measurement of noise power spectral densities with gigahertz bandwidth up to five orders of magnitude below the amplifier noise floor. We simultaneously measure the high frequency conductance of the sample by derivating a portion of the signal to a microwave homodyne detection. We describe the principle of the setup, as well as its implementation and calibration. Finally, we show that our setup allows to fully characterize a subnanosecond on-demand single electron source. More generally, its sensitivity and bandwidth make it suitable for applications manipulating single charges at GHz frequencies.

  6. A high sensitivity ultralow temperature RF conductance and noise measurement setup.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, F D; Mahé, A; Denis, A; Berroir, J-M; Glattli, D C; Plaçais, B; Fève, G

    2011-01-01

    We report on the realization of a high sensitivity RF noise measurement scheme to study small current fluctuations of mesoscopic systems at milli-Kelvin temperatures. The setup relies on the combination of an interferometric amplification scheme and a quarter-wave impedance transformer, allowing the measurement of noise power spectral densities with gigahertz bandwidth up to five orders of magnitude below the amplifier noise floor. We simultaneously measure the high frequency conductance of the sample by derivating a portion of the signal to a microwave homodyne detection. We describe the principle of the setup, as well as its implementation and calibration. Finally, we show that our setup allows to fully characterize a subnanosecond on-demand single electron source. More generally, its sensitivity and bandwidth make it suitable for applications manipulating single charges at GHz frequencies. PMID:21280842

  7. Quasi-one-dimensional miniature multiferroic magnetic field sensor with high sensitivity at zero bias field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yajie; Gillette, Scott M.; Fitchorov, Trifon; Jiang, Liping; Hao, Hongbo; Li, Jiheng; Gao, Xuexu; Geiler, Anton; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.

    2011-07-01

    A miniature, quasi one dimensional, magnetic field sensor based on magnetoelectric coupling is presented. The magnetoelectric sensor makes use of the d31 coupling mode between a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate tube and FeNi magnetostrictive wire. The sensors demonstrate high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio, and low noise floor at zero DC magnetic bias field and at low frequency resulting in smaller, lower power consumption, and volumetric efficiency. Experiments indicate a zero bias field sensitivity of 16.5 mV/Oe at 100 Hz stemming from a magnetoelectric coefficient of 1.65 V/cm-Oe. The results are quantitatively described by a theoretical model of laminate composites.

  8. Graphene-coated microfiber Bragg grating for high-sensitivity gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Yao, Baicheng; Zhang, Anqi; Rao, Yunjiang; Wang, Zegao; Cheng, Yang; Gong, Yuan; Zhang, Weili; Chen, Yuanfu; Chiang, K S

    2014-03-01

    A graphene coated microfiber Bragg grating (GMFBG) for gas sensing is reported in this Letter. Taking advantage of the surface field enhancement and gas absorption of a GMFBG, we demonstrate an ultrasensitive approach to detect the concentration of chemical gas. The obtained sensitivities are 0.2 and 0.5 ppm for NH3 and xylene gas, respectively, which are tens of times higher than that of a GMFBG without graphene for tiny gas concentration change detection. Experimental results indicate that the GMFBG-based NH3 gas sensor has fast response due to its highly compact structure. Such a miniature fiber-optic element may find applications in high sensitivity gas sensing and trace analysis. PMID:24690715

  9. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pipino, Andrew Charles Rule (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-11-16

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  10. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Pipino, Andrew C. R. (Gaithersburg, MD); Hudgens, Jeffrey W. (Rockville, MD)

    1999-08-24

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  11. Controllable-density nanojunctions as SERS substrates for highly sensitive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiliang; Zhu, Weiyue

    2015-04-01

    A facile and efficient approach was designed to fabricate highly sensitive and reproducible SERS-active substrates based on the controllable-density nanojunctions with ink-jet printing technique. In this system, polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were ink-jet printed on substrates and subsequently dipped into sodium chloride solution. The capped molecules on the AgNPs surfaces were detached with the competitive absorption of chloride, and spontaneously triggered to form the controllable-density nanojunctions among the AgNPs aggregates. These formed AgNPs nanojunctions demonstrated excellent controllability, reproducibility, and a detection limit of 1 × 10-11 M level for Rhodamine 6G probe molecules. This strategy could be expected to construct multifarious SERS sensors for highly sensitive detection in chemical and biological fields.

  12. A high resolution and high sensitivity proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jordan; S. Haidacher; G. Hanel; E. Hartungen; L. Märk; H. Seehauser; R. Schottkowsky; P. Sulzer; T. D. Märk

    2009-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) developed about 10 years ago is used today in a wide range of scientific and technical fields allowing real-time on-line measurements of volatile organic compounds in air with a high sensitivity and a fast response time. Most instruments employed so far use quadrupole filters to analyze product ions generated in the reaction drift tube. Due to

  13. The Potential Utility of High Resolution Ensemble Sensitivities During Weak Flow in Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, J.; Wile, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent expansion in availability of re-locatable near-surface atmospheric observing sensors introduces the question of where placement maximizes gain in forecast accuracy. Here the potential for ensemble sensitivity analysis (ESA) is examined for high-resolution (?x=4 km) predictions in complex terrain. The primary objective is to determine whether a mesoscale ESA applied at these scales is useful for identifying potential observing locations in weak flow. ESA can be inaccurate when the underlying assumptions of linear dynamics (and Gaussian statistics) are violated, or when the sensitivity cannot be robustly sampled. A case study of a fog event at the Salt Lake City airport (KSLC) provides a useful period for examining these issues, with the additional influence of complex terrain. A realistic upper-air observing network is used in perfect-model ensemble data assimilation experiments, providing the statistics for ESA. Results show that water vapor mixing ratios over KSLC are sensitive to temperature on the first model layer tens of km away, 6 h prior to verification and prior to the onset of fog. Sensitivity 12 h prior is weaker but leads to qualitatively similar results. Temperatures are shown to be a predictor of inversion strength in the Salt Lake basin; the ESA predicts southerly flow and strengthened inversions with warmer temperatures in a few locations. Simple linearity tests show that small perturbations do not lead to the expected forecast change, but larger perturbations do, suggesting that noise can dominate a small perturbation. Assimilating a perfect observation at the maximum sensitivity location produces forecasts more closely agreeing with the ESA. Sampling error evaluation show that similar conclusions can be reached with ensembles as small as 48 members, but smaller ensembles do not produce accurate sensitivity estimates.

  14. Improved Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometer Prototype for High Sensitivity Detection of Rare Circulating Cells In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestana, Noah Benjamin

    Accurate quantification of circulating cell populations is important in many areas of pre-clinical and clinical biomedical research, for example, in the study of cancer metastasis or the immune response following tissue and organ transplants. Normally this is done "ex-vivo" by drawing and purifying a small volume of blood and then analyzing it with flow cytometry, hemocytometry or microfludic devices, but the sensitivity of these techniques are poor and the process of handling samples has been shown to affect cell viability and behavior. More recently "in vivo flow cytometry" (IVFC) techniques have been developed where fluorescently-labeled cells flowing in a small blood vessel in the ear or retina are analyzed, but the sensitivity is generally poor due to the small sampling volume. To address this, our group recently developed a method known as "Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometry" (DFFC) that allows detection and counting of rare circulating cells with diffuse photons, offering extremely high single cell counting sensitivity. In this thesis, an improved DFFC prototype was designed and validated. The chief improvements were three-fold, i) improved optical collection efficiency, ii) improved detection electronics, and iii) development of a method to mitigate motion artifacts during in vivo measurements. In combination, these improvements yielded an overall instrument detection sensitivity better than 1 cell/mL in vivo, which is the most sensitive IVFC system reported to date. Second, development and validation of a low-cost microfluidic device reader for analysis of ocular fluids is described. We demonstrate that this device has equivalent or better sensitivity and accuracy compared a fluorescence microscope, but at an order-of-magnitude reduced cost with simplified operation. Future improvements to both instruments are also discussed.

  15. A high-sensitivity polyimide capacitive relative humidity sensor for monitoring anodically bonded hermetic micropackages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Dokmeci; Khalil Najafi

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and complete characterization of a high-sensitivity polyimide-based humidity sensor for monitoring internal humidity level in anodically bonded hermetic micropackages. This capacitive sensor is 1 mm on a side and utilizes CU1512 polyimide film with a thickness in the range from 300 Å to 1200 Å sandwiched between two metal electrodes to sense moisture. The

  16. Highly Sensitive ZnO Nanowire Acetone Vapor Sensor With Au Adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoou-Jinn Chang; Ting-Jen Hsueh; I-Cherng Chen; Shang-Fu Hsieh; Sheng-Po Chang; Cheng-Liang Hsu; Yan-Ru Lin; Bohr-Ran Huang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth of high-density single-crystalline ZnO nanowires on patterned ZnO:Ga\\/ SiO2\\/Si templates was reported. We also adsorbed Au onto nanowire surfaces and fabricated ZnO nanowire acetone vapor sensors. With 200-ppm acetone vapor concentration, it was found that we could enhance the device sensitivities at 300deg C from 18.5% to 82.5% by Au adsorption. It was also found

  17. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell using nanocrystalline titania containing nanotube structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supachai Ngamsinlapasathian; Singto Sakulkhaemaruethai; Sorapong Pavasupree; Athapol Kitiyanan; Thammanoon Sreethawong; Yoshikazu Suzuki; Susumu Yoshikawa

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline titania containing nanotube structure (TiNT) was synthesized by surfactant-assisted templating mechanism using tetraisopropyl orthotitanate (TIPT) modified with acethylacetone (ACA)\\/laurylamine hydrochloride (LAHC). The electrode of dye-sensitized solar cell using TiNT exhibited higher short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and solar energy conversion efficiency (?) than that of P25 titania electrode in thin film region. To obtain highly efficient cell, the thickness of

  18. Low-Cost Band Patch Array Antenna for High-Sensitivity EM Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Bae Jung; Jung Han Choi; Chang Won Jung

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost patch array antenna for a high-sensitivity electromagnetic (EM) sensor is presented. The operating frequency band of the antenna is 24.05-24.25 GHz. Array structure is the symmetrical pattern by Chebyshev polynomial, and the feed point is located in the middle of the array. Also, the gain of the array antenna can be increased by controlling the inclined angle of

  19. Induction of resistance to hexadecylphosphocholine in the highly sensitive human epidermoid tumour cell line KB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. M. Fleer; D. Berkovic; U. Grunwald; W. Hiddemann

    1996-01-01

    Hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC, Miltefosine) is a representative of the group of alkyl-lysophosphocholines showing remarkable antitumoral activity in in vitro experiments and in experimental animal tumour models. The epidermoid tumour cell line KB, which is highly sensitive to HePC (half-maximal growth inhibiting concentration, ic50: 1.2 ?M; half lethal concentration, lc50: 2.8 ?M), was slowly adapted to increasing concentrations of HePC. After 14

  20. High Sensitivity InSb Ultra-Thin Film Micro-Hall Sensors for Bioscreening Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adarsh Sandhu; Hideaki Sanbonsugi; Ichiro Shibasaki; Masanori Abe; Hiroshi Handa

    2004-01-01

    A high sensitivity, 4.5 \\\\micron× 4.5 \\\\micron InSb thin film micro-Hall sensor (micro-HS) with a minimum field detection (Bmin) of 77 nT\\/(Hz)1\\/2 was developed for bioscreening applications and used for the detection of a single 2.8 mum diameter superparamagnetic microbead by monitoring its ac magnetic susceptibility. The scalability of the InSb micro-HS was demonstrated by fabricating 500 nm× 500 nm

  1. High sensitivity calixarene SERS substrates for the continuous in-situ detection of PAHs in seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Hyok Kwon; Anna Kolomijeca; Kay Sowoidnich; Heinz-Detlef Kronfeldt

    2011-01-01

    In-situ monitoring of pollutant chemicals in sea-water is of worldwide interest. For that purpose, fast response sensors based on Raman spectroscopy are suitable for a rapid identification and quantification of these substances. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was applied to achieve the high sensitivity necessary for trace detection. In the project SENSEnet, funded by the European Commission, a SERS sensor based

  2. Noise characterization of highly sensitive SQUID magnetometer systems in unshielded environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, A.; Kingman, J.; Stolz, R.; Schmelz, M.; Zakosarenko, V.; Linzen, S.; Bauer, F.; Starkloff, M.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2013-03-01

    To measure the noise performance of highly sensitive SQUID magnetometer systems directly is nearly impossible due to superimposed external noise. In magnetically unshielded environments in particular one needs sophisticated methods in order to get an estimate of the intrinsic noise. We compare different approaches to estimate the noise of our latest SQUID magnetometer systems in the Earth’s magnetic field and compare the results with measurements in magnetic (and superconductive) shielding.

  3. Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of etodolac in serum.

    PubMed

    Cosyns, L; Spain, M; Kraml, M

    1983-03-01

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of etodolac in serum was developed. The limit of detection was 0.2 microgram/ml. The specificity of the method was demonstrated by the lack of response obtained with a variety of control sera, sera spiked with etodolac congeners, and sera obtained from rats treated with a variety of other drugs. PMID:6221089

  4. Clinical Efficacy of an Automated High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nader Rifai; Russell P. Tracy; Paul M. Ridker

    1999-01-01

    Background: Prospective studies have shown that C-re- active protein (CRP) can be used to predict risk of future cardiovascular events. High-sensitivity methods for CRP (hs-CRP) measurement are needed for this purpose. Methods: We compared the clinical efficacy of an auto- mated and commercially available latex-enhanced assay (Latex) for hs-CRP (Dade Behring) to a validated in- house ELISA, previously shown to

  5. High-sensitivity detection of hazardous SO2 using 266 nm UV laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed A. Gondal; Mohamed A. Dastageer

    2008-01-01

    Pulsed laser resonant photoacoustic spectroscopy was applied for detection of highly toxic SO2 with 266 nm as the excitation source. An extra-cavity longitudinal resonant cell, was designed and fabricated to enhance the sensitivity of the system, which is capable of detecting the trace amount of SO2. As a process of signal-to-noise ratio optimization, the parametric dependence of the PA signal

  6. High-sensitive thermal video camera with self-scanned 128 InSb linear array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Fujisada

    1991-01-01

    A compact thermal video camera with very high sensitivity has been developed by using a self-scanned 128 InSb linear array photodiode. Two-dimensional images are formed by a self- scanning function of the linear array focal plane assembly in the horizontal direction and by a vibration mirror in the vertical direction. Images with 128 X 128 pixel number are obtained every

  7. Ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity color camera with 300,000-pixel single CCD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kitamura; T. Arai; J. Yonai; T. Hayashida; H. Ohtake; T. Kurita; K. Tanioka; H. Maruyama; J. Namiki; T. Yanagi; T. Yoshida; H. van Kuijk; Jan T. Bosiers; T. G. Etoh

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity portable color camera with a new 300,000-pixel single CCD. The 300,000-pixel CCD, which has four times the number of pixels of our initial model, was developed by seamlessly joining two 150,000-pixel CCDs. A green-red-green-blue (GRGB) Bayer filter is used to realize a color camera with the single-chip CCD. The camera is capable of ultrahigh-speed

  8. Highly sensitive beryllium detection with microwave plasma source atomic emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongxuan Su; Zhe Jin; Yixiang Duan; Martin Koby; Vahid Majidi; Jose A Olivares; Stephen P Abeln

    2000-01-01

    A highly sensitive technique for beryllium determination using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) is explored in this work based on a self-assembled instrumental system. The analytical performance of this system for beryllium determination was examined using argon as working gas and an ultrasonic nebulization–desolvation system for solution sample introduction. Experimental operating parameters, such as working gas flow rate,

  9. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Benson, Scott C. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  10. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Benson, Scott C. (Albany, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a polycationic chain of at least two positive charges. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  11. Simultaneous analysis of circulating human cytokines using a high-sensitivity cytokine biochip array.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, S Pete; McConnell, R Ivan; Huxley, Allen

    2008-01-01

    Biochip array technology allows the simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes per sample using a single analytical device. This study shows its applicability to the simultaneous measurement of 12 circulating human cytokines with high-sensitivity detection. This application increases their real-time detectability, maintaining a broad concentration range and without compromising the precision. This methodology represents a very applicable tool in cytokine research when simultaneous determination of minute concentrations can be of interest. PMID:18020322

  12. High-Latitude Springtime Photochemistry. Part Ii: Sensitivity Studies of Ozone Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John a. Herring; Daniel a. Jaffe; Harald J. Beine; Sasha Madronich; Donald R. Blake

    1997-01-01

    A seven-year record of surface ozone measurements from Denali NationalPark, Alaska shows a persistent spring maximum. These data, combined withmeasurements of NOx, hydrocarbons, O3, and PANfrom a continental site in Alaska during the spring of 1995 are used as thebasis for a sensitivity study to explore tropospheric photochemistry in thisregion. Because of the relatively high concentrations of NOx(mean of 116,

  13. High density oligonucleotide array analysis of interferon-?2a sensitivity and transcriptional response in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Certa, U; Seiler, M; Padovan, E; Spagnoli, G C

    2001-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFN-?) represents an adjuvant therapy of proven effectiveness in increasing disease-free interval and survival in subgroups of melanoma patients. Since high doses of cytokine are required, the treatment is often accompanied by toxic side effects. Furthermore, naturally occurring insensitivity to IFN-? may hamper its therapeutic efficacy. Clinical, molecular or immunological markers enabling the selection of potential responders have not been identified so far. To explore the molecular basis of IFN-? responsiveness, we analysed the expression pattern of about 7000 genes in IFN-? sensitive and resistant cell lines and we compared the transcription profiles of cells cultured in the presence or absence of the cytokine using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Melanoma cell lines were screened for their sensitivity to proliferation inhibition and HLA class I induction upon IFN-? treatment by standard 3H-thymidine incorporation and flow-cytometry. The study of 4 sensitive and 2 resistant cell lines allowed the identification of 4 genes (RCC1, IFI16, hox2 and h19) preferentially transcribed in sensitive cells and 2 (SHB and PKC-?) preferentially expressed in resistant cells. IFN-? stimulation resulted in the expression of a panel of 19 known inducible genes in sensitive but not in resistant cells. Moreover a group of 30 novel IFN-? inducible genes was identified. These data may provide a useful basis to develop diagnostic tools to select potential IFN-? responders eligible for treatment, while avoiding unnecessary toxicity to non-responders. Furthermore, by extending the knowledge of the polymorphic effects of IFN-? on gene expression, they offer novel clues to the study of its pleiotropic toxicity. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11437411

  14. Effect of high altitude on sensitivity to the taste of phenylthiocarbamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. B.; Chatterjee, A.; Panjwani, U.; Yadav, D. K.; Selvamurthy, W.; Sharma, K. N.

    Sensitivity to the taste of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) was studied using the Harris-Kalmus method in healthy human volunteers at sea level and then subsequently at an altitude of 3500 m over a period of 3 weeks, after which they were brought back to sea level. Blood sugar, insulin and blood cortisol levels were estimated weekly. The results indicated that, out of 51 subjects studied, 26 (55%) were PTC tasters at sea level. Eight of those unable to taste PTC at sea level tested as tasters at high altitude, and 2 of them reverted to being non-tasters on return to sea level. In the blood, an increase in cortisol and blood insulin levels was seen without any significant change in sugar levels. All the changes recorded at high altitude tended to return to basal values after re-induction to sea level. The study suggests that high-altitude hypoxia in some way, possibly involving changes in hormonal profile among other factors, causes an alteration in sensitivity to the taste of PTC, resulting in some of the individuals shifting to lower PTC sensitivity.

  15. A highly sensitive magnetic biosensor for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs tagged to superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, J.; Wingo, J.; Mai, T. T. T.; Nguyen, X. P.; Huong, N. T.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.

    2014-05-01

    We report on a highly sensitive magnetic biosensor based on the magneto-reactance (MX) effect of a Co65Fe4Ni2Si15B14 amorphous ribbon with a nanohole-patterned surface for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs (Curcumin) tagged to superparamagnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (mean size, ˜10 nm) were first coated with Alginate, and Curcumin was then tagged to the nanoparticles. The detection and quantification of Curcumin were assessed by the change in MX of the ribbon subject to varying concentrations of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles to which Curcumin was tagged. A high capacity of the MX-based biosensor in quantitative analysis of Curcumin-loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles was achieved in the range of 0-50 ng/ml, beyond which the detection sensitivity of the sensor remained unchanged. The detection sensitivity of the biosensor reached an extremely high value of 30%, which is about 4-5 times higher than that of a magneto-impedance (MI) based biosensor. This biosensor is well suited for detection of low-concentration magnetic biomarkers in biological systems.

  16. A highly sensitive magnetic biosensor for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs tagged to superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingo, J.; Devkota, J.; Mai, T. T. T.; Nguyen, X. P.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.; Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology Collaboration; University of South Florida Team

    2014-03-01

    A precise detection of low concentrations of biomolecules attached to magnetic nanoparticles in complex biological systems is a challenging task and requires biosensors with improved sensitivity. Here, we present a highly sensitive magnetic biosensor based on the magneto-reactance (MX) effect of a Co65Fe4Ni2Si15B14 amorphous ribbon with nanohole-patterned surface for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs (Curcumin) tagged to Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The detection and quantification of Curcumin were assessed by the change in MX of the ribbon subject to varying concentrations of the functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A high capacity of the MX-based biosensor in quantitative analysis of the nanoparticles was achieved in the range of 0 - 50 ng/ml, beyond which the detection sensitivity (?) remained unchanged. The ? of the biosensor reached an extremely high value of 30%, which is about 4-5 times higher than that of a magneto-impedance (MI) based biosensor. This biosensor is well suited for detection of low-concentration magnetic biomarkers in biological systems. This work was supported by was supported by the Florida Cluster for Advanced Smart Sensor Technologies, USAMRMC (Grant # W81XWH-07-1-0708), and the NSF-funded REU program at the USF.

  17. SU-E-T-315: The Change of Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeters (OSLDs) Sensitivity by Accumulated Dose and High Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S; Jung, H; Kim, M; Ji, Y; Kim, K [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S; Park, S; Yoo, H [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, C [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate radiation sensitivity of optical stimulated luminance dosimeters (OSLDs) by accumulated dose and high dose. Methods: This study was carried out in Co-60 unit (Theratron 780, AECL, and Canada) and used InLight MicroStar reader (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL) for reading. We annealed for 30 min using optical annealing system which contained fluorescent lamps (Osram lumilux, 24 W, 280 ?780 nm). To evaluate change of OSLDs sensitivity by repeated irradiation, the dosimeters were repeatedly irradiated with 1 Gy. And whenever a repeated irradiation, we evaluated OSLDs sensitivity. To evaluate OSLDs sensitivity after accumulated dose with 5 Gy, We irradiated dose accumulatively (from 1 Gy to 5 Gy) without annealing. And OSLDs was also irradiated with 15, 20, 30 Gy to certify change of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation. After annealing them, they were irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly. Results: The OSLDs sensitivity increased up to 3% during irradiating seven times and decreased continuously above 8 times. That dropped by about 0.35 Gy per an irradiation. Finally, after 30 times irradiation, OSLDs sensitivity decreased by about 7%. For accumulated dose from 1 Gy to 5 Gy, OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy increased until 4.4% after second times accumulated dose compared with before that. OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy decreased by 1.6% in five times irradiation. When OSLDs were irradiated ten times with 1Gy after irradiating high dose (10, 15, 20 Gy), OSLDs sensitivity decreased until 6%, 9%, 12% compared with it before high dose irradiation, respectively. Conclusion: This study certified OSLDs sensitivity by accumulated dose and high dose. When irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly, OSLDs sensitivity decreased linearly and the reduction rate of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation had dependence on irradiated dose.

  18. Origin of the high sensitivity of Chinese red clay soils to drought: significance of the clay characteristics

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Origin of the high sensitivity of Chinese red clay soils to drought: significance of the clay d'Ulm 75230, Paris, France *Corresponding author: Ary.Bruand@univ-orleans.fr Abstract The red clay but the origin of this high sensitivity to drought remains unclear. Several red clay soils were selected

  19. High-sensitivity explosives detection using dual-excitation-wavelength resonance-Raman detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellampalle, Balakishore; McCormick, William B.; Wu, Hai-Shan; Sluch, Mikhail; Martin, Robert; Ice, Robert V.; Lemoff, Brian

    2014-05-01

    A key challenge for standoff explosive sensors is to distinguish explosives, with high confidence, from a myriad of unknown background materials that may have interfering spectral peaks. To meet this challenge a sensor needs to exhibit high specificity and high sensitivity in detection at low signal-to-noise ratio levels. We had proposed a Dual-Excitation- Wavelength Resonance-Raman Detector (DEWRRED) to address this need. In our previous work, we discussed various components designed at WVHTCF for a DEWRRED sensor. In this work, we show a completely assembled laboratory prototype of a DEWRRED sensor and utilize it to detect explosives from two standoff distances. The sensor system includes two novel, compact CW deep-Ultraviolet (DUV) lasers, a compact dual-band high throughput DUV spectrometer, and a highly-sensitive detection algorithm. We choose DUV excitation because Raman intensities from explosive traces are enhanced and fluorescence and solar background are not present. The DEWRRED technique exploits the excitation wavelength dependence of Raman signal strength, arising from complex interplay of resonant enhancement, self-absorption and laser penetration depth. We show measurements from >10 explosives/pre-cursor materials at different standoff distances. The sensor showed high sensitivity in explosive detection even when the signalto- noise ratio was close to one (~1.6). We measured receiver-operating-characteristics, which show a clear benefit in using the dual-excitation-wavelength technique as compared to a single-excitation-wavelength technique. Our measurements also show improved specificity using the amplitude variation information in the dual-excitation spectra.

  20. A pragmatic approach to high sensitivity defect inspection in the presence of mask process variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Jin Hyung; Chung, Dong Hoon; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Cho, Han Ku; Kim, David; Chen, Chunlin; Park, Ki-Hun; Inderhees, Gregg

    2007-10-01

    As design rules continue to shrink towards 4x nm, there are increase usage of aggressive Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) in reticle manufacturing. One of the most challenging aggressive OPCs is Sub Resolution Assist Feature (SRAF) such as scattering and anti-scattering bars typically used to overlap isolated and dense feature process windows. These SRAF features are sub-resolution in that these features intentionally do not resolve on the printed wafer. Many reticle manufacturers struggle to write these SRAFs with consistent edge quality even the most advanced E-Beam writers and processes due to resolution limitations. Consequently, this inconsistent writing gives reticle inspection challenges. Large numbers of such nuisance defects can dominate the inspection and impose an extraordinarily high burden on the operator reviewing these defects. One method to work around inconsistent assist feature edge quality or line-end shortening is to adjust the mask inspection system so that there is a substantial sensitivity decrease in order to achieve good inspectability, which then compromises the sensitivity for the defects on main geometries. Modern defect inspection tools offer multiple modes of operation that can be effectively applied to optimize defect sensitivity in the presence of SRAF feature variability. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of advance inspection methods and modes such as die to database selective thinline desense, transmitted & reflected light inspections, review system and die to die selective desense to increase inspectability and usable sensitivity using challenging production and R&D masks. Key learnings are discussed.

  1. All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chung, In; Lee, Byunghong; He, Jiaqing; Chang, Robert P H; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-05-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells based on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) are promising low-cost alternatives to conventional solid-state photovoltaic devices based on materials such as Si, CdTe and CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se(2) (refs 1, 2). Despite offering relatively high conversion efficiencies for solar energy, typical dye-sensitized solar cells suffer from durability problems that result from their use of organic liquid electrolytes containing the iodide/tri-iodide redox couple, which causes serious problems such as electrode corrosion and electrolyte leakage. Replacements for iodine-based liquid electrolytes have been extensively studied, but the efficiencies of the resulting devices remain low. Here we show that the solution-processable p-type direct bandgap semiconductor CsSnI(3) can be used for hole conduction in lieu of a liquid electrolyte. The resulting solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells consist of CsSnI(2.95)F(0.05) doped with SnF(2), nanoporous TiO(2) and the dye N719, and show conversion efficiencies of up to 10.2 per cent (8.51 per cent with a mask). With a bandgap of 1.3 electronvolts, CsSnI(3) enhances visible light absorption on the red side of the spectrum to outperform the typical dye-sensitized solar cells in this spectral region. PMID:22622574

  2. MOSFET sensitivity dependence on integrated dose from high-energy photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tanyi, James A.; Krafft, Shane P.; Hagio, Tomoe; Fuss, Martin; Salter, Bill J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arizona Health Science Center, Tucson, Arizona 85724 (United States) and Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Tucson, Arizona 85724 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah/Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The ability of a commercially available dual bias, dual MOSFET dosimetry system to measure therapeutic doses reproducibly throughout its vendor-defined dose-based lifetime has been evaluated by characterizing its sensitivity variation to integrated/cumulative doses from high-energy (6 and 15 MV) photon radiotherapy beams. The variation of sensitivity as a function of total integrated dose was studied for three different dose-per-fraction levels; namely, 50, 200, and 1200 cGy/fraction. In standard sensitivity mode (i.e., measurements involving dose-per-fraction levels {>=}100 cGy), the response of the MOSFET system to identical irradiations increased with integrated dose for both energies investigated. Dose measurement reproducibility for the low (i.e., 50 cGy) dose fractions was within 2.1% (if the system was calibrated before each in-phantom measurement) and 3.1% [if the system was calibrated prior to first use, with no intermediate calibration(s)]. Similarly, dose measurement reproducibility was between 2.2% and 6.6% for the conventional (i.e., 200 cGy) dose fractions and between 1.8% and 7.9% for escalated (i.e., 1200 cGy) dose fractions. The results of this study suggest that, due to the progressively increasing sensitivity resulting from the dual-MOSFET design, frequent calibrations are required to achieve measurement accuracy of {<=}3% (within one standard deviation)

  3. From maps to movies: high resolution time-varying sensitivity analysis for spatially distributed watershed models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. D.; Kollat, J. B.; Reed, P. M.; Wagener, T.

    2013-08-01

    Distributed watershed models are now widely used in practice to simulate runoff responses at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Counter to this purpose, diagnostic analyses of distributed models currently aggregate performance measures in space and/or time and are thus disconnected from the models' operational and scientific goals. To address this disconnect, this study contributes a novel approach for computing and visualizing time-varying global sensitivity indices for spatially distributed model parameters. The high-resolution model diagnostics employ the method of Morris to identify evolving patterns in dominant model processes at sub-daily timescales over a six-month period. The method is demonstrated on the United States National Weather Service's Hydrology Laboratory Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) in the Blue River watershed, Oklahoma, USA. Three hydrologic events are selected from within the six-month period to investigate the patterns in spatiotemporal sensitivities that emerge as a function of forcing patterns as well as wet-to-dry transitions. Surprisingly, events with similar magnitudes and durations exhibit significantly different performance controls in space and time, indicating that the diagnostic inferences drawn from representative events will be heavily biased by the a priori selection of those events. By contrast, this study demonstrates high-resolution time-varying sensitivity analysis, requiring no assumptions regarding representative events and allowing modelers to identify transitions between modeled hydrologic regimes a posteriori. The proposed approach details the dynamics of parameter sensitivity in nearly continuous time, providing critical diagnostic insights into the underlying model processes driving predictions. Furthermore, the approach offers the potential to identify transition points between hydrologic regimes under nonstationarity.

  4. From maps to movies: High resolution time-varying sensitivity analysis for spatially distributed watershed models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. D.; Kollat, J. B.; Reed, P. M.; Wagener, T.

    2013-12-01

    Distributed watershed models are now widely used in practice to simulate runoff responses at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Counter to this purpose, diagnostic analyses of distributed models currently aggregate performance measures in space and/or time and are thus disconnected from the models' operational and scientific goals. To address this disconnect, this study contributes a novel approach for computing and visualizing time-varying global sensitivity indices for spatially distributed model parameters. The high-resolution model diagnostics employ the method of Morris to identify evolving patterns in dominant model processes at sub-daily timescales over a six-month period. The method is demonstrated on the United States National Weather Service's Hydrology Laboratory Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM) in the Blue River watershed, Oklahoma, USA. Three hydrologic events are selected from within the six-month period to investigate the patterns in spatiotemporal sensitivities that emerge as a function of forcing patterns as well as wet-to-dry transitions. Surprisingly, events with similar magnitudes and durations exhibit significantly different performance controls in space and time, indicating that the diagnostic inferences drawn from representative events will be heavily biased by the a priori selection of those events. By contrast, this study demonstrates high-resolution time-varying sensitivity analysis, requiring no assumptions regarding representative events and allowing modelers to identify transitions between modeled hydrologic regimes a posteriori. The proposed approach details the dynamics of parameter sensitivity in nearly continuous time, providing critical diagnostic insights into the underlying model processes driving predictions. Furthermore, the approach offers the potential to identify transition points between hydrologic regimes under nonstationarity.

  5. Highly Sensitive and Long Term Stable Electrochemical Microelectrodes for Implantable Glucose Monitoring Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Liangliang

    A miniature wireless implantable electrochemical glucose system for continuous glucose monitoring with good selectivity, sensitivity, linearity and long term stability was developed. First, highly sensitive, long-term stable and reusable planar H2O2 microelectrodes have been fabricated by microlithography. These electrodes composed of a 300 nm Pt black layer situated on a 5 um thick Au layer, provide effective protection to the underlying chromium adhesion layer. Using repeated cyclic voltammetric sweeps in flowing buffer solution, highly sensitive Pt black working electrodes were realized with five-decade linear dynamic range and low detection limit (10 nM) for H2O2 at low oxidation potentials. Second, a highly sensitive, low cost and flexible microwire biosensor was described using 25-mum thick gold wire as working electrode together with 125-mum thick Pt/Ir and Ag wires as counter and reference electrode, embedded within a PDMS-filled polyethylene tube. Surface area and activity of sensor was enhanced by converting gold electrode to nanoporous configuration followed by electrodeposition of platinum black. Glucose oxidase based biosensors by electrodeposition of poly(o-phenylenediamine) and glucose oxidase on the working electrode, displayed a higher glucose sensitivity (1.2 mA mM-1 cm-2) than highest literature reported. In addition it exhibits wide detection range (up to 20 mM) and selectivity (>95%). Third, novel miniaturized and flexible microelectrode arrays with 8 of 25 mum electrodes displayed the much needed 3D diffusion profiles similar to a single 25 mum microelectrode, but with one order increase in current levels. These microelectrode arrays displayed a H2O2 sensitivity of 13 mA mM-1 cm-2, a wide dynamic range of 100 nM to 10 mM, limit of detection of 10 nM. These microwire based edge plane microsensors incorporated flexibility, miniaturization and low operation potential are an promising approach for continuous in vivo metabolic monitoring. Fourth, homemade miniature wireless potentisotat was fabricated based on low power consumption integrated circuits and surface mount parts. The miniature wireless potentisotat with up to two week life-time for continuous glucose sensing has a size less than 9x22x10 mm and weight ˜3.4 grams. Primary in vivo experiment showed homemade system has the exactly same respond and trend as commercial glucose meter.

  6. Highly sensitive operation of intensity-based fiber-optic vibration sensor using cascaded long period fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Tsukida, Osamu; Takeuchi, Makoto; Tekuramori, Shingo; Uchimura, Ryotaro; Wada, Atsushi; Takahashi, Nobuaki

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive fiber-optic mechanical vibration sensor is constructed by using a cascaded long period fiber grating (LPG) based on an intensity modulation scheme. In the fabrication process, the cascaded LPG, which is composed of a pair of identical LPGs with a certain distance, is inscribed in a length of photosensitive single-mode optical fiber by means of a point-by-point technique using a KrF excimer laser. Since the sensitivity of the intensity-based LPG sensor depends on a gradient of the slope of transmittance spectrum curve as well as the strain-sensitivity of the spectral shift, the channeled spectrum of the cascaded LPG provides a highly sensitive operation for the vibration detection. In the experiment, several kinds of cascaded LPGs have been fabricated and examined in terms of the sensor sensitivity. In addition, highly sensitive mechanical vibration detection has been successfully demonstrated.

  7. A high-sensitivity near-infrared phototransistor based on an organic bulk heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haihua; Li, Jun; Leung, Billy H. K.; Poon, Carmen C. Y.; Ong, Beng S.; Zhang, Yuanting; Zhao, Ni

    2013-11-01

    High-gain photodetectors with near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity are critical for biomedical applications such as photoplethysmography and optical coherence tomography where detected optical signals are relatively weak. Current photodetection technologies rely on avalanche photodiodes and photomultipliers to achieve high sensitivity. These devices, however, require a high operation voltage and are not compatible with CMOS based read-out circuits (ROCs). In this work we demonstrate a solution-proceeded NIR phototransistor structure based on a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) of a narrow bandgap polymer, poly(N-alkyl diketopyrrolo-pyrrole dithienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (DPP-DTT), and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). The device exhibits ultrahigh responsivity (~5 × 105 A W-1) as well as wide tunability (>1 × 104) of photoconductive gain. Using the current-voltage and transient photocurrent measurements we show that the high responsivity is due to the combined effects of fast transport of holes in the polymer matrix and slow detrapping of electrons from the isolated PCBM domains. The wide gain tunability and the efficient suppression of noise current are achieved through the use of the optically tunable gate terminal. We demonstrate that our phototransistor can be used as the detection unit in a photoplethysmography sensor for non-invasive, continuous finger pulse wave monitoring. The high-sensitivity of the phototransistor allows the use of a low-power light source, thus reducing the overall power consumption of the sensor. This, together with the solution processibility and the simple device configuration (which is compatible with conventional ROCs), make the phototransistor a very promising component for the next generation low-cost, mobile biomedical devices for health monitoring and remote diagnostics.High-gain photodetectors with near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity are critical for biomedical applications such as photoplethysmography and optical coherence tomography where detected optical signals are relatively weak. Current photodetection technologies rely on avalanche photodiodes and photomultipliers to achieve high sensitivity. These devices, however, require a high operation voltage and are not compatible with CMOS based read-out circuits (ROCs). In this work we demonstrate a solution-proceeded NIR phototransistor structure based on a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) of a narrow bandgap polymer, poly(N-alkyl diketopyrrolo-pyrrole dithienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (DPP-DTT), and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). The device exhibits ultrahigh responsivity (~5 × 105 A W-1) as well as wide tunability (>1 × 104) of photoconductive gain. Using the current-voltage and transient photocurrent measurements we show that the high responsivity is due to the combined effects of fast transport of holes in the polymer matrix and slow detrapping of electrons from the isolated PCBM domains. The wide gain tunability and the efficient suppression of noise current are achieved through the use of the optically tunable gate terminal. We demonstrate that our phototransistor can be used as the detection unit in a photoplethysmography sensor for non-invasive, continuous finger pulse wave monitoring. The high-sensitivity of the phototransistor allows the use of a low-power light source, thus reducing the overall power consumption of the sensor. This, together with the solution processibility and the simple device configuration (which is compatible with conventional ROCs), make the phototransistor a very promising component for the next generation low-cost, mobile biomedical devices for health monitoring and remote diagnostics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03989g

  8. High-sensitivity electro-optic CO2 gas sensing based on absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Scott N.; Wang, Dorothy Y.; Gong, Jianmin; Fan, Dian; Dong, Bo; Fraser, Michael; Wang, Anbo

    2012-06-01

    We reported a high-sensitivity CO2 gas sensing system based on wavelength scanning absorption spectroscopy. A distributed feedback (DFB) laser was used as the light source in the system, whose wavelength was thermally tuned, by a thermoelectric cooler (TEC), to scan around one CO2 absorption line near 1572nm. Scanning of the absorption line spectrum is performed over a glass CO2 gas cell, 16.5 cm long with collimated optical fiber connectors. Different concentrations of CO2 were prepared by a high-precision gas flow control meter and sealed within the gas cell. A self-designed detection and amplification circuit was employed for absorption spectrum detection. The circuit implements background-cancellation with a two tier amplification scheme. By cancelling the high background signal, we can improve the CO2 sensitivity by about two orders of magnitude compared with commonly used direct detection methods with high background signals. Reducing the high DC signal permits isolated amplification of the absorption line spectrum. Absorption spectra of different CO2 concentrations were measured, and the results demonstrated sensing capability of 100% to <0.1% concentrations of CO2. This sensing system is expected to be used in conjunction with a wireless CO2 sensor network for large area CO2 monitoring. Given the very lower power consumption of the DFB laser and the detection circuit this sensing system offers a solution for affordable long term CO2 monitoring for reliable storage in carbon sequestration.

  9. Highly sensitive glucose sensor based on pt nanoparticle/polyaniline hydrogel heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Dongyuan; Liu, Borui; Shi, Yi; Pan, Lijia; Wang, Yaqun; Li, Wenbo; Zhang, Rong; Yu, Guihua

    2013-04-23

    Glucose enzyme biosensors have been shown useful for a range of applications from medical diagnosis, bioprocess monitoring, to beverage industry and environmental monitoring. We present here a highly sensitive glucose enzyme sensor based on Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs)-polyaniline (PAni) hydrogel heterostructures. High-density PtNPs were homogeneously loaded onto the three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured matrix of the PAni hydrogel. The PtNP/PAni hydrogel heterostructure-based glucose sensor synergizes the advantages of both the conducting hydrogel and the nanoparticle catalyst. The porous structure of the PAni hydrogel favored the high density immobilization of the enzyme and the penetration of water-soluble molecules, which helped efficiently catalyze the oxidation of glucose. In addition, the PtNPs catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide that was generated during the enzymatic reaction. The transferred charges from these electrochemical processes were efficiently collected by the highly conducting PtNP/PAni hydrogel heterostructures. The glucose enzyme sensor based on this heterostructure exhibited unprecedented sensitivity, as high as 96.1 ?A·mM(-1)·cm(-2), with a response time as fast as 3 s, a linear range of 0.01 to 8 mM, and a low detection limit of 0.7 ?M. PMID:23472636

  10. A high-sensitivity near-infrared phototransistor based on an organic bulk heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haihua; Li, Jun; Leung, Billy H K; Poon, Carmen C Y; Ong, Beng S; Zhang, Yuanting; Zhao, Ni

    2013-12-01

    High-gain photodetectors with near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity are critical for biomedical applications such as photoplethysmography and optical coherence tomography where detected optical signals are relatively weak. Current photodetection technologies rely on avalanche photodiodes and photomultipliers to achieve high sensitivity. These devices, however, require a high operation voltage and are not compatible with CMOS based read-out circuits (ROCs). In this work we demonstrate a solution-proceeded NIR phototransistor structure based on a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) of a narrow bandgap polymer, poly(N-alkyl diketopyrrolo-pyrrole dithienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (DPP-DTT), and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM). The device exhibits ultrahigh responsivity (?5 × 10(5) A W(-1)) as well as wide tunability (>1 × 10(4)) of photoconductive gain. Using the current-voltage and transient photocurrent measurements we show that the high responsivity is due to the combined effects of fast transport of holes in the polymer matrix and slow detrapping of electrons from the isolated PCBM domains. The wide gain tunability and the efficient suppression of noise current are achieved through the use of the optically tunable gate terminal. We demonstrate that our phototransistor can be used as the detection unit in a photoplethysmography sensor for non-invasive, continuous finger pulse wave monitoring. The high-sensitivity of the phototransistor allows the use of a low-power light source, thus reducing the overall power consumption of the sensor. This, together with the solution processibility and the simple device configuration (which is compatible with conventional ROCs), make the phototransistor a very promising component for the next generation low-cost, mobile biomedical devices for health monitoring and remote diagnostics. PMID:24126789

  11. Determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water using highly sensitive mid-infrared sensor technology.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rui; Mizaikoff, Boris; Li, Wen-Wei; Qian, Chen; Katzir, Abraham; Raichlin, Yosef; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CHCs) are toxic and carcinogenic contaminants commonly found in environmental samples, and efficient online detection of these contaminants is still challenging at the present stage. Here, we report an advanced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) sensor for in-situ and simultaneous detection of multiple CHCs, including monochlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and chloroform. The polycrystalline silver halide sensor fiber had a unique integrated planar-cylindric geometry, and was coated with an ethylene/propylene copolymer membrane to act as a solid phase extractor, which greatly amplified the analytical signal and contributed to a higher detection sensitivity compared to the previously reported sensors. This system exhibited a high detection sensitivity towards the CHCs mixture at a wide concentration range of 5~700?ppb. The FTIR-ATR sensor described in this study has a high potential to be utilized as a trace-sensitive on-line device for water contamination monitoring. PMID:23982222

  12. High-speed wavefront sensor based on position sensitive detectors (PSDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinjun; Tang, Jiuyao; Chen, Haibin

    2004-12-01

    In view of the convenience and effectiveness of a position sensitive detector (PSD) in sensing the local distortion of a light beam wavefront, a high-speed wavefront sensor based on PSD array is proposed, fabricated and characterized. As a prototype of this kind of wavefront sensor it consists of a matrix of 4×4 tetra-lateral PSDs, and each PSD unit measures 500 ?m×500 ?m with a 300 ?m interval between them. Each unit has 4 electrodes, which can be used for photocurrent output. The local distortion of a light beam wavefront can be deduced from those 4 photocurrents. Besides 64 electrodes of 16 element units, the sensor also has another common electrode that can be used in applying a reverse bias. Primary tests of the device show that it has low dark current, high spectral sensitivity, very fast response speed, and quite small crosstalk between its neighbouring units. The dark current of an element unit is less than 1 nA at a reverse bias of 20 V. The peak spectral sensitivity of the sensor is over 0.6 mA / mW at 900 nm wavelength. Its response time is about 10 ns at 45 V reverse bias, and the crosstalk between its neighbouring units is as low as 1.6% at ?= 650 nm and Ur = 5 V.

  13. Highly sensitive nano-porous lattice biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance and interference.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Se-Hyuk; Kim, Ok-Geun; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Kyu-Jin; Yuan, Heng; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kang, Shin-Won

    2011-11-01

    We propose a design for a highly sensitive biosensor based on nanostructured anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates. A gold-deposited AAO substrate exhibits both optical interference and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In our sensor, application of these disparate optical properties overcomes problems of limited sensitivity, selectivity, and dynamic range seen in similar biosensors. We fabricated uniform periodic nanopore lattice AAO templates by two-step anodizing and assessed their suitability for application in biosensors by characterizing the change in optical response on addition of biomolecules to the AAO template. To determine the suitability of such structures for biosensing applications, we immobilized a layer of C-reactive protein (CRP) antibody on a gold coating atop an AAO template. We then applied a CRP antigen (Ag) atop the immobilized antibody (Ab) layer. The shift in reflectance is interpreted as being caused by the change in refractive index with membrane thickness. Our results confirm that our proposed AAO-based biosensor is highly selective toward detection of CRP antigen, and can measure a change in CRP antigen concentration of 1 fg/ml. This method can provide a simple, fast, and sensitive analysis for protein detection in real-time. PMID:22109166

  14. Determination of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Water Using Highly Sensitive Mid-Infrared Sensor Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Rui; Mizaikoff, Boris; Li, Wen-Wei; Qian, Chen; Katzir, Abraham; Raichlin, Yosef; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CHCs) are toxic and carcinogenic contaminants commonly found in environmental samples, and efficient online detection of these contaminants is still challenging at the present stage. Here, we report an advanced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) sensor for in-situ and simultaneous detection of multiple CHCs, including monochlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and chloroform. The polycrystalline silver halide sensor fiber had a unique integrated planar-cylindric geometry, and was coated with an ethylene/propylene copolymer membrane to act as a solid phase extractor, which greatly amplified the analytical signal and contributed to a higher detection sensitivity compared to the previously reported sensors. This system exhibited a high detection sensitivity towards the CHCs mixture at a wide concentration range of 5~700?ppb. The FTIR-ATR sensor described in this study has a high potential to be utilized as a trace-sensitive on-line device for water contamination monitoring. PMID:23982222

  15. Fabrication of graphene coated carbon fiber microelectrode for highly sensitive detection application.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Meng, Yuning; Zhang, Hui-Min; Qu, Liangti

    2014-01-01

    Graphene, as a novel carbon nanomaterial, exhibits superior performance in electrochemical sensors. Here, graphene was applied to the microelectrode system by a simple method. A novel graphene coating carbon fiber microelectrode (G-CFM) was fabricated by electrodepositing graphene on the surface of carbon fiber. The fabrication method is fast and simple. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that carbon fiber was successfully modified by graphene. The electrochemical behavior of G-CFM was characterized by potassium ferricyanide and dopamine (DA). The electrode exhibited much larger current response and less overpotential response, compared to CFM. The microsensor for DA showed good sensitivity and selectivity, and the electrode had good stability. It is believable that the unique characteristic of graphene holds promise for the advanced microelectrode system for highly sensitive detection of various targets. PMID:25213819

  16. High sensitivity piezomagnetic force microscopy for quantitative probing of magnetic materials at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian Nataly; Ma, Feiyue; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Yuanming; Proksch, Roger; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-07-01

    Accurate scanning probing of magnetic materials at the nanoscale is essential for developing and characterizing magnetic nanostructures, yet quantitative analysis is difficult using the state of the art magnetic force microscopy, and has limited spatial resolution and sensitivity. In this communication, we develop a novel piezomagnetic force microscopy (PmFM) technique, with the imaging principle based on the detection of magnetostrictive response excited by an external magnetic field. In combination with the dual AC resonance tracking (DART) technique, the contact stiffness and energy dissipation of the samples can be simultaneously mapped along with the PmFM phase and amplitude, enabling quantitative probing of magnetic materials and structures at the nanoscale with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. PmFM has been applied to probe magnetic soft discs and cobalt ferrite thin films, demonstrating it as a powerful tool for a wide range of magnetic materials. PMID:23720016

  17. A microfluidic electrochemical device for high sensitivity biosensing: detection of nanomolar hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Chikkaveeraiah, Bhaskara V.; Liu, Hongyun; Mani, Vigneshwaran; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Rusling, James F.

    2009-01-01

    We report herein a simple device for rapid biosensing consisting of a single microfluidic channel made from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) coupled to an injector, and incorporating a biocatalytic sensing electrode, reference and counter electrodes. The sensing electrode was a gold wire coated with 5 nm glutathione-decorated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Sensitive detection of H2O2 based on direct bioelectrocatalysis by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used for evaluation. HRP was covalently linked the glutathione-AuNPs. This electrode presented quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetry peaks at ?0.01 V vs Ag/AgCl at pH 6.5 for the HRP heme FeIII/FeII couple. Direct electrochemical activity of HRP was used to detect H2O2 at high sensitivity with a detection limit of 5 nM in an unmediated system. PMID:20161158

  18. High Sensitive Precise 3D Accelerometer for Solar System Exploration with Unmanned Spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenko, Y. V.; Demyanenko, P. O.; Zinkovskiy, Y. F.

    Solutions of several space and geophysical tasks require creating high sensitive precise accelerometers with sensitivity in order of 10 -13 g. These several tasks are following: inertial navigation of the Earth and Space; gravimetry nearby the Earth and into Space; geology; geophysics; seismology etc. Accelerometers (gravimeters and gradientmeters) with required sensitivity are not available now. The best accelerometers in the world have sensitivity worth on 4-5 orders. It has been developed a new class of fiber-optical sensors (FOS) with light pulse modulation. These sensors have super high threshold sensitivity and wide (up to 10 orders) dynamic range, and can be used as a base for creating of measurement units of physical values as 3D superhigh sensitive precise accelerometers of linear accelerations that is suitable for highest requirements. The principle of operation of the FOS is organically combined with a digital signal processing. It allows decreasing hardware of the accelerometer due to using a usual air-borne or space-borne computer; correcting the influence of natural, design, technological drawbacks of FOS on measured results; neutralising the influence of extraordinary situations available during using of FOS; decreasing the influence of internal and external destabilising factors (as for FOS), such as oscillation of environment temperature, instability of pendulum cycle frequency of sensitive element of the accelerometer etc. We were conducted a quantitative estimation of precise opportunities of analogue FOS in structure of fiber optical measuring devices (FOMD) for elementary FOMD with analogue FOS built on modern element basis of fiber optics (FO), at following assumptions: absolute parameter stability of devices of FOS measuring path; single transmission band of registration path; maximum possible inserted in optical fiber (OF) a radiated power. Even at such idealized assumptions, a calculated value in limit reached minimum inaccuracy of measuring, by analogue FOS, has been ˜ 10-4 %. Substantially accessible values are yet worse on 2-3 order. The reason of poor precise performances of measurers on the basis of analogue FOS is metrologically poor quality of a stream of optical radiation carrying out role of the carrier and receptor of the information. It is a high level of photon noise and a small blanket intensity level. First reason reflects the fact of discreteness of flow of high-energy photons, and it is consequence of second one - smallness, on absolute value, of inserted power into OF from available radiation sources (RS). Works on improvement of FO elements are carrying out. Certainly, it will be created RS allow to insert enough of power into standard OF. But simple increasing of optical flow power in measuring path of FOS will not be able to decide radically the problem of increasing of measuring prices: with raising of power in proportion of square root of its value there is raising a power of photon noises - 1000-times increase of power promises only 30-times increase of measuring precise; insertion into OF more large power (˜ 1 W for standard silicon OF) causes an appearance of non-linear effects in it, which destroying an operating principle of analogue FOS. Thus, it is needed to constatate impossibility of building, at that time, measurers of analogue FOS, concurated with traditional (electrical) measurers on measuring precise. At that all, advantages of FO, as basis of building of FO MD requires to find ways for decision of these problems. Analysis of problem of sensitivity of usual (analogue) FOS has brought us to conclusion about necessity of reviewing of principles of information signal forming in FOS and principles its next electronic processing. For radical increasing of accuracy of measurements with using FOS it is necessary to refuse analogue modulation of optical flow and to transfer to discreet its modulations, entering thus in optical flow new, non-optical, parameters, which will serve as recipients of the information. It allows to save up all advantages of FOS (carrier of in

  19. Application of strong transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect on high sensitive surface plasmon grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kuei-Hsu; Lin, En-Ping; Chen, Te-Chang; Lai, Chih-Huang; Wang, Liang-Wei; Chang, Ko-Wei; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Lee, Ming-Chang M

    2014-08-11

    A high sensitive sensor is demonstrated by exploiting strong transverse magneto-optical Kerr effect on a ferromagnetic surface plasmon grating. The surface plasmon grating, made of a hybridized Au/Fe/Au layer, exhibits a very dispersive Kerr parameter variation near the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) wavelength via coherent scattering of the SPP on the grating structure. Interrogating this Kerr parameter can be utilized for detecting chemical or biological objects in a fluid medium. The experiment results show the minimal detectable mass concentration of sodium chloride in a saline solution is 4.27 × 10(-3) %, corresponding to a refractive index change of 7.60 × 10(-6) RIU. For an avidin-biotin interaction experiment, the sensitivity of avidin detection in PBS solution is 1.97 nM, which is limited by the index fluctuation of flowing media during measurement. PMID:25321061

  20. A novel fiber optic geophone with high sensitivity for geo-acoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenhui; Yang, Huayong; Xiong, Shuidong; Luo, Hong; Cao, Chunyan; Ma, Shuqing

    2014-12-01

    A novel interferometric fiber optic geophone is introduced in this paper. This geophone is mainly used for geo-acoustic signal detection. The geophone use one of the three orthogonal components of mandrel type push-pull structure in mechanically and single-mode fiber optic Michelson interferometer structure with Faraday Rotation Mirror (FRM) elements in optically. The resonance frequency of the geophone is larger than 1000Hz. The acceleration sensitivity is as high as 56.6 dB (0dB re 1rad/g) with a slight sensitivity fluctuation of +/-0. 2dB within the frequency band from 20Hz to 200Hz. The geo-acoustic signals generated by underwater blasting are detected successfully. All the channels show good uniformity in the detected wave shape and the amplitudes exhibit very slight differences. The geo-acoustic signal excitated by the engine of surface vehicles was also detected successfully.

  1. Demonstration of high optical sensitivity in far-infrared hot-electron bolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Cantor, Robin

    2011-05-01

    We report on the measurement of a very low noise equivalent power of 3×10-19 W/Hz1/2 at 620 GHz in a superconducting antenna-coupled hot-electron bolometer. The sensing element is a micron-size titanium transition-edge sensor with NbTiN superconducting contacts fabricated on a sapphire substrate. The high sensitivity is due to the small device volume, low operating temperature, and weak electron-phonon coupling in titanium film. Measurements were done using a cryogenic black body emitter producing well-controlled femtowatt power levels. The achieved optical sensitivity is suitable for the low-background spectroscopy of molecular lines on next generation space telescopes.

  2. A highly sensitive in-situ turbidity sensor with low power consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Sun, Lei; Ye, Shuming; Chen, Hang; Jiang, Kai; Pan, Jianming

    2014-03-01

    A highly sensitive in-situ turbidity sensor with the low power consumption was proposed and evaluated in this study. To meet the practical requirements of the in-situ detection, we have designed the light scattering path, watertight mechanical structure, and ultra-weak scattering light detecting method. Experiments showed that the sensor had a sensitivity of 0.0076 FTU with the concentration range of 0-25 FTU and the R-square of 0.9999. The sensor could withstand the water pressure in depth of 1000 m and had the low power consumption in the active mode 10.4 mA, sleep mode 65 ?A with a supply voltage of 8.4 V. Southern China Sea buoy experiments indicated that the sensor could work well in the actual in-situ environment. In comparison with sensors of other companies, our sensor had relatively more comprehensive performance.

  3. A Small Mission Featuring an Imaging X-ray Polarimeter with High Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Baldini, Luca; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Brez, Alessandro; Costa, Enrico; Dissley, Richard; Elsner, Ronald; Fabiani, Sergio; Matt, Giorgio; Minuti, Massimo; Mulieri, Fabio; O'Dell, Steve; Pinchera, Michelle; Ramsey, Brian; Rubini, Alda; Sgro, Carmelo; Soffitta, Paolo; Spandre, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed description of a small mission capable of obtaining high precision and meaningful measurement of the X-ray polarization of a variety of different classes of cosmic X-ray sources. Compared to other ideas that have been suggested this experiment has demonstrated in the laboratory a number of extremely important features relevant to the ultimate selection of such a mission by a funding agency. The most important of these questions are: 1) Have you demonstrated the sensitivity to a polarized beam at the energies of interest (i.e. the energies which represent the majority (not the minority) of detected photons from the X-ray source of interest? 2) Have you demonstrated that the device's sensitivity to an unpolarized beam is really negligible and/or quantified the impact of any systematic effects upon actual measurements? We present our answers to these questions backed up by laboratory measurements and give an overview of the mission.

  4. An Improved Ras Sensor for Highly Sensitive and Quantitative FRET-FLIM Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana F.; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2013-01-01

    Ras is a signaling protein involved in a variety of cellular processes. Hence, studying Ras signaling with high spatiotemporal resolution is crucial to understanding the roles of Ras in many important cellular functions. Previously, fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Ras activity sensors, FRas and FRas-F, have been demonstrated to be useful for measuring the spatiotemporal dynamics of Ras signaling in subcellular micro-compartments. However the predominantly nuclear localization of the sensors' acceptor has limited its sensitivity. Here, we have overcome this limitation and developed two variants of the existing FRas sensor with different affinities: FRas2-F (Kd?1.7 µM) and FRas2-M (Kd?0.5 µM). We demonstrate that, under 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, FRas2 sensors provide higher sensitivity compared to previous sensors in 293T cells and neurons. PMID:23349692

  5. Highly sensitive radioimmunoassay of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in human plasma and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Marumo, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Ando, K.; Ishigami, T.; Kawakami, M.

    1986-05-29

    A highly sensitive radioimmunoassay has been established for measurement of human plasma and urine concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and requires no extraction or concentration process. An antiserum was prepared from rabbits immunized with ..cap alpha..-human ANP (..cap alpha..-hANP) coupled with bovine-thyroglobulin. The sensitivity of this method was 0.2 pg/tube of synthetic ..cap alpha..-hANP utilized as authentic standard. Recovery of ..cap alpha..-hANP spiked to plasma and urine was 97.7 +/- 15.4% and 97.1 +/- 9.5% (mean +/- SD), respectively. Plasma and urinary ANP concentrations versus assay data showed satisfactory linearity. In 124 health subjects, the plasma ANP concentration was 31.7 +/- 12.0 pg/ml. Two different molecular forms of ANP in plasma and a single form in urine were found by gel permeation chromatography.

  6. Highly sensitive and selective odorant sensor using living cells expressing insect olfactory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Nobuo; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a highly sensitive and selective chemical sensor using living cells (Xenopus laevis oocytes) within a portable fluidic device. We constructed an odorant sensor whose sensitivity is a few parts per billion in solution and can simultaneously distinguish different types of chemicals that have only a slight difference in double bond isomerism or functional group such as ?OH, ?CHO and ?C(?O)?. We developed a semiautomatic method to install cells to the fluidic device and achieved stable and reproducible odorant sensing. In addition, we found that the sensor worked for multiple-target chemicals and can be integrated with a robotic system without any noise reduction systems. Our developed sensor is compact and easy to replace in the system. We believe that the sensor can potentially be incorporated into a portable system for monitoring environmental and physical conditions. PMID:20798064

  7. Correlation of concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin T and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein with plaque progression as measured by CT coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Seifarth, Harald; Schlett, Christopher L.; Lehman, Sam J.; Bamberg, Fabian; Donnelly, Patrick; Januzzi, James L.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Truong, Quynh A.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objective We sought to determine whether elevated concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) predict progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) as determined by coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA). Methods Patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain who initially showed no evidence of an acute coronary syndrome underwent baseline and follow-up coronary CTA (median follow-up, 23.9 months) using identical acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Coronary CTA data of each major coronary artery were co-registered. Cross-sections were assessed for the presence of calcified and noncalcified plaques. Progression of atherosclerotic plaque and change of plaque composition from noncalcified to calcified plaque was evaluated and correlated to levels of hs-TnT and hs-CRP at the time of the baseline CT. Results Fifty-four patients (mean age, 54.1 years; 59% male) were included, and 6775 cross-sections were compared. CAD was detected in 12.2 ± 21.2 cross-sections per patient at baseline. Prevalence of calcified plaque increased by 1.5 ± 2.4 slices per patient (P < .0001) over the follow-up period. On average, 1.6 ± 3.6 slices with new noncalcified plaque were found per patient (P < .0001) and 0.7 ± 1.7 slices with pre-existing noncalcified plaque had progressed to calcified plaque (P < .0001). After multivariate adjustment, change of overall CAD burden was predicted by baseline hs-TnT and hs-CRP (r = 0.29; P = .039 and r = 0.40; P = .004). Change of plaque composition was associated with baseline hs-TnT (r = 0.29; P = .03). Conclusion Concentrations of hs-TnT and hs-CRP are weakly associated with a significant increase in CAD burden and change in plaque composition over 24 months independent of baseline risk factors. PMID:25467832

  8. High-sensitivity high-stability silicon photodiodes for DUV, VUV and EUV spectral ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, L.; Nihtianov, S.; Scholze, F.; Gottwald, A.; Nanver, L. K.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, the optical and electrical performance of a newly developed silicon photodiode based on pure boron CVD technology (PureB-diodes) is introduced. Due to their extremely shallow p-n junction, with the depletion zone starting only a few nanometers below the surface, and nm-thin pure-boron-layer coverage of the anode surface, PureB-diodes have so far demonstrated the highest reported spectral responsivity in all sub-visible ultraviolet (UV) ranges: DUV (deep ultraviolet), VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) and EUV (extreme ultraviolet), covering a spectrum from 220 nm down to few nanometersMoreover, the measured responsivity at 13.5 nm wavelengths (EUV) approaches the theoretical maximum (~0.27A/W). PureB-diodes also maintain excellent electrical characteristics, with saturation-current values typical for high-quality silicon diodes, and a high breakdown voltage. Experimental results have demonstrated the extremely high radiation hardness of PureB-diodes when exposed to high EUV radiant exposures in the order of a few hundred kJ/cm2. No change in the responsivity is observed within the experimental uncertainty. In the more challenging DUV and especially VUV ranges, PureB-diodes demonstrate a slight initial drop of responsivity (1 to 2%), after which they stabilizes their performance.

  9. Development of high-sensitivity near-infrared fluorescence imaging device for early cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a high-sensitivity near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging system for noninvasive cancer detection based on the molecular-labeled fluorescent contrast agents. Recent developments in molecular beacons offer a way to selectively tag various precancer and cancer signatures and provide high tumor-to-background contrast. Near-infrared imaging can deeply probe tissue up to a couple of centimeters; thus, it possesses the potential for noninvasive detection of breast or lymph node cancer. A phase cancellation (in- and antiphase) device is used to increase the sensitivity in detecting fluorescent photons and the accuracy of tumor localization. The optoelectronic system consists of the laser diode sources, fiber optics, interference filter (to select the fluorescent photons), and the high-sensitivity photon detector (photomultiplier tube). The source-detector pair scans the tissue surface in multiple directions, and the localization image can be obtained by angular back-projection reconstruction. Simulations and experimental data demonstrated the feasibility of detection and localization offluorescent object embedded inside the highly scattering media. Tumor-bearing mouse model with injection of fluorescent contrast agents is used to simulate the human breast tumor labeled with molecular beacons. The system can detect fluorescent contrast agents as small as one nanomole at the depth of three centimeters, with a three-millimeter localization error. This instrument has the potential for tumor diagnosis and imaging, and the accuracy of the localization suggests that this system could help guide the clinical fine-needle biopsy. Also, this portable device would be complementary to x-ray mammography and provide add-on information on early diagnosis and localization of breast tumor. PMID:15742853

  10. Highly sensitive and selective photoelectrochemical biosensor platform for polybrominated diphenyl ether detection using the quantum dots sensitized three-dimensional, macroporous ZnO nanosheet photoelectrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Weili; Sheng, Pengtao; Cai, Jin; Feng, Hongyan; Cai, Qingyun

    2014-11-15

    A novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor for the rapid detection of 2,3',4,5',6-pentabromodiphenylether (BDE-121) was developed by coating a core-shell ZnS/CdTe/Mn-CdS/ZnS sensitized macroporous ZnO nanosheet (NS) photoelectrode with anti-BDE-121 polyclonal antibody. Here, core-shell CdTe/Mn-CdS quantum dots (QDs) benefit the signal amplification and photostability of the co-sensitized ZnO NS photoelectrode. After introducing the ZnS buffer layers between different interfaces (the ZnO NS and sensitizers; sensitizers and the electrolyte), the photoresponse was further enhanced. Under standard simulated illumination, the saturation photocurrent density of the co-sensitized photoelectrode is 6.23 mA cm(-2), the highest value reported to date for ZnO NS based photoelectrode. The BDE-121 was detected by monitoring the changes of the photocurrent signals of the immunosensor resulting from the immunoreaction. The immunosensor is sensitive, stable and highly specific toward BDE-121, displaying a linear range of 5 pM to 100 nM with a limit of detection of 3.98 pM. BDE-121 in paint samples was analyzed with the proposed sensor and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), giving contents of 1.32 ± 0.02 ng mL(-1) and 1.16 ng mL(-1), respectively. PMID:24892782

  11. High-sensitivity Leak-testing Method with High-Resolution Integration Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyoshi, Motohiro; Nonomura, Yutaka; Senda, Hidemi

    A high-resolution leak-testing method named HR (High-Resolution) Integration Technique has been developed for MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) sensors such as a vibrating angular-rate sensor housed in a vacuum package. Procedures of the method to obtain high leak-rate resolution were as follows. A package filled with helium gas was kept in a small accumulation chamber to accumulate helium gas leaking from the package. After the accumulation, the accumulated helium gas was introduced into a mass spectrometer in a short period of time, and the flux of the helium gas was measured by the mass spectrometer as a transient phenomenon. The leak-rate of the package was calculated from the detected transient waveform of the mass spectrometer and the accumulation time of the helium gas in the accumulation chamber. Because the density of the helium gas in the vacuum chamber increased and the accumulated helium gas was measured in a very short period of time with the mass spectrometer, the peak strength of the transient waveform became high and the signal to noise ratio was much improved. The detectable leak-rate resolution of the technique reached 1×10-15 (Pa·m3/s). This resolution is 103 times superior to that of the conventional helium vacuum integration method. The accuracy of the measuring system was verified with a standard helium gas leak source. The results were well matched between theoretical calculation based on the leak-rate of the source and the experimental results within only 2% error.

  12. Fabrication of high density gold nanoparticle arrays on glass for high sensitivity bio-detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Lhoste; Laurent Malaquin; Laurent Billot; Anne Marie Haghiri-Gosnet; Yong Chen

    2011-01-01

    We report a nanofabrication process to produce high density arrays of self-assembled gold nanoparticle on glass substrates which can be used for surface plasmon based bio-sensing. Capillary assisted particle assembly (CAPA) has been used to trap gold particles of 80–150nm diameters into arrays of holes of 90–160nm diameters made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A thermal assisted micro-contact printing technique was developed

  13. Cerebral blood flow recorded at high sensitivity in two dimensions using high resolution optical imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo Vanzetta; Thomas Deneux; Guillaume S. Masson; Olivier D. Faugeras

    2006-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Knowledge about sensory-evoked blood-fl ow changes is es- sential for constraining hemodynamic response models used to interpret functional brain imaging signals, such as fMRI. Here, we extracted 2-dimensional blood-flow and its tempo- ral modulations from high-resolution optical imaging data in the awake monkey. Optical imaging allows to track moving erythrocytes (or small clusters thereof), thus providing, albeit noisy,

  14. Isolated nanoinjection photo detectors for high-speed and high-sensitivity single-photon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathipour, V.; Memis, O. G.; Jang, S. J.; Khalid, F.; Brown, R. L.; Hassaninia, I.; Gelfand, R.; Mohseni, H.

    2013-09-01

    Our group has designed and developed a new SWIR single photon detector called the nano-injection detector that is conceptually designed with biological inspirations taken from the rod cells in human eye. The detector couples a nanoscale sensory region with a large absorption volume to provide avalanche free internal amplification while operating at linear regime with low bias voltages. The low voltage operation makes the detector to be fully compatible with available CMOS technologies. Because there is no photon reemission, detectors can be formed into high-density single-photon detector arrays. As such, the nano injection detectors are viable candidates for SPD and imaging at the short-wave infrared band. Our measurements in 2007 proved a high SNR and a stable excess noise factor of near unity. We are reporting on a high speed version of the detector with 4 orders of magnitude enhancement in speed as well as 2 orders of magnitude reduction in dark current (30nA vs. 10 uA at 1.5V).

  15. Robust Emergent Climate Phenomena Associated with the High-Sensitivity Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, M.; Levy, M.; Backus, G.

    2010-12-01

    Because the potential effects of climate change are more severe than had previously been thought, increasing focus on uncertainty quantification is required for risk assessment needed by policy makers. Current scientific efforts focus almost exclusively on establishing best estimates of future climate change. However, the greatest consequences occur in the extreme tail of the probability density functions for climate sensitivity (the “high-sensitivity tail”). To this end, we are exploring the impacts of newly postulated, highly uncertain, but high-consequence physical mechanisms to better establish the climate change risk. We define consequence in terms of dramatic change in physical conditions and in the resulting socioeconomic impact (hence, risk) on populations. Although we are developing generally applicable risk assessment methods, we have focused our initial efforts on uncertainty and risk analyses for the Arctic region. Instead of focusing on best estimates, requiring many years of model parameterization development and evaluation, we are focusing on robust emergent phenomena (those that are not necessarily intuitive and are insensitive to assumptions, subgrid-parameterizations, and tunings). For many physical systems, under-resolved models fail to generate such phenomena, which only develop when model resolution is sufficiently high. Our ultimate goal is to discover the patterns of emergent climate precursors (those that cannot be predicted with lower-resolution models) that can be used as a "sensitivity fingerprint" and make recommendations for a climate early warning system that would use satellites and sensor arrays to look for the various predicted high-sensitivity signatures. Our initial simulations are focused on the Arctic region, where underpredicted phenomena such as rapid loss of sea ice are already emerging, and because of major geopolitical implications associated with increasing Arctic accessibility to natural resources, shipping routes, and strategic locations. We anticipate that regional climate will be strongly influenced by feedbacks associated with a seasonally ice-free Arctic, but with unknown emergent phenomena. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. A kilowatt pulsed 94 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer with high concentration sensitivity, high instantaneous bandwidth, and low dead time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, Paul A. S.; Bolton, David R.; Robertson, Duncan A.; Hunter, Robert I.; Wylde, Richard J.; Smith, Graham M.

    2009-10-01

    We describe a quasioptical 94 GHz kW pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer featuring ? /2 pulses as short as 5 ns and an instantaneous bandwidth of 1 GHz in nonresonant sample holders operating in induction mode and at low temperatures. Low power pulses can be as short as 200 ps and kilowatt pulses as short as 1.5 ns with timing resolution of a few hundred picoseconds. Phase and frequency can be changed on nanosecond time scales and complex high power pulse sequences can be run at repetition rates up to 80 kHz with low dead time. We demonstrate that the combination of high power pulses at high frequencies and nonresonant cavities can offer excellent concentration sensitivity for orientation selective pulsed electron double resonance (double electron-electron resonance), where we demonstrate measurements at 1 ?M concentration levels.

  17. A highly sensitive and flexible pressure sensor with electrodes and elastomeric interlayer containing silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Jiu, Jinting; Nogi, Masaya; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Koga, Hirotaka; He, Peng; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2015-02-01

    The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present study a simple printing process without complex patterning has been used for constructing the sensor, and an interlayer is employed comprising elastomeric composites filled with silver nanowires. By increasing the relative permittivity, ?r, of the composite interlayer induced by compression at high nanowire concentration, it has been possible to achieve a maximum sensitivity of 5.54 kPa-1. The improvement in sensitivity did not sacrifice or undermine the other features of the sensor. Thanks to the silver nanowire electrodes, the sensor is flexible and stable after 200 cycles at a bending radius of 2 mm, and exhibits outstanding reproducibility without hysteresis under similar pressure pulses. The sensor has been readily integrated onto an adhesive bandage and has been successful in detecting human movements. In addition to measuring pressure in direct contact, non-contact pressures such as air flow can also be detected.The next-generation application of pressure sensors is gradually being extended to include electronic artificial skin (e-skin), wearable devices, humanoid robotics and smart prosthetics. In these advanced applications, high sensing capability is an essential feature for high performance. Although surface patterning treatments and some special elastomeric interlayers have been applied to improve sensitivity, the process is complex and this inevitably raises the cost and is an obstacle to large-scale production. In the present study a simple printing process without complex patterning has been used for constructing the sensor, and an interlayer is employed comprising elastomeric composites filled with silver nanowires. By increasing the relative permittivity, ?r, of the composite interlayer induced by compression at high nanowire concentration, it has been possible to achieve a maximum sensitivity of 5.54 kPa-1. The improvement in sensitivity did not sacrifice or undermine the other features of the sensor. Thanks to the silver nanowire electrodes, the sensor is flexible and stable after 200 cycles at a bending radius of 2 mm, and exhibits outstanding reproducibility without hysteresis under similar pressure pulses. The sensor has been readily integrated onto an adhesive bandage and has been successful in detecting human movements. In addition to measuring pressure in direct contact, non-contact pressures such as air flow can also be detected. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06494a

  18. Piezoelectric Sensor to Measure Soft and Hard Stiffness with High Sensitivity for Ultrasonic Transducers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Rui; Su, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Jin; Chang, Shuo-Hung

    2015-01-01

    During dental sinus lift surgery, it is important to monitor the thickness of the remaining maxilla to avoid perforating the sinus membrane. Therefore, a sensor should be integrated into ultrasonic dental tools to prevent undesirable damage. This paper presents a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor installed in an ultrasonic transducer to measure the stiffness of high and low materials. Four design types using three PZT ring materials and a split PZT for actuator and sensor ring materials were studied. Three sensor locations were also examined. The voltage signals of the sensor and the displacement of the actuator were analyzed to distinguish the low and high stiffness. Using sensor type T1 made of the PZT-1 material and the front location A1 provided a high sensitivity of 2.47 Vm/kN. The experimental results demonstrated that our design can measure soft and hard stiffness. PMID:26110400

  19. A flexible, highly sensitive catheter for high resolution manometry based on in-fibre Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueley, Christopher; Wild, Peter M.

    2013-09-01

    This work presents a fibre optic-based flexible catheter for high resolution manometry (HRM), with sensing pods located at a pitch of 10 mm and an overall diameter of 2.8 mm. In-fibre Bragg gratings act as the sensing elements within these sensing pods. Hydrodynamic pressure resolution of 0.2 mmHg is demonstrated in conjunction with insensitivity to occlusion pressure. This result is significant in the context of HRM where independent measurement of hydrodynamic pressure is clinically relevant. The sensing system is compact, robust and flexible. Crosstalk between individual sensors is characterized and a compensation scheme is developed and validated.

  20. Silicon microstructures for high-speed and high-sensitivity protein identifications.

    PubMed

    Laurell, T; Nilsson, J; Marko-Varga, G

    2001-03-10

    Silicon microtechnology has been used to develop a microstructure toolbox in order to enable high accuracy protein identification. During the last 2 years we developed and applied monocrystalline silicon structures and established new automated protein analysis platforms. The development of a high throughput protein platform is presented where fully automated protein identifications are performed. It includes the reduction and alkylation of the protein sample in a standard 96- or 384-well plate format prior to injection of 1 microl samples into the continuous flow based microtechnology platform. The processed sample is transferred to a microchip nanovial array target using piezoelectric microdispensing. Identification is made by MALDI-TOF MS and a database search. After the initial sample reduction and alkylation period of 50 min the platform can digest and process protein samples at a speed of 100 samples in 210 min. An optional configuration of the platform, operating the dispenser in the 'static mode', enables on-target enrichment of low abundant proteins and peptides e.g. from 2DE samples. This makes detection at the low attomole level possible. PMID:11270863

  1. High-Sensitivity Ion Mobility Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry Using Electrodynamic Ion Funnel Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Keqi; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Lee, Hak-No; Prior, David C.; Buschbach, Michael A.; Li, Fumin; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-05-15

    The utility of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) for separation of mixtures and structural characterization of ions has been demonstrated extensively, including in the biological and nanoscience contexts. A major attraction of IMS is its speed, several orders of magnitude above that of condensed-phase separations. Nonetheless, IMS combined with mass spectrometry (MS) has remained a niche technique, substantially due to limited sensitivity resulting from ion losses at the IMS-MS junction. We have developed a new electrospray ionization (ESI)-IMS-QToF MS instrument that incorporates electrodynamic ion funnels at both front ESI-IMS and back IMS-QToF interfaces. The front funnel is of the novel ''hourglass'' design that efficiently accumulates ions and pulses them into the IMS drift tubes. Even for drift tubes of two meter length, ion transmission through IMS and on to QToF is essentially lossless across the range of ion masses relevant to most applications. The RF ion focusing at IMS terminus does not degrade IMS resolving power, which exceeds 100 (for singly-charged ions) and is close to the theoretical limit. The overall sensitivity of present ESI-IMS-MS system is shown to be comparable to that of commercial ESI-MS, which should make IMS-MS suitable for analyses of complex mixtures with ultra-high sensitivity and exceptional throughput.

  2. Microchips and single-photon avalanche diodes for DNA separation with high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Rech, Ivan; Cova, Sergio; Restelli, Alessandro; Ghioni, Massimo; Chiari, Marcella; Cretich, Marina

    2006-10-01

    Modern techniques for DNA and protein analysis and separation rely on measurements of LIF and face a trend toward employing progressively smaller samples. The currently employed detectors that provide the required ultrahigh sensitivity, e.g. photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), are bulky and/or costly and delicate, whereas a key issue for the development of compact and economical instruments is the availability of miniaturized, inexpensive, and ultrasensitive photodetectors. The planar epitaxial silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) combine the typical advantages of microelectronics (miniaturization, ruggedness, low voltage, low power, low cost, etc.) with high sensitivity, even better than that of PMTs. The suitability of such SPADs to microchip CE has been here ascertained by developing a new apparatus with dual-wavelength LIF detection. The apparatus has been experimented in studies on the EOF suppression and on the coating stability and tested in rapid sizing of DNA fragments. The experimental results obtained in the separation of Cy5-labeled oligonucleotide demonstrate sensitivity better than 3 pM, which corresponds to less than 100 fluorescent molecules in the 50 pL illuminated volume. PMID:17031786

  3. Highly sensitive and specific novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of transitional bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Nandi, Sayantani; Tan, Tuan Zea; Ler, Siok Ghee; Chia, Kee Seng; Lim, Wei-Yen; Bütow, Zentia; Vordos, Dimitrios; De la Taille, Alexandre; Al-Haddawi, Muthafar; Raida, Manfred; Beyer, Burkhard; Ricci, Estelle; Colombel, Marc; Chong, Tsung Wen; Chiong, Edmund; Soo, Ross; Park, Mi Kyoung; Ha, Hong Koo; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Thiery, Jean Paul

    2015-05-30

    Transitional bladder carcinoma (BCa) is prevalent in developed countries, particularly among men. Given that these tumors frequently recur or progress, the early detection and subsequent monitoring of BCa at different stages is critical. Current BCa diagnostic biomarkers are not sufficiently sensitive for substituting or complementing invasive cystoscopy. Here, we sought to identify a robust set of urine biomarkers for BCa detection. Using a high-resolution, mass spectrometry-based, quantitative proteomics approach, we measured, compared and validated protein variations in 451 voided urine samples from healthy subjects, non-bladder cancer patients and patients with non-invasive and invasive BCa. We identified five robust biomarkers: Coronin-1A, Apolipoprotein A4, Semenogelin-2, Gamma synuclein and DJ-1/PARK7. In diagnosing Ta/T1 BCa, these biomarkers achieved an AUC of 0.92 and 0.98, respectively, using ELISA and western blot data (sensitivity, 79.2% and 93.9%; specificity, 100% and 96.7%, respectively). In diagnosing T2/T3 BCa, an AUC of 0.94 and 1.0 was attained (sensitivity, 86.4% and 100%; specificity, 100%) using the same methods. Thus, our multiplex biomarker panel offers unprecedented accuracy for the diagnosis of BCa patients and provides the prospect for a non-invasive way to detect bladder cancer. PMID:25915536

  4. Calcitonin levels in normal individuals with new highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H

    1998-01-01

    Human serum calcitonin concentration in normal individuals was measured with a new assay based on the chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) method. The CLEIA assay was highly sensitive and was able to determine a calcitonin concentration of 0.04 pg/ml as sensitivity limit at a condition of 0+3SD. With this CLEIA assay, the mean value of calcitonin in males and females was 2.26 and 1.33 pg/ml, respectively, highlighting a significant difference between genders. The mean value and range of human serum calcitonin in this assay were approximately 1/10 those reported previously in competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods. Since RIAs for calcitonin showed much variability at a low concentration range due to the competitive format, they seemed to lack the necessary sensitivity to cover the normal range and appeared only useful for hyper-calcitonin phenomenon in diseases such as medullary thyroid carcinoma. The CLEIA for calcitonin provided a lower detection limit than normal range, and it can therefore be assumed that it could be applied for the measurement of hypo-calcitonin phenomena typically found in some disorders such as osteoporosis. PMID:9671173

  5. Temperature sensitivity of surface channel effects on high-purity germanium detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, E. L.; Pehl, R. H.; Madden, N. W.; Luke, P. N.; Cork, C. P.; Malone, D. L.; Xing, J. S.; Komisarcik, K.; Vanderwerp, J. D.; Friesel, D. L.

    1995-02-01

    The temperature sensitivity of surface channel effects on planar high-purity germanium detectors was measured using 60-keV gamma-ray scanning techniques, as part of a radiation damage study. When measured in this manner, the surface effects on most detectors showed extreme temperature sensitivity in the 72-95 K region. The effect of the surface channel increased with increasing temperature to such an extent that the efficiency, as measured by the count rate in the 1332-keV peak from a 60Co source, decreased by a factor of over two in some cases. Since the peak efficiency for the 1332-keV gamma ray decreased as the temperature increased throughout the operating range (72-120 K) the effect of the surface channel must continue to increase beyond the temperature (95 K) at which the 60-keV scan loses its sensitivity because of the strong attenuation of these much lower energy gamma rays. Radiation damage had no measurable effect on the surface characteristics. No correlation between the surface effects and the resolution changes of the 1332-keV peak was observed.

  6. A wearable and highly sensitive pressure sensor with ultrathin gold nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shu; Schwalb, Willem; Wang, Yongwei; Chen, Yi; Tang, Yue; Si, Jye; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cheng, Wenlong

    2014-01-01

    Ultrathin gold nanowires are mechanically flexible yet robust, which are novel building blocks with potential applications in future wearable optoelectronic devices. Here we report an efficient, low-cost fabrication strategy to construct a highly sensitive, flexible pressure sensor by sandwiching ultrathin gold nanowire-impregnated tissue paper between two thin polydimethylsiloxane sheets. The entire device fabrication process is scalable, enabling facile large-area integration and patterning for mapping spatial pressure distribution. Our gold nanowires-based pressure sensors can be operated at a battery voltage of 1.5?V with low energy consumption (<30??W), and are able to detect pressing forces as low as 13?Pa with fast response time (<17?ms), high sensitivity (>1.14?kPa(-1)) and high stability (>50,000 loading-unloading cycles). In addition, our sensor can resolve pressing, bending, torsional forces and acoustic vibrations. The superior sensing properties in conjunction with mechanical flexibility and robustness enabled real-time monitoring of blood pulses as well as detection of small vibration forces from music. PMID:24495897

  7. A high-sensitivity search for extraterrestrial intelligence at lambda 18 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J.; Cuzzi, J.; Black, D.; Clark, T.

    1980-01-01

    A targeted high-sensitivity search for narrow-band signals near a wavelength of 18 cm has been conducted using the 91-m radiotelescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The search included 201 nearby solar-type stars and achieved a frequency resolution of 5.5 Hz over a 1.4-MHz bandwidth. This high spectral resolution was obtained through a non-real-time reduction procedure using a Mark I VLBI recording terminal in conjunction with the CDC 7600 computational facility at the NASA-Ames Research Center. This is the first high-resolution search for narrow-band signals in this wavelength regime. To date it is the most sensitive search per unit observing time of any search strategy which does not postulate a unique magic frequency. Data show no evidence for narrow-band signals due to extraterrestrial intelligence at a 12-standard-deviation upper limit on signal strength of 1.1 x 10 to the -23rd W/sq m.

  8. High sensitivity chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for detecting staphylococcal enterotoxin A in multi-matrices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunmei; Liu, Zhijia; Li, Yongming; Li, Qi; Song, Chaojun; Xu, Zhuwei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yusi; Ma, Ying; Sun, Yuanjie; Chen, Lihua; Fang, Liang; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

    2013-09-24

    In this study, detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in multi-matrices using a highly sensitive and specific microplate chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) has been established. A pair of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was selected from 37 anti-SEA mAbs by pairwise analysis, and the experimental conditions of the CLEIA were optimized. This CLEIA exhibited high performance with a wide dynamic range from 6.4 pg mL(-1) to 1600 pg mL(-1), and the measured low limit of detection (LOD) was 3.2 pg mL(-1). No cross-reactivity was observed when this method was applied to test SEB, SEC1, and SED. It has also been successfully applied for analyzing SEA in a variety of environmental, biological, and clinical matrices, such as sewage, tap water, river water, roast beef, peanut butter, cured ham, 10% nonfat dry milk, milk, orange juice, human urine, and serum. Thus, the highly sensitive and SEA-specific CLEIA should make it attractive for quantifying SEA in public health and diagnosis in near future. PMID:24016577

  9. Low-field MRI can be more sensitive than high-field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Aaron M.; Truong, Milton

    2014-01-01

    MRI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the key factor for image quality. Conventionally, SNR is proportional to nuclear spin polarization, which scales linearly with magnetic field strength. Yet ever-stronger magnets present numerous technical and financial limitations. Low-field MRI can mitigate these constraints with equivalent SNR from non-equilibrium ‘hyperpolarization’ schemes, which increase polarization by orders of magnitude independently of the magnetic field. Here, theory and experimental validation demonstrate that combination of field independent polarization (e.g. hyperpolarization) with frequency optimized MRI detection coils (i.e. multi-turn coils using the maximum allowed conductor length) results in low-field MRI sensitivity approaching and even rivaling that of high-field MRI. Four read-out frequencies were tested using samples with identical numbers of 1H and 13C spins. Experimental SNRs at 0.0475 T were ?40% of those obtained at 4.7 T. Conservatively, theoretical SNRs at 0.0475 T 1.13-fold higher than 4.7 T were possible despite an ?100-fold lower detection frequency, indicating feasibility of high-sensitivity MRI without technically challenging, expensive high-field magnets. The data at 4.7 T and 0.0475 T was obtained from different spectrometers with different RF probes. The SNR comparison between the two field strengths accounted for many differences in parameters such as system noise figures and variations in the probe detection coils including Q factors and coil diameters. PMID:24239701

  10. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4?kPa-1, a fast response time of <10?ms, high stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of <1?mW. The combination of a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane dielectric and the high-mobility semiconducting polyisoindigobithiophene-siloxane in a monolithic transistor design enabled us to operate the devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  11. High sensitivity point-of-care device for direct virus diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kiilerich-Pedersen, Katrine; Daprà, Johannes; Cherré, Solène; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2013-11-15

    Influenza infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality, carry the risk of pandemics, and pose a considerable economic burden worldwide. To improve the management of the illness, it is essential with accurate and fast point-of-care diagnostic tools for use in the field or at the patient's bedside. Conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming, expensive and require specialized laboratory facilities. We present a highly sensitive, highly specific, and low cost platform to test for acute virus infections in less than 15 min, employing influenza A virus (H1N1) as an example of its usability. An all polymer microfluidic system with a functionalized conductive polymer (PEDOT-OH:TsO) microelectrode array was developed and exploited for label free and real time electrochemical detection of intact influenza A virus (H1N1) particles. DNA aptamers with affinity for influenza A virus (H1N1) were linked covalently to the conductive polymer microelectrodes in the microfluidic channel. Based on changes in the impedance when virions were captured by immobilized probes, we could detect clinically relevant concentrations of influenza A virus (H1N1) in saliva. This is a new, stable and very sensitive point-of-care platform for detection and diagnostics of intact virus particles. PMID:23800609

  12. A high-sensitivity search for extraterrestrial intelligence at lambda 18 CM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, J.; Cuzzi, J.; Black, D.; Clark, T.

    1980-04-01

    A targeted high-sensitivity search for narrow-band signals near a wavelength of 18 cm has been conducted using the 91-m radiotelescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The search included 201 nearby solar-type stars and achieved a frequency resolution of 5.5 Hz over a 1.4-MHz bandwidth. This high spectral resolution was obtained through a non-real-time reduction procedure using a Mark I VLBI recording terminal in conjunction with the CDC 7600 computational facility at the NASA-Ames Research Center. This is the first high-resolution search for narrow-band signals in this wavelength regime. To date it is the most sensitive search per unit observing time of any search strategy which does not postulate a unique magic frequency. Data show no evidence for narrow-band signals due to extraterrestrial intelligence at a 12-standard-deviation upper limit on signal strength of 1.1 x 10 to the -23rd W/sq m.

  13. Flexible three-axial force sensor for soft and highly sensitive artificial touch.

    PubMed

    Viry, Lucie; Levi, Alessandro; Totaro, Massimo; Mondini, Alessio; Mattoli, Virgilio; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    A soft tactile sensor able to detect both normal and tangential forces is fabricated with a simple method using conductive textile. Owing to the multi-layered architecture, the capacitive-based tactile sensor is highly sensitive (less than 10 mg and 8 ?m, for minimal detectable weight and displacement, respectively) within a wide normal force range (potentially up to 27 N (400 kPa)) and natural touch-like tangential force ranges (from about 0.5 N to 1.8 N). Being flexible, soft, and low cost, this sensor represents an original approach in the emulation of natural touch. PMID:24677245

  14. Noise spectroscopy as an equilibrium analysis tool for highly sensitive electrical biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiushi; Kong, Tao; Su, Ruigong; Zhang, Qi; Cheng, Guosheng

    2012-08-01

    We demonstrate an approach for highly sensitive bio-detection based on silicon nanowire field-effect transistors by employing low frequency noise spectroscopy analysis. The inverse of noise amplitude of the device exhibits an enhanced gate coupling effect in strong inversion regime when measured in buffer solution than that in air. The approach was further validated by the detection of cardiac troponin I of 0.23 ng/ml in fetal bovine serum, in which 2 orders of change in noise amplitude was characterized. The selectivity of the proposed approach was also assessed by the addition of 10 ?g/ml bovine serum albumin solution.

  15. Highly sensitive detection of explosive triacetone triperoxide by an In2O3 sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Wei-De; Chen, Lu-Ya

    2010-08-01

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is one of the most sensitive known explosives and can be easily synthesized using the commonly available chemicals acetone and hydrogen peroxide, but is difficult to be detected. In this study, In2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a glucose-assisted solvothermal method at 120 °C for 18 h. The gas sensor based on In2O3 nanoparticles exhibits a high response, fast response and recovery, a wide detecting range of 0.50-500 mg, good stability and excellent stability to TATP.

  16. Porous carbon-modified electrodes as highly selective and sensitive sensors for detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Pitchaimani; Madhu, Rajesh; Chen, Shen-Ming; Hung, Chin-Te; Tang, Pi-Hsi; Wang, Chen-Bin; Liu, Shang-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Carbon porous materials (CPMs) with high surface areas up to 2660 m(2) g(-1), directly fabricated by a facile microwave-assisted route, were applied to the electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA). The CPM-modified electrodes exhibited excellent selectivity, a desirable detection limit (2.9 nM), and extraordinary sensitivity (2.56 mA ?M(-1) cm(-2)) for detection of DA, even in the presence of large amounts of foreign species, such as ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA), making feasible the practical applications of these electrodes as DA sensors. PMID:25101356

  17. Highly sensitive and simple SERS substrate based on photochemically generated carbon nanotubes-gold nanorods hybrids.

    PubMed

    Caires, A J; Vaz, R P; Fantini, C; Ladeira, L O

    2015-10-01

    We report a simple and easy formation of hybrids between multi-wall carbon nanotubes and gold nanorods by one-pot in situ photochemical synthesis. Measurements of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) through the effect "coffee ring" in visible and near infrared (NIR) show high sensitivity with detection of nanomolar concentrations of aromatic dyes. The formation of nanocomposites between carbon nanotubes and gold nanorods without chemical binders simplifies the preparation. Photochemical synthesis is an advance over the techniques previously published. PMID:26057106

  18. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and mean platelet volume in paediatric hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Wasilewska; Edyta Tenderenda; Katarzyna Taranta-Janusz; Walentyna Zoch-Zwierz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate serum uric acid (SUA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and mean platelet\\u000a volume (MPV) in pre-hypertensive (PH) and hypertensive (HT) children and adolescents. The study group consisted of 80 patients\\u000a aged 10–19 years subdivided into PH and HT groups according to mean daytime or night-time systolic or diastolic blood pressure\\u000a (BP) levels (>90th percentile,

  19. A superfluorinated molecular probe for highly sensitive in vivo(19)F-MRI.

    PubMed

    Tirotta, Ilaria; Mastropietro, Alfonso; Cordiglieri, Chiara; Gazzera, Lara; Baggi, Fulvio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Zucca, Ileana; Cavallo, Gabriella; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe

    2014-06-18

    (19)F-MRI offers unique opportunities to image diseases and track cells and therapeutic agents in vivo. Herein we report a superfluorinated molecular probe, herein called PERFECTA, possessing excellent cellular compatibility, and whose spectral properties, relaxation times, and sensitivity are promising for in vivo (19)F-MRI applications. The molecule, which bears 36 equivalent (19)F atoms and shows a single intense resonance peak, is easily synthesized via a simple one-step reaction and is formulated in water with high stability using trivial reagents and methods. PMID:24884816

  20. Stable, High-Efficiency Ionic-Liquid-Based Mesoscopic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daibin Kuang; Cedric Klein; Zhipan Zhang; Seigo Ito; Jacques-E. Moser; Michael Grätzel

    2007-01-01

    Efficient and stable mesoscopic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) intro- ducing a low-viscosity binary ionic liquid (1-propyl-3-methyl-imidazoli- um iodide (PMII) and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetracyanoborate (EMIB(CN)4)) electrolyte in combination with a new high-molar-extinc- tion-coefficient ruthenium complex, Ru(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)ACHTUNGTRENNUNG(4,4'-bis(2-(4-tert-butyloxy -phenyl)ethenyl) 2,2'-bipyridine) (NCS)2, are demonstrated. The dependence of photovoltaic performance, charge transport and electron lifetime on the composition of the binary ionic-liquid electrolyte with different