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Sample records for highly sensitive uplc-ms

  1. An UPLC-MS/MS method for highly sensitive high-throughput analysis of phytohormones in plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phytohormones are the key metabolites participating in the regulation of multiple functions of plant organism. Among them, jasmonates, as well as abscisic and salicylic acids are responsible for triggering and modulating plant reactions targeted against pathogens and herbivores, as well as resistance to abiotic stress (drought, UV-irradiation and mechanical wounding). These factors induce dramatic changes in phytohormone biosynthesis and transport leading to rapid local and systemic stress responses. Understanding of underlying mechanisms is of principle interest for scientists working in various areas of plant biology. However, highly sensitive, precise and high-throughput methods for quantification of these phytohormones in small samples of plant tissues are still missing. Results Here we present an LC-MS/MS method for fast and highly sensitive determination of jasmonates, abscisic and salicylic acids. A single-step sample preparation procedure based on mixed-mode solid phase extraction was efficiently combined with essential improvements in mobile phase composition yielding higher efficiency of chromatographic separation and MS-sensitivity. This strategy resulted in dramatic increase in overall sensitivity, allowing successful determination of phytohormones in small (less than 50 mg of fresh weight) tissue samples. The method was completely validated in terms of analyte recovery, sensitivity, linearity and precision. Additionally, it was cross-validated with a well-established GC-MS-based procedure and its applicability to a variety of plant species and organs was verified. Conclusion The method can be applied for the analyses of target phytohormones in small tissue samples obtained from any plant species and/or plant part relying on any commercially available (even less sensitive) tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation. PMID:23173950

  2. Biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of matrine as determined by a sensitive and robust UPLC–MS/MS method

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Gao, Song; Yin, Taijun; Kulkarni, Kaustubh H.; Teng, Yang; You, Ming; Hu, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a sensitive and reproducible UPLC–MS/MS method to analyze matrine, an anticancer compound, and to use it to investigate its biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic behaviors in rats. A sensitive and fast UPLC–MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine matrine in rat plasma, intestinal perfusate, bile, microsomes, and cell incubation media. The absolute oral bioavailability of matrine is 17.1 ± 5.4% at a dose of 2 mg/kg matrine. Matrine at 10 ?M was shown to have good permeability (42.5 × 10?6 cm/s) across the Caco-2 cell monolayer, and the ratio of PA–B to PB–A was approximately equal to 1 at two different concentrations (1 and 10 ?M). Perfusion study showed that matrine displayed significant differences (P < 0.05) in permeability at different intestinal regions. The rank order of permeability was ileum (highest, Pw = 6.18), followed by colon (Pw = 2.07), duodenum (Pw = 0.61) and jejunum (Pw = 0.52). Rat liver microsome studies showed that CYP and UGTs were not involved in matrine metabolism. In conclusion, a sensitive and reliable method capable of measuring matrine in a variety of matrixes was developed and successfully used to determine absolute oral bioavailability of matrine in rats, transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers, absorption in rat intestine, and metabolism in rat liver microsomes. PMID:20034755

  3. Development of a rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the determination of TM-2 in beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongli; Zhao, Yunli; Men, Lei; Yang, Mingjing; Liu, Hui; Shao, Yanjie; Wang, Pei; Tang, Xing; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of TM-2, which was a novel semi-synthetic taxane derivative in beagle dog plasma. Cabazitaxel was chosen as internal standard. Following extraction by methyl tert-butyl ether, the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Thermo Syncronis C18 column (50?×?2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) by gradient elution within a runtime of 3.5 min. The mobile phase consisted of (A) acetonitrile and (B) 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate in water. The detection was accomplished using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The MS/MS ion transitions were monitored at m/z 812.39???551.35 for TM-2 and 836.36???555.26 for IS, respectively. The method was linear for TM-2 (r?=?0.9924) ranging from 2.5 to 1000 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were within 8.0 and 17.6%, respectively, and the accuracy (relative error) was less than 2.3%. The extraction recovery ranged from 83.1 to 97.1%. The reliable method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of TM-2 in beagle dogs after intravenous drip with different doses of 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:24828525

  4. A sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of eleven bioactive components of Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang decoction in rat biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-xue; Hu, Lang; Zhang, Meng-meng; Sun, Jian; Qiu, Yue; Rui, Jun-qian; Yang, Xing-hao

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the sensitive quantification of multiple components using advanced data acquisition method in herbal medicines (HMs). An improved and rugged UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for sensitive and rapid determination of multiply analytes from Tong-Xie-Yao-Fang (TXYF) decoction in three biological matrices (plasma/brain tissue/urine) using geniposide and formononetin as internal standards. After solid-phase extraction, chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution. Quantifier and qualifier transitions were monitored using novel Triggered Dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (TdMRM) in the positive ionization mode. A significant peak symmetry and sensitivity improvement in the TdMRM mode was achieved as compared to conventional MRM. The reproducibility (RSD%) was ?7.9% by applying TdMRM transition while the values were 6.8-20.6% for MRM. Excellent linear calibration curves were obtained under TdMRM transitions over the tested concentration ranges. Intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were ?14.2% and accuracies (RE%) ranged from -9.6% to 10.6%. The validation data of specificity, carryover, recovery, matrix effect and stability were within the required limits. The method was effectively applied to simultaneously detect and quantify 1 lactone, 2 monoterpene glucosides, 1 alkaloid, 5 flavonoids and 2 chromones in plasma, brain tissue and urine after oral administration of TXYF decoction. In conclusion, this new and reliable method is beneficial for quantification and confirmation assays of multiply components in complex biological samples. PMID:24295908

  5. Determination of opiates and cocaine in urine by high pH mobile phase reversed phase UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas; Lundanes, Elsa; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Strand, Dag Helge

    2009-02-01

    A fast and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of opiates (morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), pholcodine, oxycodone, ethylmorphine), cocaine and benzoylecgonine in urine has been developed and validated. Sample preparation was performed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on a mixed mode cation exchange (MCX) cartridge. For optimized chromatographic performance with repeatable retention times, narrow and symmetrical peaks, and focusing of all analytes at the column inlet at gradient start, a basic mobile phase consisting of 5mM ammonium bicarbonate, pH 10.2, and methanol (MeOH) was chosen. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) MS/MS detection was performed with a minimum of two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions for each analyte. Deuterium labelled-internal standards were used for six of the analytes. Between-assay retention time repeatabilities (n=10 series, 225 injections in total) had relative standard deviation (RSD) values within 0.1-0.6%. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were in the range 0.003-0.05 microM (0.001-0.02 microg/mL) and 0.01-0.16 microM (0.003-0.06 microg/mL), respectively. The RSD values of the between-assay repeatabilities of concentrations were

  6. Development and validation of a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of dapoxetine and its two metabolites in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Qiang, Wu; Ying-Fei, Wang; Ming, Sun; Wang, Rong

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine dapoxetine and its two major metabolites (dapoxetine-N-oxide and desmethyldapoxetine) in human plasma simultaneously. After a simple protein precipitation, the analytes and the combined internal standard (carbamazepine) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water with gradient elution. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a XEVO TQD triple quadruple mass spectrometer coupled with an electro-spray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode. The MRM transitions are of m/z 306.3?261.2, m/z 322.2?261.2, m/z 292.2?261.2 and m/z 237.1?194.2 for dapoxetine, dapoxetine-N-oxide, desmethyldapoxetine and IS, respectively. The linearity of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 1.0-200ng/mL for dapoxetine; 0.5-100ng/mL for dapoxetine-N-oxide; and 0.1-5.0ng/mL for desmethyldapoxetine in human plasma, respectively. Only 4.0min was needed for an analytical run. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were within the acceptable limits of ±15% at all of the concentrations. This assay was successfully used to support a clinical pharmacokinetic study following oral administration of dapoxetine tablets in healthy Chinese subjects. PMID:26641706

  7. Determination of Pinaverium Bromide in Human Plasma by a Sensitive and Robust UPLC-MS-MS Method and Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study in Mexican Subjects.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Rodríguez, Omar; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Escobedo-Moratilla, Abraham; Díaz de León-Cabrero, Manuel; Torres-Roque, Irma; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2015-09-01

    A high-throughput ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of pinaverium bromide in human plasma. Protein precipitation with acetonitrile was used to extract pinaverium and itraconazole (as internal standard) from 500 µL plasma samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved with an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 100 mm) using a mixture of acetonitrile-5 mM ammonium formate (80:20, v/v) as mobile phase. Isocratic elution at 0.3 mL/min was used. Detection was performed by positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry on a XEVO TQ-S by multiple reaction monitoring mode. The mass transitions monitorized were as follows: m/z 511.2 ? 230 for pinaverium bromide, and m/z 705.29 ? 392.18 for the itraconazole. The method was validated over a concentration range of 12-12,000 pg/mL. The chromatographic method runtime is 2.5 min and was applied to characterize the pharmacokinetics of pinaverium bromide after the oral administration of 100 mg to healthy Mexican subjects. PMID:25862744

  8. Screening ?1AR inhibitors by cell membrane chromatography and offline UPLC/MS method for protecting myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yuan; Dou, Lili; Wang, Xin; Xue, Hui; Song, Yanhong; Li, Xiaoni

    2015-11-10

    A high expression ?1AR/cell membrane chromatography (?1AR-CMC) and offline UPLC/MS method has been developed for screening active ingredients from Coptis chinensis. In this study, the fractions retained by CMC column were separated and identified by UPLC/MS system. Using metoprolol as a positive control drug, coptisine from C. chinensis was identified as the active component which could inhibit ?1AR. Compared with the control group: coptisine could attenuate the infarct size and release malondialdehyde (MDA) while increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, suggesting a role in reducing myocardial injury. In vitro, coptisine could decrease apoptosis, showing their protective effects upon cardiomyocytes. This ?1AR-CMC-offline-UPLC/MS method can be applied for screening active components acting on ?1AR from traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26263062

  9. Folate analysis in foods by UPLC-MS/MS: development and validation of a novel, high throughput quantitative assay; folate levels determined in Australian fortified breads.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Bucknall, Martin P; Arcot, Jayashree

    2011-08-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, optimised and validated for the quantification of synthetic folic acid (FA), also called pteroyl-L: -glutamic acid or vitamin B9 and naturally occurring 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) found in folate-fortified breads. Optimised sample preparation prior to analysis involved addition of (13)C(5) labelled internal standards, treatments with ?-amylase and rat serum, solid-phase extraction using aromatic-selective cartridges and ultra-filtration. Analytes were separated on a Waters ACQUITY HSS T3 column during a 6-min run and analysed by positive ion electrospray selected reaction monitoring MS/MS. Standard calibration curves for the two analytes were linear over the range of 0.018-14 ?g FA/g of fresh bread (r(2) = 0.997) and 9.3-900 ng 5-MTHF/g of fresh bread (r(2) = 0.999). The absolute recoveries were 90% and 76% for FA and 5-MTHF, respectively. Intra-day coefficients of variation were 3% for FA and 18% for 5-MTHF. The limit of detection was 9.0 ng/g for FA and 4.3 ng/g for 5-MTHF, determined using pre-extracted tapioca starch as the blank matrix. The assay is rugged, fast, accurate and sensitive, applicable to a variety of food matrices and is capable of the detection and quantification of the naturally occurring low levels of 5-MTHF in wheat breads. The findings of this study revealed that the FA range in Australian fortified breads was 79-110 ?g/100 g of fresh bread and suggest that the flour may not have the mandated FA fortification level (200-300 ?g/100 g of flour), though this cannot be determined conclusively from experimental bread data alone, as variable baking losses have been documented by other authors. PMID:21667347

  10. Determination of buprenorphine, fentanyl and LSD in whole blood by UPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas; Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Strand, Dag Helge

    2013-04-01

    A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of buprenorphine, fentanyl and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in whole blood. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with methyl tert-butyl ether. UPLC-MS-MS analysis was performed with a mobile phase consisting of ammonium formate (pH 10.2) and methanol. Positive electrospray ionization MS-MS detection was performed with two multiple reaction monitoring transitions for each of the analytes and the deuterium labeled internal standards. Limit of detection values of buprenorphine, fentanyl and LSD were 0.28, 0.044 and 0.0097 ng/mL and limit of quantification values were 0.94, 0.14 and 0.036 ng/mL, respectively. Most phospholipids were removed during LLE. No or only minor matrix effects were observed. The method has been routinely used at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health since September 2011 for qualitative and quantitative detections of buprenorphine, fentanyl and/or LSD in more than 400 whole blood samples with two replicates per sample. PMID:23423312

  11. Chemical derivatization of neurosteroids for their trace determination in sea lamprey by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Ugo; Huertas, Mar; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Ke; Li, Weiming

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a sensitive and robust method for the determination of neurosteroids in sea lamprey, an ancestral animal in vertebrate evolution. Chemical derivatization was used to enhance the detection of neurosteroids containing ketone function by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Iminooxy derivatives of 12 oxosteroids and three internal standards were monitored by positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry using the neutral loss of sulfate. Limit of quantification, extraction recovery and matrix effect were first evaluated and SPE using C18 sorbent was selected after comparison with liquid/liquid extraction and protein precipitation. Matrix effect ranged from 89.6% to 113.1% in plasma and from 79.8% to 100.0% in the brain. Recovery values ranged from 80.0% to 103.8% in plasma and from 86.3% to 107.9% in the brain. Chromatographic separation was achieved by reverse phase chromatography (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7µm particle size, C18) with a binary gradient between methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water. Limit of quantification ranged from 5 to 10pg/mL and was up to 80 times lower than those for non-derivatized steroids. Accuracy and precision parameters were determined and inter- and intra-day at three concentrations: 50, 500 and 5000pg/mL. This method was applied to analyze real samples. progesterone (P), pregnenolone (P5), 7-hydroxy-pregnenolpne (7P5), 17-hydroxy-pregnenolpne (17P5)dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedienone (A4), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), allopregnanolone (THP), 11-hydroxy-androstenedienone (11A4) and 11-Deoxycortisol (S) were measured in sea lamprey brain and plasma matrixes. PMID:26717848

  12. HILIC-UPLC-MS for exploratory urinary metabolic profiling in toxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Spagou, Konstantina; Wilson, Ian D; Masson, Perrine; Theodoridis, Georgios; Raikos, Nikolaos; Coen, Muireann; Holmes, Elaine; Lindon, John C; Plumb, Robert S; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Want, Elizabeth J

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophilic interaction ultra performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) permits the analysis of highly polar metabolites, providing complementary information to reversed-phase (RP) chromatography. HILIC-UPLC-TOF-MS was investigated for the global metabolic profiling of rat urine samples generated in an experimental hepatotoxicity study of galactosamine (galN) and the concomitant investigation of the protective effect of glycine. Within-run repeatability and stability over a large sample batch (>200 samples, 60 h run-time) was assessed through the repeat analysis of a quality control sample. Following system equilibration, excellent repeatability was observed in terms of retention time (CV < 1.7%), signal intensity (CV < 14%), and mass variability (<0.005 amu), providing a good measure of reproducibility. Classification of urinary metabolic profiles according to treatment was observed, with significant changes in specific metabolites after galN exposure, including increased urocanic acid, N-acetylglucosamine, and decreased 2-oxoglutarate. A novel finding from this HILIC-UPLC-MS approach was elevated urinary tyramine in galN-treated rats, reflecting disturbed amino acid metabolism. These results show HILIC-UPLC-MS to be a promising method for global metabolic profiling, demonstrating high within-run repeatability, even over an extended run time. Retention of polar endogenous analytes and xenobiotic metabolites was improved compared with RP studies, including galN, N-acetylglucosamine, oxoglutarate, and urocanic acid, enhancing metabolome coverage and potentially improving biomarker discovery. PMID:21142126

  13. Screening and quantitative determination of drugs of abuse in diluted urine by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Solfrid; Hermansson, Sigurd; Betnér, Ingvar; Spigset, Olav; Falch, Berit Margrethe Hasle

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a fast, robust and specific UPLC-MS/MS screening platform for the determination and quantification of a variety of commonly used drugs of abuse in urine, i.e. a high-throughput quantitative analysis. Substances in the drug classes opioids, central nervous system stimulants and benzodiazepines and related agents were included in addition to cannabis and pregabalin, a total of 35 different analytes. Based on the concentrations and the physico-chemical properties of the substances, three UPLC-MS/MS methods were developed in parallel. Prior to analysis, sample preparation consisted of two different simple dilutions with 60 and 100 ?L urine, respectively, using a Tecan Freedom Evo pipetting robot platform. A Waters Xevo TQ-S tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to a Waters I-class UPLC was used for quantitative analysis of one quantitative and one qualifying MRM transition for each analyte, except for tramadol for which the metabolite O-desmethyl-tramadol was included in the MRM method to confirm tramadol identity. Deuterated analogs were included as internal standards. The between-assay relative standard deviations varied from 2% to 11% and the limits of quantification were in the range 1-200 ng/mL for the various analytes. After development and initial testing, the method has been successfully implemented and routinely used at our hospital for quantitative screening of drugs of abuse in more than 35,000 urinary samples. PMID:24413020

  14. An UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitative profiling of bile acids in sea lamprey plasma and tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiyong; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Li, Ke; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Weiming

    2015-02-01

    Bile acids (BAs) have recently gained more attention because of their diverse roles from digestion to signaling. Simultaneous analyses of various BAs in biological samples are challenging due to their structural similarity, relatively low concentrations, and the presence of isomeric forms. In this study, we report a simple and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantifications of 13 BAs including four unique sea lamprey BAs in sea lamprey plasma, liver, intestine, and gills. A straightforward protein precipitation (PPT) method was used to extract BAs from the biological samples. Separation of all target analytes was achieved on a reverse-phase UPLC column in 15min, and detection was carried out on MS/MS with ESI in the negative ionization mode. This method was validated regarding its linearity, limits of detection (LOD), recovery, matrix effect, reproducibility, accuracy and precision. Significant improvements compared to previous LC-MS/MS methods were observed as a result of the application of UPLC and extensive optimization of experimental conditions. The method showed excellent linearity with high regression coefficients (>0.99) over a range of 0.5-1000ng/mL and LODs ranged from 0.009 to 0.11ng/mL. The applications of the developed method demonstrated that it simultaneously determined all target BAs in different biological sample matrices with excellent sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility. PMID:25589257

  15. From cells to muropeptide structures in 24?h: Peptidoglycan mapping by UPLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Kühner, Daniel; Stahl, Mark; Demircioglu, Dogan D.; Bertsche, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PGN) is ubiquitous in nearly all bacterial species. The PGN sacculus protects the cells against their own internal turgor making PGN one of the most important targets for antibacterial treatment. Within the last sixty years PGN composition has been intensively studied by various methods. The breakthrough was the application of HPLC technology on the analysis of muropeptides. However, preparation of pure PGN relied on a very time consuming method of about one week. We established a purification protocol for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria which can be completely performed in plastic reaction tubes yielding pure muropeptides within 24?hours. The muropeptides can be analyzed by UPLC-MS, allowing their immediate determination. This new rapid method provides the feasibility to screen PGN composition even in high throughput, making it a highly useful tool for basic research as well as for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25510564

  16. Graphene based pipette tip solid phase extraction of marine toxins in shellfish muscle followed by UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Gong, Like; Baibado, Joewel T; Dong, Wei; Wang, Yixuan; Dai, Zhiyuan; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2013-11-15

    Graphene is a novel carbonic material with great potentials for the use as sorbent due to its ultrahigh surface area. Herein, we report the use of graphene as sorbent in solid-phase extraction (SPE) using pipette tip as cartridge namely GPT-SPE, together with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), for the analysis of lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs), including yessotoxins (YTX), okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), gymnodimine (GYM), spirolides-1 (SPX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and azaspiracid-1 (AZA1) in shellfish. The GPT-SPE procedure was optimized and the performance of graphene was fully validated. Results with high-sensitivity and good reproducibility was obtained and compared with that of other sorbents like C18 silica, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), commercial Oasis HLB, and Strata-X for the extraction of LMTs, which showed superiority and advantages of graphene, such as good recoveries, stability and compatibility with various solvents. In order to exhibit the potentials of graphene as an excellent sorbent material, 67 mussel samples from six coastal cities of China were analyzed. OA was found to be the dominant contaminant, while YTX was also detected with low level. PMID:24148472

  17. Integrated metabolomic profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C cirrhosis through GC/MS and UPLC/MS-MS

    PubMed Central

    Fitian, Asem I.; Nelson, David R.; Liu, Chen; Xu, Yiling; Ararat, Miguel; Cabrera, Roniel

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The metabolic pathway disturbances associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unsatisfactorily characterized. Determination of the metabolic alterations associated with the presence of HCC can improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of this cancer and may provide opportunities for improved disease monitoring of patients at risk for HCC development. To characterize the global metabolic alterations associated with HCC arising from hepatitis C (HCV)-associated cirrhosis using an integrated non-targeted metabolomics methodology employing both gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS-MS). Methods The global serum metabolomes of 30 HCC patients, 27 hepatitis C cirrhosis disease controls and 30 healthy volunteers were characterized using a metabolomics approach that combined two metabolomics platforms, GC/MS and UPLC/MS-MS. Random forest, multivariate statistics and receiver operator characteristic analysis were performed to identify the most significantly altered metabolites in HCC patients vs. HCV-cirrhosis controls and which therefore exhibited a close association with the presence of HCC. Results Elevated 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), 15-HETE, sphingosine, ?-glutamyl oxidative stress-associated metabolites, xanthine, amino acids serine, glycine and aspartate, and a-cylcarnitines were strongly associated with the presence of HCC. Elevations in bile acids and dicarboxylic acids were highly correlated with cirrhosis. Conclusions Integrated metabolomic profiling through GC/MS and UPLC/MS-MS identified global metabolic disturbances in HCC and HCV-cirrhosis. Aberrant amino acid biosynthesis, cell turnover regulation, reactive oxygen species neutralization and eicosanoid pathways may be hallmarks of HCC. Aberrant dicarboxylic acid metabolism, enhanced bile acid metabolism and elevations in fibrinogen cleavage peptides may be signatures of cirrhosis. PMID:24661807

  18. A method for the direct injection and analysis of small volume human blood spots and plasma extracts containing high concentrations of organic solvents using revered-phase 2D UPLC/MS.

    PubMed

    Rainville, Paul D; Simeone, Jennifer L; Root, Dan S; Mallet, Claude R; Wilson, Ian D; Plumb, Robert S

    2015-03-21

    The emergence of micro sampling techniques holds great potential to improve pharmacokinetic data quality, reduce animal usage, and save costs in safety assessment studies. The analysis of these samples presents new challenges for bioanalytical scientists, both in terms of sample processing and analytical sensitivity. The use of two dimensional LC/MS with, at-column-dilution for the direct analysis of highly organic extracts prepared from biological fluids such as dried blood spots and plasma is demonstrated. This technique negated the need to dry down and reconstitute, or dilute samples with water/aqueous buffer solutions, prior to injection onto a reversed-phase LC system. A mixture of model drugs, including bromhexine, triprolidine, enrofloxacin, and procaine were used to test the feasibility of the method. Finally an LC/MS assay for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin was developed from dried blood spots and protein-precipitated plasma. The assays showed acceptable recovery, accuracy and precision according to US FDA guidelines. The resulting analytical method showed an increase in assay sensitivity of up to forty fold as compared to conventional methods by maximizing the amount loaded onto the system and the MS response for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin from small volume samples. PMID:25655051

  19. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS Method to Monitor Cephapirin Excretion in Dairy Cows following Intramammary Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F.; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg?1 and 0.96 µg L?1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%). Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg?1) of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L?1). Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P?=?0.03). Peak excretion (2.69 mg) was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P?=?0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from dairy farms. PMID:25375097

  20. Pharmacokinetic interaction study of combining imatinib with dasatinib in rats by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunfang; Wang, Shuanghu; Ding, Ting; Wu, Mingdong; Geng, Peiwu; Zhang, Qingwei; Ma, Jianshe

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether oral administration of dasatinib to the rats with imatinib led to any pharmacokinetic interactions. Twenty-four rats were divided randomly into three groups, imatinib group (imatinib 25?mg/kg, n?=?8), dasatinib group (dasatinib 15?mg/kg, n?=?8) and co-administration group (dasatinib 15?mg/kg and imatinib 25?mg/kg, n?=?8). The concentration of imatinib and dasatinib in rat plasma was determined by a sensitive and simple UPLC-MS/MS method. There was statistical pharmacokinetics difference for imatinib in the imatinib group and co-administration group, when co-oral administration imatinib with dasatinib, MRT(0-t) increased (p?

  1. Pharmacokinetic study of indocyanine Green after intravenous administration by UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Dongxin; Hu, Wenhao; Lin, Guanyang; Huang, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Indocyanine Green is widely used in medical diagnosis and to evaluate liver function and other regional blood flows in clinical application or animal experiments. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of rutin as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 ?m) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 753.4?330.2 for Indocyanine Green, and m/z 611.1?303.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 20-5000 ng/mL for Indocyanine Green in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma ranged from 79.5% to 85.4%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both < 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.9% and 113.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of Indocyanine Green after intravenous administration.

  2. Determination and pharmacokinetic study of pirfenidone in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Jiang, Zhe-li; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Rui-min; Wang, Zhe; Li, Wan-shu; Jiang, Shuo-min; Hu, Guo-xin; Chen, Rui-jie

    2015-02-15

    A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of pirfenidone in rat plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a simple one-step deproteinization procedure with 0.2 mL of acetonitrile to a 0.1 mL plasma sample. Plasma samples were separated by UPLC on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water with gradient elution. The total run time was 3.0 min and the elution of pirfenidone was at 1.39 min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode using the respective transitions m/z 186.2?92.1 for pirfenidone and m/z 237.1?194.2 for carbamazepine (IS), respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 5-2000 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 5 ng/mL. Mean recovery of pirfenidone in plasma was in the range of 80.4-84.3%. Intra-day and inter-day precision were both <12.1%. This method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of 10.0mg/kg pirfenidone in rats. PMID:25596380

  3. A rapid SPE-based analytical method for UPLC/MS/MS determination of aminoglycoside antibiotic residues in bovine milk, muscle, and kidney.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael S; van Tran, Kim; Goh, Evelyn; Shia, Jeremy C

    2014-01-01

    An SPE-based cleanup protocol was developed for ultra-performance LC (UPLC)/MS/MS determination of residues of the common aminoglycoside antibiotics streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, neomycin, and gentamicin in bovine milk, kidney, and muscle. Recoveries for all compounds except neomycin ranged from 80 to 104% for all matrixes studied; recoveries for neomycin ranged from 71 to 84%. Intraday and interday precision data were under 15% for all sample matrixes. Compared with other recently reported cleanup methods, less sample is required, the use of potentially dangerous reagents is minimized, and fewer manipulations are required by the analyst. A high throughput 96-well plate format was used for SPE cleanup and UPLC/MS analysis. PMID:25632452

  4. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (uplc-ms/ms) for the rapid, simultaneous analysis of thiamin, riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide and pyridoxal in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel, rapid and sensitive Ultra Performance Liquid-Chromatography tandem Mass-Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of several B-vitamins in human milk was developed. Resolution by retention time or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for thiamin, riboflavin, flavin a...

  5. Determination of anthelmintic drug residues in milk using UPLC-MS/MS with rapid polarity switching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry) method was developed and validated to detect 38 anthelmintic drug residues, consisting of benzimidazoles, avermectins and flukicides. A modified QuEChERS-type extraction method was developed with an added...

  6. Pharmacokinetics in rats and tissue distribution in mouse of berberrubine by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianqin; Wang, Shuanghu; Ma, Jianshe; Ye, Tao; Lu, Mengrou; Fan, Miao; Deng, Mingjie; Hu, Lufeng; Gao, Zhimou

    2015-11-10

    Berberrubine is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Berberis vulgaris L, and it is readily derived from berberine. In this study, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of berberrubine in rat plasma and mouse tissue has been developed. Magnoflorine was employed as an internal standard (IS), and liquid-liquid extraction by ethyl acetate was used for sample preparation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7?m) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 322.0?307.0 for berberrubine and m/z 342.8?298.2 for IS. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 2-2000ng/mL for berberrubine in rat plasma and mouse tissue. Mean recoveries of berberrubine in rat plasma ranged from 79.6% to 84.8%. Intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 11%. The accuracy ranged from 93.6% to 106.8%. The method has also been successfully applied in pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study of berberrubine. The absolute bioavailability of berberrubine was determined to be 31.6%. The results also show that berberrubine is rapidly absorbed and widely distributed in various tissues. The level of berberrubine in liver is highest, and followed by kidney, spleen and heart. Furthermore, the concentration of berberrubine in various tissues could also be predicted by a BP-ANN model. PMID:26279368

  7. Determination of trimethylamine-N-oxide in combination with l-carnitine and ?-butyrobetaine in human plasma by UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Grinberga, Solveiga; Dambrova, Maija; Latkovskis, Gustavs; Strele, Ieva; Konrade, Ilze; Hartmane, Dace; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Liepinsh, Edgars; Pugovics, Osvalds

    2015-11-01

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) simultaneously with TMAO-related molecules l-carnitine and ?-butyrobetaine (GBB) in human blood plasma. The separation of analytes was achieved using a Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-type column with ammonium acetate-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. TMAO determination was validated according to valid US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The developed method was successfully applied to plasma samples from healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25873316

  8. Simultaneous determination of four furostanol glycosides in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to PK study after oral administration of Dioscorea nipponica extracts.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Dai, Cong; Liu, Mengping; Chen, Jiefeng; Chen, Zuanguang; Xie, Zhiyong; Yao, Meicun

    2016-01-01

    A novel, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of four furostanol glycosides in rat plasma was established and validated. Ginsenoside Rb1 was used as an internal standard. Plasma samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and chromatographed on a C18 column (2.1×50mm i.d., 2.6?m) using a gradient elution program consisting of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.03% formic acid and 0.1mM lithium acetate) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Lithium adduct ions were employed to enhance the response of the analytes in electrospray positive ionization mode and multiple reaction monitoring transitions were performed for detection. All calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r>0.999) over the range of 10-20,000ng/mL for protodioscin and 2-4000ng/mL for protogracillin, pseudoprotodioscin and pseudoprotogracillin. The recoveries of the whole analytes were more than 80.3% and exhibited no severe matrix effect. Meanwhile, the intra- and inter-day precisions were all less than 10.7% and accuracies were within the range of -8.1-12.9%. The four saponins showed rapid excretion and relative high plasma concentrations when the validated method was applied to the PK study of Dioscorea nipponica extracts by intragastric administration at low, medium and high dose to rats. Moreover, the T1/2 and AUC0-t of each compound turned out to behave in a dose-dependent pattern by comparing them at different dose levels. PMID:26433169

  9. Simultaneous determination of nintedanib and its metabolite by UPLC-MS/MS in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan; Qiao, Li-Man; Zhang, Yu-Niao; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xin-She

    2016-01-01

    To establish a rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of concentration of nintedanib and its metabolite BIBF 1202 in rat plasma. The nintedanib and its metabolite and the internal standard (diazepam) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 chromatography column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7?m) using gradient elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.30mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to monitor the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z540.3?113.1 for nintedanib, m/z526.3?113.0 for BIBF 1202 and m/z285.3?193.1 for diazepam (IS) using a positive electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated for 1.0-200ng/mL for nintedanib and 0.5-100ng/mL for BIBF 1202 using 100?L of plasma sample. Total time for each chromatograph was 3.0min. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels exhibited relative standard deviations (RSD) <10.8% and the accuracy values ranged from -11.9% to 10.4%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of nintedanib and BIBF 1202 in rats after oral administration of nintedanib. PMID:26355771

  10. Determination of parthenolide in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ai-Qin; Zhao, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Pan, Yong-Yang; Huo, Xu-Lei

    2016-02-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of parthenolide in rat plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a simple one-step deproteinization procedure with 0.2mL of acetonitrile containing 30ng/mL of pirfenidone (IS), and to a 0.1mL plasma sample. Plasma samples were separated by UPLC on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water with gradient elution. The total run time was 3.0min and the elution of parthenolide was at 1.33min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode using the respective transitions m/z 249.2?231.1 for parthenolide and m/z 186.2?92.1 for pirfenidone (IS), respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 2.0-500ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 2.0ng/mL. Mean recovery of parthenolide in plasma was in the range of 78.2-86.6%. Intra-day and inter-day precision were both <8.3%. This method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic study after oral and intravenous administration of parthenolide in rats. PMID:26678176

  11. Monitoring sea lamprey pheromones and their degradation using rapid stream-side extraction coupled with UPLC-MS/MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Huiyong; Johnson, Nicholas; Bernardy, Jeffrey; Hubert, Terry; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones guide adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to suitable spawning streams and mates, and therefore, when quantified, can be used to assess population size and guide management. Here, we present an efficient sample preparation method where 100 mL of river water was spiked with deuterated pheromone as an internal standard and underwent rapid field-based SPE and elution in the field. The combination of field extraction with laboratory UPLC-MS/MS reduced the sample consumption from 1 to 0.1 L, decreased the sample process time from more than 1 h to 10 min, and increased the precision and accuracy. The sensitivity was improved more than one order of magnitude compared with the previous method. The influences of experimental conditions were assessed to optimize the separation and peak shapes. The analytical method has been validated by studies of stability, selectivity, precision, and linearity and by the determination of the limits of detection and quantification. The method was used to quantify pheromone concentration from five streams tributary to Lake Ontario and to estimate that the environmental half-life of 3kPZS is about 26 h.

  12. Simultaneous detection and comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone in cows' milk by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Kui; Wang, Jianfen; Huang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Guanlin; Li, Congying; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin (AMOX), clavulanic acid (CLAV) and prednisolone (PSL) are widely used in combination for the treatment of mastitis in lactating dairy cows. However, no method has been reported to detect these three chemicals in milk in a single assay. In the present work, a reliable and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in cow's milk. The analytes were determined by a positive and negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring. The linear ranges of AMOX, CLAV and PSL were from 2 to 1000ng/mL, 20-1000ng/mL and 1-1000ng/mL, respectively, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2ng/mL (AMOX), 20ng/mL (CLAV) and 1ng/mL (PSL). Recoveries of the analytes of interest in milk samples were in the ranges of 84.2-101.4%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions ranged from 1.8% to 11.9%. This method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in milk from healthy and mastitic cows. The elimination times of AMOX and PSL in mastitic cows were longer than that in healthy cows, but the elimination times of CLAV did not show significant difference. PMID:26638031

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Aliskiren Hemifumarate, Amlodipine Besylate and Hydrochlorothiazide in Spiked Human Plasma Using UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, Walid M; Elkady, Ehab F; El-Zaher, Asmaa A; El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Patonay, Gabor

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of aliskiren hemifumarate (ALS), amlodipine besylate (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) in spiked human plasma using valsartan as an internal standard (IS). Liquid-liquid extraction was used for purification and pre-concentration of analytes. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in ammonium acetate buffer (0.02 M, pH 3.5) and methanol (25:75, v/v), flowing through XBridge BEH (50 × 2.1 mm ID, 5 µm) C18 column, at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions were measured using an electrospray source in the positive ion mode for ALS and AML, whereas HCZ and IS were measured in negative ion mode. Validation of the method was performed as per US-FDA guidelines with linearity in the range of 2.0-400.0, 0.3-25.0 and 5.0-400.0 ng mL(-1) for ALS, AML and HCZ, respectively. In human plasma, ALS, AML and HCZ were stable for at least 1 month at -70 ± 5°C and for at least 6 h at ambient temperature. After extraction from plasma, the reconstituted samples of ALS, AML and HCZ were stable in the autosampler at ambient temperature for 6 h. The LC-MS/MS method is suitable for bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic studies of this combination. PMID:25575509

  14. Determination and validation of hupehenine in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wen, Congcong; Wang, Shuanghu; Huang, Xueli; Liu, Zezheng; Lin, Yingying; Yang, Suping; Ma, Jianshe; Zhou, Yunfang; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of hupehenine in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of imperialine as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1?×?100?mm, 1.7?µm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 416.3???98.0 for hupehenine, and m/z 430.3???138.2 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 2-2000?ng/mL for hupehenine in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of hupehenine in rat plasma ranged from 92.5 to 97.3%. Relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day precision were both <6%. The accuracy of the method was between 92.7 and 107.4%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of hupehenine after either oral or intravenous administration. For the first time, the bioavailability of hupehenine was reported as 13.4%. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26033449

  15. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution model of cabozantinib in rat determined by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianqin; Wang, Shuanghu; Lin, Feiyan; Zhang, Qingwei; Chen, HuiLing; Wang, Xianchuan; Wen, Congcong; Ma, Jianshe; Hu, Lufeng

    2015-03-01

    Cabozantinib (XL184) is a novel small molecule inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) targeted at mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET). In order to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in rat, a specific ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed with midazolam as internal standard. The calibration curves in plasma and tissues were linear in the range of 5-5000ng/mL (r(2)>0.99). The recoveries were better than 80.4% and matrix effects ranged from 96.9% to 105.1%. Then, the developed UPLC-MS/MS method was applied to determine the concentration of XL184 in blood and tissues. The pharmacokinetics of four different dosages (iv 5, 10mg/kg and ig 15, 30mg/kg) revealed that XL184 was eliminated slowly, the t1/2 was longer than 10h and the absolute bioavailability was 25.6±8.3%. The concentration distribution of XL184 in tissues was liver>lung>kidney>spleen>heart. Based on the concentration-time of XL184 in tissues, a BP-ANN distribution model was developed with good performance, and can be used to predict the concentration of XL184 in tissues. PMID:25638029

  16. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ractopamine residues in retinal tissue of treated food-producing pigs.

    PubMed

    Vuli?, Ana; Pleadin, Jelka; Perši, Nina; Mili?, Dinka; Radeck, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Ractopamine is a ?(2)-adrenergic agonist, which reduces fat deposition and promotes muscle growth in animals for meat production. In the European Union countries, systematic monitoring and control of this contaminant residue is regularly performed by use of validated analytical methods of detection in different biological materials. The aim of the present study was to assess persistence of ractopamine in retina as a pigmented tissue by determination of its residues using UPLC-MS/MS as a quantitative confirmatory method after pig exposure to a ractopamine dose of 0.51 mg/kg b.w. Experimental group (n=9) of pigs were orally administered ractopamine for 28 days and then randomly sacrificed (n=3) on days 1, 3 and 8 of treatment discontinuation, whereas control animals (n=3) were left untreated. Study results showed mean ractopamine residue concentrations of 110.36 ?g/kg, 67.11 ?g/kg and 89.93 ?g/kg on days 1, 3 and 8 after withdrawal, respectively, indicating high accumulation of ractopamine in retina despite a low dose applied. These data pointed to high affinity of ractopamine for binding to the pigmented segment of the eye, thus supporting the use of pigmented tissues as matrices in the regulatory monitoring of this ?(2)-adrenergic agonist. PMID:22483331

  17. DETERMINATION OF ECOLOGICALLY RELEVANT PHARMACEUTICALS AND THEIR SELECTED METABOLITES IN EFFLUENT AND SURFACE WATER USING UPLC/MS/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective is to develop analytical methods including SPE and UPLC/MS/MS needed to analyze over 60 human prescription pharamceuticals and metabolites belonging to a multitude of different classes in surface waters and wastewater effluent. The methods will be used in future studies...

  18. [Characterization and comparison of interferon reference standards using UPLC-MS].

    PubMed

    Tao, Lei; Pei, De-ning; Han, Chun-mei; Chen, Wei; Rao, Chun-ming; Wang, Jun-zhi

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to characterize and compare interferon reference standards from 5 manufacturers. By testing molecular mass and trypsin-digested peptide mass mapping, the amino acid sequence was verified and post-translational modifications such as disulfide bond were identified. Results show that the molecular mass and amino acid sequence were consistent with theory; the disulfide bonds of 4 lots of interferon were Cys1-Cys98/Cys29-Cys138, 1 lot was Cys29-Cys139/Cys86-Cys99; N-terminal "+Met", acetyl N-terminal and Met oxidation were identified in part of the sample. UPLC-MS can be used to characterize and compare interferon reference standards from different manufacturers. PMID:25924479

  19. Quantitation of celecoxib and four of its metabolites in rat blood by UPLC-MS/MS clarifies their blood distribution patterns and provides more accurate pharmacokinetics profiles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong; Gao, Song; Hu, Ming

    2015-09-15

    A sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was established and validated for the quantitation of celecoxib and its metabolites in rat blood. The analytes were extracted from rat blood samples by a salting-out liquid-liquid extraction method followed by the UPLC chromatography. The mass analysis of effluent was performed on an API 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer via multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). The linear response ranges were 0.3-20000nM for celecoxib, and 1.2-20000nM, 0.3-20000nM, 2.0-2000nM, 1.5-6000nM for its metabolites carboxycelecoxib (M2), hydroxycelecoxib (M3), hydroxycelecoxib glucuronide (M1), and carboxycelecoxib glucuronide (M5), respectively. The inter-day and intra-day accuracies were within 85-115%, and the inter-day and intra-day precision were acceptable (<12%) for all analytes. Recoveries were above 70% and no obvious matrix effects were observed. The validated UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetics study of oral celecoxib (20mg/kg) in Sprague-Dawley rats, and the rat blood concentrations (0-48h) of celecoxib and two of its metabolites M2 and M3 were successfully determined. Using the same method, we also showed preferential distributions of celecoxib, M2 and M3 in the blood cells as compared to the plasma. In conclusion, our results showed that our validated LC-MS/MS method can be successfully used for the pharmacokinetic studies of celecoxib and that the blood cells are a very important compartment for this drug such that profiles of celecoxib and its metabolites in whole blood will be more comprehensive and accurate representation of their profiles in vivo than the plasma. PMID:26281772

  20. Photodegradation assessment of ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in the presence of excipients from tablets by UPLC-MS/MS and DSC

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ciprofloxacin (CIP), moxifloxacin (MOX), norfloxacin (NOR) and ofloxacin (OFL), are the antibacterial synthetic drugs, belonging to the fluoroquinolones group. Fluoroquinolones are compounds susceptible to photodegradation process, which may lead to reduction of their antibacterial activity and to induce phototoxicity as a side effect. This paper describes a simple, sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of CIP, MOX, NOR and OFL in the presence of photodegradation products. Results Chromatographic separations were carried out using the Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column; (2.1?×?100 mm, 1.7 ?m particle size). The column was maintained at 40°C, and the following gradient was used: 0 min, 95% of eluent A and 5% of eluent B; 10 min, 0% of eluent A and 100% of eluent B, at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min-1. Eluent A: 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water; eluent B: 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile. The method was validated and all the validation parameters were in the ranges acceptable by the guidelines for analytical method validation. The photodegradation of examined fluoroquinolones in solid phase in the presence of excipients followed kinetic of the first order reaction and depended upon the type of analyzed drugs and coexisting substances. Photodegradation process of analyzed drugs was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, the identification of degradation products was carried out by mass spectrometry. Conclusion The developed UPLC-MS/MS method enables the determination of CIP, MOX, NOR and OFL in the presence of photodegradation products and identification of photodegradation products. PMID:23899303

  1. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of ethoxzolamide in blood, brain tissue, and bioequivalent buffers: applications to absorption, brain distribution, and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Zhao, Jing; Yin, Taijun; Ma, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K; Hu, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify ethoxzolamide in plasma (EZ) and apply the method to absorption, brain distribution, as well as pharmacokinetic studies. A C?? column was used with 0.1% of formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% of formic acid in water as the mobile phases to resolve EZ. The mass analysis was performed in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mode. The results show that the linear range of EZ is 4.88-10,000.00 nM. The intra-day variance is less than 12.43% and the accuracy is between 88.88 and 108.00%. The inter-day variance is less than 12.87% and accuracy is between 89.27 and 115.89%. Protein precipitation was performed using methanol to extract EZ from plasma and brain tissues. Only 40 ?L of plasma is needed for analysis due to the high sensitivity of this method, which could be completed in less than three minutes. This method was used to study the pharmacokinetics of EZ in SD rats, and the transport of EZ in Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 overexpressing cell culture models. Our data show that EZ is not a substrate for p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its entry into the brain may not limited by the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25706567

  2. Identification and quantitation of new glutamic acid derivatives in soy sauce by UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Frerot, Eric; Chen, Ting

    2013-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an abundant amino acid that lends a characteristic umami taste to foods. In fermented foods, glutamic acid can be found as a free amino acid formed by proteolysis or as a non-proteolytic derivative formed by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to identify different structures of glutamic acid derivatives in a typical fermented protein-based food product, soy sauce. An acidic fraction was prepared with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS and UPLC/TOF-MS. ?-Glutamyl, ?-glutamyl, and pyroglutamyl dipeptides, as well as lactoyl amino acids, were identified in the acidic fraction of soy sauce. They were chemically synthesized for confirmation of their occurrence and quantified in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Pyroglutamyl dipeptides accounted for 770?mg/kg of soy sauce, followed by lactoyl amino acids (135?mg/kg) and ?-glutamyl dipeptides (70?mg/kg). In addition, N-succinoylglutamic acid was identified for the first time in food as a minor compound in soy sauce (5?mg/kg). PMID:24130027

  3. Determination of Glucocorticoids in UPLC-MS in Environmental Samples from an Occupational Setting

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Enrico; Negri, Sara; Bellinzona, Massimo; Martino, Silvia; Di Tuccio, Marcello; Grignani, Elena; Cottica, Danilo; Imbriani, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures to glucocorticoids are still a neglected issue in some work environments, including pharmaceutical plants. We developed an analytical method to quantify simultaneously 21 glucocorticoids using UPLC coupled with mass spectrometry to provide a basis to carry out environmental monitoring. Samples were taken from air, hand-washing tests, pad-tests and wipe-tests. This paper reports the contents of the analytical methodology, along with the results of this extensive environmental and personal monitoring of glucocorticoids. The method in UPLC-MS turned out to be suitable and effective for the aim of the study. Wipe-test and pad-test desorption was carried out using 50?mL syringes, a simple technique that saves time without adversely affecting analyte recovery. Results showed a widespread environmental pollution due to glucocorticoids. This is of particular concern. Evaluation of the dose absorbed by each worker and identification of a biomarker for occupational exposure will contribute to assessment and prevention of occupational exposure. PMID:25821468

  4. Determination of Glucocorticoids in UPLC-MS in Environmental Samples from an Occupational Setting.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Enrico; Negri, Sara; Bellinzona, Massimo; Martino, Silvia; Di Tuccio, Marcello; Grignani, Elena; Cottica, Danilo; Imbriani, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposures to glucocorticoids are still a neglected issue in some work environments, including pharmaceutical plants. We developed an analytical method to quantify simultaneously 21 glucocorticoids using UPLC coupled with mass spectrometry to provide a basis to carry out environmental monitoring. Samples were taken from air, hand-washing tests, pad-tests and wipe-tests. This paper reports the contents of the analytical methodology, along with the results of this extensive environmental and personal monitoring of glucocorticoids. The method in UPLC-MS turned out to be suitable and effective for the aim of the study. Wipe-test and pad-test desorption was carried out using 50?mL syringes, a simple technique that saves time without adversely affecting analyte recovery. Results showed a widespread environmental pollution due to glucocorticoids. This is of particular concern. Evaluation of the dose absorbed by each worker and identification of a biomarker for occupational exposure will contribute to assessment and prevention of occupational exposure. PMID:25821468

  5. Metabolite profiling of Angelica gigas from different geographical origins using 1H NMR and UPLC-MS analyses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Kwon, Joseph; Park, Seong Hwa; Park, Chiyoul; Seo, Young-Bae; Shin, Hyun-Kyoo; Kim, Ho Kyoung; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Choi, Sang-Yun; Ryu, Do Hyun; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2011-08-24

    Angelica gigas obtained from different geographical regions was characterized using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) followed by multivariate data analyses. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plots from (1)H NMR and UPLC-MS data sets showed a clear distinction among A. gigas from three different regions in Korea. The major metabolites that contributed to the discrimination factor were primary metabolites including acetate, choline, citrate, 1,3-dimethylurate, fumarate, glucose, histamine, lactose, malate, N-acetylglutamate, succinate, and valine and secondary metabolites including decursin, decursinol, nodakenin, marmesin, 7-hydroxy-6-(2R-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-ethyl)coumarin in A. gigas roots. The results demonstrate that (1)H NMR and UPLC-MS-based metabolic profiling coupled with chemometric analysis can be used to discriminate the geographical origins of various herbal medicines and to identify primary and secondary metabolites responsible for discrimination. PMID:21774558

  6. Large scale non-targeted metabolomic profiling of serum by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS).

    PubMed

    Broeckling, Corey D; Heuberger, Adam L; Prenni, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    Non-targeted metabolite profiling by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) is a powerful technique to investigate metabolism. The approach offers an unbiased and in-depth analysis that can enable the development of diagnostic tests, novel therapies, and further our understanding of disease processes. The inherent chemical diversity of the metabolome creates significant analytical challenges and there is no single experimental approach that can detect all metabolites. Additionally, the biological variation in individual metabolism and the dependence of metabolism on environmental factors necessitates large sample numbers to achieve the appropriate statistical power required for meaningful biological interpretation. To address these challenges, this tutorial outlines an analytical workflow for large scale non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum by UPLC-MS. The procedure includes guidelines for sample organization and preparation, data acquisition, quality control, and metabolite identification and will enable reliable acquisition of data for large experiments and provide a starting point for laboratories new to non-targeted metabolite profiling by UPLC-MS. PMID:23524330

  7. A reversed-phase capillary ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method for comprehensive top-down/bottom-up lipid profiling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qibin; Meng, Da; Isaac, Giorgis; Zhao, Rui; Fillmore, Thomas L; Chu, Rosey K; Zhou, Jianying; Tang, Keqi; Hu, Zeping; Moore, Ronald J; Smith, Richard D; Katze, Michael G; Metz, Thomas O

    2012-03-01

    Lipidomics is a critical part of metabolomics and aims to study all the lipids within a living system. We present here the development and evaluation of a sensitive capillary UPLC-MS method for comprehensive top-down/bottom-up lipid profiling. Three different stationary phases were evaluated in terms of peak capacity, linearity, reproducibility, and limit of quantification (LOQ) using a mixture of lipid standards representative of the lipidome. The relative standard deviations of the retention times and peak abundances of the lipid standards were 0.29% and 7.7%, respectively, when using the optimized method. The linearity was acceptable at >0.99 over 3 orders of magnitude, and the LOQs were sub-fmol. To demonstrate the performance of the method in the analysis of complex samples, we analyzed lipids extracted from a human cell line, rat plasma, and a model human skin tissue, identifying 446, 444, and 370 unique lipids, respectively. Overall, the method provided either higher coverage of the lipidome, greater measurement sensitivity, or both, when compared to other approaches of global, untargeted lipid profiling based on chromatography coupled with MS. PMID:22354571

  8. Simultaneous determination of bioactive components in essential oil of Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Formula in Beagle dog plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Li, Wei; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2013-06-15

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the three main bioactive compounds, i.e., ligustilide, dehydrocostuslactone and ?-cyperone in dog plasma after oral administration of the essential oil of Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Formula (XEO). Clarithromycin was used as an internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with methanol. The separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7?m) at a flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1), using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase. The MS/MS ion transit ions monitored were 190.5?90.9 for ligustilide, 231.1?185.1 for dehydrocostuslactone, 219.2?123.0 for ?-cyperone and 748.5?158.1 for IS. Method validation was performed as per Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) achieved was 5.12ng/mL for ligustilide, 1.06ng/mL for dehydrocostuslactone and 1.89ng/mL for ?-cyperone, respectively, and the calibration curves obtained were linear (r>0.99) over the concentration range approximately 1-1000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 15% and the accuracy was within ±9.2%. After validation, this method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study where dogs were orally given 0.3g/kg XEO, equivalent to 183.6mg/kg of ligustilide, 5.0mg/kg of dehydrocostuslactone and 26.2mg/kg of ?-cyperone, respectively. PMID:23665892

  9. [Plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ursolic acid carried in self-microemulsifying drug delivery system in rats studied by UPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Xia; Xu, Xin-Gang; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Jin; Sheng, Li-Song; Sun, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Xu-Jie; Yan, Xue-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    This study is to report the establishment of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of plasma concentration of UA carried in self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) and its pharmacokinetics in rats. It was used for determination and analysis when serum with internal standard was extracted from C18 solid-phase column. Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) was used for separation. The mobile phase was acetonitrile -0.1% ammonia with gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.2 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was 40 degrees C and the detection wave length was 210 nm. It was detected by negative ion using electrospray ionization source (ESI) and scanned by multiple reaction ion monitoring (MRM) mode. The liner relationship of UA was very good in the range of 1.19-3 815.00 ng x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 0). Recovery rate of different concentrations were 87.42%-89.95%. The precision of inter-day and intra-day were less than 11%. The method developed in our study was proved to be sensitive, rapid and simple. It is suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of UA-SMEDDS in rats. PMID:25212044

  10. Fast identification of lipase inhibitors in oolong tea by using lipase functionalised Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles coupled with UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan-Ting; Ren, Xiao-Yun; Yuan, Li; Liu, Yi-Ming; Liang, Jian; Liao, Xun

    2015-04-15

    Oolong tea is an important member in tea family, which claims for various health benefits such as preventing obesity and improving lipid metabolism. In this work, using pancreatic lipase (PL) functionalised magnetic nanoparticles (PL-MNPs) as solid phase extraction absorbent in combination with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), we developed a method for rapid screening and identification of lipase inhibitors from oolong tea. Three PL ligands were selectively extracted and identified as (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (GCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG). Their lipase inhibitory activities were significantly higher than those non-ligands. Structure-activity analysis revealed that the presence of a galloyl moiety in the structure was required for binding to PL-MNPs, and therefore, exhibiting a strong inhibition on the enzyme. Taking advantages of the specificity in enzyme binding and the convenience of magnetic separation, this method has great potential for fast screening of lipase inhibitors from natural resources. PMID:25466054

  11. Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers by ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a rapid method with ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant proanthocyanidins (PAs) directly from crude plant extracts. The method utilizes a range of cone voltages to achieve the depolymeriza...

  12. [Simultaneous determination of 9 major components of dachengqi tang in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Shen, Feng-Yun; Wei, Hui-Zhen; Sun, Yong-Bing; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Lv, Shang; Gao, Meng; Zeng, Lian-Qing; Rao, Yi

    2014-06-01

    The study established a UPLC-MS/MS method that is used for simultaneous determination nine major bioactive compounds of Dachengqi Tang in rat plasma. Using Aglient C18 column (2.1 mm x 50 mm,1.7 microm) was chromatographed, using methanol-5 mmol x L(-1) ammonium formate mobile phase gradient, elution 0.3 mL x min(-1). In the plasma pre-treatment process, not only the method of methanol and acetonitrile protein precipitation was investigated, and different factors extraction solvent, the type of the scroll time, the number and the type of extraction solvent, the extraction volume of the extraction solution of liquid-liquid extraction is investigated. Finally, with ibuprofen as an internal standard, using ethyl acetate liquid-liquid extraction method pretreatment blood, N2 dry reconstituted supernatant after centrifugation UPLC-MS/MS analysis, in electrospray ionization (ESI) negative mode, using multiple reaction monitoring mode for testing. The linear range of emodin, rhein, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, magnolol, honokiol, hesperidin and hesperitin is 0.33-660, 0.40-792, 0.41-827, 0.34-680, 0.45-907, 0.46-927, 0.43-867, 0.34-683, 0.39-787 microg x L(-1) respectively, good linear relationship; and extraction recovery were greater than 69.39%, days after the day of the RSD is less than 15%. This method can be used to study the rat gastric large bearing gas after Dachengqi Tang, the simultaneous determination of nine components in plasma for its pharmacokinetics and efficacy material base to provide a theoretical basis. PMID:25244773

  13. Quantitative Determination of Levonorgestrel in Fish Plasma using UPLC-MS/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the determination of levonorgestrel in fish plasma using levonorgestrel-d6 as an internal standard (IS). In the laboratory, the fish cunner, (Tautogol...

  14. Evaluation of the migration of 15 photo-initiators from cardboard packaging into Tenax(®) using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Van Den Houwe, K; van de Velde, S; Evrard, C; Van Hoeck, E; Van Loco, J; Bolle, F

    2014-04-01

    Photo-initiators are widely used to cure ink on packaging materials used in food applications such as plastic films or cartonboards. In migration studies, food simulants are very often used to simulate food, like Tenax(®), which is the simulant for dry foodstuffs. In this paper a fast and reliable confirmation method for the determination of the following photo-initiators in Tenax(®) is described: benzophenone (BP), 4,4'-bis(diethylamino)benzophenone (DEAB), 2-chloro-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (CTX), 1-chloro-4-propoxy-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (CPTX), 2,4-diethyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (DETX), 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenyl acetophenone (DMPA), 4-(dimethylamino)benzophenone (DMBP), 2-ethylanthraquinone (EA), ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDMAB), 1-hydroxylcyclohexyl phenyl ketone (HCPK), 2-hydroxy-4'-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone (HMMP), 2-isopropyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (ITX), 4-methylbenzophenone (MBP), Michler's ketone (MK), and 4-phenylbenzophenone (PBZ). After the migration study was completed, the simulant Tenax(®) was extracted using acetonitrile, followed by analysis on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Quantification was carried out using benzophenone-d10 (BP-d10) as internal standard. The presented method is validated in terms of matrix effect, specificity, linearity, recovery, precision and sensitivity, showing the method can detect all photo-initiators at very low concentrations (LOD < 0.125 µg g(-1) for all substances). Finally, the procedure was applied to real samples, proving the capabilities of the presented method. PMID:24447245

  15. Comparison of sample preparation methods, validation of an UPLC-MS/MS procedure for the quantification of tetrodotoxin present in marine gastropods and analysis of pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Nzoughet, Judith Kouassi; Campbell, Katrina; Barnes, Paul; Cooper, Kevin M; Chevallier, Olivier P; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-02-15

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent marine neurotoxins reported. The global distribution of this toxin is spreading with the European Atlantic coastline now being affected. Climate change and increasing pollution have been suggested as underlying causes for this. In the present study, two different sample preparation techniques were used to extract TTX from Trumpet shells and pufferfish samples. Both extraction procedures (accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and a simple solvent extraction) were shown to provide good recoveries (80-92%). A UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of TTX and validated following the guidelines contained in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for chemical contaminant analysis. The performance of this procedure was demonstrated to be fit for purpose. This study is the first report on the use of ASE as a mean for TTX extraction, the use of UPLC-MS/MS for TTX analysis, and the validation of this method for TTX in gastropods. PMID:23194566

  16. Determination of rhynchophylline and hirsutine in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS after oral administration of Uncaria rhynchophylla extract.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-03-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to concurrently determine rhynchophylline and hirsutine in rat plasma. The sample preparation of rat plasma was achieved by alkalization and liquid-liquid extraction. The mass transition of precursor ion???product ion pairs were monitored at m/z 385.2???160.0 for rhynchophylline, m/z 369.3???144.0 for hirsutine and m/z 414.0???220.0 for noscapine (internal standard). This method revealed linear relationships from 2.5 to 50?ng/mL (r(2) ?>?0.997) for rhynchophylline and from 2.5 to 50?ng/mL (r(2) ?>?0.998) for hirsutine. The limit of quantification values for rhynchophylline and hirsutine in rat plasma were both 2.5?ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 10.6% and 12.5%, respectively, for rhynchophylline and hirsutine, and the accuracy (bias) was <10%. Liquid-liquid extraction of rat plasma samples resulted in insignificant matrix effect, and the extraction recoveries were >83.6% for rhynchophylline, 73.4% for hirsutine and 90.7% for the internal standard. This method was applied successfully to a pharmacokinetic study of rhynchophylline and hirsutine in rats after oral administration. PMID:24122787

  17. Simultaneous determination of ten compounds in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: Application in the pharmacokinetic study of Ma-Zi-Ren-Wan.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong-Dong; Han, Quan-Bin; Zhong, Linda Li-Dan; Li, Yan-Hong; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Ho, Hing-Man; Zhang, Man; Lin, Shu-Hai; Zhao, Ling; Huang, Tao; Mi, Hong; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Ma-Zi-Ren-Wan (MZRW) is a classic Chinese formula which has been used to treat human constipation in China for over 2000 years. In order to make good and rational use of this formula in the future, this paper presents the first attempt to track the pharmacokinetic features of MZRW in rat using rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Ten chemical components of MZRW, namely, rhein, emodin, aloe emodin, hesperidin, naringin, amygdalin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, magnolol and honokiol, were simultaneously determined in rat plasma after a single oral administration (10g/kg body weight) of MZRW to rats. Geniposide and liquiritin were used as internal standards. The separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITY BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7?m). The detection was conducted by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ionization mode. Two highest abundant MRM transitions without interference were optimized for each analyte. This method was well validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability. All calibration curves had good linearity (r(2)>0.995) over the concentration range from 3.9 to 125.0ng/mL for emodin, 3.9-500.0ng/mL for amygdalin, 2.0-4000.0ng/mL for naringin and hesperidin, 3.9-2000.0ng/mL for magnolol, 7.8-2000.0ng/mL for rhein and 3.9-4000.0ng/mL for albiflorin, paeoniflorin, aloe emodin and honokiol. The intra-day and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation) was within 15%, the accuracy (relative error) ranged from -13.6% to 15.1%, and the lower limit of quantification in plasma ranged between 2.0ng/mL and 7.8ng/mL. Extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability were satisfactory. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of these ten compounds after oral administration of MZRW to rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of each compound can facilitate clinical studies in the future. PMID:26231677

  18. Quantitation of the Oral Anticoagulants Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, Apixaban, and Warfarin in Plasma Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Noguez, Jaime H; Ritchie, James C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a method to measure the oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and warfarin in plasma samples using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The instrument is operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive ionization mode. Samples are extracted with a 90:10 methanol/0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution containing stable isotope-labeled internal standards for each analyte. After centrifugation the supernatant is transferred to a mass spectrometry vial, injected onto the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, and quantified using an eight-point calibration curve. PMID:26660170

  19. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid in Beagle plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Ma Huang Tang.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tianhua; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Ma, Shiping

    2015-02-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS) method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of Ma Huang Tang (MHT) in Beagles. Beagle plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using a linear gradient of water-formic acid mixture (0.1%). The pharmacokinetic parameters of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid from MHT in Beagles were quantitatively determined by UPLC with tandem mass detector. The qualitative detection of the four compounds was accomplished by selected ion monitoring in negative/positive ion modes electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Detection was based on multiple reaction monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 166.096-116.983 (ephedrine), m/z 179.034-146.087 (methylephedrine), m/z 456.351-323.074 (amygdalin), and m/z 821.606-351.062 (glycyrrhizic acid). The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, ion suppression, and stability were within the acceptable ranges. The method described was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of MHT in Beagles. PMID:24824649

  20. Rutaecarpine and evodiamine selected as ?1-AR inhibitor candidates using ?1-AR/CMC-offline-UPLC/MS prevent cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury via energy modulation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Cheng, Yongjie; Wang, Xin; Yue, Yuan; Zhang, Weifang; Li, Xiaoni

    2015-11-10

    In the present study, an offline analytical method combining ?1-adrenergic receptor/cell membrane chromatography (?1-AR/CMC) with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) was used for direct recognition, separation, and identification of ?1-AR inhibitors from Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss) Benth, by which rutaecarpine and evodiamine were screened and identified as potential ?1-AR antagonists and the ?1-AR inhibition activity of them was confirmed by downregulation of cAMP and PKA in vitro test. In addition, the results of in vivo pharmacological trials revealed that rutaecarpine (1.1mg/ml) and evodiamine (1.1mg/ml) attenuated myocardial infarct size injured by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion, improved metabolism disorders between fatty acid and glucose, increased the content of ATP, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and reduced the content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) protein level. Thus, the ?1-AR/CMC-offline-UPLC/MS method developed in this study could be used as an effective alternative for screening ?1-AR binding bioactive components in traditional Chinese medicines and the bioactive components could be used to remedy cardiac diseases via energy modulation. PMID:26263059

  1. Validation of a confirmatory method of salbutamol in sheep hair by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Decheng, Suo; Wei, Zhang; Yu, Zhang; Genlong, Zhao; Ruigou, Wang; PeiLong, Wang; Xiaoou, Su

    2015-10-10

    A new method for determining salbutamol in hair of sheep by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established. Samples were extracted with 0.1M of HCl solution. The mixture was heated to 60 °C in a water bath and kept at this temperature for 4h. The extracts were purified through SPE method and then dried with nitrogen. Residues were redissolved in mobile phase. The target compound was determined by UPLC-MS/MS with BEH-C18 column. The usefulness and feasibility of different treatment procedures of hair containing salbutamol were evaluated. The range of linearity was 1-100 ng/g. The LOD was 0.3 ng/g, and the LOQ was 1 ng/g. Recoveries were 89-106%, and coefficients of variation were 3.2-13.9%. Pharmacokinetics of salbutamol was studied in healthy sheep after oral administration of 150 ?g/kg body weight salbutamol for 21 consecutive days. Salbutamol residues in hair were still detected after 21 days of administration. PMID:25988297

  2. Rapid and high-throughput determination of endogenous cytokinins in Oryza sativa by bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles-based magnetic solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bao-Dong; Zhu, Jiu-Xia; Gao, Qiang; Luo, Dan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2014-05-01

    A rapid method was developed for determination of endogenous cytokinins (CKs) based on magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). We illustrated the hydrophilic character of bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles that were directly used as a MSPE sorbent for rapid enrichment of endogenous CKs from complex plant extract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bare Fe3O4 directly used as efficient extraction sorbent to enrich target CKs based on hydrophilic interaction. Under the optimized conditions, a rapid, sensitive and high-throughput method for the determination of 16 CKs was established by combination of MSPE with UPLC-MS/MS. Good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficients (r) from 0.9902 to 0.9998. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1.2 pg mL(-1) to 391.3 pg mL(-1) and 4.1 pg mL(-1) to 1304.3 pg mL(-1), respectively. 16 CKs could be successfully determined in spiked sample with 80.6-117.3% recoveries and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 16.6%. Finally, 10 endogenous CKs were successfully quantified in 50mg Oryza sativa sample using the developed MSPE-UPLC-MS/MS method. PMID:24685168

  3. First Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Greek Shellfish by UPLC-MS/MS Potentially Linked to the Presence of the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum.

    PubMed

    Vlamis, Aristidis; Katikou, Panagiota; Rodriguez, Ines; Rey, Verónica; Alfonso, Amparo; Papazachariou, Angelos; Zacharaki, Thetis; Botana, Ana M; Botana, Luis M

    2015-05-01

    During official shellfish control for the presence of marine biotoxins in Greece in year 2012, a series of unexplained positive mouse bioassays (MBA) for lipophilic toxins with nervous symptomatology prior to mice death was observed in mussels from Vistonikos Bay-Lagos, Rodopi. This atypical toxicity coincided with (a) absence or low levels of regulated and some non-regulated toxins in mussels and (b) the simultaneous presence of the potentially toxic microalgal species Prorocentrum minimum at levels up to 1.89 × 103 cells/L in the area's seawater. Further analyses by different MBA protocols indicated that the unknown toxin was hydrophilic, whereas UPLC-MS/MS analyses revealed the presence of tetrodotoxins (TTXs) at levels up to 222.9 ?g/kg. Reviewing of official control data from previous years (2006-2012) identified a number of sample cases with atypical positive to asymptomatic negative MBAs for lipophilic toxins in different Greek production areas, coinciding with periods of P. minimum blooms. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of retained sub-samples from these cases revealed that TTXs were already present in Greek shellfish since 2006, in concentrations ranging between 61.0 and 194.7 ?g/kg. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported detection of TTXs in European bivalve shellfish, while it is also the first work to indicate a possible link between presence of the toxic dinoflagellate P. minimum in seawater and that of TTXs in bivalves. Confirmed presence of TTX, a very heat-stable toxin, in filter-feeding mollusks of the Mediterranean Sea, even at lower levels to those inducing symptomatology to humans, indicates that this emerging risk should be seriously taken into account by the EU to protect the health of shellfish consumers. PMID:26008234

  4. Quantitative analysis of unconjugated and total bisphenol A in human urine using solid-phase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS: Method implementation, method qualification and troubleshooting.

    PubMed

    Buscher, Brigitte; van de Lagemaat, Dick; Gries, Wolfgang; Beyer, Dieter; Markham, Dan A; Budinsky, Robert A; Dimond, Stephen S; Nath, Rajesh V; Snyder, Stephanie A; Hentges, Steven G

    2015-11-15

    The aim of the presented investigation was to document challenges encountered during implementation and qualification of a method for bisphenol A (BPA) analysis and to develop and discuss precautions taken to avoid and to monitor contamination with BPA during sample handling and analysis. Previously developed and published HPLC-MS/MS methods for the determination of unconjugated BPA (Markham et al. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 34 (2010) 293-303) [17] and total BPA (Markham et al. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38 (2014) 194-203) [20] in human urine were combined and transferred into another laboratory. The initial method for unconjugated BPA was developed and evaluated in two independent laboratories simultaneously. The second method for total BPA was developed and evaluated in one of these laboratories to conserve resources. Accurate analysis of BPA at sub-ppb levels is a challenging task as BPA is a widely used material and is ubiquitous in the environment at trace concentrations. Propensity for contamination of biological samples with BPA is reported in the literature during sample collection, storage, and/or analysis. Contamination by trace levels of BPA is so pervasive that even with extraordinary care, it is difficult to completely exclude the introduction of BPA into biological samples and, consequently, contamination might have an impact on BPA biomonitoring data. The applied UPLC-MS/MS method was calibrated from 0.05 to 25ng/ml. The limit of quantification was 0.1ng/ml for unconjugated BPA and 0.2ng/ml for total BPA, respectively, in human urine. Finally, the method was applied to urine samples derived from 20 volunteers. Overall, BPA can be analyzed in human urine with acceptable recovery and repeatability if sufficient measures are taken to avoid contamination throughout the procedure from sample collection until UPLC-MS/MS analysis. PMID:26465088

  5. First Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Greek Shellfish by UPLC-MS/MS Potentially Linked to the Presence of the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum

    PubMed Central

    Vlamis, Aristidis; Katikou, Panagiota; Rodriguez, Ines; Rey, Verónica; Alfonso, Amparo; Papazachariou, Angelos; Zacharaki, Thetis; Botana, Ana M.; Botana, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    During official shellfish control for the presence of marine biotoxins in Greece in year 2012, a series of unexplained positive mouse bioassays (MBA) for lipophilic toxins with nervous symptomatology prior to mice death was observed in mussels from Vistonikos Bay–Lagos, Rodopi. This atypical toxicity coincided with (a) absence or low levels of regulated and some non-regulated toxins in mussels and (b) the simultaneous presence of the potentially toxic microalgal species Prorocentrum minimum at levels up to 1.89 × 103 cells/L in the area’s seawater. Further analyses by different MBA protocols indicated that the unknown toxin was hydrophilic, whereas UPLC-MS/MS analyses revealed the presence of tetrodotoxins (TTXs) at levels up to 222.9 ?g/kg. Reviewing of official control data from previous years (2006–2012) identified a number of sample cases with atypical positive to asymptomatic negative MBAs for lipophilic toxins in different Greek production areas, coinciding with periods of P. minimum blooms. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of retained sub-samples from these cases revealed that TTXs were already present in Greek shellfish since 2006, in concentrations ranging between 61.0 and 194.7 ?g/kg. To our knowledge, this is the earliest reported detection of TTXs in European bivalve shellfish, while it is also the first work to indicate a possible link between presence of the toxic dinoflagellate P. minimum in seawater and that of TTXs in bivalves. Confirmed presence of TTX, a very heat-stable toxin, in filter-feeding mollusks of the Mediterranean Sea, even at lower levels to those inducing symptomatology to humans, indicates that this emerging risk should be seriously taken into account by the EU to protect the health of shellfish consumers. PMID:26008234

  6. Simultaneous determination of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate and triamcinolone acetonide in beagle dog plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a long-term pharmacokinetic study of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate lipid emulsion injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Mingjing; Wu, Panpan; Guan, Jiao; Men, Lei; Lin, Hongli; Tang, Xing; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the pharmacokinetics of triamcinolone acetonide palmitate (TAP) which is a lipid-soluble prodrug of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), a rapid, simple, sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TAP and TA in beagle dog plasma. After simple liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes and internal standard (dexamethasone, DEX) were separated on Phenomenex Luna C18 column (50 mm × 2.1mm, 1.7 ?m) using a mobile phase consisting of solvent A (acetonitrile) and solvent B (0.1% ammonia solution) at a flow rate of 0.2 ml/min with gradient elution. Acquisition of mass spectrometric data was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization using the ion transitions of m/z 673.5?397.3, 435.3?415.3 and 393.3?355.3 for TAP, TA and IS, respectively. The method was of satisfactory specificity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy over the concentration range of 1-1,000 ng/ml for TAP and 0.5-500 ng/ml for TA. The intra- and inter-day precisions for both TAP and TA were 3.2% to 18.7% and the accuracy was in the range of -8.4% to 6.8%. The mean recoveries of TAP, TA and IS were 86.7-104.7%. The method was successfully applied to a long-term pharmacokinetic study of TAP and TA after 28-day repeated intravenous administration of TAP lipid emulsion injection to beagle dogs. PMID:25497892

  7. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion studies of a novel anti-candidal agent-thiosemicarbazide derivative of isoniazid (TSC-INH) by validated UPLC-MS/MS assay.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muzaffar; Ezzeldin, Essam; Bhat, Mashooq A; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Rashood, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for rapid determination of thiosemicarbazide derivative of isoniazid (TSC-INH), a potent anti-candidal agent in rat plasma, tissues, urine and feces. All biological samples were prepared by protein precipitation method using celecoxib as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was achieved on Acquity BEH™ C18 (50×2.1mm, 1.7?m) column using gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The MRM transitions were monitored at m/z 305.00?135.89 for TSC-INH and m/z 380.08?316.03 for IS in ESI negative mode. All validation parameter results were within the acceptable range described in guideline for bioanalytical method validation. The pharmacokinetic study showed that the compound TSC-INH was orally active with 66% absolute bioavailability in rats. It was rapidly absorbed with peak plasma concentration of 1985.92ng/mL achieved within 1h after single oral dose (10mg/kg) administration. TSC-INH exhibited rapid distribution across the body with highest levels in liver and lungs. Penetration in brain tissues suggests that TSC-INH crossed the blood brain barrier. Only 5.23% of the orally administered drug was excreted as unconverted form in urine and feces implying that TSC-INH was metabolized extensively before excretion. With the preliminary knowledge of in vivo pharmacokinetics and disposition properties, this study will be beneficial for further development of compound TSC-INH in future studies. PMID:26355768

  8. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the rapid, simultaneous analysis of thiamin, riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide and pyridoxal in human milk.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Daniela; York, Emily R; Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-08-15

    A novel, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of several B-vitamins in human milk was developed. Resolution by retention time or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for thiamin, riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), nicotinamide and pyridoxal (PL) has been optimized within 2 min using a gradient of 10 mM ammonium formate (aq) and acetonitrile. Thiamin-(4-methyl-¹³C-thiazol-5-yl-¹³C?) hydrochloride, riboflavin-dioxo-pyrimidine-¹³C?,¹?N?, and pyridoxal-methyl-d? hydrochloride were used as internal standards. A sample-like matrix was found to be mandatory for the external standard curve preparation. ¹³C?-caffeine was added for direct assessment of analyte recovery. Intra- and inter-assay variability for all analytes ranged from 0.4 to 7.9% and from 2.2 to 5.2%, respectively. Samples were subjected to protein precipitation and removal of non-polar constituents by diethyl ether prior to analysis. Quantification was done by ratio response to the stable isotope labeled internal standards. The standard addition method determined recovery rates for each vitamin (73.0-100.2%). The limit of quantitation for all vitamins was between 0.05 and 5 ppb depending on the vitamin. Alternative approaches for sample preparation such as protein removal by centrifugal filter units, acetonitrile or trichloroacetic acid revealed low recovery and a greater coefficient of variation. Matrix effect studies indicated a significant influence by matrix constituents, showing the importance of stable isotope labeled internal standards for analyte quantitation in complex matrices. PMID:22819611

  9. Development and validation of a useful UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of total and phosphorylated-ribavirin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HCV+ patients.

    PubMed

    Agnesod, Danilo; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Simiele, Marco; Mohamed Abdi, Adnan; Boglione, Lucio; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The current standard-of-care therapy in HCV consists in ribavirin (RBV) plus pegylated-interferon-? 2a or 2b and, for HCV-1 infected patients, also directly acting antivirals (DAAs). Despite the increase in the number of patients who reach sustained virological response (SVR) for HCV-1, a great inter-individual variability in the response to therapy remains. Whether new drugs are available in combination with RBV and Peg-IFN for HCV-1, the treatment of the other viral genotypes remains the same: this issue highlights the lasting importance of RBV and Peg-IFN in anti-HCV treatment. Moreover, a strong limiting factor to the usefulness of anti-HCV treatment remains the occurrence of adverse events, first of all hemolytic anemia, which have increased with the addition of DAAs, but is mainly an RBV-dependent effect. For these reasons, the monitoring of RBV exposure in the various compartments should be important. Since the routinely determination of RBV in the target cells as the hepatocytes is impracticable for of its invasiveness, the quantification in easier to obtain cells could be a good choice. In this work, we developed and validated an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) assay method to quantify RBV concentrations in peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs). QCs were prepared with RBV and RBV-monophosphate (RMP). Each sample was divided into two aliquots, which undergone the same extraction procedure: one was treated with acid phosphatase to convert RBV phosphorylated metabolites into free RBV, the other one was not-treated. The extracts were analyzed with reverse-phase column with UPLC-MS/MS. Calibration curves fitted a least squares model (weighed 1/X) for ribavirin levels in a range from 0.1 ng to 200 ng (mean r(2)=0.9993). Accuracy, intra-day and inter-day precision of the methods were in accordance with FDA guidelines. Moreover, phosphorylated QCs were used to assess the correct determination of total RBV concentration. We tested this method by monitoring RBV concentrations in PBMCs from 20 HCV+ patients, receiving alpha interferon-plus RBV combination therapy. This method showed to be reliable, precise, accurate and suitable for evaluation of intracellular RBV concentrations. PMID:24366212

  10. Determination of Serotonin and Dopamine Metabolites in Human Brain Microdialysis and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples by UPLC-MS/MS: Discovery of Intact Glucuronide and Sulfate Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Suominen, Tina; Uutela, Päivi; Ketola, Raimo A.; Bergquist, Jonas; Hillered, Lars; Finel, Moshe; Zhang, Hongbo; Laakso, Aki; Kostiainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    An UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), their phase I metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC and HVA, and their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates in human brain microdialysis samples obtained from two patients with acute brain injuries, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from four patients with obstructive hydrocephalus, and a lumbar CSF sample pooled mainly from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia in preparation for orthopedic surgery. The method was validated by determining the limits of detection and quantification, linearity, repeatability and specificity. The direct method enabled the analysis of the intact phase II metabolites of 5-HT and DA, without hydrolysis of the conjugates. The method also enabled the analysis of the regioisomers of the conjugates, and several intact glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were identified and quantified for the first time in the human brain microdialysis and CSF samples. We were able to show the presence of 5-HIAA sulfate, and that dopamine-3-O-sulfate predominates over dopamine-4-O-sulfate in the human brain. The quantitative results suggest that sulfonation is a more important phase II metabolism pathway than glucuronidation in the human brain. PMID:23826355

  11. Monitoring the Response of the Human Urinary Metabolome to Brief Maximal Exercise by a Combination of RP-UPLC-MS and (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Papaioannou, Konstantinos G; Tsalis, George; Saraslanidis, Ploutarchos; Mougios, Vassilis; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2015-11-01

    The delineation of exercise biochemistry by utilizing metabolic fingerprinting has become an established strategy. We present a combined RP-UPLC-MS and (1)H NMR strategy, supplemented by photometric assays, to monitor the response of the human urinary metabolome to short maximal exercise. Seventeen male volunteers performed two identical sprint sessions on separate days, consisting of three 80 m maximal runs. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we followed the fluctuation of 37 metabolites at 1, 1.5, and 2 h postexercise. 2-Hydroxyisovalerate, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-oxoisocaproate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, 2-oxoisovalerate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, alanine, pyruvate, and fumarate increased 1 h postexercise and then returned toward baseline. Lactate and acetate were higher than baseline at 1 and 1.5 h. Hypoxanthine and inosine remained above baseline throughout the postexercise period. Urate decreased at 1 h and increased at 1.5 h before returning to baseline. Valine, isoleucine, succinate, citrate, trimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide, tyrosine, and formate decreased at 1 h and/or 1.5 h postexercise and then returned to baseline. Creatinine gradually decreased over the sampling period. Glycine, 4-aminohippurate, and hippurate remained below baseline throughout the postexercise period. Our findings show that even one-half minute of maximal exercise elicited major perturbations in human metabolism, several of which persisted for at least 2 h. PMID:26419189

  12. Method development for quantification of the environmental neurotoxin annonacin in Rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Natacha; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Annonacin is an environmental neurotoxin identified in the pulp of several fruits of the Annonaceae family (for example in Annona muricata, Asimina triloba), whose consumption was linked with the occurrence of sporadic atypical Parkinsonism with dementia. Pharmacokinetic parameters of this molecule are unknown. A method for its quantification in Rat plasma was developed, using its analogue annonacinone as an internal standard. Extraction from plasma was performed using ethylacetate with a good recovery. Quantification was performed by UPLC-MS/MS in SRM mode, based on the loss of the ?-methyl-?-lactone (-112amu) from the sodium-cationized species [M+Na](+) of both annonacin and internal standard. The limit of quantification was 0.25ng/mL. Despite strong matrix effects, a good linearity was obtained over two distinct ranges 0.25-10ng/mL and 10-100ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were lower than 10%, while accuracy was within ±10%. This method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in the Rat. After oral administration of 10mg/kg annonacin, a Cmax of 7.9±1.5ng/mL was reached at Tmax 0.25h; T1/2 was 4.8±0.7h and apparent distribution volume was 387.9±64.6L. The bioavailability of annonacin was estimated to be 3.2±0.3% of the ingested dose. PMID:26444335

  13. Analysis of ecologically relevant pharmaceuticals in wastewater and surface water using selective solid phase extraction and UPLC/MS/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the analysis of 48 human prescription active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and 6 metabolites of interest, utilizing selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography in combination with tripl...

  14. Simultaneous determination of mequindox, quinocetone, and their major metabolites in chicken and pork by UPLC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research presents a sensitive and confirmatory multi-residue method for mequindox (MEQ), quinocetone (QCT), and their 11 metabolites in chicken and pork samples. After extracted with acetonitrile-ethyl acetate, acidulated, and extracted again with ethyl acetate sequentially, each sample was pu...

  15. A New Method to Quantify Ifosfamide Blood Levels Using Dried Blood Spots and UPLC-MS/MS in Paediatric Patients with Embryonic Solid Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Pacheco, Juan L.; Navas, Carlos F.; Demetrio, Joel A.; Alemón-Medina, Radamés; Trujillo, Francisca; Pérez, Martín; Zapata, Martha M.; Cárdenas, Rocío; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Aquino, Arnoldo; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Castillejos, Manuel-de-Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Ifosfamide blood concentrations are necessary to monitor its therapeutic response, avoiding any adverse effect. We developed and validated an analytical method by UPLC-MS/MS to quantify ifosfamide in dried blood spots (DBS). Blood samples were collected on Whatman 903® filter paper cards. Five 3 mm disks were punched out from each dried blood spot. Acetonitrile and ethyl acetate were used for drug extraction. Chromatographic separation was carried out in an Acquity UPLC equipment with a BEH-C18 column, 2.1 x 100 mm, 1.7 ?m (Waters®). The mobile phase consisted in 5 mM ammonium formate and methanol:acetonitrile (40:48:12 v/v/v) at 0.2 mL/min. LC-MS/MS detection was done by ESI+ and multiple reaction mode monitoring, ionic transitions were m/z1+ 260.99 > 91.63 for ifosfamide and 261.00 > 139.90 for cyclophosphamide (internal standard). This method was linear within a 100–10000 ng/mL range and it was accurate, precise and selective. Ifosfamide samples in DBS were stable for up to 52 days at -80°C. The procedure was tested in 14 patients, ages 1 month to 17 years (9 males and 5 females), with embryonic tumours treated with ifosfamide, alone or combined, at a public tertiary referral hospital. Ifosfamide blood levels ranged from 11.1 to 39.7 ?mol/L at 12 hours after the last infusion, while 24-hour levels ranged from 0.7–19.7 ?mol/L. The median at 12 hours was 19.5 ?mol/L (Q25 14.4–Q75 29.0) and 3.8 ?mol/L (Q25 1.5–Q75 9.9) at 24 hours, p<0.001. This method is feasible to determine ifosfamide plasma levels in paediatric patients. PMID:26600181

  16. UPLC-MS-ELSD-PDA as a powerful dereplication tool to facilitate compound identification from small molecule natural product libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of natural product libraries containing column fractions, each with only a few small molecules, by a high throughput, automated fractionation system has made it possible to implement an improved dereplication strategy for selection and prioritization of hits in a natural product discovery...

  17. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of ionophoric and synthetic coccidiostats in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Broekaert, N; Van Peteghem, C; Daeseleire, E; Sticker, D; Van Poucke, C

    2011-12-01

    In poultry farming, anticoccidial drugs are widely used as feed additives for the prevention and treatment of coccidiosis. Because coccidiostats and veterinary medicines, in general, are often poorly absorbed, manure from treated animals may contain high concentrations of these compounds. Experimental studies have shown that the uptake of veterinary medicines by plants from soil containing contaminated manure may occur. This leads to several questions regarding the impact on the environment, resistance problems, and public health and allergy issues. This work describes the development of a quantification method for coccidiostats in vegetables. Vegetables were spiked at 100 ?g kg(-1) (dry weight) with coccidiostats (monensin, narasin, lasalocid A, salinomycin, diclazuril, and nicarbazin) in order to optimize the extraction and clean-up. Possible critical factors (e.g., extraction solvent) were statistically examined by linear regression with the use of Plackett-Burman and full factorial designs. Final extracts were analyzed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. Both the synthetic and ionophoric coccidiostats could be determined in a single run with an analysis time of 5 min. The developed method was validated taking into account the requirements of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC as a guideline. The method is regarded as applicable for its intended purposes with quantification limits between 0.30 and 2.98 ?g kg(-1). This method could be used to establish possible maximum residue limits for coccidiostats in vegetables, as already exist for eggs, meat, and milk. PMID:21984012

  18. Distinguishing heroin abuse from codeine administration in the urine of Chinese people by UPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Bu, Jun; Zhan, Changshu; Huang, Yi; Shen, Baohua; Zhuo, Xianyi

    2013-04-01

    Heroin is a highly addictive drug, and heroin abuse is considered to be a serious criminal act. The major metabolite of heroin, morphine, can usually be detected as evidence of heroin abuse. However, it is difficult to determine heroin use when morphine and codeine are both detected, because codeine use will also result in the presence of morphine in urine. Therefore, it is important to distinguish heroin abuse from codeine administration. In this study, urine samples from 21 volunteers with various ingestion patterns of a compound codeine phosphate oral solution were used as negative controls, and urine samples from 89 alleged heroin users were used as positive controls. Urine from single and multiple doses of codeine administration were collected at different time points for a systematic comparison. After protein precipitation, the urine samples were analyzed for the presence of free morphine, free codeine and their metabolites by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method of percentiles, with median and standard interquartile ranges, was used to describe and analyze the data based on the normality of the distribution. The ratios of concentration of morphine and morphine to codeine were found to be the possible criteria to distinguish heroin users from codeine users in Chinese people. PMID:23316032

  19. Development and validation of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of rhamnolipid congeners.

    PubMed

    Rudden, Michelle; Tsauosi, Konstantina; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M; Smyth, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Rhamnolipids (RLs) are synthesised as a complex mixture of congeners comprising either one or two molecules of rhamnose glycosidically linked to a dimer of 3-hydroxy fatty acids varying in chain length and degree of saturation. Currently, HPLC-MS/MS is the most precise and accurate method for RL determination, while accurate quantification is limited. In this study, a rapid ultra pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the rapid and quantification of individual RL congeners. Increased RLs specificity was achieved using tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode which was used to quantify RL isomer pairs such as Rha-Rha-C8-C10/Rha-Rha-C10-C8 which are difficult to resolve chromatographically. UPLC showed an 18-fold reduction in retention time for Rha-Rha-C10-C10 (1.07 min) and a 17-fold reduction for Rha-C10-C10 (1.36), the major rhamnolipids present, compared to HPLC, with a total run time less than 2.2 min. The results show that the linear range for the main RL congeners (Rha-C10-C10 and Rha-Rha-C10-C10) is 0.1 to 100 ?g/mL. The LOD and LOQ for Rha-C10-C10 is 0.05 and 0.1 ?g/mL and for Rha-Rha-C10-C10 is 0.1 and 0.5 ?g/mL, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy in accordance with FDA guidelines. The method was applied for the quantification of 14 individual RL congeners produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST5 and comparison of RLs composition on four different carbon sources. Quantification of the individual congeners showed a conserved congener distribution irrespective of carbon source with a preferential selection for C10 ?-hydroxyacids as the lipid component of RLs. The only statistically significant differences detected were between actual RL yields on the various carbon sources. PMID:26272088

  20. Development of a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for high throughput analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins using graphitised carbon solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Boundy, Michael J; Selwood, Andrew I; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul S; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-03-27

    Routine regulatory monitoring of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) commonly employs oxidative derivitisation and complex liquid chromatography fluorescence detection methods (LC-FL). The pre-column oxidation LC-FL method is currently implemented in New Zealand and the United Kingdom. When using this method positive samples are fractionated and two different oxidations are required to confirm the identity and quantity of each PST analogue present. There is a need for alternative methods that are simpler, provide faster turnaround times and have improved detection limits. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) HPLC-MS/MS analysis of PST has been used for research purposes, but high detection limits and substantial sample matrix issues have prevented it from becoming a viable alternative for routine monitoring purposes. We have developed a HILIC UPLC-MS/MS method for paralytic shellfish toxins with an optimised desalting clean-up procedure on inexpensive carbon solid phase extraction cartridges for reduction of matrix interferences. This represents a major technical breakthrough and allows sensitive, selective and rapid analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins from a variety of sample types, including many commercially produced bivalve molluscan shellfish species. Additionally, this analytical approach avoids the need for complex calculations to determine sample toxicity, as unlike other methods each PST analogue is able to be quantified as a single resolved peak. This article presents the method development and optimisation information. A thorough single laboratory validation study has subsequently been performed and this data will be presented elsewhere. PMID:25704772

  1. Simultaneous detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals including conjugates in municipal wastewater and sludge with enhanced sample pretreatment and UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Ben, Weiwei; Yuan, Xiangjuan; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Qiang, Zhimin

    2015-08-01

    The co-existence of free and conjugated estrogens and the interference from complex matrices often lead to largely variable detected concentrations and sometimes even negative removal efficiencies of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a highly selective and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous extraction, elution, and detection of 12 EDCs (i.e., 4 free estrogens, 6 conjugated estrogens, and 2 phenolic compounds) in municipal wastewater and sludge. Sample pretreatment and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection were optimized to improve the detection selectivity and sensitivity. The results indicate that the additional purification process was highly effective in reducing the matrix interference, and the limits of quantification reached as low as 0.04-2.2 ng L(-1) in wastewater and 0.05-4.9 ng g(-1) in sludge for all target EDCs. The developed method was successfully applied to explore the behavior of target EDCs in a local WWTP. The conjugates occupied a considerable portion (4.3-76.9% in molar ratio) of each related estrogen in the influent. Most of the target EDCs could not be completely removed in WWTPs, thus posing a potential threat to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26161687

  2. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins A and B in Food Matrices Using Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)

    PubMed Central

    Zuberovic Muratovic, Aida; Hagström, Thomas; Rosén, Johan; Granelli, Kristina; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    A method that uses mass spectrometry (MS) for identification and quantification of protein toxins, staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB), in milk and shrimp is described. The analysis was performed using a tryptic peptide, from each of the toxins, as the target analyte together with the corresponding 13C-labeled synthetic internal standard peptide. The performance of the method was evaluated by analyzing spiked samples in the quantification range 2.5–30 ng/g (R2 = 0.92–0.99). The limit of quantification (LOQ) in milk and the limit of detection (LOD) in shrimp was 2.5 ng/g, for both SEA and SEB toxins. The in-house reproducibility (RSD) was 8%–30% and 5%–41% at different concentrations for milk and shrimp, respectively. The method was compared to the ELISA method, used at the EU-RL (France), for milk samples spiked with SEA at low levels, in the quantification range of 2.5 to 5 ng/g. The comparison showed good coherence for the two methods: 2.9 (MS)/1.8 (ELISA) and 3.6 (MS)/3.8 (ELISA) ng/g. The major advantage of the developed method is that it allows direct confirmation of the molecular identity and quantitative analysis of SEA and SEB at low nanogram levels using a label and antibody free approach. Therefore, this method is an important step in the development of alternatives to the immune-assay tests currently used for staphylococcal enterotoxin analysis. PMID:26378579

  4. Determination of Free and Total Carnitine and Choline in Infant Formulas and Adult Nutritional Products by UPLC/MS/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2014.04.

    PubMed

    Jing, Wei; Thompson, Joseph J; Jacobs, Wesley A; Salvati, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) has been performed for a method that simultaneously determines choline and carnitine in nutritional products by ultra performance LC (UPLC)/MS/MS. All 11 matrixes from the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) were tested. Depending on the sample preparation, either the added (free, with a water dilution and filtering) or total (after microwave digestion at 120°C in nitric acid and subsequent neutralization with ammonia) species can be detected. For nonmilk containing products, the total carnitine is almost always equal to the free carnitine. A substantial difference was noted between free and total choline in all products. All Standard Method Performance Requirements for carnitine and choline have been met. This report summarizes the material sent to the AOAC Expert Review Panel for SPIFAN nutrient methods for the review of this method, as well as some additional data from an internal validation. The method was granted AOAC First Action status for carnitine in 2014 (2014.04), but the choline data are also being presented. A comparison of choline results to those from other AOAC methods is given. PMID:26110467

  5. Rapid screening of mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder by automated size-exclusion SPE-UPLC-MS/MS and quantification of matrix effects over the whole chromatographic run.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu

    2015-04-15

    An automated, size-exclusion solid phase extraction (SPE)-UPLC-MS/MS protocol without pre-treatment of samples was developed to screen for four mycotoxins (OTA, ZEN, AFB1, and AFM1) in liquid milk and milk powder. Firstly, a mixed macropore-silica gel cartridge was established as a size-exclusion SPE column. The proposed methodology could be a candidate in green analytical chemistry because it saves on manpower and organic solvent. Permanent post-column infusion of mycotoxin standards was used to quantify matrix effects throughout the chromatographic run. Matrix-matched calibration could effectively compensate for matrix effects, which may be caused by liquid milk or milk powder matrix. Recovery of the four mycotoxins in fortified liquid milk was in the range 89-120% and RSD 2-9%. The LOD for the four mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder were 0.05-2 ng L(-1) and 0.25-10 ng kg(-1), respectively. The LOQ for the four mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder were 0.1-5 ng L(-1) and 0.5-25 ng kg(-1), respectively. PMID:25466104

  6. A sensitive and simple ultra-high-performance-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based method for the quantification of D-amino acids in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Visser, Wouter F; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Ophoff, Roel; Bakker, Steven; Klomp, Leo W; Berger, Ruud; de Koning, Tom J

    2011-10-01

    D-Amino acids are increasingly being recognized as important signaling molecules in mammals, including humans. D-Serine and D-aspartate are believed to act as signaling molecules in the central nervous system. Interestingly, several other D-amino acids also occur in human plasma, but very little is currently known regarding their function and origin. Abnormal levels of D-amino acids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including schizophrenia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), indicating that D-amino acid levels hold potential as diagnostic markers. Research into the biological functions of D-amino acids is hindered, however, by the lack of sufficiently sensitive, high-throughput analytical methods. In particular, the interference of large amounts of L-amino acids in biological samples and the low concentrations of D-amino acids are challenging. In this paper, we compared 7 different chiral derivatization agents for the analysis of D-amino acids and show that the chiral reagent (S)-NIFE offers outstanding performance in terms of sensitivity and enantioselectivity. An UPLC-MS/MS based method for the quantification of D-amino acids human biological fluids was then developed using (S)-NIFE. Baseline separation (R(s)>2.45) was achieved for the isomers of all 19 chiral proteinogenic amino acids. The limit of detection was <1 nM for all amino acids except d-alanine (1.98 nM), d-methionine (1.18 nM) and d-asparagine (5.15 nM). For measurements in human plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine, the accuracy ranged between 85% and 107%. The intra-assay and inter-assay were both <16% RSD for these three different matrices. Importantly, the method does not suffer from spontaneous racemization during sample preparation and derivatization. Using the described method, D-amino acid levels in human cerebrospinal fluid, plasma and urine were measured. PMID:21890145

  7. UPLC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous quantification of carvedilol and its active metabolite 4'-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol in human plasma to support a bioequivalence study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daxesh P; Sharma, Primal; Sanyal, Mallika; Singhal, Puran; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2013-08-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of carvedilol and its pharmacologically active metabolite 4'-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol in human plasma using their deuterated internal standards (IS). Samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction using 100 ?L human plasma. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved on UPLC C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) column using acetonitrile-4.0 mM ammonium formate, pH 3.0 adjusted with 0.1% formic acid (78:22, v/v) as the mobile phase. The multiple reaction monitoring transitions for both the analytes and IS were monitored in the positive electrospray ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.05-50 ng/mL for carvedilol and 0.01-10 ng/mL for 4'-hydroxyphenyl carvedilol. Intra- and inter-batch precision (% CV) and accuracy for the analytes varied from 0.74 to 3.88 and 96.4 to 103.3% respectively. Matrix effect was assessed by post-column analyte infusion and by calculation of precision values (coefficient of variation) in the measurement of the slope of calibration curves from eight plasma batches. The assay recovery was within 94-99% for both the analytes and IS. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 12.5 mg carvedilol tablets in 34 healthy subjects. PMID:23483571

  8. Direct Quantitative Analysis of a 20 kDa PEGylated Human Calcitonin Gene Peptide Antagonist in Cynomolgus Monkey Serum Using In-Source CID and UPLC-MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Rose, Mark J.; Holder, Jerry Ryan; Wright, Marie; Miranda, Les P.; James, Christopher A.

    2011-09-01

    PEGylation is a successful strategy to improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmaceutical properties of therapeutic peptides. However, quantitative analysis of PEGylated peptides in biomatrix by LC-MS/MS poses significant analytical challenge due to the polydispersity of the polyethylene glycol (PEG), and the multiple charge states observed for both the peptide and PEG moieties. In this report, a novel LC-MS/MS method for direct quantitative analysis of 20 kDa PEGylated CGRP[Cit, Cit] in cynomolgus monkey serum is presented. CGRP[Cit, Cit] is an investigational human calcitonin gene peptide receptor antagonist with amino acid sequence Ac -WVTH[Cit]LAGLLS[Cit]SGGVVRKNFVPT DVGPFAF- NH 2 . In-source collision-induced dissociation (in-source CID) of 20 kDa PEGylated peptide was used to generate CGRP[Cit, Cit] fragment ions, among which the most abundant b {8/+} ion was selected and measured as a surrogate for the 20 kDa PEGylated peptide. A solid phase extraction (SPE) method was used to extract the PEGylated peptides from the biomatrix prior to the UPLC-MS/MS analysis. This method achieved a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 5.00 ng/mL with a serum sample volume of 100 ?L, and was linear over the calibration range of 5.00 to 500 ng/mL in cynomolgus monkey serum. Intraday and interday accuracy and precision from QC samples were within ±15%. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the 20 kDa PEGylated CGRP[Cit, Cit] in cynomolgus monkeys.

  9. Natural occurrence of fumonisins and ochratoxin A in some herbs and spices commercialized in Poland analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Bocianowski, Jan; Goli?ski, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Unsanitary conditions during harvesting, drying, packing and storage stages in production and processing of spices and herbs could introduce mycotoxin contamination. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and fumonisins in popular spices and herbs was studied, using liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, ergosterol as a factor indicating fungal development was also analysed. A total of 79 different samples commercialized in Poland were randomly purchased from popular markets were tested for mycotoxins. The frequency of samples with fumonisins was lower (31%) than ochratoxin A (49%). Free from mycotoxins were samples of bay leaf and white mustard. ERG content - in spice samples with high concentration level of mycotoxins - was also significantly higher than in samples with little to no mycotoxins. PMID:24010625

  10. Dose-Independent ADME Properties and Tentative Identification of Metabolites of ?-Mangostin from Garcinia mangostana in Mice by Automated Microsampling and UPLC-MS/MS Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Chul; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    The information about a marker compound's pharmacokinetics in herbal products including the characteristics of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) is closely related to the efficacy/toxicity. Also dose range and administration route are critical factors to determine the ADME profiles. Since the supply of a sufficient amount of a marker compound in in vivo study is still difficult, pharmacokinetic investigations which overcome the limit of blood collection in mice are desirable. Thus, we have attempted to investigate concurrently the ADME and proposed metabolite identification of ?-mangostin, a major constituent of mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L, in mice with a wide dose range using an in vitro as well as in vivo automated micro-sampling system together. ?-mangostin showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics at intravenous doses of 5–20 mg/kg and oral doses of 10–100 mg/kg. The gastrointestinal absorption of ?-mangostin was poor and the distribution of ?-mangostin was relatively high in the liver, intestine, kidney, fat, and lung. ?-mangostin was extensively metabolized in the liver and intestine. With regards to the formation of metabolites, the glucuronidated, bis-glucuronidated, dehydrogenated, hydrogenated, oxidized, and methylated ?-mangostins were tentatively identified. We suggest that these dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics of ?-mangostin in mice provide an important basis for preclinical applications of ?-mangostin as well as mangosteen. In addition, these experimental methods can be applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of natural products in mice. PMID:26176540

  11. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Willison, Stuart A

    2012-12-28

    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA). PMID:23218189

  12. High-Sensitivity Microwave Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, W. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a 3.33-cm wavelength (9 GHz) microwave system that achieves a high overall signal sensitivity and a well-collimated beam with moderate-size equipment. The system has been used to develop microwave versions of the Michelson interferometer, Bragg reflector, Brewster's law and total internal reflection, and Young's interference experiment.…

  13. Highly sensitive plasmonic silver nanorods.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Arpad; Rosman, Christina; Khalavka, Yuriy; Becker, Jan; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Sönnichsen, Carsten

    2011-09-27

    We compare the single-particle plasmonic sensitivity of silver and gold nanorods with similar resonance wavelengths by monitoring the plasmon resonance shift upon changing the environment from water to 12.5% sucrose solution. We find that silver nanoparticles have 1.2 to 2 times higher sensitivity than gold, in good agreement with simulations based on the boundary-elements-method (BEM). To exclude the effect of particle volume on sensitivity, we test gold rods with increasing particle width at a given resonance wavelength. Using the Drude-model of optical properties of metals together with the quasi-static approximation (QSA) for localized surface plasmons, we show that the dominant contribution to higher sensitivity of silver is the lower background polarizability of the d-band electrons and provide a simple formula for the sensitivity. We improve the reversibility of the silver nanorod sensors upon repeated cycles of environmental changes by blocking the high energy parts of the illumination light. PMID:21851108

  14. Highly sensitive integrated optical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Lützow, Peter; Weiland, Martin; Pergande, Daniel; Schröder, Henning

    2014-03-01

    Optical sensor systems for biological and medical applications have been widely developed in order to satisfy the current requirements such as a miniaturization, cost reduction, label-free detection and fast response. Here, we demonstrate a highly sensitive optical sensor based on two cascaded microring resonators (MRRs) exploiting the Vernier effect. The architecture consists of a filter MRR connected to a sensor MRR via a common waveguide. The external medium of the filter MRR is isolated with a top cladding layer, while the sensor MRR interacts with the analyte sample via an opening. The sensor chip, that includes an array of five cascaded MRRs, was designed and fabricated on a silicon nitride platform. A first test has been performed with sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations in deionized (DI) water providing a sensitivity of 1.03 nm/% (6317 nm/RIU). A limit of detection of 3.16 x 10-6 RIU was demonstrated for the current sensor, respectively. Several concentrations of isopropanol in ethanol ranging from 0% to 10% were also investigated. These preliminary measurements show a sensitivity as high as 0.95 nm/% at ~1535 nm compared to 0.02 nm/% from a single sensor MRR. For a moderated alignment between the chip and cleaved optical fibers, tapered grating couplers are included at the ends of waveguides. Hence, by combining the Vernier effect and the silicon nitride material, cascaded MRRs will be a powerful optical configuration for biosensing applications in a wide operating wavelength range.

  15. Fast, high sensitivity dewpoint hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A dewpoint/frostpoint hygrometer that uses a surface moisture-sensitive sensor as part of an RF oscillator circuit with feedback control of the sensor temperature to maintain equilibrium at the sensor surface between ambient water vapor and condensed water/ice. The invention is preferably implemented using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device in an RF oscillator circuit configured to generate a condensation-dependent output signal, a temperature sensor to measure the temperature of the SAW device and to distinguish between condensation-dependent and temperature-dependent signals, a temperature regulating device to control the temperature of the SAW device, and a feedback control system configured to keep the condensation-dependent signal nearly constant over time in the presence of time-varying humidity, corrected for temperature. The effect of this response is to heat or cool the surface moisture-sensitive device, which shifts the equilibrium with respect to evaporation and condensation at the surface of the device. The equilibrium temperature under feedback control is a measure of dewpoint or frostpoint.

  16. Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

    2005-01-01

    A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

  17. Aluminum nanocantilevers for high sensitivity mass sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Zachary J.; Boisen, Anja

    2005-07-04

    We have fabricated Al nanocantilevers using a simple, one mask contact UV lithography technique with lateral and vertical dimensions under 500 and 100 nm, respectively. These devices are demonstrated as highly sensitive mass sensors by measuring their dynamic properties. Furthermore, it is shown that Al has a potential higher sensitivity than Si based dynamic sensors. Initial testing of these devices has been conducted using a scanning electron microscope setup were the devices were tested under high vacuum conditions. The Q factor was measured to be approximately 200 and the mass sensitivity was measured to 2 ag/Hz by depositing electron-beam-induced carbon at the end of the nanocantilever.

  18. High Sensitivity deflection detection of nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Sanii, Babak; Ashby, Paul

    2009-10-28

    A critical limitation of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is the lack of a high-sensitivity position detection mechanism. We introduce a noninterferometric optical approach to determine the position of nanowires with a high sensitivity and bandwidth. Its physical origins and limitations are determined by Mie scattering analysis. This enables a dramatic miniaturization of detectable cantilevers, with attendant reductions to the fundamental minimum force noise in highly damping environments. We measure the force noise of an 81{+-}9??nm radius Ag{sub 2}Ga nanowire cantilever in water at 6{+-}3??fN/{radical}Hz.

  19. High-throughput LC-MS/MS based simultaneous determination of polyamines including N-acetylated forms in human saliva and the diagnostic approach to breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Haruhito; Mochizuki, Toshiki; Inoue, Koichi; Toyama, Tatsuya; Yoshimoto, Nobuyasu; Endo, Yumi; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2013-12-17

    The determination of polyamines and their N-acetylated forms was performed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The polyamines efficiently reacted with 4-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-fluoro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-F) in 0.1 M borax (pH 9.3) at 60 °C for 30 min. The resulting derivatives were analyzed by electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS and sensitively detected by selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Furthermore, a rapid separation of the polyamine derivatives within 10 min was performed by UPLC using an antipressurized column packed with 1.7-?m octadecylsilyl (ODS) silica gel. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) on the SRM chromatograms were at the attomole level (9-43 amol). This procedure was used to successfully determine 11 polyamines, including their N-acetylated forms, in the saliva of patients with primary and relapsed breast cancer and healthy volunteers. The level of several polyamines (Ac-PUT, Ac-SPD, Ac-SPM, DAc-SPD, and DAc-SPM) increases in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, the levels of three polyamines (Ac-SPM, DAc-SPD, and DAc-SPM) were significantly higher only in the relapsed patients. The present method proved highly sensitive and is characterized by specificity and feasibility for sample analysis. Consequently, the proposed method is useful for the noninvasive salivary diagnosis of cancer patients and could be applied to determine polyamines in several specimens of biological nature. PMID:24274257

  20. UPLC-MS/MS method with automated on-line SPE for the isomer-specific quantification of the first-generation anti-HCV protease inhibitors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Nicolò, Amedeo De; Abdi, Adnan Mohamed; Boglione, Lucio; Baiett, Lorena; Allegra, Sarah; Perri, Giovanni Di; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2015-11-10

    HCV infection affects over 170 million people worldwide. The current standard for treatment of genotype 1 infection is the association of the first generation protease inhibitors boceprevir or telaprevir to ribavirin and peginterferon ?. Although the response rate has been improved with these new drugs, some pharmacokinetic/pharmacodinamic issues emerged in the past years. To date, some analytical methods are available for the quantification of these drugs in plasma; however, the real active concentrations of the two drugs are those in hepatocytes. Being the withdrawal of hepatocytes too invasive, in this work we aimed to develop and validate a chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry capable of quantifying boceprevir and telaprevir isomers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, used as an "in-vivo" cellular model of compartmentalization. The method used an on-line solid phase extraction protocol based on the new OSM(®) platform and was fully validated following FDA guidelines. This method showed mean intra- and inter-day inaccuracy and imprecision both lower than 15%, high and stable recovery and contained matrix effect, with a run time of 6min, comprehensive of SPE extraction. The method was then applied on 35 real samples from patients treated with boceprevir or telaprevir, with good analytical performances, thus assessing its eligibility for a possible future routine use. Peculiar pharmacokinetic data have been observed, suggesting the usefulness of investigating intracellular pharmacokinetics of these drugs. Further studies will be required to test the correlation of intracellular concentrations with effectiveness and toxicity of triple therapy. PMID:26291788

  1. High Sensitivity Optically Pumped Quantum Magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Tiporlini, Valentina; Alameh, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Quantum magnetometers based on optical pumping can achieve sensitivity as high as what SQUID-based devices can attain. In this paper, we discuss the principle of operation and the optimal design of an optically pumped quantum magnetometer. The ultimate intrinsic sensitivity is calculated showing that optimal performance of the magnetometer is attained with an optical pump power of 20??W and an operation temperature of 48°C. Results show that the ultimate intrinsic sensitivity of the quantum magnetometer that can be achieved is 327?fT/Hz1/2 over a bandwidth of 26?Hz and that this sensitivity drops to 130?pT/Hz1/2 in the presence of environmental noise. The quantum magnetometer is shown to be capable of detecting a sinusoidal magnetic field of amplitude as low as 15?pT oscillating at 25?Hz. PMID:23766716

  2. High sensitivity optically pumped quantum magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Tiporlini, Valentina; Alameh, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Quantum magnetometers based on optical pumping can achieve sensitivity as high as what SQUID-based devices can attain. In this paper, we discuss the principle of operation and the optimal design of an optically pumped quantum magnetometer. The ultimate intrinsic sensitivity is calculated showing that optimal performance of the magnetometer is attained with an optical pump power of 20 ?W and an operation temperature of 48°C. Results show that the ultimate intrinsic sensitivity of the quantum magnetometer that can be achieved is 327?fT/Hz(½) over a bandwidth of 26?Hz and that this sensitivity drops to 130?pT/Hz(½) in the presence of environmental noise. The quantum magnetometer is shown to be capable of detecting a sinusoidal magnetic field of amplitude as low as 15?pT oscillating at 25?Hz. PMID:23766716

  3. High sensitive method for optical birefringence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunc, S.; Šulc, M.

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive method for optical birefringence measurement is presented. To optimize the signal over the noise ratio, the polarization of the laser beam is modulated exceptionally with a high frequency electro-optical modulator. The specially developed optical apparatus exhibits high sensitivity and accuracy, which were checked by measuring the Cotton-Mouton effect in nitrogen as a function of the pressure. It is able to measure the retardance down to 2x10-4 rad. This apparatus will be used with the locked optical cavity. The optical cavity will serve as an optical path multiplier for increasing the sensitivity. This proposed set-up will be able to measure the Cotton-Mouton effect in helium, where the birefringence effect is ?n ? 2.4x10-16.

  4. Highly sensitive beam steering with plasmonic antenna

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we design and study a highly sensitive beam steering device that integrates a spiral plasmonic antenna with a subwavelength metallic waveguide. The short effective wavelength of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) mode supported by the metallic waveguide is exploited to dramatically miniaturize the device and improve the sensitivity of the beam steering. Through introducing a tiny displacement of feed point with respect to the geometrical center of the spiral plasmonic antenna, the direction of the radiation can be steered at considerably high angles. Simulation results show that steering angles of 8°, 17° and 34° are obtainable for a displacement of 50?nm, 100?nm and 200?nm, respectively. Benefiting from the reduced device size and the shorter SPP wavelength, the beam steering sensitivity of the beam steering is improved by 10-fold compared with the case reported previously. This miniature plasmonic beam steering device may find many potential applications in quantum optical information processing and integrated photonic circuits. PMID:25091405

  5. Highly sensitive beam steering with plasmonic antenna.

    PubMed

    Rui, Guanghao; Zhan, Qiwen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we design and study a highly sensitive beam steering device that integrates a spiral plasmonic antenna with a subwavelength metallic waveguide. The short effective wavelength of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) mode supported by the metallic waveguide is exploited to dramatically miniaturize the device and improve the sensitivity of the beam steering. Through introducing a tiny displacement of feed point with respect to the geometrical center of the spiral plasmonic antenna, the direction of the radiation can be steered at considerably high angles. Simulation results show that steering angles of 8°, 17° and 34° are obtainable for a displacement of 50 nm, 100 nm and 200 nm, respectively. Benefiting from the reduced device size and the shorter SPP wavelength, the beam steering sensitivity of the beam steering is improved by 10-fold compared with the case reported previously. This miniature plasmonic beam steering device may find many potential applications in quantum optical information processing and integrated photonic circuits. PMID:25091405

  6. Highly sensitive submillimeter InSb photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilyev, Yu. B. Usikova, A. A.; Il'inskaya, N. D.; Petrov, P. V.; Ivanov, Yu. L.

    2008-10-15

    Submillimeter photoconductivity of the electron gas in bulk InSb has been studied. A new design of the InSb photodetector in the form of planar coils with a length-to-width ratio of two orders of magnitude is suggested. This design enables fabrication of highly sensitive photodetectors with the responsivity peak tunable by magnetic field.

  7. Fiber specklegram sensors sensitivities at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Cobo, L.; Lomer, M.; Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the sensitivity of Fiber Specklegram Sensors to high temperatures (up to 800ºC) have been studied. Two multimode silica fibers have been introduced into a tubular furnace while a HeNe laser source was launched into a fiber edge, projecting speckle patterns to a commercial webcam. A computer generated different heating and cooling sweeps while the specklegram evolution was recorded. The achieved results exhibit a remarkably linearity in FSS's sensitivity for temperatures under 800ºC, following the thermal expansion of fused silica.

  8. Single photon detector with high polarization sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qi; Li, Hao; You, LiXing; Zhang, WeiJun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, XiaoMing; Qi, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Polarization is one of the key parameters of light. Most optical detectors are intensity detectors that are insensitive to the polarization of light. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) is naturally sensitive to polarization due to its nanowire structure. Previous studies focused on producing a polarization-insensitive SNSPD. In this study, by adjusting the width and pitch of the nanowire, we systematically investigate the preparation of an SNSPD with high polarization sensitivity. Subsequently, an SNSPD with a system detection efficiency of 12% and a polarization extinction ratio of 22 was successfully prepared. PMID:25875225

  9. A high sensitivity small animal SPECT system

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Gregory S; Cherry, Simon R

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging using single gamma ray emitting radionuclides typically makes use of parallel hole collimators or pinholes in order to achieve good spatial resolution. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of a collimator, and modern preclinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) systems detect a very small fraction of emitted gamma rays, often less than 0.1%. A system for small animal SPECT imaging which uses no collimators could potentially achieve very high sensitivity—several tens of percent—with reasonably sized detectors. This would allow two significant improvements in preclinical studies: images could be obtained more rapidly, allowing higher throughput for screening applications, or for dynamic processes to be observed with very good time resolution; and images could be obtained with less radioactive tracer, making possible the in vivo imaging of low-capacity receptor systems, aiding research into new tracer compounds, and reducing the cost and easing the regulatory burden of an experiment. Of course, a system with no collimator will not be able to approach the sub-millimeter spatial resolutions produced by the most advanced pinhole and collimated systems, but a high sensitivity system with resolution of order one centimeter could nonetheless find significant and new use in the many molecular imaging applications which do not require good spatial resolution—for example, screening applications for drug development or new imaging agents. Rather than as an alternative to high resolution SPECT systems, the high sensitivity system is proposed as a radiotracer alternative to optical imaging for small animals. We have developed a prototype system for mouse imaging applications. The scanner consists of two large, thin, closely spaced scintillation detectors. Simulation studies indicate that a FWHM spatial resolution of 7 mm is possible. In an in vivo mouse imaging study using the 99mTc labeled tracer MAG-3, the sensitivity of the system is measured to be 40%. Simple projection images created by analytically combining the two detectors' data show sufficient resolution to observe the dynamic distribution of the radiotracer in the mouse. PMID:19190360

  10. Cooled membrane for high sensitivity gas sampling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ruifen; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-04-18

    A novel sample preparation method that combines the advantages of high surface area geometry and cold surface effect was proposed to achieve high sensitivity gas sampling. To accomplish this goal, a device that enables the membrane to be cooled down was developed for sampling, and a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer was used for separation and quantification analysis. Method development included investigation of the effect of membrane temperature, membrane size, gas flow rate and humidity. Results showed that high sensitivity for equilibrium sampling, such as limonene sampling in the current study could be achieved by either cooling down the membrane and/or using a large volume extraction phase. On the other hand, for pre-equilibrium extraction, in which the extracted amount was mainly determined by membrane surface area and diffusion coefficient, high sensitivity could be obtained by using thinner membranes with a larger surface and/or a higher sampling flow rate. In addition, humidity showed no significant influence on extraction efficiency, due to the absorption property of the liquid extraction phase. Next, the limit of detection (LOD) was found, and the reproducibility of the developed cooled membrane gas sampling method was evaluated. Results showed that LODs with a membrane diameter of 19mm at room temperature sampling were 9.2ng/L, 0.12ng/L, 0.10ng/L for limonene, cinnamaldehyde and 2-pentadecanone, respectively. Intra- and inter-membrane sampling reproducibility revealed RSD% lower than 8% and 13%, respectively. Results uniformly demonstrated that the proposed cooled membrane device could serve as an alternative powerful tool for future gas sampling. PMID:24647099

  11. High sensitive materials in medical holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, A.; Snashall, E.; Osanlou, O.; Osanlou, R.; Mirlis, E.; Shi, Lishen; Bjelkhagen, H.

    2015-02-01

    High sensitivity is defined in relation to the energy required to perform holographic recording. High sensitivity in silver halide materials is their main advantage over other similarly high resolving power holographic recording materials. This work reports progress on the development of silver halide based 'true colour holographic imaging', under a microscope. A thin layer of ultrafine grains of silver halide crystals of around 10 nm average diameter, dispersed in a colloid and coated on a substrate is used as the recording media. The significance of this method so far, is in its ability to produce 'true colour' three-dimensional images of specimen. The recordings have an appreciable depth, permitting the observer to scan through the image under a microscope, as one might with a real specimen sample. Current methods could perform ' True colour holographic imaging' directly under a microscope. The recording methodology has the potential for deeper complex and scattering media imaging, using very small pulses of appropriate laser wavelengths. The methodology, using novel nanosize panchromatic recording media consisting of dispersed fine nano grain crystals, could potentially revolutionise related medical imaging techniques. Future development of digital media will allow it to be utilized in this manner.

  12. High-sensitivity silicon nanowire phototransistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Siew Li; Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2014-08-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have emerged as a promising material for high-sensitivity photodetection in the UV, visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. In this work, we demonstrate novel planar SiNW phototransistors on silicon-oninsulator (SOI) substrate using CMOS-compatible processes. The device consists of a bipolar transistor structure with an optically-injected base region. The electronic and optical properties of the SiNW phototransistors are investigated. Preliminary simulation and experimental results show that nanowire geometry, doping densities and surface states have considerable effects on the device performance, and that a device with optimized parameters can potentially outperform conventional Si photodetectors.

  13. [Clinical interpretation of high sensitivity troponin T].

    PubMed

    Alquézar Arbé, Aitor; Santaló Bel, Miguel; Sionis, Alessandro

    2015-09-21

    Determination of cardiac troponin (cTn) is necessary for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation. However Tnc can be released in other clinical situations. The development of high-sensitive cTn T assays (hs-cTnT) improves the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Here, we provide an overview of the diverse causes of hs-cTnT elevation and recommend strategies for the clinical interpretation of the test result. PMID:25620025

  14. Quantitative Determination of Mithramycin in Human Plasma by a Novel, Sensitive ultra-HPLC-MS/MS Method for Clinical Pharmacokinetic Application

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Jeffrey; Peer, Cody J.; Widemann, Brigitte; Cole, Diane E.; Ershler, Rachel; Helman, Lee; Schrump, David; Figg, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Mithramycin is a neoplastic antibiotic synthesized by various Streptomyces bacteria. It is under investigation as a chemotherapeutic treatment for a wide variety of cancers. Ongoing and forthcoming clinical trials will require pharmacokinetic analysis of mithramycin in humans, both to see if target concentrations are achieved and to optimize dosing and correlate outcomes (response/toxicity) with pharmacokinetics. Two published methods for mithramycin quantitation exist, but both are immunoassays that lack current bioanalytical standards of selectivity and sensitivity. To provide an upgraded and more widely applicable assay, a UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitation of mithramycin in human plasma was developed. Solid phase extraction allowed for excellent recoveries (>90%) necessary for high throughput analyses on sensitive instrumentation. However, a ~55% reduction in analyte signal was observed as a result of plasma matrix effects. Mithramycin and the internal standard chromomycin were separated on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1x50mm, 1.7um) and detected using electrospray ionization operated in the negative mode at mass transitions m/z 1083.5?268.9 and 1181.5?269.0, respectively, on an AB Sciex QTrap 5500. The assay range was 0.5–500 ng/mL and proved to be linear (r2>0.996), accurate (?10% deviation), and precise (CV<15%). Mithramycin was stable in plasma at room temperature for 24 hours, as well as through three freeze-thaw cycles. This method was subsequently used to quantitate mithramycin plasma concentrations from patients enrolled on two clinical trials at the NCI. PMID:25247492

  15. Quantitative determination of mithramycin in human plasma by a novel, sensitive ultra-HPLC-MS/MS method for clinical pharmacokinetic application.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jeffrey; Peer, Cody J; Widemann, Brigitte; Cole, Diane E; Ershler, Rachel; Helman, Lee; Schrump, David; Figg, William D

    2014-11-01

    Mithramycin is a neoplastic antibiotic synthesized by various Streptomyces bacteria. It is under investigation as a chemotherapeutic treatment for a wide variety of cancers. Ongoing and forthcoming clinical trials will require pharmacokinetic analysis of mithramycin in humans, both to see if target concentrations are achieved and to optimize dosing and correlate outcomes (response/toxicity) with pharmacokinetics. Two published methods for mithramycin quantitation exist, but both are immunoassays that lack current bioanalytical standards of selectivity and sensitivity. To provide an upgraded and more widely applicable assay, a UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitation of mithramycin in human plasma was developed. Solid-phase extraction allowed for excellent recoveries (>90%) necessary for high throughput analyses on sensitive instrumentation. However, a ?55% reduction in analyte signal was observed as a result of plasma matrix effects. Mithramycin and the internal standard chromomycin were separated on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1×50 mm, 1.7 ?m) and detected using electrospray ionization operated in the negative mode at mass transitions m/z 1083.5?268.9 and 1181.5?269.0, respectively, on an AB Sciex QTrap 5500. The assay range was 0.5-500 ng/mL and proved to be linear (r(2)>0.996), accurate (?10% deviation), and precise (CV<15%). Mithramycin was stable in plasma at room temperature for 24 h, as well as through three freeze-thaw cycles. This method was subsequently used to quantitate mithramycin plasma concentrations from patients enrolled on two clinical trials at the NCI. PMID:25247492

  16. Photodetector having high speed and sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Mariella, Jr., Raymond P. (Danville, CA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention provides a photodetector having an advantageous combination of sensitivity and speed; it has a high sensitivity while retaining high speed. In a preferred embodiment, visible light is detected, but in some embodiments, x-rays can be detected, and in other embodiments infrared can be detected. The present invention comprises a photodetector having an active layer, and a recombination layer. The active layer has a surface exposed to light to be detected, and comprises a semiconductor, having a bandgap graded so that carriers formed due to interaction of the active layer with the incident radiation tend to be swept away from the exposed surface. The graded semiconductor material in the active layer preferably comprises Al.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x As. An additional sub-layer of graded In.sub.1-y Ga.sub.y As may be included between the Al.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x As layer and the recombination layer. The recombination layer comprises a semiconductor material having a short recombination time such as a defective GaAs layer grown in a low temperature process. The recombination layer is positioned adjacent to the active layer so that carriers from the active layer tend to be swept into the recombination layer. In an embodiment, the photodetector may comprise one or more additional layers stacked below the active and recombination layers. These additional layers may include another active layer and another recombination layer to absorb radiation not absorbed while passing through the first layers. A photodetector having a stacked configuration may have enhanced sensitivity and responsiveness at selected wavelengths such as infrared.

  17. High Sensitivity Imprint Measurements on Nike Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max

    2005-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instability seeded by laser non-uniformity (laser imprint) is an important factor in performance of direct-drive ICF targets. Most of the imprint occurs during the initial low-intensity (``foot'') part of the pulse, necessary to compress the target to achieve high gain. Experiments are carried out on Nike KrF laser with induced spatial incoherence (ISI) smoothing. The amount of imprint is varied by changing the uniformity the foot of the pulse. The resulting Raleigh-Taylor (RT) amplified areal mass non-uniformity is measured by face-on x-ray radiography using Bragg reflection from a curved crystal coupled to an x-ray streak camera. The streak camera was recently retrofitted with a new high sensitivity CCD camera. The sensitivity of the CCD has enabled it to be fiberoptically coupled directly to the streak camera output, without an image intensifier and lens coupling. This gave an increased overall spatial resolution as well as lower noise. Because of the strong short wavelength component of RT amplified imprint, the increased resolution and lower noise resulted in much lower noise floor in the measurement. Experimental results are compared with 2D simulations using FAST hydrocode for a range of foot uniformities and intensities. Work supported by the U. S. DOE/NNSA.

  18. High-sensitivity detection of TNT.

    PubMed

    Pushkarsky, Michael B; Dunayevskiy, Ilya G; Prasanna, Manu; Tsekoun, Alexei G; Go, Rowel; Patel, C Kumar N

    2006-12-26

    We report high-sensitivity detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy where the laser radiation is obtained from a continuous-wave room temperature high-power quantum cascade laser in an external grating cavity geometry. The external grating cavity quantum cascade laser is continuously tunable over approximately 400 nm around 7.3 microm and produces a maximum continuous-wave power of approximately 200 mW. The IR spectroscopic signature of TNT is sufficiently different from that of nitroglycerine so that unambiguous detection of TNT without false positives from traces of nitroglycerine is possible. We also report the results of spectroscopy of acetylene in the 7.3-microm region to demonstrate continuous tunability of the IR source. PMID:17164325

  19. High speed curved position sensitive detector

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Robert W. (Montgomery County, VA); Wilson, Jack W. (Knox County, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A high speed curved position sensitive porportional counter detector for use in x-ray diffraction, the detection of 5-20 keV photons and the like. The detector employs a planar anode assembly of a plurality of parallel metallic wires. This anode assembly is supported between two cathode planes, with at least one of these cathode planes having a serpentine resistive path in the form of a meander having legs generally perpendicular to the anode wires. This meander is produced by special microelectronic fabrication techniques whereby the meander "wire" fans outwardly at the cathode ends to produce the curved aspect of the detector, and the legs of the meander are small in cross-section and very closely spaced whereby a spatial resolution of about 50 .mu.m can be achieved. All of the other performance characteristics are about as good or better than conventional position sensitive proportional counter type detectors. Count rates of up to 40,000 counts per second with 0.5 .mu.s shaping time constants are achieved.

  20. Highly sensitive silicon microreactor for catalyst testing

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, Toke R.; Hansen, Ole; Olsen, Jakob L.; Vesborg, Peter; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2009-12-15

    A novel microfabricated chemical reactor for highly sensitive measurements of catalytic activity and surface kinetics is presented. The reactor is fabricated in a silicon chip and is intended for gas-phase reactions at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 bar. A high sensitivity is obtained by directing the entire gas flow through the catalyst bed to a mass spectrometer, thus ensuring that nearly all reaction products are present in the analyzed gas flow. Although the device can be employed for testing a wide range of catalysts, the primary aim of the design is to allow characterization of model catalysts which can only be obtained in small quantities. Such measurements are of significant fundamental interest but are challenging because of the low surface areas involved. The relationship between the reaction zone gas flow and the pressure in the reaction zone is investigated experimentally. A corresponding theoretical model is presented, and the gas flow through an on-chip flow-limiting capillary is predicted to be in the intermediate regime. The experimental data for the gas flow are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical model. At typical experimental conditions, the total gas flow through the reaction zone is around 3x10{sup 14} molecules s{sup -1}, corresponding to a gas residence time in the reaction zone of about 11 s. To demonstrate the operation of the microreactor, CO oxidation on low-area platinum thin film circles is employed as a test reaction. Using temperature ramping, it is found that platinum catalysts with areas as small as 15 {mu}m{sup 2} are conveniently characterized with the device.

  1. Demonstration of high sensitivity laser ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, Pamela S.; Christian, Kent D.; Field, Christopher T.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a high sensitivity semiconductor laser ranging system developed for the Gravity and Magnetic Earth Surveyor (GAMES) for measuring variations in the planet's gravity field. The GAMES laser ranging instrument (LRI) consists of a pair of co-orbiting satellites, one which contains the laser transmitter and receiver and one with a passive retro-reflector mounted in an drag-stabilized housing. The LRI will range up to 200 km in space to the retro-reflector satellite. As the spacecraft pair pass over the spatial variations in the gravity field, they experience along-track accelerations which change their relative velocity. These time displaced velocity changes are sensed by the LRI with a resolution of 20-50 microns/sec. In addition, the pair may at any given time be drifting together or apart at a rate of up to 1 m/sec, introducing a Doppler shift into the ranging signals. An AlGaAs laser transmitter intensity modulated at 2 GHz and 10 MHz is used as fine and medium ranging channels. Range is measured by comparing phase difference between the transmit and received signals at each frequency. A separate laser modulated with a digital code, not reported in this paper, will be used for coarse ranging to unambiguously determine the distance up to 200 km.

  2. High sensitivity optical fiber temperature sensor based on the temperature cross-sensitivity feature of RI-sensitive device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Hu, Manli; Rong, Qiangzhou; Du, Yanying; Yang, Hangzhou; Qiao, Xueguang

    2014-07-01

    Considerable part of optical fiber refractive index (RI) sensors suffer from the drawback of cross-sensitivity to temperature because of the thermo-optic effect of materials. In this paper, we propose a straightforward method to utilize the temperature cross-sensitivity feature of an optical fiber RI-sensitive device and thus got a high sensitivity temperature sensor. The sensor consists of a single mode fiber-multimode fiber core(MMFC)-single mode fiber structural refractometer encapsulated into a deionized water-filled cylindrical aluminum alloy shell. Benefiting from the larger thermo-optic coefficient difference between water and MMFC compared with the general cladding and core, the wavelength of transmitted spectrum presents enhanced shift when the ambient temperature change and thus get a higher temperature sensitivity. Experimental results show that the enhanced temperature sensitivity is about 358 pm/°C, which is almost 30 times that of the inherent temperature sensitivity.

  3. A case of high noise sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, M.; Sakamoto, H.

    1995-10-01

    A case of noise sensitivity with a five-year follow-up period is reported. The patient was a 34-year-old single man who was diagnosed as having psychosomatic disorder triggered by two stressful life events in rapid succession with secondary hypersensitivity to noise. Hypersensitivity to light and cold also developed later in the clinical course. The auditory threshold was within the normal range. The discomfort threshold as a measure of the noise sensitivity secondary to mental illness was measured repeatedly using test tone of audiometry. The discomfort threshold varied depending upon his mental status, ranging from 40-50 dB in the comparatively poorer mental state to 70-95 dB in the relatively good mental state. The features of noise sensitivity, including that secondary to mental illness, are discussed.

  4. A high sensitive phosphor for dosimetric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kore, Bhushan P.; Dhoble, N. S.; Lochab, S. P.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    In this study a novel TL phosphor CaMg3(SO4)4:Dy3+ was prepared by acid distillation method. The TL response of this phosphor towards ?-rays and carbon ion beam was tested. Good dosimetric glow curve was observed which is stable against both the type of radiations. The CaMg3(SO4)4:Dy3+ phosphor doped with 0.2 mol% of Dy3+, irradiated with ?-ray shows nearly equal sensitivity to that of commercially available CaSO4:Dy TLD phosphor whereas 3.5 times more sensitivity than CaSO4:Dy, when irradiated with carbon ion beam. The change in glow peak intensities and glow peak temperature with variation in irradiation species and energy of ion beam is discussed here. The effect of these on trapping parameters is also illustrated.

  5. Highly sensitive thermal actuators for temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, H.; Hortschitz, W.; Stifter, M.; Keplinger, F.; Sauter, T.

    2013-05-01

    A thermal actuator based on two symmetrical V-shaped beam stacks (also called chevron-type) is presented. Each beam stack consists of 6 beams in parallel. The stacks are coupled facing each other and are slightly shifted along the mirror axis. Both stacks are connected to a lever beam. Due to the thermal expansion of the material, the tip of the lever moves up and downwards perpendicular to the mirror axis. The device is built up of galvanic deposited nickel. Finite element simulations were carried out for design considerations prior to the manufacturing of the device. The simulations were used to optimize the design regarding to the sensitivity and the maximum mechanical stress to be expected. The stress level needs to be lower than the yield strength of the material, to prevent plastic deformation and, therefore, irreversible tip defections. This also limits the overall sensitivity of the design. First results of the device with 400 µm long bent beams show a linear behavior and a sensitivity of 0.5 ?m/K and expectable forces of 66 ?N/K in a temperature range of -30°C up to +40°C.

  6. High sensitivity leak detection method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapatic R. (Grafton, VA)

    1994-01-01

    An improved leak detection method is provided that utilizes the cyclic adsorption and desorption of accumulated helium on a non-porous metallic surface. The method provides reliable leak detection at superfluid helium temperatures. The zero drift that is associated with residual gas analyzers in common leak detectors is virtually eliminated by utilizing a time integration technique. The sensitivity of the apparatus of this disclosure is capable of detecting leaks as small as 1.times.10.sup.-18 atm cc sec.sup.-1.

  7. High sensitivity leak detection method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.

    1994-09-06

    An improved leak detection method is provided that utilizes the cyclic adsorption and desorption of accumulated helium on a non-porous metallic surface. The method provides reliable leak detection at superfluid helium temperatures. The zero drift that is associated with residual gas analyzers in common leak detectors is virtually eliminated by utilizing a time integration technique. The sensitivity of the apparatus of this disclosure is capable of detecting leaks as small as 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]18] atm cc sec[sup [minus]1]. 2 figs.

  8. NEW COLOR FILTER ARRAYS OF HIGH LIGHT SENSITIVITY AND HIGH DEMOSAICKING PERFORMANCE

    E-print Network

    Hao, Pengwei

    NEW COLOR FILTER ARRAYS OF HIGH LIGHT SENSITIVITY AND HIGH DEMOSAICKING PERFORMANCE Jue Wang1 E1 4NS, U.K. chzhang@cis.pku.edu.cn, phao@eecs.qmul.ac.uk ABSTRACT For high light sensitivity, new in this work a set of new color filter arrays (CFA) of high light sensitivity and high demosaicking performance

  9. High-sensitivity photoacoustic leak testing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eric; Dowling, David R; Whelan, Timothy; Spiesberger, John L

    2003-10-01

    The photoacoustic effect may be exploited for the detection and localization of gas leaks from otherwise sealed components. The technique involves filling the test component with a tracer gas, and radiating the component to produce photoacoustic sound from any leak site where tracer gas is present. This paper describes demonstration experiments utilizing 10.6-micro radiation from a carbon-dioxide laser and sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer gas for photoacoustic leak testing at leak rates between 6 x 10(-5) cm3/s (1 cm3 in 4.6 h) and 5 x 10(-9) cm3/s (1 cm3 in 6.3 years). The technique may reach or exceed the capabilities of the most sensitive commercial leak test systems using helium mass-spectrometers. In addition, comparison of the measured results to a simple scaling law suggests that tracer gas cloud geometry influences the photoacoustic signal amplitude. PMID:14587593

  10. Linearization strategies for high sensitivity magnetoresistive sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Ana V.; Leitao, Diana C.; Valadeiro, João; Amaral, José; Freitas, Paulo P.; Cardoso, Susana

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasensitive magnetic field sensors envisaged for applications on biomedical imaging require the detection of low-intensity and low-frequency signals. Therefore linear magnetic sensors with enhanced sensitivity low noise levels and improved field detection at low operating frequencies are necessary. Suitable devices can be designed using magnetoresistive sensors, with room temperature operation, adjustable detected field range, CMOS compatibility and cost-effective production. The advent of spintronics set the path to the technological revolution boosted by the storage industry, in particular by the development of read heads using magnetoresistive devices. New multilayered structures were engineered to yield devices with linear output. We present a detailed study of the key factors influencing MR sensor performance (materials, geometries and layout strategies) with focus on different linearization strategies available. Furthermore strategies to improve sensor detection levels are also addressed with best reported values of ˜40 pT/?Hz at 30 Hz, representing a step forward the low field detection at room temperature.

  11. High climate sensitivity during an ancient greenhouse

    E-print Network

    methane fluxes from polar swamps lead to formation of polar stratospheric clouds (Sloan et al. 1992 Nature to warm, ice-free ocean) leads to more stratospheric clouds (Abbot & Tziperman 2008 GRL)p ( p ) ­ Elevated:776-779) #12;Task: how to warm the high latitudes · Clouds ­ More vigorous high-latitude convection (due

  12. New Color Filter Arrays of High Light Sensitivity and High Demosaicking

    E-print Network

    Hao, Pengwei

    New Color Filter Arrays of High Light Sensitivity and High Demosaicking Performance Jue Wang1, Chao & Dubois (better demosaicking, 2011) #12;Kodak's CFA2.0 · Second generation CFA for high-light sensitivity;Constraints for High Light Sensitivity · Some pixels are prescribed as unfiltered pixels, aka panchromatic

  13. Highly sensitive chemical detection in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2010-11-10

    Optical sensing methods, in particular infrared absorption spectroscopy combined with quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), are highly suited for the detection of chemicals since they enable rapid detection and are amenable for autonomous operation in a compact and rugged package.

  14. Simultaneous quantification of seven plasma metabolites of sulfur mustard by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunzheng; Chen, Jia; Liu, Qin; Xie, Jianwei; Li, Hua

    2013-02-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a hazardous chemical warfare agent that has been used in several military conflicts. SM is also considered as a major threat to civilians because of its existing stockpiles and easy production. Analysis of exposure biomarkers in biological samples collected from suspected victims is a useful tool for early diagnosis of SM poisoning. In this study, a sensitive and rapid quantitative method with ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of seven SM plasma biomarkers, including its oxidative, hydrolysis and ?-lyase metabolites. A simple one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile-methanol (4:1) was used for sample preparation. A full validation was conducted with respect to specificity, linearity, recovery, matrix effect, precision, accuracy and stability. The lower limits of quantification for the seven metabolites ranged from 0.01?gL(-1) to 5?gL(-1). The intraday relative standard deviation was less than 7.0%, and the interday deviation was less than 9.1%. The recoveries varied in the range from 82.8% to 118%. This method has been successfully applied to a toxicokinetic study for obtaining the plasma profiles of seven metabolites in SM-exposed rats, following a single subcutaneous dose of 3.3mgkg(-1). All the targeted compounds were detected in rat plasma. bis-?-Chloroethyl sulfoxide (SMO), thiodiglycol (TDG), thiodiglycol sulfoxide (TDGO), 1,1'-sulfonylbis-[2-S-(N-acetylcysteinyl)ethane (SBSNAE), 1,1'-sulfonylbis-[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethane] (SBMSE) and 1-methylsulfinyl-2-[2-(methylthio)ethylsulfonyl]ethane (MSMTESE) were found to be the major metabolites in rat plasma. The time windows for the detection of these metabolites were varied in the range of 5min to 48h after exposure. The method provides a useful tool for short-term diagnosis of SM poisoning. PMID:23369883

  15. Development of a high sensitivity accelerometer for the Mica platform.

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., Billie F.

    Development of a high sensitivity accelerometer for the Mica platform. RUIZ-SANDOVAL Manuel of the computation to be done locally on the sensor's embedded microprocessor. The Mica Mote platform, along

  16. Fabrication of sensitive high Tc bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahum, Michael; Verghese, S.; Hu, Qing; Richards, Paul L.; Char, K.; Newman, N.; Sachtjen, Scott A.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid change of resistance with temperature of high quality films of high T sub c superconductors can be used to make resistance thermometers with very low temperature noise. Measurements on c-axis yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) films have given a spectral intensity of temperature noise less than 4 times 10(exp -8) K/Hz(exp 1/2) at 10 Hz. Consequently, the opportunity exists to make useful bolometric infrared detectors that operate near 90 K which can be cooled with liquid nitrogen. The fabrication and measurement of two bolometer architectures are discussed. The first is a conventional bolometer which consists of a 3000 A thick YBCO film deposited in situ by laser ablation on top of a 500 A thick SrTiO3 thickness and diced into 1x1 mm(exp 2) bolometer chips. Gold black smoke was used as the radiation absorber. The voltage noise was less than the amplifier noise when the film was current biased. Optical measurements gave an NEP of 5 times 10(exp -11) W/Hz(exp 1/2) at 10 Hz. The second architecture is that of an antenna-coupled microbolometer which consists of a small (5x10 cubic microns) YBCO film deposited directly on a bulk substrate with a low thermal conductance (YSZ) and an impedance matched planar lithographed spiral or log-periodic antenna. This structure is produced by standard photolithographic techniques. Measurements gave an electrical NEP of 4.7 times 10(exp -12) W/Hz(exp 1/2) at 10 kHz. Measurements of the optical efficiency are in progress. The measured performance of both bolometers will be compared to other detectors operating at or above liquid nitrogen temperatures so as to identify potential applications.

  17. A high-sensitivity, position-sensitive fission chamber for subcriticality measurements of spent fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. A.; Mihalczo, J. T.; Ricker, C. W.; Glesius, F. L.; Kniss, T. A.

    1990-12-01

    A high-sensitivity fission counter has been developed for subcriticality measurements by the 252Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method which requires two neutron counter channels. Performance specifications were provided by ORNL for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel configurations where multiplication factors ( k-values) could be as low as 0.85. A 3 × 3 array of 2 in. diameter, 8 ft long counters, fits into storage rack positions occupied by LWR fuel elements. Each counter consists of eight sensitive sections that contain a total of ˜18 g of 235U. Transmission-line technology is used to minimize capacitances and thus provides broad bandwidths. Each event in the fission counter produces two current pulses propagating in opposite directions on the transmission line. The differences in arrival times of the pulses at the ends of a counter determine the positions of the fission events. Tests on two fission counters show that each counter has a sensitivity of 12.5 cps/nv th and a position sensitivity with 1 ft resolution. Detection efficiency estimates for spent LWR fuel configurations indicate that, using two fission counters, subcriticality measurements can be made down to a k-value of 0.80: for two 3 × 3 counter arrays, to a k-value of 0.65. The 3 × 3 counter array or a single counter can be used in applications other than subcriticality measurements where position sensitivity, high sensitivity, and operability in high gamma fields are performance requirements.

  18. [Determination of 12 flavonoids in tobacco leaves using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Lin, Qian; Pang, Tao; Shi, Junli

    2015-07-01

    Flavonoids are very important secondary metabolites for tobacco plants. They are also considered as important flavor precursors for cigarettes. A method of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of 12 flavonoids in tobacco leaves. The developed method determined 10 more flavonoids compared to the traditional method. A solution of methanol-water-chloroform (5:2:2, v/v/v) was used to extract the flavonoids from tobacco leaves and remove the pigment. Instrument analysis using the UPLC-MS/MS was completed in 13 min. The method validation was performed, and the results showed that the linear correlation coefficients (r2) of all the 12 flavonoids were more than 0.99. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0.3-100 ?g/L and 1.2-400 ?g/L, respectively. Intra-day and Inter-day reproducibilities were in the range of 3.5%-7.4% and 5.2%-11.4%, respectively. The recoveries were 81.2%-111.9%. The established method was successfully used to analyze the flavonoids of tobacco leaves of 11 varieties. Significant concentration differences of the flavonoids were found among the determined varieties. Furthermore, significant positive correlation among the flavonoids with similar chemical structures (aglycones and their related glycosides, glycosides with the same aglycone, and similar aglycones) was found using the acquired data. PMID:26672204

  19. Porous silicon ring resonator for compact, high sensitivity biosensing applications

    E-print Network

    Porous silicon ring resonator for compact, high sensitivity biosensing applications Gilberto A resonator is patterned on a porous silicon slab waveguide to produce a compact, high quality factor mode. Quality factors near 10,000 were measured for porous silicon ring resonators with a radius of 25

  20. Highly sensitive temperature sensor based on D-shaped microfiber with high birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haipeng; Sun, Qizhen; Xu, Zhilin; Jia, Weihua; Liu, Deming

    2014-05-01

    A high sensitive temperature sensor based on D-shaped microfiber with high birefringence is proposed and demonstrated. In order to obtain D-shaped microfiber, we polish a single mode fiber (SMF) and then taper down the polished region into micrometer size. By utilizing Sagnac loop interferometer, we achieve high refractive index (RI) sensitivity of 9951nm/RIU. Further, we realize temperature detection assisted by sucrose solution with high thermo-optic coefficient. Experimental results demonstrate high temperature sensitivity up to -0.98921nm/°C within the range of 22°C-60°C. The sensor is featured with high sensitivity, compact structure and easy fabrication.

  1. Highly sensitive optical microresonator sensors for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Taylor, Alaric; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Zhang, Edward; Beard, Paul

    2014-03-01

    We present novel concave Fabry Perot (FP) sensor arrays for photoacoustic imaging which were fabricated using a high-precision inkjet printing approach to produce the cavity and employed physical vapor deposition to form the dielectric mirrors. Our concave FP cavity design provides excellent beam confinement within the cavity enabling high finesse and thus high sensitivity to be achieved. Two such concave sensors are evaluated in terms of their sensitivity and acoustic bandwidth. A 66 ?m thick concave sensor is shown to provide a noise equivalent pressure (NEP) of 85 Pa and an acoustic bandwidth of 16 MHz, and can potentially be used as a sensitive broadband sensor for superficial imaging. A 250 ?m thick sensor with an NEP of 12 Pa and acoustic bandwidth of 4 MHz was also developed for deep tissue imaging applications.

  2. Antibody-free ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry measurement of angiotensin I and II using magnetic epitope-imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Yu, Zerong; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da; Luo, Xiaoyan; Peng, Rongfei; Tang, Youwen

    2015-09-11

    The major challenges in measuring plasma renin activity (PRA) stem from the complexity of biological matrix, as well as from the instability and low circulating concentration of angiotensin. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) based technique has been developed for the measurement of angiotensin using magnetically imprinted polymers for simultaneous enrichment of the precursor peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) and the upstream peptide precursor angiotensin I (Ang I). This technique involved surface graft imprinting in aqueous solutions using vinyl-modified nano-iron oxide as solid supports, the specificity determinant of Ang I and Ang II as the epitope, and methacrylic acid and N-t-butylacrylamide as functional monomers. The vinyl-modified nano-iron oxide acted as a magnetic separation media, and the molecularly imprinted shell provided analyte selectivity for the recognition of Ang I and Ang II. Selective enrichment of Ang I and Ang II was accomplished by the magnetically imprinted polymers, followed by a magnetic separation procedure and subsequent quantification by UPLC-MS/MS in the positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Through the latter protocol, a low limit of detection could be realized, viz. 0.07ng/mL and 0.06ng/mL for Ang I and II, respectively, which was thoroughly validated for accuracy and reproducibility through analyzing Ang I and Ang II in human plasma samples. PMID:26256923

  3. High-resist sensitization by pattern and flood combination lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Enomoto, Satoshi; Dinh, C. Q.

    2014-04-01

    In EUV lithography (EUVL), the most critical issue has been low intensity of the EUV light source. Light-source intensity and resist sensitivity have a complementary relationship. Therefore, the sensitization of EUV resist is very important to compensate the low intensity of the EUV light source. However, dramatically improving the resist sensitivity of chemically amplified resist (CAR) is very difficult because of the resolution/line-width roughness/sensitivity (RLS) trade-off. Therefore, we propose a very new process: high resist sensitization by the combination lithography of EUV or EB pattern exposure with UV flood exposure (PF combination lithography) of photosensitized chemically amplified resist (PS-CAR). The combination lithography of EB pattern exposure with UV flood exposure achieved a sensitivity enhancement of more than a factor of 10 with respect to conventional EB single-exposure lithography, without loss in space resolution of line/space of 75 nm1. The breakthrough of RLS trade-off by PF combination lithography of PS-CAR is explained based on RLS trade-off simulation method2 and acid generation mechanism of PF combination lithography of PS-CAR. One of the problems of the PF combination lithography of PS-CAR is postexposure delay (PED) effects suffered from airborne contamination. The present paper describes forming of 75 nm contact hole and PED effects in the PF combination lithography of PS-CAR. The sensitization of EUV resists by new method accelerates EUVL implementation.

  4. Analytical Glycobiology at High Sensitivity: Current Approaches and Directions

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Milos V.; Alley, William R.; Mann, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the analytical advances made during the last several years in the structural and quantitative determinations of glycoproteins in complex biological mixtures. The main analytical techniques used in the fields of glycomics and glycoproteomics involve different modes of mass spectrometry and their combinations with capillary separation methods such as microcolumn liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The needs for high-sensitivity measurements have been emphasized in the oligosaccharide profiling used in the field of biomarker discovery through MALDI mass spectrometry. High-sensitivity profiling of both glycans and glycopeptides from biological fluids and tissue extracts has been aided significantly through lectin preconcentration and the uses of affinity chromatography. PMID:22945852

  5. A high sensitivity position-sensitive detector based on Au-SiO2-Si structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Liming; Zhu, Pengfei; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xiaoan; Li, Xiangting

    2011-01-01

    A novel position-sensitive detector (PSD) based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure, which is simply fabricated by an n-type Si substrate, a thin native SiO2 layer and an Au film, is reported in this work. This detector shows a large lateral photovoltage (LPV) with high sensitivity and good linearity. Furthermore, the LPV of this structure greatly depends on the incident angle of the light, suggesting some extra potential for the development of new types of waveguide-like devices.

  6. High-resolution High-Sensitivity Electron Imager Schematic diagram of the electron

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    and various large-aperture imaging lenses. When using optics at unit magnification, the system has resolvedHigh-resolution High-Sensitivity Electron Imager Schematic diagram of the electron imaging system to directly image the distribution of electron-emitting isotopes at very high resolution and sensitivity

  7. A highly conjugated benzimidazole carbene-based ruthenium sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Yu; Su, Chaochin; Li, Chung-Yen; Prabakaran, Kumaresan; Shen, Ming-Tai; Chen, Ying-Fan; Chang, Wei-Chun; Tingare, Yogesh S; Akula, Suribabu; Tsai, Sheng-Han; Li, Wen-Ren

    2013-09-01

    A new type of carbene-based ruthenium sensitizer, CB104, with a highly conjugated ancillary ligand, diphenylvinylthiophene-substituted benzimidazolepyridine, was designed and developed for dye-sensitized solar cell applications. The influence of the thiophene antenna on the performance of the cell anchored with CB104 was investigated. Compared with the dye CBTR, the conjugated thiophene in the ancillary ligand of CB104 enhanced the molar extinction coefficient of the intraligand ?-?* transition and the intensity of the lower energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer band. However, the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectrum of the cell anchored with CB104 (0.15?mM) showed a maximum of 63?% at 420?nm. The cell sensitized with the dye CB104 attained a power conversion efficiency of 7.30?%, which was lower than that of the cell with nonconjugated sensitizer CBTR (8.92?%) under the same fabrication conditions. The variation in the performance of these two dyes demonstrated that elongating the conjugated light-harvesting antenna resulted in the reduction of short-circuit photocurrent density, which might have been due to the aggregation of dye molecules. In the presence of a coabsorbate, chenodeoxycholic acid, the CB104-sensitized cell exhibited an enhanced photocurrent density and achieved a photovoltaic efficiency of 8.36?%. PMID:23832840

  8. High-sensitivity diamond magnetometer with nanoscale resolution

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    ARTICLES High-sensitivity diamond magnetometer with nanoscale resolution J. M. TAYLOR1 *, P magnetometer that could potentially detect precession of single nuclear spins and an optical magnetic approach are closely related to those of magnetometers based on spin precession in atomic vapours

  9. HIGHLY SENSITIVE BIOASSAYS FOR EVALUATING AIRBORNE MUTAGENS INDOORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard mutagenicity bioassays that are readily applied to the valuation of outdoor air samples collected by high volume samplers are not efficiently sensitive to measure the mutagenicity of low volume air samples collected indoors. wo microsuspension mutation assays using v...

  10. A high sensitivity inductive sensor for blade tip clearance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Zhe, Jiang

    2014-06-01

    A multiplexed inductive sensor consisting of multiple mini-sized planar spiral coils for detecting multiple tip clearances of rotor blades is presented. The sensor measures the tip clearances by monitoring the inductance changes of planar spiral coils caused by the passage of the rotor blades. A resonance frequency division multiplexing technique and parallel LC resonance measurement were applied to the multiple sensor coils, making it feasible to measure multiple tip clearances using only one set of measurement electronics with high sensitivity and resolution. The results from tests conducted on a bench-top test rig have demonstrated that the sensor is capable of simultaneously measuring multiple tip clearances from 0 to 5 mm with a 10 ?m resolution at a high rotary speed up to 80?000 RPM. With its high resolution, high sensitivity and capability of monitoring a large number of tip clearances simultaneously, this sensor can potentially be used for advanced active tip clearance control in turbine machinery.

  11. Microelectromechanical Resonant Accelerometer Designed with a High Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Su, Yan; Shi, Qin; Qiu, An-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and experimental evaluation of a silicon micro-machined resonant accelerometer (SMRA). This type of accelerometer works on the principle that a proof mass under acceleration applies force to two double-ended tuning fork (DETF) resonators, and the frequency output of two DETFs exhibits a differential shift. The dies of an SMRA are fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) processing and wafer-level vacuum packaging. This research aims to design a high-sensitivity SMRA because a high sensitivity allows for the acceleration signal to be easily demodulated by frequency counting techniques and decreases the noise level. This study applies the energy-consumed concept and the Nelder-Mead algorithm in the SMRA to address the design issues and further increase its sensitivity. Using this novel method, the sensitivity of the SMRA has been increased by 66.1%, which attributes to both the re-designed DETF and the reduced energy loss on the micro-lever. The results of both the closed-form and finite-element analyses are described and are in agreement with one another. A resonant frequency of approximately 22 kHz, a frequency sensitivity of over 250 Hz per g, a one-hour bias stability of 55 ?g, a bias repeatability (1?) of 48 ?g and the bias-instability of 4.8 ?g have been achieved. PMID:26633425

  12. NK sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells determined by a highly sensitive coupled luminescent method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogbomo, Henry; Hahn, Anke; Geiler, Janina; Michaelis, Martin; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich . E-mail: Cinatl@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2006-01-06

    The measurement of natural killer (NK) cells toxicity against tumor or virus-infected cells especially in cases with small blood samples requires highly sensitive methods. Here, a coupled luminescent method (CLM) based on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase release from injured target cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of interleukin-2 activated NK cells against neuroblastoma cell lines. In contrast to most other methods, CLM does not require the pretreatment of target cells with labeling substances which could be toxic or radioactive. The effective killing of tumor cells was achieved by low effector/target ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1. CLM provides highly sensitive, safe, and fast procedure for measurement of NK cell activity with small blood samples such as those obtained from pediatric patients.

  13. Highly mass-sensitive thin film plate acoustic resonators (FPAR).

    PubMed

    Arapan, Lilia; Alexieva, Gergana; Avramov, Ivan D; Radeva, Ekaterina; Strashilov, Vesseline; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2011-01-01

    The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN) film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO)-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented. PMID:22163994

  14. Highly Mass-Sensitive Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators (FPAR)

    PubMed Central

    Arapan, Lilia; Alexieva, Gergana; Avramov, Ivan D.; Radeva, Ekaterina; Strashilov, Vesseline; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2011-01-01

    The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN) film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO)-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented. PMID:22163994

  15. Porous silicon ring resonator for compact, high sensitivity biosensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A.; Hu, Shuren; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    A ring resonator is patterned on a porous silicon slab waveguide to produce a compact, high quality factor biosensor with a large internal surface area available for enhanced recognition of biological and chemical molecules. The porous nature of the ring resonator allows molecules to directly interact with the guided mode. Quality factors near 10,000 were measured for porous silicon ring resonators with a radius of 25 ?m. A bulk detection sensitivity of 380 nm/RIU was measured upon exposure to salt water solutions. Specific detection of nucleic acid molecules was demonstrated with a surface detection sensitivity of 4 pm/nM.

  16. High-sensitivity, high-speed continuous imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Scott A; Bender, III, Howard A

    2014-11-18

    A continuous imaging system for recording low levels of light typically extending over small distances with high-frame rates and with a large number of frames is described. Photodiode pixels disposed in an array having a chosen geometry, each pixel having a dedicated amplifier, analog-to-digital convertor, and memory, provide parallel operation of the system. When combined with a plurality of scintillators responsive to a selected source of radiation, in a scintillator array, the light from each scintillator being directed to a single corresponding photodiode in close proximity or lens-coupled thereto, embodiments of the present imaging system may provide images of x-ray, gamma ray, proton, and neutron sources with high efficiency.

  17. A novel high-sensitivity FBG pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhenhua; Fu, Tao; Leng, Jinsong

    2007-07-01

    A novel pressure sensor based on FBG is designed in this paper. Not only in normal environment, also does it accurately work in water and petrol where other conventional sensors can not work normally. In this paper, the principle of the novel sensor is introduced, and two experiments are further performed: One is keeping the sensor flatly in the gastight silo whose pressure is supplied by an air compressing engine, and the other one is keeping the sensor in liquid. The analysis of the result data demonstrates that the sensor possesses high sensitivity, high linearity, high precision and repeatability. Its experimental linearity and sensitivity approach 0.99858 and 5.35×10 -3MPa -1, respectively. It is also discussed using the sensor to measure the volume in tank.

  18. High-sensitivity linear piezoresistive transduction for nanomechanical beam resonators.

    PubMed

    Sansa, Marc; Fernández-Regúlez, Marta; Llobet, Jordi; San Paulo, Álvaro; Pérez-Murano, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Highly sensitive conversion of motion into readable electrical signals is a crucial and challenging issue for nanomechanical resonators. Efficient transduction is particularly difficult to realize in devices of low dimensionality, such as beam resonators based on carbon nanotubes or silicon nanowires, where mechanical vibrations combine very high frequencies with miniscule amplitudes. Here we describe an enhanced piezoresistive transduction mechanism based on the asymmetry of the beam shape at rest. We show that this mechanism enables highly sensitive linear detection of the vibration of low-resistivity silicon beams without the need of exceptionally large piezoresistive coefficients. The general application of this effect is demonstrated by detecting multiple-order modes of silicon nanowire resonators made by either top-down or bottom-up fabrication methods. These results reveal a promising approach for practical applications of the simplest mechanical resonators, facilitating its manufacturability by very large-scale integration technologies. PMID:25000256

  19. Highly sensitive arrayed indium-antimony nanowires for infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Chun; Chen, Chien-Chon; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Chou, Chung-Yi; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to achieve a high sensitive infrared detector by fabricating highly ordered array of indium-antimony (In-Sb) nanowires which is a semiconductor material. The approach is to investigate an infrared detector with arrayed nanowires which can transport signals in one dimension to obtain high efficiency and sensitivity compared with In-Sb by using traditional thin film fabrications. This research expects to provide an infrared detector by fabricating III-V alloy nanowires to highly improve the resolution of infrared signal. To develop scaled-up functional devices, highly ordered nanowire arrays are essential building blocks. Many candidate materials (metals, alloys, oxides and semiconductors) have been studied for various potential applications in nanotechnology and have shown some promising results. The solid metallic nanowires have been exploited for a wide range of applications to take the advantages of their large length/diameter aspect ratio. Further development to synthesize nanowires efficiently at lower cost is the direction for manufacturing next generation nanodevices. In this study, various diameters of ordering nanowires, from 10 nm to 500 nm, were fabricated and evaluated the performance of the sensitivity of infrared detection. Moreover, a 1 inch plate, which can be regarded as a device, with nanowires array was fabricated by designing a new type of processing chamber.

  20. Crocodylus niloticus (Crocodilia) is highly sensitive to water surface waves.

    PubMed

    Grap, Nadja J; Monzel, Anna S; Kohl, Tobias; Bleckmann, Horst

    2015-10-01

    Crocodiles show oriented responses to water surface wave stimuli but up to now behavioral thresholds are missing. This study determines the behavioral thresholds of crocodilians to water surface waves. Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) were conditioned to respond to single-frequency water surface wave stimuli (duration 1150 ms, frequency 15, 30, 40, 60 and 80 Hz), produced by blowing air onto the water surface. Our study shows that C. niloticus is highly sensitive to capillary water surface waves. Threshold values decreased with increasing frequency and ranged between 10.3 ?m (15 Hz) and 0.5 ?m (80 Hz) peak-to-peak wave amplitude. For the frequencies 15 Hz and 30 Hz the sensitivity of one spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) to water surface waves was also tested. Threshold values were 12.8 ?m (15 Hz) down to 1.76 ?m (30 Hz), i.e. close to the threshold values of C. niloticus. The surface wave sensitivity of crocodiles is similar to the surface wave sensitivity of semi-aquatic insects and fishing spiders but does not match the sensitivity of surface-feeding fishes which is higher by one to two orders of magnitude. PMID:26153334

  1. High-sensitivity three-mode optomechanical transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Fang, Q.; Susmithan, S.; Miao, H.; Ju, L.; Fan, Y.; Blair, D.; Hosken, D. J.; Munch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.

    2011-12-15

    Three-mode optomechanical interactions have been predicted to allow the creation of very high sensitivity transducers in which very strong optical self-cooling and strong optomechanical quantum entanglement are predicted. Strong coupling is achieved by engineering a transducer in which both the pump laser and a single signal sideband frequency are resonantly enhanced. Here we demonstrate that very high sensitivity can be achieved in a very simple system consisting of a Fabry-Perot cavity with CO{sub 2} laser thermal tuning. We demonstrate a displacement sensitivity of {approx}1x10{sup -17} m/{radical}(Hz), which is sufficient to observe a thermally excited acoustic mode in a 5.6 kg sapphire mirror with a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 20 dB. It is shown that a measurement sensitivity of {approx}2x10{sup -20} m/{radical}(Hz) limited by the quantum shot noise is achievable with optimization of the cavity parameters.

  2. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with Unprecedentedly High Photocurrent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Shin, Hee-Won; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Ko, Min Jae; Sul, Soohwan; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The reported photocurrent density (JSC) of PbS quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell was less than 19 mA/cm2 despite the capability to generate 38?mA/cm2, which results from inefficient electron injection and fast charge recombination. Here, we report on a PbS:Hg QD-sensitized solar cell with an unprecedentedly high JSC of 30?mA/cm2. By Hg2+ doping into PbS, JSC is almost doubled with improved stability. Femtosecond transient study confirms that the improved JSC is due to enhanced electron injection and suppressed charge recombination. EXAFS reveals that Pb-S bond is reinforced and structural disorder is reduced by interstitially incorporated Hg2+, which is responsible for the enhanced electron injection, suppressed recombination and stability. Thanks to the extremely high JSC, power conversion efficiency of 5.6% is demonstrated at one sun illumination. PMID:23308343

  3. Compact Tb doped fiber optic current sensor with high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Duanni; Srinivasan, Sudharsanan; Bowers, John E

    2015-11-16

    A highly sensitive fiber optic current sensor using terbium doped fiber is presented. The Verdet constant of the terbium doped fiber at 1300nm is found to be 19.5?rad/A using both a polarimetric and interferometric type sensor. Measurements on a Sagnac-loop sensor using 10cm of terbium doped fiber placed inside a solenoid show over 40dB of open loop dynamic range as well as a minimum detectable current of 0.1mA. Extrapolations of our measurements show that in a practical setup with Tb fiber wrapped around a current carrying wire, the optimal configuration is a 0.5m piece of Tb fiber with a noise limit of 22mA/?Hz. This sensor is promising for current sensing applications that require high sensitivity and small size, weight, and power. PMID:26698480

  4. Development of High Sensitivity Nuclear Emulsion and Fine Grained Emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, H.; Asada, T.; Naka, T.; Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a particle detector having high spacial resolution and angular resolution. It became useful for large statistics experiment thanks to the development of automatic scanning system. In 2010, a facility for emulsion production was introduced and R&D of nuclear emulsion began at Nagoya university. In this paper, we present results of development of the high sensitivity emulsion and fine grained emulsion for dark matter search experiment. Improvement of sensitivity is achieved by raising density of silver halide crystals and doping well-adjusted amount of chemicals. Production of fine grained emulsion was difficult because of unexpected crystal condensation. By mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to gelatin as a binder, we succeeded in making a stable fine grained emulsion.

  5. Sensitivity to Envelope Interaural Time Differences at High Modulation Rates.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Jessica J M; Bleeck, Stefan; McAlpine, David

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITDs) conveyed in the temporal fine structure of low-frequency tones and the modulated envelopes of high-frequency sounds are considered comparable, particularly for envelopes shaped to transmit similar fidelity of temporal information normally present for low-frequency sounds. Nevertheless, discrimination performance for envelope modulation rates above a few hundred Hertz is reported to be poor-to the point of discrimination thresholds being unattainable-compared with the much higher (>1,000?Hz) limit for low-frequency ITD sensitivity, suggesting the presence of a low-pass filter in the envelope domain. Further, performance for identical modulation rates appears to decline with increasing carrier frequency, supporting the view that the low-pass characteristics observed for envelope ITD processing is carrier-frequency dependent. Here, we assessed listeners' sensitivity to ITDs conveyed in pure tones and in the modulated envelopes of high-frequency tones. ITD discrimination for the modulated high-frequency tones was measured as a function of both modulation rate and carrier frequency. Some well-trained listeners appear able to discriminate ITDs extremely well, even at modulation rates well beyond 500?Hz, for 4-kHz carriers. For one listener, thresholds were even obtained for a modulation rate of 800?Hz. The highest modulation rate for which thresholds could be obtained declined with increasing carrier frequency for all listeners. At 10?kHz, the highest modulation rate at which thresholds could be obtained was 600?Hz. The upper limit of sensitivity to ITDs conveyed in the envelope of high-frequency modulated sounds appears to be higher than previously considered. PMID:26721926

  6. Structural Glycomic Analyses at High Sensitivity: A Decade of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Alley, William R.; Novotny, Milos V.

    2014-01-01

    The field of glycomics has recently advanced in response to the urgent need for structural characterization and quantification of complex carbohydrates in biologically and medically important applications. The recent success of analytical glycobiology at high sensitivity reflects numerous advances in biomolecular mass spectrometry and its instrumentation, capillary and microchip separation techniques, and microchemical manipulations of carbohydrate reactivity. The multimethodological approach appears to be necessary to gain an in-depth understanding of very complex glycomes in different biological systems. PMID:23560930

  7. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1981-03-05

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  8. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Bernard M. (Oak Park, IL); Miyano, Kenjiro (Downers Grove, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  9. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-11-08

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed. 5 figs.

  10. An early warning system for high climate sensitivity? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R.

    2010-12-01

    The scientific case for the clear and present danger of global warming has been unassailable at least since the release of the Charney Report more than thirty years ago, if not longer. While prompt action to begin decarbonizing energy systems could still head off much of the potential warming, it is distinctly possible that emissions will continue unabated in the coming decades, leading to a doubling or more of pre-industrial carbon dioxide concentrations. At present, we are in the unenviable position of not even knowing how bad things will get if this scenario comes to pass, because of the uncertainty in climate sensitivity. If climate sensitivity is high, then the consequences will be dire, perhaps even catastrophic. As the world continues to warm in response to continued carbon dioxide emissions, will we at least be able to monitor the climate and provide an early warning that the planet is on a high-sensitivity track, if such turns out to be the case? At what point will we actually know the climate sensitivity? It has long been recognized that the prime contributor to uncertainty in climate sensitivity is uncertainty in cloud feedbacks. Study of paleoclimate and climate of the past century has not been able to resolve which models do cloud feedback most correctly, because of uncertainties in radiative forcing. In this talk, I will discuss monitoring requirements, and analysis techniques, that might have the potential to determine which climate models most faithfully represent climate feedbacks, and thus determine which models provide the best estimate of climate sensitivity. The endeavor is complicated by the distinction between transient climate response and equilibrium climate sensitivity. I will discuss the particular challenges posed by this issue, particularly in light of recent indications that the pattern of ocean heat storage may lead to different cloud feedbacks in the transient warming stage than apply once the system has reached equilibrium. Apart from this problem, the transient nature of climate response driven by increasing CO2 requires careful monitoring of ocean heat storage as well as top-of-atmosphere radiative budgets, if climate sensitivity is to be estimated. Water vapor feedback is not considered as uncertain as cloud feedback, but there is still a considerable potential for surprises. I will discuss microwave monitoring requirements for tracking water vapor feedback. At the other extreme, the longer term feedbacks that contribute to Earth System Sensitivity are even more uncertain than cloud feedbacks, particularly with regard to the terrestrial carbon cycle. Prospects for obtaining an early warning of a PETM-type organic carbon release seem bleak. Finally, I will discuss the particular challenge of obtaining an early warning of high climate sensitivity in the case that the climate system has a bifurcation.

  11. A novel high-sensitivity electrostatic biased electric field sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing'ao; Wu, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaohong; Yan, Xiaojun; Lin, Liwei

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, an electric field sensor (EFS) with high sensitivity is proposed for low-frequency weak-strength ac electric field (E-field) measurements. The EFS is based on a piezoelectric cantilever biased by a strong electrostatic field. The electrostatic bias can enhance the electric field force of a weak ac E-field, thus the cantilever can oscillate in a weak ac E-field and the device sensitivity improves. Theoretical analyses have been established and suggest that a stronger strength of electrostatic field bias would produce a higher sensitivity improvement. In the experiment, a demonstrated sensor consisting of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric cantilever and a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) electret was built and tested. Instead of extra voltage sources, the PTFE electret was charged to provide the electrostatic field, allowing the EFS a low energy consumption and a simple electric circuit design. The experiment results show good agreement with the simulation. The sensitivity of the cantilever E-field sensor reached 0.84 mV (kV/m)-1 when the surface potential of the electret was??-770?V.

  12. High sensitive volumetric imaging of renal microcirculation in vivo using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Zhongwei; Jung, Yeongri; Jia, Yali; An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-03-01

    We present a non-invasive, label-free imaging technique called Ultrahigh Sensitive Optical Microangiography (UHSOMAG) for high sensitive volumetric imaging of renal microcirculation. The UHS-OMAG imaging system is based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), which uses a 47000 A-line scan rate CCD camera to perform an imaging speed of 150 frames per second that takes only ~7 seconds to acquire a 3D image. The technique, capable of measuring slow blood flow down to 4 um/s, is sensitive enough to image capillary networks, such as peritubular capillaries and glomerulus within renal cortex. We show superior performance of UHS-OMAG in providing depthresolved volumetric images of rich renal microcirculation. We monitored the dynamics of renal microvasculature during renal ischemia and reperfusion. Obvious reduction of renal microvascular density due to renal ischemia was visualized and quantitatively analyzed. This technique can be helpful for the assessment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which relates to abnormal microvasculature.

  13. Optimized Design of High Sensitivity Micromechanical Photon Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuqiang, Zhang; Daiwei, Den; Qiang, Wang

    2006-04-01

    With the rapid development of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology, uncooled micromechanical infrared detectors become available and attract more and more attention. This paper first deducts the theory of bilayer cantilever with different stress in each layer, and then applies it to the design of micromechanical photon detectors. This theory is somewhat different from the theory in many literatures because it is based on not surface stress but layer stress. With this theory, optimized design of micromechanical photon detectors can be performed, which includes both material choice and geometry determination. As an example, a high sensitivity silicon-based micromechanical photon detector is designed, which reaches a sensitivity of 47 times larger than conventional designs.

  14. Highly Sensitive Measurements of 222Rn Diffusion and Emanation

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzel, Grzegorz

    2005-09-08

    Highly sensitive techniques for determination of the 222Rn emanation from solids and diffusion through different membranes are presented. 222Rn and its daughters are measured via the alpha decays in special proportional counters at the absolute sensitivity of {approx}30 {mu}Bq. Radon diffusion can be measured at the level of {approx}10-13 cm2/s. Several samples were examined, e.g. stainless steel, teflon, various gaskets (emanation and diffusion measurements) and tanks. A combination of measurements of the 222Rn diffusion and emanation of thin nylon foils (used in the Borexino experiment) allowed the determination of 226Ra in the materials of interest at the level of {approx}10-12 g/g 238U-equivalent.

  15. High-sensitivity permeation measurements on flexible OLED substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzold, Ralph; Henseler, Debora; Heuser, Karsten; Cesari, Valentina; Sarfert, Wiebke; Wittmann, Georg; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2004-02-01

    We describe a novel method to measure permeation rates for oxidizing agents with very high sensitivity. The technique is based on monitoring the resistance of a degrading Ca sensor in situ, inside a climate chamber. A sensitivity limit below 10-6 g/m2 day is reported for accelerated measurement conditions of 38°C and 90% relative humidity. The benefits of the method are demonstrated for single- and double-sided barrier foils, and the temperature and humidity dependence of the transport through PET is analyzed in detail. The method is also applied to obtain permeation rates for a barrier-coated substrate after as well as during bending. Theoretical simulations are used to evaluate the influence of a defect-dominated transport mechanism on the experimental results and to model the time evolution of the concentration profile in a double-barrier stack. Implications for the development of barrier-enhanced substrates for flexible OLED applications are discussed.

  16. High derivatives for fast sensitivity analysis in linear magnetodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Petin, P.; Coulomb, J.L.; Conraux, P.

    1997-03-01

    In this article, the authors present a method of sensitivity analysis using high derivatives and Taylor development. The principle is to find a polynomial approximation of the finite elements solution towards the sensitivity parameters. While presenting the method, they explain why this method is applicable with special parameters only. They applied it on a magnetodynamic problem, simple enough to be able to find the analytical solution with a formal calculus tool. They then present the implementation and the good results obtained with the polynomial, first by comparing the derivatives themselves, then by comparing the approximate solution with the theoretical one. After this validation, the authors present results on a real 2D application and they underline the possibilities of reuse in other fields of physics.

  17. High Sensitivity MEMS Strain Sensor: Design and Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Ahmed A. S.; Moussa, Walied A.; Lou, Edmond

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we report on the new design of a miniaturized strain microsensor. The proposed sensor utilizes the piezoresistive properties of doped single crystal silicon. Employing the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, high sensor sensitivities and resolutions have been achieved. The current sensor design employs different levels of signal amplifications. These amplifications include geometric, material and electronic levels. The sensor and the electronic circuits can be integrated on a single chip, and packaged as a small functional unit. The sensor converts input strain to resistance change, which can be transformed to bridge imbalance voltage. An analog output that demonstrates high sensitivity (0.03mV/??), high absolute resolution (1??) and low power consumption (100?A) with a maximum range of ±4000?? has been reported. These performance characteristics have been achieved with high signal stability over a wide temperature range (±50°C), which introduces the proposed MEMS strain sensor as a strong candidate for wireless strain sensing applications under harsh environmental conditions. Moreover, this sensor has been designed, verified and can be easily modified to measure other values such as force, torque…etc. In this work, the sensor design is achieved using Finite Element Method (FEM) with the application of the piezoresistivity theory. This design process and the microfabrication process flow to prototype the design have been presented.

  18. Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrik, D.; Jakubek, J.; Pospisil, S.; Vacik, J.

    2014-01-15

    We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high ? and e{sup ?} radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 × 55 ?m{sup 2}) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin {sup 10}B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane) and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10{sup ?4}.

  19. High-sensitivity molecular organometallic resist for EUV (MORE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, James; Murphy, Michael; Del Re, Ryan; Sortland, Miriam; Dousharm, Levi; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed organometallic carboxylate compounds [RnM(O2CR')2] capable of acting as negativetone EUV resists. Overall, the best and fastest resists contain antimony, are pentavalent and the carboxylate group contains a polymerizable olefin (e.g. acrylate, methacrylate or styrenecarboxylate). Evidence suggests that high sensitivity is achieved through the polymerization of olefins in the exposed region. We have performed a systematic sensitivity study of molecules of the type RnM(O2CR')2 where we have studied seven R groups, four main group metals (M), and three polymerizable carboxylate groups (O2CR'). We found that the greatest predictor of sensitivity of the RnSb(O2CR')2 resists is their level of polymerizable olefins. We mathematically define the polymerizable olefin loading (POL) as the ratio of the number of olefins vs. the number of non-hydrogen atoms. Linear and log plots of Emax vs. POL for a variety of molecules of the type R3Sb(O2CR')2 lend insight into the behaviour of these resists.

  20. Highly sensitive electrochemiluminescent nanobiosensor for the detection of palytoxin.

    PubMed

    Zamolo, Valeria Anna; Valenti, Giovanni; Venturelli, Enrica; Chaloin, Olivier; Marcaccio, Massimo; Boscolo, Sabrina; Castagnola, Valentina; Sosa, Silvio; Berti, Federico; Fontanive, Giampaolo; Poli, Mark; Tubaro, Aurelia; Bianco, Alberto; Paolucci, Francesco; Prato, Maurizio

    2012-09-25

    Marine toxins appear to be increasing in many areas of the world. An emerging problem in the Mediterranean Sea is represented by palytoxin (PlTX), one of the most potent marine toxins, frequently detected in seafood. Due to the high potential for human toxicity of PlTX, there is a strong and urgent need for sensitive methods toward its detection and quantification. We have developed an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence-based sensor for the detection of PlTX, taking advantage of the specificity provided by anti-PlTX antibodies, the good conductive properties of carbon nanotubes, and the excellent sensitivity achieved by a luminescence-based transducer. The sensor was able to produce a concentration-dependent light signal, allowing PlTX quantification in mussels, with a limit of quantification (LOQ = 2.2 ?g/kg of mussel meat) more than 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive than that of the commonly used detection techniques, such as LC-MS/MS. PMID:22913785

  1. Piezoelectric rubber films for highly sensitive impact measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jhih-Jhe; Tsai, Jui-Wei; Su, Yu-Chuan

    2013-07-01

    We have successfully demonstrated the microfabrication of piezoelectric rubber films and their application in impact measurement. To realize the desired piezoelectricity and stretchability, cellular polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures with micrometer-sized voids are internally implanted with bipolar charges, which function as dipoles and respond promptly to electromechanical stimuli. In the prototype demonstration, 300 µm thick cellular PDMS films are fabricated and internally coated with a thin polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) layer to secure the implanted charges. Meanwhile, the top and bottom surfaces of the cellular PDMS films are deposited with stretchable gold electrodes. An electric field up to 35 MV m-1 is applied across the gold electrodes to ionize the air in the voids and to implant charges on the inner surfaces. The resulting composite structures behave like rubber (with an elastic modulus of about 300 kPa) and show strong piezoelectricity (with a piezoelectric coefficient d33 higher than 1000 pC N-1). While integrated with a wide bandwidth and large dynamic-range charge amplifier, highly sensitive impact measurement (with a stress sensitivity of about 10 mV Pa-1) is demonstrated. As such, the demonstrated piezoelectric rubber films could potentially serve as a sensitive electromechanical material for low-frequency stimuli, and fulfill the needs of a variety of physiological monitoring and wearable electronics applications.

  2. High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Statin Initiation.

    PubMed

    Trpkovic, Andreja; Stanimirovic, Julijana; Rizzo, Manfredi; Resanovic, Ivana; Soskic, Sanja; Jevremovic, Danimir; Isenovic, Esma R

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of cardiovascular risk and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are major public health issues worldwide. Inflammation is now recognized as a key regulatory process that links multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis. The substantial number of patients having cardiovascular events lack commonly established risk factors. The utility of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a circulating biomarker related to inflammation, may provide additional information in risk prediction. This review will consider the impact of hsCRP level on initiation of statin therapy. PMID:25053677

  3. High Sensitivity Torsion Balance Tests for LISA Proof Mass Modeling

    E-print Network

    S. Schlamminger; C. A. Hagedorn; M. G. Famulare; S. E. Pollack; J. H. Gundlach

    2007-02-08

    We have built a highly sensitive torsion balance to investigate small forces between closely spaced gold coated surfaces. Such forces will occur between the LISA proof mass and its housing. These forces are not well understood and experimental investigations are imperative. We describe our torsion balance and present the noise of the system. A significant contribution to the LISA noise budget at low frequencies is the fluctuation in the surface potential difference between the proof mass and its housing. We present first results of these measurements with our apparatus.

  4. The Georgia Tech High Sensitivity Microwave Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboer, David R.; Steffes, Paul G.

    1996-01-01

    As observations and models of the planets become increasingly more accurate and sophisticated, the need for highly accurate laboratory measurements of the microwave properties of the component gases present in their atmospheres become ever more critical. This paper describes the system that has been developed at Georgia Tech to make these measurements at wavelengths ranging from 13.3 cm to 1.38 cm with a sensitivity of 0.05 dB/km at the longest wavelength and 0.6 db/km at the shortest wavelength.

  5. High sensitivity charge amplifier for ion beam uniformity monitor

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  6. High Sensitivity Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection of Tryptophan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandakkathara, Archana

    Raman spectroscopy has the capability of providing detailed information about molecular structure, but the extremely small cross section of Raman scattering prevents this technique from applications requiring high sensitivity. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on the other hand provides strongly increased Raman signal from molecules attached to metallic nanostructures. SERS is thus a promising technique for high sensitivity analytical applications. One particular area of interest is the application of such techniques for the analysis of the composition of biological cells. However, there are issues which have to be addressed in order to make SERS a reliable technique such as the optimization of conditions for any given analyte, understanding the kinetic processes of binding of the target molecules to the nanostructures and understanding the evolution and coagulation of the nanostructures, in the case of colloidal solutions. The latter processes introduce a delay time for the observation of maximum enhancement factors which must be taken into account for any given implementation of SERS. In the present thesis the goal was to develop very sensitive SERS techniques for the measurement of biomolecules of interest for analysis of the contents of cells. The techniques explored could be eventually be applicable to microfluidic systems with the ultimate goal of analyzing the molecular constituents of single cells. SERS study of different amino acids and organic dyes were performed during the course of this thesis. A high sensitivity detection system based on SERS has been developed and spectrum from tryptophan (Trp) amino acid at very low concentration (10-8 M) has been detected. The concentration at which good quality SERS spectra could be detected from Trp is 4 orders of magnitude smaller than that previously reported in literature. It has shown that at such low concentrations the SERS spectra of Trp are qualitatively distinct from the spectra commonly reported in literature. These distinctions are attributed to the unique binding geometry of Trp molecules to the small silver nanoclusters at these low concentrations. Background electrolytes in the solution can have a significant role in SERS experiment as it helps in the binding of molecules to the metallic structures and stabilizes the colloid in some cases We performed a study of effects of different electrolytes and an optimization of electrolytes has been carried out, which leads to the high enhancement reported in this thesis. The SERS detection has also been performed in microfluidic and flow cell geometries which enable a combination of high sensitivity of the SERS with the low volume requirements of microfluidic devices. A Teflon AF capillary was used for performing liquid core waveguide (LCW) SERS measurements. With this geometry the enhancement obtained was about a factor of 10 compared to that from cuvette so the detection limit could be further decreased by a factor of 10 in LCW reaching 10 -9 - 10-10M for Trp amino acid. The enhanced sensitivity and better understanding of the optimum conditions for SERS developed in the thesis are important since they now could allow the possibility of assays of the chemical constituents of single cells in future microfluidic systems.

  7. ALMA: Millimeter/submillimeter Astronomy at high sensitivity and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootten, Alwyn; Corder, Stuartt Alan; Iono, Daisuke; Testi, Leonardo

    2015-08-01

    Vigorous and transformative investigation of the millimeter/submillimeter sky at high sensitivity and high resolution has benefitted from the recent completion of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an effort of 22 countries. ALMA, a versatile interferometric telescope at 5000m elevation in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, is comprised of sixty-six precision telescopes which may be arrayed over a 16 km extent on the high Chajnantor plain. Owing to its large collecting area of over 6600m^2 and its commodious spectral grasp of 8 GHz of spectrum in dual polarizations within an 84-950 GHz range, ALMA provides astronomers with vastly improved spectroscopic sensitivity. Spatial resolutions of 30 milliarcsec were demonstrated recently, revealing rings within the HL Tau protoplanetary disk, the rotating structure of the asteroid Juno and the molecular structure of the z~3 lensed galaxy SDP.81. The astrometric accuracy even at this early stage of deployment is better than 3 milliarcsec, providing improved ephemerides for the encounter of the New Horizons spacecraft with the Pluto-Charon system. Very long baseline capability is expected to bring microarcsecond imaging to a worldwide array anchored by ALMA with potential for imaging nearby Black Holes on the scales of their Event Horizons.ALMA's huge collecting area has enabled detection of lines of C, N and CO and continuum for characterization of massive complexes near the Era of Recombination. ALMA's sensitivity and resolution have enabledmeasurement of molecular emission through cosmic time from numerous molecules characterizing galactic star-forming regions and tracing their kinematics near active nuclei, starbursts, interacting clouds and quiescent disks. ALMA's sensitivity, resolution and spectral grasp have enabled it to image molecules and dust characterizing circumstellar disks and embedded bodies in protostellar, transition and debris stages of development.ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ.

  8. Metal-free tetrathienoacene sensitizers for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nanjia; Prabakaran, Kumaresan; Lee, Byunghong; Chang, Sheng Hsiung; Harutyunyan, Boris; Guo, Peijun; Butler, Melanie R; Timalsina, Amod; Bedzyk, Michael J; Ratner, Mark A; Vegiraju, Sureshraju; Yau, Shuehlin; Wu, Chun-Guey; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Chen, Ming-Chou; Marks, Tobin J

    2015-04-01

    A new series of metal-free organic chromophores (TPA-TTAR-A (1), TPA-T-TTAR-A (2), TPA-TTAR-T-A (3), and TPA-T-TTAR-T-A (4)) are synthesized for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on a donor-?-bridge-acceptor (D-?-A) design. Here a simple triphenylamine (TPA) moiety serves as the electron donor, a cyanoacrylic acid as the electron acceptor and anchoring group, and a novel tetrathienoacene (TTA) as the ?-bridge unit. Because of the extensively conjugated TTA ?-bridge, these dyes exhibit high extinction coefficients (4.5-5.2 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)). By strategically inserting a thiophene spacer on the donor or acceptor side of the molecules, the electronic structures of these TTA-based dyes can be readily tuned. Furthermore, addition of a thiophene spacer has a significant influence on the dye orientation and self-assembly modality on TiO2 surfaces. The insertion of a thiophene between the ?-bridge and the cyanoacrylic acid anchoring group in TPA-TTAR-T-A (dye 3) promotes more vertical dye orientation and denser packing on TiO2 (molecular footprint = 79 Å(2)), thus enabling optimal dye loading. Using dye 3, a DSSC power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.1% with Voc = 0.833 V, Jsc = 16.5 mA/cm(2), and FF = 70.0% is achieved, among the highest reported to date for metal-free organic DSSC sensitizers using an I(-)/I3(-) redox shuttle. Photophysical measurements on dye-grafted TiO2 films reveal that the additional thiophene unit in dye 3 enhances the electron injection efficiency, in agreement with the high quantum efficiency. PMID:25768124

  9. Sturdy positioning with high sensitivity GPS sensors under adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Trajkovski, Klemen Kozmus; Sterle, Oskar; Stopar, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    High sensitivity GPS receivers have extended the use of GNSS navigation to environments which were previously deemed unsuitable for satellite signal reception. Under adverse conditions the signals become attenuated and reflected. High sensitivity receivers achieve signal reception by using a large number of correlators and an extended integration time. Processing the observation data in dynamic and rapidly changing conditions requires a careful and consistent treatment. Code-based autonomous solutions can cause major errors in the estimated position, due primarily to multipath effects. A custom procedure of autonomous GPS positioning has been developed, boosting the positioning performance through appropriate processing of code and Doppler observations. Besides the common positioning procedures, robust estimation methods have been used to minimise the effects of gross observation errors. In normal conditions, differential GNSS yields good results, however, under adverse conditions, it fails to improve significantly the receiver's position. Therefore, a so-called conditional DGPS has been developed which determines the position differentially by using data from the strong signals only. These custom-developed procedures have been tested in different conditions in static and kinematic cases and the results have been compared to those processed by the receiver. PMID:22163657

  10. Sturdy Positioning with High Sensitivity GPS Sensors Under Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Trajkovski, Klemen Kozmus; Sterle, Oskar; Stopar, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    High sensitivity GPS receivers have extended the use of GNSS navigation to environments which were previously deemed unsuitable for satellite signal reception. Under adverse conditions the signals become attenuated and reflected. High sensitivity receivers achieve signal reception by using a large number of correlators and an extended integration time. Processing the observation data in dynamic and rapidly changing conditions requires a careful and consistent treatment. Code-based autonomous solutions can cause major errors in the estimated position, due primarily to multipath effects. A custom procedure of autonomous GPS positioning has been developed, boosting the positioning performance through appropriate processing of code and Doppler observations. Besides the common positioning procedures, robust estimation methods have been used to minimise the effects of gross observation errors. In normal conditions, differential GNSS yields good results, however, under adverse conditions, it fails to improve significantly the receiver’s position. Therefore, a so-called conditional DGPS has been developed which determines the position differentially by using data from the strong signals only. These custom-developed procedures have been tested in different conditions in static and kinematic cases and the results have been compared to those processed by the receiver. PMID:22163657

  11. Design of a charge sensitive preamplifier on high resistivity silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Rescia, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Strueder, L.; Kemmer, J.

    1987-01-01

    A low noise, fast charge sensitive preamplifier was designed on high resistivity, detector grade silicon. It is built at the surface of a fully depleted region of n-type silicon. This allows the preamplifier to be placed very close to a detector anode. The preamplifier uses the classical input cascode configuration with a capacitor and a high value resistor in the feedback loop. The output stage of the preamplifier can drive a load up to 20pF. The power dissipation of the preamplifier is 13mW. The amplifying elements are ''Single Sided Gate JFETs'' developed especially for this application. Preamplifiers connected to a low capacitance anode of a drift type detector should achieve a rise time of 20ns and have an equivalent noise charge (ENC), after a suitable shaping, of less than 50 electrons. This performance translates to a position resolution better than 3..mu..m for silicon drift detectors. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Hydrophilic packaging of iron oxide nanoclusters for highly sensitive imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cartney E; Ernenwein, Dawn; Shkumatov, Artem; Clay, Nicholas E; Lee, JuYeon; Melhem, Molly; Misra, Sanjay; Zimmerman, Steven C; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-11-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used as imaging probes to provide contrast in magnetic resonance images. Successful use of SPIONs in targeted applications greatly depends on their ability to generate contrast, even at low levels of accumulation, in the tissue of interest. In the present study, we report that SPION nanoclusters packaged to a controlled size by a hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) can target tissue defects and have a high relaxivity of 719 mM(-1) s(-1), which was close to their theoretical maximal limit. The resulting nanoclusters were able to identify regions of defective vasculature in an ischemic murine hindlimb using MRI with iron doses that were 5-10 fold lower than those typically used in preclinical studies. Such high relaxivity was attributed to the molecular architecture of HPG, which mimics that of the water retentive polysaccharide, glycogen. The results of this study will be broadly useful in sensitive imaging applications. PMID:26291408

  13. Sensitivity study of reliable, high-throughput resolution metricsfor photoresists

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2007-07-30

    The resolution of chemically amplified resists is becoming an increasing concern, especially for lithography in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regime. Large-scale screening and performance-based down-selection is currently underway to identify resist platforms that can support shrinking feature sizes. Resist screening efforts, however, are hampered by the absence of reliable resolution metrics that can objectively quantify resist resolution in a high-throughput fashion. Here we examine two high-throughput metrics for resist resolution determination. After summarizing their details and justifying their utility, we characterize the sensitivity of both metrics to two of the main experimental uncertainties associated with lithographic exposure tools, namely: limited focus control and limited knowledge of optical aberrations. For an implementation at EUV wavelengths, we report aberration and focus limited error bars in extracted resolution of {approx} 1.25 nm RMS for both metrics making them attractive candidates for future screening and down-selection efforts.

  14. Sensitivity of high-order-harmonic generation to aromaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, A. F.; Boguslavskiy, A. E.; Thiré, N.; Schmidt, B. E.; Légaré, F.; Brabec, T.; Spanner, M.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of cyclic electron delocalization associated with aromaticity on the high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) process is investigated in organic molecules. We show that the aromatic molecules benzene (C6H6 ) and furan (C4H4O ) produce high-order harmonics more efficiently than nonaromatic systems having the same ring structure. We also demonstrate that the relative strength of plateau harmonics is sensitive to the aromaticity in five-membered-ring molecules using furan, pyrrole (C4H4NH ), and thiophene (C4H4S ). Numerical time-dependent Schrödinger equation simulations of total orientation-averaged strong-field ionization yields show that the HHG from aromatic molecules comes predominantly from the two highest ? molecular orbitals, which contribute to the aromatic character of the systems.

  15. A highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating diaphragm pressure transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwood, Gary; Wild, Graham; Lubansky, Alex; Hinckley, Steven

    2015-10-01

    In this work, a novel diaphragm based pressure transducer with high sensitivity is described, including the physical design structure, in-depth analysis of optical response to changes in pressure, and a discussion of practical implementation and limitations. A flat circular rubber membrane bonded to a cylinder forms the body of the transducer. A fiber Bragg grating bonded to the center of the diaphragm structure enables the fractional change in pressure to be determined by analyzing the change in Bragg wavelength of the reflected spectra. Extensive evaluation of the physical properties and optical characteristics of the transducer has been performed through experimentation, and modeling using small deformation theory. The results show the transducer has a sensitivity of 0.116 nm/kPa, across a range of 15 kPa. Ultra-low cost interrogation of the optical signal was achieved through the use of an optically mismatched Bragg grating acting as an edge filter to convert the spectral change into an intensity change. A numerical model of the intensity based interrogation was implemented in order to validate the experimental results. Utilizing this interrogation technique and housing both the sensing and reference Bragg gratings within the main body of the transducer means it is effectively temperature insensitive and easily connected to electronic systems.

  16. Luminescent Lanthanide Reporters for High-Sensitivity Novel Bioassays.

    SciTech Connect

    Anstey, Mitchell; Fruetel, Julia A.; Foster, Michael E.; Hayden, Carl C.; Buckley, Heather L.; Arnold, John

    2013-09-01

    Biological imaging and assay technologies rely on fluorescent organic dyes as reporters for a number of interesting targets and processes. However, limitations of organic dyes such as small Stokes shifts, spectral overlap of emission signals with native biological fluorescence background, and photobleaching have all inhibited the development of highly sensitive assays. To overcome the limitations of organic dyes for bioassays, we propose to develop lanthanide-based luminescent dyes and demonstrate them for molecular reporting applications. This relatively new family of dyes was selected for their attractive spectral and chemical properties. Luminescence is imparted by the lanthanide atom and allows for relatively simple chemical structures that can be tailored to the application. The photophysical properties offer unique features such as narrow and non-overlapping emission bands, long luminescent lifetimes, and long wavelength emission, which enable significant sensitivity improvements over organic dyes through spectral and temporal gating of the luminescent signal.Growth in this field has been hindered due to the necessary advanced synthetic chemistry techniques and access to experts in biological assay development. Our strategy for the development of a new lanthanide-based fluorescent reporter system is based on chelation of the lanthanide metal center using absorbing chromophores. Our first strategy involves %22Click%22 chemistry to develop 3-fold symmetric chelators and the other involves use of a new class of tetrapyrrole ligands called corroles. This two-pronged approach is geared towards the optimization of chromophores to enhance light output.

  17. Sensitivity of once-shocked, weathered high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.L.; Harris, B.W.

    1998-07-01

    Effects caused by stimulating once-shocked, weathered high explosives (OSW-HE) are investigated. The sensitivity of OSW-HE to mechanical stimuli was determined using standard industry tests. Some initial results are given. Pieces of OSW-HE were collected from active and inactive firing sites and from an area surrounding a drop tower at Los Alamos where skid and spigot tests were done. Samples evaluated were cast explosives or plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations containing cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), mock or inert HE [tris(beta-chloroethyl)phosphate (CEF)], barium nitrate, cyanuric acid, talc, and Kel-F. Once-shocked, weathered LX-10 Livermore explosive [HMX/Viton A, (95/5 wt %)], PBX 9011 [HMX/Estane, (90/10 wt %)], PBX 9404 [HMX/nitrocellulose, tris(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate, (94/3/3 wt %)], Composition B or cyclotol (TNT/RDX explosives), and PBX 9007 (90% RDX, 9.1% styrene, 0.5% dioctyl phthalate, and 0.45 resin) were subjected to the hammer test, the drop-weight impact sensitivity test, differential thermal analysis (DTA), the spark test, the Henkin`s critical temperature test, and the flame test. Samples were subjected to remote, wet cutting and drilling; remote, liquid-nitrogen-cooled grinding and crushing; and scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface analyses for morphological changes.

  18. High sensitivity permeation measurement system for 'ultrabarrier' thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaodong; Lewis, Jay S.; Wolter, Scott D.; Parker, Charles B.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2007-11-15

    The authors demonstrate a new technique for high sensitivity gas permeation measurements by integrating mass spectrometry with programed accumulation, detection, and evacuation of permeant. After passing through the film of interest, the gas permeant is captured and accumulated in an isolated ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) volume. The permeant is then allowed to enter an adjacent residual gas analyzer (RGA) and the resulting partial pressure increase is correlated with the steady state permeation rate. Calibrated results are given for helium and argon permeation through polymer films. The measured detection limits of the system are 1.8x10{sup -4} cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2} day for helium and 2.5x10{sup -4} cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2} day for argon. Both values are several orders of magnitude lower than what is available from commercial instruments or similar RGA-based instruments. Potential applications of this technique include measurement of oxygen and water vapor permeation with sensitivities required for assessment of ultrabarrier coatings.

  19. Kinetics of Highly Sensitive Troponin T after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Amr S.; Sudarsanan, Suraj; Hanoura, Samy; Osman, Hany; Sivadasan, Praveen C.; Shouman, Yasser; Tuli, Alejandro Kohn; Singh, Rajvir; Al Khulaifi, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) confers a considerable risk in cardiac surgery settings; finding the ideal biomarker seems to be an ideal goal. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of highly sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) in cardiac surgery settings and to define a diagnostic level for PMI diagnosis. This was a single-center prospective observational study analyzing data from all patients who underwent cardiac surgeries. The primary outcome was the diagnosis of PMI through a specific level. The secondary outcome measures were the lengths of mechanical ventilation (LOV), stay in the intensive care unit (LOSICU), and hospitalization. Based on the third universal definition of PMI, patients were divided into two groups: no PMI (Group I) and PMI (Group II). Data from 413 patients were analyzed. Nine patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of PMI, while 41 patients were identified with a 5-fold increase in their CK-MB (?120?U/L). Using ROC analysis, a hsTnT level of 3,466?ng/L or above showed 90% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the diagnosis of PMI. Secondary outcome measures in patients with PMI were significantly prolonged. In conclusion, the hsTnT levels detected here paralleled those of CK-MB and a cut-off level of 3466?ng/L could be diagnostic of PMI. PMID:26539512

  20. Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors Keywords: Photonic crystal microcavity Biosensor Nanophotonic biosensor a b s t r a c t Current trends in photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), that focus on small and smaller

  1. Versatile, high-sensitivity faraday cup array for ion implanters

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Patterson, Robert G. (Dublin, CA)

    2003-01-01

    An improved Faraday cup array for determining the dose of ions delivered to a substrate during ion implantation and for monitoring the uniformity of the dose delivered to the substrate. The improved Faraday cup array incorporates a variable size ion beam aperture by changing only an insertable plate that defines the aperture without changing the position of the Faraday cups which are positioned for the operation of the largest ion beam aperture. The design enables the dose sensitivity range, typically 10.sup.11 -10.sup.18 ions/cm.sup.2 to be extended to below 10.sup.6 ions/cm.sup.2. The insertable plate/aperture arrangement is structurally simple and enables scaling to aperture areas between <1 cm.sup.2 and >750 cm.sup.2, and enables ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications by incorporation of UHV-compatible materials.

  2. Simultaneous determination of cyromazine and dicyclanil in animal edible tissues using UPLC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyromazine and dicyclanil are used as insect growth regulators. This article describes an easy and innovative simultaneous extraction for residues of cyromazine and dicyclanil in food of animal origin and the confirmation procedure using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ioniz...

  3. Depletion of Urinary Zilpaterol Residues in Horses as Measured by ELISA and UPLC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three horses were dosed with dietary zilpaterol and the urine concentration measured from withdrawal day 0 to withdrawal day 21. The analyses were carried out using both enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple-quadrupole-tandem mass spect...

  4. Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers by UPLC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a structurally complex and bioactive group of tannins. Detailed analysis of PA concentration, composition, and structure typically requires the use of one or more time-consuming analytical methods. For example, the commonly employed thiolysis and phloroglucinolysis method...

  5. NanoUPLC-MS(E) proteomic analysis of osteoclastogenesis downregulation by IL-4.

    PubMed

    Freire, Mirna S; Cantuária, Ana Paula C; Lima, Stella M F; Almeida, Jeeser A; Murad, André M; Franco, Octavio L; Rezende, Taia M B

    2016-01-10

    Bone resorption is an important factor in bone homeostasis and imbalance can cause several diseases. In osteoimmunology, IL-4 has been described as an important factor in promoting M2 macrophage profile. In order to shed some light on the effect of IL-4 on osteoclast precursors in the presence of RANKL, cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) production and the proteomic profile were analyzed. The presence of IL-4 in in vitro osteoclastogenesis provides production of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-10 and IL-12 at basal cell levels. Regarding NO production, IL-4 was sufficient to increase the basal NO levels. Proteomic analyses identified 877 global proteins. IL-4 in in vitro RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis leads to the expression of 118 proteins. The presence of rIL-4 in in vitro rRANKL-mediated-osteoclastogenesis downregulated this process. However, the proteomics findings in the osteoclastogenesis demonstrated a much greater effect on osteoclast precursor cells than on RANKL-differentiated osteoclasts. These results suggest that the main effect of IL-4 in pre-osteoclast cells leads to a M2 macrophage activation, and this probably contributed to a reduction in osteoclastogenesis when both stimuli were used. This study noticed that IL-4 plays an important regulatory role in bone homeostasis due to its suppressive potential of precursor osteoclast cells. PMID:26459402

  6. (e, 2e) electron momentum spectrometer with high sensitivity and high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, X.G.; Ning, C.G.; Deng, J.K.; Zhang, S.F.; Su, G.L.; Huang, F.; Li, G.Q.

    2005-06-15

    A high sensitivity and high resolution (e, 2e) electron momentum spectrometer with simultaneous detection in energy and momentum are constructed. The design and performance of the spectrometer are reported. The orbital electron density distributions are obtained accurately and rapidly by using this spectrometer equipped with a double toroidal analyzer. The experimental results on argon and helium exhibit the significant improvements in coincidence count rates, resolution, sensitivity and obtainment of a wide range of adjustable experimental impact energies, which are crucial for further electron momentum spectroscopy studying electronic structure and electron correlation in complex systems.

  7. Comparing standard Bonner spheres and high-sensitivity Bonner cylinders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Wei; Yuan, Ming-Chen; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2014-10-01

    Standard Bonner spheres and proposed high-sensitivity Bonner cylinders were calibrated in a neutron calibration room, using a (252)Cf source. The Bonner sphere system consists of 11 polyethylene (PE) spheres of various diameters and 4 extended spheres that comprise embedded metal shells. Similar to the design of Bonner spheres, a set of Bonner cylinders was assembled using a large cylindrical (3)He tube as the central probe, which was wrapped using various thicknesses of PE. A layer of lead was employed inside one of the PE cylinders to increase the detection efficiency of high-energy neutrons. The central neutron probe used in the Bonner cylinders exhibited an efficiency of ?17.9 times higher than that of the Bonner spheres. However, compared with the Bonner spheres, the Bonner cylinders are not fully symmetric in their geometry, exhibiting angular dependence in their responses to incoming neutrons. Using a series of calculations and measurements, this study presents a systematic comparison between Bonner spheres and cylinders in terms of their response functions, detection efficiencies, angular dependences and spectrum unfolding. PMID:24366247

  8. High sensitivity dynamic spectral search for flare star radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abada-Simon, M.; Lecacheux, A.; Louarn, P.; Dulk, G. A.; Belkora, L.; Bookbinder, J. A.; Rosolen, C.

    1994-01-01

    We observed ten well-known flare stars with the Arcibo radio telescope at 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz, using a special observing technique to discriminate between real flares and radio freqeuncy interference. With a high sensitivity of 5.5 K/Jy at 1.4 GHz when averaged over a 50 MHz band, we are able to recognize flux enhancements as weak as approximately 6 mJy above the sky background variations. In about 85 hours of observation, about a dozen bursts were detected, only from AD Leo. All had flux densities lower than 70 mJy, which probably explains their lack of fine structures (except for the strongest one), such as were reported in the literature for stronger flares. Half of the bursts that we recorded are 100% circularly polarized, and half are not circularly polarized. Our results are a first attempt of reliable statistics on dMe flare rates at 1.4 GHz. The high brightness temperatures we infer for the observed bursts are interpreted in terms of coherent emission processes, either the cyclotron maser instability or plasma radiation. Efficiencies are comparable to those of solar or planetary radio emissions in the case of the cyclotron maser, and higher than the solar efficiency in the case of plasma radiation, with the caveat that there are great uncertainties in the coronal model and the source size.

  9. High-sensitivity CCD-based X-ray detector.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Walter C; Stewart, Alexander; Stanton, Martin; Naday, Istvan; Ingersoll, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The detector is designed for imaging measurements requiring relatively high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. The detector can discriminate single X-ray photons, yet has the wide dynamic range ( approximately 10000:1) associated with integrating detectors. A GdO2S2 phosphor screen converts the incoming X-ray image into an optical image. The optical image is coupled (without demagnification) to the CCD image sensor using a fiber optic faceplate. The CCD (Philips Semiconductors) has an area of 4.9 x 8.6 cm with 4000 x 7000 12 microm pixels. A single 12 keV X-ray photon produces a signal of 100 e-. With 2 x 2 pixel binning, the total noise per 24 microm pixel in a 100 s image is approximately 30 e- the detective quantum efficiency is >0.6 at 1 X-ray photon per pixel, and the full image can be read out in <4 s. The spatial resolution is 50 microm. The CCD readout system is fully computer-controlled, allowing flexible operation in time-resolved experiments. The detector has been characterized using visible-light images, X-ray images and time-resolved muscle diffraction measurements. PMID:11779944

  10. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Brian E-sensitized solar cells, the excited ERDs must be able to efficiently transfer energy to the sensitizing dyes, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3

  11. Accelerated Sensitivity Analysis in High-Dimensional Stochastic Reaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A.; Pantazis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Existing sensitivity analysis approaches are not able to handle efficiently stochastic reaction networks with a large number of parameters and species, which are typical in the modeling and simulation of complex biochemical phenomena. In this paper, a two-step strategy for parametric sensitivity analysis for such systems is proposed, exploiting advantages and synergies between two recently proposed sensitivity analysis methodologies for stochastic dynamics. The first method performs sensitivity analysis of the stochastic dynamics by means of the Fisher Information Matrix on the underlying distribution of the trajectories; the second method is a reduced-variance, finite-difference, gradient-type sensitivity approach relying on stochastic coupling techniques for variance reduction. Here we demonstrate that these two methods can be combined and deployed together by means of a new sensitivity bound which incorporates the variance of the quantity of interest as well as the Fisher Information Matrix estimated from the first method. The first step of the proposed strategy labels sensitivities using the bound and screens out the insensitive parameters in a controlled manner. In the second step of the proposed strategy, a finite-difference method is applied only for the sensitivity estimation of the (potentially) sensitive parameters that have not been screened out in the first step. Results on an epidermal growth factor network with fifty parameters and on a protein homeostasis with eighty parameters demonstrate that the proposed strategy is able to quickly discover and discard the insensitive parameters and in the remaining potentially sensitive parameters it accurately estimates the sensitivities. The new sensitivity strategy can be several times faster than current state-of-the-art approaches that test all parameters, especially in “sloppy” systems. In particular, the computational acceleration is quantified by the ratio between the total number of parameters over the number of the sensitive parameters. PMID:26161544

  12. Highly sensitive and multiplexed platforms for allergy diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroe, Margo R.

    Allergy is a disorder of the immune system caused by an immune response to otherwise harmless environmental allergens. Currently 20% of the US population is allergic and 90% of pediatric patients and 60% of adult patients with asthma have allergies. These percentages have increased by 18.5% in the past decade, with predicted similar trends for the future. Here we design sensitive, multiplexed platforms to detect allergen-specific IgE using the Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS) for various clinical settings. A microarray platform for allergy diagnosis allows for testing of specific IgE sensitivity to a multitude of allergens, while requiring only small volumes of patient blood sample. However, conventional fluorescent microarray technology is limited by i) the variation of probe immobilization, which hinders the ability to make quantitative, assertive, and statistically relevant conclusions necessary in immunodiagnostics and ii) the use of fluorophore labels, which is not suitable for some clinical applications due to the tendency of fluorophores to stick to blood particulates and require daily calibration methods. This calibrated fluorescence enhancement (CaFE) method integrates the low magnification modality of IRIS with enhanced fluorescence sensing in order to directly correlate immobilized probe (major allergens) density to allergen-specific IgE in patient serum. However, this platform only operates in processed serum samples, which is not ideal for point of care testing. Thus, a high magnification modality of IRIS was adapted as an alternative allergy diagnostic platform to automatically discriminate and size single nanoparticles bound to specific IgE in unprocessed, characterized human blood and serum samples. These features make IRIS an ideal candidate for clinical and diagnostic applications, such a POC testing. The high magnification (nanoparticle counting) modality in conjunction with low magnification of IRIS in a combined instrument offers four significant advantages compared to existing sensing technologies: IRIS i) corrects for any variation in probe immobilization, ii) detects proteins from attomolar to nanomolar concentrations in unprocessed biological samples, iii) unambiguously discriminates nanoparticles tags on a robust and physically large sensor area, iv) detects protein targets with conjugated nanoparticle tags (~40nm diameter), which minimally affect assay kinetics compared to conventional microparticle tagging methods, and v) utilizes components that make the instrument inexpensive, robust, and portable. This platform was successfully validated on patient serum and whole blood samples with documented allergy profiles (ImmunoCAPRTM, ThermoFisher Scientific).

  13. New Ultra-High Sensitivity, Absolute, Linear, and Rotary Encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1998-01-01

    Several new types of absolute optical encoders of both rotary and linear function are discussed. The means for encoding are complete departures from conventional optical encoders and offer advantages of compact form, immunity to damage-induced dropouts of position information, and about an order of magnitude higher sensitivity over what is commercially available. Rotary versions have sensitivity from 0.02 arcseconds down to 0.003 arcsecond while linear models have sensitivity of 10 nm.

  14. High sensitivity bulk electro-optic modulator field sensor for high voltage environments

    E-print Network

    Shy,Jow-Tsong

    are attached to a dipole or loop an- tenna to detect the electric or magnetic fields. The antenna creates or magnetic field around a high voltage electrical system. A Mach­Zender interferometer type modulator is generally used in this kind of sensor. The sensor has good sensitivity to electric or magnetic fields

  15. High sensitivity DNA detection based on regioselectively decorated electrocatalytic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Spain, Elaine; Brennan, Eoin; McArdle, Hazel; Keyes, Tia E; Forster, Robert J

    2012-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of dodecanethiol have been formed on gold electrodes to produce nanoscale defects. These defects define nucleation sites for the electrodeposition of mushroom shaped platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs). The top surfaces of these PtNPs have been selectively functionalized with single stranded probe DNA. These regioselectively modified particles were desorbed by applying a current jump to yield nanoparticles capable of biorecognition on the top curved side and efficient electrocatalysis on the nonfunctionalized lower surface. A second electrode was functionalized with single stranded capture DNA that has a sequence that is complementary to the pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus but leaves a section of the target available to bind the probe strand immobilized on the PtNPs. Following hybridization of the target and capture strands, the surface was exposed to the probe DNA labeled electrocatalytic PtNPs. Target binding was detected by monitoring the current associated with the reduction of hydrogen peroxide in a solution of 0.01 M H(2)SO(4). Calibration plots of the log[DNA] versus faradaic current were linear from 10 pM to 1 ?M and picomolar concentrations could be detected without the need for amplification of the target, for example, using PCR or NASBA. As well as a wide dynamic range, this detection strategy has an excellent ability to discriminate DNA mismatches and a high analytical sensitivity. PMID:22747434

  16. ASIC for High Rate 3D Position Sensitive Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.; Fried, J.; He, Z.; Herman, C.; Zhang, F.

    2010-06-16

    We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discrimination with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.

  17. Improvement of sensitivity in high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, H.; Nakajima, K.; Suzuki, M.; Kimura, K.; Sasakawa, K.

    2011-06-15

    The sensitivity (limit of detection) of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS) is mainly determined by the background noise of the spectrometer. There are two major origins of the background noise in HRBS, one is the stray ions scattered from the inner wall of the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer and the other is the dark noise of the microchannel plate (MCP) detector which is commonly used as a focal plane detector of the spectrometer in HRBS. In order to reject the stray ions, several barriers are installed inside the spectrometer and a thin Mylar foil is mounted in front of the detector. The dark noise of the MCP detector is rejected by the coincidence measurement with the secondary electrons emitted from the Mylar foil upon the ion passage. After these improvements, the background noise is reduced by a factor of 200 at a maximum. The detection limit can be improved down to 10 ppm for As in Si at a measurement time of 1 h under ideal conditions.

  18. Novel Ruthenium Sensitizers with a Phenothiazine Conjugated Bipyridyl Ligand for High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    She, Zhijie; Cheng, Yangyang; Zhang, Luoqiang; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Di; Guo, Qiang; Lan, Jingbo; Wang, Ruilin; You, Jingsong

    2015-12-23

    Two efficient ruthenium sensitizers with a phenothiazine-modified bipyridine as an ancillary ligand, coded SCZ-1 and SCZ-2, have been developed as dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Both sensitizers exhibit low-energy metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands centered at 539 nm with high molar extinction coefficients of 1.77 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) for SCZ-1 and 1.66 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) for SCZ-2, which are significantly higher than the corresponding value for the reference N719 (1.27 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)), indicating that the light-harvesting capacity of ruthenium sensitizers can be reinforced by introducing phenothiazine moieties into the bipyridine ligand. Under AM 1.5G irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)), SCZ-1 and SCZ-2 sensitized DSSC devices show impressive power conversion efficiencies (PCE) up to 10.4% by using of iodide-based electrolytes, which exceeds that of N719 (9.9%) under the same conditions. Both of the open circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (FF) of SCZ-sensitized solar cells approximate to those of N719-sensitized cell. The relatively higher efficiencies of the SCZ-sensitized cells than that of N719-sensitized cell come from their higher short-circuit photocurrent density (JSC), which may be mainly attributed to the high absorption coefficient. The absorption spectrum and device efficiency of SCZ-1 are both quite close to those of SCZ-2, suggesting that the difference in alkyl chains on the N atom of phenothiazine is not a decisive factor in affecting the photovoltaic performance of dyes. PMID:26624527

  19. Stochastic sensitivity measure for mistuned high-performance turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Pierre, Christophe

    1992-01-01

    A stochastic measure of sensitivity is developed in order to predict the effects of small random blade mistuning on the dynamic aeroelastic response of turbomachinery blade assemblies. This sensitivity measure is based solely on the nominal system design (i.e., on tuned system information), which makes it extremely easy and inexpensive to calculate. The measure has the potential to become a valuable design tool that will enable designers to evaluate mistuning effects at a preliminary design stage and thus assess the need for a full mistuned rotor analysis. The predictive capability of the sensitivity measure is illustrated by examining the effects of mistuning on the aeroelastic modes of the first stage of the oxidizer turbopump in the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Results from a full analysis mistuned systems confirm that the simple stochastic sensitivity measure predicts consistently the drastic changes due to misturning and the localization of aeroelastic vibration to a few blades.

  20. High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA): a highly sensitive inexpensive genotyping alternative for population studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, B L; Lu, C-P; Alvarado Bremer, J R

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a highly sensitive closed-tube genotyping method used primarily in clinical studies. As the method is rapid, inexpensive and amenable to high throughput, we decided to investigate its applicability to population studies. Small amplicons and unlabelled probes were used to genotype the nuclear genes, lactate dehydrogenase-A (ldh-A), myosin light chain-2 (mlc-2), acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (ARP) and calmodulin (CaM) in populations of swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Results indicate that HRMA is a powerful genotyping tool to study wild populations. PMID:21565009

  1. A high-sensitivity current sensor utilizing CrNi wire and microfiber coils.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaodong; Li, Jie; Sun, Li-Peng; Shen, Xiang; Jin, Long; Guan, Bai-ou

    2014-01-01

    We obtain an extremely high current sensitivity by wrapping a section of microfiber on a thin-diameter chromium-nickel wire. Our detected current sensitivity is as high as 220.65 nm/A2 for a structure length of only 35 ?m. Such sensitivity is two orders of magnitude higher than the counterparts reported in the literature. Analysis shows that a higher resistivity or/and a thinner diameter of the metal wire may produce higher sensitivity. The effects of varying the structure parameters on sensitivity are discussed. The presented structure has potential for low-current sensing or highly electrically-tunable filtering applications. PMID:24824372

  2. Comparison of different calibration approaches for chloramphenicol quantification in chicken muscle by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Ping-Gu

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-dependent signal suppression often occurs in quantitative analysis by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). In this study, we investigated three calibration methods for compensation of signal suppression on chloramphenicol (CAP) quantification in chicken muscle. The data showed that the spiking recoveries by solvent standard calibration with a stable isotope labelled internal standard (SIL-IS) and matrix-matched standard calibration with a SIL-IS were significantly higher than by external matrix-matched standard calibration (P < 0.05). When the SIL-IS was used, standards prepared in the mobile phase solvent showed no significant difference as those prepared in the matrix (P > 0.05). The limit of detection (LOD) for external matrix matched standard calibration was 0.1 ?g kg(-1), and that for SIL-IS calibration (including matrix matched and solvent dissolved standard) was 0.03 ?g kg(-1). PMID:25406881

  3. Development of High Temperature/High Sensitivity Novel Chemical Resistive Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chonglin; Nash, Patrick; Ma, Chunrui; Enriquez, Erik; Wang, Haibing; Xu, Xing; Bao, Shangyong; Collins, Gregory

    2013-08-13

    The research has been focused to design, fabricate, and develop high temperature/high sensitivity novel multifunctional chemical sensors for the selective detection of fossil energy gases used in power and fuel systems. By systematically studying the physical properties of the LnBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+d} (LBCO) [Ln=Pr or La] thin?films, a new concept chemical sensor based high temperature chemical resistant change has been developed for the application for the next generation highly efficient and near zero emission power generation technologies. We also discovered that the superfast chemical dynamic behavior and an ultrafast surface exchange kinetics in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films. Furthermore, our research indicates that hydrogen can superfast diffuse in the ordered oxygen vacancy structures in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films, which suggest that the LBCO thin film not only can be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high temperature ultra sensitive chemical sensors and control systems for power and fuel monitoring systems, but also can be an excellent candidate for the low temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode and cathode materials.

  4. SML resist processing for high-aspect-ratio and high-sensitivity electron beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Dew, Steven K.; Stepanova, Maria

    2013-03-01

    A detailed process characterization of SML electron beam resist for high-aspect-ratio nanopatterning at high sensitivity is presented. SML contrast curves were generated for methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), MIBK/isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (1:3), IPA/water (7:3), n-amyl acetate, xylene, and xylene/methanol (3:1) developers. Using IPA/water developer, the sensitivity of SML was improved considerably and found to be comparable to benchmark polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) resist without affecting the aspect ratio performance. Employing 30-keV exposures and ultrasonic IPA/water development, an aspect ratio of 9:1 in 50-nm half-pitch dense grating patterns was achieved representing a greater than two times improvement over PMMA. Through demonstration of 25-nm lift-off features, the pattern transfer performance of SML is also addressed.

  5. Sensitive, high-strain, high-rate bodily motion sensors based on graphene-rubber composites.

    PubMed

    Boland, Conor S; Khan, Umar; Backes, Claudia; O'Neill, Arlene; McCauley, Joe; Duane, Shane; Shanker, Ravi; Liu, Yang; Jurewicz, Izabela; Dalton, Alan B; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2014-09-23

    Monitoring of human bodily motion requires wearable sensors that can detect position, velocity and acceleration. They should be cheap, lightweight, mechanically compliant and display reasonable sensitivity at high strains and strain rates. No reported material has simultaneously demonstrated all the above requirements. Here we describe a simple method to infuse liquid-exfoliated graphene into natural rubber to create conducting composites. These materials are excellent strain sensors displaying 10(4)-fold increases in resistance and working at strains exceeding 800%. The sensitivity is reasonably high, with gauge factors of up to 35 observed. More importantly, these sensors can effectively track dynamic strain, working well at vibration frequencies of at least 160 Hz. At 60 Hz, we could monitor strains of at least 6% at strain rates exceeding 6000%/s. We have used these composites as bodily motion sensors, effectively monitoring joint and muscle motion as well and breathing and pulse. PMID:25100211

  6. SML resist processing for high-aspect-ratio and high-sensitivity electron beam lithography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A detailed process characterization of SML electron beam resist for high-aspect-ratio nanopatterning at high sensitivity is presented. SML contrast curves were generated for methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), MIBK/isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (1:3), IPA/water (7:3), n-amyl acetate, xylene, and xylene/methanol (3:1) developers. Using IPA/water developer, the sensitivity of SML was improved considerably and found to be comparable to benchmark polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) resist without affecting the aspect ratio performance. Employing 30-keV exposures and ultrasonic IPA/water development, an aspect ratio of 9:1 in 50-nm half-pitch dense grating patterns was achieved representing a greater than two times improvement over PMMA. Through demonstration of 25-nm lift-off features, the pattern transfer performance of SML is also addressed. PMID:23531370

  7. Improvement in the light sensitivity of the ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD with a microlens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, T.,; Yonai, J.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Kitagawa, S.; Hatade, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Iida, K.

    2008-02-01

    We are advancing the development of ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs for broadcast use that are capable of capturing smooth slow-motion videos in vivid colors even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. We have already developed a 300,000 pixel, ultrahigh-speed CCD, and a single CCD color camera that has been used for sports broadcasts and science programs using this CCD. However, there are cases where even higher sensitivity is required, such as when using a telephoto lens during a baseball broadcast or a high-magnification microscope during science programs. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at further increasing the sensitivity of CCDs using the light-collecting effects of a microlens array.

  8. Single nanobeam optical sensor with a high Q-factor and high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sejeong; Kim, Hwi-Min; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2015-11-15

    The miniaturization of optical sensors is essential for the realization of compact, portable, and cost-effective devices. Photonic crystal-based optical sensors, which have an ultra-small mode volume and footprint, have demonstrated remarkable recent progress in achieving a high figure-of-merit (FOM) in a sensor. Here, we report an optical sensor with a high Q-factor and high sensitivity based on a photonic crystal nanobeam using the second lowest air band-edge mode. We calculated that a nanobeam (n=3.4) in a water environment (n=1.33) has refractive-index sensitivity of ?631??nm/RIU, while the quality factor is greater than 23,300. Accordingly, a theoretical FOM of the sensor corresponds to >9500. To the best of our knowledge, experimental refractive-index sensitivity of 461 nm/RIU is the highest value among photonic crystal single nanobeam geometry. The simple geometry of uniform air hole sizes and lattice constants in the proposed nanobeam sensor allows easy fabrication and mechanical stability. PMID:26565872

  9. Highly sensitive flexible pressure sensors with microstructured rubber dielectric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Stoltenberg, Randall M.; Chen, Christopher V. H.-H.; Barman, Soumendra; Muir, Beinn V. O.; Sokolov, Anatoliy N.; Reese, Colin; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-10-01

    The development of an electronic skin is critical to the realization of artificial intelligence that comes into direct contact with humans, and to biomedical applications such as prosthetic skin. To mimic the tactile sensing properties of natural skin, large arrays of pixel pressure sensors on a flexible and stretchable substrate are required. We demonstrate flexible, capacitive pressure sensors with unprecedented sensitivity and very short response times that can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas by microstructuring of thin films of the biocompatible elastomer polydimethylsiloxane. The pressure sensitivity of the microstructured films far surpassed that exhibited by unstructured elastomeric films of similar thickness, and is tunable by using different microstructures. The microstructured films were integrated into organic field-effect transistors as the dielectric layer, forming a new type of active sensor device with similarly excellent sensitivity and response times.

  10. Highly sensitive gas sensor based on graphene/microfiber hybrid waveguide with Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu; Yao, Baicheng; Cheng, Yang; Zhang, Anqi; Gong, Yuan; Rao, Yun-Jiang

    2014-05-01

    A high sensitivity NH3 gas sensor based on graphene/microfiber hybrid waveguide (GMHW) is reported for the first time. Enhanced by the graphene, a very high sensitivity of 0.3ppm is achieved for GMHW-based NH3 gas sensing. This work may open a window for development of novel GMHW-based gas sensors with high sensitivity, small footprint, easy fabrication and low cost.

  11. Graphene-coated microfiber FBG for highly sensitive gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bai-Cheng; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Anqi; Cheng, Yang; Yu, Cai-bin; Gong, Yuan; Rao, Yun-Jiang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a novel graphene-coated microfiber Bragg grating (GMFBG) sensor is proposed and demonstrated for detection of gas concentration, for the first time. Taking advantage of the surface field enhancement and polar molecular adsorption by the graphene film, we find that this structure is very sensitive to local chemical gas concentration, and the obtained sensitivities are 0.2 and 0.5ppm for NH3 and Xylene gas for tiny gas variation, respectively. Such a miniature GMFBG sensor could find applications in biological or chemical sensing, such as for trace analysis.

  12. A high-sensitivity push-pull magnetometer

    E-print Network

    Breschi, E; Knowles, P; Weis, A

    2013-01-01

    We describe our approach to atomic magnetometry based on the push-pull optical pumping technique. Cesium vapor is pumped and probed by a resonant laser beam whose circular polarization is modulated synchronously with the spin evolution dynamics induced by a static magnetic field. The magnetometer is operated in a phase-locked loop, and it has an intrinsic sensitivity below 20fT/\\sqrt(Hz) using a room temperature paraffin-coated cell. We use the magnetometer to monitor magnetic field fluctuations with a sensitivity of 300fT/\\sqrt(Hz).

  13. High Sensitivity SPECT for Small Animals and Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Gregory S.

    2015-02-28

    Imaging systems using single gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes typically implement collimators in order to form the images. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of collimators, and modern preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems detect a very small fraction of emitted gamma-rays (<0.3%). We have built a collimator-less system, which can reach sensitivity of 40% for 99mTc imaging, while still producing images of sufficient spatial resolution for certain applications in thin objects such as mice, small plants, and well plates used for in vitro experiments.

  14. A high-sensitivity push-pull magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Breschi, E.; Gruji?, Z. D.; Knowles, P.; Weis, A.

    2014-01-13

    We describe our approach to atomic magnetometry based on the push-pull optical pumping technique. Cesium vapor is pumped and probed by a resonant laser beam whose circular polarization is modulated synchronously with the spin evolution dynamics induced by a static magnetic field. The magnetometer is operated in a phase-locked loop, and it has an intrinsic sensitivity below 20fT/?(Hz), using a room temperature paraffin-coated cell. We use the magnetometer to monitor magnetic field fluctuations with a sensitivity of 300fT/?(Hz)

  15. Genetic influence on brain catecholamines: high brain norepinephrine in salt-sensitive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J.; Friedman, R.; Tassinari, L.

    1980-01-01

    Rats genetically sensitive to salt-induced hypertension evinced higher levels of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine than rats genetically resistant to hypertension. The hypertension-sensitive rats showed higher hypothalamic norepinephrine and lower epinephrine than resistant rats. In response to a high salt diet, brain stem norepinephrine increased in sensitive rats while resistant rats exhibited a decrease on the same diet.

  16. Review paper: Toward highly efficient quantum-dot-and dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-print Network

    Park, Byungwoo

    Review paper: Toward highly efficient quantum-dot- and dye-sensitized solar cells Hongsik Choi September 2012 Accepted 17 January 2013 Available online 14 February 2013 Keywords: Sensitized solar cell Interface control Light harvesting Tandem solar cell a b s t r a c t Dye- and quantum-dot-sensitized solar

  17. High-Resolution Linkage Analyses to Identify Genes That Influence Varroa Sensitive Hygiene Behavior in Honey

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    High-Resolution Linkage Analyses to Identify Genes That Influence Varroa Sensitive Hygiene Behavior lack of chemical residues and decreased likelihood of resistance. Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior of Varroa sensitive hygiene. We identified one major QTL on chromosome 9 (LOD score = 3.21) and a suggestive

  18. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  19. The strain-rate sensitivity of high-strength high-toughness steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, M.F.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the strain-rate sensitivity of four high strength, high-toughness alloys at strain rates ranging from 0.0002 s-1 to 200 s-1: Aermet 100, a modified 4340, modified HP9-4-20, and a recently developed Eglin AFB steel alloy, ES-1c. A refined dynamic servohydraulic method was used to perform tensile tests over this entire range. Each of these alloys exhibit only modest strain-rate sensitivity. Specifically, the strain-rate sensitivity exponent m, is found to be in the range of 0.004-0.007 depending on the alloy. This corresponds to a {approx}10% increase in the yield strength over the 7-orders of magnitude change in strain-rate. Interestingly, while three of the alloys showed a concominant {approx}3-10% drop in their ductility with increasing strain-rate, the ES1-c alloy actually exhibited a 25% increase in ductility with increasing strain-rate. Fractography suggests the possibility that at higher strain-rates ES-1c evolves towards a more ductile dimple fracture mode associated with microvoid coalescence.

  20. High sensitivity gas sensor based on high-Q suspended polymer photonic crystal nanocavity

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenson, Hannah Desjardins, Pierre; Gan, Xuetao; Englund, Dirk

    2014-06-16

    We present high-sensitivity, multi-use optical gas sensors based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity. These devices are implemented in versatile, flexible polymer materials which swell when in contact with a target gas, causing a measurable cavity length change. This change causes a shift in the cavity resonance, allowing precision measurements of gas concentration. We demonstrate suspended polymer nanocavity sensors and the recovery of sensors after the removal of stimulant gas from the system. With a measured quality factor exceeding 10{sup 4}, we show measurements of gas concentration as low as 600 parts per million (ppm) and an experimental sensitivity of 10?ppm; furthermore, we predict detection levels in the parts-per-billion range for a variety of gases.

  1. High sensitivity gas sensor based on high-Q suspended polymer photonic crystal nanocavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenson, Hannah; Desjardins, Pierre; Gan, Xuetao; Englund, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    We present high-sensitivity, multi-use optical gas sensors based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity. These devices are implemented in versatile, flexible polymer materials which swell when in contact with a target gas, causing a measurable cavity length change. This change causes a shift in the cavity resonance, allowing precision measurements of gas concentration. We demonstrate suspended polymer nanocavity sensors and the recovery of sensors after the removal of stimulant gas from the system. With a measured quality factor exceeding 104, we show measurements of gas concentration as low as 600 parts per million (ppm) and an experimental sensitivity of 10 ppm; furthermore, we predict detection levels in the parts-per-billion range for a variety of gases.

  2. High-performance and high-sensitivity applications of graphene transistors with self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hui; Kumar, Vinod; Moyano, David Ricardo; Wen, Shao-Hsuan; Parashar, Vyom; Hsiao, She-Hsin; Srivastava, Anchal; Saxena, Preeti S; Huang, Kun-Ping; Chang, Chien-Chung; Chiu, Po-Wen

    2016-03-15

    Charge impurities and polar molecules on the surface of dielectric substrates has long been a critical obstacle to using graphene for its niche applications that involve graphene's high mobility and high sensitivity nature. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been found to effectively reduce the impact of long-range scatterings induced by the external charges. Yet, demonstrations of scalable device applications using the SAMs technique remains missing due to the difficulties in the device fabrication arising from the strong surface tension of the modified dielectric environment. Here, we use patterned SAM arrays to build graphene electronic devices with transport channels confined on the modified areas. For high-mobility applications, both rigid and flexible radio-frequency graphene field-effect transistors (G-FETs) were demonstrated, with extrinsic cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency enhanced by a factor of ~2 on SiO2/Si substrates. For high sensitivity applications, G-FETs were functionalized by monoclonal antibodies specific to cancer biomarker chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, enabling its detection at a concentration of 0.01fM, five orders of magnitude lower than that detectable by a conventional colorimetric assay. These devices can be very useful in the early diagnosis and monitoring of a malignant disease. PMID:26547427

  3. Novel Characteristics of Photodamage to PSII in a High-Light-Sensitive Symbiodinium Phylotype.

    PubMed

    Karim, Widiastuti; Seidi, Azadeh; Hill, Ross; Chow, Wah S; Minagawa, Jun; Hidaka, Michio; Takahashi, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    Dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with many marine invertebrates, including reef-building corals. Symbiodinium is genetically diverse, and acquiring suitable Symbiodinium phylotypes is crucial for the host to survive in habitat environments, such as high-light conditions. The sensitivity of Symbiodinium to high light differs among Symbiodinium phylotypes, but the mechanism that controls light sensitivity has not yet been fully resolved. In the present study using high-light-tolerant and -sensitive Symbiodinium phylotypes, we examined what determines sensitivity to high light. In growth experiments under different light intensities, Symbiodinium CS-164 (clade B1) and CCMP2459 (clade B2) were identified as high-light-tolerant and -sensitive phylotypes, respectively. Measurements of the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and the maximum photosynthetic oxygen production rate after high-light exposure demonstrated that CCMP2459 is more sensitive to photoinhibition of PSII than CS-164, and tends to lose maximum photosynthetic activity faster. Measurement of photodamage to PSII under light of different wavelength ranges demonstrated that PSII in both Symbiodinium phylotypes was significantly more sensitive to photodamage under shorter wavelength regions of light spectra (<470 nm). Importantly, PSII in CCMP2459, but not CS-164, was also sensitive to photodamage under the regions of light spectra around 470-550 and 630-710 nm, where photosynthetic antenna proteins of Symbiodinium have light absorption peaks. This finding indicates that the high-light-sensitive CCMP2459 has an extra component of photodamage to PSII, resulting in higher sensitivity to high light. Our results demonstrate that sensitivity of PSII to photodamage differs among Symbiodinium phylotypes and this determines their sensitivity to high light. PMID:25759327

  4. Advanced Cd(II) complexes as high efficiency co-sensitizers for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Qiang, Liang Sheng; Wei, Li Guo; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin; Wang, Yu Lei

    2015-11-01

    This work reports on two new complexes with the general formula [Cd3(IBA)3(Cl)2(HCOO)(H2O)]n (1) and {[Cd1.5(IBA)3(H2O)6]·3.5H2O}n (2), which can be synthesized by the reaction of Cd(II) with rigid linear ligand 4-HIBA containing imidazolyl and carboxylate functional groups [4-HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that complex 1 is a 2D "wave-like" layer structure constructed from trinuclear units and complex 2 is just a mononuclear structure. Surprisingly, both complexes 1 and 2 appear as a 3D supramolecular network via intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. What's more, due to their strong UV-visible absorption, 1 and 2 can be employed as co-sensitizers in combination with N719 to enhance dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance. Both of them could overcome the deficiency of the ruthenium complex N719 absorption in the region of ultraviolet and blue-violet, and the charge collection efficiency is also improved when 1 and 2 are used as co-sensitizers, which are all in favor of enhancing the performance. The DSSC devices using co-sensitizers of 1/N719 and 2/N719 show an overall conversion efficiency of 8.27% and 7.73% with a short circuit current density of 17.48 mA cm(-2) and 17.39 mA cm(-2), and an open circuit voltage of 0.75 V and 0.74 V, respectively. The overall conversion efficiency is 27.23% and 18.92% higher than that of a device solely sensitized by N719 (6.50%). Consequently, the prepared complexes are high efficiency co-sensitizers for enhancing the performance of N719 sensitized solar cells. PMID:26419745

  5. High-sensitivity silicon photonic biosensors based on cascaded resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xianxin; Song, Jinyan; Jin, Lei; He, Jian-Jun

    2012-11-01

    Silicon photonic biosensors based on cascaded resonators employing the Vernier effect are shown to be capable of greatly increasing the sensitivity. Two implementation schemes are presented, one using two cascaded ring resonators with a broadband light source, and the other by cascading a Fabry-Perot laser with a silicon ring resonator. Simple intensity interrogation schemes are developed to advance the planar waveguide sensor technology towards low-cost practical applications.

  6. Coordinate Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Effects of the Insulin Sensitizer Rosiglitazone on Fundamental Metabolic Pathways in Liver, Soleus Muscle, and Adipose Tissue in Diabetic db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Le Bouter, Sabrina; Rodriguez, Marianne; Guigal-Stephan, Nolwen; Courtade-Gaïani, Sophie; Xuereb, Laura; de Montrion, Catherine; Croixmarie, Vincent; Umbdenstock, Thierry; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Lonchampt, Michel; Brun, Manuel; Dacquet, Catherine; Ktorza, Alain; Lockhart, Brian-Paul; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Rosiglitazone (RSG), developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, is known to have potent effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism leading to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in target tissues. To further assess the capacity of RSG to normalize gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues, we compared groups of 18-day-treated db/db mice with increasing oral doses of RSG (10, 30, and 100?mg/kg/d) with untreated non-diabetic littermates (db/+). For this aim, transcriptional changes were measured in liver, inguinal adipose tissue (IAT) and soleus muscle using microarrays and real-time PCR. In parallel, targeted metabolomic assessment of lipids (triglycerides (TGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs)) in plasma and tissues was performed by UPLC-MS methods. Multivariate analyses revealed a relationship between the differential gene expressions in liver and liver trioleate content and between blood glucose levels and a combination of differentially expressed genes measured in liver, IAT, and muscle. In summary, we have integrated gene expression and targeted metabolomic data to present a comprehensive overview of RSG-induced changes in a diabetes mouse model and improved the molecular understanding of how RSG ameliorates diabetes through its effect on the major insulin-sensitive tissues. PMID:20953342

  7. A highly efficient and sensitive screening method for trans-activation activity of estrogen receptors

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    A highly efficient and sensitive screening method for trans-activation activity of estrogen describe a highly efficient and sensitive yeast-based screening method for isolating human estrogen that estrogen receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor, and links the transactivation activity

  8. Robust Feedback Control Design of an Ultra-Sensitive, High Bandwidth Tunneling

    E-print Network

    implementation of this controller onto a MEMS accelerometer is underway, and we hope to present experimentalRobust Feedback Control Design of an Ultra-Sensitive, High Bandwidth Tunneling Accelerometer M of an ultra- sensitive, high-bandwidth, tunneling accelerometer is reported. The control design uses the H

  9. Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Are Highly Sensitive to Cellular Differentiation State

    E-print Network

    Breitling, Rainer

    Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Are Highly Sensitive to Cellular Differentiation State Alice Quantitative Trait Loci Are Highly Sensitive to Cellular Differentiation State. PLoS Genet 5(10): e1000692. doi for mapping gene expression variation to expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We performed a genetical

  10. Development of High Sensitive Micro-Kerr Magnetometer H_^E` '

    E-print Network

    Otani, Yoshichika

    Development of High Sensitive Micro-Kerr Magnetometer ·ÔH·_^ê·E­Ø`º ·' ·­ ·E`å'J-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 We describe the detailed design of a highly sensitive magnetometer based·C micro-Kerr magnetometer 1·D,Í,¶,ß,É

  11. Development of Super-high Sensitivity Radon Detector for the Super-Kamiokande Detector

    E-print Network

    Takeuchi, Yasuo

    element in the extraction of radon from water, with the electrostatic collection unit. 2 SuperDevelopment of Super-high Sensitivity Radon Detector for the Super-Kamiokande Detector C.Mitsuda d-high sensitivity radon detector for water which works as a real-time monitor of the radon concentration in water

  12. Research on test technology of high sensitivity and high frame rate of far ultraviolet spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guang-wei; Sun, Hong-sheng; Wang, Jia-peng; Gao, Shu-min

    2015-10-01

    Importance of ultraviolet calibration is growing fast as ultraviolet payloads are wildly used in national space plan. Calibration device for UV radiation celestial body simulator is established especially for the calibration of instantaneous radiation parameters and high-sensitivity radiation parameters. Parameters such as spectral radiance, spectral irradiance can be calibrated from 200 nm to 400 nm. The uncertainty of spectral radiance is 15% (k=2 and the uncertainty of spectral irradiance is 20% (k=2 .The calibration device is perspective for its application in national defense system.

  13. Ultra-high sensitive and high resolution optical coherence tomography using a laser induced electromagnetic dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Hiroto; Baba, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yoneya, Shin

    2013-09-01

    Utilizing an optical coherence tomography measurement, we have developed a technique that actively uses a dielectric response due to an induced dipole moment caused by a mode-locked pulsed laser light source. Irradiated laser light in the material induces a photo-induced electric dipole resulting in a refractive index change for its strong electric field. Using this technique, we obtained a highly sensitive fundus retina tomogram of a human eye in vivo with a resolution of 1.3 ?m by single scanning for 20 ms using 8 fs mode-locked pulse laser light with a 350 nm spread spectrum.

  14. Patterns of Allergic Sensitization in High IgE Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Monica G

    2015-12-01

    Dramatic elevations in the serum IgE level are seen both in polygenic allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and food allergy, and in a growing list of monogenic primary immune deficiencies (PIDs). Although the IgE produced in patients with PID has generally been considered to be driven by dysregulated IL-4 production and thus lack antigen specificity, in fact allergen-specific IgE can be detected by skin and serum testing in many of these patients. However, perhaps not surprisingly given the distinct immunologic pathways involved, the patterns of allergic disease and atopic sensitization vary widely between syndromes, leading to strikingly different clinical phenotypes. PMID:26492876

  15. JAFFA: High sensitivity transcriptome-focused fusion gene detection.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Nadia M; Majewski, Ian J; Oshlack, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and, as such, structural alterations and fusion genes are common events in the cancer landscape. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a powerful method for profiling cancers, but current methods for identifying fusion genes are optimised for short reads. JAFFA (https://github.com/Oshlack/JAFFA/wiki) is a sensitive fusion detection method that outperforms other methods with reads of 100 bp or greater. JAFFA compares a cancer transcriptome to the reference transcriptome, rather than the genome, where the cancer transcriptome is inferred using long reads directly or by de novo assembling short reads. PMID:26019724

  16. A low-power, high-sensitivity micromachined optical magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhaskar, R.; Knappe, S.; Kitching, J.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate an optical magnetometer based on a microfabricated 87Rb vapor cell in a micromachined silicon sensor head. The alkali atom density in the vapor cell is increased by heating the cell with light brought to the sensor through an optical fiber, and absorbed by colored filters attached to the cell windows. A second fiber-optically coupled beam optically pumps and interrogates the atoms. The magnetometer operates on 140 mW of heating power and achieves a sensitivity below 20 fT/?Hz throughout most of the frequency band from 15 Hz to 100 Hz. Such a sensor can measure magnetic fields from the human heart and brain.

  17. High refractive index sensitivity sensing in gold nanoslit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jun; Kan, Qiang; Geng, Zhao-Xin; Xie, Yi-Yang; Wang, Chun-Xia; Chen, Hong-Da

    2014-08-01

    The extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) phenomenon of nano-periodic aperture array in metallic film has been widely investigated and used in biosensors. The surface plasmon resonance and cavity mode in some periodic nanostructures, such as nanohole and nanoslit, cause EOTs at certain wavelengths. This resonance wavelength is sensitive to the refractive index on the surface of periodic nanostructures. Therefore, the metallic nanostructures are expected to be good sensing elements. The sensing performances of gold nanoslit arrays are experimentally and theoretically investigated. Three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations are utilized to explore their transmission spectra and steady-state field intensity distributions. The electron beam evaporation, electron beam lithography, and ion milling are applied to the gold nanoslit arrays with different widths and periods. The sensing performances of the gold nanoslit array are characterized via transmission spectra in four kinds of refractive index samples. The highest sensitivity reaches 726 nm/RIU when the width of the gold nanoslit array is 38.5 nm.

  18. High color-vision sensitivity in macaque and humans.

    PubMed

    Loop, M S; Crossman, D K

    2000-01-01

    Psychophysical (behavioral) detection thresholds and color-discrimination thresholds were determined in a macaque using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure. On a white background, detection thresholds were determined for a white increment and three spectral increments: 618, 516, and 456 nm. Intermixed with detection threshold determinations, color-discrimination thresholds were determined by presenting the white increment, and one of the spectral increments, at 1.0 log units above their respective detection thresholds and dimming both until discrimination performance fell to threshold. The monkey could discriminate the color of the increments at detection threshold because the average color-discrimination threshold was 0.98+/-0.14 log attenuation. Because the monkey was much more sensitive to the spectral increments than the white increment, we performed an unconventional experiment. We determined the monkey's detection threshold for the white increment alone, and with broadband color filters in the white light path without adjusting the light's intensity. Insertion of several color filters in the light path lowered detection thresholds of both the macaque and six human trichromats. We believe that this improvement in detection thresholds produced by simply inserting color filters in a white light path is a threshold manifestation of the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect and suggests that one of color vision's important evolutionary advantages may be improved detection sensitivity. PMID:10750833

  19. Highly Sensitive Immunochromatographic Identification of Tetracycline Antibiotics in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Taranova, N. A.; Kruhlik, A. S.; Zvereva, E. A.; Shmanai, V. V.; Vashkevich, I. I.; Semyonov, D. A.; Eremin, S. A.; Zherdev, A. V.; Dzantiev, B. B.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid immunochromatographic assay was developed for the control of tetracycline (TC). The assay is based on the competition between immobilized TC-protein conjugate and TC in a tested sample for binding with polyclonal anti-TC antibodies conjugated to colloidal gold during the flow of the sample along a membrane strip with immobilized reactants. Conjugation of colloidal gold and the total immunoglobulin (IgG) fraction of polyclonal antibodies was used to increase the assay sensitivity to ensure low content of specific antibodies in the conjugate. This allowed effective inhibition of free TC and conjugate binding in the strip test zone. Photometric marker registration allows control of the reduction of binding, thereby enhancing detection sensitivity. The proposed assay allows TC to be detected at concentrations up to 20?ng/mL, exceeding the limit of detection of the known analogues, in a wide working range (more than two orders) of 60?pg/mL to 10?ng/mL, ensured through the use of polyclonal antibodies. The assay time is 10?min. The efficiency of the designed assay is shown to identify TC in milk; the degree of recovery of TC ranges from 90 to 112%. The precision of the concentrations measurements was no more than 10%. PMID:26689537

  20. Highly-efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with collaborative sensitization by silyl-anchor and carboxy-anchor dyes.

    PubMed

    Kakiage, Kenji; Aoyama, Yohei; Yano, Toru; Oya, Keiji; Fujisawa, Jun-Ichi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2015-11-14

    In dye-sensitized solar cells co-photosensitized with an alkoxysilyl-anchor dye ADEKA-1 and a carboxy-anchor organic dye LEG4, LEG4 was revealed to work collaboratively by enhancing the electron injection from the light-excited dyes to the TiO2 electrodes, and the cells exhibited a high conversion efficiency of over 14% under one sun illumination. PMID:26393334

  1. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-09-15

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD{sub 10} dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha}, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 {+-} 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 {+-} 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-{alpha}2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating the JAK/STAT3 pathway.

  2. PCF Based Sensor with High Sensitivity, High Birefringence and Low Confinement Losses for Liquid Analyte Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Ademgil, Huseyin; Haxha, Shyqyri

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report a design of high sensitivity Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) sensor with high birefringence and low confinement losses for liquid analyte sensing applications. The proposed PCF structures are designed with supplementary elliptical air holes in the core region vertically-shaped V-PCF and horizontally-shaped H-PCF. The full vectorial Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations performed to examine the sensitivity, the confinement losses, the effective refractive index and the modal birefringence features of the proposed elliptical air hole PCF structures. We show that the proposed PCF structures exhibit high relative sensitivity, high birefringence and low confinement losses simultaneously for various analytes. PMID:26694408

  3. Particles and microfluidics merged: perspectives of highly sensitive diagnostic detection

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Bhushan, Abhinav; Shen, Keyue; Seker, Erkin; Polyak, Boris

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for diagnostic technologies that provide laboratories with solutions that improve quality, enhance laboratory system productivity, and provide accurate detection of a broad range of infectious diseases and cancers. Recent advances in micro- and nanoscience and engineering, in particular in the areas of particles and microfluidic technologies, have advanced the “lab-on-a-chip” concept towards the development of a new generation of point-of-care diagnostic devices that could significantly enhance test sensitivity and speed. In this review, we will discuss many of the recent advances in microfluidics and particle technologies with an eye towards merging these two technologies for application in medical diagnostics. Although the potential diagnostic applications are virtually unlimited, the most important applications are foreseen in the areas of biomarker research, cancer diagnosis, and detection of infectious microorganisms. PMID:25378716

  4. A new compact, high sensitivity neutron imaging systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Rossé, B.; Thfoin, I.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a new small neutron imaging system (SNIS) diagnostic for the OMEGA laser facility. The SNIS uses a penumbral coded aperture and has been designed to record images from low yield (109-1010 neutrons) implosions such as those using deuterium as the fuel. This camera was tested at OMEGA in 2009 on a rugby hohlraum energetics experiment where it recorded an image at a yield of 1.4 × 1010. The resolution of this image was 54 ?m and the camera was located only 4 meters from target chamber centre. We recently improved the instrument by adding a cooled CCD camera. The sensitivity of the new camera has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a 60Co ?-ray source. The calibration showed that the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by using raw binning detection.

  5. Highly sensitive humidity sensing properties of carbon quantum dots films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ming, Hai; Liu, Ruihua; Han, Xiao; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yonglai; State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? A humidity sensing device was fabricated based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) films. ? The conductivity of the CQDs films shows a linear and rapid response to atmosphere humidity. ? The humidity sensing property was due to the hydrogen bonds between the functional groups on CQDs. -- Abstract: We reported the fabrication of a humidity sensing device based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) film. The conductivity of the CQDs film has a linear and rapid response to relative humidity, providing the opportunity for the fabrication of humidity sensing devices. The mechanism of our humidity sensor was proposed to be the formation of hydrogen bonds between carbon quantum dots and water molecules in the humidity environment, which significantly promote the electrons migration. In a control experiment, this hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the humidity sensitivity of candle soot (i.e. carbon nanoparticles) with and without oxygen containing groups on the surfaces.

  6. A new compact, high sensitivity neutron imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P.

    2012-10-15

    We have developed a new small neutron imaging system (SNIS) diagnostic for the OMEGA laser facility. The SNIS uses a penumbral coded aperture and has been designed to record images from low yield (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} neutrons) implosions such as those using deuterium as the fuel. This camera was tested at OMEGA in 2009 on a rugby hohlraum energetics experiment where it recorded an image at a yield of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}. The resolution of this image was 54 {mu}m and the camera was located only 4 meters from target chamber centre. We recently improved the instrument by adding a cooled CCD camera. The sensitivity of the new camera has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. The calibration showed that the signal-to-noise ratio could be improved by using raw binning detection.

  7. Development of a rapid screening method to determine primary aromatic amines in kitchen utensils using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Paseiro-Cerrato, R; Noonan, G O; Begley, T H

    2014-01-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) are a group of substances with undesirable health effects, that are used in a variety of commercial products. Several recent studies, using a number of screening and confirmatory methods, have reported the migration of PAAs from some kitchen utensils into acetic acid 3% (w/v). Many of these methods require significant sample preparation, therefore the aim of this work was to determine if direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) could be utilised as a rapid screening tool for the determination of PAAs in kitchen utensils. DART-MS results from direct analysis of the utensil have been compared with results of PAA migration by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The UPLC-MS/MS method had excellent linearity, appropriate sensitivity (LOD ? 1.5 µg L(-1); LOQ ? 4.5 µg L(-1)), repeatability from 2.4 to 13.2% and acceptable recoveries. DART-MS results were in good agreement with UPLC-MS/MS data, with 100% of non-compliant (PAA positive) samples successfully identified by DART-MS. PMID:24256323

  8. Effects of intrinsic magnetostriction on tube-topology magnetoelectric sensors with high magnetic field sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, Scott M.; Fitchorov, Trifon; Obi, Ogheneyunume; Chen, Yajie Harris, Vincent G.; Jiang, Liping; Hao, Hongbo; Wu, Shuangxia

    2014-05-07

    Three quasi-one-dimensional magnetoelectric (ME) magnetic field sensors, each with a different magnetostrictive wire material, were investigated in terms of sensitivity and noise floor. Magnetostrictive Galfenol, iron-cobalt-vanadium, and iron-nickel wires were examined. Sensitivity profiles, hysteresis effects, and noise floor measurements for both optimally biased and zero-biased conditions are presented. The FeNi wire (FN) exhibits high sensitivity (5.36?mV/Oe) at bias fields below 22?Oe and an optimal bias of 10?Oe, whereas FeGa wire (FG) exhibits higher sensitivity (6.89 mW/Oe) at bias fields >22?Oe. The sensor of FeCoV wire (FC) presents relatively low sensitivity (2.12?mV/Oe), due to low magnetostrictive coefficient. Each ME tube-topology sensor demonstrates relatively high sensitivity at zero bias field, which results from a magnetic shape anisotropy and internal strain of the thin magnetostrictive wire.

  9. Birth Weight, Current Anthropometric Markers, and High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Brazilian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5–13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  10. Birth weight, current anthropometric markers, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein in Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Boscaini, Camile; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown associations of birth weight with increased concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein. This study assessed the relationship between birth weight, anthropometric and metabolic parameters during childhood, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. A total of 612 Brazilian school children aged 5-13 years were included in the study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, and glucose were measured by enzymatic methods. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the homeostasis model assessment method. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, General Linear Model, and General Linear Model for Gamma Distribution. Body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds were directly associated with birth weight (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.015, resp.). Large for gestational age children showed higher high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) than small for gestational age. High birth weight is associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, and skinfolds. Large for gestational age altered high sensitivity C-reactive protein and promoted additional risk factor for atherosclerosis in these school children, independent of current nutritional status. PMID:25874126

  11. Achieving tunable sensitivity in composite high-energy density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkeev, Sergey; Tsyshevsky, Roman; Kuklja, Maija

    2015-06-01

    Laser irradiation provides a unique opportunity for selective, predictive, and controlled initiation of energetic materials. We propose a consistent micro-scale mechanism of photoexcitation at the interface, formed by a molecular energetic material and a metal oxide. A specific PETN-MgO model composite is used to illustrate and explain seemingly puzzling experiments on selective laser initiation of energetic materials, which reported that the presence of metal oxide additives triggered the photoinitiation by an unusually low energy. We suggest that PETN photodecomposition is catalyzed by oxygen vacancies (F0 centers) at the MgO surface. The proposed model suggests ways to tune sensitivity of energetic molecular materials to photoinitiation. Our quantum-chemical calculations suggest that the structural defects (e.g., oxygen vacancies) strongly interact with the molecular material (e.g., adsorbed energetic molecules) by inducing a charge transfer at the interface and hence play an imperative role in governing both energy absorption and energy release in the system. Our approach and conclusions provide a solid basis for novel design of energetic interfaces with desired properties and offers a new perspective in the field of explosive materials and devices.

  12. Highly heat-sensitive luminophor for recording IR radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitsev, L.M.; Martyshova, N.E.; Pospelova, L.A.; Senashenko, M.V.; Timofeev, Yu.P.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and predict the properties of a single-phase crystalline phosphor with an extended range of temperature sensitivity. The luminophors ZnS /times/ CdS mentioned above were used as a matrix to synthesize a luminophor of the new type. Substances exhibiting a different temperature dependence - Ag and Eu - were chosen for activation. The choice of the composition of the base made it possible to rely on the fact that the emission bands of both activators will mutually overlap and that a spectrally uniform crystalline phosphor will be obtained. It was shown that the dynamic range of the power density of the recorded IR radiation can be substantially expanded (up to 30). The receiving luminescent screen is made of a single-phase crystalline phosphor ZnS /times/ CdS with Ag, Eu, and Ni with thermal extinction of both centers of luminescence in different temperature regions, making it possible to obtain a series of screens with well-reproducible characteristics.

  13. Highly sensitive phototransistor based on GaSe nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hai; Wang, Peng; Gao, Yanqing; Wang, Xudong; Lin, Tie; Wang, Jianlu; Liao, Lei; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Huang, Zhiming; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chu, Junhao

    2015-10-01

    Phototransistors based on two dimensional semiconductors have drawn increasing attention in recent years. GaSe is a typical semiconductor with a layered structure. In this work, the ultrathin GaSe nanosheets were exfoliated from commercially available crystals using a micromechanical cleavage technique. Then, the nanosheets were used to fabricate field effect transistors (FETs) on Si/SiO2 substrates with interdigitated electrodes. The electrical and optoelectronic properties of the FET were characterized. The phototransistor based on a GaSe nanosheet had a high photoresponsivity (˜2200 mA/W) and a high Iphoto/Idark (photoresponse current over dark current) ratio of almost 103.

  14. Highly sensitive vacuum ion pump current measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Hansknecht, John Christopher (Williamsburg, VA)

    2006-02-21

    A vacuum system comprising: 1) an ion pump; 2) power supply; 3) a high voltage DC--DC converter drawing power from the power supply and powering the vacuum pump; 4) a feedback network comprising an ammeter circuit including an operational amplifier and a series of relay controlled scaling resistors of different resistance for detecting circuit feedback; 5) an optional power block section intermediate the power supply and the high voltage DC--DC converter; and 6) a microprocessor receiving feedback information from the feedback network, controlling which of the scaling resistors should be in the circuit and manipulating data from the feedback network to provide accurate vacuum measurement to an operator.

  15. Enhanced laboratory sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant using highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Berengut, J C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2010-09-17

    We study atomic systems that are in the frequency range of optical atomic clocks and have enhanced sensitivity to potential time variation of the fine-structure constant ?. The high sensitivity is due to coherent contributions from three factors: high nuclear charge Z, high ionization degree, and significant differences in the configuration composition of the states involved. Configuration crossing keeps the frequencies in the optical range despite the large ionization energies. We discuss a few promising examples that have the largest ? sensitivities seen in atomic systems. PMID:20867622

  16. Enhanced Laboratory Sensitivity to Variation of the Fine-Structure Constant using Highly Charged Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2010-09-17

    We study atomic systems that are in the frequency range of optical atomic clocks and have enhanced sensitivity to potential time variation of the fine-structure constant {alpha}. The high sensitivity is due to coherent contributions from three factors: high nuclear charge Z, high ionization degree, and significant differences in the configuration composition of the states involved. Configuration crossing keeps the frequencies in the optical range despite the large ionization energies. We discuss a few promising examples that have the largest {alpha} sensitivities seen in atomic systems.

  17. High-sensitivity mass spectrometry with a tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, W.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristic features of accelerator mass spectrometry are discussed. A short overview is given of the current status of mass spectrometry with high-energy (MeV/nucleon) heavy-ion accelerators. Emphasis is placed on studies with tandem accelerators and on future mass spectrometry of heavier isotopes with the new generation of higher-voltage tandems.

  18. UNCERTAINTY AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES FOR VERY HIGH ORDER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    While there may in many cases be high potential for exposure of humans and ecosystems to chemicals released from a source, the degree to which this potential is realized is often uncertain. Conceptually, uncertainties are divided among parameters, model, and modeler during simula...

  19. HIGH SENSITIVITY PARTICLE DETECTION BY BIASED AC ELECTROOSMOTIC TRAPPING ON CANTILEVER

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jayne

    trapping, and its integration with cantilevers is prototyped to reach ultra high detection sensitivity. 1 ACEO can be applied for rapid enrichment of local particle concentration for improved detection advance sensor technology in several areas, such as DNA analysis, to reach unprecedented sensitivity. 2

  20. PatternHunter II 1 PatternHunter II: Highly Sensitive and Fast Homology

    E-print Network

    Ma, Bin

    . Abstract Extending the single optimized spaced seed of PatternHunter [20] to multiple ones, Pattern- HunterPatternHunter II 1 PatternHunter II: Highly Sensitive and Fast Homology Search (Extended Abstract approaches, including an \\optimized spaced seed", to substantially improve sensitivity and speed

  1. A polydopamine nanosphere based highly sensitive and selective aptamer cytosensor with enzyme amplification.

    PubMed

    Fan, Daoqing; Wu, Changtong; Wang, Kun; Gu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Erkang

    2016-01-01

    With CCRF-CEM as the model cell, a highly sensitive and selective cytosensor was developed by taking advantage of polydopamine nanospheres for the first time. The strategies of aptamer/membrane protein recognition and Exonuclease III assisted cycle amplification were used for improving selectivity and sensitivity. The detection of limit reached was as low as 15 cells per mL. PMID:26526224

  2. High-speed asynchronous optical sampling for high-sensitivity detection of coherent phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekorsy, T.; Taubert, R.; Hudert, F.; Schrenk, G.; Bartels, A.; Cerna, R.; Kotaidis, V.; Plech, A.; Köhler, K.; Schmitz, J.; Wagner, J.

    2007-12-01

    A new optical pump-probe technique is implemented for the investigation of coherent acoustic phonon dynamics in the GHz to THz frequency range which is based on two asynchronously linked femtosecond lasers. Asynchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) provides the performance of on all-optical oscilloscope and allows us to record optically induced lattice dynamics over nanosecond times with femtosecond resolution at scan rates of 10 kHz without any moving part in the set-up. Within 1 minute of data acquisition time signal-to-noise ratios better than 107 are achieved. We present examples of the high-sensitivity detection of coherent phonons in superlattices and of the coherent acoustic vibration of metallic nanoparticles.

  3. CPng: a high sensitivity photon-counting camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebaut, Eric; Abbe, L.; Blazit, Alain; Dubois, Jean-pierre; Foy, Renaud; Tallon, Michel; Vakili, Farrokh

    2003-03-01

    CPng is a photon-counting camera currently under final development at Observatoire de Lyon (France) and Observatoire de la Cote d"Azur (France). Its goal is to provide quantum efficiency as high as possible at visible wavelengths (up to 30 35%) under very low light level conditions and with a very short exposure time (approximately 4ms). Five CPng devices are under construction for astronomical and bio-medical imaging.

  4. A novel high resolution, high sensitivity SPECT detector for molecular imaging of cardiovascular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusanno, F.; Argentieri, A.; Baiocchi, M.; Colilli, S.; Cisbani, E.; De Vincentis, G.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Magliozzi, M. L.; Majewski, S.; Marano, G.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Vitelli, L.; Wang, Y.

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death in western countries. Understanding the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and monitoring the effect of innovative therapies of heart failure is of fundamental importance. A flexible, high resolution, high sensitivity detector system for molecular imaging with radionuclides on small animal models has been designed for this aim. A prototype has been built using tungsten pinhole and LaBr3(Ce) scintillator coupled to Hamamatsu Flat Panel PMTs. Compact individual-channel readout has been designed, built and tested. Measurements with phantoms as well as pilot studies on mice have been performed, the results show that the myocardial perfusion in mice can be determined with sufficient precision. The detector will be improved replacing the Hamamatsu Flat Panel with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) to allow integration of the system with MRI scanners. Application of LaBr3(Ce) scintillator coupled to photosensor with high photon detection efficiency and excellent energy resolution will allow dual-label imaging to monitor simultaneously the cardiac perfusion and the molecular targets under investigation during the heart therapy.

  5. High Explosive Deonation Threshold Sensitivity Due to Multiple Fragment Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Georgevich, V; Pincosy, P; Chase, J

    2004-01-07

    Fragments, bullets or projectiles can initiate a detonation in a high explosive (HE). For this to happen certain critical conditions need to be exceeded. For a given explosive, these critical conditions are the projectile velocity, the projectile size and shape, and the projectile material properties. A lot of work has been done in the area of metal shaped charge jets and individual fragments impacting the HE. One major gap in understanding initiation phenomena is the effect of multiple fragment impact. This study shows that multiple fragments can lower the fragment size and the kinetic energy thresholds.

  6. Purification of ethanol for highly sensitive self-assembly experiments

    PubMed Central

    Barbe, Kathrin; Kind, Martin; Pfeiffer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ethanol is the preferred solvent for the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolates on gold. By applying a thin film sensor system, we could demonstrate that even the best commercial qualities of ethanol contain surface-active contaminants, which can compete with the desired thiolates for surface sites. Here we present that gold nanoparticles deposited onto zeolite X can be used to remove these contaminants by chemisorption. This nanoparticle-impregnated zeolite does not only show high capacities for surface-active contaminants, such as thiols, but can be fully regenerated via a simple pyrolysis protocol. PMID:25161861

  7. HIGH SENSITIVITY FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR. INTERMOLECULAR INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project explored the feasibility of developing new techniques for evaluation of the effects of environmental toxic materials on complex biopolymer systems using high sensitivity Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy. Commercial instrumentation avail...

  8. Highly sensitive and selective bioluminescence based ozone probes and their applications to detect ambient ozone.

    PubMed

    Nam, Younseok; Kim, Beom Seok; Shin, Injae

    2016-01-01

    Highly selective and sensitive bioluminescence based probes, which respond to ozone but not to other ROS, have been developed. These probes were used to determine ozone concentrations in environmental samples. PMID:26567538

  9. Hybrid nanostructures for high-sensitivity luminescence nanothermometry in the second biological window.

    PubMed

    Cerón, Elizabeth Navarro; Ortgies, Dirk H; Del Rosal, Blanca; Ren, Fuqiang; Benayas, Antonio; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Ma, Dongling; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Solé, José García; Jaque, Daniel; Rodríguez, Emma Martín

    2015-08-26

    Hybrid nanostructures containing neodymium-doped nanoparticles and infrared-emitting quantum dots constitute highly sensitive luminescent thermometers operating in the second biological window. They demonstrate that accurate subtissue fluorescence thermal sensing is possible. PMID:26174612

  10. Impact sensitivity of materials in contact with liquid and gaseous oxygen at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    As a result of the Apollo 13 incident, increased emphasis is being placed on materials compatibility in a high pressure GOX environment. It is known that in addition to impact sensitivity of materials, approximately adiabatic compression conditions can contrive to induce materials reactivity. Test runs at high pressure using the ABMA tester indicate the following: (1) The materials used in the tests showed an inverse relationship between thickness and impact sensitivity. (2) Several materials tested exhibited greater impact sensitivity in GOX than in LOX. (3) The impact sensitivity of the materials tested in GOX, at the pressures tested, showed enhanced impact sensitivity with higher pressure. (4) The rank ordering of the materials tested in LOX up to 1000 psia is the same as the rank ordering resulting from tests in LOX at 14.7 psia.

  11. Supercontinuum radiation for ultra-high sensitivity liquid-phase sensing

    E-print Network

    Kiwanuka, Ssegawa-Ssekintu

    2014-01-07

    , quantification. Optical techniques can often be integrated into existing experimental set-ups, for example, process control lines. Some disadvantages include the potentially high cost of high sensit- ivity systems, the need for calibration in some cases... is to develop a sensitive system of measurement for liquid analytes that can offer advances over existing techniques. This will thus enable greater levels of interrogation that up until now have been limited by the available technology. 2 BACKGROUND PRINCIPLES 1...

  12. Stretchable and highly sensitive graphene-on-polymer strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Rujing; Yu, Wenjian; Wang, Kunlin; Wei, Jinquan; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Zhihong; Cheng, Yao; Zheng, Quanshui; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Zhu, Hongwei

    2012-11-01

    The use of nanomaterials for strain sensors has attracted attention due to their unique electromechanical properties. However, nanomaterials have yet to overcome many technological obstacles and thus are not yet the preferred material for strain sensors. In this work, we investigated graphene woven fabrics (GWFs) for strain sensing. Different than graphene films, GWFs undergo significant changes in their polycrystalline structures along with high-density crack formation and propagation mechanically deformed. The electrical resistance of GWFs increases exponentially with tensile strain with gauge factors of ~103 under 2~6% strains and ~106 under higher strains that are the highest thus far reported, due to its woven mesh configuration and fracture behavior, making it an ideal structure for sensing tensile deformation by changes in strain. The main mechanism is investigated, resulting in a theoretical model that predicts very well the observed behavior.

  13. Method for rapid, high sensitivity tritiated water extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R.; Belovodsky, L.; Gaevoy, V.; Golubev, A.

    1997-04-20

    We have developed a thermal vacuum desorption process to rapidly extract water from environmental samples for tritium analysis. Thermal vacuum desorption allows for extraction of the moisture from the sample within a few hours in a form and quantity suitable for liquid scintillation counting and allows detection of tritium at the levels of <2 Bq/L of milk, <0.5 Bq/gm of vegetation, and < 0.5 Bq/gin of soil. We developed a prototype unit that can process batches of twenty or more samples within 24 hours. Early data shows that a high percentage of water is extracted reproducibly without enrichment or depletion of the tritium content. The quench coefficient of the extracted water is low allowing for accurate, direct liquid scintillation counting. Excellent comparison has been observed with results using freeze-dry lypholization as the water extraction method.

  14. Stretchable and highly sensitive graphene-on-polymer strain sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Rujing; Yu, Wenjian; Wang, Kunlin; Wei, Jinquan; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Zhihong; Cheng, Yao; Zheng, Quanshui; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Zhu, Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials for strain sensors has attracted attention due to their unique electromechanical properties. However, nanomaterials have yet to overcome many technological obstacles and thus are not yet the preferred material for strain sensors. In this work, we investigated graphene woven fabrics (GWFs) for strain sensing. Different than graphene films, GWFs undergo significant changes in their polycrystalline structures along with high-density crack formation and propagation mechanically deformed. The electrical resistance of GWFs increases exponentially with tensile strain with gauge factors of ~103 under 2~6% strains and ~106 under higher strains that are the highest thus far reported, due to its woven mesh configuration and fracture behavior, making it an ideal structure for sensing tensile deformation by changes in strain. The main mechanism is investigated, resulting in a theoretical model that predicts very well the observed behavior. PMID:23162694

  15. Highly Sensitive Terahertz Sensing of Glycerol-Water Mixtures with Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamaru, F.; Hattori, K.; Shiraga, K.; Kawashima, S.; Suga, S.; Nishida, T.; Takeda, M. W.; Ogawa, Y.

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate the highly sensitive terahertz (THz) sensing of a water-glycerol mixture poured on a metamaterial surface using reflection-based THz time domain spectroscopy. The reflectance at the resonant dip frequency changes significantly with glycerol concentration. The detection sensitivity is about 8 times higher than that compared to the case without a metamaterial structure. We also investigate how sensitivity depends on the Q factor of the metamaterial resonance for highly absorptive media, such as a water solution in the THz region.

  16. Compact low-cost high-sensitivity CMOS radar-on-chip integration for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changzhi; Lin, Jenshan

    2010-04-01

    Based on the measurement results of a 5 GHz CMOS radar microchip, it is shown that low power CMOS radar-on-chip integration can have high detection sensitivity despite the large flicker noise and phase noise contributions around the signal of interest. Key technologies to further increase the detection sensitivity will be discussed, including software configured DC offset calibration, noise suppression using tunable baseband bandwidth limiter, and special receiver architecture for flicker noise reduction. The applications of low-cost high-sensitivity on-chip radar will be focused on surveillance and reconnaissance, sensing through-wall radar, ground penetration radar, border monitoring, and moving target detection.

  17. Tenfold improved sensitivity using high refractive-index substrates for surface plasmon sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Micheletto, Ruggero; Hamamoto, Katsumi; Fujii, Takashi; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2008-10-27

    Surface plasmon resonance sensors exploit the high sensitivity to local perturbations of plasma waves in a thin metal layer. These devices have a wide range of applications as biomedical, environmental, industrial, and homeland security. We concentrate on the theoretical aspects of the sensing principle. By calculations at various indexes of refraction we proved that using substrate material of higher index, sensitivity and dynamics range improve conspicuously. Finally, we show experimental data taken using a special transparent ceramic material of exceptionally high index of refraction n=2.04. Tests demonstrate sensitivity about one order of magnitude better than those obtained with conventional BK7 glass.

  18. Highly sensitive and selective detection of dopamine using one-pot synthesized highly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaokai; Kai, Siqi; Wang, Hong-Yin; Yang, Jingjing; Wu, Fu-Gen; Chen, Zhan

    2015-03-17

    A simple and highly efficient method for dopamine (DA) detection using water-soluble silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) was reported. The SiNPs with a high quantum yield of 23.6% were synthesized by using a one-pot microwave-assisted method. The fluorescence quenching capability of a variety of molecules on the synthesized SiNPs has been tested; only DA molecules were found to be able to quench the fluorescence of these SiNPs effectively. Therefore, such a quenching effect can be used to selectively detect DA. All other molecules tested have little interference with the dopamine detection, including ascorbic acid, which commonly exists in cells and can possibly affect the dopamine detection. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity difference between the quenched and unquenched cases versus the fluorescence intensity without quenching (?I/I) was observed to be linearly proportional to the DA analyte concentration in the range from 0.005 to 10.0 ?M, with a detection limit of 0.3 nM (S/N = 3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the lowest limit for DA detection reported so far. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching is attributed to the energy transfer from the SiNPs to the oxidized dopamine molecules through Förster resonance energy transfer. The reported method of SiNP synthesis is very simple and cheap, making the above sensitive and selective DA detection approach using SiNPs practical for many applications. PMID:25671464

  19. Heightened sensitivity of a poorly buffered high arctic lake to late-Holocene climatic change

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Heightened sensitivity of a poorly buffered high arctic lake to late-Holocene climatic change Neal; Diatoms; pH; Climate change Introduction Although high arctic lakes and ponds are considered highly that the diatoms in Rock Basin Lake are faithfully tracking climatic changes, and that low-alkalinity lakes may

  20. High sensitivity microchannel plate detectors for space extreme ultraviolet missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, K.; Homma, T.; Murakami, G.; Yoshikawa, I.

    2012-08-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) detectors have been widely used as two-dimensional photon counting devices on numerous space EUV (extreme ultraviolet) missions. Although there are other choices for EUV photon detectors, the characteristic features of MCP detectors such as their light weight, low dark current, and high spatial resolution make them more desirable for space applications than any other detector. In addition, it is known that the photocathode can be tailored to increase the quantum detection efficiency (QDE) especially for longer UV wavelengths (100-150 nm). There are many types of photocathode materials available, typically alkali halides. In this study, we report on the EUV (50-150 nm) QDE evaluations for MCPs that were coated with Au, MgF2, CsI, and KBr. We confirmed that CsI and KBr show 2-100 times higher QDEs than the bare photocathode MCPs, while Au and MgF2 show reduced QDEs. In addition, the optimal geometrical parameters for the CsI deposition were also studied experimentally. The best CsI thickness was found to be 150 nm, and it should be deposited on the inner wall of the channels only where the EUV photons initially impinge. We will also discuss the techniques and procedures for reducing the degradation of the photocathode while it is being prepared on the ground before being deployed in space, as adopted by JAXA's EXCEED mission which will be launched in 2013.

  1. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C; LaFreniere, D; Macintosh, B; Doyon, R

    2008-06-02

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  2. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marois, C

    2007-11-07

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analysis have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follows a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fix separation from the point spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and non-coronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level. In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding confidence level as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckles noise, a detection threshold up to three times higher is required to obtain a confidence level equivalent to that at 5{sigma} for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested using TRIDENT CFHT and angular differential imaging NIRI Gemini adaptive optics data. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. A power-law is finally derived to predict the 1-3 x 10{sup -7} confidence level detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise.

  3. Coupled Aerodynamic and Structural Sensitivity Analysis of a High-Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, B. H.; Walsh, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    An objective of the High Performance Computing and Communication Program at the NASA Langley Research Center is to demonstrate multidisciplinary shape and sizing optimization of a complete aerospace vehicle configuration by using high-fidelity, finite-element structural analysis and computational fluid dynamics aerodynamic analysis. In a previous study, a multi-disciplinary analysis system for a high-speed civil transport was formulated to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them computationally intensive, This paper is an extension of the previous study, in which the sensitivity analysis for the coupled aerodynamic and structural analysis problem is formulated and implemented. Uncoupled stress sensitivities computed with a constant load vector in a commercial finite element analysis code are compared to coupled aeroelastic sensitivities computed by finite differences. The computational expense of these sensitivity calculation methods is discussed.

  4. Confidence Level and Sensitivity Limits in High-Contrast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marois, Christian; Lafrenière, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Doyon, René

    2008-01-01

    In long adaptive optics corrected exposures, exoplanet detections are currently limited by speckle noise originating from the telescope and instrument optics, and it is expected that such noise will also limit future high-contrast imaging instruments for both ground- and space-based telescopes. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that the time intensity variations of a single speckle follow a modified Rician. It is first demonstrated here that for a circular pupil, this temporal intensity distribution also represents the speckle spatial intensity distribution at a fixed separation from the point-spread function center; this fact is demonstrated using numerical simulations for coronagraphic and noncoronagraphic data. The real statistical distribution of the noise needs to be taken into account explicitly when selecting a detection threshold appropriate for some desired confidence level (CL). In this paper, a technique is described to obtain the pixel intensity distribution of an image and its corresponding CL as a function of the detection threshold. Using numerical simulations, it is shown that in the presence of speckle noise, a detection threshold up to 3 times higher is required to obtain a CL equivalent to that at 5 ? for Gaussian noise. The technique is then tested on data acquired by simultaneous spectral differential imaging with TRIDENT and by angular differential imaging with NIRI. It is found that the angular differential imaging technique produces quasi-Gaussian residuals, a remarkable result compared to classical adaptive optic imaging. Finally, a power law is derived to predict the 1-3×10-7 CL detection threshold when averaging a partially correlated non-Gaussian noise. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Also based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  5. Highly sensitive electronic whiskers based on patterned carbon nanotube and silver nanoparticle composite films

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Kuniharu; Yu, Zhibin; Zheng, Maxwell; Ota, Hiroki; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian whiskers present an important class of tactile sensors that complement the functionalities of skin for detecting wind with high sensitivity and navigation around local obstacles. Here, we report electronic whiskers based on highly tunable composite films of carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles that are patterned on high-aspect-ratio elastic fibers. The nanotubes form a conductive network matrix with excellent bendability, and nanoparticle loading enhances the conductivity and endows the composite with high strain sensitivity. The resistivity of the composites is highly sensitive to strain with a pressure sensitivity of up to ?8%/Pa for the whiskers, which is >10× higher than all previously reported capacitive or resistive pressure sensors. It is notable that the resistivity and sensitivity of the composite films can be readily modulated by a few orders of magnitude by changing the composition ratio of the components, thereby allowing for exploration of whisker sensors with excellent performance. Systems consisting of whisker arrays are fabricated, and as a proof of concept, real-time two- and three-dimensional gas-flow mapping is demonstrated. The ultrahigh sensitivity and ease of fabrication of the demonstrated whiskers may enable a wide range of applications in advanced robotics and human–machine interfacing. PMID:24449857

  6. Interpersonal sensitivity and functioning impairment in youth at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Masillo, A; Valmaggia, L R; Saba, R; Brandizzi, M; Lindau, J F; Solfanelli, A; Curto, M; Narilli, F; Telesforo, L; Kotzalidis, G D; Di Pietro, D; D'Alema, M; Girardi, P; Fiori Nastro, P

    2016-01-01

    A personality trait that often elicits poor and uneasy interpersonal relationships is interpersonal sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and psychosocial functioning in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis as compared to help-seeking individuals who screened negative for an ultra-high risk of psychosis. A total sample of 147 adolescents and young adult who were help seeking for emerging mental health problems participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: 39 individuals who met criteria for an ultra-high-risk mental state (UHR), and 108 (NS). The whole sample completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM) and the Global Functioning: Social and Role Scale (GF:SS; GF:RS). Mediation analysis was used to explore whether attenuated negative symptoms mediated the relationship between interpersonal sensitivity and social functioning. Individuals with UHR state showed higher IPSM scores and lower GF:SS and GF:RS scores than NS participants. A statistically negative significant correlation between two IPSM subscales (Interpersonal Awareness and Timidity) and GF:SS was found in both groups. Our results also suggest that the relationship between the aforementioned aspects of interpersonal sensitivity and social functioning was not mediated by negative prodromal symptoms. This study suggests that some aspects of interpersonal sensitivity were associated with low level of social functioning. Assessing and treating interpersonal sensitivity may be a promising therapeutic target to improve social functioning in young help-seeking individuals. PMID:25711287

  7. Structure-function analysis identifies highly sensitive strigolactone receptors in Striga.

    PubMed

    Toh, Shigeo; Holbrook-Smith, Duncan; Stogios, Peter J; Onopriyenko, Olena; Lumba, Shelley; Tsuchiya, Yuichiro; Savchenko, Alexei; McCourt, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Strigolactones are naturally occurring signaling molecules that affect plant development, fungi-plant interactions, and parasitic plant infestations. We characterized the function of 11 strigolactone receptors from the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica using chemical and structural biology. We found a clade of polyspecific receptors, including one that is sensitive to picomolar concentrations of strigolactone. A crystal structure of a highly sensitive strigolactone receptor from Striga revealed a larger binding pocket than that of the Arabidopsis receptor, which could explain the increased range of strigolactone sensitivity. Thus, the sensitivity of Striga to strigolactones from host plants is driven by receptor sensitivity. By expressing strigolactone receptors in Arabidopsis, we developed a bioassay that can be used to identify chemicals and crops with altered strigolactone levels. PMID:26450211

  8. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Determination of Alfatoxin B1 Using Quantum Dots-Assembled Amplification Labels

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaoqun; Gao, Huiju; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Cao, Jinxuan; Wu, Zhen; Pan, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    A competitive electrochemical immunoassay for highly sensitive detection of AFB1 is demonstrated using layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled quantum dots (QDs) as labels. To investigate the effects of the higher sensitivity of square wave voltammetric stripping (SWV) and of the LBL technique on the proposed immunoassays, the proposed assay was compared to electrochemical (EC) and fluorescent immunoassays, which did not use LBL technology. Peanut samples were analyzed using the three immunoassays. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.018, 0.046 and 0.212 ng/mL, respectively, while the sensitivities were 0.308, 1.011 and 4.594 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed electrochemical immunoassay displayed a significant improvement in sensitivity, thereby providing a simple and sensitive alternative strategy for determining AFB1 levels in peanut samples. PMID:26307990

  9. High-throughput, Highly Sensitive Analyses of Bacterial Morphogenesis Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Desmarais, Samantha M; Tropini, Carolina; Miguel, Amanda; Cava, Felipe; Monds, Russell D; de Pedro, Miguel A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2015-12-25

    The bacterial cell wall is a network of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides (peptidoglycan); it is responsible for the mechanical integrity of the cell and shape determination. Liquid chromatography can be used to measure the abundance of the muropeptide subunits composing the cell wall. Characteristics such as the degree of cross-linking and average glycan strand length are known to vary across species. However, a systematic comparison among strains of a given species has yet to be undertaken, making it difficult to assess the origins of variability in peptidoglycan composition. We present a protocol for muropeptide analysis using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and demonstrate that UPLC achieves resolution comparable with that of HPLC while requiring orders of magnitude less injection volume and a fraction of the elution time. We also developed a software platform to automate the identification and quantification of chromatographic peaks, which we demonstrate has improved accuracy relative to other software. This combined experimental and computational methodology revealed that peptidoglycan composition was approximately maintained across strains from three Gram-negative species despite taxonomical and morphological differences. Peptidoglycan composition and density were maintained after we systematically altered cell size in Escherichia coli using the antibiotic A22, indicating that cell shape is largely decoupled from the biochemistry of peptidoglycan synthesis. High-throughput, sensitive UPLC combined with our automated software for chromatographic analysis will accelerate the discovery of peptidoglycan composition and the molecular mechanisms of cell wall structure determination. PMID:26468288

  10. Longevity Tests of High-Sensitivity BD-PND Bubble Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R; Carlberg, E

    2002-07-09

    Medium- and very-high-sensitivity neutron bubble dosimeters (BD-PNDs) made by Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) were used to study the life span of such dosimeters in a standard setup with a {sup 252}Cf source. Although data on the longevity of bubble dosimeters with low and medium sensitivity exist, such data for dosimeters with high and very high sensitivity are not readily available. The manufacturer guarantees optimum dosimeter performance for 3 months after receipt. However, it is important to know the change in the dosimeters' characteristics with time, especially after the first 3 months. The long-term performance of four sets of very high sensitivity and one set of medium-sensitivity bubble dosimeters was examined for periods of up to 13 months. During that time, the detectors were exposed and reset more than 20 times. Although departures from initial detection sensitivity were observed in several cases, the detectors indicated a significantly longer life span than stated in the manufacturer's warranty. In addition, the change in the number of bubbles and in evaluated neutron dose as a function of the time from the end of exposure until the dosimeters were read was investigated.

  11. High-sensitivity and high-Q-factor glass photonic crystal cavity and its applications as sensors.

    PubMed

    Siraji, Ashfaqul Anwar; Zhao, Yang

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the properties of a planar photonic crystal cavity on glass and its applications as sensors. An airbridged twofold defect cavity on Schott glass background and Gorilla glass substrate has been designed for high Q-factor up to 4459. The average sensitivity of the cavity resonance to background refractive index is 388 nm/Refractive Index Unit. The resonant wavelength is sensitive to background temperature by 18.5 pm/°C. The designed sensors show much higher sensitivity than those based on waveguide interferometers or photonic bandgap structures without cavity resonance. The results are also useful for experimental studies of glass photonic devices. PMID:25831371

  12. Suppression of Sensitivity to Drugs and Antibiotics by High External Cation Concentrations in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Shabro, Aidin; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background Potassium ion homeostasis plays an important role in regulating membrane potential and therefore resistance to cations, antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and other yeasts. However, the precise relationship between drug resistance in S. pombe and external potassium concentrations (particularly in its natural habitats) remains unclear. S. pombe can tolerate a wide range of external potassium concentrations which in turn affect plasma membrane polarization. We thus hypothesized that high external potassium concentrations suppress the sensitivity of this yeast to various drugs. Methods We have investigated the effect of external KCl concentrations on the sensitivity of S. pombe cells to a wide range of antibiotics, antimicrobial agents and chemotherapeutic drugs. We employed survival assays, immunoblotting and microscopy for these studies. Results We demonstrate that KCl, and to a lesser extent NaCl and RbCl can suppress the sensitivity of S. pombe to a wide range of antibiotics. Ammonium chloride and potassium hydrogen sulphate also suppressed drug sensitivity. This effect appears to depend in part on changes to membrane polarization and membrane transport proteins. Interestingly, we have found little relationship between the suppressive effect of KCl on sensitivity and the structure, polarity or solubility of the various compounds investigated. Conclusions High concentrations of external potassium and other cations suppress sensitivity to a wide range of drugs in S. pombe. Potassium-rich environments may thus provide S. pombe a competitive advantage in nature. Modulating potassium ion homeostasis may sensitize pathogenic fungi to antifungal agents. PMID:25793410

  13. Nanowire-templated microelectrodes for high-sensitivity pH detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antohe, Vlad Andrei; Radu, Adrian; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Mária; Attout, Anne; Yunus, Sami; Bertrand, Patrick; DuÅ£u, Constantin Augustin; Vlad, Alexandru; Melinte, Sorin; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, Luc

    2009-02-01

    A highly sensitive pH capacitive sensor has been designed by confined growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays on interdigited microelectrodes. The active surface of the device has been functionalized with an electrochemical pH transducer (polyaniline). We easily tune the device features by combining lithographic techniques with electrochemical synthesis. The reported electrical LC resonance measurements show considerable sensitivity enhancement compared to conventional capacitive pH sensors realized with microfabricated interdigited electrodes. The sensitivity can be easily improved by changing only the thickness of the functional layer.

  14. Highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on two cascaded microfiber knots with Vernier effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhilin; Sun, Qizhen; Jia, Weihua; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive refractive index (RI) sensor based on two cascaded microfiber knots with vernier effect is proposed and demonstrated by theoretical arithmetic. Deriving from high proportional evanescent field of microfiber and sharp spectrum fringes induced by vernier effect, a slight change of ambient RI will cause large variation of effective RI and significant wavelength shift of resonant peaks, indicating high sensitivity and resolution of the proposed compound resonator. Numerical analysis demonstrates a high sensitivity of 10000nm/RIU and a resolution of 5.57×10-5 RIU at the ambient RI around 1.33 for the fiber diameter of 1?m and cavity radii of R1 = 500?m, R2 = 547.62?m

  15. Highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on cascaded microfiber knots with Vernier effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhilin; Sun, Qizhen; Li, Borui; Luo, Yiyang; Lu, Wengao; Liu, Deming; Shum, Perry Ping; Zhang, Lin

    2015-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a refractive index (RI) sensor based on cascaded microfiber knot resonators (CMKRs) with Vernier effect. Deriving from high proportional evanescent field of microfiber and spectrum magnification function of Vernier effect, the RI sensor shows high sensitivity as well as high detection resolution. By using the method named "Drawing-Knotting-Assembling (DKA)", a compact CMKRs is fabricated for experimental demonstration. With the assistance of Lorentz fitting algorithm on the transmission spectrum, sensitivity of 6523nm/RIU and detection resolution up to 1.533 × 10(-7)RIU are obtained in the experiment which show good agreement with the numerical simulation. The proposed all-fiber RI sensor with high sensitivity, compact size and low cost can be widely used for chemical and biological detection, as well as the electronic/magnetic field measurement. PMID:25836883

  16. High Sensitive Formaldehyde Gas Sensor Prepared by R.F. Induction Plasma Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liqin; Gao, Wei; Hasegawa, Yuki; Katsube, Teruaki; Nakano, Mamoru; Nakamura, Kiyozumi

    The present work is concerned on developing high sensitive and high performance SnO2-based gas sensors for detecting indoor air pollutant formaldehyde gas. The film was deposited on an alumina substrate using R.F. Induction Plasma Deposition technique. Physical properties of sensing films were examined by SEM, XRD method. The sensors showed high sensitivity to typical HCHO gas at an extremely low gas concentration of 20 parts-per-billion (ppb) with quick response and recovery time at several minutes. The effect of the doping of various metallic additives on the gas-sensing properties and operating temperature dependency were also investigated in the work.

  17. High-performance aqueous/organic dye-sensitized solar cells based on sensitizers containing triethylene oxide methyl ether.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ryan Yeh-Yung; Wu, Feng-Ling; Li, Chun-Ting; Chen, Pei-Yu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Lin, Jiann T

    2015-08-10

    Metal-free dyes (EO1 to EO4) containing the hydrophilic triethylene oxide methyl ether (TEOME) unit in the spacer have been synthesized and used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Efficient lithium-ion trapping by TEOME results in improved open-circuit voltage (VOC ), leading to excellent conversion efficiency of the cells, ranging from 9.02 to 9.98?% with I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte in acetonitrile under AM?1.5 illumination. The TEOME unit also enhances the wettability of the dye molecules for application in aqueous-based DSSCs. Aqueous-based DSSCs with a dual TEMPO/iodide electrolyte exhibit high VOC values (0.80-0.88?V) and very promising cell performances of up to 5.97?%. PMID:26098636

  18. Polycrystalline CVD diamond detector: Fast response and high sensitivity with large area

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Linyue Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhong, Yunhong; Ouyang, Xiaoping Zhang, Jianfu; Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049

    2014-01-15

    Polycrystalline diamond was successfully used to fabricate a large area (diameter up to 46 mm) radiation detector. It was proven that the developed detector shows a fast pulsed response time and a high sensitivity, therefore its rise time is lower than 5 ns, which is two times faster than that of a Si-PIN detector of the same size. And because of the large sensitive area, this detector shows good dominance in fast pulsed and low density radiation detection.

  19. High-sensitivity gas pressure sensors based on in-fiber devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiping; Liao, Changrui; Liu, Shen; Sun, Bing; Li, Zhengyong; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Yin, Guolu

    2015-07-01

    We proposed and experimentally demonstrated four kinds of high-sensitivity gas pressure sensors based on in-fiber devices, including a sub-micron silica diaphragm-based fiber-tip, a polymer-capped Fabry-Perot interferometer, an inflated long period fiber grating and a twin core fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which have sensitivities of 1036, 1130, 1680, 9600 pm/MPa, respectively.

  20. A high sensitivity temperature sensor realized with cascaded long period fiber grating-based Sagnac loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Juan; Qin, Zi Xiong; Zeng, Qin Ke

    2014-05-01

    A novel cascaded structure which comprises long period fiber gratings inscribed in a single mode fiber and a Panda polarization maintaining fiber is proposed. A high sensitivity temperature sensor is obtained when the novel cascaded structure is inserted into Sagnac loop. Its response to temperature and polarization is investigated. The temperature sensitivity reaches up to -1.26 nm/ °C. Furthermore, the experimental results show that notch 1 is almost immune to the state of polarization.

  1. Simple Fabrication of a Highly Sensitive Glucose Biosensor Using Enzymes Immobilized in Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets Nafion

    E-print Network

    Lee, Ilsoon

    Simple Fabrication of a Highly Sensitive Glucose Biosensor Using Enzymes Immobilized in Exfoliated for the development of a glucose biosensor. Exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP) were tested to enhance­isopropyl-alcohol solution with a high concentrated organic solvent (85 wt%). The resulting biosensors showed rapid response

  2. Real-Time High-Sensitivity Impedance Measurement Interface for Tethered BLM Biosensor Arrays

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    Real-Time High-Sensitivity Impedance Measurement Interface for Tethered BLM Biosensor Arrays Yuksel lipid membrane (tBLM) biosensors. The circuit comprises a small number of high performance components and the current response to membrane resistance (RM) change of the tBLM biosensor is converted to voltage

  3. Opioid-mediated pain sensitivity in mice bred for high voluntary wheel running

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Opioid-mediated pain sensitivity in mice bred for high voluntary wheel running Guo Lia , Justin S-Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA Received 4 May 2004; received in revised form 8 September 2004; accepted 14 wheel-running behavior. Specifically, we predicted that the selected (High-Runner) lines would show

  4. Analytica Chimica Acta 444 (2001) 169178 Highly sensitive dioxin immunoassay and its

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    2001-01-01

    Analytica Chimica Acta 444 (2001) 169­178 Highly sensitive dioxin immunoassay and its application Jonesc, Daniel P.Y. Changb, Bruce D. Hammocka, a UCD Cancer Research Center, Department of Entomology Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a well-known highly toxic compound that is present in nearly all components

  5. Image quality and dose efficiency of high energy phase sensitive x-ray imaging: phantom studies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Molly Donovan; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this preliminary study was to perform an image quality comparison of high energy phase sensitive imaging with low energy conventional imaging at similar radiation doses. The comparison was performed with the following phantoms: American College of Radiology (ACR), contrast-detail (CD), acrylic edge and tissue-equivalent. Visual comparison of the phantom images indicated comparable or improved image quality for all phantoms. Quantitative comparisons were performed through ACR and CD observer studies, both of which indicated higher image quality in the high energy phase sensitive images. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of high energy phase sensitive imaging to overcome existing challenges with the clinical implementation of phase contrast imaging and improve the image quality for a similar radiation dose as compared to conventional imaging near typical mammography energies. In addition, the results illustrate the capability of phase sensitive imaging to sustain the image quality improvement at high x-ray energies and for breast simulating phantoms, both of which indicate the potential to benefit fields such as mammography. Future studies will continue to investigate the potential for dose reduction and image quality improvement provided by high energy phase sensitive imaging. PMID:24865208

  6. A four-pixel matched collimator for high-sensitivity SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Atsuro; Takeuchi, Wataru; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tsuchiya, Katsutoshi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Kobashi, Keiji

    2013-04-01

    We propose a wide aperture parallel-hole collimator that we call a 4-pixel matched collimator (4-PMC) for high-sensitivity SPECT imaging. The hole size of the 4-PMC is matched to four detector pixels; that is, there are four (2 × 2) pixels per collimator hole. By contrast, a 1-pixel matched collimator (1-PMC) is defined as a collimator whose hole size is matched to one detector pixel. We evaluated four types of collimator (high-resolution collimator versions and high-sensitivity collimator versions of both 4-PMC and 1-PMC) by simulation. SPECT images of a cylindrical phantom with cold spots in the noise-free condition demonstrated that the 4-PMC provided a higher-contrast image than the 1-PMC for the same collimator version. In addition, SPECT images at the noise level corresponding to a human cerebral blood flow study suggested that the high-sensitivity version of the 4-PMC provided the highest contrast image among the four collimator types. In conclusion, the high-sensitivity SPECT system using the 4-PMC can improve the trade-off between spatial resolution and sensitivity and will consequently provide improved image contrast for clinical studies of the human brain compared with the SPECT system using the 1-PMC.

  7. Ultra-high sensitivity photodetector arrays with integrated amplification and passivation nano-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Mokina, Irina A.; Liu, Feng; Wang, Sean; Zhou, Jack; Lange, Michael; Yang, Weiguo; Gardner, Patrick; Peltz, Leora; Frampton, Robert; Hunt, Jeffrey H.

    2010-02-01

    Miniaturized field-deployable spectrometers used for the rapid analysis of chemical and biological substances require high-sensitivity photo detectors. For example, in a Raman spectroscopy system, the receiver must be capable of high-gain, low-noise detection performance due to the intrinsically weak signals produced by the Raman effects of most substances. We are developing a novel, high-gain hetero-junction phototransistor (HPT) detector which employs two nano-structures simultaneously to achieve 100 times higher sensitivity than InGaAs avalanche photodiodes, the most sensitive commercially available photo-detector in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength range, under their normal operation conditions. Integrated into a detector array, this technology has application for Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), pollution monitoring, pharmaceutical manufacturing by reaction monitoring, chemical & biological transportation safety, and bio-chemical analysis in planetary exploration.

  8. A highly sensitive CMOS digital Hall sensor for low magnetic field applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Pan, Hong-Bin; He, Shu-Zhuan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Integrated CMOS Hall sensors have been widely used to measure magnetic fields. However, they are difficult to work with in a low magnetic field environment due to their low sensitivity and large offset. This paper describes a highly sensitive digital Hall sensor fabricated in 0.18 ?m high voltage CMOS technology for low field applications. The sensor consists of a switched cross-shaped Hall plate and a novel signal conditioner. It effectively eliminates offset and low frequency 1/f noise by applying a dynamic quadrature offset cancellation technique. The measured results show the optimal Hall plate achieves a high current related sensitivity of about 310 V/AT. The whole sensor has a remarkable ability to measure a minimum ± 2 mT magnetic field and output a digital Hall signal in a wide temperature range from -40 °C to 120 °C. PMID:22438758

  9. A Highly Sensitive CMOS Digital Hall Sensor for Low Magnetic Field Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue; Pan, Hong-Bin; He, Shu-Zhuan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Integrated CMOS Hall sensors have been widely used to measure magnetic fields. However, they are difficult to work with in a low magnetic field environment due to their low sensitivity and large offset. This paper describes a highly sensitive digital Hall sensor fabricated in 0.18 ?m high voltage CMOS technology for low field applications. The sensor consists of a switched cross-shaped Hall plate and a novel signal conditioner. It effectively eliminates offset and low frequency 1/f noise by applying a dynamic quadrature offset cancellation technique. The measured results show the optimal Hall plate achieves a high current related sensitivity of about 310 V/AT. The whole sensor has a remarkable ability to measure a minimum ±2 mT magnetic field and output a digital Hall signal in a wide temperature range from ?40 °C to 120 °C. PMID:22438758

  10. Periodically porous top electrodes on vertical nanowire arrays for highly sensitive gas detection.

    PubMed

    In, Hyun Jin; Field, Christopher R; Pehrsson, Pehr E

    2011-09-01

    Nanowires of various materials and configurations have been shown to be highly effective in the detection of chemical and biological species. In this paper, we report a novel, nanosphere-enabled approach to fabricating highly sensitive gas sensors based on ordered arrays of vertically aligned silicon nanowires topped with a periodically porous top electrode. The vertical array configuration helps to greatly increase the sensitivity of the sensor while the pores in the top electrode layer significantly improve sensing response times by allowing analyte gases to pass through freely. Herein, we show highly sensitive detection to both nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ammonia (NH(3)) in humidified air. NO(2) detection down to 10 parts per billion (ppb) is demonstrated and an order-of-magnitude improvement in sensor response time is shown in the detection of NH(3). PMID:21817785

  11. Highly Sensitive Electro-Plasmonic Switches Based on Fivefold Stellate Polyhedral Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liubiao; Jiang, Yueyue; Liow, Chihao; Meng, Fanben; Sun, Yinghui; Chandran, Bevita K; Liang, Ziqiang; Jiang, Lin; Li, Shuzhou; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-10-01

    Electron-photon coupling in metal nanostructures has raised a new trend for active plasmonic switch devices in both fundamental understanding and technological applications. However, low sensitivity switches with an on/off ratio less than 5 have restricted applications. In this work, an electrically modulated plasmonic switch based on a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) system with a single fivefold stellate polyhedral gold nanoparticle (FSPAuNP) is reported. The reversible switch of the SERS signal shows high sensitivity with an on/off ratio larger than 30. Such a high on/off ratio arises primarily from the plasmonic resonance shift of the FSPAuNP with the incident laser due to the altered free electron density on the nanoparticle under an applied electrochemical potential. This highly sensitive electro-plasmonic switch may enable further development of plasmonic devices. PMID:26313565

  12. Design and Synthesis of an MOF Thermometer with High Sensitivity in the Physiological Temperature Range.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dian; Rao, Xingtang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2015-12-01

    An important result of research on mixed-lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (M'LnMOFs) is the realization of highly sensitive ratiometric luminescent thermometers. Here, we report the design and synthesis of the new M'LnMOF Tb0.80Eu0.20BPDA with high relative sensitivity in the physiological temperature regime (298-318 K). The emission intensity and luminescence lifetime were investigated and compared to those of existing materials. It was found that the temperature-dependent luminescence properties of Tb0.80Eu0.20BPDA are strongly associated with the distribution of the energy levels of the ligand. Such a property can be useful in the design of highly sensitive M'LnMOF thermometers. PMID:26575207

  13. Highly sensitive glucose sensors based on enzyme-modified whole-graphene solution-gated transistors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Liao, Caizhi; Mak, Chun Hin; You, Peng; Mak, Chee Leung; Yan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive glucose detections are convenient techniques for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, which require high performance glucose sensors. However, conventional electrochemical glucose sensors are not sensitive enough for these applications. Here, highly sensitive glucose sensors are successfully realized based on whole-graphene solution-gated transistors with the graphene gate electrodes modified with an enzyme glucose oxidase. The sensitivity of the devices is dramatically improved by co-modifying the graphene gates with Pt nanoparticles due to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the reaction of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of glucose near the gate. The optimized glucose sensors show the detection limits down to 0.5??M and good selectivity, which are sensitive enough for non-invasive glucose detections in body fluids. The devices show the transconductances two orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional silicon field effect transistor, which is the main reason for their high sensitivity. Moreover, the devices can be conveniently fabricated with low cost. Therefore, the whole-graphene solution-gated transistors are a high-performance sensing platform for not only glucose detections but also many other types of biosensors that may find practical applications in the near future. PMID:25655666

  14. Highly sensitive glucose sensors based on enzyme-modified whole-graphene solution-gated transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Liao, Caizhi; Mak, Chun Hin; You, Peng; Mak, Chee Leung; Yan, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Noninvasive glucose detections are convenient techniques for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, which require high performance glucose sensors. However, conventional electrochemical glucose sensors are not sensitive enough for these applications. Here, highly sensitive glucose sensors are successfully realized based on whole-graphene solution-gated transistors with the graphene gate electrodes modified with an enzyme glucose oxidase. The sensitivity of the devices is dramatically improved by co-modifying the graphene gates with Pt nanoparticles due to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the reaction of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of glucose near the gate. The optimized glucose sensors show the detection limits down to 0.5 ?M and good selectivity, which are sensitive enough for non-invasive glucose detections in body fluids. The devices show the transconductances two orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional silicon field effect transistor, which is the main reason for their high sensitivity. Moreover, the devices can be conveniently fabricated with low cost. Therefore, the whole-graphene solution-gated transistors are a high-performance sensing platform for not only glucose detections but also many other types of biosensors that may find practical applications in the near future.

  15. High temperature sensitivity is intrinsic to voltage-gated potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Zheng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are members of the large tetrameric cation channels superfamily but are considered to be uniquely sensitive to heat, which has been presumed to be due to the existence of an unidentified temperature-sensing domain. Here we report that the homologous voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels also exhibit high temperature sensitivity comparable to that of TRPV1, which is detectable under specific conditions when the voltage sensor is functionally decoupled from the activation gate through either intrinsic mechanisms or mutations. Interestingly, mutations could tune Shaker channel to be either heat-activated or heat-deactivated. Therefore, high temperature sensitivity is intrinsic to both TRP and Kv channels. Our findings suggest important physiological roles of heat-induced variation in Kv channel activities. Mechanistically our findings indicate that temperature-sensing TRP channels may not contain a specialized heat-sensor domain; instead, non-obligatory allosteric gating permits the intrinsic heat sensitivity to drive channel activation, allowing temperature-sensitive TRP channels to function as polymodal nociceptors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03255.001 PMID:25030910

  16. Optical transitions in highly charged californium ions with high sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant.

    PubMed

    Berengut, J C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Ong, A

    2012-08-17

    We study electronic transitions in highly charged Cf ions that are within the frequency range of optical lasers and have very high sensitivity to potential variations in the fine-structure constant, ?. The transitions are in the optical range despite the large ionization energies because they lie on the level crossing of the 5f and 6p valence orbitals in the thallium isoelectronic sequence. Cf(16+) is a particularly rich ion, having several narrow lines with properties that minimize certain systematic effects. Cf(16+) has very large nuclear charge and large ionization energy, resulting in the largest ? sensitivity seen in atomic systems. The lines include positive and negative shifters. PMID:23006353

  17. Optical Transitions in Highly Charged Californium Ions with High Sensitivity to Variation of the Fine-Structure Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berengut, J. C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Ong, A.

    2012-08-01

    We study electronic transitions in highly charged Cf ions that are within the frequency range of optical lasers and have very high sensitivity to potential variations in the fine-structure constant, ?. The transitions are in the optical range despite the large ionization energies because they lie on the level crossing of the 5f and 6p valence orbitals in the thallium isoelectronic sequence. Cf16+ is a particularly rich ion, having several narrow lines with properties that minimize certain systematic effects. Cf16+ has very large nuclear charge and large ionization energy, resulting in the largest ? sensitivity seen in atomic systems. The lines include positive and negative shifters.

  18. Highly Scalable, Uniform, and Sensitive Biosensors Based on Top-Down Indium Oxide Nanoribbons and Electronic Enzyme-Linked

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Highly Scalable, Uniform, and Sensitive Biosensors Based on Top- Down Indium Oxide Nanoribbons promise for ultra sensitive biomolecular detection. Top-down assembly of these sensors increases for sensitivity. We report top-down fabricated indium oxide (In2O3) nanoribbon FET biosensors using highly

  19. Highly sensitive bending sensor based on multimode-multimode-coreoffset fiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yanhui; Ma, Lin; Sun, Jiang; Kang, Zexin; Bai, Yunlong; Jian, Shuisheng

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a simple fiber optic bending sensor based on the multimode-multimode structure combining with the core-offset fiber structure. The multimode-multimode structure is composed of no core fiber (NCF) with hundreds of micrometers in length as a micro-lens for mode conversion, and single mode fiber (SMF) which can be seen as a section of special multimode fiber (MMF) when considered the cladding modes. The transmission spectrum in the experiment agrees well with the numerical model. The sensitivity of the structure can be achieved as high as 11.104 nm/m-1 in the measuring range. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of the neighboring resonance wavelength around 1546 nm exhibits approximately the same sensitivity which is 10.579 nm/m-1. Besides, the strain sensitivity is about -0.927 pm/?? within the measuring strain range.

  20. High open circuit voltages of solar cells based on quantum dot and dye hybrid-sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yujie; Zhao, Wanyu; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Fu, Wuyou E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying; Bala, Hari E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043

    2014-01-06

    A type of solar cell based on quantum dot (QD) and dye hybrid-sensitized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film electrode was designed and reported. The electrode was consisted of a TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle (NP) thin film layer sensitized with CdS quantum dot (QD) and an amorphous TiO{sub 2} coated TiO{sub 2} NP thin film layer that sensitized with C106 dye. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} layer was obtained by TiCl{sub 4} post-treatment to improve the properties of solar cells. Research showed that the solar cells fabricated with as-prepared hybrid-sensitized electrode exhibited excellent photovoltaic performances and a fairly high open circuit voltage of 796?mV was achieved.

  1. The sensitization of high threshold mechanoreceptors with myelinated axons by repeated heating.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M; Lynn, B

    1977-01-01

    1. Seventy high threshold mechanoreceptor units (HTMs) with myelinated axons were isolated from the sural nerves of cats and rabbits. Thirteen cat and forty-two rabbit HTMs were testec by controlled, repeated heating of the skin of the foot or lower leg to noxious levels. 2. Many of the units (77% in the cat and 40% in the rabbit) fired to heating. Only six (11%) of these fired to the first brief heating to 50-55 degrees C. The rest required 2-6 heat trials before responding. 3. Heat responding units always became more sensitive with repeated heat stimulation but their mechanical sensitivity showed no comparable changes when heat sensitization occurred. 4. If these results are applicable to man, they suggest that HTMs play little role in generating the first pain that follows skin heating but that they may be involved in the increased sensitivity to heat pain (hyperalgesia) shown by skin previously injured by heating. PMID:850207

  2. Highly sensitive assay for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, W.J.; Hanson, D.M.; Chung, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid, highly sensitive assay for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in brain using the natural substrate, norepinephrine, is described. The method is based on the selective adsorption and elution of the reaction product, epinephrine, from alumina. A small but important further lowering of blanks and increase in sensitivity is attained by removal of the radiolabeled substrate, (methyl-/sup 3/H)-S-adenosylmethionine by precipitation as the reineckate prior to adsorption of norepinephrine to alumina. The assay has a sensitivity of 30 fmole and the PNMT activity could be measured in as little as 1 mg (wet wt) of human locus coeruleus tissue. The sensitivity is enhanced by homogenizing tissue in small volumes and removing potential inhibitors by dialysis. We report for the first time PNMT activity in specific regions of the human cerebral and cerebellar cortex.

  3. High-Sensitivity X-ray Polarimetry with Amorphous Silicon Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Photoelectric X-ray polarimeters based on pixel micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) offer order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity over more traditional techniques based on X-ray scattering. This new technique places some of the most interesting astronomical observations within reach of even a small, dedicated mission. The most sensitive instrument would be a photoelectric polarimeter at the focus of 2 a very large mirror, such as the planned XEUS. Our efforts are focused on a smaller pathfinder mission, which would achieve its greatest sensitivity with large-area, low-background, collimated polarimeters. We have recently demonstrated a MPGD polarimeter using amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) readout suitable for the focal plane of an X-ray telescope. All the technologies used in the demonstration polarimeter are scalable to the areas required for a high-sensitivity collimated polarimeter. Leywords: X-ray polarimetry, particle tracking, proportional counter, GEM, pixel readout

  4. Real-Time, Single-Step Bioassay Using Nanoplasmonic Resonator With Ultra-High Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xiang (Inventor); Ellman, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Fanqing Frank (Inventor); Su, Kai-Hang (Inventor); Wei, Qi-Huo (Inventor); Sun, Cheng (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A nanoplasmonic resonator (NPR) comprising a metallic nanodisk with alternating shielding layer(s), having a tagged biomolecule conjugated or tethered to the surface of the nanoplasmonic resonator for highly sensitive measurement of enzymatic activity. NPRs enhance Raman signals in a highly reproducible manner, enabling fast detection of protease and enzyme activity, such as Prostate Specific Antigen (paPSA), in real-time, at picomolar sensitivity levels. Experiments on extracellular fluid (ECF) from paPSA-positive cells demonstrate specific detection in a complex bio-fluid background in real-time single-step detection in very small sample volumes.

  5. Fabrication of elliptic microfibers with CO2 laser for high-sensitivity refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Peng; Li, Jie; Gao, Shuai; Jin, Long; Ran, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-06-15

    We propose a convenient method for achieving highly birefringent (HiBi) elliptic microfibers by use of the CO2-laser machining and the flame-brushing techniques. With optimization of fabrication process, a high birefringence of up to 2.10×10(-2) is experimentally obtained. Especially, within a polarization Sagnac interferometer acting as a refractive index (RI) sensor, both positive and abnormal negative sensitivity is measured, dependent on the geometrical variables of the HiBi microfiber. The maximum RI sensitivity is ?195,348??nm/RI-unit around RI=1.35887, which is the highest among the microfiber devices as reported, to our knowledge. PMID:24978529

  6. Highly sensitive current sensor based on an optical microfiber loop resonator incorporating low index polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Min-Seok; Han, Young-Geun

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive current sensor based on an optical microfiber loop resonator (MLR) incorporating low index polymer is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The microfiber with a waist diameter of 1 ?m is wrapped around the nicrhrome wire with low index polymer coating and the optical MLR is realized. The use of the microfiber and low index polymer with high thermal property can effectively improve the current sensitivity of the proposed MLR-based sensing probe to be 437.9 pm/A2, which is ~10 times higher than the previous result.

  7. Circularly polarized light with high degree of circularity and low azimuthal error sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vilas, Jose Luis; Bernabeu, Eusebio; Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel; Espinosa-Luna, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    The generation of circularly polarized light with a high circularity degree and low azimuthal error sensitivity was analyzed using a system composed by two waveplates. It is shown how the high circularity degree is achieved using a combination of a half- (?/2) and a quarter- (?/4) waveplate ?/2+?/4 configuration. However, the lowest azimuthal sensitivity under small variations in the azimuths of the waveplates is obtained by employing a ?/4+?/2 configuration. Analytical calculus particularized for quartz and MgF? waveplates is presented. PMID:24922413

  8. Chemically attached gold nanoparticle-carbon nanotube hybrids for highly sensitive SERS substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beqa, Lule; Singh, Anant Kumar; Fan, Zheng; Senapati, Dulal; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2011-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been shown as one of the most powerful analytical tool with high sensitivity. In this manuscript, we report the chemical design of SERS substrate, based on gold nanoparticles of different shapes-decorated with carbon nanotube with an enhancement factor of 7.5 × 1010. Shape dependent result shows that popcorn shape gold nanoparticle decorated SWCNT is the best choice for SERS substrate due to the existence of 'lightning rod effect' through several sharp edges or corners. Our results provide a good approach to develop highly sensitive SERS substrates and can help to improve the fundamental understanding of SERS phenomena.

  9. Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Detection of Ochratoxin A by a Label-Free Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yunxia; Chen, Jiayi; Li, Cheng; Xie, Gang; Fu, Hailong; Ma, Zhihong; Lu, Anxiang

    2015-01-01

    A label-free aptamer-based assay for the highly sensitive and specific detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) was developed using a cationic polymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The OTA aptamer was used as a recognition element for the colorimetric detection of OTA based on the aggregation of AuNPs by the cationic polymer. By spectroscopic quantitative analysis, the colorimetric assay could detect OTA down to 0.009 ng/mL with high selectivity in the presence of other interfering toxins. This study offers a new alternative in visual detection methods that is rapid and sensitive for OTA detection. PMID:26690477

  10. Highly Sensitive Colorimetric Detection of Ochratoxin A by a Label-Free Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Yunxia; Chen, Jiayi; Li, Cheng; Xie, Gang; Fu, Hailong; Ma, Zhihong; Lu, Anxiang

    2015-01-01

    A label-free aptamer-based assay for the highly sensitive and specific detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) was developed using a cationic polymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The OTA aptamer was used as a recognition element for the colorimetric detection of OTA based on the aggregation of AuNPs by the cationic polymer. By spectroscopic quantitative analysis, the colorimetric assay could detect OTA down to 0.009 ng/mL with high selectivity in the presence of other interfering toxins. This study offers a new alternative in visual detection methods that is rapid and sensitive for OTA detection. PMID:26690477

  11. Real-time, single-step bioassay using nanoplasmonic resonator with ultra-high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiang; Ellman, Jonathan A; Chen, Fanqing Frank; Su, Kai-Hang; Wei, Qi-Huo; Sun, Cheng

    2014-04-01

    A nanoplasmonic resonator (NPR) comprising a metallic nanodisk with alternating shielding layer(s), having a tagged biomolecule conjugated or tethered to the surface of the nanoplasmonic resonator for highly sensitive measurement of enzymatic activity. NPRs enhance Raman signals in a highly reproducible manner, enabling fast detection of protease and enzyme activity, such as Prostate Specific Antigen (paPSA), in real-time, at picomolar sensitivity levels. Experiments on extracellular fluid (ECF) from paPSA-positive cells demonstrate specific detection in a complex bio-fluid background in real-time single-step detection in very small sample volumes.

  12. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods. PMID:25747847

  13. Formation of High-Purity Indium Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Application to Sensitive Detection of Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K; Bhardwaj, Neha; Kukkar, Manil; Sharma, Amit L; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2015-01-01

    High-purity In?O? nanoparticles were recovered from scrap indium tin oxide substrates in a stepwise process involving acidic leaching, liquid-liquid extraction with a phosphine oxide extractant, and combustion of the organic phase. The morphological and structural parameters of the recovered nanoparticles were investigated to support the formation of the desired products. These In?O? nanoparticles were used for sensitive sensing of ammonia gas using a four-probe electrode device. The proposed sensor offered very quick response time (around 10 s) and highly sensitive detection of ammonia (at a detection limit of 1 ppm). PMID:26694415

  14. High sensitivity refractive index sensor based on adiabatic tapered optical fiber deposited with nanofilm by ALD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Dong, Yanhua; Wang, Tingyun

    2015-06-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractive index sensor based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thickness of Al2O3 nanofilm is coated around fiber taper precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the high refractive index of the Al2O3 nanofilm, an asymmetry Fabry-Perot like interferometer is constructed along the fiber taper. Based on the ray-optic analysis, total internal reflection happens on the nanofilm-surrounding interface. With the ambient refractive index changing, the phase delay induced by the Goos-Hänchen shift is changed. Correspondingly, the transmission resonant spectrum shifts, which can be utilized for realizing high sensitivity sensor. The high sensitivity sensor with 6008 nm/RIU is demonstrated by depositing 3000 layers Al2O3 nanofilm as the ambient refractive index is close to 1.33. This high sensitivity refractive index sensor is expected to have wide applications in biochemical sensors. PMID:26072758

  15. Polymer Microring Resonators for High-Sensitivity and Wideband Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sung-Liang; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Ling, Tao; Ashkenazi, Shai; Guo, L. Jay

    2010-01-01

    Polymer microring resonators have been exploited for high-sensitivity and wideband photoacoustic imaging. To demonstrate high-sensitivity ultrasound detection, high-frequency photoacoustic imaging of a 49-?m-diameter black bead at an imaging depth of 5 mm was imaged photoacoustically using a synthetic 2-D array with 249 elements and a low laser fluence of 0.35 mJ/cm2. A bandpass filter with a center frequency of 28 MHz and a bandwidth of 16 MHz was applied to all element data but without signal averaging, and a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.4 dB was obtained. A wideband detector response is essential for imaging reconstruction of multiscale objects, e.g., various sizes of tissues, by using a range of characteristic acoustic wavelengths. A simulation of photoacoustic tomography of beads shows that objects with their boundaries characteristic of high spatial frequencies and the inner structure primarily of low spatial frequency components can be faithfully reconstructed using such a detector. Photoacoustic tomography experiments of 49- and 301-?m-diameter beads were presented. A high resolution of 12.5 ?m was obtained. The boundary of a 301-?m bead was imaged clearly. The results demonstrated that the high sensitivity and broadband response of polymer microring resonators have potential for high resolution and high-fidelity photoacoustic imaging. PMID:19942534

  16. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.

    1997-12-30

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10{sup {minus}13} atm cc/s. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces back streaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium. 2 figs.

  17. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

  18. Highly sensitive liquid level monitoring system utilizing polymer fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Marques, Carlos A F; Peng, Gang-Ding; Webb, David J

    2015-03-01

    A novel and highly sensitive liquid level sensor based on a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (POFBG) is experimentally demonstrated. Two different configurations are studied and both configurations show the potential to interrogate liquid level by measuring the strain induced in a POFBG embedded in a silicone rubber diaphragm, which deforms due to hydrostatic pressure variations. The sensor exhibits a highly linear response over the sensing range and a good repeatability. For comparison, a similar sensor using a FBG inscribed in silica fiber is fabricated, which displays a sensitivity that is a factor of 5 smaller than the POFBG. The temperature sensitivity is studied and a novel multi-sensor arrangement proposed which has the potential to provide level readings independent of temperature and the liquid density. PMID:25836830

  19. A high sensitivity refractometer based on a tapered SCSMF structure and its application to biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Ma, Youqiao; Semenova, Yuliya; Yuan, Jinhui; Bo, Lin; Wang, Pengfei; Sang, Xinzhu; Teng, Mianzhen; Yu, Chongxiu; O'Mahony, Christy Charlton; Farrell, Gerald

    2014-05-01

    A high sensitivity refractive index (RI) sensor based on a tapered small core singlemode fibre (SCSMF) structure is proposed and developed. By tapering the SCSMF section, this sensor has very high sensitivity around the RI of water. Experimentally we have demonstrated a sensitivity of 1988.5 nm/RIU (RI unit) in the RI range from 1.3325 to 1.3407 by tapering a SCSMF section from a diameter of 125 ?m to a diameter of 16 ?m. The feasibility of using this type of sensor for biosensing application has also been verified by experiments. This was undertaken using a suitable Fibrinogen antigen surface functionalisation, which successfully showed that the sensor can in principle detect differences in the concentration of a Fibrinogen antibody.

  20. High IgE sensitization to maize and rice pollen in the highlands of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ramavovololona; Sénéchal, Hélène; Andrianarisoa, Ange; Rakotoarimanana, Vololona; Godfrin, Dominique; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maize and rice are two crops constituting the main food supply in many under-developed and developing countries. Despite the large area devoted to the culture, the sensitization to the pollen from these plants is reported to be low and often considered as an occupational allergy. Methods Sixty five Malagasy pollen allergic patients were clinically and immunochemically investigated with regard to maize and rice pollen allergens. Pollen extracts were electrophoretically separated in 1 and 2 dimensions and IgE and IgG reactivities detected upon immunoblotting. Results When exploring the sensitization profile of Malagasy allergic patients to maize and rice pollen, it appears that a high proportion of these patients consulting during grass pollinating season were sensitized to both pollen as revealed by skin prick testing (62 vs. 59%) and IgE immunoblotting (85 vs. 40%). Several clinically relevant allergens were recognized by patients’ serum IgE in maize and rice pollen extracts. Conclusion The high levels of maize and rice pollen sensitization should be related, in this tropical region, to a specific environmental exposure including i) a proximity of the population to the allergenic sources and ii) a putative exacerbating effect of a highly polluted urban atmosphere on pollen allergenicity. Cross-reactivities between wild and cultivated grasses and also between rice and maize pollen are involved as well as some specific maize sensitizations. The presence of dense urban and peri-urban agriculture, in various African regions and worldwide, could be a high environmental risk factor for people sensitive to maize pollen. PMID:25870739

  1. Symmetry-induced singularities of the dispersion surface curvature and high sensitivities of a photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T.

    2008-02-01

    We rigorously analyze the dispersion function and the curvature of the dispersion surface of a photonic crystal to explore the fundamental limit of its angular sensitivities. With insight gained from group theory, we find that symmetry induced degeneracy gives rise to a singular dispersion surface curvature and a nonvanishing group velocity simultaneously. Near such a singularity, high angular sensitivities can be achieved at low optical loss. This phenomenon exists generally in most common two-dimensional and three-dimensional photonic crystal lattices, although it occurs only for certain photonic bands as dictated by symmetry. This symmetry-induced effect is absent in one-dimensional crystals. Rigorous formulas of the sensitivities of the light beam directions to wavelength and refractive index changes are derived. Individual contributions of the dispersion surface curvature and group velocity to these sensitivities are separated. In the absence of the Van Hove singularity, a singular dispersion surface curvature gives rise to ultrahigh dispersion ?(d?)/(d?)?>103deg/nm and refractive index sensitivity ?(d?)/(dna)?>104deg without compromising optical transmission. The angular dispersion value is significantly larger than those previously reported for the superprism effect and is not due to slow group velocity. We also discuss how various parameters intrinsic and extrinsic to a photonic crystal may suppress or enhance the angular sensitivities according to the rigorous formulas we obtain.

  2. Towards a climatology of sensitivities of Mediterranean high impact weather - first approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homar, V.; Jansà, A.; Campins, J.; Ramis, C.

    2006-04-01

    During recent years, great interest has grown within the operational weather community on the adaptable component of observational networks. Decisions regarding where to deploy new observations of special value under threatening weather, or regarding permanent changes in observational strategies need support from sensitivity studies that determine areas where the addition of observations would optimally improve the skill of numerical predictions. Within the context of the MEDEX project (http://medex.inm.uib.es), the sensitivities of a collection of severe weather episodes in the Mediterranean have been computed using the MM5 Adjoint Modeling system. Various approaches are explored trying to summarize the results for the diversity of cases that produce high impact weather (HIW; mainly heavy rain and strong winds) in the Mediterranean region. A first attempt uses an objective classification of the trajectories of the most intense cyclone types from the ERA-40 reanalyses. Sensitivities are then computed for each group of frequent trajectories, providing a prototype sensitivity field for each of the most frequent intense cyclones in the Mediterranean. However, a large portion of HIW episodes in the Mediterranean are not linked to significantly intense cyclones within the climatology. Consequently, a subjective classification of HIW events is also performed and the sensitivity fields for an example case is shown to complete the study. Although the sensitive areas for Mediterranean HIW are not particularly confined, it is remarkable how poorly sampled areas by the regular observing networks such as North Africa and the eastern North-Atlantic are highlighted in the results.

  3. Molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jialuo; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-03-15

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin (PC) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), via a sol-gel polymerization process using nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) as fluorescent signal source. The ratio of two fluorescence peak emission intensities of NBD and PC was utilized to determine the concentration of PC, which could effectively reduce the background interference and fluctuation of diverse conditions. As a result, this sensor obtained high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14nM within 6min, and excellent recognition specificity for PC over its analogues with a high imprinting factor of 9.1. Furthermore, the sensor attained high recoveries in the range of 93.8-110.2% at three spiking levels of PC, with precisions below 4.7% in seawater and lake water samples. The developed sensor strategy demonstrated simplicity, reliability, rapidity, high selectivity and high sensitivity, proving to be a feasible way to develop high efficient fluorescence sensors and thus potentially applicable for ultratrace analysis of complicated matrices. PMID:26485176

  4. A New Kind of Laser Microphone Using High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chen-Chia; Trivedi, Sudhir; Jin, Feng; Swaminathan, V.; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a new kind of laser microphone using a highly sensitive pulsed laser vibrometer. By using the photo-electromotive-force (photo-EMF) sensors, we present data indicating the real-time detection of surface displacements as small as 4 pm.

  5. Ultra-high sensitivity photodetector arrays with integrated amplification and passivation nano-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Wang, Sean; Zhou, Jack; Li, Ken; Lange, Michael; Yang, Weiguo; Gardner, Patrick; Peltz, Leora; Frampton, Robert; Hunt, Jeffrey H.; Becker, Jill

    2009-02-01

    Miniaturized field-deployable spectrometers used for rapid analysis of chemical and biological substances require high-sensitivity photo detectors. For example, in a Raman spectroscopy system, the receiver must be capable of high-gain, low-noise detection performance due to the intrinsically weak signals produced by the Raman effects of most substances. We are developing a novel, high-gain hetero-junction phototransistor (HPT) detector which employs two nano-structures simultaneously: a 3-30 nm passivation layer that enables micron-sized devices, large-scale integration and low-cost products; and a 50-65 nm amplification layer that offers high sensitivity with 1,000x amplification and zero avalanche access noise. We report preliminary tests on single pixels, validating the design target of >1,000 Ampere/Watt responsivity at the near infrared wavelength of 1550nm, which is 100 times more sensitive than InGaAs avalanche photodiodes, the most sensitive commercially available photo-detector in this wavelength range, under their normal operation conditions. Integrated into a detector array, this technology has application for Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), pollution monitoring, pharmaceutical manufacturing by reaction monitoring, chemical & biological transportation safety, and bio-chemical analysis in planetary exploration.

  6. High Sensitive Detection in Tumor Extracts with SiNW-FET in-Air Biosensors

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    High Sensitive Detection in Tumor Extracts with SiNW-FET in-Air Biosensors F. Puppo, M.-A. Doucey in controlled Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS). In this work we show, SiNW-FETs as biosensors for the detection instability. Thanks to their nanoscale, nanowire-based biosensors functionalized with antibodies have

  7. Electrophoretic build-up of multi nanoparticle array for a highly sensitive immunoassay

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Electrophoretic build-up of multi nanoparticle array for a highly sensitive immunoassay Jin-Hee Han design of the nanoarray, electrophoretic trapping of a nanoparticle was modeled numerically. The trapping facilitated many breakthroughs in the life sciences by identifying specific gene sequences or protein ana

  8. Minimizing Sensitivity to Delay Variations in High-Performance Synchronous Circuits

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Minimizing Sensitivity to Delay Variations in High-Performance Synchronous Circuits Xun Liu Marios for improving the tolerance of synchronous circuits to delay variations. It is shown that when both long and short paths are considered, circuits optimized by the combined application of the two techniques

  9. Investigation of the Benefits of Combined GPS/GLONASS for High Sensitivity Receivers

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    Investigation of the Benefits of Combined GPS/GLONASS for High Sensitivity Receivers C. O in the number of satellites available for use. This paper investigates the benefits of adding GLONASS capability of availability and accuracy, both of pseudorange measurements and navigation solutions. The impact of the system

  10. Constructing a High-Sensitivity, Computer-Interfaced, Differential Thermal Analysis Device for Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, L. M.; Videa, M.; Mederos, F.; Mesquita, J.

    2007-01-01

    The construction of a new highly-sensitive, computer-interfaced, differential thermal analysis (DTA) device, used for gathering different information about the chemical reactions, is described. The instrument provides a better understanding about the phase transitions, phase diagrams and many more concepts to the students.

  11. Transgenic elimination of high-affinity antidepressant and cocaine sensitivity in the presynaptic

    E-print Network

    Blakely, Randy

    Transgenic elimination of high-affinity antidepressant and cocaine sensitivity in the presynaptic. Psychostimulants, such as cocaine and 3,4-methylene- dioxymethamphetamine (i.e., "ecstasy"), also impact 5-HT and cocaine is eliminated. Our animals possess a modified copy of the 5- HT transporter (i.e., SERT, slc6a4

  12. High-mode spoof SPP of periodic metal grooves for ultra-sensitive terahertz sensing.

    PubMed

    Yao, Haizi; Zhong, Shuncong

    2014-10-20

    We report terahertz surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing based on prism-coupling to the spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) mode existing on periodically grooved metal films. It was demonstrated that, except for the fundamental mode of the SSPP, there was also a higher mode SSPP wave when the depth of groove was larger. Both fundamental and high-order modes of SSPP could be used for terahertz sensing. We compared the performance of different modes of SSPP on the sensing sensitivity using both reflection amplitude and phase-jump information. The results indicated that the gap distance between the prism base and the metal film had a significant influence on the reflectivity of SPR sensing by affecting the coupling efficiency of an evanescent wave to an SSPP wave; also, high-order mode SSPP-based sensing had a high sensitivity of up to 2.27 THz/RIU, which nearly doubled the sensitivity of the fundamental mode. The application of high-mode SSPP has enormous potential for ultra-sensitive SPR sensing in the terahertz regime. PMID:25401547

  13. Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing

    E-print Network

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing Wei for chemical and bio-sensing. Linear L-type microcavities are considered. In contrast to cavities with small mode volumes, but low quality factors for bio-sensing, we showed increasing the length

  14. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ray

    microcavity biosensors Hai Yan, Yi Zou, Swapnajit Chakravarty, Chun-Ju Yang, Zheng Wang, Naimei Tang, Donglei-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191109 (2014); 10.1063/1.4875903 On-chip microfluidic biosensor using superparamagnetic microparticles

  15. PCR detection of nearly any dengue virus strain using a highly sensitive primer `cocktail'

    E-print Network

    Fox, George

    PCR detection of nearly any dengue virus strain using a highly sensitive primer `cocktail' Charul to target effectively. This problem is espe- cially pronounced with the mutation-prone RNA viruses. Dengue an estimated 50 million people annually [1]. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a severe form of dengue fever

  16. A highly efficient (>6%) Cd1xMnxSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    of the quantum efficiency of the solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of the solar cell is increased to 6A highly efficient (>6%) Cd1ÀxMnxSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell Jianjun Tian,*a Lili Lv,12,13 Improving the power conversion efficiency (h) of QDSCs has always been an overarching concern for all

  17. Silicon Photonic Crystal Microcavity Biosensors for Label Free Highly Sensitive and Specific Lung Cancer Detection

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ray

    detect lung cancer cell lysates with high sensitivity down to 2 cells per microliter with silicon based detection of control experiment to verify specificity again. Primary lung cancer develops from epithelial a prominent role in controlling the EMT process in lung cancer [7]. In this paper, we present proof

  18. A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We disagree with Mr. Linn’s interpretation of our paper, “High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness”.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

  19. High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen; Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng

    2014-07-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5?nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36?s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductive graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.

  20. High-sensitivity cooled coil system for nuclear magnetic resonance in kHz range

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tingting; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Yong-Ho; Lin, Jun

    2014-11-15

    In several low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR) and surface nuclear magnetic resonance applications, i.e., in the frequency range of kHz, high sensitivity magnetic field detectors are needed. Usually, low-T{sub c} superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with a high field sensitivity of about 1 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} are employed as detectors. Considering the flux trapping and operational difficulties associated with low-T{sub c} SQUIDs, we designed and fabricated liquid-nitrogen-cooled Cu coils for NMR detection in the kHz range. A cooled coil system consisting of a 9-cm diameter Cu coil and a low noise preamplifier was systematically investigated and reached a sensitivity of 2 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at 77 K, which is 3 times better compared to the sensitivity at 300 K. A Q-switch circuit as an essential element for damping the ringing effects of the pickup coil was developed to acquire free induction decay signals of a water sample with minimum loss of signal. Our studies demonstrate that cooled Cu coils, if designed properly, can provide a comparable sensitivity to low-T{sub c} SQUIDs.

  1. A high sensitivity satellite-borne television camera for the detection of auroras.

    PubMed

    Mende, S B; O'Brien, B J

    1968-08-01

    A high sensitivity satellite-borne television camera has been developed to measure such faint light sources as auroras. A secondary electron conduction (SEC) television camera tube is used as the image sensor. In the present application for the Rice/NASA satellites code-named Owls, the tube is exposed by the application of a high voltage pulse of 0.1 sec or 0.2 sec duration. The picture is scanned for about 19 sec, and the video is digitized in synchronism with the satellite PCM system. The television data are then telemetered to the ground either real time or stored in one of the tape recorders. The optical system super-imposes star images on the picture for azimuthal aspect reference. The sensitivity of the slow scan camera was measured; it agrees with the sensitivity of a camera scanning at normal scan rate. Comparison was made of the relative sensitivity of the camera at the wavelength of the three most important auroral components. The camera has sensitivity comparable with the dark-adapted human eye. The weight of the system is 3.9 kg, and the power dissipation is 3.9 W. PMID:20068849

  2. Experimental study of modal interference in thermal expanded core fiber for highly sensitive displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, An; Wu, Zhishen

    2015-08-01

    A simple and practical method for displacement measurement based on thermal expanded core (TEC) single mode fiber (SMF) is proposed and investigated experimentally. By utilizing high temperature induced diffusion of dopant in SMF, transmission maxima and minima spectra can be observed due to the interference between different modes in TEC fiber. Experimental results show that the intensity of transmission trough of proposed fiber structure is highly sensitive to displacement that indicates a potential application of TEC fiber for sensing measurement.

  3. Highly selective, sensitive and fluorescent sensing of dimeric G-quadruplexes by a dimeric berberine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chun-Qiong; Yang, Jian-Wei; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong-Min; Sun, Bin; Chen, Jin-Xiang; Xu, Ya-Shi; Chen, Wen-Hua

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the highly selective, sensitive and topology-specific fluorescent sensing of dimeric G-quadruplexes by a polyether-tethered dimeric berberine 1. Compound 1 displays high selectivity for dimeric G-quadruplexes over monomeric ones, and can be lit up by dimeric G-quadruplexes, in particular by the one linked with one TTA subunit. In addition, it shows no effect on the topology or thermal stability of the G-quadruplexes. PMID:26580142

  4. [An automatic and sensitive method for the determination of endogenous brassinosteroids in plant tissues by an online trapping-in situ derivatization-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Jiang, Li; Feng, Yuqi

    2014-10-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of naturally occurring phytohormones with poly- hydroxy steroid structure, which regulate general plant growth and many physiological processes. The reported methods for BR analysis were complicated, and the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To realize the automatic analysis of trace BRs in limited plant tissues, an in-tube solid phase microextraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-UPLC-MS/MS) system was constructed based on two valves-two pumps. Using C18 PEEK column as the trapping column and 4-(dimethylamino) phenylboronic acid (4-DMAPBA) as the derivatization reagent, an on line trapping and in situ derivatization assay method of BRs was developed. BRs could be programmed to fulfill the procedures of injection, extraction, derivatization, LC separation and MS detection in the system. The detection limits of BRs were improved more than one order of magnitude by the online trapping and in situ derivatization techniques, thus endogenous BRs could be quantified in only 300 mg plant tissues. PMID:25739270

  5. Nature's crucible: Manufacturing optical nonlinearities for high resolution, high sensitivity encoding in the compound eye of the fly, Musca domestica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Mike

    1993-01-01

    The number of pixels per unit area sampling an image determines Nyquist resolution. Therefore, the highest pixel density is the goal. Unfortunately, as reduction in pixel size approaches the wavelength of light, sensitivity is lost and noise increases. Animals face the same problems and have achieved novel solutions. Emulating these solutions offers potentially unlimited sensitivity with detector size approaching the diffraction limit. Once an image is 'captured', cellular preprocessing of information allows extraction of high resolution information from the scene. Computer simulation of this system promises hyperacuity for machine vision.

  6. High-sensitivity DNA biosensor based on optical fiber taper interferometer coated with conjugated polymer tentacle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunyun; Tian, Zhuang; Sun, Li-Peng; Sun, Dandan; Li, Jie; Ran, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2015-10-19

    A sensitive bio-probe to in situ detect unlabeled single-stranded DNA targets based on optical microfiber taper interferometer coated by a high ordered pore arrays conjugated polymer has been presented. The polymer coating serves as tentacles to catch single-stranded DNA molecules by ?-? conjugated interaction and varies the surface refractive index of the optical microfiber. The microfiber taper interferometer translates the refractive index information into wavelength shift of the interference fringe. The sensor exhibits DNA concentration sensitivity of 2.393 nm/log M and the lowest detection ability of 10-10 M or even lower. PMID:26480357

  7. Proposal for high sensitivity force sensor inspired by auditory hair cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Taegeun; Park, Hee Chul; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2009-07-01

    We propose a biomimetic electromechanical system mimicking auditory hair cell and investigate its mechanical properties. The biophysical properties of the biological hair cells, mechanical instability, and sensory adaptation are modeled using feedback control. The proposed system shows two different types of response according to their spontaneous oscillations; sinusoidal-like and bistable oscillation. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that, as in auditory hair cells, the sensitivity is larger and frequency filtering is sharper for weaker force signal, which might be applicable for high sensitivity wide-ranged force (sound) sensor.

  8. A simple and highly sensitive method of measuring heme oxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    Liem, Pham Hieu; Mu, Anfeng; Kikuta, Shun-Ichi; Ohta, Kazushi; Kitajima, Sakihito; Taketani, Shigeru

    2015-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a rate-limiting step of heme degradation, which catalyzes the conversion of heme into biliverdin, iron, and CO. HO has been characterized in microorganisms, insects, plants, and mammals. Previously used assays of HO activity were complicated and had low sensitivity. We found that the use of an eel bilirubin-bound fluorescent protein, UnaG, can achieve a highly sensitive and simple assay of HO activity. Using several enzyme sources including human culture cells, homogenates of plant tissues, and recombinant yeast HO, data were successfully obtained. The present method can facilitate the examination of HO in various organisms. PMID:26040009

  9. Polarimetric fiber grating biosensor for in-situ high-sensitive intracellular density measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Liu, Yu; Chen, Nan-Kuang; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    High sensitivity biological sample measurements have been achieved by using a 12o tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG). Human acute leukemia cells with different intracellular densities and refractive index (RI) ranging from 1.3342 to 1.3344 were clearly discriminated in-situ by using the differential transmission spectrum between two orthogonal polarizations for the last guided mode resonance before "cut-off", with an amplitude variation sensitivity of 1.8×104 dB/RIU and a limit of detection of 2×10-5 RIU. The technique is inherently temperature-insensitive.

  10. Development and characterisation of a silicon PIN diode array based highly sensitive portable continuous radon monitor.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, P; Sahoo, B K; Raman, Anand; Mayya, Y S

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the development and characterisation of a portable and highly sensitive continuous radon monitor (CRM) based on an array of in-house developed silicon PIN diode detectors. The development of this system was initiated in view of the limitations of the available similar radon measurement systems with regards to low sensitivity. The system utilises a hemispherical metal chamber (1 L capacity) for active air sampling. A quantitative estimation of radon concentration is carried out through alpha spectroscopy of electro-deposited (222)Rn decay products on the detector surface. The system was successfully tested and characterised in laboratory conditions. The characterisation experiments included optimisation of sensitivity, calibration with respect to linearity and a study of the influence of humidity on its performance. The novel PIN diode array design yields a high sensitivity of 1.76 ± 0.003 counts h(-1)/(Bq m(-3)) at a relative humidity level of 10% in the sampled air, which is more than two times as high as that reported for similar commercial systems. This instrument displayed a minimum detectable activity level of 0.80 Bq m(-3). PMID:24334292

  11. A SERS-based lateral flow assay biosensor for highly sensitive detection of HIV-1 DNA.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiuli; Cheng, Ziyi; Yu, Jimin; Choo, Priscilla; Chen, Lingxin; Choo, Jaebum

    2016-04-15

    User-friendly lateral flow (LF) strips have been extensively used for point-of-care (POC) self-diagnostics, but they have some limitations in their detection sensitivity and quantitative analysis because they only identify the high cut-off value of a biomarker by utilizing color changes that are detected with the naked eye. To resolve these problems associated with LF strips, we developed a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based LF assay for the quantitative analysis of a specific biomarker in the low concentration range. Herein, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA was chosen as the specific biomarker. Raman reporter-labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were employed as SERS nano tags for targeting and detecting the HIV-1 DNA marker, as opposed to using bare AuNPs in LF strips. It was possible to quantitatively analyze HIV-1 DNA with high sensitivity by monitoring the characteristic Raman peak intensity of the DNA-conjugated AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of our SERS-based lateral flow assay was 0.24pg/mL, which was at least 1000 times more sensitive compared to colorimetric or fluorescent detection methods. These results demonstrate the potential feasibility of the proposed SERS-based lateral flow assay to quantitatively detect a broad range of genetic diseases with high sensitivity. PMID:26669705

  12. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, T.; Jensen, R.; Christensen, M. K.; Chorkendorff, I.; Pedersen, T.; Hansen, O.

    2012-07-15

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal response. Gas analysis is performed with a time of flight mass spectrometer with a modified nude Bayard-Alpert ionization gauge as gas ionization source. The mass resolution of the time of flight mass spectrometer using the ion gauge as ionization source is estimated to m/{Delta}m > 2500. The system design is superior to conventional batch and flow reactors with accompanying product detection by quadrupole mass spectrometry or gas chromatography not only due to the high sensitivity, fast temperature response, high mass resolution, and fast acquisition time of mass spectra but it also allows wide mass range (0-5000 amu in the current configuration). As a demonstration of the system performance we present data from ammonia oxidation on a Pt thin film showing resolved spectra of OH and NH{sub 3}.

  13. Ultrafast and high-sensitivity photovoltaic effects in TiN/Si Schottky junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jie; Jin, Kuijuan; He, Meng; Lu, Huibin; Liu, Guozhen; Yang, Guozhen

    2008-10-01

    Ultrafast photovoltaic effects with high sensitivity in both vertical and lateral directions have been observed in the TiN/Si Schottky junction. The open-circuit vertical photovoltage across the junction is 400 mV under irradiation of an HeNe laser with a power of 7 mW. The response speed is in the picosecond order. Furthermore, we found a large lateral photovoltage (LPV) parallel to the plane of the junction. The LPV between the two electrodes on the Si substrate of the junction depends linearly on the position of the incident laser spot. And the highest position sensitivity is 60 mV mm-1 over the displacement of the laser spot. These characteristics indicate the potential applications of the TiN/Si junction in photodetectors and position sensitive detectors.

  14. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyun; Wang, Dejun; Xu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 ?m high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW. PMID:26516864

  15. R and D of crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for high sensitivity double ? decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A.

    2013-12-30

    Experiments to search for neutrinoless double beta decay enters to a new phase when a sensitivity on the level of T{sub 1/2}?10{sup 26}?10{sup 28} yr is required. Scintillating low temperature detectors possess important properties required for high-sensitivity double beta decay experiments: presence of elements of interest, high energy resolution and detection efficiency, low level of background thanks to excellent particle discrimination ability. High concentration of isotope of interest and as low as possible radioactive contamination are important requirements to crystal scintillators. Other crucial issues are maximal output of detectors and minimal loss of enriched materials. Prospects of several scintillation materials, enriched in isotopes promising for double beta decay experiments, are discussed.

  16. Ultra-sensitive high-density Rb-87 radio-frequency magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Savukov, I.; Boshier, M. G.; Karaulanov, T.

    2014-01-13

    Radio-frequency (RF) atomic magnetometers (AMs) can be used in many applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear quadrupole resonance. High-density AMs provide both superior sensitivity and large bandwidth. Previously, high-density potassium AMs were demonstrated, but these magnetometers have various disadvantages, such as high-temperature of operation and bulky design. We demonstrate a rubidium-87 RF AM with 5 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} sensitivity (3 fT Hz{sup 1/2} probe noise), which is comparable to that of the best potassium magnetometers. Our magnetometer also features a simple fiber-optic design, providing maximum flexibility for magnetic-field measurements.

  17. A sensitive, high resolution magic angle turning experiment for measuring chemical shift tensor principal values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderman, D. W.

    1998-12-01

    A sensitive, high-resolution 'FIREMAT' two-dimensional (2D) magic-angle-turning experiment is described that measures chemical shift tensor principal values in powdered solids. The spectra display spinning-sideband patterns separated by their isotropic shifts. The new method's sensitivity and high resolution in the isotropic-shift dimension result from combining the 5pi magic-angle-turning pulse sequence, an extension of the pseudo-2D sideband-suppression data rearrangement, and the TIGER protocol for processing 2D data. TPPM decoupling is used to enhance resolution. The method requires precise synchronization of the pulses and sampling to the rotor position. It is shown that the technique obtains 35 natural-abundance 13C tensors from erythromycin in 19 hours, and high quality naturalabundance 15N tensors from eight sites in potassium penicillin V in three days on a 400MHz spectrometer.

  18. The nature and nurture of high IQ: An extended sensitive period for intellectual development

    PubMed Central

    Brant, Angela M; Munakata, Yuko; Boomsma, Dorret I; DeFries, John C; Haworth, Claire MA; Keller, Matthew C; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matthew; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert; Wadsworth, Sally J; Wright, Margaret J; Hewitt, John K

    2015-01-01

    IQ predicts many measures of life success, as well as trajectories of brain development. Prolonged cortical thickening observed in individuals with higher IQ might reflect an extended period of synaptogenesis and high environmental sensitivity or plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the timing of changes in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on IQ as a function of IQ score. We find that individuals with higher IQ show high environmental influence on IQ into adolescence (resembling younger children), whereas individuals with lower IQ show high heritability of IQ in adolescence (resembling adults), consistent with an extended sensitive period for intellectual development in more intelligent individuals. These patterns hold across a cross-sectional sample of almost 11,000 twin pairs, and a longitudinal sample of twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings. PMID:23818653

  19. High Sensitivity Combined with Extended Structural Coverage of Labile Compounds via Nanoelectrospray Ionization at Subambient Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Jonathan T.; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Shukla, Anil K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi

    2014-10-07

    Subambient pressure ionization with nanoelectrospray (SPIN) has proven to be effective in producing ions with high efficiency and transmitting them to low pressures for high sensitivity mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Here we present evidence that not only does the SPIN source improve MS sensitivity but also allows for gentler ionization conditions. The gentleness of a conventional heated capillary electrospray ionization (ESI) source and the SPIN source was compared by the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of colominic acid. Colominic acid is a mixture of sialic acid polymers of different lengths containing labile glycosidic linkages between monomer units necessitating a gentle ion source. By coupling the SPIN source with high resolution mass spectrometry and using advanced data processing tools, we demonstrate much extended coverage of sialic acid polymer chains as compared to using the conventional ESI source. Additionally we show that SPIN-LC-MS is effective in elucidating polymer features with high efficiency and high sensitivity previously unattainable by the conventional ESI-LC-MS methods. ?

  20. Determination of Zilpaterol in Horse Urine from Withdrawal Day 0 to Day 21 by UPLC-MS/MS and ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zilpaterol is a beta-adrenergic agonist that is approved in the United States, Mexico and South Africa as a feed additive to increase weight gain and improve feed efficiency of cattle. Beta-adrenergic agonists have a long history of illicit and off-label use in livestock, competitive sport animals,...

  1. An optimized method for measuring methylmalonic acid in low volumes of serum using UPLC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a metabolic intermediate which is transformed to succinic acid (SA) by a vitamin B12-dependent catalytic step. MMA is broadly used as a clinical biomarker of functional vitamin B12 status. However, currently validated protocols use between 100 -1000 µL of se...

  2. Chlorination and oxidation of sulfonamides by free chlorine: Identification and behaviour of reaction products by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Vanessa de Jesus; Cardoso, Vitor Vale; Benoliel, Maria João; Almeida, Cristina M M

    2016-01-15

    Sulfonamides (SAs) are one class of the most widely used antibiotics around the world and have been frequently detected in municipal wastewater and surface water in recent years. Their transformation in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and in water treatment plants (WTP), as well as, their fate and transport in the aquatic environment are of concern. The reaction of six sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfathiazole and sulfadiazine) with free chlorine was investigated at a laboratory scale in order to identify the main chlorination by-products. A previously validated method, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, was used to analyse SAs and their chlorination by-products. At room temperature, pH 6-7, reaction times of up to 2 h and an initial concentration of 2 mg/L of free chlorine, the majority of SAs suffered degradation of around 65%, with the exception of sulfamethoxazole and sulfathiazole (20%). The main reaction of SAs with free chlorine occurred in the first minute. PMID:26560639

  3. Simultaneous Determination of 27 Pesticides in Ginseng by UPLC/MS/MS and Modified QuEChERS Procedure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruoxin; Chen, Qiyong; Li, Shujing; Fan, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid method for the quantification of 27 commonly used pesticides in ginseng incorporating a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) procedure was developed and validated. The pesticides were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile and extracts purified by use of the mixed sorbents primary-secondary amine, C18, and graphitized carbon black. Quantitative analysis of all pesticides was performed by ultra-performance LC/MS/MS in the positive ionization mode in a single run due to the fast polarity switching capability of the mass spectrometer. Two precursor-product ion transitions were monitored for each compound in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Quantification was carried out using matrix-matched standards for calibration. Recoveries of the proposed method from the spiked samples were achieved in the range 62.8-108.5%, and RSD ranged from 1.5 to 11.8%. PMID:26086265

  4. Methods to Increase the Sensitivity of High Resolution Melting Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping in Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Rachel; Hamilton, Elizabeth J.; Durfee, Katelyn; Ndiaye, Daouda; Wirth, Dyann F.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Volkman, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of eradication efforts, malaria remains a global burden. Recent renewed interest in regional elimination and global eradication has been accompanied by increased genomic information about Plasmodium parasite species responsible for malaria, including characteristics of geographical populations as well as variations associated with reduced susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs. One common genetic variation, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), offers attractive targets for parasite genotyping. These markers are useful not only for tracking drug resistance markers but also for tracking parasite populations using markers not under drug or other selective pressures. SNP genotyping methods offer the ability to track drug resistance as well as to fingerprint individual parasites for population surveillance, particularly in response to malaria control efforts in regions nearing elimination status. While informative SNPs have been identified that are agnostic to specific genotyping technologies, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is particularly suited to field-based studies. Compared to standard fluorescent-probe based methods that require individual SNPs in a single labeled probe and offer at best 10% sensitivity to detect SNPs in samples that contain multiple genomes (polygenomic), HRM offers 2-5% sensitivity. Modifications to HRM, such as blocked probes and asymmetric primer concentrations as well as optimization of amplification annealing temperatures to bias PCR towards amplification of the minor allele, further increase the sensitivity of HRM. While the sensitivity improvement depends on the specific assay, we have increased detection sensitivities to less than 1% of the minor allele. In regions approaching malaria eradication, early detection of emerging or imported drug resistance is essential for prompt response. Similarly, the ability to detect polygenomic infections and differentiate imported parasite types from cryptic local reservoirs can inform control programs. This manuscript describes modifications to high resolution melting technology that further increase its sensitivity to identify polygenomic infections in patient samples. PMID:26575471

  5. Methods to Increase the Sensitivity of High Resolution Melting Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping in Malaria.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Rachel; Hamilton, Elizabeth J; Durfee, Katelyn; Ndiaye, Daouda; Wirth, Dyann F; Hartl, Daniel L; Volkman, Sarah K

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of eradication efforts, malaria remains a global burden. Recent renewed interest in regional elimination and global eradication has been accompanied by increased genomic information about Plasmodium parasite species responsible for malaria, including characteristics of geographical populations as well as variations associated with reduced susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs. One common genetic variation, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), offers attractive targets for parasite genotyping. These markers are useful not only for tracking drug resistance markers but also for tracking parasite populations using markers not under drug or other selective pressures. SNP genotyping methods offer the ability to track drug resistance as well as to fingerprint individual parasites for population surveillance, particularly in response to malaria control efforts in regions nearing elimination status. While informative SNPs have been identified that are agnostic to specific genotyping technologies, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is particularly suited to field-based studies. Compared to standard fluorescent-probe based methods that require individual SNPs in a single labeled probe and offer at best 10% sensitivity to detect SNPs in samples that contain multiple genomes (polygenomic), HRM offers 2-5% sensitivity. Modifications to HRM, such as blocked probes and asymmetric primer concentrations as well as optimization of amplification annealing temperatures to bias PCR towards amplification of the minor allele, further increase the sensitivity of HRM. While the sensitivity improvement depends on the specific assay, we have increased detection sensitivities to less than 1% of the minor allele. In regions approaching malaria eradication, early detection of emerging or imported drug resistance is essential for prompt response. Similarly, the ability to detect polygenomic infections and differentiate imported parasite types from cryptic local reservoirs can inform control programs. This manuscript describes modifications to high resolution melting technology that further increase its sensitivity to identify polygenomic infections in patient samples. PMID:26575471

  6. Highly sensitive trace gas detection of molecular species with dense, poorly resolved spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpf, Andreas B.

    The development and demonstration of two new techniques for highly sensitive trace gas detection of molecules with dense, poorly resolved spectra are presented. Unlike many other spectroscopic detection methods, these approaches may be used at atmospheric pressure and are of particular use for cases where resolving the individual spectral lines of the target molecules is not practical. The techniques described in this work are: 1) Frequency Modulated Off-Axis Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (FM OA-CRDS); and 2) Multiple Line Integrated Absorption Spectroscopy (MLIAS). FM OA-CRDS is a variation of cavity ring down spectroscopy in which the laser frequency is modulated and off-axis alignment is used to make it more suitable for deployment in vibration-prone such as in-situ studies of the chemical balance in the atmosphere. An additional advantage is that the experimental arrangement is simple and does not involve the elaborate adjustments necessary to lock to a cavity resonance. The technique is demonstrated to detect Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) with a sensitivity of 1.5 ppb (parts-per-billion). MLIAS is a technique that enhances the sensitivity of a spectrometer for trace gas detection by integrating the absorption spectra of a species across multiple lines. When combined with the long pathlengths available using Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (ICOS), MLIAS allows one to achieve extremely high levels of sensitivity. The technique is demonstrated using NO2, where we integrate over more than 100 transitions in the R-band, and record an effective sensitivity of detection of 10 ppt. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most sensitive level of detection of NO2 to date using room-temperature apparatus.

  7. The Sensitivity of HAWC to High-Mass Dark Matter Annihilations

    E-print Network

    A. U. Abeysekara; R. Alfaro; C. Alvarez; J. D. Alvarez; R. Arceo; J. C. Arteaga-Velazquez; H. A. Ayala Solares; A. S. Barber; B. M. Baughman; N. Bautista-Elivar; J. Becerra Gonzalez; E. Belmont; S. Y. BenZvi; D. Berley; M. Bonilla Rosales; J. Braun; R. A. Caballero-Lopez; K. S. Caballero-Mora; A. Carraminana; M. Castillo; U. Cotti; J. Cotzomi; E. de la Fuente; C. De Leon; T. DeYoung; R. Diaz Hernandez; L. Diaz-Cruz; J. C. Diaz-Velez; B. L. Dingus; M. A. DuVernois; R. W. Ellsworth; S. F. E.; D. W. Fiorino; N. Fraija; A. Galindo; F. Garfias; M. M. Gonzalez; J. A. Goodman; V. Grabski; M. Gussert; Z. Hampel-Arias; J. P. Harding; C. M. Hui; P. Huentemeyer; A. Imran; A. Iriarte; P. Karn; D. Kieda; G. J. Kunde; A. Lara; R. J. Lauer; W. H. Lee; D. Lennarz; H. Leon Vargas; E. C. Linares; J. T. Linnemann; M. Longo; R. Luna-Garcia; A. Marinelli; H. Martinez; O. Martinez; J. Martinez-Castro; J. A. J. Matthews; J. McEnery; E. Mendoza Torres; P. Miranda-Romagnoli; E. Moreno; M. Mostafa; L. Nellen; M. Newbold; R. Noriega-Papaqui; T. Oceguera-Becerra; B. Patricelli; R. Pelayo; E. G. Perez-Perez; J. Pretz; C. Riviere; D. Rosa-Gonzalez; J. Ryan; H. Salazar; F. Salesa; A. Sandoval; M. Schneider; S. Silich; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; K. Sparks Woodle; R. W. Springer; I. Taboada; P. A. Toale; K. Tollefson; I. Torres; T. N. Ukwatta; L. Villasenor; T. Weisgarber; S. Westerhoff; I. G. Wisher; J. Wood; G. B. Yodh; P. W. Younk; D. Zaborov; A. Zepeda; H. Zhou; K. N. Abazajian

    2014-12-09

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is a wide field-of-view detector sensitive to gamma rays of 100 GeV to a few hundred TeV. Located in central Mexico at 19 degrees North latitude and 4100 m above sea level, HAWC will observe gamma rays and cosmic rays with an array of water Cherenkov detectors. The full HAWC array is scheduled to be operational in Spring 2015. In this paper, we study the HAWC sensitivity to the gamma-ray signatures of high-mass (multi- TeV) dark matter annihilation. The HAWC observatory will be sensitive to diverse searches for dark matter annihilation, including annihilation from extended dark matter sources, the diffuse gamma-ray emission from dark matter annihilation, and gamma-ray emission from non-luminous dark matter subhalos. Here we consider the HAWC sensitivity to a subset of these sources, including dwarf galaxies, the M31 galaxy, the Virgo cluster, and the Galactic center. We simulate the HAWC response to gamma rays from these sources in several well-motivated dark matter annihilation channels. If no gamma-ray excess is observed, we show the limits HAWC can place on the dark matter cross-section from these sources. In particular, in the case of dark matter annihilation into gauge bosons, HAWC will be able to detect a narrow range of dark matter masses to cross-sections below thermal. HAWC should also be sensitive to non-thermal cross-sections for masses up to nearly 1000 TeV. The constraints placed by HAWC on the dark matter cross-section from known sources should be competitive with current limits in the mass range where HAWC has similar sensitivity. HAWC can additionally explore higher dark matter masses than are currently constrained.

  8. Application of a sensitivity analysis technique to high-order digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paduano, James D.; Downing, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis technique for multiloop flight control systems is studied. This technique uses the scaled singular values of the return difference matrix as a measure of the relative stability of a control system. It then uses the gradients of these singular values with respect to system and controller parameters to judge sensitivity. The sensitivity analysis technique is first reviewed; then it is extended to include digital systems, through the derivation of singular-value gradient equations. Gradients with respect to parameters which do not appear explicitly as control-system matrix elements are also derived, so that high-order systems can be studied. A complete review of the integrated technique is given by way of a simple example: the inverted pendulum problem. The technique is then demonstrated on the X-29 control laws. Results show linear models of real systems can be analyzed by this sensitivity technique, if it is applied with care. A computer program called SVA was written to accomplish the singular-value sensitivity analysis techniques. Thus computational methods and considerations form an integral part of many of the discussions. A user's guide to the program is included. The SVA is a fully public domain program, running on the NASA/Dryden Elxsi computer.

  9. Spatial sensitivities of human health risk to intercontinental and high-altitude pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Jamin; Wang, Qiqi; Henze, Daven K.; Waitz, Ian A.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-06-01

    We perform the first long-term (>1 year) continuous adjoint simulations with a global atmospheric chemistry-transport model focusing on population exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and associated risk of early death. Sensitivities relevant to intercontinental and high-altitude PM pollution are calculated with particular application to aircraft emissions. Specifically, the sensitivities of premature mortality risk in different regions to NOx, SOx, CO, VOC and primary PM2.5 emissions as a function of location are computed. We apply the resultant sensitivity matrices to aircraft emissions, finding that NOx emissions are responsible for 93% of population exposure to aircraft-attributable PM2.5. Aircraft NOx accounts for all of aircraft-attributable nitrate exposure (as expected) and 53% of aircraft-attributable sulfate exposure due to the strong "oxidative coupling" between aircraft NOx emissions and non-aviation SO2 emissions in terms of sulfate formation. Of the health risk-weighted human PM2.5 exposure attributable to aviation, 73% occurs in Asia, followed by 18% in Europe. 95% of the air quality impacts of aircraft emissions in the US are incurred outside the US. We also assess the impact of uncertainty or changes in (non-aviation) ammonia emissions on aviation-attributable PM2.5 exposure by calculating second-order sensitivities. We note the potential application of the sensitivity matrices as a rapid policy analysis tool in aviation environmental policy contexts.

  10. Demonstration of a high sensitivity GNSS software receiver for indoor positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tao; Ma, Martin; Broumandan, Ali; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-03-01

    Advances in signal processing techniques contributed to the significant improvements of GNSS receiver performance in dense multipath environments and created the opportunities for a new category of high-sensitivity GNSS (HS-GNSS) receivers that can provide GNSS location services in indoor environments. The difficulties in improving the availability, reliability, and accuracy of these indoor capable GNSS receivers exceed those of the receivers designed for the most hostile urban canyon environments. The authors of this paper identified the vector tracking schemes, signal propagation statistics, and parallel processing techniques that are critical to a robust HS-GNSS receiver for indoor environments and successfully incorporated them into a fully functional high-sensitivity software receiver. A flexible vector-based receiver architecture is introduced to combine these key indoor signal processing technologies into GSNRx-hs™ - the high sensitivity software navigation receiver developed at the University of Calgary. The resulting receiver can perform multi-mode vector tracking in indoor environment at various levels of location and timing uncertainties. In addition to the obvious improvements in time-to-first-fix (TTFF) and signal sensitivity, the field test results in indoor environments surrounded by wood, glass, and concrete showed that the new techniques effectively improved the performance of indoor GNSS positioning. With fine GNSS timing, the proposed receiver can consistently deliver indoor navigation solution with the horizontal accuracy of 2-15 m depending on the satellite geometry and the indoor environments. If only the coarse GNSS timing is available, the horizontal accuracy of the indoor navigation solution from the proposed receiver is around 30 m depending on the coarse timing accuracy, the satellite geometry, and the indoor environments. From the preliminary field test results, it has been observed that the signal processing sensitivity is the dominant factor on the availability of the indoor navigation solution, while the GNSS timing accuracy is the dominant factor on the accuracy of the indoor navigation solution.

  11. Highly sensitive and specific colorimetric detection of cancer cells via dual-aptamer target binding strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Fan, Daoqing; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Erkang

    2015-11-15

    Simple, rapid, sensitive and specific detection of cancer cells is of great importance for early and accurate cancer diagnostics and therapy. By coupling nanotechnology and dual-aptamer target binding strategies, we developed a colorimetric assay for visually detecting cancer cells with high sensitivity and specificity. The nanotechnology including high catalytic activity of PtAuNP and magnetic separation & concentration plays a vital role on the signal amplification and improvement of detection sensitivity. The color change caused by small amount of target cancer cells (10 cells/mL) can be clearly distinguished by naked eyes. The dual-aptamer target binding strategy guarantees the detection specificity that large amount of non-cancer cells and different cancer cells (10(4) cells/mL) cannot cause obvious color change. A detection limit as low as 10 cells/mL with detection linear range from 10 to 10(5) cells/mL was reached according to the experimental detections in phosphate buffer solution as well as serum sample. The developed enzyme-free and cost effective colorimetric assay is simple and no need of instrument while still provides excellent sensitivity, specificity and repeatability, having potential application on point-of-care cancer diagnosis. PMID:26042871

  12. Highly sensitive Europium doped SrSO4 OSL nanophosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patle, Anita; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Moharil, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    Highly sensitive Europium doped SrSO4 optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) phosphor was developed by synthesizing a nano phosphor which is treated at 1000 °C. Excellent OSL properties are observed in the developed phosphor and the sensitivity is found to be 1.26 times to that of the commercial Al2O3:C (Landauer Inc.) phosphor based on area integration method. The sample showed a single TL glow peak around 230 °C which is found to reduce by 47% after the OSL readout. Sublinear dose response with the saturation around 100 mGy is observed in this sample which suggests that it is extremely sensitive and hence will be suitable in detecting very low dose levels. Minimum measurable dose on the used set up is estimated to be 1.42 ?Gy. Practically no fading is observed for first ten days and the phosphor has excellent reusability. High sensitivity, low fading, excellent reusability will make this phosphor suitable for radiation dosimetry applications using OSL.

  13. Highly sensitive, patternable organic films at the nanoscale made by bottom-up assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Han; Blackwell, James M; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Bent, Stacey F

    2013-05-01

    Nanoscale patterning of organic thin films is of great interest for next-generation technologies. To keep pace with the demands of state-of-the-art lithography, both the sensitivity and resolution of the patternable thin films need to be improved. Here we report a highly sensitive polyurea film grown by bottom-up assembly via the molecular layer deposition (MLD) technique, which allows for high-resolution patterning at the nanoscale. The MLD process used in this work provides an exceptionally high degree of control over the film thickness and composition and also offers high coating conformality. The polyurea film was formed by urea coupling reactions between 1,4-diisocyanatobutane and 2,2'-(propane-2,2-diyldioxy)diethanamine precursors and deposited in a layer-by-layer fashion. Acid-labile ketal groups were incorporated into the backbone of the polymer chains to ensure chemically amplified cleaving reactions when combined with photoacid, which was generated by electron-beam activation of triphenylsulfonium triflate soaked into the polyurea film. With electron-beam lithography, sub-100 ?C/cm(2) sensitivity and sub-100 nm resolution were demonstrated using this new bottom-up assembly approach to resist fabrication. PMID:23594160

  14. Highly-sensitive and label-free indium phosphide biosensor for early phytopathogen diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Alberto L D; Janissen, Richard; Santos, Clelton A; Peroni, Luis A; Stach-Machado, Dagmar R; de Souza, Alessandra A; de Souza, Anete P; Cotta, Mônica A

    2012-01-01

    The development of highly-sensitive and label-free operating semiconductor-based, biomaterial detecting sensors has important applications in areas such as environmental science, biomedical research and medical diagnostics. In the present study, we developed an Indium Phosphide (InP) semiconductor-based resistive biosensor using the change of its electronic properties upon biomaterial adsorption as sensing element. To detect biomaterial at low concentrations, the procedure of functionalization and covalent biomolecule immobilization was also optimized to guarantee high molecule density and high reproducibility which are prerequisite for reliable results. The characterization, such as biomolecular conjugation efficiency, detection concentration limits, receptor:ligand specificity and concentration detection range was analyzed by using three different biological systems: i) synthetic dsDNA and two phytopathogenic diseases, ii) the severe CB-form of Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) and iii) Xylella fastidiosa, both causing great economic loss worldwide. The experimental results show a sensitivity of 1 pM for specific ssDNA detection and about 2 nM for the specific detection of surface proteins of CTV and X. fastidiosa phytopathogens. A brief comparison with other semiconductor based biosensors and other methodological approaches is discussed and confirms the high sensitivity and reproducibility of our InP based biosensor which could be suitable for reliable early infection diagnosis in environmental and life sciences. PMID:22538056

  15. Highly sensitive phosphoproteomics by tailoring solid-phase extraction to electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Loroch, Stefan; Zahedi, René Peiman; Sickmann, Albert

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, several strategies for comprehensive phosphoproteome analysis have been introduced. Most of them combine different phosphopeptide enrichment techniques and require starting material in the milligram range, as a consequence of their insufficient sensitivity. This limitation impairs the applicability of phosphoproteomics to a wide variety of clinical research, where sample material is highly limited. Here we introduce a highly sensitive and easy-to-establish 2D bottom-up strategy for microgram-scale phosphoproteomics, based on electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC), a simple solid-phase extraction step by strong cation exchange (SCX) or reversed phase (RP), and LC-MS analysis. With only 100 ?g of tryptic digested, nonstimulated HeLa protein and 45 h of LC-MS analysis time, we identified ?7500 nonredundant and highly confident phosphorylation sites (per replicate). We assigned all phosphorylation sites to 3013 phosphoproteins, covering the entire dynamic range from 10(7) down to a few copies per cell. Compared to affinity-based-enrichment methods using Ti(4+), our ERLIC-based strategy enriched considerably longer and more acidic phosphopeptides and consequently, we identified 327 phosphorylated C-terminal peptides. The simplicity and high sensitivity of ERLIC-SCX/RP-LC-MS render its future promising for microgram-scale-phosphoproteomics in biological, biomedical, and clinical research. PMID:25405705

  16. Robust emergent climate phenomena associated with the high-sensitivity tail.

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, George A.; Levy, Michael Nathan; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2010-12-01

    Because the potential effects of climate change are more severe than had previously been thought, increasing focus on uncertainty quantification is required for risk assessment needed by policy makers. Current scientific efforts focus almost exclusively on establishing best estimates of future climate change. However, the greatest consequences occur in the extreme tail of the probability density functions for climate sensitivity (the 'high-sensitivity tail'). To this end, we are exploring the impacts of newly postulated, highly uncertain, but high-consequence physical mechanisms to better establish the climate change risk. We define consequence in terms of dramatic change in physical conditions and in the resulting socioeconomic impact (hence, risk) on populations. Although we are developing generally applicable risk assessment methods, we have focused our initial efforts on uncertainty and risk analyses for the Arctic region. Instead of focusing on best estimates, requiring many years of model parameterization development and evaluation, we are focusing on robust emergent phenomena (those that are not necessarily intuitive and are insensitive to assumptions, subgrid-parameterizations, and tunings). For many physical systems, under-resolved models fail to generate such phenomena, which only develop when model resolution is sufficiently high. Our ultimate goal is to discover the patterns of emergent climate precursors (those that cannot be predicted with lower-resolution models) that can be used as a 'sensitivity fingerprint' and make recommendations for a climate early warning system that would use satellites and sensor arrays to look for the various predicted high-sensitivity signatures. Our initial simulations are focused on the Arctic region, where underpredicted phenomena such as rapid loss of sea ice are already emerging, and because of major geopolitical implications associated with increasing Arctic accessibility to natural resources, shipping routes, and strategic locations. We anticipate that regional climate will be strongly influenced by feedbacks associated with a seasonally ice-free Arctic, but with unknown emergent phenomena.

  17. HIgh-Q Optical Micro-cavity Resonators as High Sensitive Bio-chemical and Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Tao

    Optical micro-cavity resonators have quickly emerged in the past few years as a new sensing platform in a wide range of applications, such as bio-chemical molecular detection, environmental monitoring, acoustic and electromagnetic waves detection. In this thesis, we will mainly focus on developing high sensitivity silica micro-tube resonator bio-chemical sensors and high sensitivity polymer micro-ring resonator acoustic sensors. In high sensitivity silica micro-tube resonator bio-chemical sensors part: We first demonstrated a prism coupled silica micro-tube bio-chemical sensing platform to overcome the reliability problem in a fiber coupled thin wall silica micro-tube sensing platform. In refractive index sensing experiment, a unique resonance mode with sensitivity around 600nm/refractive index unit (RIU) has been observed. Surface sensing experiments also have been performed in this platform to detect lipid monolayer, lipid bilayer, electrostatic self assemble layer-by-layer as well as the interaction between the lipid bilayer and proteins. Then a theoretical study on various sensing properties on the silica micro-tube based sensing platform has been realized. Furthermore, we have proposed a coupled cavity system to further enhance the device's sensitivity above 1000nm/RIU. In high sensitivity polymer micro-ring resonator acoustic sensors part: We first presented a simplified fabrication process and realized a polymer microring with a Q factor around 6000. The fabricated device has been used to detect acoustic wave with noise equivalent pressure (NEP) around 230Pa over 1-75MHz frequency rang, which is comparable to state-of-art piezoelectric transducer and the device's frequency response also have been characterized to be up to 90MHz. A new fabrication process combined with resist reflow and thermal oxidation process has been used to improve the Q factor up to 10 5 and the device's NEP has been tested to be around 88Pa over 1-75MHz range. Further improving the device's Q factor has been realized by shifting the device's working wavelength to near-visible wavelength and further reducing the device's sidewall roughness. A record new high Q-˜x105 has been measured and the device's NEP as low as 21Pa has been measured. Furthermore, a smaller size polymer microring device has been developed and fabricated to realize larger angle beam forming applications.

  18. ZnO-nanowires modified polypyrrole films as highly selective and sensitive chlorine sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Aditee; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Gangal, S. A.

    2009-03-01

    Room temperature sensing characteristics of the polypyrrole (PPy) films modified with different weight percentages of ZnO nanowires (ZnO-NWs) have been studied for various oxidizing (NO2 and Cl2) as well as reducing (H2S, NH3, CH4, and CO) gases. We demonstrate that ZnO-NW (50 wt %):PPy composite films are highly selective to Cl2 along with high-sensitivity (40 at 10 ppm), fast-response (55 s), and highly reproducible response curves. It has been shown that negatively charged O2- surfaces of ZnO-NW transfer electrons to PPy, making it in a highly reduced form. A strong localization of charge carriers in the reduced PPy makes composite film highly resistive (>1010 ? cm) as well insensitive to interaction with most of the gases except Cl2. Cl2 being highly oxidizing gas interacts with composite films and causes a sharp reduction in its resistivity.

  19. Optical transitions in highly-charged californium ions with high sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant

    E-print Network

    Berengut, J C; Flambaum, V V; Ong, A

    2012-01-01

    We study electronic transitions in highly-charged Cf ions that are within the frequency range of optical lasers and have very high sensitivity to potential variations in the fine-structure constant, alpha. The transitions are in the optical despite the large ionisation energies because they lie on the level-crossing of the 5f and 6p valence orbitals in the thallium isoelectronic sequence. Cf16+ is a particularly rich ion, having several narrow lines with properties that minimize certain systematic effects. Cf16+ has very large nuclear charge and large ionisation energy, resulting in the largest alpha-sensitivity seen in atomic systems. The lines include positive and negative shifters.

  20. Highly H+-sensitive neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Salgueiro, J L; Gaytán, S P; Crego, R; Pásaro, R; Ribas, J

    2003-01-01

    The ventral surface of the caudal ventrolateral medulla (cVLM) has been shown to generate intense respiratory responses after surface acid-base stimulation. With respect to their chemosensitive characteristics, cVLM neurons have been less studied than other rostral-most regions of the brainstem. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the bioelectric responses of cVLM neurons to acidic stimuli and to determine their chemosensitive properties. Using extracellular and microiontophoretic techniques, we recorded electrical activities from 117 neurons in an area close to the ventral surface of the cVLM in anaesthetised rats. All neurons were tested for their sensitivity to H+. The fluorescent probe BCECF was used to measure extracellular pH changes produced by the microiontophoretic injection of H+ in brainstem slices. This procedure provided an estimation of the local changes in pH produced by microiontophoretic H+ application in the anaesthetised rat. Neurons coupled to the respiratory cycle, R (n = 51), were not responsive to direct stimulation with H+. Sixty-six neurons that did respond to H+ stimulation were uncoupled from respiration, and identified as NR neurons. These neurons presented distinct ranges of H+ sensitivity. The neuronal sensitivity to H+ was mainly assessed by the slope of the stimulus-response curve, where the steeper the slope, the higher the H+ sensitivity. On this basis, NR neurons were classed as being either weakly or highly sensitive to H+. NR neurons with a high H+ sensitivity (n = 12) showed an average value of 34.17 ± 7.44 spikes s?1 (100 nC)?1 (mean ± s.d.) for maximal slope and an EC50 of 126.76 ± 33 nC. Suprathreshold H+ stimulation of highly sensitive NR neurons elicited bursting pattern responses coupled to the respiratory cycle. The bursting responses, which were synchronised with the inspiratory phase and the early expiratory phase of the respiratory cycle, lasted for several seconds before returning to the steady state firing pattern characteristic of the pre-stimulus condition. These NR neurons, which possess the capacity to detect distinct H+ concentrations in the extracellular microenvironment, are excellent candidates to serve in a chemoreceptor capacity in the caudal medulla. PMID:12665611

  1. High-refractive-index transparent coatings enhance the optical fiber cladding modes refractometric sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Renoirt, Jean-Michel; Zhang, Chao; Debliquy, Marc; Olivier, Marie-Georges; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2013-11-18

    The high order cladding modes of standard single mode optical fiber appear in quasi-degenerate pairs corresponding to mostly radially or mostly azimuthally polarized light. In this work, we demonstrate that, in the presence of a high-refractive-index coating surrounding the fiber outer surface, the wavelength spacing between the orthogonally polarized cladding modes families can be drastically enhanced. This behavior can be advantageously exploited for refractometric sensing purposes. For this, we make use of tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) as spectral combs to excite the orthogonally polarized cladding modes families separately. TFBGs were coated with a nanometer-scale transparent thin film characterized by a refractive index value close to 1.9, well higher than the one of pure silica. This coating brings two important assets: an ~8-fold increase in refractometric sensitivity is obtained in comparison to bare TFBGs while the sensitivity is extended to surrounding refractive index (SRI) values above 1.45. PMID:24514423

  2. High sensitivity resonance frequency measurements of individualmicro-cantilevers using fiber optical interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Duden, Thomas; Radmilovic, Velimir

    2009-03-04

    We describe a setup for the resonance frequency measurement of individual microcantilevers. The setup displays both high spatial selectivity and sensitivity to specimen vibrations by utilizing a tapered uncoated fiber tip. The high sensitivity to specimen vibrations is achieved by the combination of optical Fabry-Perot interferometry and narrow band RF detection. Wave fronts reflected on the specimen and on the fiber tip end face interfere, thus no reference plane on the specimen is needed, as demonstrated with the example of freestanding silicon nitride micro-cantilevers. The resulting system is integrated in a DB-235 dual beam FIB system, thereby allowing the measurement of micro-cantilever responses during observation in SEM mode. The FIB was used to modify the optical fiber tip. At this point of our RF system development, the microcantilevers used to characterize the detector were not modified in situ.

  3. Controllable-density nanojunctions as SERS substrates for highly sensitive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiliang; Zhu, Weiyue

    2015-04-01

    A facile and efficient approach was designed to fabricate highly sensitive and reproducible SERS-active substrates based on the controllable-density nanojunctions with ink-jet printing technique. In this system, polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were ink-jet printed on substrates and subsequently dipped into sodium chloride solution. The capped molecules on the AgNPs surfaces were detached with the competitive absorption of chloride, and spontaneously triggered to form the controllable-density nanojunctions among the AgNPs aggregates. These formed AgNPs nanojunctions demonstrated excellent controllability, reproducibility, and a detection limit of 1 × 10-11 M level for Rhodamine 6G probe molecules. This strategy could be expected to construct multifarious SERS sensors for highly sensitive detection in chemical and biological fields.

  4. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    DOEpatents

    Pipino, Andrew Charles Rule (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-11-16

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  5. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    DOEpatents

    Pipino, Andrew C. R. (Gaithersburg, MD); Hudgens, Jeffrey W. (Rockville, MD)

    1999-08-24

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  6. Graphene-coated microfiber Bragg grating for high-sensitivity gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Yao, Baicheng; Zhang, Anqi; Rao, Yunjiang; Wang, Zegao; Cheng, Yang; Gong, Yuan; Zhang, Weili; Chen, Yuanfu; Chiang, K S

    2014-03-01

    A graphene coated microfiber Bragg grating (GMFBG) for gas sensing is reported in this Letter. Taking advantage of the surface field enhancement and gas absorption of a GMFBG, we demonstrate an ultrasensitive approach to detect the concentration of chemical gas. The obtained sensitivities are 0.2 and 0.5 ppm for NH3 and xylene gas, respectively, which are tens of times higher than that of a GMFBG without graphene for tiny gas concentration change detection. Experimental results indicate that the GMFBG-based NH3 gas sensor has fast response due to its highly compact structure. Such a miniature fiber-optic element may find applications in high sensitivity gas sensing and trace analysis. PMID:24690715

  7. Ultra-high sensitive temperature sensor based on multimode fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ai; Zhang, Yaxun; Yang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jun; Liu, Zhihai

    2014-05-01

    We propose an ultra-high sensitive temperature sensor based on multimode fiber (MMF) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). The multimode fiber MZI is composed of a short section of MMF inserting between another two pieces of MMFs with large lateral offset. The sensing head is packaged in a capillary which is filled with glycerol-water solution. At the offset splice interface, part of the light in the lead-in MMF is coupled into the glycerol-water solution around the sensing MMF and the remainder propagates along the cladding of the sensing MMF. Due to the large thermo-optic coefficient of the glycerol-water solution, the transmission spectrum of the MMF-based MZI shift quickly with temperature variation. Experimental results show that the temperature sensitivity is as high as 8.23 nm/°C.

  8. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hai Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Naimei; Chen, Ray T.; Fan, Donglei

    2015-03-23

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3?dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed.

  9. Highly stretchable and wearable graphene strain sensors with controllable sensitivity for human motion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Jin; Hyun, Woo Jin; Mun, Sung Cik; Park, Yong Tae; Park, O Ok

    2015-03-25

    Because of their outstanding electrical and mechanical properties, graphene strain sensors have attracted extensive attention for electronic applications in virtual reality, robotics, medical diagnostics, and healthcare. Although several strain sensors based on graphene have been reported, the stretchability and sensitivity of these sensors remain limited, and also there is a pressing need to develop a practical fabrication process. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of new types of graphene strain sensors based on stretchable yarns. Highly stretchable, sensitive, and wearable sensors are realized by a layer-by-layer assembly method that is simple, low-cost, scalable, and solution-processable. Because of the yarn structures, these sensors exhibit high stretchability (up to 150%) and versatility, and can detect both large- and small-scale human motions. For this study, wearable electronics are fabricated with implanted sensors that can monitor diverse human motions, including joint movement, phonation, swallowing, and breathing. PMID:25735398

  10. New fabrication technique for highly sensitive qPlus sensor with well-defined spring constant.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Hatem; Kupsta, Martin; Huff, Taleana; Salomons, Mark; Vick, Douglas; Taucer, Marco; Pitters, Jason; Wolkow, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    A new technique for the fabrication of highly sensitive qPlus sensor for atomic force microscopy (AFM) is described. The focused ion beam was used to cut then weld onto a bare quartz tuning fork a sharp micro-tip from an electrochemically etched tungsten wire. The resulting qPlus sensor exhibits high resonance frequency and quality factor allowing increased force gradient sensitivity. Its spring constant can be determined precisely which allows accurate quantitative AFM measurements. The sensor is shown to be very stable and could undergo usual UHV tip cleaning including e-beam and field evaporation as well as in situ STM tip treatment. Preliminary results with STM and AFM atomic resolution imaging at 4.5 K of the silicon Si(111)-7×7 surface are presented. PMID:26117434

  11. High-sensitivity low-cost temperature sensor based on symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinbing; Chen, Jiabi; Luo, Xuexue; Liang, Binming; Zhuang, Songlin

    2015-08-01

    The temperature-dependent reflection spectrums of ultrahigh order guided modes of symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide (SMCW) are measured in angular interrogation. The results show that the reflection spectrum is characterized by extremely narrow resonance dip, which agrees well with numerical calculation. Based on the falling or rising edge of resonance dip of ultrahigh order guided modes of SMCW, a temperature sensor with characteristic of high sensitivity is proposed. Meanwhile, by experimentally determine the linear character between the shift of resonance angle and the variation of temperature, a method of angle compensation is put forward to extend the sensing range. Owing to its characteristics of high sensitivity, low cost and easy fabrication, the temperature sensor based on SMCW will be a promising sensor in many fields.

  12. Laser-written nanoporous silicon ridge waveguide for highly sensitive optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jinan; Rossi, Andrea M; Murphy, Thomas E

    2012-01-15

    We report that low-loss ridge waveguides are directly written on nanoporous silicon layers by using an argon-ion laser at 514 nm up to 100 mW. Optical characterization of the waveguides indicates light propagation loss lower than 0.5 dB/cm at 1550 nm after oxidation. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor is experimentally demonstrated using the waveguide in its sensing branch, and analytical results indicate that very high sensitivity can be achieved. With large internal surface area, versatile surface chemistry, and adjustable index of refraction of porous silicon, the ridge waveguides can be used to configure Mach-Zehnder interferometers, Young's interferometers, and other photonic devices for highly sensitive optical biosensors and chemical sensors as well as other applications. PMID:22854485

  13. Improved Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometer Prototype for High Sensitivity Detection of Rare Circulating Cells In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestana, Noah Benjamin

    Accurate quantification of circulating cell populations is important in many areas of pre-clinical and clinical biomedical research, for example, in the study of cancer metastasis or the immune response following tissue and organ transplants. Normally this is done "ex-vivo" by drawing and purifying a small volume of blood and then analyzing it with flow cytometry, hemocytometry or microfludic devices, but the sensitivity of these techniques are poor and the process of handling samples has been shown to affect cell viability and behavior. More recently "in vivo flow cytometry" (IVFC) techniques have been developed where fluorescently-labeled cells flowing in a small blood vessel in the ear or retina are analyzed, but the sensitivity is generally poor due to the small sampling volume. To address this, our group recently developed a method known as "Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometry" (DFFC) that allows detection and counting of rare circulating cells with diffuse photons, offering extremely high single cell counting sensitivity. In this thesis, an improved DFFC prototype was designed and validated. The chief improvements were three-fold, i) improved optical collection efficiency, ii) improved detection electronics, and iii) development of a method to mitigate motion artifacts during in vivo measurements. In combination, these improvements yielded an overall instrument detection sensitivity better than 1 cell/mL in vivo, which is the most sensitive IVFC system reported to date. Second, development and validation of a low-cost microfluidic device reader for analysis of ocular fluids is described. We demonstrate that this device has equivalent or better sensitivity and accuracy compared a fluorescence microscope, but at an order-of-magnitude reduced cost with simplified operation. Future improvements to both instruments are also discussed.

  14. A fluorescence high throughput screening method for the detection of reactive electrophiles as potential skin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-12-01

    Skin sensitization is an important toxicological end-point in the risk assessment of chemical allergens. Because of the complexity of the biological mechanisms associated with skin sensitization, integrated approaches combining different chemical, biological and in silico methods are recommended to replace conventional animal tests. Chemical methods are intended to characterize the potential of a sensitizer to induce earlier molecular initiating events. The presence of an electrophilic mechanistic domain is considered one of the essential chemical features to covalently bind to the biological target and induce further haptenation processes. Current in chemico assays rely on the quantification of unreacted model nucleophiles after incubation with the candidate sensitizer. In the current study, a new fluorescence-based method, 'HTS-DCYA assay', is proposed. The assay aims at the identification of reactive electrophiles based on their chemical reactivity toward a model fluorescent thiol. The reaction workflow enabled the development of a High Throughput Screening (HTS) method to directly quantify the reaction adducts. The reaction conditions have been optimized to minimize solubility issues, oxidative side reactions and increase the throughput of the assay while minimizing the reaction time, which are common issues with existing methods. Thirty-six chemicals previously classified with LLNA, DPRA or KeratinoSens™ were tested as a proof of concept. Preliminary results gave an estimated 82% accuracy, 78% sensitivity, 90% specificity, comparable to other in chemico methods such as Cys-DPRA. In addition to validated chemicals, six natural products were analyzed and a prediction of their sensitization potential is presented for the first time. PMID:26455772

  15. The Potential Utility of High Resolution Ensemble Sensitivities During Weak Flow in Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, J.; Wile, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent expansion in availability of re-locatable near-surface atmospheric observing sensors introduces the question of where placement maximizes gain in forecast accuracy. Here the potential for ensemble sensitivity analysis (ESA) is examined for high-resolution (?x=4 km) predictions in complex terrain. The primary objective is to determine whether a mesoscale ESA applied at these scales is useful for identifying potential observing locations in weak flow. ESA can be inaccurate when the underlying assumptions of linear dynamics (and Gaussian statistics) are violated, or when the sensitivity cannot be robustly sampled. A case study of a fog event at the Salt Lake City airport (KSLC) provides a useful period for examining these issues, with the additional influence of complex terrain. A realistic upper-air observing network is used in perfect-model ensemble data assimilation experiments, providing the statistics for ESA. Results show that water vapor mixing ratios over KSLC are sensitive to temperature on the first model layer tens of km away, 6 h prior to verification and prior to the onset of fog. Sensitivity 12 h prior is weaker but leads to qualitatively similar results. Temperatures are shown to be a predictor of inversion strength in the Salt Lake basin; the ESA predicts southerly flow and strengthened inversions with warmer temperatures in a few locations. Simple linearity tests show that small perturbations do not lead to the expected forecast change, but larger perturbations do, suggesting that noise can dominate a small perturbation. Assimilating a perfect observation at the maximum sensitivity location produces forecasts more closely agreeing with the ESA. Sampling error evaluation show that similar conclusions can be reached with ensembles as small as 48 members, but smaller ensembles do not produce accurate sensitivity estimates.

  16. S-Phase Cells Are More Sensitive to High-Linear Energy Transfer Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hongyan; Liu Shuang; Zhang Piyan; Zhang Shimeng; Naidu, Mamta; Wang Huichen; Wang Ya

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: S-phase cells are more resistant to low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation (IR) than nonsynchronized and G{sub 1}-phase cells, because both nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair can repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the S phase. Although it was reported 3 decades ago that S-phase cells did not show more resistance to high-LET IR than cells in other phases, the mechanism remains unclear. We therefore attempted to study the phenotypes and elucidate the mechanism involved. Methods and Materials: Wild-type and NHEJ-deficient cell lines were synchronized using the double-thymidine approach. A clonogenic assay was used to detect the sensitivity of nonsynchronized, synchronized S-phase, and G{sub 2}-phase cells to high- and low-LET IR. The amounts of Ku bound to DSBs in the high- and low-LET-irradiated cells were also examined. Results: S-phase wild-type cells (but not NHEJ-deficient cells) were more sensitive to high-LET IR than nonsynchronized and G{sub 2}-phase cells. In addition, S-phase wild-type cells showed less efficient Ku protein binding to DSBs than nonsynchronized and G{sub 2}-phase cells in response to high-LET IR, although all cells at all phases showed similarly efficient levels of Ku protein binding to DSBs in response to low-LET IR. Conclusions: S-phase cells are more sensitive to high-LET IR than nonsynchronized and G{sub 2}-phase cells, because of the following mechanism: it is more difficult for Ku protein to bind to high-LET IR-induced DNA DSBs in S-phase cells than in cells at other phases, which results in less efficient NHEJ.

  17. A high sensitivity search for X-rays from supernova remnants in Aquila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. A.; Bleach, D. A.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    A high sensitivity scan of the galactic plane was performed to search for 2-20 keV X-rays from supernova remnants. The spectra of five X-ray sources detected between 44 deg and 31 deg longitude, of which only two might be associated with suggested supernova remnants, are reported on. Upper limits are presented for the 19 possible supernova remnants scanned in this survey.

  18. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Benson, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye. 10 figs.

  19. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Benson, Scott C. (Albany, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a polycationic chain of at least two positive charges. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  20. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Benson, Scott C. (Oakland, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  1. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA); Benson, Scott C. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  2. Pore-forming compounds as signal transduction elements for highly sensitive biosensing.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Masao; Shoji, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Misato

    2014-01-01

    Pore-forming compounds are attracting much attention due to the signal transduction ability for the development of highly sensitive biosensing. In this review, we describe an overview of the recent advances made by our group in the design of molecular sensing interfaces of spherical and planar lipid bilayers and natural bilayers. The potential uses of pore-forming compounds, such as gramicidin and MCM-41, in lipid bilayers and natural glutamate receptor channels in biomembrane are presented. PMID:24420253

  3. A highly sensitive magnetic biosensor for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs tagged to superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, J.; Wingo, J.; Mai, T. T. T.; Nguyen, X. P.; Huong, N. T.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.

    2014-05-01

    We report on a highly sensitive magnetic biosensor based on the magneto-reactance (MX) effect of a Co65Fe4Ni2Si15B14 amorphous ribbon with a nanohole-patterned surface for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs (Curcumin) tagged to superparamagnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (mean size, ˜10 nm) were first coated with Alginate, and Curcumin was then tagged to the nanoparticles. The detection and quantification of Curcumin were assessed by the change in MX of the ribbon subject to varying concentrations of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles to which Curcumin was tagged. A high capacity of the MX-based biosensor in quantitative analysis of Curcumin-loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles was achieved in the range of 0-50 ng/ml, beyond which the detection sensitivity of the sensor remained unchanged. The detection sensitivity of the biosensor reached an extremely high value of 30%, which is about 4-5 times higher than that of a magneto-impedance (MI) based biosensor. This biosensor is well suited for detection of low-concentration magnetic biomarkers in biological systems.

  4. A highly sensitive magnetic biosensor for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs tagged to superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingo, J.; Devkota, J.; Mai, T. T. T.; Nguyen, X. P.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.; Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology Collaboration; University of South Florida Team

    2014-03-01

    A precise detection of low concentrations of biomolecules attached to magnetic nanoparticles in complex biological systems is a challenging task and requires biosensors with improved sensitivity. Here, we present a highly sensitive magnetic biosensor based on the magneto-reactance (MX) effect of a Co65Fe4Ni2Si15B14 amorphous ribbon with nanohole-patterned surface for detection and quantification of anticancer drugs (Curcumin) tagged to Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The detection and quantification of Curcumin were assessed by the change in MX of the ribbon subject to varying concentrations of the functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A high capacity of the MX-based biosensor in quantitative analysis of the nanoparticles was achieved in the range of 0 - 50 ng/ml, beyond which the detection sensitivity (?) remained unchanged. The ? of the biosensor reached an extremely high value of 30%, which is about 4-5 times higher than that of a magneto-impedance (MI) based biosensor. This biosensor is well suited for detection of low-concentration magnetic biomarkers in biological systems. This work was supported by was supported by the Florida Cluster for Advanced Smart Sensor Technologies, USAMRMC (Grant # W81XWH-07-1-0708), and the NSF-funded REU program at the USF.

  5. Highly sensitive and quantitative evaluation of the EGFR T790M mutation by nanofluidic digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Iwama, Eiji; Takayama, Koichi; Harada, Taishi; Okamoto, Isamu; Ookubo, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Junji; Baba, Eishi; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    The mutation of T790M in EGFR is a major mechanism of resistance to treatment with EGFR-TKIs. Only qualitative detection (presence or absence) of T790M has been described to date, however. Digital PCR (dPCR) analysis has recently been applied to the quantitative detection of target molecules in cancer with high sensitivity. In the present study, 25 tumor samples (13 obtained before and 12 after EGFR-TKI treatment) from 18 NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations were evaluated for T790M with dPCR. The ratio of the number of T790M alleles to that of activating mutation alleles (T/A) was determined. dPCR detected T790M in all 25 samples. Although T790M was present in all pre-TKI samples from 13 patients, 10 of these patients had a low T/A ratio and manifested substantial tumor shrinkage during treatment with EGFR-TKIs. In six of seven patients for whom both pre- and post-TKI samples were available, the T/A ratio increased markedly during EGFR-TKI treatment. Highly sensitive dPCR thus detected T790M in all NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations whether or not they had received EGFR-TKI treatment. Not only highly sensitive but also quantitative detection of T790M is important for evaluation of the contribution of T790M to EGFR-TKI resistance. PMID:26015401

  6. Novel near-infrared carboxylated 1,3-indandione sensitizers for highly efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Naoyuki; Inoue, Yukiko; Abe, Masahiro; Kajiyama, Shingo; Ozawa, Hironobu; Miura, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Hironori

    2015-08-18

    Three novel metal-free organic dyes (DN458, DN475 and DN484) were designed for use in plastic-substrate dye-sensitized solar cells (PDSCs). The photoelectric conversion region of DN475 was successfully expanded into the near-infrared region. As a result, an energy conversion efficiency of 5.76% was achieved. PMID:26166712

  7. High-sensitivity explosives detection using dual-excitation-wavelength resonance-Raman detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellampalle, Balakishore; McCormick, William B.; Wu, Hai-Shan; Sluch, Mikhail; Martin, Robert; Ice, Robert V.; Lemoff, Brian

    2014-05-01

    A key challenge for standoff explosive sensors is to distinguish explosives, with high confidence, from a myriad of unknown background materials that may have interfering spectral peaks. To meet this challenge a sensor needs to exhibit high specificity and high sensitivity in detection at low signal-to-noise ratio levels. We had proposed a Dual-Excitation- Wavelength Resonance-Raman Detector (DEWRRED) to address this need. In our previous work, we discussed various components designed at WVHTCF for a DEWRRED sensor. In this work, we show a completely assembled laboratory prototype of a DEWRRED sensor and utilize it to detect explosives from two standoff distances. The sensor system includes two novel, compact CW deep-Ultraviolet (DUV) lasers, a compact dual-band high throughput DUV spectrometer, and a highly-sensitive detection algorithm. We choose DUV excitation because Raman intensities from explosive traces are enhanced and fluorescence and solar background are not present. The DEWRRED technique exploits the excitation wavelength dependence of Raman signal strength, arising from complex interplay of resonant enhancement, self-absorption and laser penetration depth. We show measurements from >10 explosives/pre-cursor materials at different standoff distances. The sensor showed high sensitivity in explosive detection even when the signalto- noise ratio was close to one (~1.6). We measured receiver-operating-characteristics, which show a clear benefit in using the dual-excitation-wavelength technique as compared to a single-excitation-wavelength technique. Our measurements also show improved specificity using the amplitude variation information in the dual-excitation spectra.

  8. Highly Sensitive Liquid Core Temperature Sensor Based on Multimode Interference Effects.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Fuentes, Miguel A; May-Arrioja, Daniel A; Guzman-Sepulveda, José R; Torres-Cisneros, Miguel; Sánchez-Mondragón, José J

    2015-01-01

    A novel fiber optic temperature sensor based on a liquid-core multimode interference device is demonstrated. The advantage of such structure is that the thermo-optic coefficient (TOC) of the liquid is at least one order of magnitude larger than that of silica and this, combined with the fact that the TOC of silica and the liquid have opposite signs, provides a liquid-core multimode fiber (MMF) highly sensitive to temperature. Since the refractive index of the liquid can be easily modified, this allows us to control the modal properties of the liquid-core MMF at will and the sensor sensitivity can be easily tuned by selecting the refractive index of the liquid in the core of the device. The maximum sensitivity measured in our experiments is 20 nm/°C in the low-temperature regime up to 60 °C. To the best of our knowledge, to date, this is the largest sensitivity reported for fiber-based MMI temperature sensors. PMID:26512664

  9. Highly Sensitive Liquid Core Temperature Sensor Based on Multimode Interference Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Fuentes, Miguel A.; May-Arrioja, Daniel A.; Guzman-Sepulveda, José R.; Torres-Cisneros, Miguel; Sánchez-Mondragón, José J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel fiber optic temperature sensor based on a liquid-core multimode interference device is demonstrated. The advantage of such structure is that the thermo-optic coefficient (TOC) of the liquid is at least one order of magnitude larger than that of silica and this, combined with the fact that the TOC of silica and the liquid have opposite signs, provides a liquid-core multimode fiber (MMF) highly sensitive to temperature. Since the refractive index of the liquid can be easily modified, this allows us to control the modal properties of the liquid-core MMF at will and the sensor sensitivity can be easily tuned by selecting the refractive index of the liquid in the core of the device. The maximum sensitivity measured in our experiments is 20 nm/°C in the low-temperature regime up to 60 °C. To the best of our knowledge, to date, this is the largest sensitivity reported for fiber-based MMI temperature sensors. PMID:26512664

  10. Highly sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) gas sensors from viral-templated nanocrystalline gold nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chung Hee; Zhang, Miluo; Myung, Nosang V.; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2014-04-01

    A facile, site-specific viral-templated assembly method was used to fabricate sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors at room temperature. A gold-binding M13 bacteriophage served to organize gold nanoparticles into linear arrays which were used as seeds for subsequent nanowire formation through electroless deposition. Nanowire widths and densities within the sensors were modified by electroless deposition time and phage concentration, respectively, to tune device resistance. Chemiresistive H2S gas sensors with superior room temperature sensing performance were produced with sensitivity of 654%/ppmv, theoretical lowest detection limit of 2 ppbv, and 70% recovery within 9 min for 0.025 ppmv. The role of the viral template and associated gold-binding peptide was elucidated by removing organics using a short O2 plasma treatment followed by an ethanol dip. The template and gold-binding peptide were crucial to electrical and sensor performance. Without surface organics, the resistance fell by several orders of magnitude, the sensitivity dropped by more than a factor of 100 to 6%/ppmv, the lower limit of detection increased, and no recovery was detected with dry air flow. Viral templates provide a novel, alternative fabrication route for highly sensitive, nanostructured H2S gas sensors.

  11. Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in high-fat diet fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xue-Wei; Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Jian-Wei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported the favorable effect of leucine supplementation on insulin resistance or insulin sensitivity. However, whether or not leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity remains unclear. Design Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% leucine for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, serum leptin level was measured by ELISA, and leptin receptor (ObR) in the hypothalamus was examined by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of ObR and leptin-signaling pathway in adipose tissues were detected by western blot. Results No significant differences in body weight and food/energy intake existed among the four groups. Serum leptin levels were significantly lower, and ObR expression in the hypothalamus and adipose tissues was significantly higher in the three leucine groups than in the control group. These phenomena suggested that leptin sensitivity was improved in the leucine groups. Furthermore, the expressions of JAK2 and STAT3 (activated by ObR) were significantly higher, and that of SOCS3 (inhibits leptin signaling) was significantly lower in the three leucine groups than in the control group. Conclusions Leucine supplementation improves leptin sensitivity in rats on HFD likely by promoting leptin signaling. PMID:26115673

  12. Increased thermal pain sensitivity in animals exposed to chronic high dose Vicodin but not pure hydrocodone.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Thomas F; Carpenter, Patrick S; Caballero, Nadia; Putnam, Andrew J; Steere, Joshua T; Matz, Gregory J; Foecking, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    Vicodin, the combination drug of acetaminophen and the opioid hydrocodone, is one of the most prescribed drugs on the market today. Opioids have demonstrated the ability to paradoxically cause increased pain sensitivity to users in a phenomena called opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). While selected opioids have been shown to produce OIH symptoms in an animal model, hydrocodone and the combination drug Vicodin have yet to be studied. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of exposure to chronic high dose Vicodin or its components on the sensitivity to both thermal and mechanical pain. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups, Vicodin, acetaminophen, hydrocodone, or vehicle control, and administered the drug daily for 120 days. Rats were subsequently tested for thermal and mechanical sensitivity. The rats in the Vicodin group displayed a significant decrease in withdrawal time to thermal pain. The rats receiving acetaminophen, hydrocodone, and vehicle showed no statistically significant hypersensitivity in thermal testing. None of the groups demonstrated statistically significant hypersensitivity to mechanical testing. The data suggests Vicodin produces signs of OIH in a rodent model. However, increased pain sensitivity was only noted in the thermal pathway and the hypersensitivity was only seen with the opioid combination drug, not the opioid alone. The results of this study both support the results of previous rodent opioid studies while generating further questions about the specific properties of Vicodin that contribute to pain hypersensitivity. The growing use of Vicodin to treat chronic pain necessitates further research looking into this paradoxical pain response. PMID:25054394

  13. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with high sensitivity by using long focal length microlens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Vinna; Wei, Hsiang-Chun; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2011-09-01

    The performance of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) is mainly described by the accuracy, spatial resolution, dynamic range, and sensitivity of the measurement. These factors are particularly affected by the design of the microlens array (MLA). In order to provide a large dynamic range of wavefront measurement, most of the conventional and commercial SHWFS implemented a short focal length lenslet array, which means that the measurement sensitivity is being sacrificed and the accuracy of the wavefront sensor will be degraded. However, it is also critical to detect very small displacement of SHWFS spot in order to reconstruct it into a fine wavefront variation. We fabricated long focal length MLA with various structure arrangement by thermal reflow process with Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) cover on the glass substrate and implemented them on the image system. A longer focal length will provide high sensitivity in determining the average slope across each lenslet under a given wavefront, and the spatial resolution of the wavefront sensor is increased by the number of lenslets across the detector. The experimental setup consists of the fabricated 245 ?m diameter MLA which provides a 5.2 mm long focal distance and is paired with the CMOS as the detector. The observable smallest sensitivity is around wavelength/20 (?=630nm).

  14. Targeted glycomics by selected reaction monitoring for highly sensitive glycan compositional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongquan; Wang, Zhaohui; Stupak, Jacek; Ghribi, Othman; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Liu, Qing Yan; Li, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    The development of glycomics increasingly requires the detection and quantification of large numbers of glycans, which is only partially achieved by current glycomics approaches. Taking advantage of selected reaction monitoring to enhance both sensitivity and selectivity, we report here a strategy termed targeted glycomics that enables highly sensitive and consistent identification and quantification of diverse glycans across multiple samples at the same time. In this proof-of-principle study, we validated the method by analyzing globally N-glycans expressed in different systems; single proteins, cancer cells and serum samples. A dynamic range of three orders of magnitude was obtained for the detection of all five glycans released from ribonuclease B. The limit of detection of 80 attomole for Man9GlcNAc2 demonstrated the excellent sensitivity of the method. The capability of the strategy to identify diverse glycans was demonstrated by identification and detection of 162 different glycans and isomers from pancreatic cancer cells. The sensitivity of the method was illustrated further by the ability to detect 8 glycans from 250 cancer cells and 5 glycans released from 100 cancer cells. In serum obtained from rabbits fed control diet or diet enriched with 2% cholesterol, differences to 42 glycans were accurately measured and this indicates that this strategy might find use in studies of biomarker discovery and validation. PMID:22821818

  15. Highly sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H?S) gas sensors from viral-templated nanocrystalline gold nanowires.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chung Hee; Zhang, Miluo; Myung, Nosang V; Haberer, Elaine D

    2014-04-01

    A facile, site-specific viral-templated assembly method was used to fabricate sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors at room temperature. A gold-binding M13 bacteriophage served to organize gold nanoparticles into linear arrays which were used as seeds for subsequent nanowire formation through electroless deposition. Nanowire widths and densities within the sensors were modified by electroless deposition time and phage concentration, respectively, to tune device resistance. Chemiresistive H2S gas sensors with superior room temperature sensing performance were produced with sensitivity of 654%/ppm(v), theoretical lowest detection limit of 2 ppb(v), and 70% recovery within 9 min for 0.025 ppm(v). The role of the viral template and associated gold-binding peptide was elucidated by removing organics using a short O? plasma treatment followed by an ethanol dip. The template and gold-binding peptide were crucial to electrical and sensor performance. Without surface organics, the resistance fell by several orders of magnitude, the sensitivity dropped by more than a factor of 100 to 6%/ppm(v), the lower limit of detection increased, and no recovery was detected with dry air flow. Viral templates provide a novel, alternative fabrication route for highly sensitive, nanostructured H2S gas sensors. PMID:24598078

  16. Highly sensitive antenna using inkjet overprinting with particle-free conductive inks.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Natsuki; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Otsuka, Kanji

    2012-11-01

    Printed antennas with low signal losses and fast response in high-frequency bands have been required. Here we reported on highly sensitive antennas using additive patterning of particle-free metallo-organic decomposition silver inks. Inkjet overprinting of metallo-organic decomposition inks onto copper foil and silver nanowire line produced antenna with mirror surfaces. As a result, the overprinted antennas decreased their return losses at 0.5-4.0 GHz and increased the speed of data communication in WiFi network. PMID:23075475

  17. Sensitive strain sensor based on regenerated microfiber Bragg grating for high temperature environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Yang; Gao, Shuai; Jin, Long; Sun, Li-Peng; Huang, Yun-Yun; Li, Jie; Guan, Baiou

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, an abnormal grating evolution was recorded during microfiber Bragg grating (mFBG) inscription under 193nm excimer laser. Within 20 minutes exposing, a Type IIa FBG could be obtained with above 20dB strength in 8.5 ?m microfiber. This regenerated mFBG had good survival ability against high temperature up to 800 °C. Moreover, the strain response of the regenerated grating was enlarged by the microfiber structure. Thus, highly sensitive strain sensor with considerable temperature resistance could be obtained, which had potential applications in gas/oil and aerospace territory.

  18. High-Sensitivity Optical Pulse Characterization Using Sagnac Electro-Optic Spectral Shearing Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrer, C.; Bromage, J.

    2010-05-04

    An electro-optic spectral shearing interferometer for high-sensitivity optical pulse characterization is described. Two replicas of the test pulse counterpropagate in a Sagnac interferometer with orthogonal polarization states, resulting in two relatively sheared copolarized replicas after temporal phase modulation. The polarization interferometer is intrinsically stable, and its birefringence sets the delay between interfering replicas to reduce the spectrometer resolution requirement. Experimental implementations demonstrate real-time pulse characterization at average powers as low as 1 nWwith spectral shears as high as 280 GHz.

  19. Development of a high-sensitivity 80 L radon detector for purified gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Murata, A.; Nakano, Y.; Onishi, Y.; Sekiya, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tasaka, S.

    2015-03-01

    In underground particle physics experiments, the radioactive noble gas ^{222}Rn generated from the decay chain of the uranium series could be a serious background source. We have been developing high-sensitivity radon detectors to assay radon in the Kamioka underground laboratory. In order to achieve a further low background level, we developed a new radon detector with better hermeticity. The high-voltage dependence and humidity dependence of the detection efficiencies were obtained through our calibration systems. The background level of the new radon detector was also measured.

  20. Highly-Sensitive Defect-Selective Imaging and NDT via Resonant Nonlinearity of Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodov, Igor

    In this paper, it is proposed to use a combination of mechanical resonance and nonlinearity of defects to enhance substantially the efficiency of input-output frequency conversion in nonlinear NDT. The concept of a defect as a nonlinear oscillator brings about new dynamic and frequency scenarios characteristic of nonlinear and parametric oscillations. The experiments confirm transition to resonant modes of nonlinear vibrations in simulated and realistic defects. All resonant nonlinear modes are strongly localised in the defect area that provides a background for high-contrast highly-sensitive defect- and frequency-selective imaging.

  1. Optimization of X-ray phase contrast imaging system toward high-sensitivity measurements of biological organs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto

    2012-07-31

    X-ray phase contrast imaging and tomography using a Talbot grating interferometer is currently available for user experiments at BL20B2 in SPring-8. The measurement condition for X-ray phase contrast tomography has been optimized to achieve high-sensitivity measurements of biological soft tissues and organs. Some biological samples were measured to demonstrate the high-sensitivity imaging.

  2. High-Sensitivity Atomic Magnetometer Unaffected by Spin-Exchange Relaxation J. C. Allred and R. N. Lyman

    E-print Network

    Romalis, Mike

    High-Sensitivity Atomic Magnetometer Unaffected by Spin-Exchange Relaxation J. C. Allred and R. N; published 9 September 2002) Alkali-metal magnetometers compete with SQUID detectors as the most sensitive demonstrate a K magnetometer in which spin-exchange relaxation is completely eliminated by operating at high K

  3. Two-dimensional array of cold-electron bolometers for high-sensitivity polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, L. S.

    2012-01-01

    A new concept of a two-dimensional array of cold-electron bolometers with distributed dipole antennas in the focal plane for high-sensitivity polarization measurements is proposed. The concept gives a unique combination of high polarization resolution due to a large uniforms array of cold-electron bolometers and optimal matching with junction field effect transistor (JFET) amplifiers because of flexibility in direct-current connections. The noise characteristics are improved due to arriving-signal power distribution among numerous cold-electron bolometers and an increase in their response. This should lead to a significant increase in the sensitivity and dynamic range compared with competing alternative bolometer technologies. The reliability of the twodimensional array significantly increases due to a series-parallel connection of a large number of cold-electron bolometers. High polarization resolution should be ensured due to uniform covering of a substrate by a two-dimensional array over a large area and the absence of the beam compression to small lumped elements. The fundamental sensitivity limit of the cold-electron bolometer array is smaller than photon noise which is considered to be the ultimate level restricted by the background radiation. Estimates of noise of bolometers with the JFET reading system show the possibility of realizing the ultimate sensitivity below the photon-noise level 5 ?10-17 W/Hz1/2 at a frequency of 350 GHz for an optical load with a power of 5 pW. These parameters correspond to the requirements to the receiving system of a BOOMERanG balloon telescope.

  4. Highly sensitive detection of urinary protein variations using tilted fiber grating sensors with plasmonic nanocoatings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Liang, Xing; Qiu, Xuhui; Huang, Yunyun; Xie, Chen; Xu, Peng; Mao, Wei; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques

    2016-04-15

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical fiber biosensors can be used as a cost-effective and relatively simple-to-implement alternative to well established bulky prism configurations for high sensitivity biological sample measurements. The miniaturized size and remote operation ability offer them a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces, even possibly in vivo. The biosensor configuration reported in this work uses a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) in a commercial single mode fiber coated with a nanometer scale silver film. The key point is that by reducing the silver film thickness to around 20-30nm (rather than 50nm for optimal SPR excitation), different modes of the TFBG spectrum present very high but opposite sensitivities to refractive index (RI) changes around the TFBG. Experimental results obtained with the coated TFBG embedded inside a microfluidic channel show an amplitude sensitivity greater than 8000dB/RIU (Refractive Index Unit) and a limit of detection of 10(-5)RIU. Using this device, the effect of different concentrations of protein in rat urine was clearly differentiated between healthy samples, nephropatic samples and samples from individuals under treatment, with a protein concentration sensitivity of 5.5dB/(mg/ml) and a limit of detection of 1.5×10(-3)mg/ml. Those results show a clear relationship between protein outflow and variations in the RI of the urine samples between 1.3400 and 1.3408, pointing the way to the evaluation and development of new drugs for nephropathy treatments. The integration of TFBGs with microfluidic channels enables precise measurement control over samples with sub-microliter volumes and does not require accurate temperature control because of the elimination of the temperature cross-sensitivity inherent in TFBG devices. Integration of the TFBG with a hypodermic needle on the other hand would allow similar measurements in vivo. The proposed optical fiber/microfluidic plasmonic biosensor represents an appealing solution for rapid, low consumption and highly sensitive detection of analytes at low concentrations in medicine as well as in chemical and environmental monitoring. PMID:26618641

  5. Highly Sensitive and Long Term Stable Electrochemical Microelectrodes for Implantable Glucose Monitoring Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Liangliang

    A miniature wireless implantable electrochemical glucose system for continuous glucose monitoring with good selectivity, sensitivity, linearity and long term stability was developed. First, highly sensitive, long-term stable and reusable planar H2O2 microelectrodes have been fabricated by microlithography. These electrodes composed of a 300 nm Pt black layer situated on a 5 um thick Au layer, provide effective protection to the underlying chromium adhesion layer. Using repeated cyclic voltammetric sweeps in flowing buffer solution, highly sensitive Pt black working electrodes were realized with five-decade linear dynamic range and low detection limit (10 nM) for H2O2 at low oxidation potentials. Second, a highly sensitive, low cost and flexible microwire biosensor was described using 25-mum thick gold wire as working electrode together with 125-mum thick Pt/Ir and Ag wires as counter and reference electrode, embedded within a PDMS-filled polyethylene tube. Surface area and activity of sensor was enhanced by converting gold electrode to nanoporous configuration followed by electrodeposition of platinum black. Glucose oxidase based biosensors by electrodeposition of poly(o-phenylenediamine) and glucose oxidase on the working electrode, displayed a higher glucose sensitivity (1.2 mA mM-1 cm-2) than highest literature reported. In addition it exhibits wide detection range (up to 20 mM) and selectivity (>95%). Third, novel miniaturized and flexible microelectrode arrays with 8 of 25 mum electrodes displayed the much needed 3D diffusion profiles similar to a single 25 mum microelectrode, but with one order increase in current levels. These microelectrode arrays displayed a H2O2 sensitivity of 13 mA mM-1 cm-2, a wide dynamic range of 100 nM to 10 mM, limit of detection of 10 nM. These microwire based edge plane microsensors incorporated flexibility, miniaturization and low operation potential are an promising approach for continuous in vivo metabolic monitoring. Fourth, homemade miniature wireless potentisotat was fabricated based on low power consumption integrated circuits and surface mount parts. The miniature wireless potentisotat with up to two week life-time for continuous glucose sensing has a size less than 9x22x10 mm and weight ˜3.4 grams. Primary in vivo experiment showed homemade system has the exactly same respond and trend as commercial glucose meter.

  6. Sensitivity to Tumor Microvasculature Without Contrast Agents in High Spectral and Spatial Resolution MR Images

    PubMed Central

    Foxley, Sean; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Haney, Chad; Zamora, Marta; Markiewicz, Erica; Medved, Milica; Wood, Abbie M.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI is sensitive to cancers but can produce adverse reactions and suffers from insufficient specificity and morphological detail. This research investigated whether high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI detects tumor vasculature without contrast agents, based on the sensitivity of the water resonance line shape to tumor blood vessels. HiSS data from AT6.1 tumors inoculated in the hind legs of rats (N = 8) were collected pre- and post– blood pool contrast agent (iron-oxide particles) injection. The waterline in small voxels was significantly more asymmetric at the tumor rim compared to the tumor center and normal muscle (P < 0.003). Composite images were synthesized, with the intensity in each voxel determined by the Fourier component (FC) of the water resonance having the greatest relative image contrast at that position. We tested whether regions with high contrast in FC images (FCIs) contain vasculature by comparing FCIs with CE-MRI as the “gold standard” of vascular density. The FCIs had 75% ± 13% sensitivity, 74% ± 10% specificity, and 91% ± 4% positive predictive value (PPV) for vasculature detection at the tumor rim. These results suggest that tumor microvasculature can be detected using HiSS imaging without the use of contrast agents. PMID:19165878

  7. FBG based high sensitive pressure sensor and its low-cost interrogation system with enhanced resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachava, Vengal Rao; Kamineni, Srimannarayana; Madhuvarasu, Sai Shankar; Putha, Kishore; Mamidi, Venkata Reddy

    2015-12-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensor with high sensitivity and resolution has been designed and demonstrated. The sensor is configured by firmly fixing the FBG with a metal bellows structure. The sensor works by means of measuring the Bragg wavelength shift of the FBG with respect to pressure change. From the experimental results, the pressure sensitivity of the sensor is found to be 90.6 pm/psi, which is approximately 4000 times as that of a bare fiber Bragg grating. A very good linearity of 99.86% is observed between the Bragg wavelength of the FBG and applied pressure. The designed sensor shows good repeatability with a negligible hysteresis error of ± 0.29 psi. A low-cost interrogation system that includes a long period grating (LPG) and a photodiode (PD) accompanied with simple electronic circuitry is demonstrated for the FBG sensor, which enables the sensor to attain high resolution of up to 0.025 psi. Thermal-strain cross sensitivity of the FBG pressure sensor is compensated using a reference FBG temperature sensor. The designed sensor can be used for liquid level, specific gravity, and static/dynamic low pressure measurement applications.

  8. Highly sensitive nano-porous lattice biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance and interference.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Se-Hyuk; Kim, Ok-Geun; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Kyu-Jin; Yuan, Heng; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kang, Shin-Won

    2011-11-01

    We propose a design for a highly sensitive biosensor based on nanostructured anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates. A gold-deposited AAO substrate exhibits both optical interference and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In our sensor, application of these disparate optical properties overcomes problems of limited sensitivity, selectivity, and dynamic range seen in similar biosensors. We fabricated uniform periodic nanopore lattice AAO templates by two-step anodizing and assessed their suitability for application in biosensors by characterizing the change in optical response on addition of biomolecules to the AAO template. To determine the suitability of such structures for biosensing applications, we immobilized a layer of C-reactive protein (CRP) antibody on a gold coating atop an AAO template. We then applied a CRP antigen (Ag) atop the immobilized antibody (Ab) layer. The shift in reflectance is interpreted as being caused by the change in refractive index with membrane thickness. Our results confirm that our proposed AAO-based biosensor is highly selective toward detection of CRP antigen, and can measure a change in CRP antigen concentration of 1 fg/ml. This method can provide a simple, fast, and sensitive analysis for protein detection in real-time. PMID:22109166

  9. FBG sensor for temperature-independent high sensitive pressure measurement with aid of a Bourdon tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srimannarayana, K.; Vengal Rao, P.; Sai Shankar, M.; Kishore, P.

    2014-05-01

    A temperature independent high sensitive pressure sensing system using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and `C' shaped Bourdon tube (CBT) is demonstrated. The sensor is configured by firmly fixing the FBG (FBG1) between free and fixed ends of the CBT. Additional FBG (FBG2) in line to the FBG1 is introduced which is shielded from the external pressure, tend to measure only the ambient temperature fluctuations. The CBT has an elliptical cross section where its free end is sealed and the fixed end is open for subjecting the liquid or gas pressure to be measured. With the application of pressure, the free end of CBT tends to straighten out results in an axial strain in FBG1 causes red shift in Bragg wavelength. The pressure can be determined by measuring the shift of the Bragg wavelength. The experimental pressure sensitivity is found to be 66.9 pm/psi over a range of 0 to 100 psi. The test results show that the Bragg wavelength shift is linear corresponds to change in applied pressure and well agreed with the simulated results. This simple and high sensitive design is capable of measuring static/dynamic pressure and temperature simultaneously which suits for industrial applications.

  10. [GoldMag particle-based chemiluminescence immunoassay for human high sensitive C-reactive protein].

    PubMed

    Guo, Boyang; Ma, Le; Zhang, Mengdan; Yang, Jiangcun; DU, Haiping; Ma, Ting; Yali, Cui

    2015-11-01

    To develop a sensitive, accurate detection method for high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Methods With the GoldMag particle as the solid phase carrier, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-lunimo-H2O2 as the chemiluminescence reaction system, we established a chemiluminescent immunoassay for hsCRP detection. Linear range, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and other indicators were evaluated. hsCRP level of 233 clinical human serum specimens were determined and compared by two different methods: the GoldMag particle-based magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay established in this study, and the commercialized scattering immunoturbidimetric assay from Germany SIEMENS. Results The chemiluminescent immunoassay for hsCRP based on GoldMag particle had a good linear relationship between 0.15 mg/L and 25 mg/L (R(2)=0.9937), with the detection limit of 0.076 mg/L. The intra-assay precision was less than 10.00% and the inter-assay precision was less than 15.00%. The average recovery rate for accuracy was 97.80%. In the contrast experiment of 233 clinical human serum specimens, the results obtained using the approach established in this study showed a high correlation and consistency with scattering immunoturbidimetric assay from Germany SIEMENS. Conclusion GoldMag particle-based magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunoassay for hsCRP has been successfully developed. PMID:26522353

  11. Optical clearing method for monitoring cutaneous microcirculation response to vasoactive drugs with high sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Rui; Chen, Min; Wang, Ruilin; Ma, Cong; Jin, Junbo; Lu, Yuhua; Timoshina, Polina; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging technique has been playing an important role in monitoring cutaneous microcirculation, but the strong scattering of skin restricts the imaging depth and contrast, and also makes it impossible to assess the cutaneous microcirculation response dynamically with high sensitivity. The tissue optical clearing is helpful for opening a visible window on mouse dorsal skin. In this work, the cutaneous microcirculation response to vasoactive noradrenaline is monitored with the laser speckle contrast imaging system before and after skin optical clearing. The results show that the optical clearing method can significantly enhance the contrast of laser speckle contrast imaging, and small blood vessels whose diameter less than 20?m can be distinguished with high resolution. The dynamic changes in cutaneous microvascular diameter and blood flow velocity caused by drug can be monitored sensitively. In contrast, it is difficult to detect the cutaneous microcirculation response that occurred in the blood vessels more than 100?m in the intact skin, and the signal-to-noise ratio is too low to monitor the dynamic changes caused by the same drug. Thus, skin optical clearing method can enhance the ability of laser speckle contrast imaging in accessing cutaneous microcirculation response, including the imaging contrast, resolution and sensitivity.

  12. Silicon nanowire biosensors for detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) with high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kihyun; Park, Chanoh; Kwon, Donghoon; Kim, Donghoon; Meyyappan, M; Jeon, Sangmin; Lee, Jeong-Soo

    2016-03-15

    We have demonstrated highly sensitive and label-free detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a biomarker for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, using silicon nanowire field-effect transistors. A honeycomb-like structure is utilized for nanowire configuration to offer improved electrical performance and increased sensing area. The fabricated devices show n-type behavior with a relatively high ON-OFF current ratio, small sub-threshold swing and low gate leakage current. Monoclonal antibodies for cTnI were covalently immobilized on the nanowire surface and the attachment of antibodies is clearly visualized by atomic force microscope. The sensitivity with various concentrations of buffer solution was also investigated in order to determine the optimal buffer condition. The devices exhibit highest sensitivity under buffer solutions with low ion concentration. In addition, the detection limit of the sensor is as low as ?5pg/mL, the lowest reported in the literature to date and nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the suggested threshold limit. The fabricated devices demonstrate a good selectivity for detecting cTnI. PMID:26496224

  13. High sensitivity multiplex short tandem repeat loci analyses with massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangpei; King, Jonathan L; Stoljarova, Monika; Warshauer, David H; LaRue, Bobby L; Sajantila, Antti; Patel, Jaynish; Storts, Douglas R; Budowle, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    STR typing in forensic genetics has been performed traditionally using capillary electrophoresis (CE). However, CE-based method has some limitations: a small number of STR loci can be used; stutter products, dye artifacts and low level alleles. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has been considered a viable technology in recent years allowing high-throughput coverage at a relatively affordable price. Some of the CE-based limitations may be overcome with the application of MPS. In this study, a prototype multiplex STR System (Promega) was amplified and prepared using the TruSeq DNA LT Sample Preparation Kit (Illumina) in 24 samples. Results showed that the MinElute PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen) was a better size selection method compared with recommended diluted bead mixtures. The library input sensitivity study showed that a wide range of amplicon product (6-200ng) could be used for library preparation without apparent differences in the STR profile. PCR sensitivity study indicated that 62pg may be minimum input amount for generating complete profiles. Reliability study results on 24 different individuals showed that high depth of coverage (DoC) and balanced heterozygote allele coverage ratios (ACRs) could be obtained with 250pg of input DNA, and 62pg could generate complete or nearly complete profiles. These studies indicate that this STR multiplex system and the Illumina MiSeq can generate reliable STR profiles at a sensitivity level that competes with current widely used CE-based method. PMID:25528025

  14. High-sensitivity transcriptome data structure and implications for analysis and biologic interpretation.

    PubMed

    Noth, Sebastian; Brysbaert, Guillaume; Pellay, François-Xavier; Benecke, Arndt

    2006-11-01

    Novel microarray technologies such as the AB1700 platform from Applied Biosystems promise significant increases in the signal dynamic range and a higher sensitivity for weakly expressed transcripts. We have compared a representative set of AB1700 data with a similarly representative Affymetrix HG-U133A dataset. The AB1700 design extends the signal dynamic detection range at the lower bound by one order of magnitude. The lognormal signal distribution profiles of these high-sensitivity data need to be represented by two independent distributions. The additional second distribution covers those transcripts that would have gone undetected using the Affymetrix technology. The signal-dependent variance distribution in the AB1700 data is a non-trivial function of signal intensity, describable using a composite function. The drastically different structure of these high-sensitivity transcriptome profiles requires adaptation or even redevelopment of the standard microarray analysis methods. Based on the statistical properties, we have derived a signal variance distribution model for AB1700 data that is necessary for such development. Interestingly, the dual lognormal distribution observed in the AB1700 data reflects two fundamentally different biologic mechanisms of transcription initiation. PMID:17531797

  15. Polarization dependence of the strain sensitivity of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in highly birefringent optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Paul; Jülich, Florian; Roths, Johannes

    2012-04-01

    It can be expected that the range of applications for FBG-based strain and temperature sensors would expand if the accuracy of this sensor technique was improved. In this study, polarization effects of FBG sensors, which contribute significantly to the measurement uncertainty of this technique, were investigated. Therefore, FBGs were inscribed into highly birefringent optical fibers. These sensor elements were attached to a specimen with defined orientations of the fiber's slow and fast axes with regard the specimen's surface. We observed a change of the fiber's birefringence in the order of 5 10-5 as a consequence of the gluing process, that was employed to attach the fiber onto the specimen. The strain sensitivities were determined for each polarization mode and for different fiber orientations using a highly accurate strain calibration facility. It was found that in all experiments the strain sensitivity for the slow axis was significantly higher (about 0.8%) than for the fast axis. The strain sensitivity also depends on the orientation of the fiber's birefringent axes with regard to the surface of the specimen. Although the investigations were performed with FBGs inscribed into birefringent fibers, the findings are still of importance for understanding the polarization-dependant accuracy limits of FBGs in standard single-mode fibers.

  16. High-sensitivity elemental ionization for quantitative detection of halogenated compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haopeng; Minardi, Carina S; Badiei, Hamid; Kahen, Kaveh; Jorabchi, Kaveh

    2015-11-23

    The rising importance of organohalogens in environmental, pharmaceutical, and biological applications has drawn attention to analysis of these compounds in recent years. Elemental mass spectrometry (MS) is particularly advantageous in this regard because of its ability to quantify without compound-specific standards. However, low sensitivity of conventional elemental MS for halogens has hampered applications of this powerful method in organohalogen analyses. To this end, we have developed a high-sensitivity elemental ion source compatible with widely available atmospheric-sampling mass spectrometers. We utilize a helium-oxygen plasma for atomization followed by negative ion formation in plasma afterglow, a configuration termed as plasma-assisted reaction chemical ionization (PARCI). The effect of oxygen on in-plasma and afterglow reactions is investigated, leading to fundamental understanding of ion generation processes as well as optimized operating conditions. Coupled to a gas chromatograph, PARCI shows constant ionization efficiency for F, Cl, and Br regardless of the chemical structure of the compounds. Negative ionization in the afterglow improves halide ion formation efficiency and eliminates isobaric interferences, offering sub-picogram elemental detection for F, Cl, and Br using low-resolution MS. Notably, the detection limit for F is about one order of magnitude better than other elemental MS techniques. The high sensitivity and facile adoptability of PARCI pave the way for combined elemental-molecular characterization, a comprehensive analytical scheme for rapid identification and quantification of organohalogens. PMID:26549767

  17. A highly sensitive and flexible magnetic nanoprobe labeled immunochromatographic assay platform for pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Zhang, Zhaohuan; Wang, Yilong; Zhao, Yong; Lu, Ying; Xu, Xiaowei; Yan, Jun; Pan, Yingjie

    2015-10-15

    A magnetic nanoprobe labeled immunochromatographic test strip (MNP/ICTS) was developed to detect food-borne pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Specific antibody against V. parahaemolyticus was used as test line by coating onto the nitrocellulose membrane. Magnetic nanoprobe was prepared by immobilizing the specific antibody onto the surface of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Specificity and sensitivity of the MNP/ICTS system were verified by artificially contaminated shrimp homogenate samples. Reliability and application feasibility of the MNP/ICTS system were demonstrated by using seafood samples (n=36). Comparing with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and traditional culture methods, the MNP/ICTS system is found to be not only a rapid qualitative analysis (~10 min), but also an accurately quantitative detection platform. Through its rapid magnetic separation property, the MNP/ICTS system is capable to flexibly combine with a sample enrichment and pre-incubation process. This combination makes the qualitative sensitivity for the food samples surged more than 100-fold. A naked-eye observation of 1.58×10(2) CFU/g V. parahaemolyticus was realized. This sensitivity could meet the V. parahaemolyticus test threshold value in many countries. Also, the total sample pre-treatment plus MNP/ICTS assay only needs about 4.5h. Namely, we can get test results in a day. Hence, the developed MNP/ICTS assay platform is simple, rapid and highly sensitive. It is a flexible test platform for pathogen detection. The favorable comparison with PCR and culture methods further proves that the developed MNP/ICTS is applicable into food-borne pathogen or other areas where a simple, rapid, sensitive and point-of-care analysis is desirable. PMID:26188497

  18. SCExAO: Combining high speed, high sensitivity wavefront control and low inner working angle

    E-print Network

    Guyon, Olivier

    Earth-sized planets with ELTs M-type stars G-type stars K-type stars F-type stars Angular separation) Broadband diffraction limited internal cal. Source + phase turbulence simulator #12;SCExAO visible bench SCExAO near-IR bench #12;Facility Adaptive Optics system Sharpens image High speed pyramid wavefront

  19. High-sensitivity high-stability silicon photodiodes for DUV, VUV and EUV spectral ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, L.; Nihtianov, S.; Scholze, F.; Gottwald, A.; Nanver, L. K.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, the optical and electrical performance of a newly developed silicon photodiode based on pure boron CVD technology (PureB-diodes) is introduced. Due to their extremely shallow p-n junction, with the depletion zone starting only a few nanometers below the surface, and nm-thin pure-boron-layer coverage of the anode surface, PureB-diodes have so far demonstrated the highest reported spectral responsivity in all sub-visible ultraviolet (UV) ranges: DUV (deep ultraviolet), VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) and EUV (extreme ultraviolet), covering a spectrum from 220 nm down to few nanometersMoreover, the measured responsivity at 13.5 nm wavelengths (EUV) approaches the theoretical maximum (~0.27A/W). PureB-diodes also maintain excellent electrical characteristics, with saturation-current values typical for high-quality silicon diodes, and a high breakdown voltage. Experimental results have demonstrated the extremely high radiation hardness of PureB-diodes when exposed to high EUV radiant exposures in the order of a few hundred kJ/cm2. No change in the responsivity is observed within the experimental uncertainty. In the more challenging DUV and especially VUV ranges, PureB-diodes demonstrate a slight initial drop of responsivity (1 to 2%), after which they stabilizes their performance.

  20. A Small Mission Featuring an Imaging X-ray Polarimeter with High Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Baldini, Luca; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Brez, Alessandro; Costa, Enrico; Dissley, Richard; Elsner, Ronald; Fabiani, Sergio; Matt, Giorgio; Minuti, Massimo; Mulieri, Fabio; O'Dell, Steve; Pinchera, Michelle; Ramsey, Brian; Rubini, Alda; Sgro, Carmelo; Soffitta, Paolo; Spandre, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed description of a small mission capable of obtaining high precision and meaningful measurement of the X-ray polarization of a variety of different classes of cosmic X-ray sources. Compared to other ideas that have been suggested this experiment has demonstrated in the laboratory a number of extremely important features relevant to the ultimate selection of such a mission by a funding agency. The most important of these questions are: 1) Have you demonstrated the sensitivity to a polarized beam at the energies of interest (i.e. the energies which represent the majority (not the minority) of detected photons from the X-ray source of interest? 2) Have you demonstrated that the device's sensitivity to an unpolarized beam is really negligible and/or quantified the impact of any systematic effects upon actual measurements? We present our answers to these questions backed up by laboratory measurements and give an overview of the mission.

  1. Graphene enhanced evanescent field in microfiber multimode interferometer for highly sensitive gas sensing.

    PubMed

    Yao, B C; Wu, Y; Zhang, A Q; Rao, Y J; Wang, Z G; Cheng, Y; Gong, Y; Zhang, W L; Chen, Y F; Chiang, K S

    2014-11-17

    Graphene based new physics phenomena are leading to a variety of stimulating graphene-based photonic devices. In this study, the enhancement of surface evanescent field by graphene cylindrical cladding is observed, for the first time, by using a graphene-coated microfiber multi-mode interferometer (GMMI). It is found theoretically and experimentally that the light transmitting in the fiber core is efficiently dragged by the graphene, hence significantly enhancing the evanescent fields, and subsequently improving the sensitivity of the hybrid waveguide. The experimental results for gas sensing verified the theoretical prediction, and ultra-high sensitivities of ~0.1 ppm for NH(3) gas detection and ~0.2 ppm for H(2)O vapor detection are achieved, which could be used for trace analysis. The enhancement of surface evanescent field induced by graphene may pave a new way for developing novel graphene-based all-fiber devices with compactness, low cost, and temperature immunity. PMID:25402055

  2. Highly sensitive and selective odorant sensor using living cells expressing insect olfactory receptors

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Nobuo; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a highly sensitive and selective chemical sensor using living cells (Xenopus laevis oocytes) within a portable fluidic device. We constructed an odorant sensor whose sensitivity is a few parts per billion in solution and can simultaneously distinguish different types of chemicals that have only a slight difference in double bond isomerism or functional group such as ?OH, ?CHO and ?C(?O)?. We developed a semiautomatic method to install cells to the fluidic device and achieved stable and reproducible odorant sensing. In addition, we found that the sensor worked for multiple-target chemicals and can be integrated with a robotic system without any noise reduction systems. Our developed sensor is compact and easy to replace in the system. We believe that the sensor can potentially be incorporated into a portable system for monitoring environmental and physical conditions. PMID:20798064

  3. Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y; Wei, Q; Park, H; Lieber, C M

    2001-08-17

    Boron-doped silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were used to create highly sensitive, real-time electrically based sensors for biological and chemical species. Amine- and oxide-functionalized SiNWs exhibit pH-dependent conductance that was linear over a large dynamic range and could be understood in terms of the change in surface charge during protonation and deprotonation. Biotin-modified SiNWs were used to detect streptavidin down to at least a picomolar concentration range. In addition, antigen-functionalized SiNWs show reversible antibody binding and concentration-dependent detection in real time. Lastly, detection of the reversible binding of the metabolic indicator Ca2+ was demonstrated. The small size and capability of these semiconductor nanowires for sensitive, label-free, real-time detection of a wide range of chemical and biological species could be exploited in array-based screening and in vivo diagnostics. PMID:11509722

  4. A highly sensitive force sensor based on two identical fiber Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guoyu; Wei, Jue; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Meichao; Wu, Mingyu; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2015-11-01

    A highly sensitive force sensor is fabricated with two identical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). When the reflected C-band light from one FBG with axial tensile force enters another identical FBG, two close peaks will appear in the transmission spectrum of the latter. The power difference of the two peaks can be modulated by the axial tensile force. In theory, the process of producing two peaks is simulated, the relationship between axial tensile force and the wavelength of the FBG reflection-peak is analyzed, and the effect of the reflection-peak reflectivity on the accuracy of force measurement is studied. In the experiments, the power difference of the two peaks changes by 5.05 dB with the FBG reflection peak shifting by only 32 pm. The force sensitivity of (1.16??±??0.06)??×??103 dB N-1 is achieved with a measuring range of 0 to 4.40??×??10-3 N.

  5. High Efficiency Forster Resonance Energy Transfer in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mor, Gopal K.; Basham, James; Paulose, Maggie; Kim, Sanghoon; Varghese, Oomman K.; Vaish, Amit; Yoriya, Sorachon; Grimes, Craig A.

    2010-07-14

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSCs) offer the potential to make low cost solar power a reality, however their photoconversion efficiency must first be increased. The dyes used are commonly narrow band with high absorption coefficients, while conventional photovoltaic operation requires proper band edge alignment significantly limiting the dyes and charge transporting materials that can be used in combination. We demonstrate a significant enhancement in the light harvesting and photocurrent generation of SS-DSCs due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films are sensitized with red/near IR absorbing SQ-1 acceptor dye, subsequently intercalated with Spiro-OMeTAD blended with a visible light absorbing DCM-pyran donor dye. The calculated Förster radius is 6.1 nm. The donor molecules contribute a FRET-based maximum IPCE of 25% with a corresponding excitation transfer efficiency of approximately 67.5%.

  6. Blue-Coloured Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Implementing the Diketopyrrolopyrrole Chromophore

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Holcombe, Thomas W.; Kim, Yongjoo; Rakstys, Kasparas; Moehl, Thomas; Teuscher, Joel; Delcamp, Jared H.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammed K.; Grätzel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) – towards donor- ? bridge-acceptor (D-?-A) dyes – increases the performances of DSCs and challenges established design principles. Framed by this shifting landscape, a series of four diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based sensitizers utilizing the donor-chromophore-anchor (D-C-A) motif were investigated computationally, spectroscopically, and fabricated by systematic evaluation of finished photovoltaic cells. In all cases, the [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ redox-shuttle afforded superior performance compared to I3?/I?. Aesthetically, careful molecular engineering of the DPP chromophore yielded the first example of a high-performance blue DSC – a challenge unmet since the inception of this photovoltaic technology: DPP17 yields over 10% power conversion efficiency (PCE) with the [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ electrolyte at full AM 1.5?G simulated sun light. PMID:23945746

  7. FBG based novel sensor design for low vacuum measurement with high sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachava, Vengal Rao; Kamineni, Srimannarayana; Madhuvarasu, Sai Shankar; Mamidi, Venkata Reddy

    2015-05-01

    This article demonstrates use of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for in situ monitoring of vacuum process with high sensitivity. The sensor head consists of a commercial syringe barrel with plunger, metal spring, pressure chamber, FBG and safeguarding outer tube. The sensor is configured by firmly fixing the FBG between the plunger and the rigid support provided to the safeguarding tube. Under vacuum process the metal spring facilitates the FBG to get strained in axial direction which results in shift of Bragg wavelength of FBG. The Bragg wavelength shift of FBG is found to be linear with respect to vacuum pressure with a linear coefficient of 0.9988. Pressure sensitivity of the sensor is found to be 27 pm/cm Hg. The sensor design is simple, low-cost and has the advantage of all fiber optic sensors.

  8. High-sensitivity detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and its precursor acetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunayevskiy, Ilya; Tsekoun, Alexei; Prasanna, Manu; Go, Rowel; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2007-09-01

    Triacetone triperoxide (C9H18O6, molecular mass of 222.24 g/mol) (TATP) is a powerful explosive that is easy to synthesize using commonly available household chemicals, acetone, and hydrogen peroxide 1 2. Because of the simplicity of its synthesis, TATP is often the explosive of choice for terrorists, including suicide bombers. For providing safety to the population, early detection of TATP and isolation of such individuals are essential. We report unambiguous, high-sensitivity detection of TATP and its precursor, acetone, using room-temperature quantum cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (QCL-PAS). The available sensitivity is such that TATP, carried on a person (at a nominal body temperature of 37 °C), should be detectable at some distance. The combination of demonstrated detection of TATP and acetone should be ideal for screening at airports and other public places for providing increased public safety.

  9. Simple and Reproducible Sample Preparation for Single-Shot Phosphoproteomics with High Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Sultan, Abida; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    The traditional sample preparation workflow for mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics is time consuming and usually requires multiple steps, e.g., lysis, protein precipitation, reduction, alkylation, digestion, fractionation, and phosphopeptide enrichment. Each step can introduce chemical artifacts, in vitro protein and peptide modifications, and contaminations. Those often result in sample loss and affect the sensitivity, dynamic range and accuracy of the mass spectrometric analysis. Here we describe a simple and reproducible phosphoproteomics protocol, where lysis, denaturation, reduction, and alkylation are performed in a single step, thus reducing sample loss and increasing reproducibility. Moreover, unlike standard cell lysis procedures the cell harvesting is performed at high temperatures (99 °C) and without detergents and subsequent need for protein precipitation. Phosphopeptides are enriched using TiO2 beads and the orbitrap mass spectrometer is operated in a sensitive mode with higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD). PMID:26584931

  10. A highly sensitive ethanol sensor based on mesoporous ZnO–SnO2 nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhaojie; Liu, Yongben; Wang, Ce; Li, Lijuan

    2009-01-01

    A facile and versatile method for the large-scale synthesis of sensitive mesoporous ZnO–SnO2 (m-Z–S) nanofibers through a combination of surfactant-directed assembly and an electrospinning approach is reported. The morphology and the structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm analysis. The results showed that the diameters of fibers ranged from 100 to 150 nm with mixed structures of wurtzite (ZnO) and rutile (SnO2), and a mesoporous structure was observed in the m-Z–S nanofibers. The sensor performance of the prepared m-Z–S nanofibers was measured for ethanol. It is found that the mesoporous fiber film obtained exhibited excellent ethanol sensing properties, such as high sensitivity, quick response and recovery, good reproducibility, and linearity in the range 3–500 ppm. PMID:19417420

  11. Highly sensitive detection of target molecules using a new fluorescence-based bead assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Silvia; Strauß, Denis; Sauer, Markus

    2007-07-01

    Development of immunoassays with improved sensitivity, specificity and reliability are of major interest in modern bioanalytical research. We describe the development of a new immunomagnetic fluorescence detection (IM-FD) assay based on specific antigen/antibody interactions and on accumulation of the fluorescence signal on superparamagnetic PE beads in combination with the use of extrinsic fluorescent labels. IM-FD can be easily modified by varying the order of coatings and assay conditions. Depending on the target molecule, antibodies (ABs), entire proteins, or small protein epitopes can be used as capture molecules. The presence of target molecules is detected by fluorescence microscopy using fluorescently labeled secondary or detection antibodies. Here, we demonstrate the potential of the new assay detecting the two tumor markers IGF-I and p53 antibodies in the clinically relevant concentration range. Our data show that the fluorescence-based bead assay exhibits a large dynamic range and a high sensitivity down to the subpicomolar level.

  12. A highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive hydrogel spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yanlong; Mulle, Matthieu; Aguilar Ventura, Isaac; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-08-01

    Wearable pressure sensing solutions have promising future for practical applications in health monitoring and human/machine interfaces. Here, a highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/alginate hydrogel spheres is reported. Conductive and piezoresistive spheres are embedded between conductive electrodes (indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate films) and subjected to environmental pressure. The detection mechanism is based on the piezoresistivity of the SWCNT/alginate conductive spheres and on the sphere-electrode contact. Step-by-step, we optimized the design parameters to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. The optimized hydrogel sensor exhibited a satisfactory sensitivity (0.176 ?R/R0/kPa-1) and a low detectable limit (10 Pa). Moreover, a brief response time (a few milliseconds) and successful repeatability were also demonstrated. Finally, the efficiency of this strategy was verified through a series of practical tests such as monitoring human wrist pulse, detecting throat muscle motion or identifying the location and the distribution of an external pressure using an array sensor (4 × 4).Wearable pressure sensing solutions have promising future for practical applications in health monitoring and human/machine interfaces. Here, a highly sensitive, low-cost, wearable pressure sensor based on conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/alginate hydrogel spheres is reported. Conductive and piezoresistive spheres are embedded between conductive electrodes (indium tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate films) and subjected to environmental pressure. The detection mechanism is based on the piezoresistivity of the SWCNT/alginate conductive spheres and on the sphere-electrode contact. Step-by-step, we optimized the design parameters to maximize the sensitivity of the sensor. The optimized hydrogel sensor exhibited a satisfactory sensitivity (0.176 ?R/R0/kPa-1) and a low detectable limit (10 Pa). Moreover, a brief response time (a few milliseconds) and successful repeatability were also demonstrated. Finally, the efficiency of this strategy was verified through a series of practical tests such as monitoring human wrist pulse, detecting throat muscle motion or identifying the location and the distribution of an external pressure using an array sensor (4 × 4). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03155a

  13. A high sensitivity assay for the inflammatory marker C-Reactive protein employing acoustic biosensing

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Jeffrey D; Cooper, Matthew A

    2008-01-01

    C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant routinely used as a biomarker to assess either infection or inflammatory processes such as autoimmune diseases. CRP also has demonstrated utility as a predictive marker of future risk of cardiovascular disease. A new method of immunoassay for the detection of C-Reactive Protein has been developed using Resonant Acoustic Profiling™ (RAP™) with comparable sensitivity to a high sensitivity CRP ELISA (hsCRP) but with considerable time efficiency (12 minutes turnaround time to result). In one method, standard solutions of CRP (0 to 231 ng/mL) or diluted spiked horse serum sample are injected through two sensor channels of a RAP™ biosensor. One contains a surface with sheep antibody to CRP, the other a control surface containing purified Sheep IgG. At the end of a 5-minute injection the initial rate of change in resonant frequency was proportional to CRP concentration. The initial rates of a second sandwich step of anti-CRP binding were also proportional to the sample CRP concentration and provided a more sensitive method for quantification of CRP. The lower limit of detection for the direct assay and the homogenous sandwich assay were both 20 ng/mL whereas for the direct sandwich assay the lower limit was 3 ng/mL. In a step towards a rapid clinical assay, diluted horse blood spiked with human CRP was passed over one sensor channel whilst a reference standard solution at the borderline cardiovascular risk level was passed over the other. A semi-quantities ratio was thus obtained indicative of sample CRP status. Overall, the present study revealed that CRP concentrations in serum that might be expected in both normal and pathological conditions can be detected in a time-efficient, label-free immunoassay with RAP™ detection technology with determined CRP concentrations in close agreement with those determined using a commercially available high sensitivity ELISA. PMID:18445267

  14. High sensitive mesoporous TiO2-coated love wave device for heavy metal detection.

    PubMed

    Gammoudi, I; Blanc, L; Moroté, F; Grauby-Heywang, C; Boissière, C; Kalfat, R; Rebière, D; Cohen-Bouhacina, T; Dejous, C

    2014-07-15

    This work deals with the design of a highly sensitive whole cell-based biosensor for heavy metal detection in liquid medium. The biosensor is constituted of a Love wave sensor coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM). Escherichia coli bacteria are used as bioreceptors as their viscoelastic properties are influenced by toxic heavy metals. The acoustic sensor is constituted of a quartz substrate with interdigitated transducers and a SiO2 guiding layer. However, SiO2 shows some degradation when used in a saline medium. Mesoporous TiO2 presents good mechanical and chemical stability and offers a high active surface area. Then, the addition of a thin titania layer dip-coated onto the acoustic path of the sensor is proposed to overcome the silica degradation and to improve the mass effect sensitivity of the acoustic device. PEM and bacteria deposition, and heavy metal influence, are real time monitored through the resonance frequency variations of the acoustic device. The first polyelectrolyte layer is inserted through the titania mesoporosity, favouring rigid link of the PEM on the sensor and improving the device sensitivity. Also, the mesoporosity of surface increases the specific surface area which can be occupied and favors the formation of homogeneous PEM. It was found a frequency shift near -20±1 kHz for bacteria immobilization with titania film instead of -7±3 kHz with bare silica surface. The sensitivity is highlighted towards cadmium detection. Moreover, in this paper, particular attention is given to the immobilization of bacteria and to biosensor lifetime. Atomic Force Microscopy characterizations of the biosurface have been done for several weeks. They showed significant morphological differences depending on the bacterial life time. We noticed that the lifetime of the biosensor is longer in the case of using a mesoporous TiO2 layer. PMID:24583687

  15. High molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium complexes for thin film dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Daibin; Ito, Seigo; Wenger, Bernard; Klein, Cedric; Moser, Jacques-E; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2006-03-29

    Two novel heteroleptic sensitizers, Ru((4,4-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine)(4,4'-bis(p-hexyloxystyryl)-2,2-bipyridine)(NCS)2 and Ru((4,4-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine)(4,4'-bis(p-methoxystyryl)-2,2'-bipyridine) (NCS)2, coded as K-19 and K-73, respectively, have been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, UV-vis absorption, and emission spectroscopy and excited-state lifetime and spectroelectrochemical measurements. The introduction of the alkoxystyryl group extends the conjugation of the bipyridine donor ligand increasing markedly their molar extinction coefficient and solar light harvesting capacity. The dynamics of photoinduced charge separation following electronic excitation of the K-19 dye was scrutinized by time-resolved laser spectroscopy. The electron transfer from K-19 to the conduction band of TiO2 is completed within 20 fs while charge recombination has a half-life time of 800 s. The high extinction coefficients of these sensitizers enable realization of a new generation of a thin film dye sensitized solar cell (DSC) yielding high conversion efficiency at full sunlight even with viscous electrolytes based on ionic liquids or nonvolatile solvents. An unprecedented yield of over 9% was obtained under standard reporting conditions (simulated global air mass 1.5 sunlight at 1000 W/m2 intensity) when the K-73 sensitizer was combined with a nonvolatile "robust" electrolyte. The K-19 dye gave a conversion yield of 7.1% when used in conjunction with the binary ionic liquid electrolyte. These devices exhibit excellent stability under light soaking at 60 degrees C. The effect of the mesoscopic TiO2 film thickness on photovoltaic performance has been analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). PMID:16551124

  16. Multiple coupling in plasmonic metal/dielectric hollow nanocavity arrays for highly sensitive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun; Zang, Yashu; Yue, Chuang; He, Xu; Yang, Hongtao; Wu, De-Yin; Wu, Min; Kang, Junyong; Wu, Zhihao; Li, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the plasmonic coupled optical cavity has gained much attention due to its attractive properties in light manipulation, e.g. high Q optical resonance, local field enhancements and extraordinary transmission. The strongly enhanced local field originated from the plasmonic resonance hybridizing with the optical cavity mode presents great potential for application to chemical and biological sensing. Here, the multiple coupling effect between plasmonic mode and optical cavity mode has been demonstrated in self-assembled metal/dielectric hollow-nanosphere (HNS) arrays and the strongly enhanced local field originated from the inter-coupling of the plasmonic cavities was further employed for highly sensitive recyclable SERS sensing.Recently, the plasmonic coupled optical cavity has gained much attention due to its attractive properties in light manipulation, e.g. high Q optical resonance, local field enhancements and extraordinary transmission. The strongly enhanced local field originated from the plasmonic resonance hybridizing with the optical cavity mode presents great potential for application to chemical and biological sensing. Here, the multiple coupling effect between plasmonic mode and optical cavity mode has been demonstrated in self-assembled metal/dielectric hollow-nanosphere (HNS) arrays and the strongly enhanced local field originated from the inter-coupling of the plasmonic cavities was further employed for highly sensitive recyclable SERS sensing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03193a

  17. COLD PCR HRM: a highly sensitive detection method for IDH1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Boisselier, Blandine; Marie, Yannick; Labussière, Marianne; Ciccarino, Pietro; Desestret, Virginie; Wang, XiaoWei; Capelle, Laurent; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Sanson, Marc

    2010-12-01

    The p.Arg132His mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1(R132H) ) is a frequent alteration and a major prognostic marker in gliomas. However, direct sequencing of highly contaminated tumor samples may fail to detect this mutation. Our objective was to evaluated the sensitivity of a newly described amplification method, coamplification at lower temperature-PCR (COLD PCR), combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) for the detection of the IDH1(R132H) mutation. To this end, we used serial dilutions of mutant DNA with wild-type DNA. PCR-HRM assay detects IDH1(R132H) at an abundance of 25%, similar to the detection limit of direct Sanger sequencing. Introducing a run of COLD PCR allows the detection of 2% mutant DNA. Using two consecutive runs of COLD PCR, we detected 0.25% mutant DNA in a background of wild-type DNA, that mimics a tumor sample highly contaminated by normal DNA. We then analyzed 10 biopsies of tumor edges, considered free of tumor cells by histological analysis, and showed that immunohistochemistry of IDH1(R132H) was positive in three cases (30%), whereas double COLD PCR HRM was positive in the 10 cases studied (100%). In summary, COLD PCR HRM analysis is 100-fold more sensitive than Sanger sequencing, rendering this rapid and powerful strategy particularly useful for samples highly contaminated with normal tissue. PMID:20886613

  18. Highly sensitive assay for acetylcholinesterase activity and inhibition based on a specifically reactive photonic nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Li, Xuesong; Cui, Jiecheng; Li, Jian; Lan, Yue; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Hui; Li, Guangtao

    2014-09-10

    Assays for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with high sensitivity and high selectivity as well as facile manipulation have been urgently required in various fields. In this work, a reaction-based photonic strategy was developed for the efficient assay of AChE activity and inhibition based on the synergetic combination of the specific thiol-maleimide addition reaction with photonic porous structure. It was found that various applications including detection of AChE activity, measurement of the related enzymatic kinetics, and screening of inhibitors could be efficiently implemented using such strategy. Remarkably, the unique photonic nanostructure endows the constructed sensing platform with high sensitivity with a limit of detection (LOD) of 5 mU/mL for AChE activity, high selectivity, and self-reporting signaling. Moreover, the label-free solid film-based sensing approach described here has advantages of facile manipulation and bare-eye readout, compared with conventional liquid-phase methods, exhibiting promising potential in practical application for the AChE assay. PMID:25130420

  19. Highly Sensitive, Encapsulated MoS2 Photodetector with Gate Controllable Gain and Speed.

    PubMed

    Kufer, Dominik; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2015-11-11

    Semiconducting, two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is considered a promising new material for highly sensitive photodetection, because of its atomically thin profile and favorable bandgap. However, reported photodetectors to date show strong variation in performance due to the detrimental and uncontrollable effects of environmental adsorbates on devices due to large surface to volume ratio. Here, we report on highly stable and high-performance monolayer and bilayer MoS2 photodetectors encapsulated with atomic layer deposited hafnium oxide. The protected devices show enhanced electronic properties by isolating them from the ambience as strong n-type doping, vanishing hysteresis, and reduced device resistance. By controlling the gate voltage the responsivity and temporal response can be tuned by several orders of magnitude with R ? 10-10(4) A/W and t ? 10 ms to 10 s. At strong negative gate voltage, the detector is operated at higher speed and simultaneously exhibits a low-bound, record sensitivity of D* ? 7.7 × 10(11) Jones. Our results lead the way for future application of ultrathin, flexible, and high-performance MoS2 detectors and prompt for further investigation in encapsulated transition metal dichalcogenide optoelectronics. PMID:26501356

  20. Highly Sensitive Detection of Surface and Intercalated Impurities in Graphene by LEIS.

    PubMed

    Pr?ša, Stanislav; Procházka, Pavel; Bábor, Petr; Šikola, Tomáš; ter Veen, Rik; Fartmann, Michael; Grehl, Thomas; Brüner, Philipp; Roth, Dietmar; Bauer, Peter; Brongersma, Hidde H

    2015-09-01

    Low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) is known for its extreme surface sensitivity, as it yields a quantitative analysis of the outermost surface as well as highly resolved in-depth information for ultrathin surface layers. Hence, it could have been generally considered to be a suitable technique for the analysis of graphene samples. However, due to the low scattering cross section for light elements such as carbon, LEIS has not become a common technique for the characterization of graphene. In the present study we use a high-sensitivity LEIS instrument with parallel energy analysis for the characterization of CVD graphene transferred to thermal silica/silicon substrates. Thanks to its high sensitivity and the exceptional depth resolution typical of LEIS, the graphene layer closure was verified, and different kinds of contaminants were detected, quantified, and localized within the graphene structure. Utilizing the extraordinarily strong neutralization of helium by carbon atoms in graphene, LEIS experiments performed at several primary ion energies permit us to distinguish carbon in graphene from that in nongraphitic forms (e.g., the remains of a resist). Furthermore, metal impurities such as Fe, Sn, and Na located at the graphene-silica interface (intercalated) are detected, and the coverages of Fe and Sn are determined. Hence, high-resolution LEIS is capable of both checking the purity of graphene surfaces and detecting impurities incorporated into graphene layers or their interfaces. Thus, it is a suitable method for monitoring the quality of the whole fabrication process of graphene, including its transfer on various substrates. PMID:26200443