Science.gov

Sample records for highway safety research

  1. Governors Highway Safety Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... occupant protection, impaired driving, and speeding. GHSA provides leadership and advocacy for the states and territories to improve traffic safety , influence national policy , enhance program management and promote best practices . What's New National Highway ...

  2. The Feasibility of Establishing Highway Safety Manpower Development and Research Centers at University-Level Institutions. Final Report, Volume I: Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorness, Maury H.; And Others

    To examine the feasibility of establishing Highway Safety Manpower Development and Research (HSMDR) Centers at university-level institutions which would produce three types of manpower--safety specialists, safety professionals, and research manpower, previous National Highway Safety Bureau research studies and approximately 50 federally funded…

  3. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  4. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 3: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 3 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on aspects of motorcycle safety. The purpose and specific objectives of a State motorcycle safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the highway safety area and general policies…

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 14: Pedestrian Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 14 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on pedestrian safety. The purpose and objectives of a pedestrian safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pedestrian safety and policies regarding a safety program…

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 17: Pupil Transportation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 17 of the 10-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on pupil transportation safety. The purpose and objectives of a pupil transportation safety program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of pupil transportation and policies…

  7. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 12: Highway Design, Construction and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 12 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on highway design, construction and maintenance. The purpose and specific objectives of such a program are described. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding…

  8. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  9. Safety early warning research for highway construction based on case-based reasoning and variable fuzzy sets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yi, Ting-Hua; Xu, Zhen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods' effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established. PMID:24191134

  10. Safety Early Warning Research for Highway Construction Based on Case-Based Reasoning and Variable Fuzzy Sets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    As a high-risk subindustry involved in construction projects, highway construction safety has experienced major developments in the past 20 years, mainly due to the lack of safe early warnings in Chinese construction projects. By combining the current state of early warning technology with the requirements of the State Administration of Work Safety and using case-based reasoning (CBR), this paper expounds on the concept and flow of highway construction safety early warnings based on CBR. The present study provides solutions to three key issues, index selection, accident cause association analysis, and warning degree forecasting implementation, through the use of association rule mining, support vector machine classifiers, and variable fuzzy qualitative and quantitative change criterion modes, which fully cover the needs of safe early warning systems. Using a detailed description of the principles and advantages of each method and by proving the methods' effectiveness and ability to act together in safe early warning applications, effective means and intelligent technology for a safe highway construction early warning system are established. PMID:24191134

  11. Highway Traffic Safety Manpower Functions Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    The purpose of the project, "Revision and Update of Traffic Safety Manpower Training Program Development Guide," was to develop the HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY MANPOWER FUNCTIONS GUIDE. This document provides an organizational schema illustrating the functions essential to be performed and the interrelationship of these functions to carry out highway…

  12. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... inches Enter height(feet) Enter height(inches) Safer Car NHTSA 5-Star Safety Rating Be prepared when ... Your Air Bag? Rescuing toddler locked in hot car TireWise: Life of a Tire Latest from the ...

  13. 76 FR 8400 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mitsubishi Motors AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Department...

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 18: Accident Investigation and Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 18 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on accident investigation and reporting. The purpose and objectives of an investigation and reporting program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies…

  15. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  16. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume O: Planning and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    As the introductory volume to the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices), the document concentrates on aspects of planning and administration of a statewide highway safety program. Topics discussed are: the purpose of planning and administration,…

  17. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 10: Traffic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 10 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic records. The purpose and specific objectives of a traffic records program are discussed. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a traffic records…

  18. Feebates, Footprints and Highway Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a market-based policy aimed at encouraging manufacturers to develop more fuel efficient vehicles without affecting the car buyer s choice of vehicle size. A vehicle s size is measured by its footprint , the product of track width and wheelbase. Traditional market-based policies to promote higher fuel economy, such as higher gasoline taxes or gas guzzler taxes, also induce motorists to purchase smaller vehicles. Whether or not such policies affect overall road safety remains controversial, however. Feebates, a continuous schedule of new vehicle taxes and rebates as a function of vehicle fuel consumption, can also be made a function of vehicle size, thus removing the incentive to buy a smaller vehicle. A feebate system based on a vehicle s footprint creates the same incentive to adopt technology to improve fuel economy as simple feebate systems while removing any incentive for manufacturers or consumers to downsize vehicles.

  19. 23 CFR 1200.40 - Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Highway Safety Plan shall expire on the last day of the fiscal year. (b) Except as provided in paragraph... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan. 1200.40 Section 1200.40 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

  20. 23 CFR 1200.40 - Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Highway Safety Plan shall expire on the last day of the fiscal year. (b) Except as provided in paragraph... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expiration of the Highway Safety Plan. 1200.40 Section 1200.40 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY...

  1. 77 FR 37093 - Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...Section 402 of title 23 of the United States Code requires the Secretary of Transportation to promulgate uniform guidelines for State highway safety programs. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is seeking comments on proposed amendments to five (5) guidelines and one (1) new guideline that reflect program methodologies and approaches that have proven to be successful......

  2. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 11: Emergency Medical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 11 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on emergency medical services. The purpose of the program, Federal authority in the area of medical services, and policies related to an emergency medical services (EMS) program are…

  3. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  4. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 4: Driver Education:

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 4 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on driver education. The purpose and specific objectives of the driver education program and general policies regarding driver education derived from the Federal standard are described.…

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 5: Driver Licensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 5 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on driver licensing. The purpose and specific objectives of the driver licensing program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of driver licensing and general policies of a licensing…

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

  7. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  8. Highway Safety, Manpower, and Training: A Report on Highway Safety, Manpower, and Training Needed to Implement National Highway Safety Bureau Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Traffic Education and Training Committee.

    This paper was developed by the Liaison Subcommittee of the Traffic Educational and Training Committee to: (1) delineate highway safety manpower and training problems, (2) propose activities to meet these problems, and (3) develop a proposed course of action to initate the activities. Included are: (1) a discussion of areas where manpower…

  9. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... be considered as highway safety projects: (a) Highway alignment improvement; (b) Bridge widening; (c... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are eligible highway safety projects? 170.144... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety...

  10. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... be considered as highway safety projects: (a) Highway alignment improvement; (b) Bridge widening; (c... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are eligible highway safety projects? 170.144... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety...

  11. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary... as appropriate, within the limits of available resources, to conduct research in support of...

  12. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... The primary objectives of selected research Projects are to: (1) Identify and quantify environmental... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... The primary objectives of selected research Projects are to: (1) Identify and quantify environmental... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section...-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a)...

  14. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1200 - Highway Safety Program Cost Summary (HS-217)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Summary required to be submitted under 23 CFR 1200.11(e). For subsequent submissions, the amounts in this... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Highway Safety Program Cost Summary (HS-217) B Appendix B to Part 1200 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL...

  15. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1200 - HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAM COST SUMMARY (HS-217)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Summary required to be submitted under 23 CFR 1200.11(e). For subsequent submissions, the amounts in this... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false HIGHWAY SAFETY PROGRAM COST SUMMARY (HS-217) B APPENDIX B TO PART 1200 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL...

  16. Vehicle safety telemetry for automated highways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The emphasis in current, automatic vehicle testing and diagnosis is primarily centered on the proper operation of the engine. Lateral and longitudinal guidance technologies, including speed control and headway sensing for collision avoidance, are reviewed. The principal guidance technique remains the buried wire. Speed control and headway sensing, even though they show the same basic elements in braking and fuel systems, are proceeding independently. The applications of on-board electronic and microprocessor techniques were investigated; each application (emission control, spark advance, or anti-slip braking) is being treated as an independent problem is proposed. A unified bus system of distributed processors for accomplishing the various functions and testing required for vehicles equipped to use automated highways.

  17. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section 393.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a) Summary. The Department will work in consultation...

  18. 46 CFR 393.6 - Research on Marine Highway Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research on Marine Highway Transportation. 393.6 Section 393.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.6 Research on Marine Highway Transportation. (a)...

  19. A National Estimate of Performance: Statewide Highway Safety Program Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    A nationwide systematic approach to assess the developments and achievements of highway safety activities was conducted to measure program outputs from 1969 through 1974 using key indicators of performance such as ratios and percentages. A sample of 10 states was selected with overall sample of 105 local jurisdictions which would provide estimated…

  20. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What are eligible highway safety projects? 170.144 Section 170.144 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.144 What are eligible highway safety...

  1. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 16: Debris Hazard Control and Cleanup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 16 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on debris hazard control and cleanup. The purpose and objectives of such a program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a debris control…

  2. 78 FR 53497 - Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... seq.), on January 23, 2013 (78 FR 4986), the agency published a notice in the Federal Register... AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment on... information on the highway safety planning process, performance plan, highway safety strategies and...

  3. A Study of Truck Drivers and Their Job Performance Regarding Highway Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafukho, Fredrick M.; Hinton, Barbara E.; Graham, Carroll M.

    2007-01-01

    Limited research has addressed the issue of truck drivers and their performance regarding highway safety in terms of reduced number of crashes per driver. The primary purpose of this study was to determine how tractor trailer truck drivers' job performance could be improved while at the same time ensuring increased revenue for the transportation…

  4. The research of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Tiejun; Wan, Jiaonan; Zhang, Juwen; Wang, Rui

    For the rigorous traffic safety issues resulting from rapid transportation development, as well as the more and more attention paid to the traffic accidents dynamic analysis and pre-alarm methods, combined with the practical needs of the highway safety management, this paper summarizes the experience of traffic safety pre-alarm research both in domestic and abroad, designs the frame of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system from the function and software engineering requirement, and refines kernel modules such as accident prone section judgement, traffic safety pre-alarm analysis and perfecting safety measures analysis, in order to guide the exploitation and application of the system.

  5. 23 CFR 1200.4 - State Highway Safety Agency-Authority and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... limited to the standards for financial management systems required under 49 CFR 18.20; (8) Ensure that all... highway safety grant funds are conducted; (9) Track and maintain current knowledge of changes in State... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State Highway Safety Agency-Authority and...

  6. 23 CFR 1200.4 - State Highway Safety Agency-Authority and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... limited to the standards for financial management systems required under 49 CFR 18.20; (8) Ensure that all... highway safety grant funds are conducted; (9) Track and maintain current knowledge of changes in State... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State Highway Safety Agency-Authority and...

  7. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are eligible highway safety projects? 170.144 Section 170.144 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.144 What are eligible highway...

  8. 25 CFR 170.144 - What are eligible highway safety projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are eligible highway safety projects? 170.144 Section 170.144 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Highway Safety Functions § 170.144 What are eligible highway...

  9. Landscaping of highway medians and roadway safety at unsignalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyun; Fabregas, Aldo; Lin, Pei-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Well-planted and maintained landscaping can help reduce driving stress, provide better visual quality, and decrease over speeding, thus improving roadway safety. Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Standard Index (SI-546) is one of the more demanding standards in the U.S. for landscaping design criteria at highway medians near intersections. The purposes of this study were to (1) empirically evaluate the safety results of SI-546 at unsignalized intersections and (2) quantify the impacts of geometrics, traffic, and landscaping design features on total crashes and injury plus fatal crashes. The studied unsignalized intersections were divided into (1) those without median trees near intersections, (2) those with median trees near intersections that were compliant with SI-546, and (3) those with median trees near intersections that were non-compliant with SI-546. A total of 72 intersections were selected, for which five-year crash data from 2006-2010 were collected. The sites that were compliant with SI-546 showed the best safety performance in terms of the lowest crash counts and crash rates. Four crash predictive models-two for total crashes and two for injury crashes-were developed. The results indicated that improperly planted and maintained median trees near highway intersections can increase the total number of crashes and injury plus fatal crashes at a 90% confidence level; no significant difference could be found in crash rates between sites that were compliant with SI-546 and sites without trees. All other conditions remaining the same, an intersection with trees that was not compliant with SI-546 had 63% more crashes and almost doubled injury plus fatal crashes than those at intersections without trees. The study indicates that appropriate landscaping in highway medians near intersections can be an engineering technology that not only improves roadway environmental quality but also maintains intersection safety. PMID:26922287

  10. 49 CFR 1.94 - The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.94 The National Highway Traffic Safety... State efforts in such areas as occupant protection, impaired and distracted driving, traffic safety...

  11. 49 CFR 1.94 - The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.94 The National Highway Traffic Safety... State efforts in such areas as occupant protection, impaired and distracted driving, traffic safety...

  12. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    PubMed

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. PMID:27183516

  13. Fuel efficiency and automobile safety: Single-vehicle highway fatalities for passenger cars

    SciTech Connect

    Khazzoom, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports the results of an effort to shed some light on the relationship that might exist between enhanced standards and single-vehicle passenger car highway fatalities. Quantification of this relationship is not an easy task Not surprisingly, the literature on modeling the relationship between fuel economy and highway fatalities is very scant. Our analytic framework consists of two submodels: a corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) submodel and a single-vehicle highway fatalities submodel. Some of the variables that enter the CAFE relationship affect single-vehicle fatalities, as well. The results of this study are not unequivocal in every respect. However, they indicate that enhanced standards and automobile safety need not be at odds with each other. A main message that emerges from this study is the need not to confuse car downsizing with down weighting. Quantatative studies of highway fatalities have mostly treated weight and size interchangeably, and have used only the weight variable in the fatalities equation to avoid dealing with multicollinearity. Such references as {open_quote}size/weight{close_quote} which lump size and weight together as if they were the same variable are not uncommon in the safety literature. Our study indicates that weight and size are not a proxy to each other, and that in single vehicle crashes they are likely to have opposite effects on safety. Men researchers choose to drop the size variable and include only the weight variable in the fatalities equation, the weight estimate may end up with a negative sign, not necessarily because weight has a beneficial effect on safety, but because the omitted size variable has a dominant beneficial effect on safety, which is picked up by the weight variable that appears in the equation. 65 refs., 7 tabs.

  14. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 9: Identification and Surveillance of Accident Locations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 9 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on identification and surveillance of accident locations. The purpose of the program, its specific objectives, and its relationship with other programs are explored. Federal authority in the…

  15. 49 CFR 1.50 - Delegation to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegation to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator. 1.50 Section 1.50 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Delegations § 1.50 Delegation to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator. The National...

  16. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    Part of a four-volume study on highway safety activities, this report describes the need for breath examiners, accident investigators, emergency medical technicians, and highway engineering personnel. Training needs are discussed, in the context of curriculum, staffing, student recruitment, facilities, equipment, enrollment, and national…

  17. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  18. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume I, Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    This first volume of a four-volume report on highway safety activities describes the relevant federal laws, provides descriptions, projects safety specialist manpower needs and supply through 1977, and evaluates the adequacy of training capacity. Field visits were made to each state to gather state estimates, as well as maximum and minimum…

  19. 25 CFR 170.141 - What Federal funds are available for a tribe's highway safety activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS); (g) Indian Highway Safety Program 25 CFR... program funds under 23 U.S.C. 405; (d) Alcohol traffic safety program funds under 23 U.S.C. 408;...

  20. 77 FR 44472 - Safety Zone; Port Valdez, Alaska Maritime Highway System Ferry Terminal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Ferry Terminal AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ] ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Marine Highway System (AMHS) Terminal in Port Valdez when an AMHS Ferry is arriving or departing when... AMHS Ferry Terminal. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of passenger vessels...

  1. Coal-truck impacts on highway safety and traffic characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Eck, R.W.; Polus, A.; Halkias, J.A.

    1982-07-01

    A computer simulation model of accident rates and delay times is used to quantify highway hazards and congestion introduced by increases in large coal trucks. The effects of trucks on long grades, where the speed differences between trucks and other vehicles becomes greater, increases the potential for accident. Long lines of slow-moving trucks, however, reduce accidents because they reduce the opportunity for passing. At best, the trucks make traffic flow less stable. The results of this study can help in the design of passing lanes and improved grade alignment. 18 references. (DCK)

  2. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…

  3. 78 FR 33146 - Importance of Clear Safety Procedures for Temporary Removal From Service of Highway-Rail Grade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... re-evaluating their existing safety procedures related to these events. \\1\\ 67 FR 3258 (Jan. 23, 2002... passenger train and an automobile that was eastbound at a highway-rail grade crossing. At the time of the... through the highway-rail grade crossing and struck the automobile. The automobile driver was...

  4. Safety analysis of natural gas vehicles transiting highway tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Shaaban, S.H.; Zuzovsky, M.; Anigstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to assess the relative hazard of compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicles traveling on various tunnels and bridges in New York City. The study considered those hazards arising from the release of fuel from CNG vehicles ranging in size from a passenger sedan to a full size 53 passenger bus. The approach used was to compare the fuel hazard of CNG vehicles to the fuel hazard of gasoline vehicles. The risk was assessed by estimating the frequency of occurrence and the severity of the hazard. The methodology was a combination of analyzing accident data, performing a diffusion analysis of the gas released in the tunnel and determining the consequences of ignition. Diffusion analysis was performed using the TEMPEST code for various accident scenarios resulting in CNG release inside the Holland Tunnel. The study concluded that the overall hazard of CNG vehicles transiting a ventilated tunnel is less than the hazard from a comparable gasoline fueled vehicle. 134 refs., 23 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Rural casualty crashes on the Kings Highway: A new approach for road safety studies.

    PubMed

    Alian, Sahar; Baker, R G V; Wood, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    This paper will consider the contribution that changes in road geometry and driver visual information make to the incidence and distribution of road casualties in different driving environments. This relationship will be explored specifically for the Kings Highway, a major arterial road connecting Queanbeyan with coastal southern New South Wales, Australia. It introduces and suggests a new empirical approach of plotting crashes with road segmentation, calculating sinuosity indices and grades as key features of road geometry, and critical visual points as a behavioural component of road curvature, within a GIS context. It is an approach that might be used when detailed road geometry data is not available. The visualisation and segmentation approach in this research might be used for summarising crash rates and road geometry factors, and for comparing day/night and eastbound/westbound driving conditions. The results suggest some early interpretations for detailed road safety studies that might be considered at local or national levels. The rate of crashes increases according to changes in road geometry factors during the day and for eastbound travel. This is not the case for night driving where the incidence of crashes is similar on both straight and curved roads segments due to the headlight effect and limited background visual field. Crash clusters at day-time may be due to the stronger effect of road geometry (e.g. combination of curvature and vertical grade) on driver behaviour travelling eastbound. The outcomes suggest that it might be essential to consider the effect of environmental factors in any road safety and crash analysis studies. PMID:27372441

  6. Analyzing the influence of median cross-section design on highway safety using vehicle dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Stine, Jason S; Hamblin, Bridget C; Brennan, Sean N; Donnell, Eric T

    2010-11-01

    Although vehicle dynamics simulations have long been used in vehicle design and crash reconstruction, their use for highway design is rare. This paper investigates the safety of highway medians through iterative simulations of off-road median encroachments. The commercially available software CarSim was used to simulate over one hundred thousand encroachments, representing the entire passenger vehicle fleet and a wide range of encroachment angles, departure speeds, steering inputs, and braking inputs. Each individual simulation output was then weighted using data from previous studies to reflect the probability of each specific accident scenario occurring in a real-life median encroachment. Results of this analysis illustrate the relative influence of median cross-section geometry on the resulting accident outcomes. The simulations indicate that the overall safety of a highway median depends on the occurrence of both vehicle rollover and median crossover events, and the cross-section shape, slope, and width are all shown to greatly affect each of these incidents. An evaluation of the simulation results was conducted with vehicle trajectories from previous experimental crash tests. Further assessment of the aggregate simulation results to actual crash data was achieved through comparison with several databases of crash statistics. Both efforts showed a strong agreement between the simulations and the real-life crash data. PMID:20728628

  7. Helicopter Safety Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Rutkowski, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In response to the President's challenge to reduce civil aviation accidents by a factor of 10 by the year 2022, NASA has embarked on an ambitious safety program in partnership with other government agencies and industry. The helicopter element of the NASA initiative has been guided by a series of accident analyses aimed at identifying the most frequent causes and consequences and initiating research to prevent or mitigate these factors. This talk will summarize the key findings of three of the accident analyses, the major elements of the safety program, and how helicopter safety research relates to the safety program.

  8. Evaluating the safety impact of increased speed limits on rural highways in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Tarek; Sacchi, Emanuele

    2016-10-01

    Maximum speed limits are usually set to inform drivers of the highest speed that it is safe and appropriate for ideal traffic, road and weather conditions. Many previous studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between changed speed limits and safety. The results of these studies generally show that relaxing speed limits can negatively affect safety, especially with regard to fatal and injury crashes. Despite these results, several road jurisdictions in North America continue to raise the maximum speed limits. In 2013, the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure initiated a speed limits review. The review found that the 85th percentile speed on many highway segments was 10km/h higher than corresponding posted speed limits and 1300km of rural provincial highway segments were recommended for higher speed limits. Most of the highway segments had 10km/h speed limit increase with a small section having 20km/h speed limit increase. As speed limit changes can have a substantial impact on safety, the main objective of this study is to estimate the effect of the increased speed limits on crash occurrence. A before-after evaluation was undertaken with the full Bayesian technique. Overall, the evaluation showed that changed speed limits led to a statistically significant increase in fatal-plus-injury (severe) crashes of 11.1%. A crash modification function that includes changes in the treatment effect over time showed that the initial increase of the first post-implementation period may slightly decrease over time. PMID:27447060

  9. Slippery when wet: the effects of local alcohol access laws on highway safety.

    PubMed

    Baughman, R; Conlin, M; Dickert-Conlin, S; Pepper, J

    2001-11-01

    Using detailed panel data on local alcohol policy changes in Texas, this paper tests whether the effect of these changes on alcohol-related accidents depends on whether the policy change involves where the alcohol is consumed and the type of alcohol consumed. After controlling for both county and year fixed effects, we find evidence that: (i) the sale of beer and wine may actually decrease expected accidents; and (ii) the sale of higher alcohol-content liquor may present greater risk to highway safety than the sale of just beer and wine. PMID:11758050

  10. 75 FR 70670 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research... availability of the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013 (Priority Plan) in Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108. This Priority Plan is an update to the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking...

  11. 76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research... NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013 (Priority Plan) in Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108. This Priority Plan is an update to the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking...

  12. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  13. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1200 - Certification and Assurances for Highway Safety Grants (23 U.S.C. Chapter 4)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prohibits discrimination on the basis of disabilities (and 49 CFR Part 27); (d) the Age Discrimination Act..., including but not limited to: • 23 U.S.C. Chapter 4—Highway Safety Act of 1966, as amended • 49 CFR Part 18... • 23 CFR Part 1200—Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs The State has...

  14. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1200 - CERTIFICATION AND ASSURANCES FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY GRANTS (23 U.S.C. CHAPTER 4)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prohibits discrimination on the basis of disabilities (and 49 CFR Part 27); (d) the Age Discrimination Act..., including but not limited to: • 23 U.S.C. Chapter 4—Highway Safety Act of 1966, as amended • 49 CFR Part 18... • 23 CFR Part 1200—Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs The State has...

  15. Evaluating safety risk of locating above ground utility structures in the highway right-of-way.

    PubMed

    El Esawey, Mohamed; Sayed, Tarek

    2012-11-01

    Roadside safety has been a concern for highway engineers and designers for many decades. A significant part of this concern is related to collisions with utility poles. Current practices and standards for placing utility poles are based on a combination of qualitative guidelines/heuristics and relatively outdated findings. Accordingly, there is a need to study the safety level associated with placing utility poles at different lateral offsets from the edge of the travel-way. In this paper a Safety Performance Function (SPF) is developed to relate roadway and roadside variables to utility pole collision frequency. It was found that increasing the poles offset has a more significant effect on reducing the frequency of utility pole collisions compared to increasing poles spacing. Based on the developed utility pole-SPF, design charts were provided to facilitate calculations and decision-making process. The developed utility pole-SPF was compared to a widely-used utility pole collisions model and the differences in the type of data and the development methodology were highlighted. PMID:23036421

  16. Overview of safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft safety is reviewed by first establishing a perspective of air transportation accidents as a function of calendar year, geographic area, and phase of flight, and then by describing the threats to safety and NASA research underway in the three representative areas of engine operational problems, meteorological phenomena, and fire. Engine rotor burst protection, aircraft nacelle fire extinguishment, the aircraft-weather interface, severe weather wind shears and turbulence, clear air turbulence, and lightning are among the topics covered. Fire impact management through fire resistant materials technology development is emphasized.

  17. Trends in highway safety: effects of an aging population on accident propensity.

    PubMed

    Stamatiadis, N; Deacon, J A

    1995-08-01

    Aging of the United States population has a potentially adverse effect on highway safety. A key question is whether the known deterioration of driving skills with aging will be compensated by other factors, especially improved learning and attitudinal experiences of more recent cohorts. We investigate effects of driver age, cohort, and gender on accident propensity and evaluate confounding effects of year, location, and lighting. The accident propensity of different groups of drivers is measured, using a database of two-vehicle accidents, by the ratio of the number of at-fault drivers of a specific group to the corresponding number of not-at-fault drivers. Logistic regression modelling determines the statistical significance of the findings. The analysis reveals the following statistically significant effects: (a) middle-aged drivers are safer than younger drivers who, in turn, are safer than older drivers; (b) female drivers are safer on average than male drivers; (c) younger female drivers are safer than younger male drivers; (d) older male drivers are safer than older female drivers; (e) more recent cohorts of older drivers are safer than more distant cohorts; and (f) more distant cohorts of younger drivers are safer than more recent cohorts. We conclude that driver cohort provides a plausible explanation for many of the measurable, time-related accident trends that are observed. Accordingly, older drivers will be safer in the future because they will have acquired basic driving skills and attitudes in increasingly more automobile-dominated times. At the same time, the cohort effect appears small relative to other time related effects, notably aging, and older drivers will continue to be a high-risk component of the driving population and to require special consideration in driver education and licensing and in highway design and operations. PMID:7546059

  18. Prioritizing Highway Safety Manual's crash prediction variables using boosted regression trees.

    PubMed

    Saha, Dibakar; Alluri, Priyanka; Gan, Albert

    2015-06-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) recommends using the empirical Bayes (EB) method with locally derived calibration factors to predict an agency's safety performance. However, the data needs for deriving these local calibration factors are significant, requiring very detailed roadway characteristics information. Many of the data variables identified in the HSM are currently unavailable in the states' databases. Moreover, the process of collecting and maintaining all the HSM data variables is cost-prohibitive. Prioritization of the variables based on their impact on crash predictions would, therefore, help to identify influential variables for which data could be collected and maintained for continued updates. This study aims to determine the impact of each independent variable identified in the HSM on crash predictions. A relatively recent data mining approach called boosted regression trees (BRT) is used to investigate the association between the variables and crash predictions. The BRT method can effectively handle different types of predictor variables, identify very complex and non-linear association among variables, and compute variable importance. Five years of crash data from 2008 to 2012 on two urban and suburban facility types, two-lane undivided arterials and four-lane divided arterials, were analyzed for estimating the influence of variables on crash predictions. Variables were found to exhibit non-linear and sometimes complex relationship to predicted crash counts. In addition, only a few variables were found to explain most of the variation in the crash data. PMID:25823903

  19. Handbook of road safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Grime, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

  20. MANPOWER INVENTORY AND TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS. LOUISIANA DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS MAINTENANCE RESEARCH PROJECT, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen (Roy) and Associates, Washington, DC.

    AS PART OF A LONG-RANGE (1965-69) RESEARCH PROJECT IN LOUISIANA, A STUDY (1) IDENTIFIED TRAINING NEEDS OF PERSONS SUPERVISING THE MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION OF HIGHWAYS, BRIDGES, FERRIES, AND EQUIPMENT, (2) ESTIMATED TRAINING NEEDS OF POTENTIAL SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL, (3) DETERMINED CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTH GROUPS, AND (4) MADE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A…

  1. An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway.

    PubMed

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people. PMID:26295234

  2. Sample-size guidelines for recalibrating crash prediction models: Recommendations for the highway safety manual.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mohammadali; Lord, Dominique; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy

    2016-08-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) prediction models are fitted and validated based on crash data collected from a selected number of states in the United States. Therefore, for a jurisdiction to be able to fully benefit from applying these models, it is necessary to calibrate or recalibrate them to local conditions. The first edition of the HSM recommends calibrating the models using a one-size-fits-all sample-size of 30-50 locations with total of at least 100 crashes per year. However, the HSM recommendation is not fully supported by documented studies. The objectives of this paper are consequently: (1) to examine the required sample size based on the characteristics of the data that will be used for the calibration or recalibration process; and, (2) propose revised guidelines. The objectives were accomplished using simulation runs for different scenarios that characterized the sample mean and variance of the data. The simulation results indicate that as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean (i.e., coefficient of variation) of the crash data increases, a larger sample-size is warranted to fulfill certain levels of accuracy. Taking this observation into account, sample-size guidelines were prepared based on the coefficient of variation of the crash data that are needed for the calibration process. The guidelines were then successfully applied to the two observed datasets. The proposed guidelines can be used for all facility types and both for segment and intersection prediction models. PMID:27183517

  3. An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway

    PubMed Central

    García, Carmelo R.; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people. PMID:26295234

  4. Development of safety performance functions for Spanish two-lane rural highways on flat terrain.

    PubMed

    Garach, Laura; de Oña, Juan; López, Griselda; Baena, Leticia

    2016-10-01

    Over decades safety performance functions (SPF) have been developed as a tool for traffic safety in order to estimate the number of crashes in a specific road section. Despite the steady progression of methodological innovations in the crash analysis field, many fundamental issues have not been completely addressed. For instance: Is it better to use parsimonious or fully specified models? How should the goodness-of-fit of the models be assessed? Is it better to use a general model for the entire sample or specific models based on sample stratifications? This paper investigates the above issues by means of several SPFs developed using negative binomial regression models for two-lane rural highways in Spain. The models were based on crash data gathered over a 5-year period, using a broad number of explanatory variables related to exposure, geometry, design consistency and roadside features. Results show that the principle of parsimony could be too restrictive and that it provided simplistic models. Most previous studies apply conventional measurements (i.e., R(2), BIC, AIC, etc.) to assess the goodness-of-fit of models. Seldom do studies apply cumulative residual (CURE) analysis as a tool for model evaluation. This paper shows that CURE plots are essential tools for calibrating SPF, while also providing information for possible sample stratification. Previous authors suggest that sample segmentation increases the model accuracy. The results presented here confirm that finding, and show that the number of significant variables in the final models increases with sample stratification. This paper point out that fully models based on sample segmentation and on CURE may provide more useful insights about traffic crashes than general parsimonious models when developing SPF. PMID:27466785

  5. 77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... electric vehicles powered by lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The symposium will include brief NHTSA presentations outlining current agency research and activities related to Li-ion batteries and Li-ion battery... lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery-powered vehicles. Electric vehicles show great promise as an innovative...

  6. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  7. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  8. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, CW

    1980-08-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory from October 1 through December 31, 1979, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, lspra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  9. Construction techniques for the Taklamakan Desert Highway: research on the construction materials and the results of field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Changning; Dong, Zhibao; Li, Zhinong

    2006-03-01

    After conducting many laboratory and field experiments, several key technical issues related to the construction of China’s Taklamakan Desert Highway have been satisfactorily resolved. In particular, considerable progress has been made on the dry compaction of a sand sub-base, road design parameters, the creation of a structure that combines a sub-grade and asphalt pavement, analysis of the stability of a sand sub-base strengthened with geotextiles, and on the development of a complete set of construction techniques. The achievements of this research were successfully applied for the first time in the Taklamakan Desert, where the environmental conditions are extremely harsh. The results suggest that the construction of this highway was economical and that the simple construction methods produced a reliable highway. The resulting highway is believed to be the world’s first long-distance graded highway running through a huge desert with migrating dunes.

  10. 76 FR 12847 - Public Road Mileage for Apportionment of Highway Safety Funds; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 460 RIN 2125-AF42 Public Road Mileage for Apportionment of... . Background This rule makes a technical correction to the regulations that govern the public road mileage for... the foregoing, 23 CFR part 460 is amended as set forth below. PART 460--PUBLIC ROAD MILEAGE...

  11. Investigation of a supplementary tool to assist in the prioritization of emphasis areas in North American strategic highway safety plans.

    PubMed

    Park, Peter Y; Young, Jason

    2012-03-01

    An important potential benefit of a jurisdiction developing an upper-level traffic safety policy statement, such as a strategic highway safety plan (SHSP) or a traffic safety action plan, is the creation of a manageable number of focus areas, known as emphasis areas. The responsible agencies in the jurisdiction can then direct their finite resources in a systematic and strategic way designed to maximize the effort to reduce the number and severity of roadway collisions. In the United States, the federal government through AASHTO has suggested 22 potential emphasis areas. In Canada, CCMTA's 10 potential emphasis areas have been listed for consideration. This study reviewed the SHSP and traffic safety action plan of 53 jurisdictions in North America, and conducted descriptive data analyses to clarify the issues that currently affect the selection and prioritization process of jurisdiction-specific emphasis areas. We found that the current process relies heavily on high-level collision data analysis and communication among the SHSP stakeholders, but may not be the most efficient and effective way of selecting and prioritizing the emphasis areas and allocating safety improvement resources. This study then formulated a formal collision diagnosis test, known as the beta-binomial test, to clarify and illuminate the selection and the prioritization of jurisdiction-specific emphasis areas. We developed numerical examples to demonstrate how engineers can apply the proposed diagnosis test to improve the selection and prioritization of individual jurisdictions' emphasis areas. PMID:22269523

  12. 49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fuel dispenser requirements; and (10) Section 248(a) , relating to biofuels distribution and advanced biofuels infrastructure. (k) Carry out the functions and exercise the motor vehicle safety authority...

  13. 49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fuel dispenser requirements; and (10) Section 248(a) , relating to biofuels distribution and advanced biofuels infrastructure. (k) Carry out the functions and exercise the motor vehicle safety authority...

  14. 49 CFR 1.95 - Delegations to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fuel dispenser requirements; and (10) Section 248(a) , relating to biofuels distribution and advanced biofuels infrastructure. (k) Carry out the functions and exercise the motor vehicle safety authority...

  15. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    This final volume of a four-volume study considers the need for personnel for traffic control, police traffic services, pedestrian safety, school bus safety, and debris hazard control and cleanup. Training requirements to meet national objectives are discussed, in terms of curriculum, staffing, student recruitment, facilities, equipment and…

  16. Recommended research on LNG safety

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  17. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  18. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  19. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  20. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  1. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal-aid highway systems. 470.107 Section 470.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.107 Federal-aid highway systems. (a) Interstate System. (1) The Dwight...

  2. A network of field test sites as a platform for research on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Frangopol, Dan M.; Ghasemi, Hamid; Shenton, Harry W.; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Madanat, Samar

    2004-07-01

    An effort is currently underway to create an Engineering Research Consortium Initiative (ERCI) focused on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure. The goal of the ERCI will be to provide administrative and logistical support for a coordinated, problem-focused research program on the highway transportation infrastructure system. The cornerstone of the initiative will be field test-sites. Example sites might include major long span bridges, sample populations of operating bridges, decommissioned bridges, a regional network of highways and bridges, various types of pavement and geotechnical structures, or a major transportation hub serving a metropolitan area. Sites would be instrumented to collect a broad range of engineering (structural, geotechnical, hydraulic), human (traffic) and natural (climatological, seismological) response data. The field sites would be networked to provide real-time access to test facilities across the country; a secure central repository would be established for collecting data from the sites. The data and information gathered from these sites would be used by engineers and scientists to study the complex interactions and cause-and-effect relations of the various engineered, human and natural components of the highway hyper-system. A major research thrust of the ERCI will be security of the highway infrastructure system, with particular emphasis on bridges. The National Science Foundation and the Federal Highway Administration are expected to provide funding for the program through a joint agency initiative. Two workshops were recently held with experts from around the world to discuss the plans for the ERCI. The paper provides more details on the ERCI and the status of the effort to date.

  3. USEPA RESEARCH PROGRAM ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND CONTROL OF HIGHWAY DEICING SALT POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deicing agents for regal of ice and snow from highways and streets are considered ssential for wintertime road maintenance in ,most areas of the U.S.A. owever, heavy usage of highway-deicing materials can result in injury and age across a wide environmental. alt-laden runoff from...

  4. Alcohol and Highway Safety Curriculum Workshops for K-12 Key Personnel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgener, V. E.

    Ten regional workshops were held for local educational personnel in late 1972 and early 1973. Teams of educators were selected from innovative school districts and oriented to the use of alcohol and traffic safety curriculum materials centered on student concerns. Five hundred eighty-seven participants attended from 49 states and Puerto Rico. The…

  5. Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower Requirements. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    This second volume of a four-volume report covers manpower needs in motor vehicle inspection and registration, motorcycle safety, driver education, driver licensing, traffic court, and codes and laws. Aspects of training such as staffing, student recruitment, enrollments, facilities, equipment, and curriculum are discussed. Course outlines are…

  6. Improving Highway Safety Manpower: Traffic Engineering Technician Project at Lansing Community College. Final Report, Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Phase I of this project was conducted to pilot test an associate degree program for the preparation of traffic safety technicians. Previously developed curriculum materials were revised by an advisory committee in accordance with the level of expertise and sophistication of the 27 students enrolled in the 2-year program and to meet the needs of…

  7. Roadmap to quieter highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbisier, Christopher

    2005-09-01

    Research in Europe, as documented by an FHWA/AASHTO European Scan Tour held in May 2004, and recent activity in Arizona and California, has fostered much interest in ``quiet pavements.'' On September 14-16, 2004, an FHWA sponsored Roadmap to Quieter Highways workshop was held at Purdue University. Participants were from the disciplines of pavement, safety, and noise from FHWA, State departments of transportation, industry (paving associations, general contractors, tire, and vehicle manufacturers), and academia. After several breakout sessions in the areas of policy, construction, maintenance, analysis (measurement and prediction), research, and design, the group had identified the knowledge gaps and developed a plan to fill those gaps. Several activities have been implemented based on the Roadmap to Quieter Highways. An Expert Task Group was formed to provide a draft provisional standard for the measurement methodologies, e.g., source, wayside, pavement absorption. A Tire/Pavement 101 workshop is being developed to educate pavement practitioners in noise concepts and noise practitioners in pavement concepts. A Tire/Pavement Noise clearinghouse is being developed as a one-stop location for all current tire/pavement noise or quiet pavement activities. Several research studies have been started and a second workshop will be held in 2006 to assess progress of the Roadmap.

  8. Fruits of 20 Years of Highway Safety Legislative Advocacy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA’s estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990–2009. The costs were built from NHTSA’s estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

  9. Fruits of 20 years of highway safety legislative advocacy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA's estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990-2009. The costs were built from NHTSA's estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

  10. 78 FR 4985 - Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ..., 2012. (77 FR 60956) The comment period for the GDL NPRM closed on October 25, 2012. Today's IFR... offices, academic and research organizations, and other key groups assisted in developing these...

  11. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  12. Safety management of complex research operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present many varied potential hazards which must be addressed in a disciplined independent safety review and approval process. The research and technology effort at the Lewis Research Center is divided into programmatic areas of aeronautics, space and energy. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described in this paper is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record at the Lewis Research Center.

  13. Safety management of complex research operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present varied potential hazards which are addressed in a disciplined, independent safety review and approval process. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record.

  14. The road surveying system of the federal highway research institute - a performance evaluation of road segmentation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streiter, R.; Wanielik, G.

    2013-07-01

    The construction of highways and federal roadways is subject to many restrictions and designing rules. The focus is on safety, comfort and smooth driving. Unfortunately, the planning information for roadways and their real constitution, course and their number of lanes and lane widths is often unsure or not available. Due to digital map databases of roads raised much interest during the last years and became one major cornerstone of innovative Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs), the demand for accurate and detailed road information increases considerably. Within this project a measurement system for collecting high accurate road data was developed. This paper gives an overview about the sensor configuration within the measurement vehicle, introduces the implemented algorithms and shows some applications implemented in the post processing platform. The aim is to recover the origin parametric description of the roadway and the performance of the measurement system is being evaluated against several original road construction information.

  15. How Can We Improve School Safety Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astor, Ron Avi; Guerra, Nancy; Van Acker, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this article consider how education researchers can improve school violence and school safety research by (a) examining gaps in theoretical, conceptual, and basic research on the phenomena of school violence; (b) reviewing key issues in the design and evaluation of evidence-based practices to prevent school violence; and (c)…

  16. Conflicts of interest in vaccine safety research.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Conflicts of interest (COIs) cloud vaccine safety research. Sponsors of research have competing interests that may impede the objective study of vaccine side effects. Vaccine manufacturers, health officials, and medical journals may have financial and bureaucratic reasons for not wanting to acknowledge the risks of vaccines. Conversely, some advocacy groups may have legislative and financial reasons to sponsor research that finds risks in vaccines. Using the vaccine-autism debate as an illustration, this article details the conflicts of interest each of these groups faces, outlines the current state of vaccine safety research, and suggests remedies to address COIs. Minimizing COIs in vaccine safety research could reduce research bias and restore greater trust in the vaccine program. PMID:22375842

  17. NASA's aviation safety research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Aviation safety is challenged by the practical necessity of compromising inherent factors of design, environment, and operation. If accidents are to be avoided these factors must be controlled to a degree not often required by other transport modes. The operational problems which challenge safety seem to occur most often in the interfaces within and between the design, the environment, and operations where mismatches occur due to ignorance or lack of sufficient understanding of these interactions. Under this report the following topics are summarized: (1) The nature of operating problems, (2) NASA aviation safety research, (3) clear air turbulence characterization and prediction, (4) CAT detection, (5) Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence (MAT) Program, (6) Lightning, (7) Thunderstorm gust fronts, (8) Aircraft ground operating problems, (9) Aircraft fire technology, (10) Crashworthiness research, (11) Aircraft wake vortex hazard research, and (12) Aviation safety reporting system.

  18. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Tehran Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Nematollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2004-07-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this paper the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using SAPHIRE software. This Study shows that the obtained core damage frequency for Tehran Research Reactor (8.368 E-6 per year) well meets the IAEA criterion for existing nuclear power plants (1E-4). But safety improvement suggestions are offered to decrease the most probable accidents. (authors)

  19. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings. PMID:26922288

  20. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, January-June 1986: Reactor Safety Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the technology base supporting licensing decisions.

  1. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  2. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  3. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  4. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway systems... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway...

  5. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  6. Austrian contributions to reactor safety research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdouz, Gert

    1992-03-01

    An overview of Austrian contributions to reactor safety research is given. Starting with licensing for the power plant Zwenkendorf and participation in the safety projects PBF (Power Burst Facility) and LOFT (Loss Of Fluid Test), the work shifted later to participation in the study of international standard problems of the OECD and the IAEA. Since 1988 the center of activity is the calculation of the source term behavior of accident sequences, especially for reactors of Russian types. As an illustration the results of a source term calculation for a TMLB' sequence are presented.

  7. The smart highway project: Smart highways, smart vehicles, smart engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethtel, Ray D.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Highway project is a six mile, limited access roadway being built between Interstate 81 and Blacksburg, Virginia. The initial construction segment will be two miles long and is designed to serve as a test bed and test track for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) research. The Center for Transportation Research (CTR) at Virginia Tech is developing three evaluation tools for its ITS research including DYNAVIMTS (a software framework), and the FLASH Lab (a 1/15th scale model highway and vehicle system). The Smart Highway rounds out the Center's evaluation methodology by allowing full scale operational tests, evaluations, and research under both experimental and conventional traffic conditions. Currently under development is a concept for a fully automated highway using a 'Cooperative Infrastructure Managed System' which involves ultra wide band communication beacons installed in the infrastructure with appropriate sensors, receivers and processors on board the vehicles. The project is part of the research program funded by the National Automated Highway System Consortium. The CTR hopes to develop the automated concept to prototype status by 1997. Other smart transportation and smart engineering concepts are proposed. This presentation will address the goals and objectives of the Smart Highway project, overview its status and importance to the region, and identify some of the transportation technology now under development and planned in the future.

  8. Culturally tailored cancer communication, education, and research: the highways and back roads of Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Dorgan, Kelly A; Hutson, Sadie P; Gerding, Gail; Duvall, Katie L

    2009-04-01

    We seek to start a dialogue about the challenges cancer control researchers and specialists may face in attempting to understand the Appalachians' experience with cancer. Through examples drawn from our own research among Appalachian communities, we discuss the hazards of defining a culture in order to develop culturally tailored cancer control interventions and programs. We also acknowledge that cancer control work in Appalachia requires "cultural mapping," highlighting cultural beliefs, norms, and realities that may be linked to cancer mortality and morbidity. Although cancer control specialists and researchers have to rely on cultural maps, they must also remain critical of such maps. Subsequently, we describe a mapping approach around the metaphor of "signposts," directional indicators that point to broad cultural attributes but do not reduce the culture to a narrow set of traits. The interplay of these signposts ultimately helps cancer educators, communicators, and researchers better understand authentic Appalachia. PMID:19289011

  9. Potential Impacts of Highway Median Barriers on Wildlife: State of the Practice and Gap Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenger, Anthony P.; Kociolek, Angela V.

    2013-11-01

    Median barriers separate lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions on multilane highways. Such traffic safety devices can reduce head-on collisions but also have the potential to reduce landscape permeability by impeding wildlife movements across highways. Median barriers may also increase the risk of wildlife-vehicle collisions if an animal becomes trapped or confused amid barriers searching for a place to cross. A 2002 Transportation Research Board report highlighted the need to better understand the potential impacts of highway median barriers on wildlife. This lack of information can cause significant project delays and increase transportation project costs. This study represents the first attempt in North America to bring together information about highway median and roadside barriers and wildlife and provide preliminary guidelines to balance the needs of motorist safety and wildlife movements.

  10. Work Climate, Organizational Commitment, and Highway Safety in the Trucking Industry: Toward Causal Modeling of Large Truck Crashes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Carroll M.; Scott, Aaron J.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2008-01-01

    While theoretical models aimed at explaining or predicting employee turnover outcomes have been developed, minimal consideration has been given to the same task regarding safety, often measured as the probability of a crash in a given time frame. The present literature review identifies four constructs from turnover literature, which are believed…

  11. Management of nanomaterials safety in research environment.

    PubMed

    Groso, Amela; Petri-Fink, Alke; Magrez, Arnaud; Riediker, Michael; Meyer, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous discussions, workshops, reviews and reports about responsible development of nanotechnology, information describing health and environmental risk of engineered nanoparticles or nanomaterials is severely lacking and thus insufficient for completing rigorous risk assessment on their use. However, since preliminary scientific evaluations indicate that there are reasonable suspicions that activities involving nanomaterials might have damaging effects on human health; the precautionary principle must be applied. Public and private institutions as well as industries have the duty to adopt preventive and protective measures proportionate to the risk intensity and the desired level of protection. In this work, we present a practical, 'user-friendly' procedure for a university-wide safety and health management of nanomaterials, developed as a multi-stakeholder effort (government, accident insurance, researchers and experts for occupational safety and health). The process starts using a schematic decision tree that allows classifying the nano laboratory into three hazard classes similar to a control banding approach (from Nano 3--highest hazard to Nano1--lowest hazard). Classifying laboratories into risk classes would require considering actual or potential exposure to the nanomaterial as well as statistical data on health effects of exposure. Due to the fact that these data (as well as exposure limits for each individual material) are not available, risk classes could not be determined. For each hazard level we then provide a list of required risk mitigation measures (technical, organizational and personal). The target 'users' of this safety and health methodology are researchers and safety officers. They can rapidly access the precautionary hazard class of their activities and the corresponding adequate safety and health measures. We succeed in convincing scientist dealing with nano-activities that adequate safety measures and management are promoting

  12. Highway Repair: A New Silicosis Threat

    PubMed Central

    Valiante, David J.; Schill, Donald P.; Rosenman, Kenneth D.; Socie, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an emerging public health concern regarding silicosis in the fast-growing highway repair industry. Methods. We examined highway construction trends, silicosis surveillance case data, and environmental exposure data to evaluate the risk of silicosis among highway repair workers. We reviewed silicosis case data from the construction industry in 3 states that have silicosis registries, and we conducted environmental monitoring for silica at highway repair work sites. Results. Our findings indicate that a large population of highway workers is at risk of developing silicosis from exposure to crystalline silica. Conclusions. Exposure control methods, medical screenings, protective health standards, and safety-related contract language are necessary for preventing future occupational disease problems among highway repair workers. PMID:15117715

  13. Organizational safety factors research lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    This Paper reports lessons learned and state of knowledge gained from an organizational factors research activity involving commercial nuclear power plants in the United States, through the end of 1991, as seen by the scientists immediately involved in the research. Lessons learned information was gathered from the research teams and individuals using a question and answer format. The following five questions were submitted to each team and individual: (1) What organizational factors appear to influence safety performance in some systematic way, (2) Should organizational factors research focus at the plant level, or should it extend beyond the plant level to the parent company, rate setting commissions, regulatory agencies, (3) How important is having direct access to plants for doing organizational factors research, (4) What lessons have been learned to date as the result of doing organizational factors research in a nuclear regulatory setting, and (5) What organizational research topics and issues should be pursued in the future? Conclusions based on the responses provided for this report are that organizational factors research can be conducted in a regulatory setting and produce useful results. Technologies pioneered in other academic, commercial, and military settings can be adopted for use in a nuclear regulatory setting. The future success of such research depends upon the cooperation of regulators, contractors, and the nuclear industry.

  14. Simulation and intelligent vehicle highway systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, A.K. ); Santiago, A.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) is based on the premise of using advanced technologies in telecommunication, electronics, and computers to improve the nature and quality of highway travel while making it safer and more efficient. The safety benefits of the IVHS systems are unquestioned; however, there are different levels of optimism about the operational benefits of these systems. While there is a broad consensus that IVHS can improve the flow of traffic, and thus mobility, currently there is very limited empirical evidence or analytical basis to support this optimism. The lack of analytical framework for design, analysis, and evaluation of IVHS concepts will continue to fuel the debate between the skeptics and the advocates of IVHS. Computer simulation is likely to play a major role in the analysis and assessment of the IVHS technologies. In this paper, we attempt to identify the simulation modelling needs to support the IVHS functional areas dealing with traffic flow on highway networks. The paper outlines the envisioned IVHS operational environment. Functional requirements for the simulation modelling system that could be used to support the development and testing of IVHS concepts, namely Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) and Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS), are defined. Simulation modelling research and development needs to support the design and evaluations of IVHS concepts are described. The paper concludes by presenting on-going work on the traffic simulation models at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. Simulation and intelligent vehicle highway systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rathi, A.K.; Santiago, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) is based on the premise of using advanced technologies in telecommunication, electronics, and computers to improve the nature and quality of highway travel while making it safer and more efficient. The safety benefits of the IVHS systems are unquestioned; however, there are different levels of optimism about the operational benefits of these systems. While there is a broad consensus that IVHS can improve the flow of traffic, and thus mobility, currently there is very limited empirical evidence or analytical basis to support this optimism. The lack of analytical framework for design, analysis, and evaluation of IVHS concepts will continue to fuel the debate between the skeptics and the advocates of IVHS. Computer simulation is likely to play a major role in the analysis and assessment of the IVHS technologies. In this paper, we attempt to identify the simulation modelling needs to support the IVHS functional areas dealing with traffic flow on highway networks. The paper outlines the envisioned IVHS operational environment. Functional requirements for the simulation modelling system that could be used to support the development and testing of IVHS concepts, namely Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) and Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS), are defined. Simulation modelling research and development needs to support the design and evaluations of IVHS concepts are described. The paper concludes by presenting on-going work on the traffic simulation models at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  16. The Highway Safety Mass Media Youth Project: A Media Campaign Aimed at Drunk Driving and Seat Belt Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosser, Betsy J.; And Others

    To address the issues of drunk driving and failure to use car restraints among teens and young adults, a 21-month-long media campaign has been developed especially for the 15- to 24-year-old audience to compare the effectiveness of paid advertisements and public service announcements. A formative research approach to message design will be used to…

  17. Human Hallucinogen Research: Guidelines for Safety

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Richards, William A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been a renewal of human research with classical hallucinogens (psychedelics). This paper first briefly discusses the unique history of human hallucinogen research, and then reviews the risks of hallucinogen administration and safeguards for minimizing these risks. Although hallucinogens are relatively safe physiologically and are not considered drugs of dependence, their administration involves unique psychological risks. The most likely risk is overwhelming distress during drug action (“bad trip”), which could lead to potentially dangerous behavior such as leaving the study site. Less common are prolonged psychoses triggered by hallucinogens. Safeguards against these risks include the exclusion of volunteers with personal or family history of psychotic disorders or other severe psychiatric disorders, establishing trust and rapport between session monitors and volunteer before the session, careful volunteer preparation, a safe physical session environment, and interpersonal support from at least two study monitors during the session. Investigators should probe for the relatively rare hallucinogen persisting perception disorder in follow up contact. Persisting adverse reactions are rare when research is conducted along these guidelines. Incautious research may jeopardize participant safety and future research. However, carefully conducted research may inform the treatment of psychiatric disorders, and may lead to advances in basic science. PMID:18593734

  18. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems Pt... for Modifications to the National Highway System Section 103(b), of title 23, U.S.C., allows...

  19. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems Pt. 470, Subpt. A, App. D Appendix D...

  20. Managing safety in a research and development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1995-12-22

    A method for managing safety in a research and development environment is described which involves both the subject matter experts and the researchers in development of safety policy and implementation planning. This method has been used effectively at LLNL to maximize safety benefits while minimizing the costs of the safety program and aggravation to the researcher. A product of this effort is the establishment of an effective safety culture as the line organizations work with the subject matter experts to develop and implement the safety program.

  1. Biodefense research: can secrecy and safety coexist?

    PubMed

    Kahn, Laura H

    2004-01-01

    Over the next 10 years, the United States will spend 6 billion US dollars to develop countermeasures against biological and chemical weapons. Much of this research on highly virulent pathogens will be done in academic settings around the country. This article explores the challenges in ensuring secrecy to protect national security while accommodating the right of local communities to have access to safety information regarding select agents and laboratory-acquired infections. Secrecy has been defended as being vital for protecting national security. Problems with secrecy can include the misinterpretation of intentions, particularly in laboratories located in nuclear weapons design facilities, and the restricted access to information relevant to public health and safety. While federal select agent legislation requires laboratories to have emergency plans in place with first responders, these plans do not necessarily include public health professionals, who will be responsible for any future public health action, such as quarantine, surveillance, or mass vaccinations, in the unlikely event that a laboratory-acquired infection spreads into a community. Laboratory-acquired infections do occur, even with the best safety mechanisms in place; however, the epidemiology of the incidence and severity of these infections are not known since there is no national surveillance reporting system. Evidence suggests that many of these infections occur in the absence of an actual laboratory accident. The best emergency plans and surveillance systems are only as good as the participation and vigilance of the laboratory workers themselves. Thus, laboratory workers have a responsibility to themselves and others to report all laboratory accidents and spills, regardless how minor. In addition, they should have a lower threshold than normal in seeking medical attention when feeling ill, and their physicians should be aware of what pathogens they work with to reduce the risk of a delay in

  2. Multilevel analysis in road safety research.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Martensen, Heike; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    Hierarchical structures in road safety data are receiving increasing attention in the literature and multilevel (ML) models are proposed for appropriately handling the resulting dependences among the observations. However, so far no empirical synthesis exists of the actual added value of ML modelling techniques as compared to other modelling approaches. This paper summarizes the statistical and conceptual background and motivations for multilevel analyses in road safety research. It then provides a review of several ML analyses applied to aggregate and disaggregate (accident) data. In each case, the relevance of ML modelling techniques is assessed by examining whether ML model formulations (i) allow improving the fit of the model to the data, (ii) allow identifying and explaining random variation at specific levels of the hierarchy considered, and (iii) yield different (more correct) conclusions than single-level model formulations with respect to the significance of the parameter estimates. The evidence reviewed offers different conclusions depending on whether the analysis concerns aggregate data or disaggregate data. In the first case, the application of ML analysis techniques appears straightforward and relevant. The studies based on disaggregate accident data, on the other hand, offer mixed findings: computational problems can be encountered, and ML applications are not systematically necessary. The general recommendation concerning disaggregate accident data is to proceed to a preliminary investigation of the necessity of ML analyses and of the additional information to be expected from their application. PMID:23769622

  3. Trends in fusion reactor safety research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, J. S.; Holland, D. F.; Piet, S. J.

    Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex, with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g., for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions.

  4. Research on patient safety: falls and medications.

    PubMed

    Boddice, Sandra Dawn; Kogan, Polina

    2009-10-01

    Below you will find summaries of published research describing investigations into patient safety issues related to falls and medications. The first summary provides details on the incidence of falls associated with the use of walkers and canes. This is followed by a summary of a fall-prevention intervention study that evaluated the effectiveness of widespread dissemination of evidence-based strategies in a community in Connecticut. The third write up provides information on three classes of medications that are associated with a significant number of emergency room visits. The last summary describes a pharmacist-managed medication reconciliation intervention pilot program. For additional details about the study findings and interventions, we encourage readers to review the original articles. PMID:19820661

  5. Information Highway's Educator's Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Richard; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes construction of the information highway and some of the current players. Alternative uses of the information highway being developed by several private companies are described. The impact of the information highway on education and how it will be delivered to all grades and ages are considered. (Contains two references.) (KRN)

  6. New Dimensions of Food Safety and Food Quality Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolving consumer, regulatory, and market influences have resulted in significant changes in research directions in the broad areas of food safety and quality. In the food safety area, more attention is being placed on microbial food safety, and pathogenic microorganisms in particular. More rapid an...

  7. Reliable Freestanding Position-Based Routing in Highway Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A.; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  8. Reliable freestanding position-based routing in highway scenarios.

    PubMed

    Galaviz-Mosqueda, Gabriel A; Aquino-Santos, Raúl; Villarreal-Reyes, Salvador; Rivera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Villaseñor-González, Luis; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are considered by car manufacturers and the research community as the enabling technology to radically improve the safety, efficiency and comfort of everyday driving. However, before VANET technology can fulfill all its expected potential, several difficulties must be addressed. One key issue arising when working with VANETs is the complexity of the networking protocols compared to those used by traditional infrastructure networks. Therefore, proper design of the routing strategy becomes a main issue for the effective deployment of VANETs. In this paper, a reliable freestanding position-based routing algorithm (FPBR) for highway scenarios is proposed. For this scenario, several important issues such as the high mobility of vehicles and the propagation conditions may affect the performance of the routing strategy. These constraints have only been partially addressed in previous proposals. In contrast, the design approach used for developing FPBR considered the constraints imposed by a highway scenario and implements mechanisms to overcome them. FPBR performance is compared to one of the leading protocols for highway scenarios. Performance metrics show that FPBR yields similar results when considering freespace propagation conditions, and outperforms the leading protocol when considering a realistic highway path loss model. PMID:23202159

  9. A summary of state laws regulating youth operating farm tractors on highways.

    PubMed

    Doty, B C; Marlenga, B

    2006-02-01

    Driving farm tractors on highways is hazardous for youth due to the large speed differential between motor vehicles and agricultural vehicles, as well as recent increases in traffic volume on many rural roads. In 1994, the state of Wisconsin enacted legislation requiring youth who operate farm tractors on highways to complete a tractor and machinery certification course. We were interested in finding out whether other states have similar requirements. The purpose of this project was to collect and summarize state laws regulating youth who operate farm tractors on highways in the U.S. A systematic method was used that included an initial Lexis-Nexis database search followed by internet searches in combination with follow-up email and telephone communications when missing or unclear results were obtained. The findings show that 14 states have legislation addressing youth who operate farm tractors on highways. The content of these statutes varies, but includes driver's license or educational requirements, as well as regulations concerning the ages, locations, and/or times of day when youth may drive farm machinery on highways. This compilation of state laws will be useful information for agricultural safety professionals in designing effective outreach programs. A synthesis of the findings may also lead to the development of model legislation or inform future research efforts aimed at preventing youth farm tractor crashes on highways. PMID:16536173

  10. Safety Culture and Best Practices at Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  11. Safety Culture And Best Practices At Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; King, M.; Takase, Y.; Oshima, Y.; Nishimura, K.; Sukegawa, A.

    2014-04-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  12. 75 FR 22317 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23 CFR Parts 1200 and 1300 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... that specifically relate to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,...

  13. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, July-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of the accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance and behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the tehcnology base supporting licensing decisions.

  14. Security Research and Safety Aspects in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinay, Juraj

    In 2004 the Slovak Republic joined the European Community. This accession called for changes in the new member state's internal and external processes, as well as the acceptance of the European Community regulatory framework and its implementation in Slovakian national legislation. Even though Slovakia had started with step-by-step integration of specific regulations during accession negotiations, final implementation was only concluded upon admission into the European Community. The process spanned the fields of occupational health and safety (Safety) and civil security (Security), notwithstanding that professionals in these areas had already been working in line with the European legislation.

  15. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  16. Produce safety and quality research at ERRC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many reports of disease due to consumption of fruits and vegetables that were contaminated on the surface with enteric pathogens. Therefore, the safety of fresh-cut melons and other produce available in salad-bar operations and supermarkets is a concern. Physical and chemical treatments ...

  17. Highways and Population Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Paul R.; Chi, Guangqing

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we return to an issue often discussed in the literature regarding the relationship between highway expansion and population change. Typically it simply is assumed that this relationship is well established and understood. We argue, following a thorough review of the relevant literature, that the notion that highway expansion leads to…

  18. Environmental research to improve food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate in a popular form how the EMFSL experimental environmental research looks and what results are expected. The research leader Dan Shelton explains the history and purpose of the research site creation. The information about the current field research group...

  19. 75 FR 12554 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (MSHRAC, NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee...

  20. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 49 CFR part 7, Appendix D. (b) Highway Functional Classification. (1) The State transportation agency... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and... criteria and procedures are provided in the FHWA publication “Highway Functional...

  1. Spacecraft Fire Safety and Microgravity Combustion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in our daily lives and it plays a special role in the human presence in space. In a spacecraft, the outside environment is hostile and the opportunity to escape is small. Rescue missions are difficult and time consuming. As a result, we should avoid the occurrence of fires in spacecraft as much as possible. If a fire occurs, we need to keep it small and under control. This implies that the materials used on board the spacecraft should be screened carefully, all the machines and devices need to be operated without accident, and fire detectors have to function properly. Once a fire is detected, it can be extinguished quickly and the cabin can be cleaned up to restore operation and sustain life.

  2. Materials research for aircraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bricker, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high-temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of the state-of-the-art and the advanced bismaleimide composites are detailed.

  3. National Highway Planning Network

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-02

    NHPN, the National Highway Planning Network, is a database of major highways in the continental United States that is used for national-level analyses of highway transportation issues that require use of a network, such as studies of highway performance, network design, social and environmental impacts of transportation, vehicle routing and scheduling, and mapping. The network is based on a set of roadways digitized by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) from the 1980 National Atlasmore » and has been enhanced with additional roads, attribute detail, and topological error corrections to produce a true analytic network. All data have been derived from or checked against information obtained from state and Federal governmental agencies. Two files comprise this network: one describing links and the other nodes. This release, NHPN1.0, contains 44,960 links and 28,512 nodes representing approximately 380,000 miles of roadway.« less

  4. Uses of recycled rubber tires in highways: A synthesis of highway practice. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Epps, J.A.; Mason, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis on the use of recycled rubber tires in highways will be of interest to administrators and policymakers; pavement, materials, geotechnical, environmental, and traffic operations engineers; and research engineers involved with highway design and construction issues. Information is provided on the uses of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials as well as other uses, such as on fills and embankments, for erosion control and on railroad grade crossings. Specifically, information is included which identifies the highway agencies using or implementing applications for recycled rubber tires and defines the design parameters, technical and construction limitations, performance, costs, benefits, environmental limitations, specifications, and availability. This synthesis of information defines the use of recycled rubber tires in highways and is based on a review of nearly 500 references and on information recorded from state highway agency responses to a 1991 survey of practice.

  5. Short Course in Highway Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This course guide in highway lighting includes an overview of trends in highway lighting, illustrated information on three light sources for today's luminaires, a reference guide to lamp classification, specifications for highway lighting equipment, and instructions for calculating appropriate use. Maintenance notes on highway illumination and…

  6. 75 FR 2187 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... project, US Highway 50 between Robbins Run Sidehill to Rockwall Sidehill near Echo Summit in the County El... deteriorating masonry rock wall parapets at seven locations on US Highway 50 for the primary purpose of improving safety along the section of US Highway 50 known as Upper Meyers Grade at Echo Summit. The...

  7. 49 CFR 234.261 - Highway traffic signal pre-emption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Highway traffic signal pre-emption. 234.261....261 Highway traffic signal pre-emption. Highway traffic signal pre-emption interconnections, for which... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION...

  8. 49 CFR 234.261 - Highway traffic signal pre-emption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Highway traffic signal pre-emption. 234.261....261 Highway traffic signal pre-emption. Highway traffic signal pre-emption interconnections, for which... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION...

  9. 49 CFR 234.261 - Highway traffic signal pre-emption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Highway traffic signal pre-emption. 234.261....261 Highway traffic signal pre-emption. Highway traffic signal pre-emption interconnections, for which... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION...

  10. Design of highway embankments using tire chips

    SciTech Connect

    Bosscher, P.J.; Edil, T.B.; Kuraoka, S.

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes research undertaken to develop design procedures for using shredded scrap tires as a lightweight fill material in highway construction. The benefits of using scrap tires are particularly enhanced if they can be used to replace virgin construction materials made from nonrenewable resources. This paper addresses the use of tire chips as a highway embankment material. Design parameters for embankments constructed using discarded shredded tires are presented based on laboratory model studies, numerical analyses, and field performance of test fills. The conclusions of this report support the use of tire chips as an environmentally acceptable lightweight fill in highway applications if properly confined. Recommendations for design procedures and construction specifications for the use of tire chips in highway fills are provided.

  11. Subsystem fragility: Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Hardy, G.; Banon, H.

    1981-10-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety related equipment are developed for use in a seismic oriented Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) being conducted as part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The Zion Nuclear Power Plant is being utilized as a reference plant and fragility descriptions are developed for specific and generic safety related equipment groups in Zion. Both equipment fragilities and equipment responses are defined in probabilistic terms to be used as input to the SSMRP event tree/fault tree models of the Zion systems. 65 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Nuclear safety research collaborations between the U.S. and Russian Federation International Nuclear Safety Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D. J.; Braun, J. C.; Klickman, A. E.; Bougaenko, S. E.; Kabonov, L. P.; Kraev, A. G.

    2000-05-05

    The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) have formed International Nuclear Safety Centers to collaborate on nuclear safety research. USDOE established the US Center (ISINSC) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in October 1995. MINATOM established the Russian Center (RINSC) at the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) in Moscow in July 1996. In April 1998 the Russian center became a semi-independent, autonomous organization under MINATOM. The goals of the center are to: Cooperate in the development of technologies associated with nuclear safety in nuclear power engineering; Be international centers for the collection of information important for safety and technical improvements in nuclear power engineering; and Maintain a base for fundamental knowledge needed to design nuclear reactors. The strategic approach is being used to accomplish these goals is for the two centers to work together to use the resources and the talents of the scientists associated with the US Center and the Russian Center to do collaborative research to improve the safety of Russian-designed nuclear reactors. The two centers started conducting joint research and development projects in January 1997. Since that time the following ten joint projects have been initiated: INSC databases--web server and computing center; Coupled codes--Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic; Severe accident management for Soviet-designed reactors; Transient management and advanced control; Survey of relevant nuclear safety research facilities in the Russian Federation; Computer code validation for transient analysis of VVER and RBMK reactors; Advanced structural analysis; Development of a nuclear safety research and development plan for MINATOM; Properties and applications of heavy liquid metal coolants; and Material properties measurement and assessment. Currently, there is activity in eight of these projects. Details on each of these

  13. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This Conference Proceedings is a collection of 6 abstracts and 3 papers presented April 19-20, 2001 in Denver, CO. The conference focus was "Best Practices and Benchmarking in Collegiate and Industry Programs". Topics covered include: satellite-based aviation navigation; weather safety training; human-behavior and aircraft maintenance issues; disaster preparedness; the collegiate aviation emergency response checklist; aviation safety research; and regulatory status of maintenance resource management.

  14. Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety: Research needs and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Michelle M.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Waterson, Patrick E.; Ian Noy, Y.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Leveson, Nancy G.; Carayon, Pascale; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2015-01-01

    The sociotechnical systems perspective offers intriguing and potentially valuable insights into problems associated with workplace safety. While formal sociotechnical systems thinking originated in the 1950s, its application to the analysis and design of sustainable, safe working environments has not been fully developed. To that end, a Hopkinton Conference was organised to review and summarise the state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. A group of 26 international experts produced collaborative articles for this special issue of Ergonomics, and each focused on examining a key conceptual, methodological and/or theoretical issue associated with sociotechnical systems and safety. In this concluding paper, we describe the major conference themes and recommendations. These are organised into six topic areas: (1) Concepts, definitions and frameworks, (2) defining research methodologies, (3) modelling and simulation, (4) communications and decision-making, (5) sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe systems and (6) potential future research directions for sociotechnical systems research. Practitioner Summary: Sociotechnical complexity, a characteristic of many contemporary work environments, presents potential safety risks that traditional approaches to workplace safety may not adequately address. In this paper, we summarise the investigations of a group of international researchers into questions associated with the application of sociotechnical systems thinking to improve worker safety. PMID:25728246

  15. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  16. Enhanced Turbulent Mixing on Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M.; Staebler, R. M.; Liggio, J.; Makar, P.; Brook, J.; Wentzell, J. J.; Lu, G.; Lee, P.

    2010-12-01

    Traffic emissions have a substantial effect on air quality and turbulence affects how these emissions mix with the surrounding air. In July and August of 2010, measurements of turbulent fluxes and turbulent kinetic energy were made on highways in the Toronto area (Ontario, Canada) as part of the ALMITEE (Advancing Local-scale Modeling through Inclusion of Transportation Emission Experiments) subproject FEVER (Fast Evolution of Vehicle Emissions from Roadways). The aim of this project was to study and parameterize the turbulent mixing of traffic emissions on highways as a function of traffic density, speed, and vehicle type. The mobile station CRUISER (Canadian Regional and Urban Investigation System for Environmental Research) was equipped with two sonic anemometers, an air flow probe (AIMMS-20), inertial motion sensing, GPS, video recording equipment, and various particle and gas measurement instrumentation. This allowed in-situ turbulence measurements while driving on the highway with traffic. These measurements differ from previous studies in that turbulence can be measured in realistic conditions, while traffic densities, vehicle types, and vehicle to measurement distances can be extracted from video recording by automated video processing software. Although the turbulent motion of air is often measured from aircraft and ship-based instrumentation, the analysis and interpretation of sonic anemometer measurements from a highway-speed vehicle, moving over uneven and often bumpy terrain presents a very different challenge. Various analytical approaches to process these measurements will be compared and the development of the video processing software to determine vehicle size and following distance will be discussed. Results will be presented which demonstrate a strong dependence of turbulent energy on vehicle type, speed, and following distance.

  17. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  18. Lessons learned from LNG safety research.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    During the period from 1977 to 1989, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a liquefied gaseous fuels spill effects program under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Gas Research Institute and others. The goal of this program was to develop and validate tools that could be used to predict the effects of a large liquefied gas spill through the execution of large scale field experiments and the development of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests could not be performed. Over the course of the program, three series of LNG spill experiments were performed to study cloud formation, dispersion, combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this program, the lessons learned from 12 years of research as well as some recommendations for the future. The general conclusion from this program is that cold, dense gas related phenomena can dominate the dispersion of a large volume, high release rate spill of LNG especially under low ambient wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions, and therefore, it is necessary to include a detailed and validated description of these phenomena in computer models to adequately predict the consequences of a release. Specific conclusions include: * LNG vapor clouds are lower and wider than trace gas clouds and tend to follow the downhill slope of terrain due to dampened vertical turbulence and gravity flow within the cloud. Under low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions, a bifurcated, two lobed structure develops. * Navier-Stokes models provide the most complete description of LNG dispersion, while more highly parameterized Lagrangian models were found to be well suited to emergency response applications. * The measured heat flux from LNG vapor cloud burns exceeded levels necessary for third degree burns and were large enough to ignite most flammable materials. * RPTs are of two

  19. Clean-coal technology by-products used in a highway embankment stabilization demonstration project. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nodjomian, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Clean-coal technology by-products are used in a highway embankment demonstration project. This research chronicles the procedures used in the process and analyzes the stability of a repaired highway embankment. The reconstructed slope is analyzed using an Intelligent Discussion Support System that was developed from a slope stability program. Water quality studies are performed and an instrumentation plan is suggested. The calculated factors of safety and the observed embankment performance give indications that the field demonstration project was a success. Long-term monitoring will be the best barometer for determining embankment gross movement and the future of FGD by-products as a stabilizing material.

  20. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.; Petti, D.A.

    2005-07-15

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility, a US DOE National User Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), comprises capabilities and infrastructure to support both tritium and non-tritium research activities important to the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Research thrusts include (1) interactions of tritium and deuterium with plasma-facing-component (PFC) materials, (2) fusion safety issues [PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, tritium behavior in fusion systems], and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. This paper updates the status of STAR and the capabilities for ongoing research activities, with an emphasis on the development, testing and integration of the infrastructure to support tritium research activities. Key elements of this infrastructure include a tritium storage and assay system, a tritium cleanup system to process glovebox and experiment tritiated effluent gases, and facility tritium monitoring systems.

  1. Intervention research in occupational safety and health: examples from construction.

    PubMed

    Ringen, K; Stafford, E J

    1996-04-01

    Construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, with 13% of the gross national product and 5-6% of the labor force. It is also one of the most dangerous industries, accounting for 15% of occupational fatalities and 17% of all workers' compensation costs. In 1989, the Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, completed an agreement with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to develop a national labor-management initiative to improve occupational safety and health throughout the construction industry. The aim was to remedy a lack of research on construction occupational safety and health. The first years were spent on surveillance to characterize construction safety and health problems, development of awareness about safety and health issues among decisionmakers in the industry, and some limited interventions. A second phase was initiated in 1994, which focuses on intervention activities. Results from this joint program include a growth in annual federal construction safety and health research expenditure from $300,000 in 1989 to $12 million in 1995, a research network that now encompasses more than 30 institutions, a national conference that established an agenda to change construction safety and health, four regional conferences to develop coalitions and implementation strategies, and the development of a feasible goal to reduce fatality and injury rates by 80%. The program may already be having an impact. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, lost-time injury rates for construction for the three most recent years of reporting declined by 20%. PMID:8728131

  2. A Stellar Highway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, Case

    2015-10-01

    Thomas Henderson, at the Royal Observatory of the Cape, was the first person to measure the distance to a star in 1834. Robert Innes, at the Union Observatory in Johannesburg, discovered that Proxima Centauri was the nearest star to the Sun in 1915. The idea of marking the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Proxima Centauri in 2015 led to the development of a Stellar Highway, similar to the well-known scale models of the Solar System or Planetary Highways, but showing the scaled distance between stars.

  3. Informatics for patient safety: a nursing research perspective.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    In Crossing the Quality Chasm, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Quality of Health Care in America identified the critical role of information technology in designing a health system that produces care that is "safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable" (Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, 2001, p. 164). A subsequent IOM report contends that improved information systems are essential to a new health care delivery system that "both prevents errors and learns from them when they occur" (Committee on Data Standards for Patient Safety, 2004, p. 1). This review specifically highlights the role of informatics processes and information technology in promoting patient safety and summarizes relevant nursing research. First, the components of an informatics infrastructure for patient safety are described within the context of the national framework for delivering consumer-centric and information-rich health care and using the National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) (Thompson & Brailer, 2004). Second, relevant nursing research is summarized; this includes research studies that contributed to the development of selected infrastructure components as well as studies specifically focused on patient safety. Third, knowledge gaps and opportunities for nursing research are identified for each main topic. The health information technologies deployed as part of the national framework must support nursing practice in a manner that enables prevention of medical errors and promotion of patient safety and contributes to the development of practice-based nursing knowledge as well as best practices for patient safety. The seminal work that has been completed to date is necessary, but not sufficient, to achieve this objective. PMID:17078416

  4. Farm Safety: A Tale of Translational Research and Collaboration.

    PubMed

    McClune, Amy J; Conway, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Children who live or work on farms are at a high risk for injury and death, yet few resources are available to reduce the danger of injury. Research findings establish the need for farm safety in preschool children. However, barriers to interventional research have limited the development of established strategies to help reduce the risk. For this project, Pender's Health Promotion Model served as the theoretical framework to support the prevention aspect of farm safety. Findings from two surveys of primary health care providers practicing in rural areas in Pennsylvania indicated a lack of materials to educate preschool children about farm safety. Using Woods and Magyary's translational model for research, this identified need resulted in a multidisciplinary team collaboration to develop an animated film entitled A Barnyard Story: Adventures in Farm Safety. The eight-minute film is an innovative child-centered intervention that addresses the gap in strategies to reduce farm injuries in preschool children. The development of this film illustrates the product development stage of research translation and is an example of diverse disciplines coming together for an important cause. PMID:27019939

  5. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75 Section 27.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal...

  6. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75 Section 27.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal...

  7. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75 Section 27.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal...

  8. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75 Section 27.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal...

  9. 49 CFR 27.75 - Federal Highway Administration-highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal Highway Administration-highways. 27.75 Section 27.75 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... Specific Operating Administration Programs: Airports, Railroads, and Highways § 27.75 Federal...

  10. 78 FR 40743 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory... Cochrans Mill Road, Bldg. 140, Room 101, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15236 Telephone: (412) 386- 5302, Fax..., Department of Health and Human Services; the Director, CDC; and the Director, NIOSH, on priorities in...

  11. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.; Cerbone, R.J.; Sastre, C.

    1980-06-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  12. Off-highway vehicle technology roadmap.

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-07

    The off-highway sector is under increasing pressure to reduce operating costs (including fuel costs) and to reduce emissions. Recognizing this, the Society of Automotive Engineers and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) convened a workshop in April 2001 (ANL 2001) to (1) determine the interest of the off-highway sector (consisting of agriculture, construction, surface mining, inland marine) in crafting a shared vision of off-highway, heavy machines of the future and (2) identify critical research and development (R&D) needs for minimizing off-highway vehicle emissions while cost-effectively maintaining or enhancing system performance. The workshop also enabled government and industry participants to exchange information. During the workshop, it became clear that the challenges facing the heavy, surface-based off-highway sector can be addressed in three major machine categories: (1) engine/aftertreatment and fuels/lubes, (2) machine systems, and (3) thermal management. Working groups convened to address these topical areas. The status of off-highway technologies was determined, critical technical barriers to achieving future emission standards were identified, and strategies and technologies for reducing fuel consumption were discussed. Priority areas for R&D were identified. Given the apparent success of the discussions at the workshop, several participants from industry agreed to help in the formation of a joint industry/government ''roadmap'' team. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has an extensive role in researching ways to make heavy-duty trucks and trains more efficient, with respect to both fuel usage and air emissions. The workshop participants felt that a joint industry/government research program that addresses the unique needs of the off-highway sector would complement the current research program for highway vehicles. With industry expertise, in-kind contributions, and federal government funding (coupled with the

  13. The Carrot Highway [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyss, Ron

    "The Carrot Highway" is a 40-minute award-winning videotape that takes viewers on a whirlwind tour around the world to tell the story of the carrot. This videotape reveals the carrot in all its glory by cleverly integrating live-action, music, animation, videotape footage, and games. Viewers travel with a troupe of animated carrot characters to…

  14. Knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiangang; Li, Dandan; Gao, Yue; Mu, Li; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-01

    With the wide research and application of nanomaterials in various fields, the safety of nanomaterials attracts much attention. An increasing number of reports in the literature have shown the adverse effects of nanomaterials, representing the quick development of nanotoxicology. However, many studies in nanotoxicology have not reflected the real nanomaterial safety, and the knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety remain large. Considering the remarkable influence of biological or environmental matrices (e.g., biological corona) on nanotoxicity, the situation of performing nanotoxicological experiments should be relevant to the environment and humans. Given the possibility of long-term and low-concentration exposure of nanomaterials, the reversibility of and adaptation to nanotoxicity, and the transgenerational effects should not be ignored. Different from common pollutants, the specific analysis methodology for nanotoxicology need development and exploration furthermore. High-throughput assay integrating with omics was highlighted in the present review to globally investigate nanotoxicity. In addition, the biological responses beyond individual levels, special mechanisms and control of nanotoxicity deserve more attention. The progress of nanotoxicology has been reviewed by previous articles. This review focuses on the blind spots in nanotoxicological research and provides insight into what we should do in future work to support the healthy development of nanotechnology and the evaluation of real nanomaterial safety. PMID:27203780

  15. EU Funded Research Activities on NPPS Operational Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Manolatos, P.; Van Goethem, G.

    2002-07-01

    The 5. framework programme (FP-5), the pluri-annual research programme of the European Union (EU), covers the period 1998-2002. Research on nuclear energy, fusion and fission, is covered by the EURATOM part of the FP-5. An overview of the Euratom's research on Nuclear Reactor Safety, managed by the DG-RTD of the European Commission (EC), is presented. This concerns 70 multi-partner projects of approximately euro 82.5 million total contract value that have been selected and co-financed during the period 1999-2001. They form the three clusters of projects dealing with the 'Operational Safety of Existing Installations'. 'Plant Life Extension and Management' (PLEM), 'Severe Accident Management' (SAM) and 'Evolutionary concepts' (EVOL). Emphasis is given here to the projects of the PLEM cluster. (authors)

  16. Fall Prevention Research and Practice: A Total Worker Safety Approach

    PubMed Central

    HSIAO, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a “total worker safety” matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

  17. Module 13: Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program provides participating United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites with a basic, yet comprehensive, hazardous materials transportation training program for use onsite. This program may be used to assist individual program entities to satisfy the general awareness, safety training, and function specific training requirements addressed in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 49, Part 172, Subpart H -- ``Training.`` Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway is a supplement to the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop. Module 13 -- Bulk Packaging Shipments by Highway focuses on bulk shipments of hazardous materials by highway mode, which have additional or unique requirements beyond those addressed in the ten module core program. Attendance in this course of instruction should be limited to those individuals with work experience in transporting hazardous materials utilizing bulk packagings and who have completed the Basic Hazardous Materials Workshop or an equivalent. Participants will become familiar with the rules and regulations governing the transportation by highway of hazardous materials in bulk packagings and will demonstrate the application of these requirements through work projects and examination.

  18. Wireless monitoring of highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Richard; Hayes-Gill, Barrie; Crowe, John A.; Armitage, Robert; Rodgers, Dale; Hendroff, Adrian

    1999-05-01

    Electronic hardware has been developed to telemetrically transmit temperature and strain measurements from within a public highway in the UK. These measurements provide an important health check for monitoring fatigue damage in pavements. Previous attempts at measuring strain and temperature have required lengths of cable to be installed in the highway. The installation of these cables is both expensive and damaging to the pavement and provides potentially unreliable electrical connections. The new systems consist of a retrofitted instrumented asphalt core which is bonded into the pavement structure. The core contains all the electronics necessary to record two temperatures and two strains. An analogue front end provides signal conditioning which is digitized and passed to microcontroller for endcoding. From there the data is transmitted via a low power radio link to a receiver and data logger positioned by the side of the road. The system has an in-situ operating life of 6 months on AA alkaline batteries. Results are presented of power management and fault tolerant radio protocol techniques, long term temperature variations, dynamic strain measurements within the highway, and RF transmission capabilities through a layer of asphalt.

  19. Mapping a research agenda for home care safety: perspectives from researchers, providers, and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be described; consequently, gaining insight from various stakeholders about safety issues relevant to the home care sector is necessary in order to inform strategic directions for future research. To begin to map a research agenda, a three-part environmental scan was conducted: (a) a pilot study with home care recipients and providers; (b) key informant interviews with researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers; and (c) a review of literature in three topic areas. Only the results of the key informant interviews are reported here. PMID:24650672

  20. Accident prediction model for railway-highway interfaces.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jutaek; Washington, Simon P; Nam, Doohee

    2006-03-01

    Considerable past research has explored relationships between vehicle accidents and geometric design and operation of road sections, but relatively little research has examined factors that contribute to accidents at railway-highway crossings. Between 1998 and 2002 in Korea, about 95% of railway accidents occurred at highway-rail grade crossings, resulting in 402 accidents, of which about 20% resulted in fatalities. These statistics suggest that efforts to reduce crashes at these locations may significantly reduce crash costs. The objective of this paper is to examine factors associated with railroad crossing crashes. Various statistical models are used to examine the relationships between crossing accidents and features of crossings. The paper also compares accident models developed in the United States and the safety effects of crossing elements obtained using Korea data. Crashes were observed to increase with total traffic volume and average daily train volumes. The proximity of crossings to commercial areas and the distance of the train detector from crossings are associated with larger numbers of accidents, as is the time duration between the activation of warning signals and gates. The unique contributions of the paper are the application of the gamma probability model to deal with underdispersion and the insights obtained regarding railroad crossing related vehicle crashes. PMID:16297846

  1. General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.

  2. Determining the drivers' acceptance of EFTCD in highway work zones.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Li, Yingfeng

    2011-05-01

    Traffic safety is a major concern in the temporary one-lane, two-way highway work zones due to the increasing of construction and maintenance operations. To prevent rear-end crashes and to mitigate the severity of these crashes caused by the inattentive driving, the utilization of the Emergency Flasher Traffic Control Device (EFTCD) was under consideration by government agencies, in addition to existing temporary traffic control devices installed in the one-lane, two-way highway work zones. The EFTCD was a newly proposed traffic warning device implemented through the use of vehicles' hazard warning flashers. The primary objective of the research project was to investigate the drivers' acceptance of the proposed EFTCD by measuring the mean speed changes of vehicles with and without EFTCD and by evaluating the drivers' opinions of the EFTCD using the survey method. Field experimental results revealed that the EFTCD effectively reduced the mean vehicle speeds in the upstream of two work zones. A slow speed is more likely to reduce the severity of a crash in work zones. In addition, survey results indicated that 60% of the drivers thought the EFTCD signified a need for speed reduction and 82% of drivers recommended the implementation of the EFTCD in one-lane, two-way work zones. These results provide the necessary scientific justifications for the government agencies to decide if the EFTCD should be implemented in the one-lane, two-way highway work zones to prevent rear-end crashes and to mitigate the severity of these crashes. PMID:21376864

  3. Overview of Predictive Microbiology Research in the Microbial Food Safety Research Unit at the USDA-Eastern Regional Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Microbial Food Safety Research Unit (MFSRU) maintains a commitment to high quality basic and applied research on pathogenic bacteria and virus to ensure a safe food supply. Their research addresses high priority U.S. national needs by developing technical information and technologies needed by F...

  4. Highways of hope

    SciTech Connect

    2007-08-15

    It is hoped that through public-private partnerships between Alpha Natural Resources and Pioneer Group and Virginia Department of Transportation, and between one of these coal companies and Buchanan County, Virginia, Industrial Development Authority a four-lane 'highway of hope' between Lovers Gap and Poplar Gap will be paved and a ridge top connector route will eventually be completed to Bull Gap where it will intersect with the Coalfields Expressway and US 460. The town of Grundy is also looking into strip mining coal from beneath the small mountaintop airport at Lovers Gap and turning it into a regional airport. The article discusses these plans. 4 photos.

  5. HTGR Dust Safety Issues and Needs for Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Humrickhouse

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a summary of high temperature gas-cooled reactor dust safety issues. It draws upon a literature review and the proceedings of the Very High Temperature Reactor Dust Assessment Meeting held in Rockville, MD in March 2011 to identify and prioritize the phenomena and issues that characterize the effect of carbonaceous dust on high temperature reactor safety. It reflects the work and input of approximately 40 participants from the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Labs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, industry, academia, and international nuclear research organizations on the topics of dust generation and characterization, transport, fission product interactions, and chemical reactions. The meeting was organized by the Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project, with support from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Information gleaned from the report and related meetings will be used to enhance the fuel, graphite, and methods technical program plans that guide research and development under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. Based on meeting discussions and presentations, major research and development needs include: generating adsorption isotherms for fission products that display an affinity for dust, investigating the formation and properties of carbonaceous crust on the inside of high temperature reactor coolant pipes, and confirming the predominant source of dust as abrasion between fuel spheres and the fuel handling system.

  6. Criticality safety research at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, H.L.

    1997-06-01

    A list of seven research projects in nuclear criticality safety being conducted at the University of Tennessee is given. One of the projects is very briefly described. The study of space-dependent kinetics analysis of a hypothetical criticality accident involving an array of bottles containing UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} is being conducted for the US DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, K-25 plant. Preliminary results for power versus time are presented, which indicate that space-time effects are significant after approximately 70 seconds. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  8. Highway deaths: false PR on the effects of PR.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L S

    1994-01-01

    In June, 1988, the Department of Public Safety (DPS) in South Carolina launched a media campaign, called "Highways or Dieways?", in an attempt to reduce motor vehicle fatalities. Deaths per vehicle mile declined during the succeeding years and the DPS attributed all of the reduction to the campaign, gleaning some 62 awards in the process. This research indicates that the DPS took credit for a decline in fatalities that resulted from other factors. Fatality rates in South Carolina were actually higher during the campaign than would have been expected from the historic association of South Carolina's rates with the national rate or those of other states in the region. The campaign actually illustrates the principle that ad campaigns alone are often ineffective in changing public health. PMID:7883944

  9. 77 FR 40622 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (MSHRAC, NIOSH) In accordance with section..., safety culture, occupational health and safety management systems, preventing coal dust explosions, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  10. Cooperative research on safety fundamentals of lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, J. Robert; Al Hallaj, Said; Uchida, Isamu; Hirano, Y.

    A cooperative research program on the thermal characterization and safety of lithium batteries is being carried out at IIT/Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering and Tohoku University. This research includes experimental work for commercial lithium secondary batteries and performance prediction for scaled-up batteries. In this work, we present a set of thermal characterization experiments for lithium secondary battery cells under normal and abuse conditions. These show that the rise in cell temperature depends strongly on cell chemistry as well as discharge rate. Computer simulation of the cycling of scaled-up lithium batteries shows that the cell temperature profile also depends strongly on the surface cooling rate. An effective thermal management system is required to operate these batteries safely. This paper reviews the basic information needed for intrinsically safe design.

  11. Nuclear reactor safety research since three mile island.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, F R

    1982-04-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially. PMID:17736229

  12. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I, final report - overview

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P. D.; Dong, R. G.; Bernreuter, D. L.; Bohn, M. P.; Chuang, T. Y.; Cummings, G. E.; Johnson, J. J.; Mensing, R. W.; Wells, J. E.

    1981-03-06

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a multiyear, multiphase program whose overall objective is to develop improved methods for seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants, using a probabilistic computational procedure. The program is being carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Phase I of the SSMRP was successfully completed in January 1981: A probabilistic computational procedure for the seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants has been developed and demonstrated. The methodology is implemented by three computer programs: HAZARD, which assesses the seismic hazard at a given site, SMACS, which computes in-structure and subsystem seismic responses, and SEISIM, which calculates system failure probabilities and radioactive release probabilities, given (1) the response results of SMACS, (2) a set of event trees, (3) a family of fault trees, (4) a set of structural and component fragility descriptions, and (5) a curve describing the local seismic hazard. The practicality of this methodology was demonstrated by computing preliminary release probabilities for Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant north of Chicago, Illinois. Studies have begun aimed at quantifying the sources of uncertainty in these computations. Numerous side studies were undertaken to examine modeling alternatives, sources of error, and available analysis techniques. Extensive sets of data were amassed and evaluated as part of projects to establish seismic input parameters and to produce the fragility curves. 66 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  14. Advanced propulsion systems and alternative fuels for non-highway transportation. An assessment of unique and priority research and development opportunities. Volume III. A compendium of research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the combined results of a literature search and personal communications activity designed to identify on-going R and D and suggested R and D needs for advanced propulsion systems and alternative fuels utilization technologies for non-highway transportation applications. The results are presented in the three subsequent chapters of this report. Section 3 presents the results of the literature search. Some of the information reported in Section 3 was obtained through communications with and information received from various Government and private R and D funding entities. Each identified R an D program or project is summarized and various additional information deemed pertinent is noted. Section 4 presents the results of discussions and communications with various private organizations and academic institutions. These discussions and communications were designed to buttress the literature search effort and were conducted independently of the literature search. Thus, some cross-reporting of research efforts will exist. Section 5 presents the results of personal communications with selected key researchers. This latter activity was designed to elicit recommendations of R and D needs, thus providing the workshop panel with additional advance information for its considerations as well as to provide additional input for the final assessments reported in Volume I.

  15. 78 FR 70560 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Morgridge Institute for Research PSO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... and primary activity is to conduct activities to improve patient safety and the quality of health care... quality and safety of health care delivery. The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Final Rule (Patient... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations:...

  16. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway...

  17. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217)...

  18. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D. J.; Baek, J. S.; Hanson, A. L.; Cheng, L-Y; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  19. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004*

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Anderl; G. R. Longhurst; R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; S. T. Schuetz; D. A. Petti

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the current status of the development of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Designated a National User Facility by the US DOE, the primary mission of STAR is to provide laboratory infrastructure to study tritium science and technology issues associated with the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Both tritium and non-tritium fusion safety research is pursued along three key thrust areas: (1) plasma-material interactions of plasma-facing component (PFC) materials exposed to energetic tritium and deuterium ions, (2) fusion safety concerns related to PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, and tritium behavior in fusion systems, and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. STAR comprises a multi-room complex with operations segregated to permit both tritium and non-tritium activities in separately ventilated rooms. Tritium inventory in STAR is limited to 15,000 Ci to maintain its classification as a Radiological Facility. Experiments with tritium are typically conducted in glovebox environments. Key components of the tritium infrastructure have been installed and tested. This includes the following subsystems: (1) a tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS) that uses two 50-g depleted uranium beds for tritium storage and PVT/beta-scintillation analyses for tritium accountability measurements, (2) a Tritium Cleanup System (TCS) that uses catalytic oxidation and molecular sieve water absorption to remove tritiated species from glovebox atmosphere gases and gaseous effluents from experiment and process systems, and (3) tritium monitoring instrumentation for room air, glovebox atmosphere and stack effluent tritium concentration measurements. Integration of the tritium infrastructure subsystems with the experimental and

  20. Child Safety on the Information Highway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Gary P.

    1995-01-01

    Most people who use online services have mainly positive experiences. But, like an endeavor, there are some risks. Children and teenagers get a lot of benefit from being online, but they can also be targets of crime and exploitation in this as in any other environment. Trusting, curious, and anxious to explore this new world and the relationships it brings, children and teenagers need parental supervision and common sense advice on how to be sure that their experiences in cyberspace are happy, healthy, and productive.

  1. Hitting the Highway? Keep Safety in Mind

    MedlinePlus

    ... traveling, take the following precautions: Be careful about food and water. Use insect repellent and sunscreen. Limit alcohol consumption. Don't drink and drive. Wear a seatbelt. Use protective gear when doing adventure activities. It's also important to monitor your health after ...

  2. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the following…

  3. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64. PMID:22021060

  4. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, Tanju; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R.; Wigeland, Roald; Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F.

    2012-05-01

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  5. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  6. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Alliance (CVSA) requested that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5120... of comment period. SUMMARY: On March 1, 2011, the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)...

  7. Basic Course in Highway Traffic Records; Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The twelve-part course is structured on a modular basis to allow the various topical areas and units of instruction to satisfy differing training requirements of state and local agencies which vary from state to state. It is specifically designed to provide guidence to state highway safety program management personnel, traffic records…

  8. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator: Basic Core. Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This basic core curriculum is part of a three-part series of instructional guides designed for use in teaching a course in highway maintenance equipment operation. Addressed in the individual units of the curriculum, after an orientation unit, are safety; basic math; basic hand tools; procedures for loading. lashing, and unloading equipment;…

  9. Program of Instruction for Highway Collision Investigation Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Aeronautical Lab., Inc., Buffalo, NY.

    This program of instruction, reviewed and accepted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, was prepared for Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation teams and others. It is intended to provide background information, a working knowledge of all of the pertinent factors, investigative techniques, tools, data requirements, and field…

  10. Geospatial and machine learning techniques for wicked social science problems: analysis of crash severity on a regional highway corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effati, Meysam; Thill, Jean-Claude; Shabani, Shahin

    2015-04-01

    The contention of this paper is that many social science research problems are too "wicked" to be suitably studied using conventional statistical and regression-based methods of data analysis. This paper argues that an integrated geospatial approach based on methods of machine learning is well suited to this purpose. Recognizing the intrinsic wickedness of traffic safety issues, such approach is used to unravel the complexity of traffic crash severity on highway corridors as an example of such problems. The support vector machine (SVM) and coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) algorithms are tested as inferential engines to predict crash severity and uncover spatial and non-spatial factors that systematically relate to crash severity, while a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the relative influence of crash severity factors. Different specifications of the two methods are implemented, trained, and evaluated against crash events recorded over a 4-year period on a regional highway corridor in Northern Iran. Overall, the SVM model outperforms CANFIS by a notable margin. The combined use of spatial analysis and artificial intelligence is effective at identifying leading factors of crash severity, while explicitly accounting for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity effects. Thanks to the demonstrated effectiveness of a sensitivity analysis, this approach produces comprehensive results that are consistent with existing traffic safety theories and supports the prioritization of effective safety measures that are geographically targeted and behaviorally sound on regional highway corridors.

  11. Rehabilitating asphalt highways

    SciTech Connect

    Butalia, T.S.

    2007-07-01

    Coal fly ash has been used on two Ohio full-depth reclamation projects in Delaware and Warren. The object of the project carried out with the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science at Ohio State University is to demonstrate the effective use of Class fly ash in combination with lime or lime kiln dust in the full depth reclamation of asphalt pavements. The article describes the mixes used for the highway reconstruction of part of Section Line Road Delaware County and of a road in Warren County. During construction the pavement sections were instrumented with several structural and environmental monitoring devices and data is being collected on a quarterly basis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests to measure load defection behaviour, resilient of pavement layers and soil and base structural layer coefficient are being carried out twice a year. It was shown that use of fly ash increased the elastic modulus of base layers. This article first appeared in the Feb/May 2007 issue of Asphalt Contractor. 4 photos.

  12. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS)....

  13. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212 Section 972.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.212 Federal lands safety management system...

  14. 23 CFR 970.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 970.212 Section 970.212 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS)....

  15. AAA: Road Debris a Mounting Danger on U.S. Highways

    MedlinePlus

    ... Highways Crashes involving objects that have fallen from vehicles up 40 percent since 2001 To use the ... the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. Crashes involving vehicle-related debris are up 40 percent since the ...

  16. Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport. Bulletin, 1920, No. 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    On May 14-15, in Washington, a Conference on Education for Highway Engineering and Highway Transport was held. This was attended by about 75 highway engineers, deans and supervisors of engineering in colleges, universities, and technical schools, National, State, and County highway commissioners, and men interested in highway and automotive…

  17. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report April -June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1980-11-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from April 1 through June 30, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission {NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  18. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report October - December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S K

    1981-04-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from October 1 through December 31, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NOE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  19. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report April- June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-09-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL} from April1 through June 30, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, lspra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory {INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  20. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report January - March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, C. M

    1980-10-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory from January 1 through March 31, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where serviceinduced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  1. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-02-21

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. On December 9, 2004 a meeting was held in Morgantown to rescope the LNG safety modeling project such that the work would complement the DOE's efforts relative to the development of the intended LNG-Fluent model. It was noted and discussed at the December 9th meeting that the fundamental research being performed on surface to cloud heat transfer and low wind speed issues will be relevant to the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent Model. In general, it was decided that all research to be performed from December 9th through the remainder of the contract is to be focused on the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent model. In addition, all GTI activities for dissemination and transfer of FEM3A will cease and dissemination activities will focus on the new DOE LNG/Fluent model. The proposed new scope of work is presented in section 4 of this report. The work reported in the present document relates to the original scope of work which was in effect during the reporting period. The future work will be re-scoped to meet the requirements of the new scope of work. During the report period work was underway to address numerical problems present during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, the University of Arkansas has been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A.

  2. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: 1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, 2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and 3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL’s FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI’s technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  3. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: (1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, (2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and (3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL's FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI's technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  4. A field study on the effects of digital billboards on glance behavior during highway driving.

    PubMed

    Belyusar, Daniel; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-03-01

    Developments in lighting technologies have allowed more dynamic digital billboards in locations visible from the roadway. Decades of laboratory research have shown that rapidly changing or moving stimuli presented in peripheral vision tends to 'capture' covert attention. We report naturalistic glance and driving behavior of a large sample of drivers who were exposed to two digital billboards on a segment of highway largely free from extraneous signage. Results show a significant shift in the number and length of glances toward the billboards and an increased percentage of time glancing off road in their presence. Findings were particularly evident at the time the billboards transitioned between advertisements. Since rapidly changing stimuli are difficult to ignore, the planned increase in episodically changing digital displays near the roadway may be argued to be a potential safety concern. The impact of digital billboards on driver safety and the need for continued research are discussed. PMID:26745271

  5. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Passenger Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains eight lessons for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for highway users,…

  6. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains ten lessons on bicycles for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for highway users,…

  7. Traffic Safety Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    This guide, intended for administrators, curriculum developers, and teachers, provides outlines and suggestions for strategies and materials needed to achieve the goals and objectives of the safety education program. The guide covers the following topics: a broad examination of the highway system; the responsibilities highway users have toward…

  8. Water Reactor Safety Research Division quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.J.

    1980-06-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evaluation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  9. Water Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Abuaf, N.; Levine, M.M.; Saha, P.; van Rooyen, D.

    1980-08-01

    The Water Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: LWR Thermal Hydraulic Development, Advanced Code Evlauation, TRAC Code Assessment, and Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing.

  10. 49 CFR 800.25 - Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delegation to the Directors of Office of Aviation... Office of Aviation Safety, Office of Railroad Safety, Office of Highway Safety, Office of Marine Safety... Offices of Aviation, Railroad, Highway, Marine, and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety, the...