Science.gov

Sample records for hilbertian operator spaces

  1. Clustering of the human skeletal muscle fibers using linear programming and angular Hilbertian metrics.

    PubMed

    Neji, Radhouène; Besbes, Ahmed; Komodakis, Nikos; Deux, Jean-François; Maatouk, Mezri; Rahmouni, Alain; Bassez, Guillaume; Fleury, Gilles; Paragios, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a manifold clustering method fo the classification of fibers obtained from diffusion tensor images (DTI) of the human skeletal muscle. Using a linear programming formulation of prototype-based clustering, we propose a novel fiber classification algorithm over manifolds that circumvents the necessity to embed the data in low dimensional spaces and determines automatically the number of clusters. Furthermore, we propose the use of angular Hilbertian metrics between multivariate normal distributions to define a family of distances between tensors that we generalize to fibers. These metrics are used to approximate the geodesic distances over the fiber manifold. We also discuss the case where only geodesic distances to a reduced set of landmark fibers are available. The experimental validation of the method is done using a manually annotated significant dataset of DTI of the calf muscle for healthy and diseased subjects. PMID:19694249

  2. Space Station operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  3. Space Medicine Medical Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an overview of the Space and Clinical Operations Division whose mission is to optimize the health, fitness and well-being of flight crews, their dependents and employees of the Johnson Spac...

  4. Space Mission Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squibb, Gael F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concept of developing a space mission operations concept; the benefits of starting this system engineering task early; the neccessary inputs to the process; and the products that are generated.

  5. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  6. Space Operations in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights activities/accomplishments and future endeavors related to space operations. Topics discussed include the Space Shuttle, recovery/refurbishment operations, payload manipulator, upper stages operations, tracking and data relay, spacelab, space power systems, space exposure facility, space construction, and space station. (JN)

  7. Space Operations Learning Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) is a tool that provides an online learning environment where students can learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through a series of training modules. SOLC is also an effective media for NASA to showcase its contributions to the general public. SOLC is a Web-based environment with a learning platform for students to understand STEM through interactive modules in various engineering topics. SOLC is unique in its approach to develop learning materials to teach schoolaged students the basic concepts of space operations. SOLC utilizes the latest Web and software technologies to present this educational content in a fun and engaging way for all grade levels. SOLC uses animations, streaming video, cartoon characters, audio narration, interactive games and more to deliver educational concepts. The Web portal organizes all of these training modules in an easily accessible way for visitors worldwide. SOLC provides multiple training modules on various topics. At the time of this reporting, seven modules have been developed: Space Communication, Flight Dynamics, Information Processing, Mission Operations, Kids Zone 1, Kids Zone 2, and Save The Forest. For the first four modules, each contains three components: Flight Training, Flight License, and Fly It! Kids Zone 1 and 2 include a number of educational videos and games designed specifically for grades K-6. Save The Forest is a space operations mission with four simulations and activities to complete, optimized for new touch screen technology. The Kids Zone 1 module has recently been ported to Facebook to attract wider audience.

  8. Small satellite space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, Keith

    1994-01-01

    CTA Space Systems has played a premier role in the development of the 'lightsat' programs of the 80's and 90's. The high costs and development times associated with conventional LEO satellite design, fabrication, launch, and operations continue to motivate the development of new methodologies, techniques, and generally low cost and less stringently regulated satellites. These spacecraft employ low power 'lightsat' communications (versus TDRSS for NASA's LEO's) and typically fly missions with payload/experiment suites that can succeed, for example, without heavily redundant backup systems and large infrastructures of personnel and ground support systems. Such small yet adaptable satellites are also typified by their very short contract-to-launch times (often one to two years). This paper reflects several of the methodologies and perspectives of our successful involvement in these innovative programs and suggests how they might relieve NASA's mounting pressures to reduce the cost of both the spacecraft and their companion mission operations. It focuses on the use of adaptable, sufficiently powerful yet inexpensive PC-based ground systems for wide ranging user terminal (UT) applications and master control facilities for mission operations. These systems proved themselves in successfully controlling more than two dozen USAF, USN, and ARPA satellites at CTA/SS. UT versions have linked with both GEO and LEO satellites and functioned autonomously in relay roles often in remote parts of the world. LEO applications particularly illustrate the efficacy of these concepts since a user can easily mount a lightweight antenna, usually an omni or helix with light duty rotors and PC-based drivers. A few feet of coax connected to a small transceiver module (the size of a small PC) and a serial line to an associated PC establishes a communications link and together with the PC constitute a viable ground station. Applications included geomagnetic mapping; spaceborne solid state

  9. Field Operators in Real Space.

    PubMed

    Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2016-05-19

    Field operators are widely used in many-body theory of indistinguishable particles. In this work it is shown that these operators can be represented solely in position space. Explicit expressions for the field operators in position space are given. Using the derived expression, we further show how by generalizing operators in first quantization to arbitrary particle numbers, one can directly connect to the respective operators in second quantization. A few illustrative examples are also presented. PMID:26594868

  10. Space Shuttle operational logistics plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botts, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center plan for logistics to support Space Shuttle Operations and to establish the related policies, requirements, and responsibilities are described. The Directorate of Shuttle Management and Operations logistics responsibilities required by the Kennedy Organizational Manual, and the self-sufficiency contracting concept are implemented. The Space Shuttle Program Level 1 and Level 2 logistics policies and requirements applicable to KSC that are presented in HQ NASA and Johnson Space Center directives are also implemented.

  11. Space Shuttle contingency landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Andrew M.; Fleming, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    The sites and operations involved in emergency landings of the Space Shuttle are discussed. The role of international agreements in developing such sites is addressed. Rescue operations following emergency landings are examined.

  12. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  13. Science operations with Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacconi, R.

    1982-01-01

    The operation, instrumentation, and expected contributions of the Space Telescope are discussed. Space Telescope capabilities are described. The organization and nature of the Space Telescope Science Institute are outlined, including the allocation of observing time and the data rights and data access policies of the institute.

  14. Training and Tactical Operationally Responsive Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, B.; Strunce, R., Jr.

    Current space assets managed by traditional space system control resources provide communication, navigation, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities using satellites that are designed for long life and high reliability. The next generation Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) systems are aimed at providing operational space capabilities which will provide flexibility and responsiveness to the tactical battlefield commander. These capabilities do not exist today. The ORS communication, navigation, and ISR satellites are being designed to replace or supplement existing systems in order to enhance the current space force. These systems are expected to rapidly meet near term space needs of the tactical forces. The ORS concept includes new tactical satellites specifically designed to support contingency operations such as increased communication bandwidth and ISR imagery over the theater for a limited period to support air, ground, and naval force mission. The Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that exists today specifies that in addition to operational control of the satellite, the tasking and scheduling of the ORS tactical satellite for mission data collection in support of the tactical warfighter will be accomplished within the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC). This is very similar to what is currently being accomplished in a fixed Mission Operations Center on existing traditional ISR satellites. The VMOC is merely a distributed environment and the CONOPS remain virtually the same. As a result, there is a significant drawback to the current ORS CONOPS that does not account for the full potential of the ORS paradigm for supporting tactical forces. Although the CONOPS approach may be appropriate for experimental Tactical Satellites (TacSat), it ignores the issues associated with the In-Theater Commander's need to own and operate his dedicated TacSat for most effective warfighting as well as the Warfighter specific CONOPS. What is needed

  15. Science Operation in Space: Lessons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This program (conceived by a group of veteran Shuttle astronauts) shows prospective experimenters how they can better design their experiments for operation onboard Shuttle flights. Shuttle astronauts Dunbar, Seddon, Hoffman, Cleave, Ross, and ChangDiaz also show how crews live and work in space.

  16. International Space Station Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently the leader, in conjunction with our Russian counterpart co-leads, of the Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB), the Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP), which coordinates medical system support for International Space Station (ISS) crews, and the Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB), which medically certifies all crewmembers for space flight on-board the ISS. These three organizations have representatives from NASA, RSA-IMBP (Russian Space Agency- Institute for Biomedical Problems), GCTC (Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center), ESA (European Space Agency), JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), and CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The policy and strategic coordination of ISS medical operations occurs at this level, and includes interactions with MMOP working groups in Radiation Health, Countermeasures, Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), Informatics, Environmental Health, Behavioral Health and Performance, Nutrition, Clinical Medicine, Standards, Post-flight Activities and Rehabilitation, and Training. Each ISS Expedition has a lead Crew Surgeon from NASA and a Russian Crew Surgeon from GCTC assigned to the mission. Day-to-day issues are worked real-time by the flight surgeons and biomedical engineers (also called the Integrated Medical Group) on consoles at the MCC (Mission Control Center) in Houston and the TsUP (Center for Flight Control) in Moscow/Korolev. In the future, this may also include mission control centers in Europe and Japan, when their modules are added onto the ISS. Private medical conferences (PMCs) are conducted regularly and upon crew request with the ISS crew via private audio and video communication links from the biomedical MPSR (multipurpose support room) at MCC Houston. When issues arise in the day-to-day medical support of ISS crews, they are discussed and resolved at the SMOT (space medical operations team) meetings, which occur weekly among the International Partners. Any medical or life science issue that is not resolved at

  17. Space station operations task force summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A companion to the Space Stations Operation Task Force Panels' Reports, this document summarizes all space station program goals, operations, and the characteristics of the expected user community. Strategies for operation and recommendations for implementation are included.

  18. Space station operating system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  19. Space shuttle operational risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare

    1996-03-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Space Shuttle system has recently been completed. This year-long effort represents a development resulting from seven years of application of risk technology to the Space Shuttle. These applications were initiated by NASA shortly after the Challenger accident as recommended by the Rogers and Slay Commission reports. The current effort is the first integrated quantitative assessment of the risk of the loss of the shuttle vehicle from 3 seconds prior to liftoff to wheel-stop at mission end. The study which was conducted under the direction of NASA's Shuttle Safety and Mission Assurance office at Johnson Spaceflight Center focused on shuttle operational risk but included consideration of all the shuttle flight and test history since the beginning of the program through Mission 67 in July of 1994.

  20. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  1. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  2. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  3. Space shuttle operations integration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Operations Integration Plan is presented, which is to provide functional definition of the activities necessary to develop and integrate shuttle operating plans and facilities to support flight, flight control, and operations. It identifies the major tasks, the organizations responsible, their interrelationships, the sequence of activities and interfaces, and the resultant products related to operations integration.

  4. Legacy of Operational Space Medicine During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniakm, P.; Gilmore, S.; Johnston, S.; Chandler, M.; Beven, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s Medical Science Division branches were involved in preparing astronauts for space flight during the 30 year period of the Space Shuttle Program. These branches included the Flight Medicine Clinic, Medical Operations and the Behavioral Health Program. The components of each facet of these support services were: the Flight Medicine Clinic s medical selection process and medical care; the Medical Operations equipment, training, procedures and emergency medical services; and the Behavioral Health and Performance operations. Each presenter will discuss the evolution of its operations, implementations, lessons learned and recommendations for future vehicles and short duration space missions.

  5. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  6. Space Infrared (SIRE) Operations Concept For Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Daniel H.

    1981-04-01

    The objective of the Space Infrared (SIRE) Sensor program is to measure LWIR radiation of natural and man made sources in space. Measurements will be used to support development and operation of space based space surveillance systems. This paper describes the planned concept for operating SIRE as a non-deployed payload within the payload bay of the Orbiter. The operations concept is prefaced with an overview of the SIRE system addressing the sensor, space segment, ground segment and supporting elements of the Space Transportation System. This is followed by a description of operational concepts and data processing that will be used within the ground segment during flights to plan, command and evaluate SIRE operations. This responsive system provides for inflight evaluation of data and replanning of measurements as necessary to accomodate operational perturbations from the Orbiter and react to unexpected measurement results.

  7. Space operation center - The key to space industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassiff, S. H.

    1981-02-01

    The concept of a Shuttle-serviced Space Operations Center (SOC) and SOC program development are reviewed. The subjects discussed include: projected operational support capabilities, SOC elements and subsystems, and supporting research and technology.

  8. Space operation center - The key to space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassiff, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a Shuttle-serviced Space Operations Center (SOC) and SOC program development are reviewed. The subjects discussed include: projected operational support capabilities, SOC elements and subsystems, and supporting research and technology.

  9. Weather impacts on space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, J.; Boyd, B.; Bauman, W.; Wyse, N.; Adams, M.

    The efforts of the 45th Weather Squadron of the USAF to provide weather support to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Eastern Range, and the Kennedy Space Center are discussed. Its weather support to space vehicles, particularly the Space Shuttle, includes resource protection, ground processing, launch, and Ferry Flight, as well as consultations to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group for landing forecasts. Attention is given to prelaunch processing weather, launch support weather, Shuttle launch commit criteria, and range safety weather restrictions. Upper level wind requirements are examined. The frequency of hourly surface observations with thunderstorms at the Shuttle landing facility, and lightning downtime at the Titan launch complexes are illustrated.

  10. Quadratic Stochastic Operators with Countable State Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we provide the classes of Poisson and Geometric quadratic stochastic operators with countable state space, study the dynamics of these operators and discuss their application to economics.

  11. Operational Space Weather Activities in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terrance; Viereck, Rodney; Murtagh, William; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We review the current activities in the civil operational space weather forecasting enterprise of the United States. The NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, working with partners in the Air Force as well as international operational forecast services to provide predictions, data, and products on a large variety of space weather phenomena and impacts. In October 2015, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the National Space Weather Strategy (NSWS) and associated Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) that define how the nation will better forecast, mitigate, and respond to an extreme space weather event. The SWAP defines actions involving multiple federal agencies and mandates coordination and collaboration with academia, the private sector, and international bodies to, among other things, develop and sustain an operational space weather observing system; develop and deploy new models of space weather impacts to critical infrastructure systems; define new mechanisms for the transition of research models to operations and to ensure that the research community is supported for, and has access to, operational model upgrade paths; and to enhance fundamental understanding of space weather through support of research models and observations. The SWAP will guide significant aspects of space weather operational and research activities for the next decade, with opportunities to revisit the strategy in the coming years through the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council.

  12. Transition to the space shuttle operations era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The tasks involved in the Space Shuttle Development Program are discussed. The ten major characteristics of an operational Shuttle are described, as well as the changes occurring in Shuttle processing, on-line operations, operations engineering, and support operations. A summary is given of tasks and goals that are being pursued in the effort to create a cost effective and efficient system.

  13. Space Documentation Services: Operations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitt, D. I.

    A description of the system used by Space Documentation Service (SDS) to disseminate combined and accumulated knowledge, as widely as possible, throughout Europe is given. The RECON network, with the full support of NASA, has gradually been extended so that centers in Member States, may, by installing their own terminals, have direct access to the…

  14. Operational Space Weather in USAF Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithtro, C.; Quigley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Most education programs offering space weather courses are understandably and traditionally heavily weighted with theoretical space physics that is the basis for most of what is researched and modeled. While understanding the theory is a good and necessary grounding for anyone working the field of space weather, few military or commercial jobs employ such theory in real-time operations. The operations sites/centers are much more geared toward use of applied theory-resultant models, tools and products. To ensure its operations centers personnel, commanders, real-time system operators and other customers affected by the space environment are educated on available and soon-to-be operational space weather models and products, the USAF has developed applicable course/lecture material taught at various institutions to include the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) and the Joint Weather Training Complex (335th/TRS/OUA). Less frequent training of operational space weather is available via other venues that will be discussed, and associated course material is also being developed for potential use at the National Security Space Institute (NSSI). This presentation provides an overview of the programs, locations, courses and material developed and/or taught by or for USAF personnel dealing with operational space weather. It also provides general information on student research project results that may be used in operational support, along with observations regarding logistical and professional benefits of teaching such non-theoretical/non-traditional material.

  15. Unitary Operators on the Document Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoenkamp, Eduard

    2003-01-01

    Discusses latent semantic indexing (LSI) that would allow search engines to reduce the dimension of the document space by mapping it into a space spanned by conceptual indices. Topics include vector space models; singular value decomposition (SVD); unitary operators; the Haar transform; and new algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  16. Microchemical Analysis Of Space Operation Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Virginia J.; Kim, Hae Soo

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses techniques used in analyzing debris relative to space shuttle operations. Debris collected from space shuttle, expendable launch vehicles, payloads carried by space shuttle, and payloads carried by expendable launch vehicles. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, analytical electron microscopy with wavelength-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction chosen as techniques used in examining samples of debris.

  17. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  18. EOS production on the Space Station. [Electrophoresis Operations/Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, F. C.; Gleason, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a conceptual integration of the equipment for EOS (Electrophoresis Operations/Space) on the Space Station in the early 1990s. Electrophoresis is a fluid-constituent separation technique which uses forces created by an electrical field. Aspects covered include EOS equipment and operations, and Space Station installations involving a pressurized module, a resupply module, utility provisions and umbilicals and crew involvement. Accommodation feasibility is generally established, and interfaces are defined. Space Station production of EOS-derived pharmaceuticals will constitute a significant increase in capability compared to precursor flights on the Shuttle in the 1980s.

  19. Prediction Techniques in Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The importance of forecasting space weather conditions is steadily increasing as our society is becoming more and more dependent on advanced technologies that may be affected by disturbed space weather. Operational space weather forecasting is still a difficult task that requires the real-time availability of input data and specific prediction techniques that are reviewed in this presentation, with an emphasis on solar and interplanetary weather. Key observations that are essential for operational space weather forecasting are listed. Predictions made on the base of empirical and statistical methods, as well as physical models, are described. Their validation, accuracy, and limitations are discussed in the context of operational forecasting. Several important problems in the scientific basis of predicting space weather are described, and possible ways to overcome them are discussed, including novel space-borne observations that could be available in future.

  20. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. This position is founded upon continued government investment in research and development in space technology, which is clearly reflected in the Space Situational Awareness capabilities and the longevity of these missions. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by unresponsive and relatively expensive launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV). The EELV systems require an average of six to eight months from positioning on the launch table until liftoff. Access to space requires maintaining a robust space transportation capability, founded on a rigorous industrial and technology base. To assure access to space, the United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. Under the Air Force Policy Directive, the Air Force will establish, organize, employ, and sustain space forces necessary to execute the mission and functions assigned including rapid response to the National Command Authorities and the conduct of military operations across the spectrum of conflict. Air Force Space Command executes the majority of spacelift operations for DoD satellites and other government and commercial agencies. The

  1. NASA Deep Space Network Operations Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enari, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The functioning of the Deep Space Network Operations Scheduling, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, CA is reviewed. The primary objectives of the Operations Scheduling are: to schedule the worldwide global allocation of ground communications, tracking facilities, and equipment; and to provide deep space telecommunications for command, tracking, telemetry, and control in support of flight mission operations and tests. Elements of the earth set are Deep Space Stations (DSS) which provide the telecommunications link between the earth and spacecraft; NASA Communications Network; Network Data Processing Area; Network Operations Control Area which provides operational direction to the DSS; Mission Control and Computing systems; and Mission Support areas which provide flight control of the spacecraft. Elements of the space set include mission priorities and requirements which determine the spacecraft queue for allocating network resources. Scheduling is discussed in terms of long-range (3 years), mid-range (8 weeks), and short-range (2 weeks).

  2. Operational medicine in Space Station era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furukawa, S.; Buchanan, P.

    1984-01-01

    Medical considerations for long duration manned space missions are examined. The requirements and hardware for medical operations on the Space Station are diagrammatically presented. The physiological and psychological changes that have been observed during space flights are discussed. Crew health maintenance and medical care in the Space Station environment require earth-based and in flight continuity. It is also necessary to identify the appropriate zero-G therapeutic methods for treating a patient. Techniques for transferring patients in orbit and to earth are studied. Considerations are given to control and life support systems and data management for medical operations.

  3. k-diskcyclic operators on Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamerni, Nareen; Kılıçman, Adem

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we define and study new classes of operators on complex Banach spaces, which we call k-diskcyclic. We use these operators to show that the direct sum of a diskcyclic operator with it self k times (k ≥ 2) does not need to be diskcyclic. However, we show that under certain conditions the latter statement holds true. In particular, we show that an operator T satisfies the diskcyclic criterion if and only if T is k-diskcyclic.

  4. NASA Now: International Space Station Payload Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, you’ll hear Katie Presson of the Payload Operations Integration team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., discuss investigations being conducte...

  5. ISS Update: SpaceX Dragon Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries talks with Lead Integration and Systems Engineer Paul Brower about SpaceX Dragon operations as the spacecraft's unberthing approaches. Questions? Ask us ...

  6. Future In-Space Operations for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.

    2006-12-01

    Our most ambitious free-space space astronomy endeavors can be realized using architectures that could come out of the Vision for Space Exploration. Future in-space operations (FISO) encompass assembly and construction, testing, servicing and maintenance activities in free-space. It is the enabling strategy for large optical and mechanical systems that cannot be autonomously deployed out of a single launch vehicle, and those high value systems for which lifetime enhancement (upgrades, maintenance, repairs) can offer value. Long-range priority goals in astronomy require filled apertures far larger than under development for the JWST. Since these are vastly greater in diameter than can be accommodated within plausible future launch vehicles, complex in-space deployment or assembly will be essential to achieve future goals for astronomy. As the in-space success with the Hubble Space Telescope has demonstrated, human involvement can dramatically benefit service and maintenance of astronomical facilities in space. Advances in capabilities in robotics will augment and complement this. FISO involves advanced systems for space telerobotics, automated rendezvous and docking, power/propulsion, keep-alive utilities (power, comm, nav, attitude, station-keeping, etc), special-purpose tools, environmental protection and verification equipment. In-space operations can make effective use of the technology, facilities and capabilities being created if future applications are anticipated, since FISO is a natural extension of current ESAS and VSE planning.

  7. Technology Interdependency Roadmaps for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for Space Technology are outlined in terms of NASA Strategic Plan. The national emphasis on economic revitalization is described along with the environmental changes needed for the new direction. Space Technology Interdependency (STI) is elaborated in terms of its impact on national priority on science, education, and economy. Some suggested approaches to strengthening STI are outlined. Finally, examples of Technology Roadmaps for Space Operations area are included to illustrate the value of STI for national cohesiveness and economic revitalization.

  8. SpaceX Readies Operational Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    SpaceX is set to launch the first of a dozen operational missions for NASA to deliver more than 1,000 pounds of supplies to the International Space Station on Oct. 7. Launch time is 8:35 p.m. from ...

  9. Future operational aspects of the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippner, Gerhard

    The tasks of International Space Station operation definition and execution are discussed. A grouping into hierarchical levels of tasks and their planning/update periods would result in the sequence: (1) strategic management; (2) tactical management; (3) mission management; (4) element operation, aimed at execution of the element time line and module control; (5) module operation, with emphasis on task distribution/control for subsystems, crew, payload, and between onboard and ground operators; and (6) subsystem operation, including subsystem control. Attention is given to ground infrastructure and the optimization of operational costs.

  10. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  11. International Space Station Payload Operations Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanske, Elizabeth Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Payload Operations Integrator (POINT) plays an integral part in the Certification of Flight Readiness process for the Mission Operations Laboratory and the Payload Operations Integration Function that supports International Space Station Payload operations. The POINTs operate in support of the POIF Payload Operations Manager to bring together and integrate the Certification of Flight Readiness inputs from various MOL teams through maintaining an open work tracking log. The POINTs create monthly metrics for current and future payloads that the Payload Operations Integration Function supports. With these tools, the POINTs assemble the Certification of Flight Readiness package before a given flight, stating that the Mission Operations Laboratory is prepared to support it. I have prepared metrics for Increment 29/30, maintained the Open Work Tracking Logs for Flights ULF6 (STS-134) and ULF7 (STS-135), and submitted the Mission Operations Laboratory Certification of Flight Readiness package for Flight 44P to the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD/OZ).

  12. Operational modules for space station construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R.; Moses, P. L.; Scotti, S. J.; Blosser, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Identification of an effective space construction concept is a current objective of NASA studies. One concept, described in this memorandum, consists of repetitive use of operational modules, which minimizes on-orbit stay time for the shuttle. A space station constructed of operational modules may benefit from fabrication and system checkout in ground-based facilities, and since the modules are the primary structure of the space station, a minimum of additional structure, and trips and on-orbit stay time of the shuttle are required.

  13. The Bender-Dunne basis operators as Hilbert space operators

    SciTech Connect

    Bunao, Joseph; Galapon, Eric A. E-mail: eric.galapon@upd.edu.ph

    2014-02-15

    The Bender-Dunne basis operators, T{sub −m,n}=2{sup −n}∑{sub k=0}{sup n}(n/k )q{sup k}p{sup −m}q{sup n−k} where q and p are the position and momentum operators, respectively, are formal integral operators in position representation in the entire real line R for positive integers n and m. We show, by explicit construction of a dense domain, that the operators T{sub −m,n}'s are densely defined operators in the Hilbert space L{sup 2}(R)

  14. The Future of Operational Space Weather Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    We review the current state of operational space weather observations, the requirements for new or evolved space weather forecasting capablities, and the relevant sections of the new National strategy for space weather developed by the Space Weather Operations, Research, and Mitigation (SWORM) Task Force chartered by the Office of Science and Technology Policy of the White House. Based on this foundation, we discuss future space missions such as the NOAA space weather mission to the L1 Lagrangian point planned for the 2021 time frame and its synergy with an L5 mission planned for the same period; the space weather capabilities of the upcoming GOES-R mission, as well as GOES-Next possiblities; and the upcoming COSMIC-2 mission for ionospheric observations. We also discuss the needs for ground-based operational networks to supply mission critical and/or backup space weather observations including the NSF GONG solar optical observing network, the USAF SEON solar radio observing network, the USGS real-time magnetometer network, the USCG CORS network of GPS receivers, and the possibility of operationalizing the world-wide network of neutron monitors for real-time alerts of ground-level radiation events.

  15. Autonomy issues for an operational space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, K. C.; Cox, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Within the last decade, both the U.S. and the Soviet space programs have taken significant preliminary steps in developing technology and systems which are appropriate for the establishment of space stations. The degree of autonomy which will be provided for the station and the role of the crew represents one of the most critical considerations. The present investigation is concerned with a review of the major autonomy issues associated with a permanent, low earth orbit, operational space station. It is shown that both operational effectiveness and crew safety issues require a relatively high degree of space station autonomy. The autonomy level should, for instance, be higher than that of the present space shuttle. Attention is given to various levels of spacecraft autonomy, system integrity, attitude determination and control, navigation and orbit maintenance, system maintenance and resupply, mission support, and implementation of autonomy.

  16. Space Weather Operational Products in the NOAA Space Environment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, W. J.; Onsager, T. G.

    2006-12-01

    The NOAA Space Environment Center (SEC) is the Nation's official source of space weather alerts and warnings, and provides real-time monitoring and forecasting of solar and geophysical events. The SEC, a 24- hour/day operations center, provides space weather products to the scientific and user communities in the United States and around the world. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the SEC current suite of space weather products, with an emphasis on models and products recently introduced into the Operations Center. Customer uses of products will be discussed, which will highlight the diverse customer base for space weather services. Also, models in SEC's testbed will be introduced. SEC's testbed facility is dedicated to moving space environment models from a research-development mode to an operational mode. The status of efforts to replace NASA's aging real-time monitor (ACE) in the solar wind ahead of Earth, an "upstream data buoy", will also be described. Numerous existing and planned space weather products and models rely on near real-time solar wind data.

  17. Space station program operations - Making it work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station Program (SSP) will consist, in part, of a permanently orbiting facility composed of a mix of manned and unmanned elements. To insure that such a facility will be an operationally viable and productive one, capable of performing a myriad of assigned missions, special attention must be given to the following operational disciplines during the design and development of the SSP systems and subsystems: (1) Automation/Autonomy, (2) Customer Interfaces/Operations, (3) Habitability/Crew Productivity, (4) Maintainability, and (5) Logistics. In order to properly address these disciplines, from an operations point of view, the Director of the Space Station Task Force (SSTF) formed the Operations Working Group (OWG) in July 1982, and chartered this group to develop the top level operational technical and management-approach philosophies and requirements for the SSP. This paper attempts to summarize the results and conclusions reached by the OWG after an 18 month intensive study effort.

  18. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  19. Operability engineering in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Belinda

    1993-01-01

    Many operability problems exist at the three Deep Space Communications Complexes (DSCC's) of the Deep Space Network (DSN). Four years ago, the position of DSN Operability Engineer was created to provide the opportunity for someone to take a system-level approach to solving these problems. Since that time, a process has been developed for personnel and development engineers and for enforcing user interface standards in software designed for the DSCC's. Plans are for the participation of operations personnel in the product life-cycle to expand in the future.

  20. Operational Space Weather Entering a New Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2009-10-01

    U.S. operational space weather is caught between two competing factors. On one hand, directed agency funding at about $1 billion for model development over the past decade has brought modeling maturity to five broad Sun-to-Earth domains, i.e., the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. On the other hand, agency funding for transitioning these models into operations has been a small fraction of the level provided for model development. This situation has left implementation of operational space weather largely unfunded and woefully undirected, with the exception of a few U.S. Air Force Weather Agency projects. A new vision is needed so that operational space weather can help solve 21st-century challenges.

  1. Space Operations Center - A concept analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) which is a concept for a Shuttle serviced, permanent, manned facility in low earth orbit is viewed as a major candidate for the manned space flight following the completion of an operational Shuttle. The primary objectives of SOC are: (1) the construction, checkout, and transfer to operational orbit of large, complex space systems, (2) on-orbit assembly, launch, recovery, and servicing of manned and unmanned spacecraft, (3) managing operations of co-orbiting free-flying satellites, and (4) the development of reduced dependence on earth for control and resupply. The structure of SOC, a self-contained orbital facility containing several Shuttle launched modules, includes the service, habitation, and logistics modules as well as construction, and flight support facilities. A schedule is proposed for the development of SOC over ten years and costs for the yearly programs are estimated.

  2. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  3. Knowledge representation in space flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, Carl

    1989-01-01

    In space flight operations rapid understanding of the state of the space vehicle is essential. Representation of knowledge depicting space vehicle status in a dynamic environment presents a difficult challenge. The NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory has pursued areas of technology associated with the advancement of spacecraft operations environment. This has led to the development of several advanced mission systems which incorporate enhanced graphics capabilities. These systems include: (1) Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP); (2) Spacecraft Monitoring Environment (SME); (3) Electrical Power Data Monitor (EPDM); (4) Generic Payload Operations Control Center (GPOCC); and (5) Telemetry System Monitor Prototype (TSM). Knowledge representation in these systems provides a direct representation of the intrinsic images associated with the instrument and satellite telemetry and telecommunications systems. The man-machine interface includes easily interpreted contextual graphic displays. These interactive video displays contain multiple display screens with pop-up windows and intelligent, high resolution graphics linked through context and mouse-sensitive icons and text.

  4. Operational Implementation of Space Debris Mitigation Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, Anne-Helene; Bonaventure, Francois

    2013-08-01

    During the spacecraft lifetime, Astrium supports its customers to manage collision risks alerts from the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). This was previously done with hot-line support and a manual operational procedure. Today, it is automated and integrated in QUARTZ, the Astrium Flight Dynamics operational tool. The algorithms and process details for this new 5- step functionality are provided in this paper. To improve this functionality, some R&D activities such as the study of dilution phenomenon and low relative velocity encounters are going on. Regarding end of life disposal, recent operational experiences as well as studies results are presented.

  5. Multimegawatt power sources for commercial space operations

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Martinell, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in commercial operation in space today, but very little consideration of where the power to run such an operation is to come from. For any commercial operation in space, the power source, especially those involving kilowatts and megawatts of power, must be considered at the very onset of the venture. The Multimegawatt Space Reactor Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is working this problem in conjunction with the development of Strategic Defense Initiative needs. The same type of up-front power development program needs to be considered in all discussions associated with commercial development in space. A system developed for a commercial operation in space will most likely be a hybrid system utilizing both electrical and thermal energy. Even if the commercial process consists totally of high power thermal energy usage, there will be a certain amount of electricity required for controls, mass transport, environmental control (if manned), and communications. The optimum system will thus require a great deal of planning and coordination with the development of the commercial process. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  6. A space transportation system operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a description of a computer program which permits assessment of the operational support requirements of space transportation systems functioning in both a ground- and space-based environment. The scenario depicted provides for the delivery of payloads from Earth to a space station and beyond using upper stages based at the station. Model results are scenario dependent and rely on the input definitions of delivery requirements, task times, and available resources. Output is in terms of flight rate capabilities, resource requirements, and facility utilization. A general program description, program listing, input requirements, and sample output are included.

  7. Agile Development Methods for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Webster, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Main stream industry software development practice has gone from a traditional waterfall process to agile iterative development that allows for fast response to customer inputs and produces higher quality software at lower cost. How can we, the space ops community, adopt state of the art software development practice, achieve greater productivity at lower cost, and maintain safe and effective space flight operations? At NASA Ames, we are developing Mission Control Technologies Software, in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC) and, more recently, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  8. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the life-cycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reachback support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-ofthe- art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  9. NASA Space Launch System Operations Outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, William Keith; Matisak, Brian P.; McElyea, Mark; Kunz, Jennifer; Weber, Philip; Cummings, Nicholas; Parsons, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is working with the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program, based at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), to deliver a new safe, affordable, and sustainable capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit (BEO). Larger than the Saturn V Moon rocket, SLS will provide 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The primary mission of the SLS rocket will be to launch astronauts to deep space destinations in the Orion Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), also in development and managed by the Johnson Space Center. Several high-priority science missions also may benefit from the increased payload volume and reduced trip times offered by this powerful, versatile rocket. Reducing the lifecycle costs for NASA's space transportation flagship will maximize the exploration and scientific discovery returned from the taxpayer's investment. To that end, decisions made during development of SLS and associated systems will impact the nation's space exploration capabilities for decades. This paper will provide an update to the operations strategy presented at SpaceOps 2012. It will focus on: 1) Preparations to streamline the processing flow and infrastructure needed to produce and launch the world's largest rocket (i.e., through incorporation and modification of proven, heritage systems into the vehicle and ground systems); 2) Implementation of a lean approach to reach-back support of hardware manufacturing, green-run testing, and launch site processing and activities; and 3) Partnering between the vehicle design and operations communities on state-of-the-art predictive operations analysis techniques. An example of innovation is testing the integrated vehicle at the processing facility in parallel, rather than

  10. Space Operations Center: A concept analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    The Space Operations Center is a concept for a shuttle-service, permanent, manned facility in low Earth orbit. An analysis of this concept was conducted and the results are reported. It is noted that there are no NASA plans at present to implement such a concept. The results are intended for consideration in future planning.

  11. Telescience Operations on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of telescience operations for the International Space Station (ISS). The extended duration microgravity environment of the ISS will enable microgravity science research to enter into a new era of increased scientific and technological data return. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a vision of distributed ground operations which enables the Principal Investigator direct interaction with his/her on-board experiment from his/her home location. This is the concept of telescience and is essential for maximizing the use of the long duration science environment that ISS provides. The goal of telescience is to provide the capability to fully tele-operate an experiment from any ground location in such a way as to increase the amount and quality of scientific and technological data return and decrease the operations cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. This paper also describes the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) implementation approach for the LeRC Telescience Support Center (TSC) and Principal Investigator Science Operations Sites (SOS) which will fully meet the concept of telescience as prescribed by the Agency.

  12. Centaur operations at the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J.; Thompson, W.; Bennett, F.; Holdridge, J.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted on the feasibility of using a Centaur vehicle as a testbed to demonstrate critical OTV technologies at the Space Station. Two Technology Demonstration Missions (TDMs) were identified: (1) Accommodations, and (2) Operations. The Accommodations TDM contained: (1) berthing, (2) checkout, maintenance and safing, and (3) payload integration missions. The Operations TDM contained: (1) a cryogenic propellant resupply mission, and (2) Centaur deployment activities. A modified Space Station Co-Orbiting Platform (COP) was selected as the optimum refueling and launch node due to safety and operational considerations. After completion of the TDMs, the fueled Centaur would carry out a mission to actually test deployment and help offset TDM costs. From the Station, the Centaur could carry a single payload in excess of 20,000 pounds to geosynchronous orbit or multiple payloads.

  13. Technical and operational assessment of molecular nanotechnology for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKendree, Thomas Lawrence

    2001-07-01

    This study assesses the performance of conventional technology and three levels of molecular nanotechnology (MNT) for space operations. The measures of effectiveness are technical performance parameters for five space transportation architectures, and the total logistics cost for an evaluation scenario with mining, market and factory locations on the Moon, Mars and asteroids. On these measures of effectiveness, improvements of 2--4 orders of magnitude are seen in chemical rockets, solar electric ion engines, solar sail accelerations (but not transit times), and in structural masses for planetary skyhooks and towers. Improvements in tether performance and logistics costs are nearer to 1 order of magnitude. Appendices suggest additional improvements may be possible in space mining, closed-environment life support, flexible operations, and with other space transportation architectures. In order to assess logistics cost, this research extends the facility location problem of location theory to orbital space. This extension supports optimal siting of a single facility serving circular, coplanar orbits, locations in elliptic planetary and moon orbits, and heuristic siting of multiple facilities. It focuses on conventional rocket transportation, and on high performance rockets supplying at least 1 m/s2 acceleration and 500,000 m/s exhaust velocity. Mathematica implementations are provided in appendices. Simple MNT allows diamond and buckytube construction. The main benefits are in chemical rocket performance, solar panel specific power, solar electric ion engine performance, and skyhook and tower structural masses. Complex MNT allows very small machinery, permitting large increases in solar panel specific power, which enables solar electric ion engines that are high performance rockets, and thus reduces total logistics costs an order of magnitude. Most Advance MNT allows molecular manufacturing, which enables self-repair, provides at least marginal improvements in nearly

  14. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  15. Phase-space contraction and quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Mata, Ignacio; Spina, Maria Elena; Saraceno, Marcos; Carlo, Gabriel

    2005-12-15

    We give a criterion to differentiate between dissipative and diffusive quantum operations. It is based on the classical idea that dissipative processes contract volumes in phase space. We define a quantity that can be regarded as 'quantum phase space contraction rate' and which is related to a fundamental property of quantum channels: nonunitality. We relate it to other properties of the channel and also show a simple example of dissipative noise composed with a chaotic map. The emergence of attractor-like structures is displayed.

  16. Solar Drivers for Space Weather Operations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Most space weather effects can be tied back to the Sun, and major research efforts are devoted to understanding the physics of the relevant phenomena with a long-term view of predicting their occurrence. This talk will focus on the current state of knowledge regarding the solar drivers of space weather, and in particular the connection between the science and operational needs. Topics covered will include the effects of solar ionizing flux on communications and navigation, radio interference, flare forecasting, the solar wind and the arrival of coronal mass ejections at Earth.

  17. Space station proximity operations and window design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    On-orbit proximity operations (PROX-OPS) consist of all extravehicular activity (EVA) within 1 km of the space station. Because of the potentially large variety of PROX-OPS, very careful planning for space station windows is called for and must consider a great many human factors. The following topics are discussed: (1) basic window design philosophy and assumptions; (2) the concept of the local horizontal - local vertical on-orbit; (3) window linear dimensions; (4) selected anthropomorphic considerations; (5) displays and controls relative to windows; and (6) full window assembly replacement.

  18. Space time neural networks for tether operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles

    1993-01-01

    A space shuttle flight scheduled for 1992 will attempt to prove the feasibility of operating tethered payloads in earth orbit. due to the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and current pulsing through the tether, the tethered system may exhibit a circular transverse oscillation referred to as the 'skiprope' phenomenon. Effective damping of skiprope motion depends on rapid and accurate detection of skiprope magnitude and phase. Because of non-linear dynamic coupling, the satellite attitude behavior has characteristic oscillations during the skiprope motion. Since the satellite attitude motion has many other perturbations, the relationship between the skiprope parameters and attitude time history is very involved and non-linear. We propose a Space-Time Neural Network implementation for filtering satellite rate gyro data to rapidly detect and predict skiprope magnitude and phase. Training and testing of the skiprope detection system will be performed using a validated Orbital Operations Simulator and Space-Time Neural Network software developed in the Software Technology Branch at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  19. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not

  20. NASA Space Launch System Operations Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Singer, Christer E.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO). The SLS may also provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130-t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration for decades to come.

  1. Space Operations Center: Shuttle interaction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implication of using the Shuttle with the Space Operation Center (SOC), including constraints that the Shuttle will place upon the SOC design. The study identifies the considerations involved in the use of the Shuttle as a part of the SOC concept, and also identifies the constraints to the SOC imposed by the Shuttle in its interactions with the SOC, and on the design or technical solutions which allow satisfactory accomplishment of the interactions.

  2. Space flight operations communications phraseology and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noneman, S. R.

    1986-01-01

    Communications are a critical link in space flight operations. Specific communications phraseology and techniques have been developed to allow rapid and clear transfer of information. Communications will be clear and brief through the use of procedural words and phrases. Communications protocols standardize the required information transferred. The voicing of letters and numbers is discussed. The protocols used in air-to-ground communications are given. A glossary of communications terminology is presented in the appendix.

  3. Cryogenic Electronics Being Developed for Space Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Gerber, Scott S.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electrical power management and control systems that can operate efficiently and reliably in very low temperature environments. Presently, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units to maintain the surrounding temperature of the onboard electronics at approximately 20 C. Electronics capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures would not only tolerate the hostile environment of deep space but also reduce system size and weight by eliminating or reducing the radioisotope heating units and their associate structures. Thereby, such electronics would reduce system development as well as launch costs. In addition, power electronic circuits designed for operation at low temperatures are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature. This improvement results because semiconductor and dielectric materials have better behavior and tolerance in their electrical and thermal properties at low temperatures. The Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing on the research and development of electrical components, circuits, and systems suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and in deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices and systems for reliable use down to cryogenic temperatures. Some of the commercial off-the-shelf as well as developed components that are being characterized include semiconductor switching devices, resistors, magnetics, and capacitors. Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits including digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, dc-dc converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators are also being investigated for potential use in low-temperature applications. For example, the output response of an advanced oscillator at room temperature and at -190 C is shown. Most oscillators can operate at temperatures

  4. Space Operation of the MOLA Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    Interest in lasers for space applications such as active remote sensing in Earth orbit, planetary science, and inter-satellite laser communications is growing. These instruments typically use diode-pumped solid state lasers for the laser transmitter. The mission specifications and constraints of space qualification, place strict requirements on the design and operation of the laser. Although a laser can be built in the laboratory to meet performance specifications relatively routinely, tile mission constraints demand unique options and compromises in the materials used, and design to ensure the success of the mission. Presently, the best laser architecture for a light weight, rugged, high peak power and efficient transmitter is a diode laser pumped ND:YAG laser. Diode lasers can often obviate the need for water cooling, reduce the size and weight of the laser, increase the electrical to optical efficiency, system reliability, and lifetime. This paper describes the in-space operation and performance of the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) laser transmitter, representing the current state-of-the-art in space-based solid- state lasers.

  5. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's operational mission experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-06-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope, the fourth and final of NASA's Great Observatories, and the cornerstone to NASA's Origins Program, launched on 25 August 2003 into an Earth-trailing solar orbit to acquire infrared observations from space. Spitzer has an 85cm diameter beryllium telescope, which operates near absolute zero utilizing a liquid helium cryostat for cooling the telescope. The helium cryostat though designed for a 2.5 year lifetime, through creative usage now has an expected lifetime of 5.5 years. Spitzer has completed its in-orbit checkout/science verification phases and the first two years of nominal operations becoming the first mission to execute astronomical observations from a solar orbit. Spitzer was designed to probe and explore the universe in the infrared utilizing three state of the art detector arrays providing imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy over the 3-160 micron wavelength range. Spitzer is achieving major advances in the study of astrophysical phenomena across the expanses of our universe. Many technology areas critical to future infrared missions have been successfully demonstrated by Spitzer. These demonstrated technologies include lightweight cryogenic optics, sensitive detector arrays, and a high performance thermal system, combining radiation both passive and active cryogenic cooling of the telescope in space following its warm launch. This paper provides an overview of the Spitzer mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, its orbit, operations and project management approach and related lessons learned.

  6. SPACE MEDICINE and Medical Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joe

    2009-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the function of the work of the Space Medicine & Health Care Systems Office. The objective of the medical operations is to ensure the health, safety and well being of the astronaut corps and ground support team during all phases of space flight. There are many issues that impact the health of the astronauts. Some of them are physiological, and others relate to behavior, psychological issues and issues of the environment of space itself. Reviews of the medical events that have affected both Russian, and Americans while in space are included. Some views of shuttle liftoff, and ascent, the medical training aboard NASA's KC-135 and training in weightlessness, the Shuttle Orbiter Medical system (SOMS), and some of the medical equipment are included. Also included are a graphs showing Fluid loading countermeasures, and vertical pursuit tracking with head and eye. The final views are representations of the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV) approaching the International Space Station, and the moon, and a series of perspective representations of the earth in comparison to the other planets and the Sun, the Sun in relation to other stars, and a view of where in the galaxy the Sun is.

  7. Security aspects of space operations data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with data security. It identifies security threats to European Space Agency's (ESA) In Orbit Infrastructure Ground Segment (IOI GS) and proposes a method of dealing with its complex data structures from the security point of view. It is part of the 'Analysis of Failure Modes, Effects Hazards and Risks of the IOI GS for Operations, including Backup Facilities and Functions' carried out on behalf of the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). The security part of this analysis has been prepared with the following aspects in mind: ESA's large decentralized ground facilities for operations, the multiple organizations/users involved in the operations and the developments of ground data systems, and the large heterogeneous network structure enabling access to (sensitive) data which does involve crossing organizational boundaries. An IOI GS data objects classification is introduced to determine the extent of the necessary protection mechanisms. The proposal of security countermeasures is oriented towards the European 'Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria (ITSEC)' whose hierarchically organized requirements can be directly mapped to the security sensitivity classification.

  8. NASA Space Launch System Operations Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit. The SLS also will provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130 t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and 21st Century Ground Systems programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration.

  9. 75 FR 16197 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  10. 75 FR 39974 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  11. 76 FR 20717 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  12. 75 FR 5630 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  13. 75 FR 51853 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  14. 76 FR 3673 - NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Space Operations Committee; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended, the National Aeronautics and Space...

  15. International Space Station Increment Operations Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Horst; Sielaff, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Industrial Operator (IO) has defined End-to-End services to perform efficiently all required operations tasks for the Manned Space Program (MSP) as agreed during the Ministerial Council in Edinburgh in November 2001. Those services are the result of a detailed task analysis based on the operations processes as derived from the Space Station Program Implementation Plans (SPIP) and defined in the Operations Processes Documents (OPD). These services are related to ISS Increment Operations and ATV Mission Operations. Each of these End-to-End services is typically characterised by the following properties: It has a clearly defined starting point, where all requirements on the end-product are fixed and associated performance metrics of the customer are well defined. It has a clearly defined ending point, when the product or service is delivered to the customer and accepted by him, according to the performance metrics defined at the start point. The implementation of the process might be restricted by external boundary conditions and constraints mutually agreed with the customer. As far as those are respected the IO has the free choice to select methods and means of implementation. The ISS Increment Operations Service (IOS) activities required for the MSP Exploitation program cover the complete increment specific cycle starting with the support to strategic planning and ending with the post increment evaluation. These activities are divided into sub-services including the following tasks: - ISS Planning Support covering the support to strategic and tactical planning up to the generation - Development &Payload Integration Support - ISS Increment Preparation - ISS Increment Execution These processes are tight together by the Increment Integration Management, which provides the planning and scheduling of all activities as well as the technical management of the overall process . The paper describes the entire End-to-End ISS Increment Operations service and the

  16. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  17. Space-based Science Operations Grid Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Welch, Clara L.; Redman, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Grid technology is the up and coming technology that is enabling widely disparate services to be offered to users that is very economical, easy to use and not available on a wide basis. Under the Grid concept disparate organizations generally defined as "virtual organizations" can share services i.e. sharing discipline specific computer applications, required to accomplish the specific scientific and engineering organizational goals and objectives. Grids are emerging as the new technology of the future. Grid technology has been enabled by the evolution of increasingly high speed networking. Without the evolution of high speed networking Grid technology would not have emerged. NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Flight Projects Directorate, Ground Systems Department is developing a Space-based Science Operations Grid prototype to provide to scientists and engineers the tools necessary to operate space-based science payloads/experiments and for scientists to conduct public and educational outreach. In addition Grid technology can provide new services not currently available to users. These services include mission voice and video, application sharing, telemetry management and display, payload and experiment commanding, data mining, high order data processing, discipline specific application sharing and data storage, all from a single grid portal. The Prototype will provide most of these services in a first step demonstration of integrated Grid and space-based science operations technologies. It will initially be based on the International Space Station science operational services located at the Payload Operations Integration Center at MSFC, but can be applied to many NASA projects including free flying satellites and future projects. The Prototype will use the Internet2 Abilene Research and Education Network that is currently a 10 Gb backbone network to reach the University of Alabama at Huntsville and several other, as yet unidentified, Space Station based

  18. Space-based Operations Grid Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Welch, Clara L.

    2003-01-01

    The Space based Operations Grid is intended to integrate the "high end" network services and compute resources that a remote payload investigator needs. This includes integrating and enhancing existing services such as access to telemetry, payload commanding, payload planning and internet voice distribution as well as the addition of services such as video conferencing, collaborative design, modeling or visualization, text messaging, application sharing, and access to existing compute or data grids. Grid technology addresses some of the greatest challenges and opportunities presented by the current trends in technology, i.e. how to take advantage of ever increasing bandwidth, how to manage virtual organizations and how to deal with the increasing threats to information technology security. We will discuss the pros and cons of using grid technology in space-based operations and share current plans for the prototype. It is hoped that early on the prototype can incorporate many of the existing as well as future services that are discussed in the first paragraph above to cooperating International Space Station Principle Investigators both nationally and internationally.

  19. Operational Space Weather Products at IPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudegg, D.; Steward, G.; Marshall, R.; Terkildsen, M.; Kennewell, J.; Patterson, G.; Panwar, R.

    2008-12-01

    IPS Radio and Space Services operates an extensive network (IPSNET) of monitoring stations and observatories within the Australasian and Antarctic regions to gather information on the space environment. This includes ionosondes, magnetometers, GPS-ISM, oblique HF sounding, riometers, and solar radio and optical telescopes. IPS exchanges this information with similar organisations world-wide. The Regional Warning Centre (RWC) is the Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) and it utilizes this data to provide products and services to support customer operations. A wide range of customers use IPS services including; defence force and emergency services using HF radio communications and surveillance systems, organisations involved in geophysical exploration and pipeline cathodic protection, GPS users in aviation. Subscriptions to the alerts, warnings, forecasts and reports regarding the solar, geophysical and ionospheric conditions are distributed by email and Special Message Service (SMS). IPS also develops and markets widely used PC software prediction tools for HF radio skywave and surface wave (ASAPS/GWPS) and provides consultancy services for system planning.

  20. Distributed decision-making for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Gardner, J. A.; Willoughby, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    A programmatic and technical perspective in the context of future space applications is presented, that includes some of the management challenges that arise as the decision-making process becomes increasingly more decentralized. Three challenges are discussed: (1) the degree to which the planners must communicate with each other and with those who are seeking space operations resources, (2) the collection, management, employment and dissemination of the information needed to make decisions, and (3) the challenges connected with schedule integration. The technical perspective presented leads to recommended adaptations to the normal scheduling algorithms that retain the 'degrees of freedom' in the planning result. It is shown that these adaptations are specific technical responses to the programmatic challenges discussed.

  1. Transitioning NASA Space Operations to Commercial Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene E.

    1998-01-01

    Major considerations associated with "Transitioning NASA Space Operations to Commercial Services" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Government use of commercial frequencies vs. commercial use of commercial frequencies for government use; 2) Commercial use of government frequencies; 3) Government vs commercial: Access techniques, data formats, and modulation and coding; 4) Government need for multiple sources: backup and competition; 5) Government in perceived competition with commercial service providers if TDRSS is used for commercial purposes; and 6) Coordination required among plans for CSOC, NSCP, and satellite industry.

  2. A flexible telerobotic system for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, N. O.; Will, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    The objective and design of a proposed goal-oriented knowledge-based telerobotic system for space operations is described. This design effort encompasses the elements of the system executive and user interface and the distribution and general structure of the knowledge base, the displays, and the task sequencing. The objective of the design effort is to provide an expandable structure for a telerobotic system that provides cooperative interaction between the human operator and computer control. The initial phase of the implementation provides a rule-based, goal-oriented script generator to interface to the existing control modes of a telerobotic research system, in the Intelligent Systems Research Lab at NASA Research Center.

  3. International Space Station Water Balance Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Barry; Garr, John D., II; Erne, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    In November 2008, the Water Regenerative System racks were launched aboard Space Shuttle flight, STS-126 (ULF2) and installed and activated on the International Space Station (ISS). These racks, consisting of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), completed the installation of the Regenerative (Regen) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), which includes the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) that was launched 2 years prior. With the onset of active water management on the US segment of the ISS, a new operational concept was required, that of water balance . In November of 2010, the Sabatier system, which converts H2 and CO2 into water and methane, was brought on line. The Regen ECLSS systems accept condensation from the atmosphere, urine from crew, and processes that fluid via various means into potable water, which is used for crew drinking, building up skip-cycle water inventory, and water for electrolysis to produce oxygen. Specification (spec) rates of crew urine output, condensate output, O2 requirements, toilet flush water, and drinking needs are well documented and used as the best guess planning rates when Regen ECLSS came online. Spec rates are useful in long term planning, however, daily or weekly rates are dependent upon a number of variables. The constantly changing rates created a new challenge for the ECLSS flight controllers, who are responsible for operating the ECLSS systems onboard ISS from Mission Control in Houston. This paper reviews the various inputs to water planning, rate changes, and dynamic events, including but not limited to: crew personnel makeup, Regen ECLSS system operability, vehicle traffic, water storage availability, and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), Sabatier, and OGA capability. Along with the inputs that change the various rates, the paper will review the different systems, their constraints, and finally the operational challenges and means by which flight controllers

  4. Quantum Mechanical Operators in Multiresolution Hilbert Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipek, János

    2007-12-01

    Wavelet analysis, which is a shorthand notation for the concept of multiresolution analysis (MRA), becomes increasingly popular in high efficiency storage algorithms of complex spatial distributions. This approach is applied for describing wave functions of quantum systems. At any resolution level of MRA expansions a physical observable is represented by an infinite matrix which is "canonically" chosen as the projection of its operator in the Schrödinger picture onto the subspace of the given resolution. It is shown that this canonical choice is only a particular member of possible operator representations. Among these, there exits an optimal choice, usually different from the canonical one, which gives the best numerical values in eigenvalue problems. This construction works even in those cases, where the canonical definition is unusable. The commutation relation of physical operators is also studied in MRA subspaces. It is shown that the required commutation rules are satisfied in the fine resolution limit, whereas in coarse grained spaces a correction appears depending only on the representation of the momentum operator.

  5. National Space Transportation System Reference. Volume 2: Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the Space Transportation System is presented in which aspects of the program operations are discussed. The various mission preparation and prelaunch operations are described including astronaut selection and training, Space Shuttle processing, Space Shuttle integration and rollout, Complex 39 launch pad facilities, and Space Shuttle cargo processing. Also, launch and flight operations and space tracking and data acquisition are described along with the mission control and payload operations control center. In addition, landing, postlanding, and solid rocket booster retrieval operations are summarized. Space Shuttle program management is described and Space Shuttle mission summaries and chronologies are presented. A glossary of acronyms and abbreviations are provided.

  6. Solar thematic maps for space weather operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes", associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ~2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

  7. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  8. Robotic vision techniques for space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1994-01-01

    Automation and robotics for space applications are being pursued for increased productivity, enhanced reliability, increased flexibility, higher safety, and for the automation of time-consuming tasks and those activities which are beyond the capacity of the crew. One of the key functional elements of an automated robotic system is sensing and perception. As the robotics era dawns in space, vision systems will be required to provide the key sensory data needed for multifaceted intelligent operations. In general, the three-dimensional scene/object description, along with location, orientation, and motion parameters will be needed. In space, the absence of diffused lighting due to a lack of atmosphere gives rise to: (a) high dynamic range (10(exp 8)) of scattered sunlight intensities, resulting in very high contrast between shadowed and specular portions of the scene; (b) intense specular reflections causing target/scene bloom; and (c) loss of portions of the image due to shadowing and presence of stars, Earth, Moon, and other space objects in the scene. In this work, developments for combating the adverse effects described earlier and for enhancing scene definition are discussed. Both active and passive sensors are used. The algorithm for selecting appropriate wavelength, polarization, look angle of vision sensors is based on environmental factors as well as the properties of the target/scene which are to be perceived. The environment is characterized on the basis of sunlight and other illumination incident on the target/scene and the temperature profiles estimated on the basis of the incident illumination. The unknown geometrical and physical parameters are then derived from the fusion of the active and passive microwave, infrared, laser, and optical data.

  9. Space Technology 5 Launch and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Concha, Marco A.; Morrissey, James R.; Placanica, Samuel J.; Russo, Angela M.; Tsai, Dean C.

    2007-01-01

    The three spacecraft that made up the Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission were successfully launched and deployed from their Pegasus launch vehicle on March 22, 2006. Final contact with the spacecraft occurred on June 30, 2006, with all Level 1 requirements met. By the end of the mission, all ST5 technologies had been validated, all on-board attitude control system (ACS) modes had been successfully demonstrated, and the desired constellation configurations had been achieved to demonstrate the ability of small spacecraft to take quality science measurements, However, during those 100 days (ST5 was planned to be a 90-day mission), there were a number of anomalies that made achieving the mission goals very challenging. This paper will discuss: the chronology of the ST5 launch and early operations, work performed to diagnose and work-around a sun sensor anomaly, spacecraft tests devised to demonstrate correct operation of all onboard ACS modes, the maneuver plan performed to achieve the desired constellation, investigations performed by members of the ST5 GN&C and Science teams of an anomalous spin down condition, and the end-of-life orbit and passivating operations performed on the three spacecraft.

  10. Institutional environmental impact statement (space shuttle development and operations) amendment no. 1. [space shuttle operations at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Data are presented to support the environmental impact statement on space shuttle actions at Kennedy Space Center. Studies indicate that land use to accommodate space shuttle operations may have the most significant impact. The impacts on air, water and noise quality are predicted to be less on the on-site environment. Considerations of operating modes indicate that long and short term land use will not affect wildlife productivity. The potential for adverse environmental impact is small and such impacts will be local, short in duration, controllable, and environmentally acceptable.

  11. Emergency Operations Center at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caylor, Gary C.

    1997-01-01

    In June 1966, at the start of the Gulf Coast hurricane season, the Johnson Space Center (JSC) celebrated the opening of its new 4,000-square foot, state-of-the-art Emergency Operations Center (EOC). The new EOC has been upgraded and enhanced to support a wide spectrum of emergencies affecting JSC and neighboring communities. One of the main features of the EOC is its premier computerized dispatch center. The new system unites many of JSC's critical emergency functions into one integrated network. It automatically monitors fire alarms, security entrances, and external cameras. It contains the JSC inventory of hazardous materials, by building and room, and can call up Material Safety Data Sheets for most of the generic hazardous materials used on-site. The EOC is available for community use during area emergencies such as hurricanes and is a welcome addition to the Clear Lake/Galveston Bay Area communities' emergency response resources.

  12. Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) operations and safety view - Automation and robotics for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The automation and robotics requirements for the Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) are discussed. The amount of tasks to be performed by an eight-person crew, the need for an automated or directed fault analysis capability, and ground support requirements are considered. Issues important in determining the role of automation for the IOC are listed.

  13. JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System Operating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Orozco, David S.; Stern, Ryan A.; Ahten, Earl R.; Girard, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A flight-qualified implementation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Operating Environment for the JPL-SDR built for the CoNNeCT Project has been developed. It is compliant with the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard, and provides the software infrastructure for STRS compliant waveform applications. This software provides a standards-compliant abstracted view of the JPL-SDR hardware platform. It uses industry standard POSIX interfaces for most functions, as well as exposing the STRS API (Application Programming In terface) required by the standard. This software includes a standardized interface for IP components instantiated within a Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The software provides a standardized abstracted interface to platform resources such as data converters, file system, etc., which can be used by STRS standards conformant waveform applications. It provides a generic SDR operating environment with a much smaller resource footprint than similar products such as SCA (Software Communications Architecture) compliant implementations, or the DoD Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS).

  14. Economic consequences of commercial space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Wood, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    The potential economic benefits generated from increased industry involvement and investment in space activities and the subsequent cost implications are discussed. A historical overview of commercial industry involvement in space is given and sources of new economic growth in space are discussed. These include communications satellites, small satellites, positioning and navigation services, space transportation and infrastructure, remote sensing, and materials processing in space such as the manufacturing of protein crystals and zeolites. Macroeconomic trends and principles such as limits on technology trade, eased restrictions on international joint ventures, foreign investments in U.S. firms, and increased foreign competition are discussed. Earth observations and mapping are considered. Opportunities for private sector involvement in building space infrastructure and space transportation are highlighted.

  15. Operator space entanglement entropy in a transverse Ising chain

    SciTech Connect

    Prosen, Tomaz; Pizorn, Iztok

    2007-09-15

    The efficiency of time-dependent density matrix renormalization group methods is intrinsically connected to the rate of entanglement growth. We introduce a measure of entanglement in the space of operators and show, for a transverse Ising spin-1/2 chain, that the simulation of observables, contrary to the simulation of typical pure quantum states, is efficient for initial local operators. For initial operators with a finite index in Majorana representation, the operator space entanglement entropy saturates with time to a level which is calculated analytically, while for initial operators with infinite index the growth of operator space entanglement entropy is shown to be logarithmic.

  16. Space Operations Learning Center Facebook Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) Facebook module, initially code-named Spaceville, is intended to be an educational online game utilizing the latest social networking technology to reach a broad audience base and inspire young audiences to be interested in math, science, and engineering. Spaceville will be a Facebook application/ game with the goal of combining learning with a fun game and social environment. The mission of the game is to build a scientific outpost on the Moon or Mars and expand the colony. Game activities include collecting resources, trading resources, completing simple science experiments, and building architectures such as laboratories, habitats, greenhouses, machine shops, etc. The player is awarded with points and achievement levels. The player s ability increases as his/her points and levels increase. A player can interact with other players using multiplayer Facebook functionality. As a result, a player can discover unexpected treasures through scientific missions, engineering, and working with others. The player creates his/her own avatar with his/her selection of its unique appearance, and names the character. The player controls the avatar to perform activities such as collecting oxygen molecules or building a habitat. From observations of other successful social online games such as Farmville and Restaurant City, a common element of these games is having eye-catching and cartoonish characters, and interesting animations for all activities. This will create a fun, educational, and rewarding environment. The player needs to accumulate points in order to be awarded special items needed for advancing to higher levels. Trophies will be awarded to the player when certain goals are reached or tasks are completed. In order to acquire some special items needed for advancement in the game, the player will need to visit his/her neighboring towns to discover the items. This is the social aspect of the game that requires the

  17. Performance Support Tools for Space Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Vicky; Schmid, Josef; Barshi, Immanuel

    2010-01-01

    Early Constellation space missions are expected to have medical capabilities similar to those currently on board the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). Flight surgeons on the ground in Mission Control will direct the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) during medical situations. If the crew is unable to communicate with the ground, the CMO will carry out medical procedures without the aid of a flight surgeon. In these situations, use of performance support tools can reduce errors and time to perform emergency medical tasks. The research presented here is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project of the Space Human Factors Engineering Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element of the Human Research Program. This is a joint project consisting of human factors teams from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Ames Research Center (ARC). Work on medical training has been conducted in collaboration with the Medical Training Group at JSC and with Wyle that provides medical training to crew members, biomedical engineers (BMEs), and flight surgeons under the Bioastronautics contract. Human factors personnel at Johnson Space Center have investigated medical performance support tools for CMOs and flight surgeons.

  18. Space Operations Center System Analysis: Requirements for a Space Operations Center, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    The system and program requirements for a space operations center as defined by systems analysis studies are presented as a guide for future study and systems definition. Topics covered include general requirements for safety, maintainability, and reliability, service and habitat modules, the health maintenance facility; logistics modules; the docking tunnel; and subsystem requirements (structures, electrical power, environmental control/life support; extravehicular activity; data management; communications and tracking; docking/berthing; flight control/propulsion; and crew support). Facilities for flight support, construction, satellite and mission servicing, and fluid storage are included as well as general purpose support equipment.

  19. Space operations and the human factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1993-10-01

    Although space flight does not put the public at high risk, billions of dollars in hardware are destroyed and the space program halted when an accident occurs. Researchers are therefore applying human-factors techniques similar to those used in the aircraft industry, albeit at a greatly reduced level, to the spacecraft environment. The intent is to reduce the likelihood of catastrophic failure. To increase safety and efficiency, space human factors researchers have simulated spacecraft docking and extravehicular activity rescue. Engineers have also studied EVA suit mobility and aids. Other basic human-factors issues that have been applied to the space environment include antropometry, biomechanics, and ergonomics. Workstation design, workload, and task analysis currently receive much attention, as do habitability and other aspects of confined environments. Much work also focuses on individual payloads, as each presents its own complexities.

  20. Operational Aspects of Space Radiation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyland, M. D.; Johnson, A. S.; Semones, E. J.; Shelfer, T.; Dardano, C.; Lin, T.; Zapp, N. E.; Rutledge, R.; George, T.

    2005-01-01

    Minimizing astronaut's short and long-term medical risks arising from exposure to ionizing radiation during space missions is a major concern for NASA's manned spaceflight program, particularly exploration missions. For ethical and legal reasons, NASA follows the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) principal in managing astronaut's radiation exposures. One implementation of ALARA is the response to space weather events. Of particular concern are energetic solar particle events, and in low Earth orbit (LEO), electron belt enhancements. To properly respond to these events, NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), in partnership with the NOAA Space Environment Center (SEC), provides continuous flight support during U.S. manned missions. In this partnership, SEC compiles space weather data from numerous ground and space based assets and makes it available in near real-time to SRAG (along with alerts and forecasts), who in turn uses these data as input to models to calculate estimates of the resulting exposure to astronauts. These calculations and vehicle instrument data form the basis for real-time recommendations to flight management. It is also important to implement ALARA during the design phase. In order to appropriately weigh the risks associated with various shielding and vehicle configuration concepts, the expected environment must be adequately characterized for nominal and worst case scenarios for that portion of the solar cycle and point in space. Even with the best shielding concepts and materials in place (unlikely), there will be numerous occasions where the crew is at greater risk due to being in a lower shielded environment (short term transit or lower shielded vehicles, EVAs), so that accurate space weather forecasts and nowcasts, of particles at the relevant energies, will be crucial to protecting crew health and safety.

  1. Critical Function Models for Operation of the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William Roy; Bagian, T. M.

    2000-11-01

    Long duration and exploration class space missions will place new requirements on human performance when compared to current space shuttle missions. Specifically, assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will place significant new demands on the crew. For example, maintenance of systems that provide habitability will become an ongoing activity for the international flight crews. Tasks for maintaining space station habitability will need to be integrated with tasks associated with scientific research. In addition, tasks and resources will need to be prioritized and allocated dynamically in response to changing operational conditions and unplanned system breakdowns. This paper describes an ongoing program to develop a habitability index (HI) for space operations based on the critical function approach. This pilot project focuses on adaptation of the critical function approach to develop a habitability index specifically tailored for space operations. Further work will then be needed to expand and validate the habitability index for application in the ISS operational environment.

  2. A distributed planning concept for Space Station payload operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, Jeff; Maxwell, Theresa; Reed, Tracey

    1994-01-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the payload operations to be performed on the Space Station requires a robust and flexible planning approach. The planning approach for Space Station payload operations must support the phased development of the Space Station, as well as the geographically distributed users of the Space Station. To date, the planning approach for manned operations in space has been one of centralized planning to the n-th degree of detail. This approach, while valid for short duration flights, incurs high operations costs and is not conducive to long duration Space Station operations. The Space Station payload operations planning concept must reduce operations costs, accommodate phased station development, support distributed users, and provide flexibility. One way to meet these objectives is to distribute the planning functions across a hierarchy of payload planning organizations based on their particular needs and expertise. This paper presents a planning concept which satisfies all phases of the development of the Space Station (manned Shuttle flights, unmanned Station operations, and permanent manned operations), and the migration from centralized to distributed planning functions. Identified in this paper are the payload planning functions which can be distributed and the process by which these functions are performed.

  3. Space Shuttle Propulsion Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James; Welzyn, Ken; Vanhooser, Katherine; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    Presentations in this session include: (1) External Tank (ET) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges; (2) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges,(3) Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges and (4) Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Materials, Manufacturing, and Operational Challenges.

  4. Revitalizing Space Operations through Total Quality Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baylis, William T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the reader what total quality management (TQM) is and how to apply TQM in the space systems and management arena. TQM is easily understood, can be implemented in any type of business organization, and works.

  5. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  6. Requirements and specifications of the space telescope for scientific operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, D. K.

    1976-01-01

    Requirements for the scientific operations of the Space Telescope and the Science Institute are used to develop operational interfaces between user scientists and the NASA ground system. General data systems are defined for observatory scheduling, daily science planning, and science data management. Hardware, software, manpower, and space are specified for several science institute locations and support options.

  7. Economics in ground operations of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The physical configuration, task versatility, and typical mission profile of the Space Shuttle are illustrated and described, and a comparison of shuttle and expendable rocket costs is discussed, with special emphasis upon savings to be achieved in ground operations. A review of economies achieved by engineering design improvements covers the automated checkout by onboard shuttle systems, the automated launch processing system, the new maintenance concept, and the analogy of Space Shuttle and airline repetitive operations. The Space Shuttle is shown to represent a new level in space flight technology, particularly, the sophistication of the systems and procedures devised for its support and ground operations.

  8. Statistical porcess control in Deep Space Network operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodder, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes how the Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (EL) uses Statistical Process Control (SPC) to monitor performance and evaluate initiatives for improving processes on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Deep Space Network (DSN).

  9. Space Station - An integrated approach to operational logistics support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosmer, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Development of an efficient and cost effective operational logistics system for the Space Station will require logistics planning early in the program's design and development phase. This paper will focus on Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) Program techniques and their application to the Space Station program design, production and deployment phases to assure the development of an effective and cost efficient operational logistics system. The paper will provide the methodology and time-phased programmatic steps required to establish a Space Station ILS Program that will provide an operational logistics system based on planned Space Station program logistics support.

  10. Dirac operators on quasi-Hamiltonian G-spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanli

    2016-08-01

    We construct twisted spinor bundles as well as twisted pre-quantum bundles on quasi-Hamiltonian G-spaces, using the spin representation of loop group and the Hilbert space of Wess-Zumino-Witten model. We then define a Hilbert space together with a Dirac operator acting on it. The main result of this paper is that we show the Dirac operator has a well-defined index given by positive energy representation of the loop group. This generalizes the geometric quantization of Hamiltonian G-spaces to quasi-Hamiltonian G-spaces.

  11. An operations management system for the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Terry R.

    A description is provided of an Operations Management System (OMS) for the planned NASA Space Station. The OMS would be distributed both in space and on the ground, and provide a transparent interface to the communications and data processing facilities of the Space Station Program. The allocation of OMS responsibilities has, in the most current Space Station design, been fragmented among the Communications and Tracking Subsystem (CTS), the Data Management System (DMS), and a redefined OMS. In this current view, OMS is less of a participant in the real-time processing, and more an overseer of the health and management of the Space Station operations.

  12. Fire safety concerns in space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in fire control techniques and identifies important issues for continuing research, technology, and standards. For the future permanent orbiting facility, the space station, fire prevention and control calls for not only more stringent fire safety due to the long-term and complex missions, but also for simplified and flexible safety rules to accommodate the variety of users. Future research must address a better understanding of the microgravity space environment as it influences fire propagation and extinction and the application of the technology of fire detection, extinguishment, and material assessment. Spacecraft fire safety should also consider the adaptation of methods and concepts derived from aircraft and undersea experience.

  13. Water sprays in space retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a ground based vacuum chamber to determine physical properties of water-ice in a space-like environment. Additional ices, alcohol and ammonia, were also studied. An analytical analysis based on the conservation of angular momentum, resulted in despin performance parameters, i.e., total water mass requirements and despin times. The despin and retrieval of a disabled spacecraft was considered to illustrate a potential application of the water spray technique.

  14. Operational Space Weather Needs - Perspectives from SEASONS 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comberiate, J.; Kelly, M. A.; Paxton, L. J.; Schaefer, R. K.; Bust, G. S.; Sotirelis, T.; Fox, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    A key challenge for the operational space weather community is the gap between the latest scientific data, models, methods, and indices and those that are currently used in operational systems. The November 2014 SEASONS (Space Environment Applications, Systems, and Operations for National Security) Workshop at JHU/APL in Laurel, Maryland, brings together representatives from the operational and scientific communities. The theme of SEASONS 2014 is "Beyond Climatology," with a focus on how space weather events threaten operational assets and disrupt missions. Here we present perspectives from SEASONS 2014 on new observations, models in development, and forecasting methods that are of interest to the operational space weather community. Highlighted topics include ionospheric data assimilation and forecasting models, HF propagation models, radiation belt observations, and energetic particle modeling. The SEASONS 2014 web site can be found at https://secwww.jhuapl.edu/SEASONS/

  15. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  16. Logistics: An integral part of cost efficient space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Ann D.

    1996-01-01

    The logistics of space programs and its history within NASA are discussed, with emphasis on manned space flight and the Space Shuttle program. The lessons learned and the experience gained during these programs are reported on. Key elements of logistics are highlighted, and the problems and issues that can be expected to arise in relation to the support of long-term space operations and future space programs, are discussed. Such missions include the International Space Station program and the reusable launch vehicle. Possible solutions to the problems identified are outlined.

  17. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  18. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  19. User interface and operational issues with thermionic space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlberg, R. C.; Fisher, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Thermionic space power systems have unique features which facilitate predeployment operations, provide operational flexibility and simplify the interface with the user. These were studied in some detail during the SP-100 program from 1983 to 1985. Three examples are reviewed in this paper: (1) system readiness verification in the prelaunch phase; (2) startup, shutdown, and dormancy in the operations phase; (3) part-load operation in the operations phase.

  20. Performance Support Tools for Space Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Schmidt, Josef; Barshi, Immanuel

    2009-01-01

    The early Constellation space missions are expected to have medical capabilities very similar to those currently on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). For Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) missions to ISS, medical equipment will be located on ISS, and carried into CEV in the event of an emergency. Flight Surgeons (FS) on the ground in Mission Control will be expected to direct the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) during medical situations. If there is a loss of signal and the crew is unable to communicate with the ground, a CMO would be expected to carry out medical procedures without the aid of a FS. In these situations, performance support tools can be used to reduce errors and time to perform emergency medical tasks. Human factors personnel at Johnson Space Center have recently investigated medical performance support tools for CMOs on-orbit, and FSs on the ground. This area of research involved the feasibility of Just-in-time (JIT) training techniques and concepts for real-time medical procedures. In Phase 1, preliminary feasibility data was gathered for two types of prototype display technologies: a hand-held PDA, and a Head Mounted Display (HMD). The PDA and HMD were compared while performing a simulated medical procedure using ISS flight-like medical equipment. Based on the outcome of Phase 1, including data on user preferences, further testing was completed using the PDA only. Phase 2 explored a wrist-mounted PDA, and compared it to a paper cue card. For each phase, time to complete procedures, errors, and user satisfaction were captured. Information needed by the FS during ISS mission support, especially for an emergency situation (e.g. fire onboard ISS), may be located in many different places around the FS s console. A performance support tool prototype is being developed to address this issue by bringing all of the relevant information together in one place. The tool is designed to include procedures and other information needed by a FS

  1. Development of operational models for space weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqing; Gong, Jiancun

    Since space weather prediction is currently at the stage of transition from human experience to objective forecasting methods, developing operational forecasting models becomes an important way to improve the capabilities of space weather service. As the existing theoretical models are not fully operational when it comes to space weather prediction, we carried out researches on developing operational models, considering the user needs for prediction of key elements in space environment, which have vital impacts on space assets security. We focused on solar activities, geomagnetic activities, high-energy particles, atmospheric density, plasma environment and so forth. Great progresses have been made in developing 3D dynamic asymmetric magnetopause model, plasma sheet energetic electron flux forecasting model and 400km-atmospheric density forecasting model, and also in the prediction of high-speed solar-wind streams from coronal holes and geomagnetic AE indices. Some of these models have already been running in the operational system of Space Environment Prediction Center, National Space Science Center (SEPC/NSSC). This presentation will introduce the research plans for space weather prediction in China, and current progresses of developing operational models and their applications in daily space weather services in SEPC/NSSC.

  2. Space operations center: Shuttle interaction study extension, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) is conceived as a permanent facility in low Earth orbit incorporating capabilities for space systems construction; space vehicle assembly, launching, recovery and servicing; and the servicing of co-orbiting satellites. The Shuttle Transportation System is an integral element of the SOC concept. It will transport the various elements of the SOC into space and support the assembly operation. Subsequently, it will regularly service the SOC with crew rotations, crew supplies, construction materials, construction equipment and components, space vehicle elements, and propellants and spare parts. The implications to the SOC as a consequence of the Shuttle supporting operations are analyzed. Programmatic influences associated with propellant deliveries, spacecraft servicing, and total shuttle flight operations are addressed.

  3. Operational support considerations in Space Shuttle prelaunch processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuiling, Roelof L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of operational support for Space Shuttle payload processing at the John F. Kennedy Space Center. The paper begins with a discussion of the Shuttle payload processing operation itself. It discusses the major organizational roles and describes the two major classes of payload operations: Spacelab mission payload and vertically-installed payload operations. The paper continues by describing the Launch Site Support Team and the Payload Processing Test Team. Specific areas of operational support are then identified including security and access, training, transport and handling, documentation and scheduling. Specific references for further investigatgion are included.

  4. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  5. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  6. Operational Space Weather Forecasting: Requirements and Future Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, E.; Gibbs, M.; Jackson, D.; Marsh, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office has over 150 years' experience in providing operational forecasting to meet the UK's terrestrial weather needs, and is developing a similar capability in space weather. Since April 2014 the Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) has issued 24/7 operational forecasts, alerts and warnings on space weather which can have impacts on electricity grids, radio communications and satellite electronics. In this talk we will summarise the current requirements and future needs for operational space weather forecasting. We will review what the terrestrial weather community considers as operational forecasts, and use MOSWOC as an example of the underpinning research, IT and collaborations required to accomplish this. We will also discuss the policy, science evidence base and user support requirements needed to obtain sufficient long-term funding for operational activities, illustrating this with the UK's national risk register, Royal Academy of Engineering report, and the forthcoming IPSP economic study, as well as work done with users to ensure services match their needs. These are similar activities to those being undertaken in SWORM and the COSPAR/ILWS Space Weather Shield to Society Roadmap. Future needs will also be considered, considering the need for operational observations, particularly focussing on the role an L5 mission could play; a chain of coupled operational models covering the Sun, Earth, and intervening space; and how these observations and models can be integrated via data assimilation.

  7. Space Station crew workload - Station operations and customer accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinkle, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The features of the Space Station which permit crew members to utilize work time for payload operations are discussed. The user orientation, modular design, nonstressful flight regime, in space construction, on board control, automation and robotics, and maintenance and servicing of the Space Station are examined. The proposed crew size, skills, and functions as station operator and mission specialists are described. Mission objectives and crew functions, which include performing material processing, life science and astronomy experiments, satellite and payload equipment servicing, systems monitoring and control, maintenance and repair, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Mobile Remote Manipulator System operations, on board planning, housekeeping, and health maintenance and recreation, are studied.

  8. Glan Clwyd operating space is transformed.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    Turnkey construction company, MTX Contracts, has recently completed a suite of five 'modern and future-proofed' operating theatres at the Ysbyty Glan Clwyd in Bodelwyddan, Denbighshire, in the first phase of a 90-phase, 89.9 million pounds sterling redevelopment of facilities at the North Wales hospital being undertaken by Laing O'Rourke for the Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board. According to Dr Eileen Williams, a consultant anaesthetist at the hospital, and the clinical lead on the hospital redevelopment project, the new theatre facilities will enable surgeons to undertake a wide range of surgical procedures, equipped with the most modern technology, in an environment that is not only lighter, brighter, and better laid out than the six previous theatres, but will also improve patient flow, aid infection control, and greatly enhance overall working efficiencies. PMID:22984742

  9. Engineering, construction, and operations in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    The century-old Mond process for carbonyl extraction of metals from ore shows great promise as an efficient low energy scheme for producing high-purity Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Co from lunar or asteroidal feedstocks. Scenarios for winning oxygen from the lunar regolith can be enhanced by carbonyl processing of the metallic alloy by-products of such operations. The native metal content of asteroidal regoliths is even more suitable to carbonyl processing. High-purity, corrosion resistant Fe and Ni can be extracted from asteroidial feedstocks along with a Co-rich residue containing 0.5 percent platinum-group metals. The resulting gaseous metal carbonyl can produce a variety of end products using efficient vapor forming techniques.

  10. Engineering, construction, and operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W. (Editor); Wetzel, John P. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The century-old Mond process for carbonyl extraction of metals from ore shows great promise as an efficient low energy scheme for producing high-purity Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Co from lunar or asteroidal feedstocks. Scenarios for winning oxygen from the lunar regolith can be enhanced by carbonyl processing of the metallic alloy by-products of such operations. The native metal content of asteroidal regoliths is even more suitable to carbonyl processing. High-purity, corrosion resistant Fe and Ni can be extracted from asteroidial feedstocks along with a Co-rich residue containing 0.5 percent platinum-group metals. The resulting gaseous metal carbonyl can produce a variety of end products using efficient vapor forming techniques.

  11. Space Shuttle Proximity Operation Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Alem, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of the Kuband radar was analyzed in detail, and the performance was updated and summarized. In so doing, two different radar design philosophies were described, and the corresponding differences in losses were enumerated. The resulting design margins were determined for both design philosophies and for both the designated and nondesignated range modes of operation. In some cases, the design margin was about zero, and in other cases it was significantly less than zero. With the point of view described above, the recommended solution is to allow more scan time but at the present scan rate. With no other changes in the present configuration, the radar met design detection specifications for all design philosophies at a range of 11.3 nautical miles.

  12. Astronaut John Glenn dons space suit during preflight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Astronaut John Glenn dons space suit during preflight operations at Cape Canaveral, February 20, 1962, the day he flew his Mercury-Atlas 6 spacecraft, Friendship 7, into orbital flight around the Earth.

  13. How Long Can the Hubble Space Telescope Operate Reliably?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Jordan, T.; Poivey, C.; Lum, G.; Haskins, D. N.; Pergosky, A. M.; Smith, D. C.; LaBel, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Total ionizing dose exposure of electronic parts in the Hubble Space Telescope is analyzed using 3-D ray trace and Monte Carlo simulations. Results are discussed along with other potential failure mechanisms for science operations.

  14. Kennedy Space Center Medical Operations and Medical Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the emergency medical operations at Kennedy Space center, the KSC launch and landing contingency modes, the triage site, the medical kit, and the medications available.

  15. Communications satellite systems operations with the space station, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K.; Dixon, J.; Weyandt, C.

    1987-01-01

    A financial model was developed which described quantitatively the economics of the space segment of communication satellite systems. The model describes the economics of the space system throughout the lifetime of the satellite. The expected state-of-the-art status of communications satellite systems and operations beginning service in 1995 were assessed and described. New or enhanced space-based activities and associated satellite system designs that have the potential to achieve future communications satellite operations in geostationary orbit with improved economic performance were postulated and defined. Three scenarios using combinations of space-based activities were analyzed: a spin stabilized satellite, a three axis satellite, and assembly at the Space Station and GEO servicing. Functional and technical requirements placed on the Space Station by the scenarios were detailed. Requirements on the satellite were also listed.

  16. Orbital Dynamics of Space Debris around operational artificial satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Jarbas

    2016-07-01

    The increasing number of space debris, orbiting the Earth justifies and requires more efforts to observe and track them to avoid collisions among them and the earth's satellites. In this way, several studies are important to preserve the operability of the artificial satellites. In this work, the orbital dynamics of space debris are studied in the neighborhood of operational artificial satellites. The results show that the collision risks between these objects is high and solutions to avoid these events are necessary.

  17. Space operations center applications of satellite service equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaffrey, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite servicing requirements for a continuously manned Space Operations Center (SOC) are discussed. Applications for Orbiter developed service equipment are described, together with representative satellite servicing operations for use on SOC. These services cover the full mission cycle from orbital deployment to on-orbit maintenance/repair and, eventually, removal from orbit. An orbiting base, such as the SOC, can provide many of the same services at less cost than the Space Shuttle transportation system.

  18. Natural environment support guidelines for Space Shuttle tests and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Brown, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    The present work outlines the general concept as to how natural environment guidelines will be developed for Space Shuttle activities. The following six categories that might need natural environment support are single out: development tests; preliminary operations and prelaunch; launch to orbit; orbital mission and operations; deorbit, entry, and landing; ferry flights. An example of detailed event requirements for decisions to launch is given. Some artist's conceptions of proposed launch complexes at Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg AFB are shown.

  19. Validating Physics-based Space Weather Models for Operational Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombosi, Tamas; Singer, Howard; Millward, George; Toth, Gabor; Welling, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The Geospace components of the Space Weather Modeling Framework developed at the University of Michigan is presently transitioned to operational use by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center. This talk will discuss the various ways the model is validated and skill scores are calculated.

  20. An Operations Management System for the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, H. G.

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the conceptual design of an integrated onboard Operations Management System (OMS). Both hardware and software concepts are presented and the integrated space station network is discussed. It is shown that using currently available software technology, an integrated software solution for Space Station management and control, implemented with OMS software, is feasible.

  1. Space Station Freedom payload operations from the user's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robey, J. L.; Leech, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Microgravity Science and Applications Division's (MSAD) operations concept for using the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program ground data systems and services, and the plans for and capabilities of the MSAD remote User Operations Facilities (UOF) from which the MSAD SSF payloads will be operated. Attention is given to the MSAD operational phases, the MSAD UOF concept, and UOF operations teams. MSAD is planning remote payload operations for a number of Spacelab missions which will supply MSAD valuable information for application to the development of UOFs in the SSF era.

  2. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Systems Operation Overview and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benefield, Philip A.; Kan, Kenneth C.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a large thrust class, reusable, staged combustion cycle rocket engine employing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants. A cluster of three SSMEs is used on every space shuttle mission to propel the space shuttle orbiter vehicle into low earth orbit. Development of the SSME began in the early 70's and the first flight of the space shuttle occurred in 1981. Today, the SSME has accrued over one million seconds of ground test and flight operational time, launching 129 space shuttle missions. The systems operation of the SSME was developed and evolved to support the specific requirements of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP). This paper provides a systems operation overview of the SSME, including: engine cycle, propellant flowpaths, and major components; control system; operations during pre-start, start, mainstage, and shutdown phases; launch commit criteria (LCCs) and operational redlines. Furthermore, this paper will discuss how changes to the SSME over its history have impacted systems operations.

  3. Near Real Time Data for Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Space weather operations presents unique challenges for data systems and providers. Space weather events evolve more quickly than terrestrial weather events. While terrestrial weather occurs on timescales of minutes to hours, space weather storms evolve on timescales of seconds to minutes. For example, the degradation of the High Frequency Radio communications between the ground and commercial airlines is nearly instantaneous when a solar flare occurs. Thus the customer is observing impacts at the same time that the operational forecast center is seeing the event unfold. The diversity and spatial scale of the space weather system is such that no single observation can capture the salient features. The vast space that encompasses space weather and the scarcity of observations further exacerbates the situation and make each observation even more valuable. The physics of interplanetary space, through which many major storms propagate, is very different from the physics of the ionosphere where most of the impacts are felt. And while some observations can be made from ground-based observatories, many of the most critical data comes from satellites, often in unique orbits far from Earth. In this presentation, I will describe some of the more important sources and types of data that feed into the operational alerts, watches, and warnings of space weather storms. Included will be a discussion of some of the new space weather forecast models and the data challenges that they bring forward.

  4. How the Station will operate. [operation, management, and maintenance in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Aspects of the upcoming operational phase of the Space Station (SS) are examined. What the crew members will do with their time in their specialized roles is addressed. SS maintenance and servicing and the interaction of the SS Control Center with Johnson Space Center is discussed. The planning of payload operations and strategic planning for the SS are examined.

  5. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazuelos, Carlos; Vidick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.

  6. Transportation and operations aspects of space energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1989-01-01

    A brief comparative analysis was made for three concepts of supplying large-scale electrical energy to Earth from space. The concepts were: (1) mining helium-3 on the Moon and returning it to Earth; (2) constructing solar power satellites in geosynchronous orbit from lunar materials (the energy is beamed by microwave to receivers on Earth); and (3) constructing power collection and beaming systems on the Moon itself and transmitting the energy to Earth by microwave. This analysis concerned mainly space transportation and operations, but each of the systems is briefly characterized to provide a basis for space transportation and operations analysis.

  7. Lights Out Operations of a Space, Ground, Sensorweb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Johnston, Mark; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Cichy, Benjamin; Doubleday, Joshua; Pieri, David; Scharenbroich, Lucas; Kedar, Sharon; Chao, Yi; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Song, WenZhan; Kyle, Philip; LaHusen, Rick; Cappelaere, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    We have been operating an autonomous, integrated sensorweb linking numerous space and ground sensors in 24/7 operations since 2004. This sensorweb includes elements of space data acquisition (MODIS, GOES, and EO-1), space asset retasking (EO-1), integration of data acquired from ground sensor networks with on-demand ground processing of data into science products. These assets are being integrated using web service standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium. Future plans include extension to fixed and mobile surface and subsurface sea assets as part of the NSF's ORION Program.

  8. Characteristics of Operational Space Weather Forecasting: Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Viereck, Rodney; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terry; Biesecker, Doug; Rutledge, Robert; Hill, Steven; Akmaev, Rashid; Milward, George; Fuller-Rowell, Tim

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to research observations, models and ground support systems, operational systems are characterized by real-time data streams and run schedules, with redundant backup systems for most elements of the system. We review the characteristics of operational space weather forecasting, concentrating on the key aspects of ground- and space-based observations that feed models of the coupled Sun-Earth system at the NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). Building on the infrastructure of the National Weather Service, SWPC is working toward a fully operational system based on the GOES weather satellite system (constant real-time operation with back-up satellites), the newly launched DSCOVR satellite at L1 (constant real-time data network with AFSCN backup), and operational models of the heliosphere, magnetosphere, and ionosphere/thermosphere/mesophere systems run on the Weather and Climate Operational Super-computing System (WCOSS), one of the worlds largest and fastest operational computer systems that will be upgraded to a dual 2.5 Pflop system in 2016. We review plans for further operational space weather observing platforms being developed in the context of the Space Weather Operations Research and Mitigation (SWORM) task force in the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) at the White House. We also review the current operational model developments at SWPC, concentrating on the differences between the research codes and the modified real-time versions that must run with zero fault tolerance on the WCOSS systems. Understanding the characteristics and needs of the operational forecasting community is key to producing research into the coupled Sun-Earth system with maximal societal benefit.

  9. A gap analysis of meteorological requirements for commercial space operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Nicholas James

    Commercial space companies will soon be the primary method of launching people and supplies into orbit. Among the critical aspects of space launches are the meteorological concerns. Laws and regulations pertaining to meteorological considerations have been created to ensure the safety of the space industry and those living around spaceports; but, are they adequate? Perhaps the commercial space industry can turn to the commercial aviation industry to help answer that question. Throughout its history, the aviation industry has dealt with lessons learned from mishaps due to failures in understanding the significance of weather impacts on operations. Using lessons from the aviation industry, the commercial space industry can preempt such accidents and maintain viability as an industry. Using Lanicci's Strategic Planning Model, this study identified the weather needs of the commercial space industry by conducting three gap analyses. First, a comparative analysis was done between laws and regulations in commercial aviation and those in the commercial space industry pertaining to meteorological support, finding a "legislative gap" between the two industries, as no legal guarantee is in place to ensure weather products remain available to the commercial space industry. A second analysis was conducted between the meteorological services provided for the commercial aviation industry and commercial space industry, finding a gap at facilities not located at an established launch facility or airport. At such facilities, many weather observational technologies would not be present, and would need to be purchased by the company operating the spaceport facility. A third analysis was conducted between the meteorological products and regulations that are currently in existence, and those needed for safe operations within the commercial space industry, finding gaps in predicting lightning, electric field charge, and space weather. Recommendations to address these deficiencies have

  10. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  11. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2001-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  12. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandli, A. E.; Mccandless, W. T.

    1988-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  13. Centaur operations at the space station: Cost and transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to expand on the results of an initial study entitled Centaur Operations at the Space Station. The previous study developed technology demonstration missions (TDMs) that utilized the Centaur G-prime upper stage to advance OTV technologies required for accomodations and operations at the Space Station. An initial evaluation was performed of the cost to NASA for TDM implementation. Due to the potential for commercial communication satellite operation utilizing the TDM hardware, an evaluation of the Centaur's transportation potential was also performed.

  14. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandli, A. E.; McCandless, W. T.

    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  15. DSN co-observing operations to support space VLBI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altunin, Valery I.; Kuiper, Thomas B.; Wolken, Pamela R.

    1994-01-01

    Reliable radio astronomy support of space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) missions by ground radio telescopes is mandatory in order to achieve a high scientific return from the missions. The 70 m DSN antennas along with other ground radio telescopes will perform as the ground segment of the earth-space interferometer. Improvements of radio astronomy VLBI operations at the DSN to achieve higher reliability, efficiency, flexibility, and lower operations costs is a major goal in preparing for radio astronomy support of SVLBI. To help realize this goal, a remote control and monitoring mode for radio astronomy operations at the DSN has been developed.

  16. Space station operations task force. Panel 2 report: Ground operations and support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Ground Operations Concept embodied in this report provides for safe multi-user utilization of the Space Station, eases user integration, and gives users autonomy and flexibility. It provides for meaningful multi-national participation while protecting U.S. interests. The concept also supports continued space operations technology development by maintaining NASA expertise and enabling technology evolution. Given attention here are pre/post flight operations, logistics, sustaining engineering/configuration management, transportation services/rescue, and information systems and communication.

  17. On condition numbers of spectral operators in a hilbert space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil', Michael

    2015-12-01

    We consider a linear unbounded operator A in a separable Hilbert space. with the following property: there is a normal operator D with a discrete spectrum, such Vert A-DVert <∞ . Besides, all the Eigen values of D are different. Under certain assumptions it is shown that A is similar to a normal operator and a sharp bound for the condition number is suggested. Applications of that bound to spectrum perturbations and operator functions are also discussed. As an illustrative example we consider a non-selfadjoint differential operator.

  18. A Space Data System Standard for Telerobotic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittman, David S.; Martinez, Lindolfo

    2014-01-01

    The Telerobotics Working Group of the Mission Operations and Information Management Services Area of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems is drafting a document that will help bound the scope of an eventual international standard for telerobotic operations services. This paper will present the work in progress and provide background for how the international community is beginning to define standards in telerobotic operations that will help ensure the success of complex missions to explore beyond Earth orbit.

  19. USAF engineering and service roles in space operations - Building the foundation for our future space infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Robert J.

    The USAF Engineering and Services (E&S) is described in terms of its activities that support ground stations, launch bases, and space-based facilities. E&S is structured according to a master plan for space support and exploitation which includes infrastructure operations and management, infrastructure acquisition, environmental protection, and technology transfer. Also included in the E&S masterplan are personnel education and development, human services, and readiness objectives for the support of space operations and general USAF operations. The USAF E&S operations are expected to support the modernization of space-launch and -range infrastructure, develop training methods and personnel for space support, and improve traditional E&S support technologies and techniques.

  20. Distributed networks enable advances in US space weather operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, S. Dave

    2011-06-01

    Space weather, the shorter-term variable impact of the Sun’s photons, solar wind particles, and interplanetary magnetic field upon the Earth’s environment, adversely affects our technological systems. These technological systems, including their space component, are increasingly being seen as a way to help solve 21st Century problems such as climate change, energy access, fresh water availability, and transportation coordination. Thus, the effects of space weather on space systems and assets must be mitigated and operational space weather using automated distributed networks has emerged as a common operations methodology. The evolution of space weather operations is described and the description of distributed network architectures is provided, including their use of tiers, data objects, redundancy, and time domain definitions. There are several existing distributed networks now providing space weather information and the lessons learned in developing those networks are discussed along with the details of examples for the Solar Irradiance Platform (SIP), Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS), GEO Alert and Prediction System (GAPS), LEO Alert and Prediction System (LAPS), Radiation Alert and Prediction System (RAPS), and Magnetosphere Alert and Prediction System (MAPS).

  1. International Space Station Alpha user payload operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Crysel, William B.; Duncan, Elaine F.; Rider, James W.

    1994-01-01

    International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will accommodate a variety of user payloads investigating diverse scientific and technology disciplines on behalf of five international partners: Canada, Europe, Japan, Russia, and the United States. A combination of crew, automated systems, and ground operations teams will control payload operations that require complementary on-board and ground systems. This paper presents the current planning for the ISSA U.S. user payload operations concept and the functional architecture supporting the concept. It describes various NASA payload operations facilities, their interfaces, user facility flight support, the payload planning system, the onboard and ground data management system, and payload operations crew and ground personnel training. This paper summarizes the payload operations infrastructure and architecture developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to prepare and conduct ISSA on-orbit payload operations from the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC), and from various user operations locations. The authors pay particular attention to user data management, which includes interfaces with both the onboard data management system and the ground data system. Discussion covers the functional disciplines that define and support POIC payload operations: Planning, Operations Control, Data Management, and Training. The paper describes potential interfaces between users and the POIC disciplines, from the U.S. user perspective.

  2. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 3: Space tug operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop space tug operational concepts and baseline operations plan, and to provide cost estimates for space tug operations. Background data and study results are presented along with a transition phase analysis (the transition from interim upper state to tug operations). A summary is given of the tug operational and interface requirements with emphasis on the on-orbit checkout requirements, external interface operational requirements, safety requirements, and system operational interface requirements. Other topics discussed include reference missions baselined for the tug and details for the mission functional flows and timelines derived for the tug mission, tug subsystems, tug on-orbit operations prior to the tug first burn, spacecraft deployment and retrieval by the tug, operations centers, mission planning, potential problem areas, and cost data.

  3. Remote manual operator for space station intermodule ventilation valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guyaux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    The Remote Manual Operator (RMO) is a mechanism used for manual operation of the Space Station Intermodule Ventilation (IMV) valve and for visual indication of valve position. The IMV is a butterfly-type valve, located in the ventilation or air circulation ducts of the Space Station, and is used to interconnect or isolate the various compartments. The IMV valve is normally operated by an electric motor-driven actuator under computer or astronaut control, but it can also be operated manually with the RMO. The IMV valve RMO consists of a handle with a deployment linkage, a gear-driven flexible shaft, and a linkage to disengage the electric motor actuator during manual operation. It also provides visual indication of valve position. The IMV valve RMO is currently being prepared for qualification testing.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope on-line operations coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychenheim, David E.; Pepe, Joyce; Knapp, Debra

    2002-12-01

    An important aspect of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) operations is the ability to quickly disseminate and coordinate spacecraft commanding and ground system information for both routine spacecraft operations and Space Shuttle Servicing Missions. When deviating from preplanned activities all new spacecraft commanding, ground system and space system configurations must be reviewed, authorized and executed in an efficient manner. The information describing the changes must be disseminated to and coordinated by a large group of users. In the early years of the HST mission a paper-based Operational Request System was used. The system worked, but was cumbersome to efficiently coordinate with a large geographically dispersed group of users in a timely manner. As network and server technology matured, the HST Project developed an on-line interactive Operations Request System. This Operations Request System is a server-based system (access via HST Net) that provides immediate access to command and ground system information to both local and remotely based Instrument Engineers, Flight Operations Team Controllers, Subsystem Engineers and Project Management. This paper describes the various aspects of the system's submission, review, authorization and implementation processes. Also described is the methodology used to arrive at the current system design and the Graphical User Interface (GUI). This system has been used successfully for all routine and special HST operations for the last five years. This approach to operations coordination is adaptable to spacecraft of any complexity.

  5. Predicting Space Weather: Challenges for Research and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, H. J.; Onsager, T. G.; Rutledge, R.; Viereck, R. A.; Kunches, J.

    2013-12-01

    Society's growing dependence on technologies and infrastructure susceptible to the consequences of space weather has given rise to increased attention at the highest levels of government as well as inspired the need for both research and improved space weather services. In part, for these reasons, the number one goal of the recent National Research Council report on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics is to 'Determine the origins of the Sun's activity and predict the variations in the space environment.' Prediction of conditions in our space environment is clearly a challenge for both research and operations, and we require the near-term development and validation of models that have sufficient accuracy and lead time to be useful to those impacted by space weather. In this presentation, we will provide new scientific results of space weather conditions that have challenged space weather forecasters, and identify specific areas of research that can lead to improved capabilities. In addition, we will examine examples of customer impacts and requirements as well as the challenges to the operations community to establish metrics that enable the selection and transition of models and observations that can provide the greatest economic and societal benefit.

  6. Defining Operational Space Suit Requirements for Commercial Orbital Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    As the commercial spaceflight industry transitions from suborbital brevity to orbital outposts, spacewalking will become a major consideration for tourists, scientists, and hardware providers. The challenge exists to develop a space suit designed for the orbital commercial spaceflight industry. The unique needs and requirements of this industry will drive space suit designs and costs that are unlike any existing product. Commercial space tourists will pay for the experience of a lifetime, while scientists may not be able to rely on robotics for all operations and external hardware repairs. This study was aimed at defining space suit operational and functional needs across the spectrum of spacewalk elements, identifying technical design drivers and establishing appropriate options. Recommendations from the analysis are offered for consideration

  7. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD s focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  8. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  9. Space Operations Training Concepts Benchmark Study (Training in a Continuous Operations Environment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, A. E.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/USAF Benchmark Space Operations Training Concepts Study will perform a comparative analysis of the space operations training programs utilized by the United States Air Force Space Command with those utilized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The concentration of the study will be focused on Ground Controller/Flight Controller Training for the International Space Station Payload Program. The duration of the study is expected to be five months with report completion by 30 June 2002. The U.S. Air Force Space Command was chosen as the most likely candidate for this benchmark study because their experience in payload operations controller training and user interfaces compares favorably with the Payload Operations Integration Center's training and user interfaces. These similarities can be seen in the dynamics of missions/payloads, controller on-console requirements, and currency/ proficiency challenges to name a few. It is expected that the report will look at the respective programs and investigate goals of each training program, unique training challenges posed by space operations ground controller environments, processes of setting up controller training programs, phases of controller training, methods of controller training, techniques to evaluate adequacy of controller knowledge and the training received, and approaches to training administration. The report will provide recommendations to the respective agencies based on the findings. Following selection of participants and an approval to proceed, initial contact will be made with U.S. Air Force Space Command Directorate of Training to discuss steps to accomplish the study.

  10. Operational Concepts for a Generic Space Exploration Communication Network Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Vaden, Karl R.; Jones, Robert E.; Roberts, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    This document is one of three. It describes the Operational Concept (OpsCon) for a generic space exploration communication architecture. The purpose of this particular document is to identify communication flows and data types. Two other documents accompany this document, a security policy profile and a communication architecture document. The operational concepts should be read first followed by the security policy profile and then the architecture document. The overall goal is to design a generic space exploration communication network architecture that is affordable, deployable, maintainable, securable, evolvable, reliable, and adaptable. The architecture should also require limited reconfiguration throughout system development and deployment. System deployment includes: subsystem development in a factory setting, system integration in a laboratory setting, launch preparation, launch, and deployment and operation in space.

  11. Parallel CFD Supporting NASA's Space Operations Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in support of NASA's space operations. Particular attention was devoted to the development of the Space Shuttle, and the use of CFD in designing the shuttle and the work after the Columbia accident. The presentation ends with a discussion of the reasons for CFD and the use of parallel computers in the design and testing of spacecraft.

  12. Space system operations and support cost analysis using Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.; Moore, Arlene A.; Fairbairn, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of Markov chain process in probabilistic life cycle cost analysis and suggests further uses of the process as a design aid tool. A methodology is developed for estimating operations and support cost and expected life for reusable space transportation systems. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for the case of a hypothetical space transportation vehicle. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to explore the effects of uncertainty in key model inputs.

  13. System security in the space flight operations center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Flight Operations Center is a networked system of workstation-class computers that will provide ground support for NASA's next generation of deep-space missions. The author recounts the development of the SFOC system security policy and discusses the various management and technology issues involved. Particular attention is given to risk assessment, security plan development, security implications of design requirements, automatic safeguards, and procedural safeguards.

  14. International Space Station Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijames, Gayleen N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives and Goals: Maintain and operate the POIC and support integrated Space Station command and control functions. Provide software and hardware systems to support ISS payloads and Shuttle for the POIF cadre, Payload Developers and International Partners. Provide design, development, independent verification &validation, configuration, operational product/system deliveries and maintenance of those systems for telemetry, commanding, database and planning. Provide Backup Control Center for MCC-H in case of shutdown. Provide certified personnel and systems to support 24x7 facility operations per ISS Program. Payloads CoFR Implementation Plan (SSP 52054) and MSFC Payload Operations CoFR Implementation Plan (POIF-1006).

  15. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A two phase study was conducted to analyze and develop the requirements for remote operating systems as applied to space based operations for the servicing, maintenance, and repair of satellites. Phase one consisted of the development of servicing requirements to establish design criteria for remote operating systems. Phase two defined preferred system concepts and development plans which met the requirements established in phase one. The specific tasks in phase two were to: (1) identify desirable operational and conceptual approaches for selected mission scenarios; (2) examine the potential impact of remote operating systems incorporated into the design of the space station; (3) address remote operating systems design issues, such as mobility, which are effected by the space station configuration; and (4) define the programmatic approaches for technology development, testing, simulation, and flight demonstration.

  16. NOAA Operational Space Environmental Monitoring - Current Capabilities and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, William; Redmon, Rob; Mulligan, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    During the next few years the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will field new operational capabilities for monitoring the near-earth space environment in addition to maintaining continued measurements in geostationary orbit. The most exciting new capability will be transitioning routine solar wind and magnetic field measurements at L1 (240 Re) from the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite to the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) which will be launched in early 2015 with a projected on-orbit readiness in mid-2015. Also under consideration is a solar-sail demonstration mission, called SUNJAMMER, for acquiring plasma and field measurements at twice the L1 location. Both DSCOVR and SUNJAMMER will provide a near-term advanced warning of impending space weather events that can adversely affect communications, satellite operations, GPS positioning and commercial air transportation. NESDIS has also supported the development of a Compact Coronagraph (CCOR) which could provide a several day warning of space weather when coupled with an interplanetary disturbance propagation model like ENLIL. Routine monitoring of the ionosphere will be provided by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) II as a system which is a partnership among the Taiwan's National Space Organization, the U.S. Air Force and NOAA. The new operational capabilities provided by DSCOVR, SUNJAMMER, CCOR and COSMIC II are provided against the backdrop of continued space environmental measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which, in the near future, will transition to the GOES-R series of advanced space weather sensors. Continued space environmental measurements in polar low earth orbit (LEO) will continue to be provided by the remaining Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the European MetOp satellites. Instrument specialists at the National Geophysical Data Center

  17. Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Operations Interface Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Paul M.; Takallu, M. A.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Weiser, Jarold; Turner, Dexter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of proposed cockpit interfaces to support Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) operations for aircraft performing dependent parallel approaches (DPA). NASA has proposed an airborne system called Pair Dependent Speed (PDS) which uses their Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) algorithm to manage spacing intervals. Interface elements were designed to facilitate the input of APS-DPA spacing parameters to ASTAR, and to convey PDS system information to the crew deemed necessary and/or helpful to conduct the operation, including: target speed, guidance mode, target aircraft depiction, and spacing trend indication. In the study, subject pilots observed recorded simulations using the proposed interface elements in which the ownship managed assigned spacing intervals from two other arriving aircraft. Simulations were recorded using the Aircraft Simulation for Traffic Operations Research (ASTOR) platform, a medium-fidelity simulator based on a modern Boeing commercial glass cockpit. Various combinations of the interface elements were presented to subject pilots, and feedback was collected via structured questionnaires. The results of subject pilot evaluations show that the proposed design elements were acceptable, and that preferable combinations exist within this set of elements. The results also point to potential improvements to be considered for implementation in future experiments.

  18. Application of System Operational Effectiveness Methodology to Space Launch Vehicle Development and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Kelley, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) defined System Operational Effectiveness (SOE) model provides an exceptional framework for an affordable approach to the development and operation of space launch vehicles and their supporting infrastructure. The SOE model provides a focal point from which to direct and measure technical effectiveness and process efficiencies of space launch vehicles. The application of the SOE model to a space launch vehicle's development and operation effort leads to very specific approaches and measures that require consideration during the design phase. This paper provides a mapping of the SOE model to the development of space launch vehicles for human exploration by addressing the SOE model key points of measurement including System Performance, System Availability, Technical Effectiveness, Process Efficiency, System Effectiveness, Life Cycle Cost, and Affordable Operational Effectiveness. In addition, the application of the SOE model to the launch vehicle development process is defined providing the unique aspects of space launch vehicle production and operations in lieu of the traditional broader SOE context that examines large quantities of fielded systems. The tailoring and application of the SOE model to space launch vehicles provides some key insights into the operational design drivers, capability phasing, and operational support systems.

  19. Boundedness of generalized Cesaro averaging operators on certain function spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, M. R.; Howlett, P. G.; Lucas, S. K.; Naik, S.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2005-08-01

    We define a two-parameter family of Cesaro averaging operators , where , is analytic on the unit disc [Delta], and F(a,b;c;z) is the classical hypergeometric function. In the present article the boundedness of , , on various function spaces such as Hardy, BMOA and a-Bloch spaces is proved. In the special case b=1+[alpha] and c=1, becomes the [alpha]-Cesaro operator , . Thus, our results connect the special functions in a natural way and extend and improve several well-known results of Hardy-Littlewood, Miao, Stempak and Xiao.

  20. Technology for a NASA Space-Based Science Operations Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Redman, Sandra H.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of a proposal to develop a space-based operations grid in support of space-based science experiments. The development of such a grid would provide a dynamic, secure and scalable architecture based on standards and next-generation reusable software and would enable greater science collaboration and productivity through the use of shared resources and distributed computing. The authors propose developing this concept for use on payload experiments carried aboard the International Space Station. Topics covered include: grid definitions, portals, grid development and coordination, grid technology and potential uses of such a grid.

  1. Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

  2. The Triangle of the Space Launch System Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayolle, Eric

    2010-09-01

    Firemen know it as “fire triangle”, mathematicians know it as “golden triangle”, sailormen know it as “Bermuda triangle”, politicians know it as “Weimar triangle”… This article aims to present a new aspect of that shape geometry in the space launch system world: “the triangle of the space launch system operations”. This triangle is composed of these three following topics, which have to be taken into account for any space launch system operation processing: design, safety and operational use. Design performance is of course taking into account since the early preliminary phase of a system development. This design performance is matured all along the development phases, thanks to consecutives iterations in order to respect the financial and timing constraints imposed to the development of the system. This process leads to a detailed and precise design to assess the required performance. Then, the operational use phase brings its batch of constraints during the use of the system. This phase is conducted by specific procedures for each operation. Each procedure has sequences for each sub-system, which have to be conducted in a very precise chronological way. These procedures can be processed by automatic way or manual way, with the necessity or not of the implication of operators, and in a determined environment. Safeguard aims to verify the respect of the specific constraints imposed to guarantee the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. Safeguard has to be taken into account above the operational constraints of any space operation, without forgetting the highest safety level for the operators of the space operation, and of course without damaging the facilities or without disturbing the external environment. All space operations are the result of a “win-win” compromise between these three topics. Contrary to the fire triangle where one of the topics has to be suppressed in order to avoid the

  3. Operational considerations for a crewed nuclear powered space transportation vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrer, Jerry L.; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    Applying nuclear propulsion technology to human space travel will require new approaches to conducting human operations in space. Due to the remoteness of these types of missions, the crew and their vehicle must be capable of operating independent from Earth-based support. This paper discusses current operational studies which address methods for performing these types of remote and autonomous missions. Methods of managing the hazards to humans who will operate these high-energy nuclear-powered transportation vehicles also is reviewed. Crew training for both normal and contingency operations is considered. Options are evaluated on how best to train crews to operate and maintain the systems associated with a nuclear engine. Methods of maintaining crew proficiency during the long months of space travel are discussed. Vehicle health maintenance also will be a primary concern during these long missions. A discussion is presented on how on-board vehicle health maintenance systems will monitor system trends, identified system weaknesses, and either isolate critical failures or provide the crew with adequate warning of impending problems.

  4. Modular Software Interfaces for Revolutionary Flexibility in Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Braham, Stephen; Pollack, Jay

    2005-01-01

    To make revolutionary improvements in exploration, space systems need to be flexible, realtime reconfigurable, and able to trade data transparently among themselves and mission operations. Onboard operations systems, space assembly coordination and EVA systems in exploration and construction all require real-time modular reconfigurability and data sharing. But NASA's current exploration systems are still largely legacies from hastily-developed, one-off Apollo-era practices. Today's rovers, vehicles, spacesuits, space stations, and instruments are not able to plug-and-play, Lego-like: into different combinations. Point-to-point dominates - individual suit to individual vehicle, individual instrument to rover. All are locally optimized, all unique, each of the data interfaces has been recoded for each possible combination. This will be an operations and maintenance nightmare in the much larger Project Constellation system of systems. This legacy approach does not scale to the hundreds of networked space components needed for space construction and for new, space-based approaches to Earth-Moon operations. By comparison, battlefield information management systems, which are considered critical to military force projection, have long since abandoned a point-to-point approach to systems integration. From a system-of-systems viewpoint, a clean-sheet redesign of the interfaces of all exploration systems is a necessary prerequisite before designing the interfaces of the individual exploration systems. Existing communications and Global Information Grid and middleware technologies are probably sufficient for command and control and information interfaces, with some hardware and time-delay modifications for space environments. NASA's future advanced space operations must also be information and data compatible with aerospace operations and surveillance systems being developed by other US Government agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security, Federal Aviation

  5. First Commerical Operations on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark E.; Robinson, Robert K.; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of NASA's mission of furthering the commercial development of space, the Space Product Development Office has sponsored the flight of seven commercial payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) during calendar year 2001. Most of these payloads, which are among the first users of this new laboratory, build upon successful commercial investigations that previously were restricted to the limited flight duration of the Space Shuttle. These commercial operations range from multi-media, in the form of Dreamtime, to biotechnology such as in Advanced Astroculture, to advanced materials such as Zeolite Crystal Growth. Industry investment in the commercial program has continued to remain high, while awaiting long term access to space, which the ISS provides. While the majority of early commercial use of the ISS is in the area of biotechnology, there is a significant shift towards commercial materials research over the next two years. In order to take fall advantage of the ISS, much of the commercial hardware is designed to be left on Station, while the Shuttle brings samples up and down. This not only makes good use of this valuable space resource, it has the added benefit of having commercial hardware available on the ISS for scientific users. In order to provide benefit to the entire NASA microgravity program, the scientific community on a space available basis can use a variety of commercial apparatus at very low cost. In addition to the solution crystal growth capability of Creosote Crystal Growth, in 2002 containerless processing will be available in the form of Space-DRUMS, and in 2003, thermophysical properties research can be performed in the Vulcan furnace. The first commercial operations on the ISS provides not only a much needed capability to the commercial development of space program, it also has the potential to augment the science program as well.

  6. The design and orbital operation of Space Flyer Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriki, K.; Ninomiya, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Tsuya, N.; Kawachi, M.; Ijichi, K.; Kimura, H.

    The Space Flyer Unit is a retrievable and re-usable multipurpose platform. The first SFU mission (SFU-1) will be launched by Japanese H-II rocket and retrieved by the United States Space Shuttle. SFU system consists of the core system and payloads. The core system provides standardized interfaces and services for payload integration and operation. The core system is reusable with proper post mission maintenances. Electrical furnaces for material processing, technology development experiments such as two-dimensionally deployable mechanism, electric propulsion experiment, a partial model of Japanese Experiment Module of the Space Station and a space infrared telescope are among the payloads of SFU-1. In addition to ground based system, SFU will be equipped with an onboard navigation and guidance system which will be used for the rendezvous with Space Shuttle. The SFU-1 launch date is targeted for the first quarter of 1994 and retrieved after several months of operation in orbit. The brief description of the core system and the in-orbit operation, emphasized on retrieval phase, will be presented in this paper.

  7. Applications of triggered lightning to space vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafferis, William; Sanicandro, Rocco; Rompalla, John; Wohlman, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the USAF Eastern Space Missile Center (ESMC) covering an area of 25 x 40 km are frequently called America's Spaceport. This title is earned through the integration, by labor and management, of many skills in a wide variety of engineering fields to solve many technical problems that occur during the launch processing of space vehicles. Weather is one of these problems, and although less frequent in time and duration when compared to engineering type problems, has caused costly and life threatening situations. This sensitivity to weather, especially lightning, was recognized in the very early pioneer days of space operations. The need to protect the many v\\facilities, space flight hardware, and personnel from electrified clouds capable of producing lightning was a critical element in improving launch operations. A KSC lightning committee was formed and directed to improve lightning protection, detection, and measuring systems and required that all theoretical studies be confirmed by KSC field data. Over the years, there have been several lightning incidents involving flight vehicles during ground processing as well as launch. Subsequent investigations revealed the need to improve these systems as well as the knowledge of the electrical atmosphere and its effects on operations in regard to cost and safety. Presented here is how, KSC Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory (AFSL), in particular Rocket Triggered Lightning, is being used to solve these problems.

  8. Space Station Freedom technology payload user operations facility concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henning, Gary N.; Avery, Don E.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a concept for a User Operations Facility (UOF) for payloads sponsored by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST). The UOF can be located at any OAST sponsored center; however, for planning purposes, it is assumed that the center will be located at Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  9. Assessment of Emerging Networks to Support Future NASA Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younes, Badri; Chang, Susan; Berman, Ted; Burns, Mark; LaFontaine, Richard; Lease, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with assessing emerging networks to support future NASA space operations are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Emerging commercial satellite systems; 2) NASA LEO satellite support through commercial systems; 3) Communications coverage, user terminal assessment and regulatory assessment; 4) NASA LEO missions overview; and 5) Simulation assumptions and results.

  10. Simulating the operations of the reusable shuttle space vehicle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, R. A.; Byers, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    A stochastic simulation model has been developed using the General Purpose Simulation System (GPSS) II language to analyze the operations of a fleet of Shuttle space vehicles. This paper presents the approach used in developing the model, results obtained from some of the analyses performed to date, and an interpretation of the results as they were presented to management personnel.

  11. Servicing operations for the SIRTF Observatory at the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiltsee, Christopher B.; Manning, Larry A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the servicing requirements, plans, and proposed Space Station-based servicing operations for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Observatory. SIRTF is a cryogenically-cooled, long-life, one meter class space telescope which will be operated by NASA as a free-flying observatory for infrared astronomy, in the mid-1990's. To achieve its 5-year lifetime requirement (10 year goal), SIRTF must be replenished periodically with cryogenic helium and have its life-limited modular subsystems replaced; capability for contingency repair of warm components will also be provided in the Observatory design. A general description of the SIRTF Observatory is given, including options for the support systems (spacecraft). The overall servicing philosophy and plans are addressed with scheduling and needed support elements described. A proposed Space Station-based servicing scenario is described, including orbital transfer, servicing and checkout operations. A detailed description and timeline for liquid helium replenishment operations is provided, including a conceptual design and technology development program for the cryogenic helium transfer dewar (tanker). Finally, a preliminary SIRTF spares/logistics philosophy is outlined, including tradeoffs to be considered.

  12. Initiating Sustainable Operations at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Orrell, Josh

    2003-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a preliminary sustainability assessment to identify sustainable projects for potential implementation at its facility in Huntsville, Alabama. This presentation will discuss the results of that assessment, highlighting current and future initiatives aimed at integrating sustainability into daily operations.

  13. National facilities study. Volume 4: Space operations facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The principal objectives of the National Facilities Study (NFS) were to: (1) determine where U.S. facilities do not meet national aerospace needs; (2) define new facilities required to make U.S. capabilities 'world class' where such improvements are in the national interest; (3) define where consolidation and phase-out of existing facilities is appropriate; and (4) develop a long-term national plan for world-class facility acquisition and shared usage. The Space Operations Facilities Task Group defined discrete tasks to accomplish the above objectives within the scope of the study. An assessment of national space operations facilities was conducted to determine the nation's capability to meet the requirements of space operations during the next 30 years. The mission model used in the study to define facility requirements is described in Volume 3. Based on this model, the major focus of the Task Group was to identify any substantive overlap or underutilization of space operations facilities and to identify any facility shortfalls that would necessitate facility upgrades or new facilities. The focus of this initial study was directed toward facility recommendations related to consolidations, closures, enhancements, and upgrades considered necessary to efficiently and effectively support the baseline requirements model. Activities related to identifying facility needs or recommendations for enhancing U.S. international competitiveness and achieving world-class capability, where appropriate, were deferred to a subsequent study phase.

  14. Real-Time Data Use for Operational Space Weather Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.; Nobis, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (AFSPC SYAG/WMLE) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command’s (AFSPC) Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products were developed to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems in real/near-real time. This real-time attribute is the primary factor in allowing for actual operational product output, but it’s also responsible for a variety of detrimental effects that need to be considered, researched, mitigated, or otherwise eliminated in future/upgrade product applications. This presentation will provide brief overviews of the SEEFS products, along with information and recommendations concerned with their near/real-time data acquisition and use, to include: input data requirements, inputs/outputs ownership, observation cadence, transmission/receipt links and cadence, data latency, quality control, error propagation and associated confidence level applications, and ensemble model run potentials. Validation issues related to real-time data will also be addressed, along with recommendations for new real-time data archiving that should prove operationally beneficial.

  15. Orbital Debris: the Growing Threat to Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2010-01-01

    For nearly 50 years the amount of man-made debris in Earth orbit steadily grew, accounting for about 95% of all cataloged space objects over the past few decades. The Chinese anti-satellite test in January 2007 and the accidental collision of two spacecraft in February 2009 created more than 4000 new cataloged debris, representing an increase of 40% of the official U.S. Satellite Catalog. The frequency of collision avoidance maneuvers for both human space flight and robotic operations is increasing along with the orbital debris population. However, the principal threat to space operations is driven by the smaller and much more numerous uncataloged debris. Although the U.S. and the international aerospace communities have made significant progress in recognizing the hazards of orbital debris and in reducing or eliminating the potential for the creation of new debris, the future environment is expected to worsen without additional corrective measures.

  16. Asynchronous Message Service for Deep Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    While the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) provides internationally standardized file transfer functionality that can offer significant benefits for deep space mission operations, not all spacecraft communication requirements are necessarily best met by file transfer. In particular, continuous event-driven asynchronous message exchange may also be useful for communications with, among, and aboard spacecraft. CCSDS has therefore undertaken the development of a new Asynchronous Message Service (AMS) standard, designed to provide common functionality over a wide variety of underlying transport services, ranging from shared memory message queues to CCSDS telemetry systems. The present paper discusses the design concepts of AMS, their applicability to deep space mission operations problems, and the results of preliminary performance testing obtained from exercise of a prototype implementation.

  17. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration for Responsive Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Robert G.; Notardonato, William U.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program has a three year project to develop and demonstrate technologies to fundamentally change the way ground servicing activities support future access to space architectures. The AES Integrated Ground Operation Demonstration Units (IGODU) project has created two test beds for investigating and maturing two key elements of spaceport processing activities. The first is the GODU Integrated Refrigeration and Storage test bed that is demonstrating zero-loss storage of liquid hydrogen propellants and studying the storage and transfer of densified propellants. The second activity is the GODU Autonomous Control test bed that is implementing health management technologies and autonomous control capability of the propellant loading process to reduce the standing army of experts historically needed to ensure safe propellant loading operations. This presentation will give an overview of the activities at the Kennedy Space Center on these two test beds and its potential impact on future access to space programs.

  18. Space station automation and robotics study. Operator-systems interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of a Space Station Automation and Robotics Planning Study, which was a joint project of the Boeing Aerospace Company, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, and Boeing Computer Services Company. The study is in support of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee established by NASA in accordance with a mandate by the U.S. Congress. Boeing support complements that provided to the NASA Contractor study team by four aerospace contractors, the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the California Space Institute. This study identifies automation and robotics (A&R) technologies that can be advanced by requirements levied by the Space Station Program. The methodology used in the study is to establish functional requirements for the operator system interface (OSI), establish the technologies needed to meet these requirements, and to forecast the availability of these technologies. The OSI would perform path planning, tracking and control, object recognition, fault detection and correction, and plan modifications in connection with extravehicular (EV) robot operations.

  19. Design reuse experience of space and hazardous operations robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, P. Graham

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of design drivers for space and hazardous nuclear waste operating robots details similarities and differences in operations, performance and environmental parameters for these critical environments. The similarities are exploited to provide low risk system components based on reuse principles and design knowledge. Risk reduction techniques are used for bridging areas of significant differences. As an example, risk reduction of a new sensor design for nuclear environment operations is employed to provide upgradeable replacement units in a reusable architecture for significantly higher levels of radiation.

  20. Modeling and simulation for space medicine operations: preliminary requirements considered.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D L; Billica, R D; McDonald, P V

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Space Medicine program is now developing plans for more extensive use of high-fidelity medical simulation systems. The use of simulation is seen as means to more effectively use the limited time available for astronaut medical training. Training systems should be adaptable for use in a variety of training environments, including classrooms or laboratories, space vehicle mockups, analog environments, and in microgravity. Modeling and simulation can also provide the space medicine development program a mechanism for evaluation of other medical technologies under operationally realistic conditions. Systems and procedures need preflight verification with ground-based testing. Traditionally, component testing has been accomplished, but practical means for "human in the loop" verification of patient care systems have been lacking. Medical modeling and simulation technology offer potential means to accomplish such validation work. Initial considerations in the development of functional requirements and design standards for simulation systems for space medicine are discussed. PMID:11317721

  1. Modeling and simulation for space medicine operations: preliminary requirements considered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, D. L.; Billica, R. D.; McDonald, P. V.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Space Medicine program is now developing plans for more extensive use of high-fidelity medical simulation systems. The use of simulation is seen as means to more effectively use the limited time available for astronaut medical training. Training systems should be adaptable for use in a variety of training environments, including classrooms or laboratories, space vehicle mockups, analog environments, and in microgravity. Modeling and simulation can also provide the space medicine development program a mechanism for evaluation of other medical technologies under operationally realistic conditions. Systems and procedures need preflight verification with ground-based testing. Traditionally, component testing has been accomplished, but practical means for "human in the loop" verification of patient care systems have been lacking. Medical modeling and simulation technology offer potential means to accomplish such validation work. Initial considerations in the development of functional requirements and design standards for simulation systems for space medicine are discussed.

  2. Expanding Remote Science Operations Capabilities Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig A.; Dyer, Steven V.; Gibbs, Richard E., III; Cech, John G.

    2004-01-01

    EXPRESS Racks have been supporting payload science operations onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since April of 2001. EXPRESS is an acronym that stands for "EXpedite the PRocessing of Experiments to Space Station." This name reflects NASA's focus to simplify the process of manifesting experiments and maximizing scientific research capabilities by providing a robust, remotely operated payload support platform. The EXPRESS Rack System was developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and built by The Boeing Company in Huntsville, Alabama. Eight EXPRESS racks were built and five are currently onboard the ISS supporting science operations. The design and development of the EXPRESS Rack System is a long story that has been documented in previous publications. This paper briefly describes the facilities used to develop and verify flight software, test operational capabilities. It then traces the advancements made in the operational capabilities of the EXPRESS Racks from the time they were launched on STS-100 through the present. The paper concludes with a description of potential enhancements that will make the EXPRESS racks one of the most advanced and capable remote science platforms ever developed.

  3. Autonomous Payload Operations Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Deitsch, David K.; Cruzen, Craig A.; Haddock, Angie T.

    2007-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves many complex crew tended, ground operated and combined systems. Over the life of the ISS program, it has become evident that by having automated and autonomous systems on board, more can be accomplished and at the same time reduce the workload of the crew and ground operators. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama, working in collaboration with The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory have developed an autonomous software system that uses the Timeliner User Interface Language and expert logic to continuously monitor ISS payload systems, issue commands and signal ground operators as required. This paper describes the development history of the system, its concept of operation and components. The paper also discusses the testing process as well as the facilities used to develop the system. The paper concludes with a description of future enhancement plans for use on the ISS as well as potential applications to Lunar and Mars exploration systems.

  4. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The {open_quotes}building in{close_quotes} of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.

  6. Microbiology operations and facilities aboard restructured Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    With the restructure and funding changes for Space Station Freedom, the Environmental Health System (EHS)/Microbiology Subsystem revised its scheduling and operational requirements for component hardware. The function of the Microbiology Subsystem is to monitor the environmental quality of air, water, and internal surfaces and, in part, crew health on board Space Station. Its critical role shall be the identification of microbial contaminants in the environment that may cause system degradation, produce unsanitary or pathogenic conditions, or reduce crew and mission effectiveness. EHS/Microbiology operations and equipment shall be introduced in concert with a phased assembly sequence, from Man Tended Capability (MTC) through Permanently Manned Capability (PMC). Effective Microbiology operations and subsystem components will assure a safe, habitable, and useful spacecraft environment for life sciences research and long-term manned exploration.

  7. On Volterra quadratic stochastic operators with continual state space

    SciTech Connect

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Hamzah, Nur Zatul Akmar

    2015-05-15

    Let (X,F) be a measurable space, and S(X,F) be the set of all probability measures on (X,F) where X is a state space and F is σ - algebraon X. We consider a nonlinear transformation (quadratic stochastic operator) defined by (Vλ)(A) = ∫{sub X}∫{sub X}P(x,y,A)dλ(x)dλ(y), where P(x, y, A) is regarded as a function of two variables x and y with fixed A ∈ F . A quadratic stochastic operator V is called a regular, if for any initial measure the strong limit lim{sub n→∞} V{sup n }(λ) is exists. In this paper, we construct a family of quadratic stochastic operators defined on the segment X = [0,1] with Borel σ - algebra F on X , prove their regularity and show that the limit measure is a Dirac measure.

  8. On Volterra quadratic stochastic operators with continual state space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Hamzah, Nur Zatul Akmar

    2015-05-01

    Let (X,F) be a measurable space, and S(X,F) be the set of all probability measures on (X,F) where X is a state space and F is σ - algebraon X. We consider a nonlinear transformation (quadratic stochastic operator) defined by (V λ )(A ) = ∫X ∫X P (x ,y ,A )d λ (x )d λ (y ), where P(x, y, A) is regarded as a function of two variables x and y with fixed A ∈ F . A quadratic stochastic operator V is called a regular, if for any initial measure the strong limit lim n →∞ Vn(λ ) is exists. In this paper, we construct a family of quadratic stochastic operators defined on the segment X = [0,1] with Borel σ - algebra F on X , prove their regularity and show that the limit measure is a Dirac measure.

  9. Generalized space and linear momentum operators in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Bruno G. da

    2014-06-15

    We propose a modification of a recently introduced generalized translation operator, by including a q-exponential factor, which implies in the definition of a Hermitian deformed linear momentum operator p{sup ^}{sub q}, and its canonically conjugate deformed position operator x{sup ^}{sub q}. A canonical transformation leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of a deformed phase space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space may be expressed in terms of the generalized dual q-derivative. A position-dependent mass confined in an infinite square potential well is shown as an instance. Uncertainty and correspondence principles are analyzed.

  10. Space Test and Operations Port for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has from its inception included plans to support the testing of exploration vehicle/systems technology, the assembly of space transport vehicles, and a variety of operations support (communications, crew transfer, cargo handling, etc). Despite the fact that the ISS has gone through several re-designs and reductions in size and capabilities over the past 20 years, it still has the key capabilities, truss structure, docking nodes, etc required to support these exploration mission activities. ISS is much like a frontier outpost in the Old West, which may not have been in optimum location (orbit) for assisting travelers on their way to California (the Moon and Mars), but nevertheless because it had supplies and other support services (regular logistics from Earth, crewmembers, robotics, and technology test and assembly support capabilities) was regularly used as a stopover and next trip phase preparation site by all kinds of travelers. This paper will describe some of the ISS capabilities which are being used currently, and are being planned for use, by various payload sponsors, developers and Principal Investigators, sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M ISS Research Program Office - Department of Defense (DoD), NASA Hqs Office of Space Communications, Italian Space Agency, etc.). Initial ideas and concepts for payloads and technology testing which are being planned, or which are being investigated, for use in support of advanced space technology development and verification and exploration mission activities will be summarized. Some of the future ISS payloads and test activities already identified include materials and system component space environment testing, laser space communication system demonstrations (leading to the possible development of an ISS deep space communication node), and an advanced space propulsion testbed and ISS based, free-flying platform.

  11. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  12. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security

  13. Implementing Distributed Operations: A Comparison of Two Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Larsen, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Two very different deep space exploration missions--Mars Exploration Rover and Cassini--have made use of distributed operations for their science teams. In the case of MER, the distributed operations capability was implemented only after the prime mission was completed, as the rovers continued to operate well in excess of their expected mission lifetimes; Cassini, designed for a mission of more than ten years, had planned for distributed operations from its inception. The rapid command turnaround timeline of MER, as well as many of the operations features implemented to support it, have proven to be conducive to distributed operations. These features include: a single science team leader during the tactical operations timeline, highly integrated science and engineering teams, processes and file structures designed to permit multiple team members to work in parallel to deliver sequencing products, web-based spacecraft status and planning reports for team-wide access, and near-elimination of paper products from the operations process. Additionally, MER has benefited from the initial co-location of its entire operations team, and from having a single Principal Investigator, while Cassini operations have had to reconcile multiple science teams distributed from before launch. Cassini has faced greater challenges in implementing effective distributed operations. Because extensive early planning is required to capture science opportunities on its tour and because sequence development takes significantly longer than sequence execution, multiple teams are contributing to multiple sequences concurrently. The complexity of integrating inputs from multiple teams is exacerbated by spacecraft operability issues and resource contention among the teams, each of which has their own Principal Investigator. Finally, much of the technology that MER has exploited to facilitate distributed operations was not available when the Cassini ground system was designed, although later adoption

  14. Operational training for the mission operations at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozenfeld, Pawel

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the selection and training process of satellite controllers and data network operators performed at INPE's Satellite Tracking and Control Center in order to prepare them for the mission operations of the INPE's first (SCD1) satellite. An overview of the ground control system and SCD1 architecture and mission is given. Different training phases are described, taking into account that the applicants had no previous knowledge of space operations requiring, therefore, a training which started from the basics.

  15. Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, M.; Roberts, T.

    2011-09-01

    US space capabilities benefit the economy, national security, international relationships, scientific discovery, and our quality of life. Realizing these space responsibilities is challenging not only because the space domain is increasingly congested, contested, and competitive but is further complicated by the legacy space situational awareness (SSA) systems approaching end of life and inability to provide the breadth of SSA and command and control (C2) of space forces in this challenging domain. JMS will provide the capabilities to effectively employ space forces in this challenging domain. Requirements for JMS were developed based on regular, on-going engagement with the warfighter. The use of DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) products facilitated requirements scoping and understanding and transferred directly to defining and documenting the requirements in the approved Capability Development Document (CDD). As part of the risk reduction efforts, the Electronic System Center (ESC) JMS System Program Office (SPO) fielded JMS Capability Package (CP) 0 which includes an initial service oriented architecture (SOA) and user defined operational picture (UDOP) along with force status, sensor management, and analysis tools. Development efforts are planned to leverage and integrate prototypes and other research projects from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratories, Space Innovation and Development Center, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratories. JMS provides a number of benefits to the space community: a reduction in operational “transaction time” to accomplish key activities and processes; ability to process the increased volume of metric observations from new sensors (e.g., SBSS, SST, Space Fence), as well as owner/operator ephemerides thus enhancing the high accuracy near-real-time catalog, and greater automation of SSA data sharing supporting collaboration with government, civil, commercial, and foreign

  16. Analysis on singular spaces: Lie manifolds and operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Victor

    2016-07-01

    We discuss and develop some connections between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras, as presented in my sequence of four lectures at the conference Noncommutative geometry and applications, Frascati, Italy, June 16-21, 2014. Therefore this paper is mostly a survey paper, but the presentation is new, and there are included some new results as well. In particular, Sections 3 and 4 provide a complete short introduction to analysis on noncompact manifolds that is geared towards a class of manifolds-called "Lie manifolds" -that often appears in practice. Our interest in Lie manifolds is due to the fact that they provide the link between analysis on singular spaces and operator algebras. The groupoids integrating Lie manifolds play an important background role in establishing this link because they provide operator algebras whose structure is often well understood. The initial motivation for the work surveyed here-work that spans over close to two decades-was to develop the index theory of stratified singular spaces. Meanwhile, several other applications have emerged as well, including applications to Partial Differential Equations and Numerical Methods. These will be mentioned only briefly, however, due to the lack of space. Instead, we shall concentrate on the applications to Index theory.

  17. Activity of Science and Operational Research of NICT Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Tsugawa, Takuya; Kubo, Yuki

    Operational space weather forecast is for contribution to social infrastructure than for academic interests. These user need will determine the target of research, e.g., the precision level, spatial and temporal resolution and/or required lead time. We, NICT, aim two target in the present mid-term strategic plan, which are (1) forecast of ionospheric disturbance influencing to satellite positioning, and (2) forecast of disturbance in radiation belt influencing to satellite operation. We have our own observation network and develop empirical and numerical models for achieving each target. However in actual situation, it is much difficult to know the user needs quantitatively. Most of space weather phenomena makes the performance of social infrastructure poor, for example disconnect of HF communication, increase of GNSS error. Most of organizations related to these operation are negative to open these information. We have personal interviews to solve this issue. In this interview, we try to collect incident information related to space weather in each field, and to retrieve which space weather information is necessary for users. In this presentation we will introduce our research and corresponding new service, in addition to our recent scientific results.

  18. Science operations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, Jane; Sonneborn, George; Pollizzi, Joe; Brown, Thomas; Isaacs, John

    2012-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful space observatory whose four science instruments will deliver rich imaging and multiplexed spectroscopic datasets to the astronomical and planetary science communities. The ground segment for JWST, now being designed and built, will carry out JWST's science operations. The ground segment includes: software that the scientific community will use to propose and specify new observations; systems that will schedule science and calibration observations in a way that respects physical and investigator-specified constraints, while satisfying preferences for efficient observing, low background levels, and distributed subscription across a year; the infrastructure to regularly measure and maintain the telescope's wavefront; orbit determination, ranging, and tracking; communication via the Deep Space Network to command the observatory and retrieve scientific data; onboard scripts that execute each observing program in an event-driven fashion, with occasional interruptions for targets of opportunity or time-critical observations; and a system that processes and calibrates the data into science-ready products, automatically recalibrates when calibrations improve, and archives the data for timely access by the principal investigator and later worldwide access by the scientific community. This ground system builds on experience from operating the Hubble Space Telescope, while solving challenges that are unique to JWST. In this paper, we describe the elements of the JWST ground system, how it will work operationally from the perspective of the observatory itself, and how a typical user will interact with the system to turn their idea into scientific discovery.

  19. Maintaining US Space Weather Capabilities after DMSP: Research to Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machuzak, J. S.; Gentile, L. C.; Burke, W. J.; Holeman, E. G.; Ober, D. M.; Wilson, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    The first Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft was launched in 1972; the last is scheduled to fly in 2020. Presently, there is no replacement for the space-weather monitoring sensors that now fly on DMSP. The present suite has provided comprehensive, long-term records that constitute a critical component of the US space weather corporate memory. Evolving operational needs and research accomplishments justify continued collection of space environmental data. Examples include measurements to: (1) Monitor the Dst index in real time as a driver of next-generation satellite drag models; (2) Quantify electromagnetic energy fluxes from deep space to the ionosphere/ thermosphere that heat neutrals, drive disturbance-dynamo winds and degrade precise orbit determinations; (3) Determine strengths of stormtime electric fields at high and low latitudes that lead to severe blackouts and spacecraft anomalies; (4) Specify variability of plasma density irregularities, equatorial plasma bubbles, and the Appleton anomaly to improve reliability of communication, navigation and surveillance links; (5) Characterize energetic particle fluxes responsible for auroral clutter and radar degradation; (6) Map regions of L-Band scintillation for robust GPS applications; and (7) Update the World Magnetic Field Model needed to maintain guidance system superiority. These examples illustrate the utility of continued space environment awareness. Comprehensive assessments of both operational requirements and research advances are needed to make informed selections of sensors and spacecraft that support future capabilities. A proposed sensor set and satellite constellation to provide the needed measurement capabilities will be presented.

  20. Extending the International Space Station Life and Operability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Andrew J.; Pitts, R. Lee; Sparks, Ray N.; Wickline, Thomas W.; Zoller, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration with final assembly complete. To fully utilize ISS and extend the operational life, it became necessary to upgrade and extend the onboard systems with the Obsolescence Driven Avionics Redesign (ODAR) project. ODAR enabled a joint project between the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focused on upgrading the onboard payload and Ku-Band systems, expanding the voice and video capabilities, and including more modern protocols allowing unprecedented access for payload investigators to their on-orbit payloads. The MSFC Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) was tasked with developing a high-rate enhanced Functionally Distributed Processor (eFDP) to handle 300Mbps Return Link data, double the legacy rate, and incorporate a Line Outage Recorder (LOR). The eFDP also provides a 25Mbps uplink transmission rate with a Space Link Extension (SLE) interface. HOSC also updated the Payload Data Services System (PDSS) to incorporate the latest Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocols, most notably the use of the Internet Protocol (IP) Encapsulation, in addition to the legacy capabilities. The Central Command Processor was also updated to interact with the new onboard and ground capabilities of Mission Control Center -- Houston (MCC-H) for the uplink functionality. The architecture, implementation, and lessons learned, including integration and incorporation of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) hardware and software into the operational mission of the ISS, is described herein. The applicability of this new technology provides new benefits to ISS payload users and ensures better utilization of the ISS by the science community

  1. Constraint and Flight Rule Management for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barreiro, J.; Chachere, J.; Frank, J.; Bertels, C.; Crocker, A.

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et al, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et al., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et al, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on some of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  2. Application of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-03-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) the authors have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. They have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. They are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. The primary vehicle the authors have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. They are currently adapting their methods and tools of human error analysis to the domain of air traffic management (ATM) systems. Under the NASA-sponsored Advanced Air Traffic Technologies (AATT) program they are working to address issues of human reliability in the design of ATM systems to support the development of a free flight environment for commercial air traffic in the US. They are also currently testing the application of their human error analysis approach for space flight operations. They have developed a simplified model of the critical habitability functions for the space station Mir, and have used this model to assess the affects of system failures and human errors that have occurred in the wake of the collision incident last year. They are developing an approach so that lessons learned from Mir operations can be systematically applied to design and operation of long-term space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the manned Mars mission.

  3. Robust operative diagnosis as problem solving in a hypothesis space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an approach that formulates diagnosis of physical systems in operation as problem solving in a hypothesis space. Such a formulation increases robustness by: (1) incremental hypotheses construction via dynamic inputs, (2) reasoning at a higher level of abstraction to construct hypotheses, and (3) partitioning the space by grouping fault hypotheses according to the type of physical system representation and problem solving techniques used in their construction. It was implemented for a turbofan engine and hydraulic subsystem. Evaluation of the implementation on eight actual aircraft accident cases involving engine faults provided very promising results.

  4. Information prioritization for control and automation of space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asock; Joshi, Suresh M.; Whitney, Cynthia K.; Jow, Hong N.

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of a real-time information prioritization technique to the development of a decision support system for control and automation of Space Station operations is considered. The steps involved in the technique are described, including the definition of abnormal scenarios and of attributes, measures of individual attributes, formulation and optimization of a cost function, simulation of test cases on the basis of the cost function, and examination of the simulation scenerios. A list is given comparing the intrinsic importances of various Space Station information data.

  5. Space Operations Analysis Using the Synergistic Engineering Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angster, Scott; Brewer, Laura

    2002-01-01

    The Synergistic Engineering Environment has been under development at the NASA Langley Research Center to aid in the understanding of the operations of spacecraft. This is accomplished through the integration of multiple data sets, analysis tools, spacecraft geometric models, and a visualization environment to create an interactive virtual simulation of the spacecraft. Initially designed to support the needs of the International Space Station, the SEE has broadened the scope to include spacecraft ranging from low-earth orbit to deep space missions. Analysis capabilities within the SEE include rigid body dynamics, kinematics, orbital mechanics, and payload operations. This provides the user the ability to perform real-time interactive engineering analyses in areas including flight attitudes and maneuvers, visiting vehicle docking scenarios, robotic operations, plume impingement, field of view obscuration, and alternative assembly configurations. The SEE has been used to aid in the understanding of several operational procedures related to the International Space Station. This paper will address the capabilities of the first build of the SEE, present several use cases of the SEE, and discuss the next build of the SEE.

  6. Command and control displays for space vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Zetocha, Paul; Aleva, Denise

    2010-04-01

    This paper shall examine several command and control facility display architectures supporting space vehicle operations, to include TacSat 2, TacSat 3, STPSat 2, and Communications Navigation Outage Forecasting System (CNOFS), located within the Research Development Test & Evaluation Support Complex (RSC) Satellite Operations Center 97 (SOC-97) at Kirtland Air Force Base. A principal focus is to provide an understanding for the general design class of displays currently supporting space vehicle command and control, e.g., custom, commercial-off-the-shelf, or ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf, and more specifically, what manner of display performance capabilities, e.g., active area, resolution, luminance, contrast ratio, frame/refresh rate, temperature range, shock/vibration, etc., are needed for particular aspects of space vehicle command and control. Another focus shall be to address the types of command and control functions performed for each of these systems, to include how operators interact with the displays, e.g., joystick, trackball, keyboard/mouse, as well as the kinds of information needed or displayed for each function. [Comparison with other known command and control facilities, such as Cheyenne Mountain and NORAD Operations Center, shall be made.] Future, anticipated display systems shall be discussed.

  7. Space Operations Training Concepts Benchmark Study (Training in a Continuous Operations Environment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan E.; Gilchrist, Michael; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA/USAF Benchmark Space Operations Training Concepts Study will perform a comparative analysis of the space operations training programs utilized by the United States Air Force Space Command with those utilized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The concentration of the study will be focused on Ground Controller/Flight Controller Training for the International Space Station Payload Program. The duration of the study is expected to be five months with report completion by 30 June 2002. The U.S. Air Force Space Command was chosen as the most likely candidate for this benchmark study because their experience in payload operations controller training and user interfaces compares favorably with the Payload Operations Integration Center's training and user interfaces. These similarities can be seen in the dynamics of missions/payloads, controller on-console requirements, and currency/proficiency challenges to name a few. It is expected that the report will look at the respective programs and investigate goals of each training program, unique training challenges posed by space operations ground controller environments, processes of setting up controller training programs, phases of controller training, methods of controller training, techniques to evaluate adequacy of controller knowledge and the training received, and approaches to training administration. The report will provide recommendations to the respective agencies based on the findings. Attached is a preliminary outline of the study. Following selection of participants and an approval to proceed, initial contact will be made with U.S. Air Force Space Command Directorate of Training to discuss steps to accomplish the study.

  8. Behavioral Health and Performance Operations During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G.; Holland, A.; Moomaw, R.; Sipes, W.; Vander Ark, S.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Columbia STS 107 disaster in 2003, the Johnson Space Center s Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) became involved in Space Shuttle Operations on an as needed basis, occasionally acting as a consultant and primarily addressing crew-crew personality conflicts. The BHP group also assisted with astronaut selection at every selection cycle beginning in 1991. Following STS 107, an event that spawned an increased need of behavioral health support to STS crew members and their dependents, BHP services to the Space Shuttle Program were enhanced beginning with the STS 114 Return to Flight mission in 2005. These services included the presence of BHP personnel at STS launches and landings for contingency support, a BHP briefing to the entire STS crew at L-11 months, a private preflight meeting with the STS Commander at L-9 months, and the presence of a BHP consultant at the L-1.5 month Family Support Office briefing to crew and family members. The later development of an annual behavioral health assessment of all active astronauts also augmented BHP s Space Shuttle Program specific services, allowing for private meetings with all STS crew members before and after each mission. The components of each facet of these BHP Space Shuttle Program support services will be presented, along with valuable lessons learned, and with recommendations for BHP involvement in future short duration space missions

  9. Enabling CSPA Operations Through Pilot Involvement in Longitudinal Approach Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol (Technical Monitor); Pritchett, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Several major airports around the United States have, or plan to have, closely-spaced parallel runways. This project complemented current and previous research by examining the pilots ability to control their position longitudinally within their approach stream.This project s results considered spacing for separation from potential positions of wake vortices from the parallel approach. This preventive function could enable CSPA operations to very closely spaced runways. This work also considered how pilot involvement in longitudinal spacing could allow for more efficient traffic flow, by allowing pilots to keep their aircraft within tighter arrival slots then air traffic control (ATC) might be able to establish, and by maintaining space within the arrival stream for corresponding departure slots. To this end, this project conducted several research studies providing an analytic and computational basis for calculating appropriate aircraft spacings, experimental results from a piloted flight simulator test, and an experimental testbed for future simulator tests. The following sections summarize the results of these three efforts.

  10. Operations Concepts for Deep-Space Missions: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, manned spacecraft missions have relied heavily on real-time communication links between crewmembers and ground control for generating crew activity schedules and working time-critical off-nominal situations. On crewed missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, speed-of-light limitations will render this ground-centered concept of operations obsolete. A new, more distributed concept of operations will have to be developed in which the crew takes on more responsibility for real-time anomaly diagnosis and resolution, activity planning and replanning, and flight operations. I will discuss the innovative information technologies, human-machine interfaces, and simulation capabilities that must be developed in order to develop, test, and validate deep-space mission operations