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Sample records for himar1 transposon mutagenesis

  1. Identification of a proton-chloride antiporter (EriC) by Himar1 transposon mutagenesis in Lactobacillus reuteri and its role in histamine production.

    PubMed

    Hemarajata, P; Spinler, J K; Balderas, M A; Versalovic, J

    2014-03-01

    The gut microbiome may modulate intestinal immunity by luminal conversion of dietary amino acids to biologically active signals. The model probiotic organism Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 is indigenous to the human microbiome, and converts the amino acid L-histidine to the biogenic amine, histamine. Histamine suppresses tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by human myeloid cells and is a product of L-histidine decarboxylation, which is a proton-facilitated reaction. A transposon mutagenesis strategy was developed based on a single-plasmid nisin-inducible Himar1 transposase/transposon delivery system for L. reuteri. A highly conserved proton-chloride antiporter gene (eriC), a gene widely present in the gut microbiome was discovered by Himar1 transposon (Tn)-mutagenesis presented in this study. Genetic inactivation of eriC by transposon insertion and genetic recombineering resulted in reduced ability of L. reuteri to inhibit TNF production by activated human myeloid cells, diminished histamine production by the bacteria and downregulated expression of histidine decarboxylase cluster genes compared to those of WT 6475. EriC belongs to a large family of ion transporters that includes chloride channels and proton-chloride antiporters and may facilitate the availability of protons for the decarboxylation reaction, resulting in histamine production by L. reuteri. This report leverages the tools of bacterial genetics for probiotic gene discovery. The findings highlight the widely conserved nature of ion transporters in bacteria and how ion transporters are coupled with amino acid decarboxylation and contribute to microbiome-mediated immunomodulation. PMID:24488273

  2. Genome-wide transposon mutagenesis in pathogenic Leptospira species.

    PubMed

    Murray, Gerald L; Morel, Viviane; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Croda, Julio; Srikram, Amporn; Henry, Rebekah; Ko, Albert I; Dellagostin, Odir A; Bulach, Dieter M; Sermswan, Rasana W; Adler, Ben; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2009-02-01

    Leptospira interrogans is the most common cause of leptospirosis in humans and animals. Genetic analysis of L. interrogans has been severely hindered by a lack of tools for genetic manipulation. Recently we developed the mariner-based transposon Himar1 to generate the first defined mutants in L. interrogans. In this study, a total of 929 independent transposon mutants were obtained and the location of insertion determined. Of these mutants, 721 were located in the protein coding regions of 551 different genes. While sequence analysis of transposon insertion sites indicated that transposition occurred in an essentially random fashion in the genome, 25 unique transposon mutants were found to exhibit insertions into genes encoding 16S or 23S rRNAs, suggesting these genes are insertional hot spots in the L. interrogans genome. In contrast, loci containing notionally essential genes involved in lipopolysaccharide and heme biosynthesis showed few transposon insertions. The effect of gene disruption on the virulence of a selected set of defined mutants was investigated using the hamster model of leptospirosis. Two attenuated mutants with disruptions in hypothetical genes were identified, thus validating the use of transposon mutagenesis for the identification of novel virulence factors in L. interrogans. This library provides a valuable resource for the study of gene function in L. interrogans. Combined with the genome sequences of L. interrogans, this provides an opportunity to investigate genes that contribute to pathogenesis and will provide a better understanding of the biology of L. interrogans. PMID:19047402

  3. Transposon mutagenesis as an approach to improved understanding of Borrelia pathogenesis and biology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tao; Troy, Erin B.; Hu, Linden T.; Gao, Lihui; Norris, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Transposon insertion provides a method for near-random mutation of bacterial genomes, and has been utilized extensively for the study of bacterial pathogenesis and biology. This approach is particularly useful for organisms that are relatively refractory to genetic manipulation, including Lyme disease Borrelia. In this review, progress to date in the application of transposon mutagenesis to the study of Borrelia burgdorferi is reported. An effective Himar1-based transposon vector has been developed and used to acquire a sequence-defined library of nearly 4500 mutants in the infectious, moderately transformable B. burgdorferi B31 derivative 5A18NP1. Analysis of these transposon mutants using signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) and Tn-seq approaches has begun to yield valuable information regarding the genes important in the pathogenesis and biology of this organism. PMID:24904839

  4. Transposon mutagenesis of Bacteroides fragilis using a mariner transposon vector.

    PubMed

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Husain, Fasahath; Wexler, Hannah M

    2013-08-01

    The mariner transposon vector pYV07 was tested for use in the mutagenesis of Bacteroides fragilis 638R. The transposon vector efficiently generated mutants in B. fragilis 638R. The transposon disrupted genes were scattered throughout the genome of B. fragilis 638R. This method serves as a powerful tool to study B. fragilis. PMID:23664906

  5. Transposon mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotease genes.

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, M J; Jagger, K S; Warren, R L

    1984-01-01

    Transposon Tn5 was used to generate protease-deficient insertion mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The presence of Tn5 in the chromosome of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated by transduction and DNA-DNA hybridization. The altered protease production and kanamycin resistance were cotransduced into a wild-type P. aeruginosa strain. A radiolabeled probe of Tn5 DNA hybridized to specific BamHI fragments isolated from the insertion mutants. Two independently isolated Tn5 insertion mutants had reduced protease production, partially impaired elastase activity, and no immunologically reactive alkaline protease. Images PMID:6317657

  6. Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Bharucha, Nikë; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis is an effective method for generating large sets of random mutations in target DNA, with applicability toward numerous types of genetic screens in prokaryotes, single-celled eukaryotes, and metazoans alike. Relative to methods of random mutagenesis by chemical/UV treatment, transposon insertions can be easily identified in mutants with phenotypes of interest. The construction of transposon insertion mutants is also less labor-intensive on a genome-wide scale than methods for targeted gene replacement, although transposon insertions are not precisely targeted to a specific residue, and thus coverage of the target DNA can be problematic. The collective advantages of transposon mutagenesis have been well demonstrated in studies of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, as transposon mutagenesis has been used extensively for phenotypic screens in both yeasts. Consequently, we present here protocols for the generation and utilization of transposon-insertion DNA libraries in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. Specifically, we present methods for the large-scale introduction of transposon insertion alleles in a desired strain of S. cerevisiae. Methods are also presented for transposon mutagenesis of C. albicans, encompassing both the construction of the plasmid-based transposon-mutagenized DNA library and its introduction into a desired strain of Candida. In total, these methods provide the necessary information to implement transposon mutagenesis in yeast, enabling the construction of large sets of identifiable gene disruption mutations, with particular utility for phenotypic screening in nonstandard genetic backgrounds. PMID:21815095

  7. Isolation and Characterization of FecA- and FeoB-Mediated Iron Acquisition Systems of the Spirochete Leptospira biflexa by Random Insertional Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Louvel, Hélène; Saint Girons, Isabelle; Picardeau, Mathieu

    2005-01-01

    The specific mechanisms by which Leptospira spp. acquire iron from their ecological niches are unknown. A major factor contributing to our ignorance of spirochetal biology is the lack of methods for genetic analysis of these organisms. In this study, we have developed a system for random transposon mutagenesis of Leptospira biflexa using a mariner transposon, Himar1. To demonstrate the validity of Himar1 in vivo transposon mutagenesis in L. biflexa, a screen of mutants for clones impaired in amino acid biosynthesis was first performed, enabling the identification of tryptophan and glutamate auxotrophs. To investigate iron transporters, 2,000 L. biflexa transposon mutants were screened onto media with and without hemin, thus allowing the identification of five hemin-requiring mutants, and the putative genes responsible for this phenotype were identified. Three mutants had distinct insertions in a gene encoding a protein which shares homology with the TonB-dependent receptor FecA, involved in ferric citrate transport. We also identified two mutants with a Himar1 insertion into a feoB-like gene, the product of which is required for ferrous iron uptake in many bacterial organisms. Interestingly, the growth inhibition exhibited by the fecA and feoB mutants was relieved by deferoxamine, suggesting the presence of a ferric hydroxamate transporter. These results confirm the importance of iron for the growth of Leptospira and its ability to use multiple iron sources. PMID:15838052

  8. The Hermes Transposon of Musca domestica Is an Efficient Tool for the Mutagenesis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Evertts, Adam G.; Plymire, Christopher; Craig, Nancy L.; Levin, Henry L.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, no transposon-based method for the mutagenesis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe exists. We have developed such a system based on the introduction of the hermes transposon from the housefly into S. pombe. This system efficiently disrupts open reading frames and allows the insertion sites to be readily identified. PMID:17947404

  9. The hermes transposon of Musca domestica is an efficient tool for the mutagenesis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Evertts, Adam G; Plymire, Christopher; Craig, Nancy L; Levin, Henry L

    2007-12-01

    Currently, no transposon-based method for the mutagenesis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe exists. We have developed such a system based on the introduction of the hermes transposon from the housefly into S. pombe. This system efficiently disrupts open reading frames and allows the insertion sites to be readily identified. PMID:17947404

  10. Random insertion and gene disruption via transposon mutagenesis of Ureaplasma parvum using a mini-transposon plasmid.

    PubMed

    Aboklaish, Ali F; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Citti, Christine; Toleman, Mark A; Glass, John I; Spiller, O Brad

    2014-11-01

    While transposon mutagenesis has been successfully used for Mycoplasma spp. to disrupt and determine non-essential genes, previous attempts with Ureaplasma spp. have been unsuccessful. Using a polyethylene glycol-transformation enhancing protocol, we were able to transform three separate serovars of Ureaplasma parvum with a Tn4001-based mini-transposon plasmid containing a gentamicin resistance selection marker. Despite the large degree of homology between Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, all attempts to transform the latter in parallel failed, with the exception of a single clinical U. urealyticum isolate. PCR probing and sequencing were used to confirm transposon insertion into the bacterial genome and identify disrupted genes. Transformation of prototype serovar 3 consistently resulted in transfer only of sequence between the mini-transposon inverted repeats, but some strains showed additional sequence transfer. Transposon insertion occurred randomly in the genome resulting in unique disruption of genes UU047, UU390, UU440, UU450, UU520, UU526, UU582 for single clones from a panel of screened clones. An intergenic insertion between genes UU187 and UU188 was also characterised. Two phenotypic alterations were observed in the mutated strains: Disruption of a DEAD-box RNA helicase (UU582) altered growth kinetics, while the U. urealyticum strain lost resistance to serum attack coincident with disruption of gene UUR10_137 and loss of expression of a 41 kDa protein. Transposon mutagenesis was used successfully to insert single copies of a mini-transposon into the genome and disrupt genes leading to phenotypic changes in Ureaplasma parvum strains. This method can now be used to deliver exogenous genes for expression and determine essential genes for Ureaplasma parvum replication in culture and experimental models. PMID:25444567

  11. PiggyBac transposon mutagenesis: a tool for cancer gene discovery in mice.

    PubMed

    Rad, Roland; Rad, Lena; Wang, Wei; Cadinanos, Juan; Vassiliou, George; Rice, Stephen; Campos, Lia S; Yusa, Kosuke; Banerjee, Ruby; Li, Meng Amy; de la Rosa, Jorge; Strong, Alexander; Lu, Dong; Ellis, Peter; Conte, Nathalie; Yang, Fang Tang; Liu, Pentao; Bradley, Allan

    2010-11-19

    Transposons are mobile DNA segments that can disrupt gene function by inserting in or near genes. Here, we show that insertional mutagenesis by the PiggyBac transposon can be used for cancer gene discovery in mice. PiggyBac transposition in genetically engineered transposon-transposase mice induced cancers whose type (hematopoietic versus solid) and latency were dependent on the regulatory elements introduced into transposons. Analysis of 63 hematopoietic tumors revealed that PiggyBac is capable of genome-wide mutagenesis. The PiggyBac screen uncovered many cancer genes not identified in previous retroviral or Sleeping Beauty transposon screens, including Spic, which encodes a PU.1-related transcription factor, and Hdac7, a histone deacetylase gene. PiggyBac and Sleeping Beauty have different integration preferences. To maximize the utility of the tool, we engineered 21 mouse lines to be compatible with both transposon systems in constitutive, tissue- or temporal-specific mutagenesis. Mice with different transposon types, copy numbers, and chromosomal locations support wide applicability. PMID:20947725

  12. Genome-Wide Synthetic Genetic Screening by Transposon Mutagenesis in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Brooke N.; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Transposon-based mutagenesis is an effective method for genetic screening on a genome-wide scale, with particular applicability in organisms possessing compact genomes where transforming DNA tends to integrate by homologous recombination. Methods for transposon mutagenesis have been applied with great success in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. In C. albicans, we have implemented transposon mutagenesis to generate heterozygous mutations for the analysis of complex haploinsufficiency, a type of synthetic genetic interaction wherein a pair of non-complementing heterozygous mutations results in a stronger phenotype then either individual mutation in isolation. Genes exhibiting complex haploinsufficiency typically function within a regulatory pathway, in parallel pathways, or in parallel branches within a single pathway. Here, we present protocols to implement transposon mutagenesis for complex haploinsufficiency screening in C. albicans, indicating methods for transposon construction, mutagenesis, phenotypic screening, and identification of insertion sites in strains of interest. In total, the approach is a useful means to implement large-scale synthetic genetic screening in the diploid C. albicans. PMID:25636616

  13. Insertional Mutagenesis by a Hybrid PiggyBac and Sleeping Beauty Transposon in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Furushima, Kenryo; Jang, Chuan-Wei; Chen, Diane W.; Xiao, Ningna; Overbeek, Paul A.; Behringer, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid piggyBac/Sleeping Beauty transposon-based insertional mutagenesis system that can be mobilized by simple breeding was established in the rat. These transposons were engineered to include gene trap sequences and a tyrosinase (Tyr) pigmentation reporter to rescue the albinism of the genetic background used in the mutagenesis strategy. Single-copy transposon insertions were transposed into the rat genome by co-injection of plasmids carrying the transposon and RNA encoding piggyBac transposase into zygotes. The levels of transgenic Tyr expression were influenced by chromosomal context, leading to transgenic rats with different pigmentation that enabled visual genotyping. Transgenic rats designed to ubiquitously express either piggyBac or Sleeping Beauty transposase were generated by standard zygote injection also on an albino background. Bigenic rats carrying single-copy transposons at known loci and transposase transgenes exhibited coat color mosaicism, indicating somatic transposition. PiggyBac or Sleeping Beauty transposase bigenic rats bred with wild-type albino rats yielded offspring with pigmentation distinct from the initial transposon insertions as a consequence of germline transposition to new loci. The germline transposition frequency for Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac was ∼10% or about one new insertion per litter. Approximately 50% of the insertions occurred in introns. Chimeric transcripts containing endogenous and gene trap sequences were identified in Gabrb1 mutant rats. This mutagenesis system based on simple crosses and visual genotyping can be used to generate a collection of single-gene mutations in the rat. PMID:23023007

  14. A Plasmid-Transposon Hybrid Mutagenesis System Effective in a Broad Range of Enterobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Rita; Smith, Debra S.; Matilla, Miguel A.; Roberts, Kevin; Richardson, Elizabeth; Drew, Alison; Williamson, Neil; Ramsay, Josh; Welch, Martin; Salmond, George P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Random transposon mutagenesis is a powerful technique used to generate libraries of genetic insertions in many different bacterial strains. Here we develop a system facilitating random transposon mutagenesis in a range of different Gram-negative bacterial strains, including Pectobacterium atrosepticum, Citrobacter rodentium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006, Serratia plymuthica, Dickeya dadantii, and many more. Transposon mutagenesis was optimized in each of these strains and three studies are presented to show the efficacy of this system. Firstly, the important agricultural pathogen D. dadantii was mutagenized. Two mutants that showed reduced protease production and one mutant producing the previously cryptic pigment, indigoidine, were identified and characterized. Secondly, the enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC39006 was mutagenized and mutants incapable of producing gas vesicles, proteinaceous intracellular organelles, were identified. One of these contained a β-galactosidase transcriptional fusion within the gene gvpA1, essential for gas vesicle production. Finally, the system was used to mutate the biosynthetic gene clusters of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and anticancer polyketide, oocydin A, in the plant-associated enterobacterium, Dickeya solani MK10. The mutagenesis system was developed to allow easy identification of transposon insertion sites by sequencing, after facile generation of a replicon encompassing the transposon and adjacent DNA, post-excision. Furthermore, the system can also create transcriptional fusions with either β-galactosidase or β-glucuronidase as reporters, and exploits a variety of drug resistance markers so that multiple selectable fusions can be generated in a single strain. This system of various transposons has wide utility and can be combined in many different ways. PMID:26733980

  15. Development of an inducible transposon system for efficient random mutagenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Shu; Chai, Changsheng; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong; Minton, Nigel P.; Gu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is an industrially important Gram-positive organism, which is capable of producing economically important chemicals in the ABE (Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol) fermentation process. Renewed interests in the ABE process necessitate the availability of additional genetics tools to facilitate the derivation of a greater understanding of the underlying metabolic and regulatory control processes in operation through forward genetic strategies. In this study, a xylose inducible, mariner-based, transposon system was developed and shown to allow high-efficient random mutagenesis in the model strain ATCC 824. Of the thiamphenicol resistant colonies obtained, 91.9% were shown to be due to successful transposition of the catP-based mini-transposon element. Phenotypic screening of 200 transposon clones revealed a sporulation-defective clone with an insertion in spo0A, thereby demonstrating that this inducible transposon system can be used for forward genetic studies in C. acetobutylicum. PMID:27001972

  16. Development of an inducible transposon system for efficient random mutagenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Shu; Chai, Changsheng; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong; Minton, Nigel P; Gu, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is an industrially important Gram-positive organism, which is capable of producing economically important chemicals in the ABE (Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol) fermentation process. Renewed interests in the ABE process necessitate the availability of additional genetics tools to facilitate the derivation of a greater understanding of the underlying metabolic and regulatory control processes in operation through forward genetic strategies. In this study, a xylose inducible, mariner-based, transposon system was developed and shown to allow high-efficient random mutagenesis in the model strain ATCC 824. Of the thiamphenicol resistant colonies obtained, 91.9% were shown to be due to successful transposition of the catP-based mini-transposon element. Phenotypic screening of 200 transposon clones revealed a sporulation-defective clone with an insertion in spo0A, thereby demonstrating that this inducible transposon system can be used for forward genetic studies in C. acetobutylicum. PMID:27001972

  17. Evaluating Risks of Insertional Mutagenesis by DNA Transposons in Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Perry B.; Largaespada, David A.; Switzer, Kirsten C.; Cooper, Laurence J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Investigational therapy can be successfully undertaken using viral- and non-viral-mediated ex vivo gene transfer. Indeed, recent clinical trials have established the potential for genetically modified T cells to improve and restore health. Recently the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system has been applied in clinical trials to stably insert a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to redirect T-cell specificity. We discuss the context in which the SB system can be harnessed for gene therapy and describe the human application of SB-modified CAR+ T cells. We have focused on theoretical issues relating to insertional mutagenesis in the context of human genomes that are naturally subjected to remobilization of transposons and the experimental evidence over the last decade of employing SB transposons for defining genes that induce cancer. These findings are put into the context of the use of SB transposons in the treatment of human disease. PMID:23313630

  18. Isolation of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 mutants defective in bacterial magnetic particle synthesis by transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Wahyudi, A T; Takeyama, H; Matsunaga, T

    2001-01-01

    Nonmagnetic mutants of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 were recovered following mini-Tn5 transposon mutagenesis. Transconjugants with kanamycin resistance were obtained at a frequency of 2.7 x 10(-7) per recipient. Of 3327 transconjugants, 62 were defective for bacterial magnetic particle (BMP) synthesis. The frequency of independent transposition events for nonmagnetic mutants was about 1.4% in transconjugants. Further analysis of DNA sequences flanking transposon by inverted polymerase chain reaction allowed isolation of at least 10 genes or DNA sequences involved in BMP synthesis in M. magneticum AMB-1. PMID:11963843

  19. An inducible tool for random mutagenesis in Aspergillus niger based on the transposon Vader.

    PubMed

    Paun, Linda; Nitsche, Benjamin; Homan, Tim; Ram, Arthur F; Kempken, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The ascomycete Aspergillus niger is widely used in the biotechnology, for instance in producing most of the world's citric acid. It is also known as a major food and feed contaminant. While generation of gene knockouts for functional genomics has become feasible in ku70 mutants, analyzing gene functions or metabolic pathways remains a laborious task. An unbiased transposon-based mutagenesis approach may aid this process of analyzing gene functions by providing mutant libraries in a short time. The Vader transposon is a non-autonomous DNA-transposon, which is activated by the homologous tan1-transposase. However, in the most commonly used lab strain of A. niger (N400 strain and derivatives), we found that the transposase, encoded by the tan1 gene, is mutated and inactive. To establish a Vader transposon-based mutagenesis system in the N400 background, we expressed the functional transposase of A. niger strain CBS 513.88 under the control of an inducible promoter based on the Tet-on system, which is activated in the presence of the antibiotic doxycycline (DOX). Increasing amounts of doxycycline lead to higher Vader excision frequencies, whereas little to none activity of Vader was observed without addition of doxycycline. Hence, this system appears to be suitable for producing stable mutants in the A. niger N400 background. PMID:27003267

  20. Sleeping Beauty transposon insertional mutagenesis based mouse models for cancer gene discovery

    PubMed Central

    Moriarity, Branden S; Largaespada, David A

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale genomic efforts to study human cancer, such as the cancer gene atlas (TCGA), have identified numerous cancer drivers in a wide variety of tumor types. However, there are limitations to this approach, the mutations and expression or copy number changes that are identified are not always clearly functionally relevant, and only annotated genes and genetic elements are thoroughly queried. The use of complimentary, nonbiased, functional approaches to identify drivers of cancer development and progression is ideal to maximize the rate at which cancer discoveries are achieved. One such approach that has been successful is the use of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based mutagenesis system in mice. This system uses a conditionally expressed transposase and mutagenic transposon allele to target mutagenesis to somatic cells of a given tissue in mice to cause random mutations leading to tumor development. Analysis of tumors for transposon common insertion sites (CIS) identifies candidate cancer genes specific to that tumor type. While similar screens have been performed in mice with the PiggyBac (PB) transposon and viral approaches, we limit extensive discussion to SB. Here we discuss the basic structure of these screens, screens that have been performed, methods used to identify CIS. PMID:26051241

  1. Transposon Mutagenesis of the Extremely Thermophilic Bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Jennifer F.; Gregory, Steven T.; Dahlberg, Albert E.

    2014-01-01

    Thermus thermophilus is an extremely thermophilic bacterium that grows between 50 °C and 80 °C and is an excellent model organism not only for understanding life at high temperature but also for its biotechnological and industrial applications. Multiple molecular capabilities are available including targeted gene inactivation and the use of shuttle plasmids that replicate in T. thermophilus and Escherichia coli; however the ability to disrupt gene function randomly by transposon insertion has not been developed. Here we report a detailed method of transposon mutagenesis of T. thermophilus HB27 based on the EZ-Tn5 system from Epicentre Biotechnologies. We were able to generate insertion mutations throughout the chromosome by in vitro transposition and transformation with mutagenized genomic DNA. We also report that an additional step, one that fills in single stranded gaps in donor DNA generated by the transposition reaction, was essential for successful mutagenesis. We anticipate that our method of transposon mutagenesis will enable further genetic development of T. thermophilus and may also be valuable for similar endeavors with other under-developed organisms. PMID:24948436

  2. Steady-state transposon mutagenesis in inbred maize.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Donald R; Settles, Andrew Mark; Suzuki, Masaharu; Tan, Bao Cai; Latshaw, Susan; Porch, Tim; Robin, Kevin; Baier, John; Avigne, Wayne; Lai, Jinsheng; Messing, Joachim; Koch, Karen E; Hannah, L Curtis

    2005-10-01

    We implement a novel strategy for harnessing the power of high-copy transposons for functional analysis of the maize genome, and report behavioral features of the Mutator system in a uniform inbred background. The unique UniformMu population and database facilitate high-throughput molecular analysis of Mu-tagged mutants and gene knockouts. Key features of the population include: (i) high mutation frequencies (7% independent seed mutations) and moderation of copy number (approximately 57 total Mu elements; 1-2 MuDR copies per plant) were maintained by continuous back-crossing into a phenotypically uniform inbred background; (ii) a bz1-mum9 marker enabled selection of stable lines (loss of MuDR), inhibiting further transpositions in lines selected for molecular analysis; (iii) build-up of mutation load was prevented by screening Mu-active parents to exclude plants carrying pre-existing seed mutations. To create a database of genomic sequences flanking Mu insertions, selected mutant lines were analyzed by sequencing of MuTAIL PCR clone libraries. These sequences were annotated and clustered to facilitate bioinformatic subtraction of ancestral elements and identification of insertions unique to mutant lines. New insertions targeted low-copy, gene-rich sequences, and in silico mapping revealed a random distribution of insertions over the genome. Our results indicate that Mu populations differ markedly in the occurrence of Mu insertion hotspots and the frequency of suppressible mutations. We suggest that controlled MuDR copy number in UniformMu lines is a key determinant of these differences. The public database (http://uniformmu.org; http://endosperm.info) includes pedigree and phenotypic data for over 2000 independent seed mutants selected from a population of 31 548 F2 lines and integrated with analyses of 34 255 MuTAIL sequences. PMID:16167895

  3. Transposon mutagenesis of Campylobacter jejuni identifies a bipartite energy taxis system required for motility.

    PubMed

    Hendrixson, D R; Akerley, B J; DiRita, V J

    2001-04-01

    Campylobacter jejuni constitutes the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. Little is known about virulence mechanisms in this organism because of the scarcity of suitable genetic tools. We have developed an efficient system of in vitro transposon mutagenesis using a mariner-based transposon and purified mariner transposase. Through in vitro transposition of C. jejuni chromosomal DNA followed by natural transformation of the transposed DNA, large random transposon mutant libraries consisting of approximately 16 000 individual mutants were generated. The first genetic screen of C. jejuni using a transposon-generated mutant library identified 28 mutants defective for flagellar motility, one of the few known virulence determinants of this pathogen. We developed a second genetic system, which allows for the construction of defined chromosomal deletions in C. jejuni, and demonstrated the requirement of sigma28 and sigma54 for motility. In addition, we show that sigma28 is involved in the transcription of flaA and that sigma54 is required for transcription of three other flagellar genes, flaB and flgDE. We also identified two previously uncharacterized genes required for motility encoding proteins that we call CetA and CetB, which mediate energy taxis responses. Through our analysis of the Cet proteins, we propose a unique mechanism for sensing energy levels and mediating energy taxis in C. jejuni. PMID:11298288

  4. A Transposon-Based Tool for Transformation and Mutagenesis in Trypanosomatid Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Jeziel D.; Beverley, Stephen M.; Tosi, Luiz R.O.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of transposable elements to mobilize across genomes and affect the expression of genes makes them exceptional tools for genetic manipulation methodologies. Several transposon-based systems have been modified and incorporated into shuttle mutagenesis approaches in a variety of organisms. We have found that the Mos1 element, a DNA transposon from Drosophila mauritiana, is suitable and readily adaptable to a variety of strategies to the study of trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa. Trypanosomatids are the causative agents of a wide range of neglected diseases in underdeveloped regions of the globe. In this chapter we describe the basic elements and the available protocols for the in vitro use of Mos1 derivatives in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. PMID:25388118

  5. Random Transposon Mutagenesis for Cell-Envelope Resistant to Phage Infection.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Cortés, Ruth; Arguijo-Hernández, Emma S; Carballo-Ontiveros, Marco A; Martínez-Peñafiel, Eva; Kameyama, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify host components involved in the infective process of bacteriophages, we developed a wide-range strategy to obtain cell envelope mutants, using Escherichia coli W3110 and its specific phage mEp213. The strategy consisted in four steps: (1) random mutagenesis using transposon miniTn10Km(r); (2) selection of phage-resistant mutants by replica-plating; (3) electroporation of the phage-resistant mutants with mEp213 genome, followed by selection of those allowing phage development; and (4) sequencing of the transposon-disrupted genes. This strategy allowed us to distinguish the host factors related to phage development or multiplication within the cell, from those involved in phage infection at the level of the cell envelope. PMID:27311665

  6. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes driving hepatocellular carcinoma in a chronic hepatitis B mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bard-Chapeau, Emilie A.; Nguyen, Anh-Tuan; Rust, Alistair G.; Sayadi, Ahmed; Lee, Philip; Chua, Belinda Q; New, Lee-Sun; de Jong, Johann; Ward, Jerrold M.; Chin, Christopher KY.; Chew, Valerie; Toh, Han Chong; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Benoukraf, Touati; Soong, Richie; Bard, Frederic A.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Johnson, Randy L.; Radda, George K.; Chan, Eric CY.; Wessels, Lodewyk FA.; Adams, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The most common risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). To better understand the evolutionary forces driving HCC we performed a near saturating transposon mutagenesis screen in a mouse HBV model of HCC. This screen identified 21 candidate early stage drivers, and a bewildering number (2860) of candidate later stage drivers, that were enriched for genes mutated, deregulated, or that function in signaling pathways important for human HCC, with a striking 1199 genes linked to cellular metabolic processes. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic landscape of HCC. PMID:24316982

  7. Development of an Efficient In Vivo System (Pjunc-TpaseIS1223) for Random Transposon Mutagenesis of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Licandro-Seraut, Hélène; Brinster, Sophie; van de Guchte, Maarten; Scornec, Hélène; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Sansonetti, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The random transposon mutagenesis system Pjunc-TpaseIS1223 is composed of plasmids pVI129, expressing IS1223 transposase, and pVI110, a suicide transposon plasmid carrying the Pjunc sequence, the substrate of the IS1223 transposase. This system is particularly efficient in Lactobacillus casei, as more than 10,000 stable, random mutants were routinely obtained via electroporation. PMID:22610425

  8. Sleeping Beauty Transposon Mutagenesis as a Tool for Gene Discovery in the NOD Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Elso, Colleen M.; Chu, Edward P. F.; Alsayb, May A.; Mackin, Leanne; Ivory, Sean T.; Ashton, Michelle P.; Bröer, Stefan; Silveira, Pablo A.; Brodnicki, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different strategies have been used to identify genes for which genetic variation contributes to type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Genetic studies in humans have identified >40 loci that affect the risk for developing T1D, but the underlying causative alleles are often difficult to pinpoint or have subtle biological effects. A complementary strategy to identifying “natural” alleles in the human population is to engineer “artificial” alleles within inbred mouse strains and determine their effect on T1D incidence. We describe the use of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis system in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain, which harbors a genetic background predisposed to developing T1D. Mutagenesis in this system is random, but a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-polyA gene trap within the SB transposon enables early detection of mice harboring transposon-disrupted genes. The SB transposon also acts as a molecular tag to, without additional breeding, efficiently identify mutated genes and prioritize mutant mice for further characterization. We show here that the SB transposon is functional in NOD mice and can produce a null allele in a novel candidate gene that increases diabetes incidence. We propose that SB transposon mutagenesis could be used as a complementary strategy to traditional methods to help identify genes that, when disrupted, affect T1D pathogenesis. PMID:26438296

  9. Sleeping Beauty Transposon Mutagenesis as a Tool for Gene Discovery in the NOD Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Elso, Colleen M; Chu, Edward P F; Alsayb, May A; Mackin, Leanne; Ivory, Sean T; Ashton, Michelle P; Bröer, Stefan; Silveira, Pablo A; Brodnicki, Thomas C

    2015-12-01

    A number of different strategies have been used to identify genes for which genetic variation contributes to type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Genetic studies in humans have identified >40 loci that affect the risk for developing T1D, but the underlying causative alleles are often difficult to pinpoint or have subtle biological effects. A complementary strategy to identifying "natural" alleles in the human population is to engineer "artificial" alleles within inbred mouse strains and determine their effect on T1D incidence. We describe the use of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis system in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain, which harbors a genetic background predisposed to developing T1D. Mutagenesis in this system is random, but a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-polyA gene trap within the SB transposon enables early detection of mice harboring transposon-disrupted genes. The SB transposon also acts as a molecular tag to, without additional breeding, efficiently identify mutated genes and prioritize mutant mice for further characterization. We show here that the SB transposon is functional in NOD mice and can produce a null allele in a novel candidate gene that increases diabetes incidence. We propose that SB transposon mutagenesis could be used as a complementary strategy to traditional methods to help identify genes that, when disrupted, affect T1D pathogenesis. PMID:26438296

  10. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes and cellular processes driving epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Takahiro; Newberg, Justin Y; Kodama, Michiko; Rangel, Roberto; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Tien, Jean C; Parsons, Pamela H; Wu, Hao; Finegold, Milton J; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A

    2016-06-14

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to contribute to metastasis and chemoresistance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), leading to their poor prognosis. The genes driving EMT in HCC are not yet fully understood, however. Here, we show that mobilization of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposons in immortalized mouse hepatoblasts induces mesenchymal liver tumors on transplantation to nude mice. These tumors show significant down-regulation of epithelial markers, along with up-regulation of mesenchymal markers and EMT-related transcription factors (EMT-TFs). Sequencing of transposon insertion sites from tumors identified 233 candidate cancer genes (CCGs) that were enriched for genes and cellular processes driving EMT. Subsequent trunk driver analysis identified 23 CCGs that are predicted to function early in tumorigenesis and whose mutation or alteration in patients with HCC is correlated with poor patient survival. Validation of the top trunk drivers identified in the screen, including MET (MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase), GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), HECT, UBA, and WWE domain containing 1 (HUWE1), lysine-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A), and protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 12 (PTPN12), showed that deregulation of these genes activates an EMT program in human HCC cells that enhances tumor cell migration. Finally, deregulation of these genes in human HCC was found to confer sorafenib resistance through apoptotic tolerance and reduced proliferation, consistent with recent studies showing that EMT contributes to the chemoresistance of tumor cells. Our unique cell-based transposon mutagenesis screen appears to be an excellent resource for discovering genes involved in EMT in human HCC and potentially for identifying new drug targets. PMID:27247392

  11. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genetic drivers of Braf(V600E) melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mann, Michael B; Black, Michael A; Jones, Devin J; Ward, Jerrold M; Yew, Christopher Chin Kuan; Newberg, Justin Y; Dupuy, Adam J; Rust, Alistair G; Bosenberg, Marcus W; McMahon, Martin; Print, Cristin G; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A

    2015-05-01

    Although nearly half of human melanomas harbor oncogenic BRAF(V600E) mutations, the genetic events that cooperate with these mutations to drive melanogenesis are still largely unknown. Here we show that Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated mutagenesis drives melanoma progression in Braf(V600E) mutant mice and identify 1,232 recurrently mutated candidate cancer genes (CCGs) from 70 SB-driven melanomas. CCGs are enriched in Wnt, PI3K, MAPK and netrin signaling pathway components and are more highly connected to one another than predicted by chance, indicating that SB targets cooperative genetic networks in melanoma. Human orthologs of >500 CCGs are enriched for mutations in human melanoma or showed statistically significant clinical associations between RNA abundance and survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. We also functionally validate CEP350 as a new tumor-suppressor gene in human melanoma. SB mutagenesis has thus helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving BRAF(V600E) melanoma and discover new genes with potential clinical importance in human melanoma. PMID:25848750

  12. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genetic drivers of BrafV600E melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Michael B; Black, Michael A; Jones, Devin J; Ward, Jerrold M; Yew, Christopher Chin Kuan; Newberg, Justin Y; Dupuy, Adam J; Rust, Alistair G; Bosenberg, Marcus W; McMahon, Martin; Print, Cristin G; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A

    2016-01-01

    Although nearly half of human melanomas harbor oncogenic BRAFV600E mutations, the genetic events that cooperate with these mutations to drive melanogenesis are still largely unknown. Here we show that Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated mutagenesis drives melanoma progression in BrafV600E mutant mice and identify 1,232 recurrently mutated candidate cancer genes (CCGs) from 70 SB-driven melanomas. CCGs are enriched in Wnt, PI3K, MAPK and netrin signaling pathway components and are more highly connected to one another than predicted by chance, indicating that SB targets cooperative genetic networks in melanoma. Human orthologs of >500 CCGs are enriched for mutations in human melanoma or showed statistically significant clinical associations between RNA abundance and survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. We also functionally validate CEP350 as a new tumor-suppressor gene in human melanoma. SB mutagenesis has thus helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving BRAFV600E melanoma and discover new genes with potential clinical importance in human melanoma. PMID:25848750

  13. In vivo growth characteristics of leucine and methionine auxotrophic mutants of Mycobacterium bovis BCG generated by transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, R A; Weisbrod, T R; Martin, J; Scuderi, J D; Brown, A M; Cirillo, J D; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R

    1995-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG, a member of the slow-growing M. tuberculosis complex, was accomplished with transposons engineered from the Mycobacterium smegmatis insertion element IS1096. Transposons were created by placing a kanamycin resistance gene in several different positions in IS1096, and the resulting transposons were electroporated into BCG on nonreplicating plasmids. These analyses demonstrated that only one of the two open reading frames was necessary for transposition. A library of insertions was generated. Southern analysis of 23 kanamycin-resistant clones revealed that the transposons had inserted directly, with no evidence of cointegrate formation, into different restriction fragments in each clone. Sequence analysis of nine of the clones revealed junctional direct 8-bp repeats with only a slight similarity in target sites. These results suggest that IS1096-derived transposons transposed into the BCG genome in a relatively random fashion. Three auxotrophs, two for leucine and one for methionine, were isolated from the library of transposon insertions in BCG. They were characterized by sequencing and found to be homologous to the leuD gene of Escherichia coli and a sulfate-binding protein of cyanobacteria, respectively. When inoculated intravenously into C57BL/6 mice, the leucine auxotrophs, in contrast to the parent BCG strain or the methionine auxotroph, showed an inability to grow in vivo and were cleared within 7 weeks from the lungs and spleen. PMID:7868221

  14. piggyBac transposon somatic mutagenesis with an activated reporter and tracker (PB-SMART) for genetic screens in mice.

    PubMed

    Landrette, Sean F; Cornett, Jonathan C; Ni, Thomas K; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Xu, Tian

    2011-01-01

    Somatic forward genetic screens have the power to interrogate thousands of genes in a single animal. Retroviral and transposon mutagenesis systems in mice have been designed and deployed in somatic tissues for surveying hematopoietic and solid tumor formation. In the context of cancer, the ability to visually mark mutant cells would present tremendous advantages for identifying tumor formation, monitoring tumor growth over time, and tracking tumor infiltrations and metastases into wild-type tissues. Furthermore, locating mutant clones is a prerequisite for screening and analyzing most other somatic phenotypes. For this purpose, we developed a system using the piggyBac (PB) transposon for somatic mutagenesis with an activated reporter and tracker, called PB-SMART. The PB-SMART mouse genetic screening system can simultaneously induce somatic mutations and mark mutated cells using bioluminescence or fluorescence. The marking of mutant cells enable analyses that are not possible with current somatic mutagenesis systems, such as tracking cell proliferation and tumor growth, detecting tumor cell infiltrations, and reporting tissue mutagenesis levels by a simple ex vivo visual readout. We demonstrate that PB-SMART is highly mutagenic, capable of tumor induction with low copy transposons, which facilitates the mapping and identification of causative insertions. We further integrated a conditional transposase with the PB-SMART system, permitting tissue-specific mutagenesis with a single cross to any available Cre line. Targeting the germline, the system could also be used to conduct F1 screens. With these features, PB-SMART provides an integrated platform for individual investigators to harness the power of somatic mutagenesis and phenotypic screens to decipher the genetic basis of mammalian biology and disease. PMID:22039523

  15. A facile and efficient transposon mutagenesis method for generation of multi-codon deletions in protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Su; Wei, Xuan; Ji, Qun; Xin, Xiu; Jiang, Biao; Liu, Jia

    2016-06-10

    Substitutions, insertions and deletions are all important mutation events in natural and laboratory protein evolution. However, protein engineering using insertions and deletions (indels) is hindered by the lack of a convenient mutagenesis method. Here, we describe a general transposon mutagenesis method that allows for removal of up to five consecutive in-frame codons from a random position of a target protein. This method, referred to as codon deletion mutagenesis (CDM), relies on an engineered Mu transposon that carries asymmetric terminal sequences flanking the MuA transposase recognition sites. CDM requires minimal DNA manipulations, and can generate multi-codon deletions with high efficiency (>90%). As a proof of principle, we constructed five libraries of green fluorescent protein (GFP) containing one to five random codon deletions, respectively. Several variants with multi-codon deletions remained fluorescent, none of which could be easily identified using traditional mutagenesis method. CDM provides a facile and efficient approach to sampling a protein sequence with multi-codon deletions. It will not only facilitate our understanding of the effects of amino acid deletions on protein function but also expedite protein engineering using deletion mutagenesis. PMID:27071724

  16. PiggyBac transposon-based polyadenylation-signal trap for genome-wide mutagenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Limei; Liu, Peng; Sun, Liangliang; Bin Zhou; Fei, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We designed a new type of polyadenylation-signal (PAS) trap vector system in living mice, the piggyBac (PB) (PAS-trapping (EGFP)) gene trapping vector, which takes advantage of the efficient transposition ability of PB and efficient gene trap and insertional mutagenesis of PAS-trapping. The reporter gene of PB(PAS-trapping (EGFP)) is an EGFP gene with its own promoter, but lacking a poly(A) signal. Transgenic mouse lines carrying PB(PAS-trapping (EGFP)) and protamine 1 (Prm1) promoter-driven PB transposase transgenes (Prm1-PBase) were generated by microinjection. Male mice doubly positive for PB(PAS-trapping (EGFP)) and Prm1-PBase were crossed with WT females, generating offspring with various insertion mutations. We found that 44.8% (26/58) of pups were transposon-positive progenies. New transposon integrations comprised 26.9% (7/26) of the transposon-positive progenies. We found that 100% (5/5) of the EGFP fluorescence-positive mice had new trap insertions mediated by a PB transposon in transcriptional units. The direction of the EGFP gene in the vector was consistent with the direction of the endogenous gene reading frame. Furthermore, mice that were EGFP-PCR positive, but EGFP fluorescent negative, did not show successful gene trapping. Thus, the novel PB(PAS-trapping (EGFP)) system is an efficient genome-wide gene-trap mutagenesis in mice. PMID:27292714

  17. Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Smad4 in gastric cancer development.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Haruna; Rust, Alistair G; Ward, Jerrold M; Yew, Christopher Chin Kuan; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in SMAD4 predispose to the development of gastrointestinal cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. To identify genes driving gastric cancer (GC) development, we performed a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis screen in the stomach of Smad4(+/-) mutant mice. This screen identified 59 candidate GC trunk drivers and a much larger number of candidate GC progression genes. Strikingly, 22 SB-identified trunk drivers are known or candidate cancer genes, whereas four SB-identified trunk drivers, including PTEN, SMAD4, RNF43, and NF1, are known human GC trunk drivers. Similar to human GC, pathway analyses identified WNT, TGF-β, and PI3K-PTEN signaling, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, adherens junctions, and RNA degradation in addition to genes involved in chromatin modification and organization as highly deregulated pathways in GC. Comparative oncogenomic filtering of the complete list of SB-identified genes showed that they are highly enriched for genes mutated in human GC and identified many candidate human GC genes. Finally, by comparing our complete list of SB-identified genes against the list of mutated genes identified in five large-scale human GC sequencing studies, we identified LDL receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) as a previously unidentified human candidate GC tumor suppressor gene. In LRP1B, 129 mutations were found in 462 human GC samples sequenced, and LRP1B is one of the top 10 most deleted genes identified in a panel of 3,312 human cancers. SB mutagenesis has, thus, helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving SMAD4-induced GC growth and discover genes with potential clinical importance in human GC. PMID:27006499

  18. Functional characterization of the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein by transposon linker-insertion mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K.; Kuhn, Richard J. . E-mail: kuhnr@purdue.edu

    2007-06-20

    The glycoprotein envelope of alphaviruses consists of two proteins, E1 and E2. E1 is responsible for fusion and E2 is responsible for receptor binding. An atomic structure is available for E1, but one for E2 has not been reported. In this study, transposon linker-insertion mutagenesis was used to probe the function of different domains of E2. A library of mutants, containing 19 amino acid insertions in the E2 glycoprotein sequence of the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV), was generated. Fifty-seven independent E2 insertions were characterized, of which more than half (67%) gave rise to viable virus. The wild-type-like mutants identify regions that accommodate insertions without perturbing virus production and can be used to insert targeting moieties to direct SINV to specific receptors. The defective and lethal mutants give insight into regions of E2 important for protein stability, transport to the cell membrane, E1-E2 contacts, and receptor binding.

  19. piggyBac transposon-based insertional mutagenesis in mouse haploid embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Stephen J; Tan, E-Pien; Yusa, Kosuke

    2015-01-01

    Forward genetic screening is a powerful non-hypothesis-driven approach to unveil the molecular mechanisms and pathways underlying phenotypes of interest. In this approach, a genome-wide mutant library is first generated and then screened for a phenotype of interest. Subsequently, genes responsible for the phenotype are identified. There have been a number of successful screens in yeasts, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila. These model organisms all allow loss-of-function mutants to be generated easily on a genome-wide scale: yeasts have a haploid stage in their reproductive cycles and the latter two organisms have short generation times, allowing mutations to be systematically bred to homozygosity. However, in mammals, the diploid genome and long generation time have always hampered rapid and efficient production of homozygous mutant cells and animals. The recent discovery of several haploid mammalian cell lines promises to revolutionize recessive genetic screens in mammalian cells. In this protocol, we describe an overview of insertional mutagenesis, focusing on DNA transposons, and provide a method for an efficient generation of genome-wide mutant libraries using mouse haploid embryonic stem cells. PMID:25408399

  20. Marinomonas mediterranea MMB-1 Transposon Mutagenesis: Isolation of a Multipotent Polyphenol Oxidase Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Francisco; Lucas-Elío, Patricia; Fernández, Eva; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Marinomonas mediterranea is a melanogenic marine bacterium expressing a multifunctional polyphenol oxidase (PPO) able to oxidize substrates characteristic for laccases and tyrosinases, as well as produce a classical tyrosinase. A new and quick method has been developed for screening laccase activity in culture plates to detect mutants differentially affected in this PPO activity. Transposon mutagenesis has been applied for the first time to M. mediterranea by using different minitransposons loaded in R6K-based suicide delivery vectors mobilizable by conjugation. Higher frequencies of insertions were obtained by using mini-Tn10 derivatives encoding kanamycin or gentamycin resistance. After applying this protocol, a multifunctional PPO-negative mutant was obtained. By using the antibiotic resistance cassette as a marker, flanking regions were cloned. Then the wild-type gene was amplified by PCR and was cloned and sequenced. This is the first report on cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a prokaryotic enzyme with laccase activity. The deduced amino acid sequence shows the characteristic copper-binding sites of other blue copper proteins, including fungal laccases. In addition, it shows some extra copper-binding sites that might be related to its multipotent enzymatic capability. PMID:10850991

  1. A two-component enhancer-inhibitor transposon mutagenesis system for functional analysis of the Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed Central

    Speulman, E; Metz, P L; van Arkel, G; te Lintel Hekkert, B; Stiekema, W J; Pereira, A

    1999-01-01

    A modified Enhancer-Inhibitor transposon system was used to generate a series of mutant lines by single-seed descent such that multiple I insertions occurred per plant. The distribution of original insertions in the population was assessed by isolating transposon-flanking DNA, and a database of insertion sites was created. Approximately three-quarters of the identified insertion sites show similarity to sequences stored in public databases, which demonstrates the power of this regimen of insertional mutagenesis. To isolate insertions in specific genes, we developed three-dimensional pooling and polymerase chain reaction strategies that we then validated by identifying mutants for the regulator genes APETALA1 and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS. The system then was used to identify inserts in a class of uncharacterized genes involved in lipid biosynthesis; one such insertion conferred a fiddlehead mutant phenotype. PMID:10521517

  2. Transformation and transposon mutagenesis of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, causal organism of ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Brumbley, Stevens M; Petrasovits, Lars A; Birch, Robert G; Taylor, Paul W J

    2002-03-01

    Conditions have been developed for genetic transformation and insertional mutagenesis in Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), the causal organism of ratoon stunting disease (RSD), one of the most damaging and intractable diseases of sugarcane internationally. Transformation frequencies ranged from 1 to 10 colony forming units (CFU)/microg of plasmid DNA using Clavibacter/Escherichia coli shuttle vectors pCG188, pDM302, and pDM306 and ranged from 50 to 500 CFU/microg using cosmid cloning vectors pLAFR3 and pLAFR5-km. The transformation/transposition frequency was 0 to 70 CFU/microg of DNA, using suicide vectors pUCD623 and pSUP2021 containing transposable elements Tn4431 and Tn5, respectively. It was necessary to grow Lxx in media containing 0.1% glycine for electroporation and to amplify large plasmids in a dam-/dcm- E. coli strain and purify the DNA by anion exchange. To keep selection pressure at an optimum, the transformants were grown on nitrocellulose filters (0.2-microm pore size) on media containing the appropriate antibiotics. Transposon Tn4431 containing a promoterless lux operon from Vibrio fischeri and a tetracycline-resistance gene was introduced on the suicide vector pUCD623. All but 1% of the putative transposon mutants produce light, indicating transposition into functional Lxx genes. Southern blot analysis of these transformants indicates predominantly single transposon insertions at unique sites. The cosmid cloning vector pLAFR5-km was stably maintained in Lxx. The development of a transformation and transposon mutagenesis system opens the way for molecular analysis of pathogenicity determinants in Lxx. PMID:11952129

  3. TRANSIT--A Software Tool for Himar1 TnSeq Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Michael A; Ambadipudi, Chaitra; Baker, Richard; Sassetti, Christopher; Ioerger, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    TnSeq has become a popular technique for determining the essentiality of genomic regions in bacterial organisms. Several methods have been developed to analyze the wealth of data that has been obtained through TnSeq experiments. We developed a tool for analyzing Himar1 TnSeq data called TRANSIT. TRANSIT provides a graphical interface to three different statistical methods for analyzing TnSeq data. These methods cover a variety of approaches capable of identifying essential genes in individual datasets as well as comparative analysis between conditions. We demonstrate the utility of this software by analyzing TnSeq datasets of M. tuberculosis grown on glycerol and cholesterol. We show that TRANSIT can be used to discover genes which have been previously implicated for growth on these carbon sources. TRANSIT is written in Python, and thus can be run on Windows, OSX and Linux platforms. The source code is distributed under the GNU GPL v3 license and can be obtained from the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/mad-lab/transit. PMID:26447887

  4. Mapping of neutralizing epitopes on Renibacterium salmoninarum p57 by use of transposon mutagenesis and synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Gregory D; Owen, Jennifer

    2005-06-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a gram-positive bacterium that causes bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. The virulence mechanisms of R. salmoninarum are not well understood. Production of a 57-kDa protein (p57) has been associated with isolate virulence and is a diagnostic marker for R. salmoninarum infection. Biological activities of p57 include binding to eukaryotic cells and immunosuppression. We previously isolated three monoclonal antibodies (4D3, 4C11, and 4H8) that neutralize p57 activity. These monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) bind to the amino-terminal region of p57 between amino acids 32 though 243; however, the precise locations of the neutralizing epitopes were not determined. Here, we use transposon mutagenesis to map the 4D3, 4C11, and 4H8 epitopes. Forty-five transposon mutants were generated and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The ability of MAbs 4D3, 4H8, and 4C11 to bind each mutant protein was assessed by immunoblotting. Transposons inserting between amino acids 51 and 112 disrupted the 4H8 epitope. Insertions between residues 78 and 210 disrupted the 4C11 epitope, while insertions between amino acids 158 and 234 disrupted the 4D3 epitope. The three MAbs failed to bind overlapping, 15-mer peptides spanning these regions, suggesting that the epitopes are discontinuous in conformation. We conclude that recognition of secondary structure on the amino terminus of p57 is important for neutralization. The epitope mapping studies suggest directions for improvement of MAb-based immunoassays for detection of R. salmoninarum-infected fish. PMID:15932983

  5. Mapping of Neutralizing Epitopes on Renibacterium salmoninarum p57 by Use of Transposon Mutagenesis and Synthetic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Gregory D.; Owen, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a gram-positive bacterium that causes bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. The virulence mechanisms of R. salmoninarum are not well understood. Production of a 57-kDa protein (p57) has been associated with isolate virulence and is a diagnostic marker for R. salmoninarum infection. Biological activities of p57 include binding to eukaryotic cells and immunosuppression. We previously isolated three monoclonal antibodies (4D3, 4C11, and 4H8) that neutralize p57 activity. These monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) bind to the amino-terminal region of p57 between amino acids 32 though 243; however, the precise locations of the neutralizing epitopes were not determined. Here, we use transposon mutagenesis to map the 4D3, 4C11, and 4H8 epitopes. Forty-five transposon mutants were generated and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The ability of MAbs 4D3, 4H8, and 4C11 to bind each mutant protein was assessed by immunoblotting. Transposons inserting between amino acids 51 and 112 disrupted the 4H8 epitope. Insertions between residues 78 and 210 disrupted the 4C11 epitope, while insertions between amino acids 158 and 234 disrupted the 4D3 epitope. The three MAbs failed to bind overlapping, 15-mer peptides spanning these regions, suggesting that the epitopes are discontinuous in conformation. We conclude that recognition of secondary structure on the amino terminus of p57 is important for neutralization. The epitope mapping studies suggest directions for improvement of MAb-based immunoassays for detection of R. salmoninarum-infected fish. PMID:15932983

  6. Transposon activation mutagenesis as a screening tool for identifying resistance to cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of resistance to chemotherapies represents a significant barrier to successful cancer treatment. Resistance mechanisms are complex, can involve diverse and often unexpected cellular processes, and can vary with both the underlying genetic lesion and the origin or type of tumor. For these reasons developing experimental strategies that could be used to understand, identify and predict mechanisms of resistance in different malignant cells would be a major advance. Methods Here we describe a gain-of-function forward genetic approach for identifying mechanisms of resistance. This approach uses a modified piggyBac transposon to generate libraries of mutagenized cells, each containing transposon insertions that randomly activate nearby gene expression. Genes of interest are identified using next-gen high-throughput sequencing and barcode multiplexing is used to reduce experimental cost. Results Using this approach we successfully identify genes involved in paclitaxel resistance in a variety of cancer cell lines, including the multidrug transporter ABCB1, a previously identified major paclitaxel resistance gene. Analysis of co-occurring transposons integration sites in single cell clone allows for the identification of genes that might act cooperatively to produce drug resistance a level of information not accessible using RNAi or ORF expression screening approaches. Conclusion We have developed a powerful pipeline to systematically discover drug resistance in mammalian cells in vitro. This cost-effective approach can be readily applied to different cell lines, to identify canonical or context specific resistance mechanisms. Its ability to probe complex genetic context and non-coding genomic elements as well as cooperative resistance events makes it a good complement to RNAi or ORF expression based screens. PMID:23442791

  7. [Improvement of butanol production by Escherichia coli via Tn5 transposon mediated mutagenesis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhao; Dong, Hongjun; Li, Yin

    2015-12-01

    For engineering an efficient butanol-producing Escherichia coli strain, many efforts have been paid on the known genes or pathways based on current knowledge. However, many genes in the genome could also contribute to butanol production in an unexpected way. In this work, we used Tn5 transposon to construct a mutant library including 1 196 strains in a previously engineered butanol-producing E. coli strain. To screen the strains with improved titer of butanol production, we developed a high-throughput method for pyruvate detection based on dinitrophenylhydrazine reaction using 96-well microplate reader, because pyruvate is the precursor of butanol and its concentration is inversely correlated with butanol in the fermentation broth. Using this method, we successfully screened three mutants with increased butanol titer. The insertion sites of Tn5 transposon was in the ORFs of pykA, tdk, and cadC by inverse PCR and sequencing. These found genes would be efficient targets for further strain improvement. And the genome scanning strategy described here will be helpful for other microbial cell factory construction. PMID:27093834

  8. Genome-wide mining of potential virulence-associated genes in Riemerella anatipestifer using random transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xintao; Jiang, Pan; Xing, Linlin; Ou, Changcan; Yu, Hui; Qi, Jingjing; Sun, Bingqing; Cui, Junsheng; Wang, Guijun; Hu, Qinghai

    2016-06-30

    Riemerella anatipestifer infection is a severe disease confronting the duck industry worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular basis of R. anatipestifer pathogenesis. In this study, we screened 3580 transposon Tn4351 insertion mutagenesis mutants of the highly virulent strain YZb1 in a duckling infection experiment and found 29 of them to be attenuated and 28 potential virulence-associated genes were identified. Molecular characterization of transposon insertion sites showed that of the 28 screened genes, two were predicted to encode TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor (plugs), sixteen encoded enzymes, and seven encoded hypothetical proteins. In addition, of the 28 affected genes, 19 were only found in bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes and 10 were only found in the family Flavobacteriaceae. The median lethal dose of the mutants M11 and M29, which was affected in Riean_0060 and Riean_1537 respectively, were about 1700-fold and 210-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain YZb1, and those of the complemented strains M11(pRES-Riean_0060) and M29(pRES-Riean_1537) were decreased by 25- and 3-fold respectively compared to those of the mutants M11 and M29. Additional analysis indicated that the blood bacterial loading of ducklings infected with M11 or M29 was decreased significantly, as compared with that in ducklings infected with the wild-type strain YZb1. Thus, our results indicate that Riean_0060 and Riean_1537 were involved in R. anatipestifer pathogenesis. PMID:27259827

  9. A Mariner Transposon-Based Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis System for the Analysis of Oral Infection by Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Joanne; Casey, Pat G.; Joyce, Susan A.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive foodborne pathogen and the causative agent of listerosis a disease that manifests predominately as meningitis in the non-pregnant individual or infection of the fetus and spontaneous abortion in pregnant women. Common-source outbreaks of foodborne listeriosis are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, relatively little is known concerning the mechanisms that govern infection via the oral route. In order to aid functional genetic analysis of the gastrointestinal phase of infection we designed a novel signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) system based upon the invasive L. monocytogenes 4b serotype H7858 strain. To overcome the limitations of gastrointestinal infection by L. monocytogenes in the mouse model we created a H7858 strain that is genetically optimised for oral infection in mice. Furthermore our STM system was based upon a mariner transposon to favour numerous and random transposition events throughout the L. monocytogenes genome. Use of the STM bank to investigate oral infection by L. monocytogenes identified 21 insertion mutants that demonstrated significantly reduced potential for infection in our model. The sites of transposon insertion included lmOh7858_0671 (encoding an internalin homologous to Lmo0610), lmOh7858_0898 (encoding a putative surface-expressed LPXTG protein homologous to Lmo0842), lmOh7858_2579 (encoding the HupDGC hemin transport system) and lmOh7858_0399 (encoding a putative fructose specific phosphotransferase system). We propose that this represents an optimised STM system for functional genetic analysis of foodborne/oral infection by L. monocytogenes. PMID:24069416

  10. Identification of the genes involved in Riemerella anatipestifer biofilm formation by random transposon mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinghai; Zhu, Yinyu; Tu, Jing; Yin, Yuncong; Wang, Xiaolan; Han, Xiangan; Ding, Chan; Zhang, Beimin; Yu, Shengqing

    2012-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer causes epizootics of infectious disease in poultry that result in serious economic losses to the duck industry. Our previous studies have shown that some strains of R. anatipestifer can form a biofilm, and this may explain the intriguing persistence of R. anatipestifer on duck farms post infection. In this study we used strain CH3, a strong producer of biofilm, to construct a library of random Tn4351 transposon mutants in order to investigate the genetic basis of biofilm formation by R. anatipestifer on abiotic surfaces. A total of 2,520 mutants were obtained and 39 of them showed a reduction in biofilm formation of 47%-98% using crystal violet staining. Genetic characterization of the mutants led to the identification of 33 genes. Of these, 29 genes are associated with information storage and processing, as well as basic cellular processes and metabolism; the function of the other four genes is currently unknown. In addition, a mutant strain BF19, in which biofilm formation was reduced by 98% following insertion of the Tn4351 transposon at the dihydrodipicolinate synthase (dhdps) gene, was complemented with a shuttle plasmid pCP-dhdps. The complemented mutant strain was restored to give 92.6% of the biofilm formation of the wild-type strain CH3, which indicates that the dhdp gene is associated with biofilm formation. It is inferred that such complementation applies also to other mutant strains. Furthermore, some biological characteristics of biofilm-defective mutants were investigated, indicating that the genes deleted in the mutant strains function in the biofilm formation of R. anatipestifer. Deletion of either gene will stall the biofilm formation at a specific stage thus preventing further biofilm development. In addition, the tested biofilm-defective mutants had different adherence capacity to Vero cells. This study will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms of biofilm development by R. anatipestifer and to study the

  11. Novel strategies for gene trapping and insertional mutagenesis mediated by Sleeping Beauty transposon

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guili; Cui, Zongbin

    2013-01-01

    Gene and poly(A) trappings are high-throughput approaches to capture and interrupt the expression of endogenous genes within a target genome. Although a number of trapping vectors have been developed for investigation of gene functions in cells and vertebrate models, there is still room for the improvement of their efficiency and sensitivity. Recently, two novel trapping vectors mediated by Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon have been generated by the combination of three functional cassettes that are required for finding endogenous genes, disrupting the expression of trapped genes, and inducing the excision of integrated traps from their original insertion sites and then inserting into another gene. In addition, several other strategies are utilized to improve the activities of two trapping vectors. First, activities of all components were examined in vitro before the generation of two vectors. Second, the inducible promoter from the tilapia Hsp70 gene was used to drive the expression of SB gene, which can mediate the excision of integrated transposons upon induction at 37 °C. Third, the Cre/LoxP system was introduced to delete the SB expression cassette for stabilization of gene interruption and bio-safety. Fourth, three stop codons in different reading frames were introduced downstream of a strong splice acceptor (SA) in the gene trapping vector to effectively terminate the translation of trapped endogenous genes. Fifth, the strong splicing donor (SD) and AU-rich RNA-destabilizing element exhibited no obvious insertion bias and markedly reduced SD read-through events, and the combination of an enhanced SA, a poly(A) signal and a transcript terminator in the poly(A) trapping vector efficiently disrupted the transcription of trapped genes. Thus, these two trapping vectors are alternative and effective tools for large-scale identification and disruption of endogenous genes in vertebrate cells and animals. PMID:24251071

  12. Transposon mutagenesis with coat color genotyping identifies an essential role for Skor2 in sonic hedgehog signaling and cerebellum development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baiping; Harrison, Wilbur; Overbeek, Paul A.; Zheng, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Correct development of the cerebellum requires coordinated sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling from Purkinje to granule cells. How Shh expression is regulated in Purkinje cells is poorly understood. Using a novel tyrosinase minigene-tagged Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated mutagenesis, which allows for coat color-based genotyping, we created mice in which the Ski/Sno family transcriptional co-repressor 2 (Skor2) gene is deleted. Loss of Skor2 leads to defective Purkinje cell development, a severe reduction of granule cell proliferation and a malformed cerebellum. Skor2 is specifically expressed in Purkinje cells in the brain, where it is required for proper expression of Shh. Skor2 overexpression suppresses BMP signaling in an HDAC-dependent manner and stimulates Shh promoter activity, suggesting that Skor2 represses BMP signaling to activate Shh expression. Our study identifies an essential function for Skor2 as a novel transcriptional regulator in Purkinje cells that acts upstream of Shh during cerebellum development. PMID:21937600

  13. Transposon mutagenesis with coat color genotyping identifies an essential role for Skor2 in sonic hedgehog signaling and cerebellum development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baiping; Harrison, Wilbur; Overbeek, Paul A; Zheng, Hui

    2011-10-01

    Correct development of the cerebellum requires coordinated sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling from Purkinje to granule cells. How Shh expression is regulated in Purkinje cells is poorly understood. Using a novel tyrosinase minigene-tagged Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated mutagenesis, which allows for coat color-based genotyping, we created mice in which the Ski/Sno family transcriptional co-repressor 2 (Skor2) gene is deleted. Loss of Skor2 leads to defective Purkinje cell development, a severe reduction of granule cell proliferation and a malformed cerebellum. Skor2 is specifically expressed in Purkinje cells in the brain, where it is required for proper expression of Shh. Skor2 overexpression suppresses BMP signaling in an HDAC-dependent manner and stimulates Shh promoter activity, suggesting that Skor2 represses BMP signaling to activate Shh expression. Our study identifies an essential function for Skor2 as a novel transcriptional regulator in Purkinje cells that acts upstream of Shh during cerebellum development. PMID:21937600

  14. Mouse Models of Cancer: Sleeping Beauty Transposons for Insertional Mutagenesis Screens and Reverse Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tschida, Barbara R.; Largaespada, David A.; Keng, Vincent W.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic complexity and heterogeneity of cancer has posed a problem in designing rationally targeted therapies effective in a large proportion of human cancer. Genomic characterization of many cancer types has provided a staggering amount of data that needs to be interpreted to further our understanding of this disease. Forward genetic screening in mice using Sleeping Beauty (SB) based insertional mutagenesis is an effective method for candidate cancer gene discovery that can aid in distinguishing driver from passenger mutations in human cancer. This system has been adapted for unbiased screens to identify drivers of multiple cancer types. These screens have already identified hundreds of candidate cancer-promoting mutations. These can be used to develop new mouse models for further study, which may prove useful for therapeutic testing. SB technology may also hold the key for rapid generation of reverse genetic mouse models of cancer, and has already been used to model glioblastoma and liver cancer. PMID:24468652

  15. Transposon-5 mutagenesis transforms Corynebacterium matruchotii to synthesize novel hybrid fatty acids that functionally replace corynomycolic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Kuni; Hayes, Barry; Vestling, Matha M; Massey, Randall J

    2003-01-01

    Enzymes within the biosynthetic pathway of mycolic acid (C(60)-C(90) a-alkyl,b-hydroxyl fatty acid) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are attractive targets for developing new anti-tuberculosis drugs. We have turned to the simple model system of Corynebacterium matruchotii to study the terminal steps in the anabolic pathway of a C32 mycolic acid called corynomycolic acid. By transposon-5 mutagenesis, we transformed C. matruchotii into a mutant that is unable to synthesize corynomycolic acid. Instead, it synthesized two related series of novel fatty acids that were released by saponification from the cell wall fraction and from two chloroform/methanol-extractable glycolipids presumed to be analogues of trehalose mono- and di-corynomycolate. By chemical analyses and MS, we determined the general structure of the two series to be 2,4,6,8,10-penta-alkyl decanoic acid for the larger series (C(70)-C(77)) and 2,4,6,8-tetra-alkyl octanoic acid for the smaller series (C(52)-C(64)), both containing multiple keto groups, hydroxy groups and double bonds. The mutant was temperature-sensitive, aggregated extensively, grew very slowly relative to the wild type, and was resistant to the presence of lysozyme. We suggest that a regulatory protein that normally prevents the transfer of the condensation product back to b-ketoacyl synthase in the corynomycolate synthase system of the wild type was inactivated in the mutant. This will result in multiple Claisen-type condensation and the formation of two similar series of these complex hybrid fatty acids. A similar protein in M. tuberculosis would be an attractive target for new drug discovery. PMID:12879902

  16. Identification and Characterization of Non-Cellulose-Producing Mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii Generated by Tn5 Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ying; Nagachar, Nivedita; Xiao, Chaowen; Tien, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The acs operon of Gluconacetobacter is thought to encode AcsA, AcsB, AcsC, and AcsD proteins that constitute the cellulose synthase complex, required for the synthesis and secretion of crystalline cellulose microfibrils. A few other genes have been shown to be involved in this process, but their precise role is unclear. We report here the use of Tn5 transposon insertion mutagenesis to identify and characterize six non-cellulose-producing (Cel−) mutants of Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC 23769. The genes disrupted were acsA, acsC, ccpAx (encoding cellulose-complementing protein [the subscript “Ax” indicates genes from organisms formerly classified as Acetobacter xylinum]), dgc1 (encoding guanylate dicyclase), and crp-fnr (encoding a cyclic AMP receptor protein/fumarate nitrate reductase transcriptional regulator). Protein blot analysis revealed that (i) AcsB and AcsC were absent in the acsA mutant, (ii) the levels of AcsB and AcsC were significantly reduced in the ccpAx mutant, and (iii) the level of AcsD was not affected in any of the Cel− mutants. Promoter analysis showed that the acs operon does not include acsD, unlike the organization of the acs operon of several strains of closely related Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Complementation experiments confirmed that the gene disrupted in each Cel− mutant was responsible for the phenotype. Quantitative real-time PCR and protein blotting results suggest that the transcription of bglAx (encoding β-glucosidase and located immediately downstream from acsD) was strongly dependent on Crp/Fnr. A bglAx knockout mutant, generated via homologous recombination, produced only ∼16% of the wild-type cellulose level. Since the crp-fnr mutant did not produce any cellulose, Crp/Fnr may regulate the expression of other gene(s) involved in cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:24013627

  17. High-quality mutant libraries of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. campestris pv. campestris generated by an efficient transposon mutagenesis system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qihong; Wu, Wei; Qian, Wei; Hu, Jun; Fang, Rongxiang; He, Chaozu

    2003-09-12

    A novel transposon mutagenesis system for the phytopathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) was developed using a Tn5-based transposome. A highly efficient transformation up to 10(6) transformants per microg transposon DNA was obtained. Southern blot and thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction analyses of Tn5 insertion sites suggested a random mode of transposition. The transposition was stable in the transformants for 20 subcultures. Eighteen thousand and 17000 transformants for Xoo and Xcc, respectively, were generated, corresponding to 4X ORF coverage of the genomes. The libraries will facilitate the identification of pathogenicity-related genes as well as functional genomic analysis in Xoo and Xcc. PMID:13129620

  18. Mutagenesis of Bordetella pertussis with transposon Tn5tac1: conditional expression of virulence-associated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, B T; Berg, D E; Goldman, W E

    1990-01-01

    The Tn5tac1 transposon contains a strong outward-facing promoter, Ptac, a lacI repressor gene, and a selectable Kanr gene. Transcription from Ptac is repressed by the lacI protein unless an inducer (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside [IPTG]) is present. Thus, Tn5tac1 generates insertion mutations in Escherichia coli with conditional phenotypes because it is polar on distal gene expression when IPTG is absent and directs transcription of these genes when the inducer is present. To test the usefulness of Tn5tac1 in Bordetella pertussis, a nonenteric gram-negative bacterial pathogen, we chose the bifunctional adenylate cyclase-hemolysin determinant as an easily scored marker to monitor insertional mutagenesis. Tn5tac1 delivered to B. pertussis on conjugal suicide plasmids resulted in Kanr exconjugants at a frequency of 10(-3) per donor cell, and nonhemolytic (Hly-) mutants were found among the Kanr colonies at a frequency of about 1%. Of eight independent Kanr Hly- mutants, two were conditional and exhibited an Hly+ phenotype only in the presence of IPTG. Using a new quantitative assay for adenylate cyclase based on high-pressure liquid chromatography, we found that enzymatic activity in these two strains was specifically induced at least 500-fold in a dose-dependent fashion over the range of 0 to 125 microM IPTG. These data show that Ptac serves as a promoter, lacI is expressed and is functional, and IPTG can induce Ptac transcription in B. pertussis. Adenylate cyclase expression in whole cells, culture supernatants, and cell extracts from these strains depended upon IPTG, suggesting that the insertions do not merely alter secretion of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. Other virulence determinants under control of the vir locus are expressed normally, implying that these Tn5tac1 insertions specifically regulate adenylate cyclase-hemolysin expression. We conclude that Tn5tac1 insertion mutations permit sensitive, exogenous control over the expression of genes of

  19. Transposon Mutagenesis Paired with Deep Sequencing of Caulobacter crescentus under Uranium Stress Reveals Genes Essential for Detoxification and Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Mimi C.; Park, Dan M.; Overton, K. Wesley; Blow, Matthew J.; Hoover, Cindi A.; Smit, John; Murray, Sean R.; Ricci, Dante P.; Christen, Beat; Bowman, Grant R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ubiquitous aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is highly resistant to uranium (U) and facilitates U biomineralization and thus holds promise as an agent of U bioremediation. To gain an understanding of how C. crescentus tolerates U, we employed transposon (Tn) mutagenesis paired with deep sequencing (Tn-seq) in a global screen for genomic elements required for U resistance. Of the 3,879 annotated genes in the C. crescentus genome, 37 were found to be specifically associated with fitness under U stress, 15 of which were subsequently tested through mutational analysis. Systematic deletion analysis revealed that mutants lacking outer membrane transporters (rsaFa and rsaFb), a stress-responsive transcription factor (cztR), or a ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase (spoT) exhibited a significantly lower survival rate under U stress. RsaFa and RsaFb, which are homologues of TolC in Escherichia coli, have previously been shown to mediate S-layer export. Transcriptional analysis revealed upregulation of rsaFa and rsaFb by 4- and 10-fold, respectively, in the presence of U. We additionally show that rsaFa mutants accumulated higher levels of U than the wild type, with no significant increase in oxidative stress levels. Our results suggest a function for RsaFa and RsaFb in U efflux and/or maintenance of membrane integrity during U stress. In addition, we present data implicating CztR and SpoT in resistance to U stress. Together, our findings reveal novel gene targets that are key to understanding the molecular mechanisms of U resistance in C. crescentus. IMPORTANCE Caulobacter crescentus is an aerobic bacterium that is highly resistant to uranium (U) and has great potential to be used in U bioremediation, but its mechanisms of U resistance are poorly understood. We conducted a Tn-seq screen to identify genes specifically required for U resistance in C. crescentus. The genes that we identified have previously remained elusive using other omics approaches and thus

  20. Transposon Mutagenesis Identified Chromosomal and Plasmid Genes Essential for Adaptation of the Marine Bacterium Dinoroseobacter shibae to Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Matthias; Laaß, Sebastian; Burghartz, Melanie; Petersen, Jörn; Koßmehl, Sebastian; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Rabus, Ralf; Wittmann, Christoph; Jahn, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic growth and survival are integral parts of the life cycle of many marine bacteria. To identify genes essential for the anoxic life of Dinoroseobacter shibae, a transposon library was screened for strains impaired in anaerobic denitrifying growth. Transposon insertions in 35 chromosomal and 18 plasmid genes were detected. The essential contribution of plasmid genes to anaerobic growth was confirmed with plasmid-cured D. shibae strains. A combined transcriptome and proteome approach identified oxygen tension-regulated genes. Transposon insertion sites of a total of 1,527 mutants without an anaerobic growth phenotype were determined to identify anaerobically induced but not essential genes. A surprisingly small overlap of only three genes (napA, phaA, and the Na+/Pi antiporter gene Dshi_0543) between anaerobically essential and induced genes was found. Interestingly, transposon mutations in genes involved in dissimilatory and assimilatory nitrate reduction (napA, nasA) and corresponding cofactor biosynthesis (genomic moaB, moeB, and dsbC and plasmid-carried dsbD and ccmH) were found to cause anaerobic growth defects. In contrast, mutation of anaerobically induced genes encoding proteins required for the later denitrification steps (nirS, nirJ, nosD), dimethyl sulfoxide reduction (dmsA1), and fermentation (pdhB1, arcA, aceE, pta, acs) did not result in decreased anaerobic growth under the conditions tested. Additional essential components (ferredoxin, cccA) of the anaerobic electron transfer chain and central metabolism (pdhB) were identified. Another surprise was the importance of sodium gradient-dependent membrane processes and genomic rearrangements via viruses, transposons, and insertion sequence elements for anaerobic growth. These processes and the observed contributions of cell envelope restructuring (lysM, mipA, fadK), C4-dicarboxylate transport (dctM1, dctM3), and protease functions to anaerobic growth require further investigation to unravel the

  1. Transposon Mutagenesis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Identifies Genes That Contribute to Invasiveness in Human and Chicken Cells and Survival in Egg Albumen

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaohui; Kim, Hye-Young; Call, Douglas R.; Guard, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important food-borne pathogen, and chickens are a primary reservoir of human infection. While most knowledge about Salmonella pathogenesis is based on research conducted on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis is known to have pathobiology specific to chickens that impacts epidemiology in humans. Therefore, more information is needed about S. Enteritidis pathobiology in comparison to that of S. Typhimurium. We used transposon mutagenesis to identify S. Enteritidis virulence genes by assay of invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and chicken liver (LMH) cells and survival within chicken (HD-11) macrophages as a surrogate marker for virulence. A total of 4,330 transposon insertion mutants of an invasive G1 Nalr strain were screened using Caco-2 cells. This led to the identification of attenuating mutations in a total of 33 different loci, many of which include genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1], SPI-4, SPI-5, CS54, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN) in S. Enteritidis and other Salmonella serovars. Several genes or genomic islands that have not been reported previously (e.g., SPI-14, ksgA, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) or that are absent in S. Typhimurium or in most other Salmonella serovars (e.g., pegD, SEN1152, SEN1393, and SEN1966) were also identified. Most mutants with reduced Caco-2 cell invasiveness also showed significantly reduced invasiveness in chicken liver cells and impaired survival in chicken macrophages and in egg albumen. Consequently, these genes may play an important role during infection of the chicken host and also contribute to successful egg contamination by S. Enteritidis. PMID:22988017

  2. Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis Indicates that Mycobacterium marinum Customizes Its Virulence Mechanisms for Survival and Replication in Different Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Weerdenburg, Eveline M.; Abdallah, Abdallah M.; Rangkuti, Farania; Abd El Ghany, Moataz; Otto, Thomas D.; Adroub, Sabir A.; Molenaar, Douwe; Ummels, Roy; ter Veen, Kars; van Stempvoort, Gunny; van der Sar, Astrid M.; Ali, Shahjahan; Langridge, Gemma C.; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of environmental bacteria with unicellular eukaryotes is generally considered a major driving force for the evolution of intracellular pathogens, allowing them to survive and replicate in phagocytic cells of vertebrate hosts. To test this hypothesis on a genome-wide level, we determined for the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium marinum whether it uses conserved strategies to exploit host cells from both protozoan and vertebrate origin. Using transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), we determined differences in genetic requirements for survival and replication in phagocytic cells of organisms from different kingdoms. In line with the general hypothesis, we identified a number of general virulence mechanisms, including the type VII protein secretion system ESX-1, biosynthesis of polyketide lipids, and utilization of sterols. However, we were also able to show that M. marinum contains an even larger set of host-specific virulence determinants, including proteins involved in the modification of surface glycolipids and, surprisingly, the auxiliary proteins of the ESX-1 system. Several of these factors were in fact counterproductive in other hosts. Therefore, M. marinum contains different sets of virulence factors that are tailored for specific hosts. Our data imply that although amoebae could function as a training ground for intracellular pathogens, they do not fully prepare pathogens for crossing species barriers. PMID:25690095

  3. DNA Repair Dependence of Somatic Mutagenesis of Transposon-Caused WHITE Alleles in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER after Treatment with Alkylating Agents

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Kondo, Sohei

    1986-01-01

    DNA repair-defective alleles of the mei-9, mei-41, mus-104 and mus-101 loci of Drosophila melanogaster were introduced into stocks bearing the UZ and SZ marker sets. Males with the UZ marker set, z1 (zeste allele) and w+(TE) (genetically unstable white allele presumably caused by a transposable element), or the SZ marker set, z1 and w+R (semistable white allele caused by partial duplication of the w+ locus plus transposon insert), were exposed to EMS at the first instar. After emergence, adult males bearing red spots on lemon-yellow eyes were scored as flies with somatic reversions of w+(TE) or w +R. The relative mutabilities (relative values of reversion frequency at an equal EMS dose) of either w+(TE) or w+R in a repair-proficient strain and in mei-9, mei-41, mus-104 and mus-101 strains were 1:∼1.2:0.3:0.3:0.7, despite the fact that w+(TE) reverted two to three times as frequently as w+R under both the repair-proficient and repair-deficient genetic conditions. Similarly, after treatment with MMS, MNNG and ENNG, w+(TE) was somatically more mutable in the mei-9 strain and less mutable in the mei-41 and mus-104 strains than in the repair-proficient strain. From these results, we propose that mutagenic lesions produced in DNA by treatment with these chemicals are converted to mutant DNA sequences via the error-prone repair mechanisms dependent on the products of the genes mei-41+ (mei-41 and mus-104 being alleles of the same locus) and mus-101+, whereas they are eliminated by mei-9+-dependent excision repair. In contrast to the approximately linear responses of induced reversions of w+( TE) with ENNG in the repair-proficient, mei-9, and mei-41 strains, seemingly there were dosage insensitive ranges for induced reversion with MNNG in the repair-proficient and mei-41 strains, but not for reversion in the mei-9 strain; w+( TE) in the mus-104 strain was virtually nonmutable with MNNG and ENNG. These results suggest that O6-methylguanine (O6MeG) produced in DNA with

  4. PiggyBac Transposon-Mediated Mutagenesis in Rats Reveals a Crucial Role of Bbx in Growth and Male Fertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chieh-Ying; Tang, Ming-Chu; Chang, Wen-Chi; Furushima, Kenryo; Jang, Chuan-Wei; Behringer, Richard R; Chen, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-01

    Bobby sox homolog (Bbx) is an evolutionally conserved gene, but its biological function remains elusive. Here, we characterized defects of Bbx mutant rats that were created by PiggyBac-mediated insertional mutagenesis. Smaller body size and male infertility were the two major phenotypes of homozygous Bbx mutants. Bbx expression profile analysis showed that Bbx was more highly expressed in the testis and pituitary gland than in other organs. Histology and hormonal gene expression analysis of control and Bbx-null pituitary glands showed that loss of Bbx appeared to be dispensable for pituitary histogenesis and the expression of major hormones. BBX was localized in the nuclei of postmeiotic spermatids and Sertoli cells in wild-type testes, but absent in mutant testes. An increased presence of aberrant multinuclear giant cells and apoptotic cells was observed in mutant seminiferous tubules. TUNEL-positive cells costained with CREM (round spermatid marker), but not PLZF (spermatogonia marker), gammaH2Ax (meiotic spermatocyte marker), or GATA4 (Sertoli cell marker). Finally, there were drastically reduced numbers and motility of epididymal sperm from Bbx-null rats. These results suggest that loss of BBX induces apoptosis of postmeiotic spermatids and results in spermiogenesis defects and infertility. PMID:27465138

  5. Transposon Mutagenesis of the Plant-Associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 Revealed That the nfrA and RBAM17410 Genes Are Involved in Plant-Microbe-Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dietel, Kristin; Beator, Barbara; Dolgova, Olga; Fan, Ben; Bleiss, Wilfrid; Ziegler, Jörg; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Borriss, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization. PMID:24847778

  6. Misty somites, a maternal effect gene identified by transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis in zebrafish that is essential for the somite boundary maintenance.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Tomoya; Kawakami, Koichi

    2008-04-15

    Somite boundary formation is crucial for segmentation of vertebrate somites and vertebrae and skeletal muscle morphogenesis. Previously, we developed a Tol2 transposon-mediated gene trap method in zebrafish. In the present study, we aimed to isolate transposon insertions that trap maternally-expressed genes. We found that homozygous female fish carrying a transposon insertion within a maternally-expressed gene misty somites (mys) produced embryos that showed obscure somite boundaries at the early segmentation stage (12-13 hpf). The somite boundaries became clear and distinct after this period and the embryos survived to adulthood. This phenotype was rescued by expression of mys cDNA in the homozygous adults, confirming that it was caused by a decreased mys activity. We analyzed a role of the mys gene by using morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs). The MO-injected embryo exhibited severer phenotypes than the insertional mutant probably because the mys gene was partially active in the insertional mutant. The MO-injected embryo also showed the obscure somite boundary phenotype. Fibronectin and phosphorylated FAK at the intersomitic regions were accumulated at the boundaries at this stage, but, unlike wild type embryos, somitic cells adjacent to the boundaries did not undergo epithelialization, suggesting that Mys is required for epithelialization of the somitic cells. Then in the MO-injected embryos, the boundaries once became clear and distinct, but, in the subsequent stages, disappeared, resulting in abnormal muscle morphogenesis. Accumulation of Fibronectin and phosphorylated FAK observed in the initial stage also disappeared. Thus, Mys is crucial for maintenance of the somite boundaries formed at the initial stage. To analyze the mys defect at the cellular level, we placed cells dissociated from the MO-injected embryo on Fibronectin-coated glasses. By this cell spreading assay, we found that the mys-deficient cells reduced the activity to form lamellipodia on

  7. Transposon Mutagenesis of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Identifies asnH, an Asparagine Synthetase Gene Involved in Its Immune-Activating Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Masahiro; Kim, Yun-Gi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kiwaki, Mayumi; Nomoto, Koji; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei ATCC 27139 enhances host innate immunity, and the J1 phage-resistant mutants of this strain lose the activity. A transposon insertion mutant library of L. casei ATCC 27139 was constructed, and nine J1 phage-resistant mutants out of them were obtained. Cloning and sequencing analyses identified three independent genes that were disrupted by insertion of the transposon element: asnH, encoding asparagine synthetase, and dnaJ and dnaK, encoding the molecular chaperones DnaJ and DnaK, respectively. Using an in vivo mouse model of Listeria infection, only asnH mutant showed deficiency in their ability to enhance host innate immunity, and complementation of the mutation by introduction of the wild-type asnH in the mutant strain recovered the immuno-augmenting activity. AsnH protein exhibited asparagine synthetase activity when the lysozyme-treated cell wall extracts of L. casei ATCC 27139 was added as substrate. The asnH mutants lost the thick and rigid peptidoglycan features that are characteristic to the wild-type cells, indicating that AsnH of L. casei is involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. These results indicate that asnH is required for the construction of the peptidoglycan composition involved in the immune-activating capacity of L. casei ATCC 27139. PMID:24416179

  8. Genome Sequencing and Transposon Mutagenesis of Burkholderia seminalis TC3.4.2R3 Identify Genes Contributing to Suppression of Orchid Necrosis Caused by B. gladioli.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Welington L; Creason, Allison L; Mano, Emy T; Camargo-Neves, Aline A; Minami, Sonia N; Chang, Jeff H; Loper, Joyce E

    2016-06-01

    From a screen of 36 plant-associated strains of Burkholderia spp., we identified 24 strains that suppressed leaf and pseudobulb necrosis of orchid caused by B. gladioli. To gain insights into the mechanisms of disease suppression, we generated a draft genome sequence from one suppressive strain, TC3.4.2R3. The genome is an estimated 7.67 megabases in size, with three replicons, two chromosomes, and the plasmid pC3. Using a combination of multilocus sequence analysis and phylogenomics, we identified TC3.4.2R3 as B. seminalis, a species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex that includes opportunistic human pathogens and environmental strains. We generated and screened a library of 3,840 transposon mutants of strain TC3.4.2R3 on orchid leaves to identify genes contributing to plant disease suppression. Twelve mutants deficient in suppression of leaf necrosis were selected and the transposon insertions were mapped to eight loci. One gene is in a wcb cluster that is related to synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide, a key determinant in bacterial-host interactions in other systems, and the other seven are highly conserved among Burkholderia spp. The fundamental information developed in this study will serve as a resource for future research aiming to identify mechanisms contributing to biological control. PMID:26959838

  9. Multipurpose Transposon-Insertion Libraries in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Libraries of transposon-insertion alleles constitute powerful and versatile tools for large-scale analysis of yeast gene function. Transposon-insertion libraries are constructed most simply through mutagenesis of a plasmid-based genomic DNA library; modification of the mutagenizing transposon by incorporation of yeast selectable markers, recombination sites, and an epitope tag enables the application of insertion alleles for phenotypic screening and protein localization. In particular, yeast genomic DNA libraries have been mutagenized with modified bacterial transposons carrying the URA3 marker, lox recombination sites, and sequence encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. Mutagenesis with these transposons has yielded a large resource of insertion alleles affecting nearly 4000 yeast genes in total. Through well-established protocols, these insertion libraries can be introduced into the desired strain backgrounds and the resulting insertional mutants can be screened or systematically analyzed. Relative to alternative methods of UV irradiation or chemical mutagenesis, transposon-insertion alleles can be easily identified by PCR-based approaches or high-throughput sequencing. Transposon-insertion libraries also provide a cost-effective alternative to targeted deletion approaches, although, in contrast to start-codon to stop-codon deletions, insertion alleles might not represent true null-mutants. For protein-localization studies, transposon-insertion alleles can provide encoded epitope tags in-frame with internal codons; in many cases, these transposon-encoded epitope tags can provide a more accurate localization for proteins in which terminal sequences are crucial for intracellular targeting. Thus, overall, transposon-insertion libraries can be used quickly and economically and have a particular utility in screening for desired phenotypes and localization patterns in nonstandard genetic backgrounds. PMID:27250950

  10. Transposon-mediated Genome Manipulations in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Ivics, Zoltán; Li, Meng Amy; Mátés, Lajos; Boeke, Jef D.; Bradley, Allan; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2010-01-01

    Transposable elements are segments of DNA with the unique ability to move about in the genome. This inherent feature can be exploited to harness these elements as gene vectors for diverse genome manipulations. Transposon-based genetic strategies have been established in vertebrate species over the last decade, and current progress in this field indicates that transposable elements will serve as indispensable tools in the genetic toolkit of vertebrate models. In particular, transposons can be applied as vectors for somatic and germline transgenesis, and as insertional mutagens in both loss-of-function and gain-of-function forward mutagenesis screens. The major advantage of using transposons as genetic tools is that they facilitate analysis of gene function in an easy, controlled and scalable manner. Transposon-based technologies are beginning to be exploited to link sequence information to gene functions in vertebrate models. In this article, we provide an overview of transposon-based methods used in vertebrate model organisms, and highlight the most important considerations concerning genetic applications of the transposon systems. PMID:19478801

  11. Using Yeast Transposon-Insertion Libraries for Phenotypic Screening and Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    This protocol details how to use a transposon-insertion library for phenotypic screening and protein localization. The insertion library was generated by mutagenesis of a plasmid-based yeast genomic DNA library by using a multipurpose transposon; the transposon produces gene disruptions, and, by Cre-mediated recombination at lox sites incorporated within the transposon, alleles with an in-frame insertion can be truncated to a residual transposon encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin epitope. Insertions are generated in yeast by shuttle mutagenesis. Yeast genomic DNA containing a transposon insertion is released from the library, and the mutagenized DNA sequences are introduced into a desired strain of yeast, where the insertion alleles replace native loci by homologous recombination. The insertion mutants can be screened for phenotypes, and the site of transposon insertion can subsequently be identified in selected mutants by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In-frame insertions within genes of interest can be truncated to an epitope-tagged allele by Cre-lox recombination, and the subcellular localization of the encoded protein product can be identified by standard methods of indirect immunofluorescence. In summary, the transposon-insertion libraries represent an informative resource for large-scale mutagenesis, presenting a straightforward alternative to labor-intensive targeted approaches for the construction of deletion alleles and fluorescent protein fusions. PMID:27250939

  12. Transposon transgenesis in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, Donald A.; Kelley, Clair M.; Zhu, Haiqing; Kuliyev, Emin; Mead, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Transposon-mediated integration strategies in Xenopus offer simple and robust methods for the generation of germline transgenic animals. Co-injection of fertilized one-cell embryos with plasmid DNA harboring a transposon transgene and synthetic mRNA encoding the cognate transposase enzyme results in mosaic integration of the transposon at early cleavage stages that are frequently passed through the germline in the adult animal. Micro-injection of fertilized embryos is a routine procedure used by many laboratories that use Xenopus as a developmental model and, as such, the transposon transgenesis method can be performed without additional equipment or specialized methodologies. The methods for injecting Xenopus embryos are well documented in the literature so here we provide a step-by-step guide to other aspects of transposon transgenesis, including screening mosaic founders for germline transmission of the transgene and general husbandry considerations related to management of populations of transgenic frogs. PMID:20211730

  13. Toward the Analysis of the Petunia MADS Box Gene Family by Reverse and Forward Transposon Insertion Mutagenesis Approaches: B, C, and D Floral Organ Identity Functions Require SEPALLATA-Like MADS Box Genes in Petunia

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbussche, Michiel; Zethof, Jan; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald; Tornielli, Giovanni B.; Pezzotti, Mario; Ferrario, Silvia; Angenent, Gerco C.; Gerats, Tom

    2003-01-01

    We have initiated a systematic functional analysis of the MADS box, intervening region, K domain, C domain-type MADS box gene family in petunia. The starting point for this has been a reverse-genetics approach, aiming to select for transposon insertions into any MADS box gene. We have developed and applied a family signature insertion screening protocol that is highly suited for this purpose, resulting in the isolation of 32 insertion mutants in 20 different MADS box genes. In addition, we identified three more MADS box gene insertion mutants using a candidate-gene approach. The defined insertion lines provide a sound foundation for a systematic functional analysis of the MADS box gene family in petunia. Here, we focus on the analysis of Floral Binding Protein2 (FBP2) and FBP5 genes that encode the E-function, which in Arabidopsis has been shown to be required for B and C floral organ identity functions. fbp2 mutants display sepaloid petals and ectopic inflorescences originating from the third floral whorl, whereas fbp5 mutants appear as wild type. In fbp2 fbp5 double mutants, reversion of floral organs to leaf-like organs is increased further. Strikingly, ovules are replaced by leaf-like structures in the carpel, indicating that in addition to the B- and C-functions, the D-function, which specifies ovule development, requires E-function activity. Finally, we compare our data with results obtained using cosuppression approaches and conclude that the latter might be less suited for assigning functions to individual members of the MADS box gene family. PMID:14576291

  14. Generation of Single-Copy Transposon Insertions in Clostridium perfringens by Electroporation of Phage Mu DNA Transposition Complexes▿

    PubMed Central

    Lanckriet, A.; Timbermont, L.; Happonen, L. J.; Pajunen, M. I.; Pasmans, F.; Haesebrouck, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Savilahti, H.; Van Immerseel, F.

    2009-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis is a tool that is widely used for the identification of genes involved in the virulence of bacteria. Until now, transposon mutagenesis in Clostridium perfringens has been restricted to the use of Tn916-based methods with laboratory reference strains. This system yields primarily multiple transposon insertions in a single genome, thus compromising its use for the identification of virulence genes. The current study describes a new protocol for transposon mutagenesis in C. perfringens, which is based on the bacteriophage Mu transposition system. The protocol was successfully used to generate a single-insertion mutant library both for a laboratory strain and for a field isolate. Thus, it can be used as a tool in large-scale screening to identify virulence genes of C. perfringens. PMID:19270116

  15. Transposon facilitated DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.E.; Berg, C.M.; Huang, H.V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods that exploit the power of bacterial transposable elements for large scale DNA sequencing: Our premise is that the use of transposons to put primer binding sites randomly in target DNAs should provide access to all portions of large DNA fragments, without the inefficiencies of methods involving random subcloning and attendant repetitive sequencing, or of sequential synthesis of many oligonucleotide primers that are used to match systematically along a DNA molecule. Two unrelated bacterial transposons, Tn5 and {gamma}{delta}, are being used because they have both proven useful for molecular analyses, and because they differ sufficiently in mechanism and specificity of transposition to merit parallel development.

  16. Defining essential genes and identifying virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis by massively-parallel sequencing of transposon libraries (Tn-seq)

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Brian A.; Duncan, Margaret J.; Hu, Linden T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development and progression of periodontal disease. Obstacles to the development of saturated transposon libraries have previously limited transposon mutant-based screens as well as essential gene studies. We have developed a system for efficient transposon mutagenesis of P. gingivalis using a modified mariner transposon. Tn-seq is a technique that allows for quantitative assessment of individual mutants within a transposon mutant library by sequencing the transposon-genome junctions and then compiling mutant presence by mapping to a base genome. Using Tn-seq, it is possible to quickly define all the insertional mutants in a library and thus identify non-essential genes under the conditions in which the library was produced. Identification of fitness of individual mutants under specific conditions can be performed by exposing the library to selective pressures. PMID:25636611

  17. Fishing for answers with transposons.

    PubMed

    Wadman, Shannon A; Clark, Karl J; Hackett, Perry B

    2005-01-01

    Transposons are one means that nature has used to introduce new genetic material into chromosomes of organisms from every kingdom. They have been extensively used in prokaryotic and lower eukaryotic systems, but until recently there was no transposon that had significant activity in vertebrates. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system was developed to direct the integration of precise DNA sequences into chromosomes. The SB system was derived from salmonid sequences that had been inactive for more than 10 million years. SB transposons have been used for two principle uses--as a vector for transgenesis and as a method for introducing various trap vectors into (gene-trap) or in the neighborhood of (enhancer-trap) genes to identify their functions. Results of these studies show that SB-mediated transgenesis is more efficient than that by injection of simple plasmids and that expression of transgenesis is stable and reliable following passage through the germline. PMID:15864468

  18. Transposon tagging of disease resistance genes

    SciTech Connect

    Michelmore, R.W. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    We are developing a transposon mutagenesis system for lettuce to clone genes for resistance to the fungal pathogen, Bremia lactucae. Activity of heterologous transposons is being studied in transgenic plants. Southern analysis of T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} plants containing Tam3 from Antirrhinum provided ambiguous results. Multiple endonuclease digests indicated that transposition had occurred; however, in no plant were all endonuclease digests consistent with a simple excision event. Southern or PCR analysis of over 50 plans containing Ac from maize have also failed to reveal clear evidence of transposition; this is contrast to experiments by others with the same constructs who have observed high rates of Ac excision in other plant species. Nearly all of 65 T{sub 2} families containing Ac interrupting a chimeric streptomycin resistance gene (Courtesy J. Jones, Sainsbury Lab., UK) clearly segregated for streptomycin resistance. Southern analyses, however, showed no evidence of transposition, indicating restoration of a functional message by other mechanisms, possibly mRNA processing. Transgenic plants have also been generated containing CaMV 35S or hsp70 promoters fused to transposase coding sequences or a Ds element interrupting a chimeric GUS gene (Courtesy M. Lassner, UC Davis). F{sub 1} plants containing both constructs were analyzed for transposition. Only two plants containing both constructs were obtained from 48 progeny, far fewer than expected, and neither showed evidence of transposition in Southerns and GUS assays. We are currently constructing further chimeric transposase fusions. To test for the stability of the targeted disease resistance genes, 50,000 F{sub 1} plants heterozygous for three resistance genes were generated; no mutants have been identified in the 5000 so far screened.

  19. DNA transposon Hermes inserts into DNA in nucleosome-free regions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Sunil; Mularoni, Loris; Fain-Thornton, Jennifer; Wheelan, Sarah J; Craig, Nancy L

    2010-12-21

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are an important source of genetic variation and are useful tools for genome engineering, mutagenesis screens, and vectors for transgenesis including gene therapy. We have used second-generation sequencing to analyze ≈2 × 10(5) unique de novo transposon insertion sites of the transposon Hermes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome from both in vitro transposition reactions by using purified yeast genomic DNA, to better characterize intrinsic sequence specificity, and sites recovered from in vivo transposition events, to characterize the effect of intracellular factors such as chromatin on target site selection. We find that Hermes transposon targeting in vivo is profoundly affected by chromatin structure: The subset of genome-wide target sites used in vivo is strongly associated (P < 2e-16 by Fisher's exact test) with nucleosome-free chromatin. Our characterization of the insertion site preferences of Hermes not only assists in the future use of this transposon as a molecular biology tool but also establishes methods to more fully determine targeting mechanisms of other transposons. We have also discovered a long-range sequence motif that defines S. cerevisiae nucleosome-free regions. PMID:21131571

  20. DNA transposon Hermes inserts into DNA in nucleosome-free regions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Sunil; Mularoni, Loris; Fain-Thornton, Jennifer; Wheelan, Sarah J.; Craig, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are an important source of genetic variation and are useful tools for genome engineering, mutagenesis screens, and vectors for transgenesis including gene therapy. We have used second-generation sequencing to analyze ≈2 × 105 unique de novo transposon insertion sites of the transposon Hermes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome from both in vitro transposition reactions by using purified yeast genomic DNA, to better characterize intrinsic sequence specificity, and sites recovered from in vivo transposition events, to characterize the effect of intracellular factors such as chromatin on target site selection. We find that Hermes transposon targeting in vivo is profoundly affected by chromatin structure: The subset of genome-wide target sites used in vivo is strongly associated (P < 2e-16 by Fisher's exact test) with nucleosome-free chromatin. Our characterization of the insertion site preferences of Hermes not only assists in the future use of this transposon as a molecular biology tool but also establishes methods to more fully determine targeting mechanisms of other transposons. We have also discovered a long-range sequence motif that defines S. cerevisiae nucleosome-free regions. PMID:21131571

  1. Transposon tagging and the study of root development in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsugeki, R.; Olson, M. L.; Fedoroff, N. V.

    1998-01-01

    The maize Ac-Ds transposable element family has been used as the basis of transposon mutagenesis systems that function in a variety of plants, including Arabidopsis. We have developed modified transposons and methods which simplify the detection, cloning and analysis of insertion mutations. We have identified and are analyzing two plant lines in which genes expressed either in the root cap cells or in the quiescent cells, cortex/endodermal initial cells and columella cells of the root cap have been tagged with a transposon carrying a reporter gene. A gene expressed in root cap cells tagged with an enhancer-trap Ds was isolated and its corresponding EST cDNA was identified. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the gene show no significant similarity to other genes in the database. Genetic ablation experiments have been done by fusing a root cap-specific promoter to the diphtheria toxin A-chain gene and introducing the fusion construct into Arabidopsis plants. We find that in addition to eliminating gravitropism, root cap ablation inhibits elongation of roots by lowering root meristematic activities.

  2. Transposon tagging of disease resistance genes. Final report, May 1, 1988--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Michelmore, R.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a transposon mutagenesis system for lettuce and to clone and characterize disease resistance genes by transposon tagging. The majority of studies were conducted with the Ac/Ds System. Researchers made and tested several constructs as well as utilized constructions shown to be functional in other plant species. Researchers demonstrated movement of Ac and DS in lettuce; however, they transposed at much lower frequencies in lettuce than in other plant species. Therefore, further manipulation of the system, particularly for flower specific expression of transposase, is required before a routine transposon system is available for lettuce. Populations of lettuce were generated and screened to test for the stability of resistance genes and several spontaneous mutations were isolated. Researchers also identified a resistance gene mutant in plants transformed with a Ds element and chimeric transposase gene. This is currently being characterized in detail.

  3. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human foetal fibroblasts using the Sleeping Beauty transposon gene delivery system.

    PubMed

    Davis, Richard P; Nemes, Csilla; Varga, Eszter; Freund, Christian; Kosmidis, Georgios; Gkatzis, Konstantinos; de Jong, Danielle; Szuhai, Károly; Dinnyés, András; Mummery, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Transposon gene delivery systems offer an alternative, non-viral-based approach to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we used the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon to generate four human iPSC lines from foetal fibroblasts. In contrast to other gene delivery systems, the SB transposon does not exhibit an integration bias towards particular genetic elements, thereby reducing the risk of insertional mutagenesis. Furthermore, unlike the alternative transposon piggyBac, SB has no SB-like elements within the human genome, minimising the possibility of mobilising endogenous transposon elements. All iPSC lines exhibited the expected characteristics of pluripotent human cells, including the ability to differentiate to derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro. Re-expression of the SB transposase in the iPSCs after reprogramming resulted in the mobilisation of some of the transposons. These results indicate that the SB transposon system is a useful addition to methods for generating human iPSCs, both for basic and applied biomedical research, and in the context of future therapeutic application. PMID:23933400

  4. The Hermes transposon of Musca domestica and its use as a mutagen of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung M.; Evertts, Adam G.; Levin, Henry L.

    2009-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis allows for the discovery and characterization of genes by creating mutations that can be easily mapped and sequenced. Moreover, this method allows for a relatively unbiased approach to isolating genes of interest. Recently, a system of transposon based mutagenesis for Schizosaccharomyces pombe became available. This mutagenesis relies on Hermes, a DNA transposon from the house fly that readily integrates into the chromosomes of S. pombe. The Hermes system is distinct from the retrotransposons of S. pombe because it efficiently integrates into open reading frames. To mutagenize S. pombe, cells are transformed with a plasmid that contains a drug resistance marker flanked by the terminal inverted repeats of Hermes. The Hermes transposase expressed from a second plasmid excises the resistance marker with the inverted repeats and inserts this DNA into chromosomal sites. After S. pombe with these two plasmids grow 25 generations, approximately 2% of the cells contain insertions. Of the cells with insertions, 68% contain single integration events. The protocols listed here provide the detailed information necessary to mutagenize a strain of interest, screen for specific phenotypes, and sequence the positions of insertion. PMID:19450689

  5. The Hermes transposon of Musca domestica and its use as a mutagen of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung M; Evertts, Adam G; Levin, Henry L

    2009-11-01

    Transposon mutagenesis allows for the discovery and characterization of genes by creating mutations that can be easily mapped and sequenced. Moreover, this method allows for a relatively unbiased approach to isolating genes of interest. Recently, a system of transposon based mutagenesis for Schizosaccharomyces pombe became available. This mutagenesis relies on Hermes, a DNA transposon from the house fly that readily integrates into the chromosomes of S. pombe. The Hermes system is distinct from the retrotransposons of S. pombe because it efficiently integrates into open reading frames. To mutagenize S. pombe, cells are transformed with a plasmid that contains a drug resistance marker flanked by the terminal inverted repeats of Hermes. The Hermes transposase expressed from a second plasmid excises the resistance marker with the inverted repeats and inserts this DNA into chromosomal sites. After S. pombe with these two plasmids grow 25 generations, approximately 2% of the cells contain insertions. Of the cells with insertions, 68% contain single integration events. The protocols listed here provide the detailed information necessary to mutagenize a strain of interest, screen for specific phenotypes, and sequence the positions of insertion. PMID:19450689

  6. Construction of a large-scale Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 transposon mutant library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Yee-Chin; Pain, Arnab; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia, a pathogenic member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), has emerged as a significant threat towards cystic fibrosis patients, where infection often leads to the fatal clinical manifestation known as cepacia syndrome. Many studies have investigated the pathogenicity of B. cenocepacia as well as its ability to become highly resistant towards many of the antibiotics currently in use. In addition, studies have also been undertaken to understand the pathogen's capacity to adapt and survive in a broad range of environments. Transposon based mutagenesis has been widely used in creating insertional knock-out mutants and coupled with recent advances in sequencing technology, robust tools to study gene function in a genome-wide manner have been developed based on the assembly of saturated transposon mutant libraries. In this study, we describe the construction of a large-scale library of B. cenocepacia transposon mutants. To create transposon mutants of B. cenocepacia strain J2315, electrocompetent bacteria were electrotransformed with the EZ-Tn5 transposome. Tetracyline resistant colonies were harvested off selective agar and pooled. Mutants were generated in multiple batches with each batch consisting of ˜20,000 to 40,000 mutants. Transposon insertion was validated by PCR amplification of the transposon region. In conclusion, a saturated B. cenocepacia J2315 transposon mutant library with an estimated total number of 500,000 mutants was successfully constructed. This mutant library can now be further exploited as a genetic tool to assess the function of every gene in the genome, facilitating the discovery of genes important for bacterial survival and adaptation, as well as virulence.

  7. Tyrosine Recombinase Retrotransposons and Transposons.

    PubMed

    Poulter, Russell T M; Butler, Margi I

    2015-04-01

    Retrotransposons carrying tyrosine recombinases (YR) are widespread in eukaryotes. The first described tyrosine recombinase mobile element, DIRS1, is a retroelement from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The YR elements are bordered by terminal repeats related to their replication via free circular dsDNA intermediates. Site-specific recombination is believed to integrate the circle without creating duplications of the target sites. Recently a large number of YR retrotransposons have been described, including elements from fungi (mucorales and basidiomycetes), plants (green algae) and a wide range of animals including nematodes, insects, sea urchins, fish, amphibia and reptiles. YR retrotransposons can be divided into three major groups: the DIRS elements, PAT-like and the Ngaro elements. The three groups form distinct clades on phylogenetic trees based on alignments of reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H (RT/RH) and YR sequences, and also having some structural distinctions. A group of eukaryote DNA transposons, cryptons, also carry tyrosine recombinases. These DNA transposons do not encode a reverse transcriptase. They have been detected in several pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Sequence comparisons suggest that the crypton YRs are related to those of the YR retrotransposons. We suggest that the YR retrotransposons arose from the combination of a crypton-like YR DNA transposon and the RT/RH encoding sequence of a retrotransposon. This acquisition must have occurred at a very early point in the evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:26104693

  8. Identification of a Virulence-Associated Determinant, Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase (lpd), in Mycoplasma gallisepticum through In Vivo Screening of Transposon Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, P.; Gorton, T. S.; Papazisi, L.; Cecchini, K.; Frasca, S.; Geary, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    To effectively analyze Mycoplasma gallisepticum for virulence-associated determinants, the ability to create stable genetic mutations is essential. Global M. gallisepticum mutagenesis is currently limited to the use of transposons. Using the gram-positive transposon Tn4001mod, a mutant library of 110 transformants was constructed and all insertion sites were mapped. To identify transposon insertion points, a unique primer directed outward from the end of Tn4001mod was used to sequence flanking genomic regions. By comparing sequences obtained in this manner to the annotated M. gallisepticum genome, the precise locations of transposon insertions were discerned. After determining the transposon insertion site for each mutant, unique reverse primers were synthesized based on the specific sequences, and PCR was performed. The resultant amplicons were used as unique Tn4001mod mutant identifiers. This procedure is referred to as signature sequence mutagenesis (SSM). SSM permits the comprehensive screening of the M. gallisepticum genome for the identification of novel virulence-associated determinants from a mixed mutant population. To this end, chickens were challenged with a pool of 27 unique Tn4001mod mutants. Two weeks postinfection, the birds were sacrificed, and organisms were recovered from respiratory tract tissues and screened for the presence or absence of various mutants. SSM is a negative-selection screening technique whereby those mutants possessing transposon insertions in genes essential for in vivo survival are not recovered from the host. We have identified a virulence-associated gene encoding dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (lpd). A transposon insertion in the middle of the coding sequence resulted in diminished biologic function and reduced virulence of the mutant designated Mg 7. PMID:16428737

  9. Transposon tagging of disease resistance genes. Progress report, May 1, 1988--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Michelmore, R.

    1994-06-01

    Our goal is to clone genes in lettuce determining resistance to downy mildew. One approach involves the mobilization of transposons into resistance genes to mutate and tag the target gene. Because transposons have yet to be isolated and characterized from lettuce, the majority of our experiments have involved Ac from corn as this is increasingly the best characterized transposon. Over the past several years, various labs have contributed to a detailed understanding of the biology of Ac in corn and heterologous plant species. We have collaborated closely with several of these labs, exchanged materials and incorporated their advances into our analysis of transposition in lettuce. The original proposal described the development of a transposon mutagenesis system for lettuce and its subsequent use to tag disease resistance genes. The development phase involved characterization and manipulation of Ac transposition, identification of suitable whole plant selectable markers for the construction of chimeric non-autonomous elements, and investigation of the stability of resistance genes. Investigation of Ac transposition in lettuce has received the majority of our attention. Initially, we made a simple construct with wildtype Ac and introduced it into lettuce. No transposition was observed; although other labs demonstrated that the same construct was functional in tomato. We then focused on assaying for Ac transposition with constructs of increasing sophistication that had been demonstrated by others to be functional in other species. The latest constructs for transposon mutagenesis clearly demonstrated transposition in lettuce. This allowed us to generate seed stocks that we will start to screen for insertional inactivation of resistance genes this year.

  10. Signature-tagged mutagenesis of Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Mai; KASHIMOTO, Takashige; TONG, Ping; XIAO, Jianbo; SUGIYAMA, Michiko; INOUE, Miyuki; MATSUNAGA, Rie; HOSOHARA, Kohei; NAKATA, Kazue; YOKOTA, Kenji; OGUMA, Keiji; YAMAMOTO, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is the causative agent of primary septicemia, wound infection and gastroenteritis in immunocompromised people. In this study, signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) was applied to identify the virulence genes of V. vulnificus. Using STM, 6,480 mutants in total were constructed and divided into 81 sets (INPUT pools); each mutant in a set was assigned a different tag. Each INPUT pool was intraperitoneally injected into iron-overloaded mice, and in vivo surviving mutants were collected from blood samples from the heart (OUTPUT pools). From the genomic DNA of mixed INPUT or OUTPUT pools, digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes against the tagged region were prepared and used for dot hybridization. Thirty tentatively attenuated mutants, which were hybridized clearly with INPUT probes but barely with OUTPUT probes, were negatively selected. Lethal doses of 11 of the 30 mutants were reduced to more than 1/100; of these, the lethal doses of 2 were reduced to as low as 1/100,000. Transposon-inserted genes in the 11 attenuated mutants were those for IMP dehydrogenase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase, aspartokinase, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase, malate Na (+) symporter and hypothetical protein. When mice were immunized with an attenuated mutant strain into which IMP dehydrogenase had been inserted with a transposon, they were protected against V. vulnificus infection. In this study, we demonstrated that the STM method can be used to search for the virulence genes of V. vulnificus. PMID:25755021

  11. Generation of an inducible and optimized piggyBac transposon system†

    PubMed Central

    Cadiñanos, Juan; Bradley, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Genomic studies in the mouse have been slowed by the lack of transposon-mediated mutagenesis. However, since the resurrection of Sleeping Beauty (SB), the possibility of performing forward genetics in mice has been reinforced. Recently, piggyBac (PB), a functional transposon from insects, was also described to work in mammals. As the activity of PB is higher than that of SB11 and SB12, two hyperactive SB transposases, we have characterized and improved the PB system in mouse ES cells. We have generated a mouse codon-optimized version of the PB transposase coding sequence (CDS) which provides transposition levels greater than the original. We have also found that the promoter sequence predicted in the 5′-terminal repeat of the PB transposon is active in the mammalian context. Finally, we have engineered inducible versions of the optimized piggyBac transposase fused with ERT2. One of them, when induced, provides higher levels of transposition than the native piggyBac CDS, whereas in the absence of induction its activity is indistinguishable from background. We expect that these tools, adaptable to perform mouse-germline mutagenesis, will facilitate the identification of genes involved in pathological and physiological processes, such as cancer or ES cell differentiation. PMID:17576687

  12. Chemical Mutagens, Transposons, and Transgenes to Interrogate Gene Function in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Venken, Koen J.T.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2014-01-01

    The study of genetics, genes, and chromosomal inheritance was initiated by Thomas Morgan in when the first visible mutations were identified in fruit flies. The field expanded upon the work initiated by Herman Muller in 1926 when he used X-rays to develop the first balancer chromosomes. Today, balancers are still invaluable to maintain mutations and transgenes but the arsenal of tools has expanded vastly and numerous new methods have been developed, many relying on the availability of the genome sequence and transposable elements. Forward genetic screens based on chemical mutagenesis or transposable elements have resulted in the unbiased identification of many novel players involved in processes probed by specific phenotypic assays. Reverse genetic approaches have relied on the availability of a carefully selected set of transposon insertions spread throughout the genome to allow the manipulation of the region in the vicinity of each insertion. Lastly, the ability to transform Drosophila with single copy transgenes using transposons or site-specific integration using the ΦC31 integrase has allowed numerous manipulations, including the ability to create and integrate genomic rescue constructs, generate duplications, RNAi knock-out technology, binary expression systems like the GAL4/UAS system as well as other methods. Here, we will discuss the most useful methodologies to interrogate the fruit fly genome in vivo focusing on chemical mutagenesis, transposons and transgenes. Genome engineering approaches based on nucleases and RNAi technology are discussed in following chapters. PMID:24583113

  13. Fungicide-induced transposon movement in Monilinia fructicola.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengping; Everhart, Sydney E; Bryson, P Karen; Luo, Chaoxi; Song, Xi; Liu, Xili; Schnabel, Guido

    2015-12-01

    Repeated applications of fungicides with a single mode of action are believed to select for pre-existing resistant strains in a pathogen population, while the impact of sub-lethal doses of such fungicides on sensitive members of the population is unknown. In this study, in vitro evidence is presented that continuous exposure of Monilinia fructicola mycelium to some fungicides can induce genetic change in form of transposon transposition. Three fungicide-sensitive M. fructicola isolates were exposed in 12 weekly transfers of mycelia to a dose gradient of demethylation inhibitor fungicide (DMI) SYP-Z048 and quinone outside inhibitor fungicide (QoI) azoxystrobin in solo or mixture treatments. Evidence of mutagenesis was assessed by monitoring Mftc1, a multicopy transposable element of M. fructicola, by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Movement of Mftc1 was observed following azoxystrobin and azoxystrobin plus SYP-Z048 treatments in two of the three isolates, but not in the non-fungicide-treated controls. Interestingly, the upstream promoter region of MfCYP51 was a prime target for Mftc1 transposition in these isolates. Transposition of Mftc1 was verified by Southern blot in two of three isolates from another, similar experiment following prolonged, sublethal azoxystrobin exposure, although in these isolates movement of Mftc1 in the upstream MfCYP51 promoter region was not observed. More research is warranted to determine whether fungicide-induced mutagenesis may also happen under field conditions. PMID:26537535

  14. Transposon tagging in diploid strawberry.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Richard E; Mills, Kerri P; Baxter, Aaron J; Upham, Kendall T; Ferguson, Tammy J; Holt, Sarah Hudson; Lu, Nan; Ruiz-Rojas, Juan J; Pantazis, Christopher J; Davis, Cherish M; Lindsay, Robert C; Powell, Frankie L; Dan, Yinghui; Dickerman, Allan W; Oosumi, Teruko; Shulaev, Vladimir

    2012-10-01

    Fragaria vesca was transformed with a transposon tagging construct harbouring amino terminally deleted maize transposase and EGFP (Ac element), NPTII, CaMV 35S promoter (P35S) driving transposase and mannopine synthase promoter (Pmas) driving EGFP (Ds element). Of 180 primary transgenics, 48 were potential launch pads, 72 were multiple insertions or chimaeras, and 60 exhibited somatic transposition. T₁ progeny of 32 putative launch pads were screened by multiplex PCR for transposition. Evidence of germ-line transposition occurred in 13 putative launch pads; however, the transposition frequency was too low in three for efficient recovery of transposants. The transposition frequency in the remaining launch pads ranged from 16% to 40%. After self-pollination of the T₀ launch pads, putative transposants in the T₁ generation were identified by multiplex PCR. Sequencing of hiTAIL-PCR products derived from nested primers within the Ds end sequences (either P35S at the left border or the inverted repeat at the right border) of T₁ plants revealed transposition of the Ds element to distant sites in the strawberry genome. From more than 2400 T₁ plants screened, 103 unique transposants have been identified, among which 17 were somatic transpositions observed in the T₀ generation. Ds insertion sites were dispersed among various gene elements [exons (15%), introns (23%), promoters (30%), 3' UTRs (17%) as well as intergenically (15%)]. Three-primer (one on either side of the Ds insertion and one within the Ds T-DNA) PCR could be used to identify homozygous T₂ transposon-tagged plants. The mutant collection has been catalogued in an on-line database. PMID:22845757

  15. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; Lamson, Jacob S.; He, Jennifer; Hoover, Cindi A.; Blow, Matthew J.; Bristow, James; Butland, Gareth; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam

    2015-05-12

    Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with any transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative D-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. A large challenge in microbiology is the functional assessment of the millions of uncharacterized genes identified by genome sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to assign phenotypes and functions to genes

  16. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; Lamson, Jacob S.; He, Jennifer; Hoover, Cindi A.; Blow, Matthew J.; Bristow, James; Butland, Gareth; Arkin, Adam P.; et al

    2015-05-12

    Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with anymore » transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative D-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. A large challenge in microbiology is the functional assessment of the millions of uncharacterized genes identified by genome sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to assign phenotypes and functions to genes. However, the current strategies for TnSeq are

  17. Systematic Mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli Genome†

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yisheng; Durfee, Tim; Glasner, Jeremy D.; Qiu, Yu; Frisch, David; Winterberg, Kelly M.; Blattner, Frederick R.

    2004-01-01

    A high-throughput method has been developed for the systematic mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli genome. The system is based on in vitro transposition of a modified Tn5 element, the Sce-poson, into linear fragments of each open reading frame. The transposon introduces both positive (kanamycin resistance) and negative (I-SceI recognition site) selectable markers for isolation of mutants and subsequent allele replacement, respectively. Reaction products are then introduced into the genome by homologous recombination via the λRed proteins. The method has yielded insertion alleles for 1976 genes during a first pass through the genome including, unexpectedly, a number of known and putative essential genes. Sce-poson insertions can be easily replaced by markerless mutations by using the I-SceI homing endonuclease to select against retention of the transposon as demonstrated by the substitution of amber and/or in-frame deletions in six different genes. This allows a Sce-poson-containing gene to be specifically targeted for either designed or random modifications, as well as permitting the stepwise engineering of strains with multiple mutations. The promiscuous nature of Tn5 transposition also enables a targeted gene to be dissected by using randomly inserted Sce-posons as shown by a lacZ allelic series. Finally, assessment of the insertion sites by an iterative weighted matrix algorithm reveals that these hyperactive Tn5 complexes generally recognize a highly degenerate asymmetric motif on one end of the target site helping to explain the randomness of Tn5 transposition. PMID:15262929

  18. Computer Simulation of Mutagenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, J. C.; Dent, M. T.

    1978-01-01

    A FORTRAN program is described which simulates point-substitution mutations in the DNA strands of typical organisms. Its objective is to help students to understand the significance and structure of the genetic code, and the mechanisms and effect of mutagenesis. (Author/BB)

  19. 2004 Mutagenesis Gordon Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Sue Jinks-Robertson

    2005-09-16

    Mutations are genetic alterations that drive biological evolution and cause many, if not all, human diseases. Mutation originates via two distinct mechanisms: ''vertical'' variation is de novo change of one or few bases, whereas ''horizontal'' variation occurs by genetic recombination, which creates new mosaics of pre-existing sequences. The Mutagenesis Conference has traditionally focused on the generation of mutagenic intermediates during normal DNA synthesis or in response to environmental insults, as well as the diverse repair mechanisms that prevent the fixation of such intermediates as permanent mutations. While the 2004 Conference will continue to focus on the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, there will be increased emphasis on the biological consequences of mutations, both in terms of evolutionary processes and in terms of human disease. The meeting will open with two historical accounts of mutation research that recapitulate the intellectual framework of this field and thereby place the current research paradigms into perspective. The two introductory keynote lectures will be followed by sessions on: (1) mutagenic systems, (2) hypermutable sequences, (3) mechanisms of mutation, (4) mutation avoidance systems, (5) mutation in human hereditary and infectious diseases, (6) mutation rates in evolution and genotype-phenotype relationships, (7) ecology, mutagenesis and the modeling of evolution and (8) genetic diversity of the human population and models for human mutagenesis. The Conference will end with a synthesis of the meeting as the keynote closing lecture.

  20. High-resolution definition of the Vibrio cholerae essential gene set with hidden Markov model–based analyses of transposon-insertion sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Michael C.; Pritchard, Justin R.; Zhang, Yanjia J.; Rubin, Eric J.; Livny, Jonathan; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of high-density transposon mutagenesis to high-throughput DNA sequencing (transposon-insertion sequencing) enables simultaneous and genome-wide assessment of the contributions of individual loci to bacterial growth and survival. We have refined analysis of transposon-insertion sequencing data by normalizing for the effect of DNA replication on sequencing output and using a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based filter to exploit heretofore unappreciated information inherent in all transposon-insertion sequencing data sets. The HMM can smooth variations in read abundance and thereby reduce the effects of read noise, as well as permit fine scale mapping that is independent of genomic annotation and enable classification of loci into several functional categories (e.g. essential, domain essential or ‘sick’). We generated a high-resolution map of genomic loci (encompassing both intra- and intergenic sequences) that are required or beneficial for in vitro growth of the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. This work uncovered new metabolic and physiologic requirements for V. cholerae survival, and by combining transposon-insertion sequencing and transcriptomic data sets, we also identified several novel noncoding RNA species that contribute to V. cholerae growth. Our findings suggest that HMM-based approaches will enhance extraction of biological meaning from transposon-insertion sequencing genomic data. PMID:23901011

  1. Genetic Signature of Histiocytic Sarcoma Revealed by a Sleeping Beauty Transposon Genetic Screen in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Been, Raha A.; Linden, Michael A.; Hager, Courtney J.; DeCoursin, Krista J.; Abrahante, Juan E.; Landman, Sean R.; Steinbach, Michael; Sarver, Aaron L.; Largaespada, David A.; Starr, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare, aggressive neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. Histiocytic sarcoma is thought to arise from macrophage precursor cells via genetic changes that are largely undefined. To improve our understanding of the etiology of histiocytic sarcoma we conducted a forward genetic screen in mice using the Sleeping Beauty transposon as a mutagen to identify genetic drivers of histiocytic sarcoma. Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis was targeted to myeloid lineage cells using the Lysozyme2 promoter. Mice with activated Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis had significantly shortened lifespan and the majority of these mice developed tumors resembling human histiocytic sarcoma. Analysis of transposon insertions identified 27 common insertion sites containing 28 candidate cancer genes. Several of these genes are known drivers of hematological neoplasms, like Raf1, Fli1, and Mitf, while others are well-known cancer genes, including Nf1, Myc, Jak2, and Pten. Importantly, several new potential drivers of histiocytic sarcoma were identified and could serve as targets for therapy for histiocytic sarcoma patients. PMID:24827933

  2. Identification of Sleeping Beauty Transposon Insertions in Solid Tumors using Linker-mediated PCR

    PubMed Central

    Janik, Callie L.; Starr, Timothy K.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic analyses of human tumors indicate that there are thousands of anomalies within each cancer genome compared to matched normal tissue. Based on these analyses it is evident that there are many undiscovered genetic drivers of cancer1. Unfortunately these drivers are hidden within a much larger number of passenger anomalies in the genome that do not directly contribute to tumor formation. Another aspect of the cancer genome is that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity within similar tumor types. Each tumor can harbor different mutations that provide a selective advantage for tumor formation2. Performing an unbiased forward genetic screen in mice provides the tools to generate tumors and analyze their genetic composition, while reducing the background of passenger mutations. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is one such method3. The SB system utilizes mobile vectors (transposons) that can be inserted throughout the genome by the transposase enzyme. Mutations are limited to a specific cell type through the use of a conditional transposase allele that is activated by Cre Recombinase. Many mouse lines exist that express Cre Recombinase in specific tissues. By crossing one of these lines to the conditional transposase allele (e.g. Lox-stop-Lox-SB11), the SB system is activated only in cells that express Cre Recombinase. The Cre Recombinase will excise a stop cassette that blocks expression of the transposase allele, thereby activating transposon mutagenesis within the designated cell type. An SB screen is initiated by breeding three strains of transgenic mice so that the experimental mice carry a conditional transposase allele, a concatamer of transposons, and a tissue-specific Cre Recombinase allele. These mice are allowed to age until tumors form and they become moribund. The mice are then necropsied and genomic DNA is isolated from the tumors. Next, the genomic DNA is subjected to linker-mediated-PCR (LM

  3. Identification of Sleeping Beauty transposon insertions in solid tumors using linker-mediated PCR.

    PubMed

    Janik, Callie L; Starr, Timothy K

    2013-01-01

    Genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic analyses of human tumors indicate that there are thousands of anomalies within each cancer genome compared to matched normal tissue. Based on these analyses it is evident that there are many undiscovered genetic drivers of cancer(1). Unfortunately these drivers are hidden within a much larger number of passenger anomalies in the genome that do not directly contribute to tumor formation. Another aspect of the cancer genome is that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity within similar tumor types. Each tumor can harbor different mutations that provide a selective advantage for tumor formation(2). Performing an unbiased forward genetic screen in mice provides the tools to generate tumors and analyze their genetic composition, while reducing the background of passenger mutations. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is one such method(3). The SB system utilizes mobile vectors (transposons) that can be inserted throughout the genome by the transposase enzyme. Mutations are limited to a specific cell type through the use of a conditional transposase allele that is activated by Cre Recombinase. Many mouse lines exist that express Cre Recombinase in specific tissues. By crossing one of these lines to the conditional transposase allele (e.g. Lox-stop-Lox-SB11), the SB system is activated only in cells that express Cre Recombinase. The Cre Recombinase will excise a stop cassette that blocks expression of the transposase allele, thereby activating transposon mutagenesis within the designated cell type. An SB screen is initiated by breeding three strains of transgenic mice so that the experimental mice carry a conditional transposase allele, a concatamer of transposons, and a tissue-specific Cre Recombinase allele. These mice are allowed to age until tumors form and they become moribund. The mice are then necropsied and genomic DNA is isolated from the tumors. Next, the genomic DNA is subjected to linker

  4. Reduced Infectivity in Cattle for an Outer Membrane Protein Mutant of Anaplasma marginale

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, Kelly A.; Magunda, Forgivemore; Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Kelley, Karen L.; Barbet, Anthony F.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent of anaplasmosis in cattle. Transposon mutagenesis of this pathogen using the Himar1 system resulted in the isolation of an omp10 operon insertional mutant referred to as the omp10::himar1 mutant. The work presented here evaluated if this mutant had morphological and/or growth rate defects compared to wild-type A. marginale. Results showed that the morphology, developmental cycle, and growth in tick and mammalian cell cultures are similar for the mutant and the wild type. Tick transmission experiments established that tick infection levels with the mutant were similar to those with wild-type A. marginale and that infected ticks successfully infected cattle. However, this mutant exhibited reduced infectivity and growth in cattle. The possibility of transforming A. marginale by transposon mutagenesis coupled with in vitro and in vivo assessment of altered phenotypes can aid in the identification of genes associated with virulence. The isolation of deliberately attenuated organisms that can be evaluated in their natural biological system is an important advance for the rational design of vaccines against this species. PMID:25595772

  5. Rapid Quantification of Mutant Fitness in Diverse Bacteria by Sequencing Randomly Bar-Coded Transposons

    PubMed Central

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; Lamson, Jacob S.; He, Jennifer; Hoover, Cindi A.; Blow, Matthew J.; Bristow, James; Butland, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with any transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative d-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. PMID:25968644

  6. Evidence for horizontal transfer of a recently active Academ transposon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H-H; Shen, Y-H; Xiong, X-M; Han, M-J; Qi, D-W; Zhang, X-G

    2016-06-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT), the exchange of genetic material between species, plays important roles in transposon biology and genome evolution. In this study, we provide the first documented example of a new Academ transposon involved in recent and distant HTs into the genomes of species belonging to seven different orders of insects: Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Embioptera, Dermaptera, Trichoptera and Zoraptera. These results suggest that HT of DNA transposons amongst insects has occurred on a broader scale than previously appreciated. The Academ transposon discovered in the Lepidoptera and parasitic wasps is of particular interest because the intimate association between wasps and their lepidopteran hosts might provide an opportunity for HT of transposons. PMID:26959720

  7. Optimization of Combinatorial Mutagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Andrew S.; Griswold, Karl E.; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    Protein engineering by combinatorial site-directed mutagenesis evaluates a portion of the sequence space near a target protein, seeking variants with improved properties (stability, activity, immunogenicity, etc.). In order to improve the hit-rate of beneficial variants in such mutagenesis libraries, we develop methods to select optimal positions and corresponding sets of the mutations that will be used, in all combinations, in constructing a library for experimental evaluation. Our approach, OCoM (Optimization of Combinatorial Mutagenesis), encompasses both degenerate oligonucleotides and specified point mutations, and can be directed accordingly by requirements of experimental cost and library size. It evaluates the quality of the resulting library by one- and two-body sequence potentials, averaged over the variants. To ensure that it is not simply recapitulating extant sequences, it balances the quality of a library with an explicit evaluation of the novelty of its members. We show that, despite dealing with a combinatorial set of variants, in our approach the resulting library optimization problem is actually isomorphic to single-variant optimization. By the same token, this means that the two-body sequence potential results in an NP-hard optimization problem. We present an efficient dynamic programming algorithm for the one-body case and a practically-efficient integer programming approach for the general two-body case. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in designing libraries for three different case study proteins targeted by previous combinatorial libraries - a green fluorescent protein, a cytochrome P450, and a beta lactamase. We found that OCoM worked quite efficiently in practice, requiring only 1 hour even for the massive design problem of selecting 18 mutations to generate 107 variants of a 443-residue P450. We demonstrate the general ability of OCoM in enabling the protein engineer to explore and evaluate trade-offs between quality and

  8. Sleeping Beauty-mediated somatic mutagenesis implicates CSF1 in the formation of high grade astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Aaron M.; Collier, Lara S.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Tieu, Christina; Larson, Jon D.; Halder, Chandralekha; Mahlum, Eric; Kollmeyer, Thomas M.; Akagi, Keiko; Sarkar, Gobinda; Largaespada, David A.; Jenkins, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been used as an insertional mutagenesis tool to identify novel cancer genes. To identify glioma-associated genes, we evaluated tumor formation in brain tissue from 117 transgenic mice that had undergone constitutive SB-mediated transposition. Upon analysis, 21 samples (18%) contained neoplastic tissue with features of high grade astrocytomas. These tumors expressed glial markers and were histologically similar to human glioma. Genomic DNA from SB-induced astrocytoma tissue was extracted and transposon insertion sites were identified. Insertions in the growth factor gene Csf1 were found in 13 of the 21 tumors (62%), clustered in introns 5 and 8. Using RT-PCR, we documented increased Csf1 RNAs in tumor versus adjacent normal tissue, with identification of transposon-terminated Csf1 mRNAs in astrocytomas with SB insertions in intron 8. Analysis of human glioblastomas revealed increased levels of Csf1 RNA and protein. Together, these results indicate that SB-insertional mutagenesis can identify high-grade astrocytoma-associated genes, and they imply an important role for CSF1 in the development of these tumors. PMID:20388773

  9. Sleeping Beauty transposon system harboring HRAS, c-Myc and shp53 induces sarcomatoid carcinomas in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunyoung; Ro, Simon Weonsang; Jung, Geunyoung; Ju, Hye-Lim; Yu, Eun-Sil; Son, Woo-Chan

    2013-04-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon system is used as a tool for insertional mutagenesis and oncogenesis. However, little is known about the exact histological phenotype of the tumors induced. Thus, we used immunohistochemical markers to enable histological identification of the type of tumor induced by subcutaneous injection of the HRAS, c-Myc and shp53 oncogenes in female C57BL/6 mice. The tumor was removed when it reached 100 mm3 in volume. Subsequently, we used 13 immunohistochemical markers to histologically identify the tumor type. The results suggested that the morphology of the tumor was similar to that of sarcomatoid carcinoma. PMID:23380875

  10. Sleeping Beauty transposon system harboring HRAS, c-Myc and shp53 induces sarcomatoid carcinomas in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, SUNYOUNG; RO, SIMON WEONSANG; JUNG, GEUNYOUNG; JU, HYE-LIM; YU, EUN-SIL; SON, WOO-CHAN

    2013-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon system is used as a tool for insertional mutagenesis and oncogenesis. However, little is known about the exact histological phenotype of the tumors induced. Thus, we used immunohistochemical markers to enable histological identification of the type of tumor induced by subcutaneous injection of the HRAS, c-Myc and shp53 oncogenes in female C57BL/6 mice. The tumor was removed when it reached 100 mm3 in volume. Subsequently, we used 13 immunohistochemical markers to histologically identify the tumor type. The results suggested that the morphology of the tumor was similar to that of sarcomatoid carcinoma. PMID:23380875

  11. Optimization of combinatorial mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew S; Griswold, Karl E; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2011-11-01

    Protein engineering by combinatorial site-directed mutagenesis evaluates a portion of the sequence space near a target protein, seeking variants with improved properties (e.g., stability, activity, immunogenicity). In order to improve the hit-rate of beneficial variants in such mutagenesis libraries, we develop methods to select optimal positions and corresponding sets of the mutations that will be used, in all combinations, in constructing a library for experimental evaluation. Our approach, OCoM (Optimization of Combinatorial Mutagenesis), encompasses both degenerate oligonucleotides and specified point mutations, and can be directed accordingly by requirements of experimental cost and library size. It evaluates the quality of the resulting library by one- and two-body sequence potentials, averaged over the variants. To ensure that it is not simply recapitulating extant sequences, it balances the quality of a library with an explicit evaluation of the novelty of its members. We show that, despite dealing with a combinatorial set of variants, in our approach the resulting library optimization problem is actually isomorphic to single-variant optimization. By the same token, this means that the two-body sequence potential results in an NP-hard optimization problem. We present an efficient dynamic programming algorithm for the one-body case and a practically-efficient integer programming approach for the general two-body case. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in designing libraries for three different case study proteins targeted by previous combinatorial libraries--a green fluorescent protein, a cytochrome P450, and a beta lactamase. We found that OCoM worked quite efficiently in practice, requiring only 1 hour even for the massive design problem of selecting 18 mutations to generate 10⁷ variants of a 443-residue P450. We demonstrate the general ability of OCoM in enabling the protein engineer to explore and evaluate trade-offs between quality and

  12. Identification of flagellar motility genes in Yersinia ruckeri by transposon mutagenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we demonstrate that flagellar secretion is required for production of secreted lipase activity in the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri and that neither of these activities is necessary for virulence in rainbow trout. Our results suggest a possible molecular mechanism for the emergence of non-mot...

  13. Establishment of a soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) transposon-based mutagenesis repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a major crop species providing valuable feedstock for food, feed and biofuel. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in developing genomic resources for soybean, including on-going efforts to sequence the genome. These efforts have identified a large number of soybean genes...

  14. Knockout of an outer membrane protein operon of anaplasma marginale by transposon mutagenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of data generated by genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics technologies have increased our understanding of the biology of Anaplasma marginale. However, these data have also led to new assumptions that require testing, ideally through classic genetic mutation. One example is the def...

  15. Generation and Multi-phenotypic High-content Screening of Coxiella burnetii Transposon Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Eric; Cantet, Franck; Bonazzi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Invasion and colonization of host cells by bacterial pathogens depend on the activity of a large number of prokaryotic proteins, defined as virulence factors, which can subvert and manipulate key host functions. The study of host/pathogen interactions is therefore extremely important to understand bacterial infections and develop alternative strategies to counter infectious diseases. This approach however, requires the development of new high-throughput assays for the unbiased, automated identification and characterization of bacterial virulence determinants. Here, we describe a method for the generation of a GFP-tagged mutant library by transposon mutagenesis and the development of high-content screening approaches for the simultaneous identification of multiple transposon-associated phenotypes. Our working model is the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiellaburnetii, the etiological agent of the zoonosis Q fever, which is associated with severe outbreaks with a consequent health and economic burden. The obligate intracellular nature of this pathogen has, until recently, severely hampered the identification of bacterial factors involved in host pathogen interactions, making of Coxiella the ideal model for the implementation of high-throughput/high-content approaches. PMID:25992686

  16. The BDGP gene disruption project: Single transposon insertions associated with 40 percent of Drosophila genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellen, Hugo J.; Levis, Robert W.; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W.; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P. Robin; Schulze, Karen L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2004-01-13

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in more than 30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6,300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7,140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5,362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39 percent). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene mis-expression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool.

  17. The BDGP gene disruption project: single transposon insertions associated with 40% of Drosophila genes.

    PubMed Central

    Bellen, Hugo J; Levis, Robert W; Liao, Guochun; He, Yuchun; Carlson, Joseph W; Tsang, Garson; Evans-Holm, Martha; Hiesinger, P Robin; Schulze, Karen L; Rubin, Gerald M; Hoskins, Roger A; Spradling, Allan C

    2004-01-01

    The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) strives to disrupt each Drosophila gene by the insertion of a single transposable element. As part of this effort, transposons in >30,000 fly strains were localized and analyzed relative to predicted Drosophila gene structures. Approximately 6300 lines that maximize genomic coverage were selected to be sent to the Bloomington Stock Center for public distribution, bringing the size of the BDGP gene disruption collection to 7140 lines. It now includes individual lines predicted to disrupt 5362 of the 13,666 currently annotated Drosophila genes (39%). Other lines contain an insertion at least 2 kb from others in the collection and likely mutate additional incompletely annotated or uncharacterized genes and chromosomal regulatory elements. The remaining strains contain insertions likely to disrupt alternative gene promoters or to allow gene misexpression. The expanded BDGP gene disruption collection provides a public resource that will facilitate the application of Drosophila genetics to diverse biological problems. Finally, the project reveals new insight into how transposons interact with a eukaryotic genome and helps define optimal strategies for using insertional mutagenesis as a genomic tool. PMID:15238527

  18. Identification of genes potentially involved in solute stress response in Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 by transposon mutant recovery

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Edith; Roggo, Clémence; van der Meer, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The term water stress refers to the effects of low water availability on microbial growth and physiology. Water availability has been proposed as a major constraint for the use of microorganisms in contaminated sites with the purpose of bioremediation. Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium capable of degrading the xenobiotic compounds dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin, and has potential to be used for targeted bioremediation. The aim of the current work was to identify genes implicated in water stress in RW1 by means of transposon mutagenesis and mutant growth experiments. Conditions of low water potential were mimicked by adding NaCl to the growth media. Three different mutant selection or separation method were tested which, however recovered different mutants. Recovered transposon mutants with poorer growth under salt-induced water stress carried insertions in genes involved in proline and glutamate biosynthesis, and further in a gene putatively involved in aromatic compound catabolism. Transposon mutants growing poorer on medium with lowered water potential also included ones that had insertions in genes involved in more general functions such as transcriptional regulation, elongation factor, cell division protein, RNA polymerase β or an aconitase. PMID:25408691

  19. Sleeping beauty-mediated somatic mutagenesis implicates CSF1 in the formation of high-grade astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Bender, Aaron M; Collier, Lara S; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Tieu, Christina; Larson, Jon D; Halder, Chandralekha; Mahlum, Eric; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; Akagi, Keiko; Sarkar, Gobinda; Largaespada, David A; Jenkins, Robert B

    2010-05-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been used as an insertional mutagenesis tool to identify novel cancer genes. To identify glioma-associated genes, we evaluated tumor formation in the brain tissue from 117 transgenic mice that had undergone constitutive SB-mediated transposition. Upon analysis, 21 samples (18%) contained neoplastic tissue with features of high-grade astrocytomas. These tumors expressed glial markers and were histologically similar to human glioma. Genomic DNA from SB-induced astrocytoma tissue was extracted and transposon insertion sites were identified. Insertions in the growth factor gene Csf1 were found in 13 of the 21 tumors (62%), clustered in introns 5 and 8. Using reverse transcription-PCR, we documented increased Csf1 RNAs in tumor versus adjacent normal tissue, with the identification of transposon-terminated Csf1 mRNAs in astrocytomas with SB insertions in intron 8. Analysis of human glioblastomas revealed increased levels of Csf1 RNA and protein. Together, these results indicate that SB-insertional mutagenesis can identify high-grade astrocytoma-associated genes and they imply an important role for CSF1 in the development of these tumors. PMID:20388773

  20. Unique transposon landscapes are pervasive across Drosophila melanogaster genomes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Reazur; Chirn, Gung-wei; Kanodia, Abhay; Sytnikova, Yuliya A.; Brembs, Björn; Bergman, Casey M.; Lau, Nelson C.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how transposon landscapes (TLs) vary across animal genomes, we describe a new method called the Transposon Insertion and Depletion AnaLyzer (TIDAL) and a database of >300 TLs in Drosophila melanogaster (TIDAL-Fly). Our analysis reveals pervasive TL diversity across cell lines and fly strains, even for identically named sub-strains from different laboratories such as the ISO1 strain used for the reference genome sequence. On average, >500 novel insertions exist in every lab strain, inbred strains of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), and fly isolates in the Drosophila Genome Nexus (DGN). A minority (<25%) of transposon families comprise the majority (>70%) of TL diversity across fly strains. A sharp contrast between insertion and depletion patterns indicates that many transposons are unique to the ISO1 reference genome sequence. Although TL diversity from fly strains reaches asymptotic limits with increasing sequencing depth, rampant TL diversity causes unsaturated detection of TLs in pools of flies. Finally, we show novel transposon insertions negatively correlate with Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) levels for most transposon families, except for the highly-abundant roo retrotransposon. Our study provides a useful resource for Drosophila geneticists to understand how transposons create extensive genomic diversity in fly cell lines and strains. PMID:26578579

  1. mPing: The bursting transposon

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Ken; Monden, Yuki; Yasuda, Kanako; Saito, Hiroki; Okumoto, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Though transposable elements (TEs) have been considered as an efficient source of evolution, it has never been possible to test this hypothesis because most of TE insertions had occurred millions of years ago, or because currently active TEs have very few copies in a host genome. However, mPing, the first active DNA transposon in rice, was revealed to hold a key to answer this question. mPing has attained high copy numbers and still retained very high activity in a traditional rice strain, which enabled direct observation of behavior and impact of a bursting TE. A comprehensive analysis of mPing insertion sites has revealed it avoids exons but prefers promoter regions and thus moderately affects transcription of neighboring genes. Some of the mPing insertions have introduced possibly useful expression profile to adjacent genes that indicated TE’s potential in de novo formation of gene regulatory network. PMID:25053919

  2. Analyzing Maize Anther Development Using Transposons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the summer, we tackled two projects in studying more about transposons (moving/jumping genes) such as Mutator genes in corn for this project, and how the plants switch from the stages of mitosis to meiosis without a germ line. We use a transgenic corn line containing RescueMu (an artificial Mutator containing a plasmid in it), so we can keep track of the insertion events. This is a long term project so we haven't come to any final conclusions or results with tracking what happens in Mutator transposition during different stages of corn development but our process shows to work so we continue with what we've been doing.

  3. Forward and reverse mutagenesis in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kutscher, Lena M.; Shaham, Shai

    2014-01-01

    Mutagenesis drives natural selection. In the lab, mutations allow gene function to be deciphered. C. elegans is highly amendable to functional genetics because of its short generation time, ease of use, and wealth of available gene-alteration techniques. Here we provide an overview of historical and contemporary methods for mutagenesis in C. elegans, and discuss principles and strategies for forward (genome-wide mutagenesis) and reverse (target-selected and gene-specific mutagenesis) genetic studies in this animal. PMID:24449699

  4. Optogenetic mutagenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Noma, Kentaro; Jin, Yishi

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modify and damage DNA. Here we report an optogenetic mutagenesis approach that is free of toxic chemicals and easy to perform by taking advantage of a genetically encoded ROS generator. This method relies on the potency of ROS generation by His-mSOG, the mini singlet oxygen generator, miniSOG, fused to a histone. Caenorhabditis elegans expressing His-mSOG in the germline behave and reproduce normally, without photoinduction. Following exposure to blue light, the His-mSOG animals produce progeny with a wide range of heritable phenotypes. We show that optogenetic mutagenesis by His-mSOG induces a broad spectrum of mutations including single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), chromosomal deletions, as well as integration of extrachromosomal transgenes, which complements those derived from traditional chemical or radiation mutagenesis. The optogenetic mutagenesis expands the toolbox for forward genetic screening and also provides direct evidence that nuclear ROS can induce heritable and specific genetic mutations. PMID:26632265

  5. Identification of virulence determinants in uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis using signature-tagged mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Himpsl, Stephanie D; Lockatell, C Virginia; Hebel, J Richard; Johnson, David E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2008-09-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis causes urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with long-term indwelling catheters or those with functional or structural abnormalities of the urinary tract. Known virulence factors include urease, haemolysin, fimbriae, flagella, DsbA, a phosphate transporter and genes involved in cell-wall synthesis and metabolism, many of which have been identified using the technique of signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM). To identify additional virulence determinants and to increase the theoretical coverage of the genome, this study generated and assessed 1880 P. mirabilis strain HI4320 mutants using this method. Mutants with disruptions in genes vital for colonization of the CBA mouse model of ascending UTI were identified after performing primary and secondary in vivo screens in approximately 315 CBA mice, primary and secondary in vitro screens in both Luria broth and minimal A medium to eliminate mutants with minor growth deficiencies, and co-challenge competition experiments in approximately 500 CBA mice. After completion of in vivo screening, a total of 217 transposon mutants were attenuated in the CBA mouse model of ascending UTI. Following in vitro screening, this number was reduced to 196 transposon mutants with a probable role in virulence. Co-challenge competition experiments confirmed significant attenuation for 37 of the 93 transposon mutants tested, being outcompeted by wild-type HI4320. Following sequence analysis of the 37 mutants, transposon insertions were identified in genes including the peptidyl-prolyl isomerases surA and ppiA, glycosyltransferase cpsF, biopolymer transport protein exbD, transcriptional regulator nhaR, one putative fimbrial protein, flagellar M-ring protein fliF and hook protein flgE, and multiple metabolic genes. PMID:18719175

  6. Gene-specific cell labeling using MiMIC transposons

    PubMed Central

    Gnerer, Joshua P.; Venken, Koen J. T.; Dierick, Herman A.

    2015-01-01

    Binary expression systems such as GAL4/UAS, LexA/LexAop and QF/QUAS have greatly enhanced the power of Drosophila as a model organism by allowing spatio-temporal manipulation of gene function as well as cell and neural circuit function. Tissue-specific expression of these heterologous transcription factors relies on random transposon integration near enhancers or promoters that drive the binary transcription factor embedded in the transposon. Alternatively, gene-specific promoter elements are directly fused to the binary factor within the transposon followed by random or site-specific integration. However, such insertions do not consistently recapitulate endogenous expression. We used Minos-Mediated Integration Cassette (MiMIC) transposons to convert host loci into reliable gene-specific binary effectors. MiMIC transposons allow recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to modify the transposon content. We developed novel exchange cassettes to convert coding intronic MiMIC insertions into gene-specific binary factor protein-traps. In addition, we expanded the set of binary factor exchange cassettes available for non-coding intronic MiMIC insertions. We show that binary factor conversions of different insertions in the same locus have indistinguishable expression patterns, suggesting that they reliably reflect endogenous gene expression. We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family. PMID:25712101

  7. Multiple roles for Piwi in silencing Drosophila transposons

    PubMed Central

    Rozhkov, Nikolay V.; Hammell, Molly; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Silencing of transposons in the Drosophila ovary relies on three Piwi family proteins—Piwi, Aubergine (Aub), and Ago3—acting in concert with their small RNA guides, the Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Aub and Ago3 are found in the germ cell cytoplasm, where they function in the ping-pong cycle to consume transposon mRNAs. The nuclear Piwi protein is required for transposon silencing in both germ and somatic follicle cells, yet the precise mechanisms by which Piwi acts remain largely unclear. We investigated the role of Piwi by combining cell type-specific knockdowns with measurements of steady-state transposon mRNA levels, nascent RNA synthesis, chromatin state, and small RNA abundance. In somatic cells, Piwi loss led to concerted effects on nascent transcripts and transposon mRNAs, indicating that Piwi acts through transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). In germ cells, Piwi loss showed disproportionate impacts on steady-state RNA levels, indicating that it also exerts an effect on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Piwi knockdown affected levels of germ cell piRNAs presumably bound to Aub and Ago3, perhaps explaining its post-transcriptional impacts. Overall, our results indicate that Piwi plays multiple roles in the piRNA pathway, in part enforcing transposon repression through effects on local chromatin states and transcription but also participating in germ cell piRNA biogenesis. PMID:23392609

  8. Hermes Transposon Distribution and Structure in Musca domestica

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Ramanand A.; Cathcart, Laura A.; Krafsur, Elliot S.; Atkinson, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    Hermes are hAT transposons from Musca domestica that are very closely related to the hobo transposons from Drosophila melanogaster and are useful as gene vectors in a wide variety of organisms including insects, planaria, and yeast. hobo elements show distinct length variations in a rapidly evolving region of the transposase-coding region as a result of expansions and contractions of a simple repeat sequence encoding 3 amino acids threonine, proline, and glutamic acid (TPE). These variations in length may influence the function of the protein and the movement of hobo transposons in natural populations. Here, we determine the distribution of Hermes in populations of M. domestica as well as whether Hermes transposase has undergone similar sequence expansions and contractions during its evolution in this species. Hermes transposons were found in all M. domestica individuals sampled from 14 populations collected from 4 continents. All individuals with Hermes transposons had evidence for the presence of intact transposase open reading frames, and little sequence variation was observed among Hermes elements. A systematic analysis of the TPE-homologous region of the Hermes transposase-coding region revealed no evidence for length variation. The simple sequence repeat found in hobo elements is a feature of this transposon that evolved since the divergence of hobo and Hermes. PMID:19366812

  9. Hermes transposon distribution and structure in Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Ramanand A; Cathcart, Laura A; Krafsur, Elliot S; Atkinson, Peter W; O'Brochta, David A

    2009-01-01

    Hermes are hAT transposons from Musca domestica that are very closely related to the hobo transposons from Drosophila melanogaster and are useful as gene vectors in a wide variety of organisms including insects, planaria, and yeast. hobo elements show distinct length variations in a rapidly evolving region of the transposase-coding region as a result of expansions and contractions of a simple repeat sequence encoding 3 amino acids threonine, proline, and glutamic acid (TPE). These variations in length may influence the function of the protein and the movement of hobo transposons in natural populations. Here, we determine the distribution of Hermes in populations of M. domestica as well as whether Hermes transposase has undergone similar sequence expansions and contractions during its evolution in this species. Hermes transposons were found in all M. domestica individuals sampled from 14 populations collected from 4 continents. All individuals with Hermes transposons had evidence for the presence of intact transposase open reading frames, and little sequence variation was observed among Hermes elements. A systematic analysis of the TPE-homologous region of the Hermes transposase-coding region revealed no evidence for length variation. The simple sequence repeat found in hobo elements is a feature of this transposon that evolved since the divergence of hobo and Hermes. PMID:19366812

  10. piggyBac-based insertional mutagenesis in the presence of stably integrated P elements in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Udo; Nystedt, Sverker; Barmchi, Mojgan Padash; Horn, Carsten; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2003-06-24

    P element-mediated mutagenesis has been used to disrupt an estimated 25% of genes essential for Drosophila adult viability. Mutation of all genes in the fly genome, however, poses a problem, because P elements show significant hotspots of integration. In addition, advanced screening scenarios often require the use of P element-based tools like the generation of germ-line mosaics using FLP recombinase-mediated recombination or gene misexpression using the UAS/Gal4 system. These techniques are P element-based and can therefore not be combined with the use of P elements as mutagenic agents. To circumvent these limitations, we have developed an insertional mutagenesis system using non-P element transposons. An enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-marked piggyBac-based mutator element was mobilized by a piggyBac specific transposase source expressed from a Hermes-based jump-starter transposon marked with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein. In a pilot screen, we have generated 798 piggyBac insertions on FRT bearing third chromosomes of which 9% have sustained a putatively piggyBac-related lethal hit. The FRTs present on the target chromosome remained stably integrated during the screen and could subsequently be used to generate germ-line clones associated with maternal and zygotic phenotypes. PCR-based analysis of insertion loci shows that 57% of the insertions are in genes for which no P element insertions have been reported. Our data demonstrate the potential of this technique to facilitate the quest for saturation mutagenesis of the Drosophila genome. The system is Drosophila nonspecific and potentially applicable in a broad spectrum of nonmodel organisms. PMID:12802016

  11. cis and trans factors affecting Mos1 mariner evolution and transposition in vitro, and its potential for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Tosi, L R; Beverley, S M

    2000-02-01

    Mos1 and other mariner / Tc1 transposons move horizon-tally during evolution, and when transplanted into heterologous species can transpose in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to protozoans and vertebrates. To further develop the Drosophila Mos1 mariner system as a genetic tool and to probe mechanisms affecting the regulation of transposition activity, we developed an in vitro system for Mos1 transposition using purified transposase and selectable Mos1 derivatives. Transposition frequencies of nearly 10(-3)/target DNA molecule were obtained, and insertions occurred at TA dinucleotides with little other sequence specificity. Mos1 elements containing only the 28 bp terminal inverted repeats were inactive in vitro, while elements containing a few additional internal bases were fully active, establishing the minimal cis -acting requirements for transposition. With increasing transposase the transposition frequency increased to a plateau value, in contrast to the predictions of the protein over-expression inhibition model and to that found recently with a reconstructed Himar1 transposase. This difference between the 'natural' Mos1 and 'reconstructed' Himar1 transposases suggests an evolutionary path for down-regulation of mariner transposition following its introduction into a naïve population. The establishment of the cis and trans requirements for optimal mariner transposition in vitro provides key data for the creation of vectors for in vitro mutagenesis, and will facilitate the development of in vivo systems for mariner transposition. PMID:10637331

  12. Isolation and characterization of transposon Tn5-induced mutants of Pseudomonas perfectomarina defective in nitrous oxide respiration.

    PubMed Central

    Zumft, W G; Döhler, K; Körner, H

    1985-01-01

    Transposon (Tn5) mutagenesis of Pseudomonas perfectomarina with the plasmid pSUP2021 [(pBR325-Mob(RP4))::Tn5] and the chromosomally integrated RP4 plasmid in Escherichia coli as the donor, produced three distinct groups of mutants that were defective in nitrous oxide respiration. One group of mutants lacked the structural protein of N2O reductase, the second synthesized a copper-free apoprotein; and a third group expressed a low level of intact enzyme. The mutants provided evidence for N2O being the immediate precursor of dinitrogen in denitrification and documented the essentiality of the copper enzyme. Synthesis of N2O reductase depended strongly on the growth conditions, with N2O-grown cells expressing the lowest level of enzyme. Regulatory responses of mutants elicited by nitrate or oxygen were unaltered when compared with wild-type behavior. Images PMID:2993252

  13. Site-directed mutagenesis and gene deletion using reverse genetics.

    PubMed

    Muhl, Daniela; Filloux, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Understanding gene function is far easier when tools are available to engineer a bacterial strain lacking a specific gene and phenotypically compare its behavior with the corresponding parental strain. Such mutants could be selected randomly, either by natural selection under particular stress conditions or by random mutagenesis using transposon delivery as described elsewhere in this book. However, with the advent of the genomic era there are now hundreds of bacterial genomes whose sequence is available, and thus, genes can be identified, chosen, and strategies designed to specifically inactivate them. This can be done by using suicide plasmids and is most convenient when the bacterium of interest is easily amenable to genetic manipulation. The method presented here will describe the use of a suicide vector, pKNG101, which allows the selection of a double-recombination event. The first event results in the integration of the pKNG101 derivative carrying the "mutator" fragment onto the chromosome, and could be selected on plates containing appropriate antibiotics. The pKNG101 carries the sacB gene, which induces death when cells are grown on sucrose. Growth on sucrose plates will thus select the second homologous recombination event, which results in removing the plasmid backbone and leaving behind the mutated target gene. This method has been widely used over the last 20 years to inactivate genes in a wide range of gram-negative bacteria and in particular in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:24818930

  14. The piggyBac transposon displays local and distant reintegration preferences and can cause mutations at noncanonical integration sites.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng Amy; Pettitt, Stephen J; Eckert, Sabine; Ning, Zemin; Rice, Stephen; Cadiñanos, Juan; Yusa, Kosuke; Conte, Nathalie; Bradley, Allan

    2013-04-01

    The DNA transposon piggyBac is widely used as a tool in mammalian experimental systems for transgenesis, mutagenesis, and genome engineering. We have characterized genome-wide insertion site preferences of piggyBac by sequencing a large set of integration sites arising from transposition from two separate genomic loci and a plasmid donor in mouse embryonic stem cells. We found that piggyBac preferentially integrates locally to the excision site when mobilized from a chromosomal location and identified other nonlocal regions of the genome with elevated insertion frequencies. piggyBac insertions were associated with expressed genes and markers of open chromatin structure and were excluded from heterochromatin. At the nucleotide level, piggyBac prefers to insert into TA-rich regions within a broader GC-rich context. We also found that piggyBac can insert into sites other than its known TTAA insertion site at a low frequency (2%). Such insertions introduce mismatches that are repaired with signatures of host cell repair pathways. Transposons could be mobilized from plasmids with the observed noncanonical flanking regions, indicating that piggyBac could generate point mutations in the genome. PMID:23358416

  15. The piggyBac Transposon Displays Local and Distant Reintegration Preferences and Can Cause Mutations at Noncanonical Integration Sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng Amy; Pettitt, Stephen J.; Eckert, Sabine; Ning, Zemin; Rice, Stephen; Cadiñanos, Juan; Yusa, Kosuke; Conte, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The DNA transposon piggyBac is widely used as a tool in mammalian experimental systems for transgenesis, mutagenesis, and genome engineering. We have characterized genome-wide insertion site preferences of piggyBac by sequencing a large set of integration sites arising from transposition from two separate genomic loci and a plasmid donor in mouse embryonic stem cells. We found that piggyBac preferentially integrates locally to the excision site when mobilized from a chromosomal location and identified other nonlocal regions of the genome with elevated insertion frequencies. piggyBac insertions were associated with expressed genes and markers of open chromatin structure and were excluded from heterochromatin. At the nucleotide level, piggyBac prefers to insert into TA-rich regions within a broader GC-rich context. We also found that piggyBac can insert into sites other than its known TTAA insertion site at a low frequency (2%). Such insertions introduce mismatches that are repaired with signatures of host cell repair pathways. Transposons could be mobilized from plasmids with the observed noncanonical flanking regions, indicating that piggyBac could generate point mutations in the genome. PMID:23358416

  16. Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis in a mouse medulloblastoma model defines networks that discriminate between human molecular subgroups.

    PubMed

    Genovesi, Laura A; Ng, Ching Ging; Davis, Melissa J; Remke, Marc; Taylor, Michael D; Adams, David J; Rust, Alistair G; Ward, Jerrold M; Ban, Kenneth H; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G; Wainwright, Brandon J

    2013-11-12

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis screen is a powerful tool to facilitate the discovery of cancer genes that drive tumorigenesis in mouse models. In this study, we sought to identify genes that functionally cooperate with sonic hedgehog signaling to initiate medulloblastoma (MB), a tumor of the cerebellum. By combining SB mutagenesis with Patched1 heterozygous mice (Ptch1(lacZ/+)), we observed an increased frequency of MB and decreased tumor-free survival compared with Ptch1(lacZ/+) controls. From an analysis of 85 tumors, we identified 77 common insertion sites that map to 56 genes potentially driving increased tumorigenesis. The common insertion site genes identified in the mutagenesis screen were mapped to human orthologs, which were used to select probes and corresponding expression data from an independent set of previously described human MB samples, and surprisingly were capable of accurately clustering known molecular subgroups of MB, thereby defining common regulatory networks underlying all forms of MB irrespective of subgroup. We performed a network analysis to discover the likely mechanisms of action of subnetworks and used an in vivo model to confirm a role for a highly ranked candidate gene, Nfia, in promoting MB formation. Our analysis implicates candidate cancer genes in the deregulation of apoptosis and translational elongation, and reveals a strong signature of transcriptional regulation that will have broad impact on expression programs in MB. These networks provide functional insights into the complex biology of human MB and identify potential avenues for intervention common to all clinical subgroups. PMID:24167280

  17. Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis in a mouse medulloblastoma model defines networks that discriminate between human molecular subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Genovesi, Laura A.; Ng, Ching Ging; Davis, Melissa J.; Remke, Marc; Taylor, Michael D.; Adams, David J.; Rust, Alistair G.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Ban, Kenneth H.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Wainwright, Brandon J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis screen is a powerful tool to facilitate the discovery of cancer genes that drive tumorigenesis in mouse models. In this study, we sought to identify genes that functionally cooperate with sonic hedgehog signaling to initiate medulloblastoma (MB), a tumor of the cerebellum. By combining SB mutagenesis with Patched1 heterozygous mice (Ptch1lacZ/+), we observed an increased frequency of MB and decreased tumor-free survival compared with Ptch1lacZ/+ controls. From an analysis of 85 tumors, we identified 77 common insertion sites that map to 56 genes potentially driving increased tumorigenesis. The common insertion site genes identified in the mutagenesis screen were mapped to human orthologs, which were used to select probes and corresponding expression data from an independent set of previously described human MB samples, and surprisingly were capable of accurately clustering known molecular subgroups of MB, thereby defining common regulatory networks underlying all forms of MB irrespective of subgroup. We performed a network analysis to discover the likely mechanisms of action of subnetworks and used an in vivo model to confirm a role for a highly ranked candidate gene, Nfia, in promoting MB formation. Our analysis implicates candidate cancer genes in the deregulation of apoptosis and translational elongation, and reveals a strong signature of transcriptional regulation that will have broad impact on expression programs in MB. These networks provide functional insights into the complex biology of human MB and identify potential avenues for intervention common to all clinical subgroups. PMID:24167280

  18. A Sleeping Beauty mutagenesis screen reveals a tumor suppressor role for Ncoa2/Src-2 in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kathryn A; Keng, Vincent W; York, Brian; Reineke, Erin L; Seo, Daekwan; Fan, Danhua; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Schrum, Christina T; Xie, Wei Rose; Mularoni, Loris; Wheelan, Sarah J; Torbenson, Michael S; O'Malley, Bert W; Largaespada, David A; Boeke, Jef D

    2012-05-22

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis system is a powerful tool that facilitates the discovery of mutations that accelerate tumorigenesis. In this study, we sought to identify mutations that cooperate with MYC, one of the most commonly dysregulated genes in human malignancy. We performed a forward genetic screen with a mouse model of MYC-induced liver cancer using SB-mediated mutagenesis. We sequenced insertions in 63 liver tumor nodules and identified at least 16 genes/loci that contribute to accelerated tumor development. RNAi-mediated knockdown in a liver progenitor cell line further validate three of these genes, Ncoa2/Src-2, Zfx, and Dtnb, as tumor suppressors in liver cancer. Moreover, deletion of Ncoa2/Src-2 in mice predisposes to diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumorigenesis. These findings reveal genes and pathways that functionally restrain MYC-mediated liver tumorigenesis and therefore may provide targets for cancer therapy. PMID:22556267

  19. A Mutator Transposon Insertion Is Associated With Ectopic Expression of a Tandemly Repeated Multicopy Myb Gene pericarp color1 of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Michael L.; Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Meeley, Robert; Chopra, Surinder

    2008-01-01

    The molecular basis of tissue-specific pigmentation of maize carrying a tandemly repeated multicopy allele of pericarp color1 (p1) was examined using Mutator (Mu) transposon-mediated mutagenesis. The P1-wr allele conditions a white or colorless pericarp and a red cob glumes phenotype. However, a Mu-insertion allele, designated as P1-wr-mum6, displayed an altered phenotype that was first noted as occasional red stripes on pericarp tissue. This gain-of-pericarp-pigmentation phenotype was heritable, yielding families that displayed variable penetrance and expressivity. In one fully penetrant family, deep red pericarp pigmentation was observed. Several reports on Mu suppressible alleles have shown that Mu transposons can affect gene expression by mechanisms that depend on transposase activity. Conversely, the P1-wr-mum6 phenotype is not affected by transposase activity. The increased pigmentation was associated with elevated mRNA expression of P1-wr-mum6 copy (or copies) that was uninterrupted by the transposons. Genomic bisulfite sequencing analysis showed that the elevated expression was associated with hypomethylation of a floral-specific enhancer that is ∼4.7 kb upstream of the Mu1 insertion site and may be proximal to an adjacent repeated copy. We propose that the Mu1 insertion interferes with the DNA methylation and related chromatin packaging of P1-wr, thereby inducing expression from gene copy (or copies) that is otherwise suppressed. PMID:18430921

  20. DNA Transposons and the Evolution of Eukaryotic Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Feschotte, Cédric; Pritham, Ellen J.

    2007-01-01

    Transposable elements are mobile genetic units that exhibit broad diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Transposable elements occupy a large fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and their movement and accumulation represent a major force shaping the genes and genomes of almost all organisms. This review focuses on DNA-mediated or class 2 transposons and emphasizes how this class of elements is distinguished from other types of mobile elements in terms of their structure, amplification dynamics, and genomic effect. We provide an up-to-date outlook on the diversity and taxonomic distribution of all major types of DNA transposons in eukaryotes, including Helitrons and Mavericks. We discuss some of the evolutionary forces that influence their maintenance and diversification in various genomic environments. Finally, we highlight how the distinctive biological features of DNA transposons have contributed to shape genome architecture and led to the emergence of genetic innovations in different eukaryotic lineages. PMID:18076328

  1. Transposon-free insertions for insect genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Dafa'alla, Tarig H; Condon, George C; Condon, Kirsty C; Phillips, Caroline E; Morrison, Neil I; Jin, Li; Epton, Matthew J; Fu, Guoliang; Alphey, Luke

    2006-07-01

    Methods involving the release of transgenic insects in the field hold great promise for controlling vector-borne diseases and agricultural pests. Insect transformation depends on nonautonomous transposable elements as gene vectors. The resulting insertions are stable in the absence of suitable transposase, however, such absence cannot always be guaranteed. We describe a method for post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences in the pest insect Medfly, Ceratitis capitata. The resulting insertions lack transposon sequences and are therefore impervious to transposase activity. PMID:16823373

  2. IS26-Mediated Formation of Transposons Carrying Antibiotic Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The IS26 transposase, Tnp26, catalyzes IS26 movement to a new site and deletion or inversion of adjacent DNA via a replicative route. The intramolecular deletion reaction produces a circular molecule consisting of a DNA segment and a single IS26, which we call a translocatable unit or TU. Recently, Tnp26 was shown to catalyze an additional intermolecular, conservative reaction between two preexisting copies of IS26 in different plasmids. Here, we have investigated the relative contributions of homologous recombination and Tnp26-catalyzed reactions to the generation of a transposon from a TU. Circular TUs containing the aphA1a kanamycin and neomycin resistance gene or the tet(D) tetracycline resistance determinant were generated in vitro and transformed into Escherichia coli recA cells carrying R388::IS26. The TU incorporated next to the IS26 in R388::IS26 forms a transposon with the insertion sequence (IS) in direct orientation. Introduction of a second TU produced regions containing both the aphA1a gene and the tet(D) determinant in either order but with only three copies of IS26. The integration reaction, which required a preexisting IS26, was precise and conservative and was 50-fold more efficient when both IS26 copies could produce an active Tnp26. When both ISs were inactivated by a frameshift in tnp26, TU incorporation was not detected in E. coli recA cells, but it did occur in E. coli recA (+) cells. However, the Tnp-catalyzed reaction was 100-fold more efficient than RecA-dependent homologous recombination. The ability of Tnp26 to function in either a replicative or conservative mode is likely to explain the prominence of IS26-bounded transposons in the resistance regions found in Gram-negative bacteria. IMPORTANCE In Gram-negative bacteria, IS26 recruits antibiotic resistance genes into the mobile gene pool by forming transposons carrying many different resistance genes. In addition to replicative transposition, IS26 was recently shown to use a novel

  3. IS26-Mediated Formation of Transposons Carrying Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The IS26 transposase, Tnp26, catalyzes IS26 movement to a new site and deletion or inversion of adjacent DNA via a replicative route. The intramolecular deletion reaction produces a circular molecule consisting of a DNA segment and a single IS26, which we call a translocatable unit or TU. Recently, Tnp26 was shown to catalyze an additional intermolecular, conservative reaction between two preexisting copies of IS26 in different plasmids. Here, we have investigated the relative contributions of homologous recombination and Tnp26-catalyzed reactions to the generation of a transposon from a TU. Circular TUs containing the aphA1a kanamycin and neomycin resistance gene or the tet(D) tetracycline resistance determinant were generated in vitro and transformed into Escherichia coli recA cells carrying R388::IS26. The TU incorporated next to the IS26 in R388::IS26 forms a transposon with the insertion sequence (IS) in direct orientation. Introduction of a second TU produced regions containing both the aphA1a gene and the tet(D) determinant in either order but with only three copies of IS26. The integration reaction, which required a preexisting IS26, was precise and conservative and was 50-fold more efficient when both IS26 copies could produce an active Tnp26. When both ISs were inactivated by a frameshift in tnp26, TU incorporation was not detected in E. coli recA cells, but it did occur in E. coli recA+ cells. However, the Tnp-catalyzed reaction was 100-fold more efficient than RecA-dependent homologous recombination. The ability of Tnp26 to function in either a replicative or conservative mode is likely to explain the prominence of IS26-bounded transposons in the resistance regions found in Gram-negative bacteria. IMPORTANCE In Gram-negative bacteria, IS26 recruits antibiotic resistance genes into the mobile gene pool by forming transposons carrying many different resistance genes. In addition to replicative transposition, IS26 was recently shown to use a

  4. Mos1 mutagenesis reveals a diversity of mechanisms affecting response of Caenorhabditis elegans to the bacterial pathogen Microbacterium nematophilum.

    PubMed

    Yook, Karen; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2007-02-01

    A specific host-pathogen interaction exists between Caenorhabditis elegans and the gram-positive bacterium Microbacterium nematophilum. This bacterium is able to colonize the rectum of susceptible worms and induces a defensive tail-swelling response in the host. Previous mutant screens have identified multiple loci that affect this interaction. Some of these loci correspond to known genes, but many bus genes [those with a bacterially unswollen (Bus) mutant phenotype] have yet to be cloned. We employed Mos1 transposon mutagenesis as a means of more rapidly cloning bus genes and identifying new mutants with altered pathogen response. This approach revealed new infection-related roles for two well-characterized and much-studied genes, egl-8 and tax-4. It also allowed the cloning of a known bus gene, bus-17, which encodes a predicted galactosyltransferase, and of a new bus gene, bus-19, which encodes a novel, albeit ancient, protein. The results illustrate advantages and disadvantages of Mos1 transposon mutagenesis in this system. PMID:17151260

  5. Characterization of an Ac transposon system based on apt1-m1 (Ac) on the long arm of maize chromosome 9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Pengfei; Tang, Yuanping; Fan, Jun; Xu, Dabin; Guo, Shengming; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2012-09-01

    Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable elements have been used in maize insertional mutagenesis as a complement to Mutator (Mu). In this study, to further improve the efficiency of the Ac/Ds mutagenesis system, we adopted apt1-m1 (Ac) on the long arm of chromosome 9 (9L) as a donor Ac to create an Ac insertion library. This system is based on the negative selection pressure against the donor Ac, and it was highly efficient for isolating new transposition events. We obtained 9,625 transposition events from 1083 F1 ears with an average transposition rate of 8.66 % (rates ranged from 1.11 to 29.73 %). We also adopted a modified PCR-based genome walking strategy to improve the efficiency of the new method for isolating transposon-flanking sequences. This method is more efficient than the Southern-based method that was used in previous studies. A validation step was developed to distinguish transposon tags derived from newly transposed Ac or Ds elements. Using this PCR-based method, we isolated 67 inheritable flanking sequences from the apt1-m1 (Ac) transposition library; of these, 51 were confirmed as tr-Ac-flanking sequences and 11 were tr-Ds-flanking sequences. Similar to other Ac donors from different loci, the apt1-m1 (Ac) system also exhibited a preference for short distance transposition. In this study, we have further improved the Ac mutagenesis system in maize for gene isolation and functional genomics studies. PMID:23054225

  6. Trapping Cardiac Recessive Mutants via Expression-based Insertional Mutagenesis Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yonghe; Liu, Weibin; Deng, Yun; Jomok, Beninio; Yang, Jingchun; Huang, Wei; Clark, Karl J.; Zhong, Tao P.; Lin, Xueying; Ekker, Stephen C.; Xu, Xiaolei

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Mutagenesis screening is a powerful genetic tool for probing biological mechanisms underlying vertebrate development and human diseases. However, the increased colony management efforts in vertebrates impose a significant challenge for identifying genes affecting a particular organ such as the heart, especially those exhibiting adult phenotypes upon depletion. Objective We aim to develop a facile approach that streamlines colony management efforts via enriching cardiac mutants, which enables us to screen for adult phenotypes. Methods and Results The transparency of the zebrafish embryos enabled us to score 67 stable transgenic lines generated from an insertional mutagenesis screen using a transposon-based protein trapping vector. Fifteen lines with cardiac monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) reporter expression were identified. We defined the molecular nature for 10 lines and bred them to homozygosity, which led to the identification of one embryonic lethal, one larval lethal, and one adult recessive mutant exhibiting cardiac hypertrophy at one year of age. Further characterization of these mutants uncovered an essential function of methionine adenosyltransferase II, alpha a (mat2aa) in cardiogenesis, an essential function of mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18B (mrps18b) in cardiac mitochondrial homeostasis, as well as a function of DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 6b (dnajb6b) in adult cardiac hypertrophy. Conclusions We demonstrate that transposon-based gene trapping is an efficient approach for identifying both embryonic and adult recessive mutants with cardiac expression. The generation of a Zebrafish Insertional Cardiac (ZIC) mutant collection shall facilitate the annotation of a vertebrate cardiac genome, as well as enable heart-based adult screens. PMID:23283723

  7. DNA transposon activity is associated with increased mutation rates in genes of rice and other grasses.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Thomas; Yu, Yeisoo; Haberer, Georg; Mayer, Klaus F X; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Rounsley, Steve; Chen, Mingsheng; Zuccolo, Andrea; Panaud, Olivier; Wing, Rod A; Roffler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    DNA (class 2) transposons are mobile genetic elements which move within their 'host' genome through excising and re-inserting elsewhere. Although the rice genome contains tens of thousands of such elements, their actual role in evolution is still unclear. Analysing over 650 transposon polymorphisms in the rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, we find that DNA repair following transposon excisions is associated with an increased number of mutations in the sequences neighbouring the transposon. Indeed, the 3,000 bp flanking the excised transposons can contain over 10 times more mutations than the genome-wide average. Since DNA transposons preferably insert near genes, this is correlated with increases in mutation rates in coding sequences and regulatory regions. Most importantly, we find this phenomenon also in maize, wheat and barley. Thus, these findings suggest that DNA transposon activity is a major evolutionary force in grasses which provide the basis of most food consumed by humankind. PMID:27599761

  8. Conjugative transposons: an unusual and diverse set of integrated gene transfer elements.

    PubMed Central

    Salyers, A A; Shoemaker, N B; Stevens, A M; Li, L Y

    1995-01-01

    Conjugative transposons are integrated DNA elements that excise themselves to form a covalently closed circular intermediate. This circular intermediate can either reintegrate in the same cell (intracellular transposition) or transfer by conjugation to a recipient and integrate into the recipient's genome (intercellular transposition). Conjugative transposons were first found in gram-positive cocci but are now known to be present in a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria also. Conjugative transposons have a surprisingly broad host range, and they probably contribute as much as plasmids to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in some genera of disease-causing bacteria. Resistance genes need not be carried on the conjugative transposon to be transferred. Many conjugative transposons can mobilize coresident plasmids, and the Bacteroides conjugative transposons can even excise and mobilize unlinked integrated elements. The Bacteroides conjugative transposons are also unusual in that their transfer activities are regulated by tetracycline via a complex regulatory network. PMID:8531886

  9. Identification of Critical Genes for Growth in Olive Brine by Transposon Mutagenesis of Lactobacillus pentosus C11

    PubMed Central

    Perpetuini, G.; Scornec, H.; Tofalo, R.; Serror, P.; Schirone, M.; Suzzi, G.; Corsetti, A.

    2013-01-01

    Olive brine represents a stressful environment due to the high NaCl concentration, presence of phenolic compounds known as antimicrobials, and low availability of nutrients. Thus, only a few strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are adapted to grow in and ferment table olives. To identify the mechanisms by which these few strains are able to grow in olive brine, Lactobacillus pentosus C11, a particularly resistant strain isolated from naturally fermented table olives, was mutagenized by random transposition using the Pjunc-TpaseIS1223 system (H. Licandro-Seraut, S. Brinster, M. van de Guchte, H. Scornec, E. Maguin, P. Sansonetti, J. F. Cavin, and P. Serror, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78:5417–5423, 2012). A library of 6,000 mutants was generated and screened for adaptation and subsequent growth in a medium, named BSM (brine screening medium), which presents the stressful conditions encountered in olive brine. Five transposition mutants impaired in growth on BSM were identified. Transposition occurred in two open reading frames and in three transcription terminators affecting stability of transcripts. Thus, several essential genes for adaptation and growth of L. pentosus C11 in olive brine were identified. PMID:23686273

  10. Identification of Pathogenicity-Related Genes in Biofilm-Defective Acidovorax citrulli by Transposon Tn5 Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jinyan; Qiu, Wen; Chen, Lei; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Yu, Menghao; Shan, Changlin; Ilyas, Mehmoona; Li, Bin; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation is important for virulence of a large number of plant pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, some virulence genes have been found to be involved in the formation of biofilm in bacterial fruit blotch pathogen Acidovorax citrulli. However, some virulent strains of A. citrulli were unable to format biofilm, indicating the complexity between biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, virulence-related genes were identified in the biofilm-defective strain A1 of A. citrulli by using Tn5 insertion, pathogenicity test, and high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR). Results from this study indicated that 22 out of the obtained 301 mutants significantly decreased the virulence of strain A1 compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, sequence analysis indicated that the obtained 22 mutants were due to the insertion of Tn5 into eight genes, including Aave 4244 (cation diffusion facilitator family transporter), Aave 4286 (hypothetical protein), Aave 4189 (alpha/beta hydrolase fold), Aave 1911 (IMP dehydrogenase/GMP reductase domain), Aave 4383 (bacterial export proteins, family 1), Aave 4256 (Hsp70 protein), Aave 0003 (histidine kinase, DNA gyrase B, and HSP90-like ATPase), and Aave 2428 (pyridoxal-phosphate dependent enzyme). Furthermore, the growth of mutant Aave 2428 was unaffected and even increased by the change in incubation temperature, NaCl concentration and the pH of the LB broth, indicating that this gene may be directly involved in the bacterial virulence. Overall, the determination of the eight pathogenicity-related genes in strain A1 will be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of biofilm-defective A. citrulli. PMID:26602922

  11. Lentiviral vector-based insertional mutagenesis identifies genes associated with liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ranzani, Marco; Cesana, Daniela; Bartholomae, Cynthia C.; Sanvito, Francesca; Pala, Mauro; Benedicenti, Fabrizio; Gallina, Pierangela; Sergi, Lucia Sergi; Merella, Stefania; Bulfone, Alessandro; Doglioni, Claudio; von Kalle, Christof; Kim, Yoon Jun; Schmidt, Manfred; Tonon, Giovanni; Naldini, Luigi; Montini, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Transposons and γ-retroviruses have been efficiently used as insertional mutagens in different tissues to identify molecular culprits of cancer. However, these systems are characterized by recurring integrations that accumulate in tumor cells, hampering the identification of early cancer-driving events amongst bystander and progression-related events. We developed an insertional mutagenesis platform based on lentiviral vectors (LVV) by which we could efficiently induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 3 different mouse models. By virtue of LVV’s replication-deficient nature and broad genome-wide integration pattern, LVV-based insertional mutagenesis allowed identification of 4 new liver cancer genes from a limited number of integrations. We validated the oncogenic potential of all the identified genes in vivo, with different levels of penetrance. Our newly identified cancer genes are likely to play a role in human disease, since they are upregulated and/or amplified/deleted in human HCCs and can predict clinical outcome of patients. PMID:23314173

  12. A Multifunctional Mutagenesis System for Analysis of Gene Function in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Quach, Helen Ngoc Bao; Tao, Shijie; Vrljicak, Pavle; Joshi, Adita; Ruan, Hua; Sukumaran, Rashmi; Varshney, Gaurav K.; LaFave, Matthew C.; Burgess, Shawn M.; Winkler, Christoph; Emelyanov, Alexander; Parinov, Sergey; Sampath, Karuna

    2015-01-01

    Since the sequencing of the human reference genome, many human disease-related genes have been discovered. However, understanding the functions of all the genes in the genome remains a challenge. The biological activities of these genes are usually investigated in model organisms such as mice and zebrafish. Large-scale mutagenesis screens to generate disruptive mutations are useful for identifying and understanding the activities of genes. Here, we report a multifunctional mutagenesis system in zebrafish using the maize Ds transposon. Integration of the Ds transposable element containing an mCherry reporter for protein trap events and an EGFP reporter for enhancer trap events produced a collection of transgenic lines marking distinct cell and tissue types, and mutagenized genes in the zebrafish genome by trapping and prematurely terminating endogenous protein coding sequences. We obtained 642 zebrafish lines with dynamic reporter gene expression. The characterized fish lines with specific expression patterns will be made available through the European Zebrafish Resource Center (EZRC), and a database of reporter expression is available online (http://fishtrap.warwick.ac.uk/). Our approach complements other efforts using zebrafish to facilitate functional genomic studies in this model of human development and disease. PMID:25840430

  13. MECHANISM OF CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS IV.

    PubMed Central

    Lorkiewicz, Z.; Szybalski, Waclaw

    1961-01-01

    Lorkiewicz, Z. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and Waclaw Szybalski. Mechanism of chemical mutagenesis. IV. Reaction between triethylene melamine and nucleic acid components. J. Bacteriol. 82: 195–201. 1961.—Triethylene melamine interacts primarily with phosphorylated intracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) precursors and not with DNA. It was found by direct chemical and chromatographic analysis that only pyrimidine precursors of nucleic acids are attacked by triethylene melamine. In the course of the triethylene melamine-deoxycytidine reaction the mutagenicity of the reaction mixture is lost, but the mutagenicity of the triethylene melamine-thymidine reaction products significantly increases above that of the reaction substrates. Several steps are postulated to explain the mechanism of the triethylene melamine-initiated mutagenic reaction: (i) Reaction I, semireversible uptake of triethylene melamine; (ii) reaction II, chemical interaction between triethylene melamine and intracellular thymidine mono- or triphosphate with the production of a functional analogue of the latter; (iii) incorporation of this fraudulent analogue into the newly formed DNA strand; (iv) occurrence of self-perpetuating errors in the sequence of natural bases during subsequent rounds of replication of the analogue-containing DNA strand. It is postulated that the mechanism of mutagenic responses to different types of mutagens can fit either a simplified (mutagenic base analogues) or extended version (radiation) of this schema. PMID:16561917

  14. ISC, a Novel Group of Bacterial and Archaeal DNA Transposons That Encode Cas9 Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Makarova, Kira S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial genomes encode numerous homologs of Cas9, the effector protein of the type II CRISPR-Cas systems. The homology region includes the arginine-rich helix and the HNH nuclease domain that is inserted into the RuvC-like nuclease domain. These genes, however, are not linked to cas genes or CRISPR. Here, we show that Cas9 homologs represent a distinct group of nonautonomous transposons, which we denote ISC (insertion sequences Cas9-like). We identify many diverse families of full-length ISC transposons and demonstrate that their terminal sequences (particularly 3′ termini) are similar to those of IS605 superfamily transposons that are mobilized by the Y1 tyrosine transposase encoded by the TnpA gene and often also encode the TnpB protein containing the RuvC-like endonuclease domain. The terminal regions of the ISC and IS605 transposons contain palindromic structures that are likely recognized by the Y1 transposase. The transposons from these two groups are inserted either exactly in the middle or upstream of specific 4-bp target sites, without target site duplication. We also identify autonomous ISC transposons that encode TnpA-like Y1 transposases. Thus, the nonautonomous ISC transposons could be mobilized in trans either by Y1 transposases of other, autonomous ISC transposons or by Y1 transposases of the more abundant IS605 transposons. These findings imply an evolutionary scenario in which the ISC transposons evolved from IS605 family transposons, possibly via insertion of a mobile group II intron encoding the HNH domain, and Cas9 subsequently evolved via immobilization of an ISC transposon. IMPORTANCE Cas9 endonucleases, the effectors of type II CRISPR-Cas systems, represent the new generation of genome-engineering tools. Here, we describe in detail a novel family of transposable elements that encode the likely ancestors of Cas9 and outline the evolutionary scenario connecting different varieties of these transposons and Cas9. PMID:26712934

  15. Transposons, environmental changes, and heritable induced phenotypic variability.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, Lucia; Fanti, Laura; Specchia, Valeria; Bozzetti, Maria Pia; Berloco, Maria; Palumbo, Gino; Pimpinelli, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms of biological evolution have always been, and still are, the subject of intense debate and modeling. One of the main problems is how the genetic variability is produced and maintained in order to make the organisms adaptable to environmental changes and therefore capable of evolving. In recent years, it has been reported that, in flies and plants, mutations in Hsp90 gene are capable to induce, with a low frequency, many different developmental abnormalities depending on the genetic backgrounds. This has suggested that the reduction of Hsp90 amount makes different development pathways more sensitive to hidden genetic variability. This suggestion revitalized a classical debate around the original Waddington hypothesis of canalization and genetic assimilation making Hsp90 the prototype of morphological capacitor. Other data have also suggested a different mechanism that revitalizes another classic debate about the response of genome to physiological and environmental stress put forward by Barbara McClintock. That data demonstrated that Hsp90 is involved in repression of transposon activity by playing a significant role in piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs)-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) silencing. The important implication is that the fixed phenotypic abnormalities observed in Hsp90 mutants are probably related to de novo induced mutations by transposon activation. In this case, Hsp90 could be considered as a mutator. In the present theoretical paper, we discuss several possible implications about environmental stress, transposon, and evolution offering also a support to the concept of evolvability. PMID:24752783

  16. Tiggers and DNA transposon fossils in the human genome.

    PubMed Central

    Smit, A F; Riggs, A D

    1996-01-01

    We report several classes of human interspersed repeats that resemble fossils of DNA transposons, elements that move by excision and reintegration in the genome, whereas previously characterized mammalian repeats all appear to have accumulated by retrotransposition, which involves an RNA intermediate. The human genome contains at least 14 families and > 100,000 degenerate copies of short (180-1200 bp) elements that have 14- to 25-bp terminal inverted repeats and are flanked by either 8 bp or TA target site duplications. We describe two ancient 2.5-kb elements with coding capacity, Tigger1 and -2, that closely resemble pogo, a DNA transposon in Drosophila, and probably were responsible for the distribution of some of the short elements. The deduced pogo and Tigger proteins are related to products of five DNA transposons found in fungi and nematodes, and more distantly, to the Tc1 and mariner transposases. They also are very similar to the major mammalian centromere protein CENP-B, suggesting that this may have a transposase origin. We further identified relatively low-copy-number mariner elements in both human and sheep DNA. These belong to two subfamilies previously identified in insect genomes, suggesting lateral transfer between diverse species. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8643651

  17. Transposon leads to contamination of clinical pDNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, I; Gomez-Eerland, R; van den Berg, J H; Oosterhuis, K; Schumacher, T N; Haanen, J B A G; Beijnen, J H; Nuijen, B

    2013-07-11

    We report an unexpected contamination during clinical manufacture of a Human Papilomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 encoding plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine, with a transposon originating from the Escherichia coli DH5 host cell genome. During processing, presence of this transposable element, insertion sequence 2 (IS2) in the plasmid vector was not noticed until quality control of the bulk pDNA vaccine when results of restriction digestion, sequencing, and CGE analysis were clearly indicative for the presence of a contaminant. Due to the very low level of contamination, only an insert-specific PCR method was capable of tracing back the presence of the transposon in the source pDNA and master cell bank (MCB). Based on the presence of an uncontrolled contamination with unknown clinical relevance, the product was rejected for clinical use. In order to prevent costly rejection of clinical material, both in-process controls and quality control methods must be sensitive enough to detect such a contamination as early as possible, i.e. preferably during plasmid DNA source generation, MCB production and ultimately during upstream processing. However, as we have shown that contamination early in the process development pipeline (source pDNA, MCB) can be present below limits of detection of generally applied analytical methods, the introduction of "engineered" or transposon-free host cells seems the only 100% effective solution to avoid contamination with movable elements and should be considered when searching for a suitable host cell-vector combination. PMID:23707695

  18. Transposon-induced nuclear mutations that alter chloroplast gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, A.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project is to use mutant phenotypes as a guide to nuclear genes that determine the timing and localization of chloroplast development The immediate goals are to identify nuclear mutants with defects in chloroplast gene expression from maize lines harboring active Mu transposons; characterize their phenotypes to determine the precise defect in gene expression; clone several of the most interesting mutations by exploiting the transposon tag; and use the clones to further define the roles of these genes in modulating chloroplast gene expression. Three mutants were described earlier that had global defects in chloroplast gene expression. We have found that two of these mutations are allelic. Both alleles have global defects in chloroplast translation initiation, as revealed by the failure to assemble chloroplast mRNAs into polysomes. We have isolated and characterized three new mutants from Mu lines that have novel defects in chloroplast RNA metabolism. We are now ready to begin the task of cloning several of these genes, by using the Mu transposon tag.

  19. Insertional mutagenesis by random cloning of antibiotic resistance genes into the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed Central

    Labarre, J; Chauvat, F; Thuriaux, P

    1989-01-01

    The facultative heterotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was transformed by HaeII Cmr fragments ligated at random to HaeII DNA fragments of the host genome. A similar transformation was done with an AvaII Kmr marker ligated to AvaII host DNA fragments. Integration of the resistance markers into the host genome led to a high frequency of stable Kmr and Cmr transformants. Physical analysis of individual transformants indicated that this result was due to homologous recombination by conversionlike events leading to insertion of the Cmr (or Kmr) gene between two HaeII (or AvaII) sites of the host genome, with precise deletion of the host DNA between these sites. In contrast, integrative crossover of circular DNA molecules with homology to the host DNA is very rare in this cyanobacterium. Strain PCC 6803 was shown to have about 12 genomic copies per cell in standard growth conditions, which complicates the detection of recessive mutations induced by chemical or UV mutagenesis. Random disruption of the host DNA by insertional transformation provides a convenient alternative to transposon mutagenesis in cyanobacteria and may help to overcome the difficulties encountered in generating recessive mutants by classical mutagenesis. Images PMID:2498291

  20. Mobilization of giant piggyBac transposons in the mouse genome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng Amy; Turner, Daniel J.; Ning, Zemin; Yusa, Kosuke; Liang, Qi; Eckert, Sabine; Rad, Lena; Fitzgerald, Tomas W.; Craig, Nancy L.; Bradley, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The development of technologies that allow the stable delivery of large genomic DNA fragments in mammalian systems is important for genetic studies as well as for applications in gene therapy. DNA transposons have emerged as flexible and efficient molecular vehicles to mediate stable cargo transfer. However, the ability to carry DNA fragments >10 kb is limited in most DNA transposons. Here, we show that the DNA transposon piggyBac can mobilize 100-kb DNA fragments in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, making it the only known transposon with such a large cargo capacity. The integrity of the cargo is maintained during transposition, the copy number can be controlled and the inserted giant transposons express the genomic cargo. Furthermore, these 100-kb transposons can also be excised from the genome without leaving a footprint. The development of piggyBac as a large cargo vector will facilitate a wider range of genetic and genomic applications. PMID:21948799

  1. RNA sequencing of Sleeping Beauty transposon-induced tumors detects transposon-RNA fusions in forward genetic cancer screens.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Nuri A; Moriarity, Branden S; Wolf, Natalie K; Riordan, Jesse D; Dupuy, Adam J; Largaespada, David A; Sarver, Aaron L

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetic screens using Sleeping Beauty (SB)-mobilized T2/Onc transposons have been used to identify common insertion sites (CISs) associated with tumor formation. Recurrent sites of transposon insertion are commonly identified using ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR). Here, we use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data to directly identify transcriptional events mediated by T2/Onc. Surprisingly, the majority (∼80%) of LM-PCR identified junction fragments do not lead to observable changes in RNA transcripts. However, in CIS regions, direct transcriptional effects of transposon insertions are observed. We developed an automated method to systematically identify T2/Onc-genome RNA fusion sequences in RNA-seq data. RNA fusion-based CISs were identified corresponding to both DNA-based CISs (Cdkn2a, Mycl1, Nf2, Pten, Sema6d, and Rere) and additional regions strongly associated with cancer that were not observed by LM-PCR (Myc, Akt1, Pth, Csf1r, Fgfr2, Wisp1, Map3k5, and Map4k3). In addition to calculating recurrent CISs, we also present complementary methods to identify potential driver events via determination of strongly supported fusions and fusions with large transcript level changes in the absence of multitumor recurrence. These methods independently identify CIS regions and also point to cancer-associated genes like Braf. We anticipate RNA-seq analyses of tumors from forward genetic screens will become an efficient tool to identify causal events. PMID:26553456

  2. RNA sequencing of Sleeping Beauty transposon-induced tumors detects transposon-RNA fusions in forward genetic cancer screens

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Nuri A.; Moriarity, Branden S.; Wolf, Natalie K.; Riordan, Jesse D.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Largaespada, David A.; Sarver, Aaron L.

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetic screens using Sleeping Beauty (SB)-mobilized T2/Onc transposons have been used to identify common insertion sites (CISs) associated with tumor formation. Recurrent sites of transposon insertion are commonly identified using ligation-mediated PCR (LM-PCR). Here, we use RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data to directly identify transcriptional events mediated by T2/Onc. Surprisingly, the majority (∼80%) of LM-PCR identified junction fragments do not lead to observable changes in RNA transcripts. However, in CIS regions, direct transcriptional effects of transposon insertions are observed. We developed an automated method to systematically identify T2/Onc-genome RNA fusion sequences in RNA-seq data. RNA fusion-based CISs were identified corresponding to both DNA-based CISs (Cdkn2a, Mycl1, Nf2, Pten, Sema6d, and Rere) and additional regions strongly associated with cancer that were not observed by LM-PCR (Myc, Akt1, Pth, Csf1r, Fgfr2, Wisp1, Map3k5, and Map4k3). In addition to calculating recurrent CISs, we also present complementary methods to identify potential driver events via determination of strongly supported fusions and fusions with large transcript level changes in the absence of multitumor recurrence. These methods independently identify CIS regions and also point to cancer-associated genes like Braf. We anticipate RNA-seq analyses of tumors from forward genetic screens will become an efficient tool to identify causal events. PMID:26553456

  3. Distinct mechanisms determine transposon inheritance and methylation via small interfering RNA and histone modification.

    PubMed

    Lippman, Zachary; May, Bruce; Yordan, Cristy; Singer, Tatjana; Martienssen, Rob

    2003-12-01

    Heritable, but reversible, changes in transposable element activity were first observed in maize by Barbara McClintock in the 1950s. More recently, transposon silencing has been associated with DNA methylation, histone H3 lysine-9 methylation (H3mK9), and RNA interference (RNAi). Using a genetic approach, we have investigated the role of these modifications in the epigenetic regulation and inheritance of six Arabidopsis transposons. Silencing of most of the transposons is relieved in DNA methyltransferase (met1), chromatin remodeling ATPase (ddm1), and histone modification (sil1) mutants. In contrast, only a small subset of the transposons require the H3mK9 methyltransferase KRYPTONITE, the RNAi gene ARGONAUTE1, and the CXG methyltransferase CHROMOMETHYLASE3. In crosses to wild-type plants, epigenetic inheritance of active transposons varied from mutant to mutant, indicating these genes differ in their ability to silence transposons. According to their pattern of transposon regulation, the mutants can be divided into two groups, which suggests that there are distinct, but interacting, complexes or pathways involved in transposon silencing. Furthermore, different transposons tend to be susceptible to different forms of epigenetic regulation. PMID:14691539

  4. Mixture of differentially tagged Tol2 transposons accelerates conditional disruption of a broad spectrum of genes in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mayasari, N. Ika; Mukougawa, Keiko; Shigeoka, Toshiaki; Kawakami, Koichi; Kawaichi, Masashi; Ishida, Yasumasa

    2012-01-01

    Among the insertional mutagenesis techniques used in the current international knockout mouse project (KOMP) on the inactivation of all mouse genes in embryonic stem (ES) cells, random gene trapping has been playing a major role. Gene-targeting experiments have also been performed to individually and conditionally knockout the remaining ‘difficult-to-trap’ genes. Here, we show that transcriptionally silent genes in ES cells are severely underrepresented among the randomly trapped genes in KOMP. Our conditional poly(A)-trapping vector with a common retroviral backbone also has a strong bias to be integrated into constitutively transcribed genome loci. Most importantly, conditional gene disruption could not be successfully accomplished by using the retrovirus vector because of the frequent development of intra-vector deletions/rearrangements. We found that one of the cut and paste-type DNA transposons, Tol2, can serve as an ideal platform for gene-trap vectors that ensures identification and conditional disruption of a broad spectrum of genes in ES cells. We also solved a long-standing problem associated with multiple vector integration into the genome of a single cell by incorporating a mixture of differentially tagged Tol2 transposons. We believe our strategy indicates a straightforward approach to mass-production of conditionally disrupted alleles for genes in the target cells. PMID:22447447

  5. Economical analysis of saturation mutagenesis experiments.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Reetz, Manfred T; Nov, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Saturation mutagenesis is a powerful technique for engineering proteins, metabolic pathways and genomes. In spite of its numerous applications, creating high-quality saturation mutagenesis libraries remains a challenge, as various experimental parameters influence in a complex manner the resulting diversity. We explore from the economical perspective various aspects of saturation mutagenesis library preparation: We introduce a cheaper and faster control for assessing library quality based on liquid media; analyze the role of primer purity and supplier in libraries with and without redundancy; compare library quality, yield, randomization efficiency, and annealing bias using traditional and emergent randomization schemes based on mixtures of mutagenic primers; and establish a methodology for choosing the most cost-effective randomization scheme given the screening costs and other experimental parameters. We show that by carefully considering these parameters, laboratory expenses can be significantly reduced. PMID:26190439

  6. Economical analysis of saturation mutagenesis experiments

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Reetz, Manfred T.; Nov, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Saturation mutagenesis is a powerful technique for engineering proteins, metabolic pathways and genomes. In spite of its numerous applications, creating high-quality saturation mutagenesis libraries remains a challenge, as various experimental parameters influence in a complex manner the resulting diversity. We explore from the economical perspective various aspects of saturation mutagenesis library preparation: We introduce a cheaper and faster control for assessing library quality based on liquid media; analyze the role of primer purity and supplier in libraries with and without redundancy; compare library quality, yield, randomization efficiency, and annealing bias using traditional and emergent randomization schemes based on mixtures of mutagenic primers; and establish a methodology for choosing the most cost-effective randomization scheme given the screening costs and other experimental parameters. We show that by carefully considering these parameters, laboratory expenses can be significantly reduced. PMID:26190439

  7. Forced evolution in silico by artificial transposons and their genetic operators: The ant navigation problem

    PubMed Central

    Zamdborg, Leonid; Holloway, David M.; Merelo, Juan J.; Levchenko, Vladimir F.; Spirov, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Modern evolutionary computation utilizes heuristic optimizations based upon concepts borrowed from the Darwinian theory of natural selection. Their demonstrated efficacy has reawakened an interest in other aspects of contemporary biology as an inspiration for new algorithms. However, amongst the many excellent candidates for study, contemporary models of biological macroevolution attract special attention. We believe that a vital direction in this field must be algorithms that model the activity of “genomic parasites”, such as transposons, in biological evolution. Many evolutionary biologists posit that it is the co-evolution of populations with their genomic parasites that permits the high efficiency of evolutionary searches found in the living world. This publication is our first step in the direction of developing a minimal assortment of algorithms that simulate the role of genomic parasites. Specifically, we started in the domain of genetic algorithms (GA) and selected the Artificial Ant Problem as a test case. This navigation problem is widely known as a classical benchmark test and possesses a large body of literature. We add new objects to the standard toolkit of GA - artificial transposons and a collection of operators that operate on them. We define these artificial transposons as a fragment of an ant's code with properties that cause it to stand apart from the rest. The minimal set of operators for transposons is a transposon mutation operator, and a transposon reproduction operator that causes a transposon to multiply within the population of hosts. An analysis of the population dynamics of transposons within the course of ant evolution showed that transposons are involved in the processes of propagation and selection of blocks of ant navigation programs. During this time, the speed of evolutionary search increases significantly. We concluded that artificial transposons, analogous to real transposons, are truly capable of acting as intelligent

  8. The Drosophila mojavensis Bari3 transposon: distribution and functional characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bari-like transposons belong to the Tc1-mariner superfamily, and they have been identified in several genomes of the Drosophila genus. This transposon’s family has been used as paradigm to investigate the complex dynamics underlying the persistence and structural evolution of transposable elements (TEs) within a genome. Three structural Bari variants have been identified so far and can be distinguished based on the organization of their terminal inverted repeats. Bari3 is the last discovered member of this family identified in Drosophila mojavensis, a recently emerged species of the Repleta group of the genus Drosophila. Results We studied the insertion pattern of Bari3 in different D. mojavensis populations and found evidence of recent transposition activity. Analysis of the transposase domains unveiled the presence of a functional nuclear localization signal, as well as a functional binding domain. Using luciferase-based assays, we investigated the promoter activity of Bari3 as well as the interaction of its transposase with its left terminus. The results suggest that Bari3 is transposition-competent. Finally we demonstrated transposase transcript processing when the transposase gene is overexpressed in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions Bari3 displays very similar structural and functional features with its close relative, Bari1. Our results strongly suggest that Bari3 is an independent element that has generated genomic diversity in D. mojavensis. It can autonomously transcribe its transposase gene, which in turn can localize in the nucleus and bind the terminal inverted repeats of the transposon. Nevertheless, the identification of an unpredicted spliced form of the Bari3 transposase transcript allows us to hypothesize a control mechanism of its mobility based on mRNA processing. These results will aid the studies on the Bari family of transposons, which is intriguing for its widespread diffusion in Drosophilids coupled with a structural diversity

  9. Application of a novel multi-screening signature-tagged mutagenesis assay for identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes essential in colonization and infection.

    PubMed

    Struve, Carsten; Forestier, Christiane; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2003-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and pneumonia, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Epidemiological studies have revealed that K. pneumoniae infections are frequently preceded by gastrointestinal colonization and the gastrointestinal tract is believed to be the most important reservoir for transmission of the bacteria. To identify genes involved in the ability of K. pneumoniae to colonize the intestine and infect the urinary tract, a novel multi-screening signature-tagged mutagenesis (MS-STM) assay was implemented. In the MS-STM assay, PCR-amplified tags present in the inoculum as well as recovered pools from each infection model are simultaneously subjected to hybridization using each specific tag as a probe. Therefore, screenings of a mutant library in more than one infection model is significantly eased compared to the traditional signature-tagged mutagenesis methodology. From a total of 1,440 K. pneumoniae transposon mutants screened, 13 mutants were identified as attenuated in intestinal colonization as well as the UTI model. In addition, six mutants attenuated only in the UTI model were identified. Transposon insertion sites in attenuated mutants were, among others, in genes encoding well-known K. pneumoniae virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharide and capsule, as well as in genes of unknown function. PMID:12576590

  10. Tn292l, a transposon encoding fosfomycin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    García-Lobo, J M; Ortiz, J M

    1982-01-01

    The determinant of resistance to fosfomycin of the Serratia marcescens plasmid pOU900 was transposed into the plasmid ColE1 and into the plasmid RP4 in the absence of the RecA function of the host. In each case, the acquisition of fosfomycin resistance was correlated with the presence of a discrete piece of DNA, uniform in size and in restriction pattern, This new, 7.5-megadalton transposable element encoding resistance to fosfomycin has been called Tn2921. A preliminary map of the transposon is presented. Images PMID:6282810

  11. The design and analysis of transposon insertion sequencing experiments.

    PubMed

    Chao, Michael C; Abel, Sören; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) is a powerful approach that can be extensively applied to the genome-wide definition of loci that are required for bacterial growth under diverse conditions. However, experimental design choices and stochastic biological processes can heavily influence the results of TIS experiments and affect downstream statistical analysis. In this Opinion article, we discuss TIS experimental parameters and how these factors relate to the benefits and limitations of the various statistical frameworks that can be applied to the computational analysis of TIS data. PMID:26775926

  12. Excision of Sleeping Beauty transposons: parameters and applications to gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Geyi; Aronovich, Elena L.; Cui, Zongbin; Whitley, Chester B.; Hackett, Perry B.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem in gene therapy is the determination of the rates at which gene transfer has occurred. Our work has focused on applications of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system as a non-viral vector for gene therapy. Excision of a transposon from a donor molecule and its integration into a cellular chromosome are catalyzed by SB transposase. In this study, we used a plasmid-based excision assay to study the excision step of transposition. We used the excision assay to evaluate the importance of various sequences that border the sites of excision inside and outside the transposon in order to determine the most active sequences for transposition from a donor plasmid. These findings together with our previous results in transposase binding to the terminal repeats suggest that the sequences in the transposon-junction of SB are involved in steps subsequent to DNA binding but before excision, and that they may have a role in transposase–transposon interaction. We found that SB transposons leave characteristically different footprints at excision sites in different cell types, suggesting that alternative repair machineries operate in concert with transposition. Most importantly, we found that the rates of excision correlate with the rates of transposition. We used this finding to assess transposition in livers of mice that were injected with the SB transposon and transposase. The excision assay appears to be a relatively quick and easy method to optimize protocols for delivery of genes in SB transposons to mammalian chromosomes in living animals. PMID:15133768

  13. Genomic Analysis of Sleeping Beauty Transposon Integration in Human Somatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turchiano, Giandomenico; Latella, Maria Carmela; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Cattoglio, Claudia; Mavilio, Fulvio; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Recchia, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is a non-viral integrating vector system with proven efficacy for gene transfer and functional genomics. However, integration efficiency is negatively affected by the length of the transposon. To optimize the SB transposon machinery, the inverted repeats and the transposase gene underwent several modifications, resulting in the generation of the hyperactive SB100X transposase and of the high-capacity “sandwich” (SA) transposon. In this study, we report a side-by-side comparison of the SA and the widely used T2 arrangement of transposon vectors carrying increasing DNA cargoes, up to 18 kb. Clonal analysis of SA integrants in human epithelial cells and in immortalized keratinocytes demonstrates stability and integrity of the transposon independently from the cargo size and copy number-dependent expression of the cargo cassette. A genome-wide analysis of unambiguously mapped SA integrations in keratinocytes showed an almost random distribution, with an overrepresentation in repetitive elements (satellite, LINE and small RNAs) compared to a library representing insertions of the first-generation transposon vector and to gammaretroviral and lentiviral libraries. The SA transposon/SB100X integrating system therefore shows important features as a system for delivering large gene constructs for gene therapy applications. PMID:25390293

  14. The Identification of Transposon-Tagged Mutations in Essential Genes That Affect Cell Morphology in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chun, K. T.; Goebl, M. G.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by budding, and many genes are required for proper bud development. Mutations in some of these genes cause cells to die with an unusual terminal morphology--elongated or otherwise aberrantly shaped buds. To gain insight into bud development, we set out to identify novel genes that encode proteins required for proper bud morphogenesis. Previous studies screened collections of conditional mutations to identify genes required for essential functions, including bud formation. However, genes that are not susceptible to the generation of mutations that cause a conditional phenotype will not be identified in such screens. To identify a more comprehensive collection of mutants, we used transposon mutagenesis to generate a large collection of lethal disruption mutations. This collection was used to identify 209 mutants with disruptions that cause an aberrant terminal bud morphology. The disruption mutations in 33 of these mutants identify three previously uncharacterized genes as essential, and the mutant phenotypes suggest roles for their products in bud morphogenesis. PMID:8770583

  15. piRNA-Guided Transposon Cleavage Initiljates Zucchini-Dependent, Phased piRNA Production

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bo W; Wang, Wei; Li, Chengjian; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2015-01-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect the animal germline by silencing transposons. Primary piRNAs, generated from transcripts of genomic transposon ‘junkyards’ (piRNA clusters), are amplified by the “Ping-Pong” pathway, yielding secondary piRNAs. We report that secondary piRNAs, bound to the PIWI protein Ago3, can initiate primary piRNA production from cleaved transposon RNAs. The first ~26 nt of each cleaved RNA becomes a secondary piRNA, but the subsequent ~26 nt becomes the first in a series of phased primary piRNAs that bind Piwi, allowing piRNAs to spread beyond the site of RNA cleavage. The Ping-Pong pathway increases only the abundance of piRNAs, whereas production of phased primary piRNAs from cleaved transposon RNAs adds sequence diversity to the piRNA pool, allowing adaptation to changes in transposon sequence. PMID:25977554

  16. P53 and the defenses against genome instability caused by transposons and repetitive elements.

    PubMed

    Levine, Arnold J; Ting, David T; Greenbaum, Benjamin D

    2016-06-01

    The recent publication by Wylie et al. is reviewed, demonstrating that the p53 protein regulates the movement of transposons. While this work presents genetic evidence for a piRNA-mediated p53 interaction with transposons in Drosophila and zebrafish, it is herein placed in the context of a decade or so of additional work that demonstrated a role for p53 in regulating transposons and other repetitive elements. The line of thought in those studies began with the observation that transposons damage DNA and p53 regulates DNA damage. The presence of transposon movement can increase the rate of evolution in the germ line and alter genes involved in signal transduction pathways. Transposition can also play an important role in cancers where the p53 gene function is often mutated. This is particularly interesting as recent work has shown that de-repression of repetitive elements in cancer has important consequences for the immune system and tumor microenvironment. PMID:27172878

  17. CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS
    Michael D. Waters
    US Environmental Protection Agency, MD-51A, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 USA

    Our rapidly growing understanding of the structure of the human genome is forming the basis for numerous new...

  18. Faux Mutagenesis: Teaching Troubleshooting through Controlled Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartberg, Yasha

    2006-01-01

    By shifting pedagogical goals from obtaining successful mutations to teaching students critical troubleshooting skills, it has been possible to introduce site-directed mutagenesis into an undergraduate teaching laboratory. Described in this study is an inexpensive laboratory exercise in which students follow a slightly modified version of…

  19. MAMMALIAN CELL MUTAGENESIS, BANBURY CONFERENCE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conference on mammalian cell mutagenesis was held at the Banbury Center, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA, March 22-25, 1987. The objective of the conference was to provide a forum for discussions concerning the genetic, biochemical, and molecular basis of induced mutations in stand...

  20. Pervasive Horizontal Transfer of Rolling-Circle Transposons among Animals

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jainy; Schaack, Sarah; Pritham, Ellen J.

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of genes is known to be an important mechanism of genetic innovation, especially in prokaryotes. The impact of HT of transposable elements (TEs), however, has only recently begun to receive widespread attention and may be significant due to their mutagenic potential, inherent mobility, and abundance. Helitrons, also known as rolling-circle transposons, are a distinctive subclass of TE with a unique transposition mechanism. Here, we describe the first evidence for the repeated HT of four different families of Helitrons in an unprecedented array of organisms, including mammals, reptiles, fish, invertebrates, and insect viruses. The Helitrons present in these species have a patchy distribution and are closely related (80–98% sequence identity), despite the deep divergence times among hosts. Multiple lines of evidence indicate the extreme conservation of sequence identity is not due to selection, including the highly fragmented nature of the Helitrons identified and the lack of any signatures of selection at the nucleotide level. The presence of horizontally transferred Helitrons in insect viruses, in particular, suggests that this may represent a potential mechanism of transfer in some taxa. Unlike genes, Helitrons that have horizontally transferred into new host genomes can amplify, in some cases reaching up to several hundred copies and representing a substantial fraction of the genome. Because Helitrons are known to frequently capture and amplify gene fragments, HT of this unique group of DNA transposons could lead to horizontal gene transfer and incur dramatic shifts in the trajectory of genome evolution. PMID:20693155

  1. A Transposon and Transposase System for Human Application

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Perry B; Largaespada, David A; Cooper, Laurence JN

    2010-01-01

    The stable introduction of therapeutic transgenes into human cells can be accomplished using viral and nonviral approaches. Transduction with clinical-grade recombinant viruses offers the potential of efficient gene transfer into primary cells and has a record of therapeutic successes. However, widespread application for gene therapy using viruses can be limited by their initially high cost of manufacture at a limited number of production facilities as well as a propensity for nonrandom patterns of integration. The ex vivo application of transposon-mediated gene transfer now offers an alternative to the use of viral vectors. Clinical-grade DNA plasmids can be prepared at much reduced cost and with lower immunogenicity, and the integration efficiency can be improved by the transient coexpression of a hyperactive transposase. This has facilitated the design of human trials using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system to introduce a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to redirect the specificity of human T cells. This review examines the rationale and safety implications of application of the SB system to genetically modify T cells to be manufactured in compliance with current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) for phase I/II trials. PMID:20104209

  2. REPLACR-mutagenesis, a one-step method for site-directed mutagenesis by recombineering

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Ashutosh; Kiełbus, Michał; Czapinski, Jakub; Stepulak, Andrzej; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Mutagenesis is an important tool to study gene regulation, model disease-causing mutations and for functional characterisation of proteins. Most of the current methods for mutagenesis involve multiple step procedures. One of the most accurate methods for genetically altering DNA is recombineering, which uses bacteria expressing viral recombination proteins. Recently, the use of in vitro seamless assembly systems using purified enzymes for multiple-fragment cloning as well as mutagenesis is gaining ground. Although these in vitro isothermal reactions are useful when cloning multiple fragments, for site-directed mutagenesis it is unnecessary. Moreover, the use of purified enzymes in vitro is not only expensive but also more inaccurate than the high-fidelity recombination inside bacteria. Here we present a single-step method, named REPLACR-mutagenesis (Recombineering of Ends of linearised PLAsmids after PCR), for creating mutations (deletions, substitutions and additions) in plasmids by in vivo recombineering. REPLACR-mutagenesis only involves transformation of PCR products in bacteria expressing Red/ET recombineering proteins. Modifications in a variety of plasmids up to bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs; 144 kb deletion) have been achieved by this method. The presented method is more robust, involves fewer steps and is cost-efficient. PMID:26750263

  3. REPLACR-mutagenesis, a one-step method for site-directed mutagenesis by recombineering.

    PubMed

    Trehan, Ashutosh; Kiełbus, Michał; Czapinski, Jakub; Stepulak, Andrzej; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Mutagenesis is an important tool to study gene regulation, model disease-causing mutations and for functional characterisation of proteins. Most of the current methods for mutagenesis involve multiple step procedures. One of the most accurate methods for genetically altering DNA is recombineering, which uses bacteria expressing viral recombination proteins. Recently, the use of in vitro seamless assembly systems using purified enzymes for multiple-fragment cloning as well as mutagenesis is gaining ground. Although these in vitro isothermal reactions are useful when cloning multiple fragments, for site-directed mutagenesis it is unnecessary. Moreover, the use of purified enzymes in vitro is not only expensive but also more inaccurate than the high-fidelity recombination inside bacteria. Here we present a single-step method, named REPLACR-mutagenesis (Recombineering of Ends of linearised PLAsmids after PCR), for creating mutations (deletions, substitutions and additions) in plasmids by in vivo recombineering. REPLACR-mutagenesis only involves transformation of PCR products in bacteria expressing Red/ET recombineering proteins. Modifications in a variety of plasmids up to bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs; 144 kb deletion) have been achieved by this method. The presented method is more robust, involves fewer steps and is cost-efficient. PMID:26750263

  4. Mutagenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei with Tn5-OT182: isolation of motility mutants and molecular characterization of the flagellin structural gene.

    PubMed Central

    DeShazer, D; Brett, P J; Carlyon, R; Woods, D E

    1997-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a human and animal pathogen in tropical regions, especially Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Currently little is known about the genetics and molecular biology of this organism. In this report, we describe the mutagenesis of B. pseudomallei with the transposon Tn5-OT182. B. pseudomallei 1026b transposon mutants were obtained at a frequency of 4.6 x 10(-4) per initial donor cell, and the transposon inserted randomly into the chromosome. We used Tn5-OT182 to identify the flagellin structural gene, fliC. We screened 3,500 transposon mutants and identified 28 motility mutants. Tn5-OT182 integrated into 19 unique genetic loci encoding proteins with homology to Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium flagellar and chemotaxis proteins. Two mutants, MM35 and MM36, contained Tn5-OT182 integrations in fliC. We cloned and sequenced fliC and used it to complement MM35 and MM36 in trans. The fliC transcriptional start site and a sigmaF-like promoter were identified by primer extension analysis. We observed a significant difference in the expression of two distinct fliC-lacZ transcriptional fusions during bacterial growth, suggesting the presence of a latent intragenic transcriptional terminator in fliC. There was no significant difference in the virulence of 1026b compared to that of MM36 in diabetic rats or Syrian hamsters, suggesting that flagella and/or motility are probably not virulence determinants in these animal models of B. pseudomallei infection. A phylogenetic analysis based on the flagellins from a variety of bacterial species supported the recent transfer of B. pseudomallei from the genus Pseudomonas to Burkholderia. PMID:9079894

  5. Mariner Transposons Contain a Silencer: Possible Role of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Beauclair, Linda; Moiré, Nathalie; Arensbuger, Peter; Bigot, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements are driving forces for establishing genetic innovations such as transcriptional regulatory networks in eukaryotic genomes. Here, we describe a silencer situated in the last 300 bp of the Mos1 transposase open reading frame (ORF) which functions in vertebrate and arthropod cells. Functional silencers are also found at similar locations within three other animal mariner elements, i.e. IS630-Tc1-mariner (ITm) DD34D elements, Himar1, Hsmar1 and Mcmar1. These silencers are able to impact eukaryotic promoters monitoring strong, moderate or low expression as well as those of mariner elements located upstream of the transposase ORF. We report that the silencing involves at least two transcription factors (TFs) that are conserved within animal species, NFAT-5 and Alx1. These cooperatively act with YY1 to trigger the silencing activity. Four other housekeeping transcription factors (TFs), neuron restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), GAGA factor (GAF) and GTGT factor (GTF), were also found to have binding sites within mariner silencers but their impact in modulating the silencer activity remains to be further specified. Interestingly, an NRSF binding site was found to overlap a 30 bp motif coding a highly conserved PHxxYSPDLAPxD peptide in mariner transposases. We also present experimental evidence that silencing is mainly achieved by co-opting the host Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 pathway. However, we observe that when PRC2 is impaired another host silencing pathway potentially takes over to maintain weak silencer activity. Mariner silencers harbour features of Polycomb Response Elements, which are probably a way for mariner elements to self-repress their transcription and mobility in somatic and germinal cells when the required TFs are expressed. At the evolutionary scale, mariner elements, through their exaptation, might have been a source of silencers playing a role in the chromatin configuration in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:26939020

  6. [Integration sites and their characteristic analysis of piggyBac transposon in cattle genome].

    PubMed

    Du, Xin-Hua; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Lu-Pei; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Li, Jun-Ya; Xu, Shang-Zhong

    2013-06-01

    As a useful tool for genetic engineering, piggyBac (PB) transposons have been widely used in more than one species of transgenosis or generating mutation studies. At present, the studies about PB transposons in cattle were few. In order to get the PB transposon integration sites and summarize its characteristics in bovine genome, donor plasmid of PB[CMV-EGFP] and helper-dependent plasmid of pcDNA-PBase were constructed and transferred into bovine fibroblasts by Amaxa basic nucleofector kit for primary mammalian fibroblasts. Cell clones stably transfected were obtained after screening by G-418. Genomic DNA of transgenic cells was extracted and the integration sites of PB transposon were detected by genome walking technology. Eight integration sites were obtained in bovine genome, although only 5 sites were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2, 11, and X chromosome. We found that PB transposon was inserted into the "TTAA" location and integrated into the intergenic non-regulatory sites between two genes. Analysis of the composition of the five bases, which was close to the side of the PB integration sites "TTAA", showed that PB 5' tended to be inserted into region rich in GC (62.5%). From the study, we got that transposition occurred in cattle genome by PB transposons and the integration site information acquired from the research will provide theoretical references for bovine study by PB transposon. PMID:23774022

  7. Electroporation markedly improves Sleeping Beauty transposon-induced tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, S; Choi, H-J; Park, H-K; Jo, W; Jang, S; Ryu, J-E; Kim, W-J; Yu, E-S; Son, W-C

    2014-08-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is an important tool for genetic studies. It is used to insert a gene of interest into the host chromosome, thus enabling permanent gene expression. However, this system is less useful in higher eukaryotes because the transposition frequency is low. Efforts to improve the efficacy of the SB transposon system have focused on the method of gene delivery, but although electroporation has recently attracted much attention as an in vivo gene delivery tool, the simultaneous use of electroporation and the SB transposon system has not been studied for gene transfer in mice. In this study, electroporation was used in a model of SB transposon-induced insertional tumorigenesis. Electroporation increased the rate of tumor development to three times that of the control group. There was no difference in phenotype between tumors induced with the SB transposon system alone and those induced by the SB transposon and electroporation. Electroporation therefore may be an efficient means of improving the efficacy of gene transfer via the SB transposon system. PMID:24992966

  8. DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting a chromatin signature permissive for meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Zamudio, Natasha; Barau, Joan; Teissandier, Aurélie; Walter, Marius; Borsos, Maté; Servant, Nicolas; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is essential for protecting the mammalian germline against transposons. When DNA methylation-based transposon control is defective, meiotic chromosome pairing is consistently impaired during spermatogenesis: How and why meiosis is vulnerable to transposon activity is unknown. Using two DNA methylation-deficient backgrounds, the Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutant mice, we reveal that DNA methylation is largely dispensable for silencing transposons before meiosis onset. After this, it becomes crucial to back up to a developmentally programmed H3K9me2 loss. Massive retrotransposition does not occur following transposon derepression, but the meiotic chromatin landscape is profoundly affected. Indeed, H3K4me3 marks gained over transcriptionally active transposons correlate with formation of SPO11-dependent double-strand breaks and recruitment of the DMC1 repair enzyme in Dnmt3L−/− meiotic cells, whereas these features are normally exclusive to meiotic recombination hot spots. Here, we demonstrate that DNA methylation restrains transposons from adopting chromatin characteristics amenable to meiotic recombination, which we propose prevents the occurrence of erratic chromosomal events. PMID:26109049

  9. Suicidal Autointegration of Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac Transposons in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Anatharam; Singh, Manvendra; Jimenez Orgaz, Ana; Chen, Jia-Xuan; Selbach, Matthias; Ivics, Zoltán; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2014-01-01

    Transposons are discrete segments of DNA that have the distinctive ability to move and replicate within genomes across the tree of life. ‘Cut and paste’ DNA transposition involves excision from a donor locus and reintegration into a new locus in the genome. We studied molecular events following the excision steps of two eukaryotic DNA transposons, Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) that are widely used for genome manipulation in vertebrate species. SB originates from fish and PB from insects; thus, by introducing these transposons to human cells we aimed to monitor the process of establishing a transposon-host relationship in a naïve cellular environment. Similarly to retroviruses, neither SB nor PB is capable of self-avoidance because a significant portion of the excised transposons integrated back into its own genome in a suicidal process called autointegration. Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BANF1), a cellular co-factor of certain retroviruses, inhibited transposon autointegration, and was detected in higher-order protein complexes containing the SB transposase. Increasing size sensitized transposition for autointegration, consistent with elevated vulnerability of larger transposons. Both SB and PB were affected similarly by the size of the transposon in three different assays: excision, autointegration and productive transposition. Prior to reintegration, SB is completely separated from the donor molecule and followed an unbiased autointegration pattern, not associated with local hopping. Self-disruptive autointegration occurred at similar frequency for both transposons, while aberrant, pseudo-transposition events were more frequently observed for PB. PMID:24625543

  10. Final report [DNA Repair and Mutagenesis - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Graham C.

    2001-05-30

    The meeting, titled ''DNA Repair and Mutagenesis: Mechanism, Control, and Biological Consequences'', was designed to bring together the various sub-disciplines that collectively comprise the field of DNA Repair and Mutagenesis. The keynote address was titled ''Mutability Doth Play Her Cruel Sports to Many Men's Decay: Variations on the Theme of Translesion Synthesis.'' Sessions were held on the following themes: Excision repair of DNA damage; Transcription and DNA excision repair; UmuC/DinB/Rev1/Rad30 superfamily of DNA polymerases; Cellular responses to DNA damage, checkpoints, and damage tolerance; Repair of mismatched bases, mutation; Genome-instability, and hypermutation; Repair of strand breaks; Replicational fidelity, and Late-breaking developments; Repair and mutation in challenging environments; and Defects in DNA repair: consequences for human disease and aging.

  11. Antibacterial activity and mutagenesis of sponge-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens H41.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lumeng; Santos-Gandelman, Juliana F; Hardoim, Cristiane C P; George, Isabelle; Cornelis, Pierre; Laport, Marinella S

    2015-07-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are well known to harbour a complex and diverse bacterial community. Some of these sponge-associated bacteria have been shown to be the real producers of secondary metabolites with a wide range of activities from antimicrobials to anticancer agents. Previously, we revealed that the strain Pseudomonas fluorescens H41 isolated from the sponge Haliclona sp. (collected at the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) showed a strong antimicrobial activity against clinical and marine bacteria. Thus, in this study the genes involved in the antimicrobial activity of P. fluorescens H41 were identified. To this end, a library of mutants was generated via miniTnphoA3 transposon mutagenesis and the resulting clones were characterized for their antimicrobial activity. It was demonstrated that genes involved in the biosynthesis of the pyoverdine siderophore are related to the inhibitory activity of P. fluorescens H41. Therefore, this strain might play an important role in the biocontrol of the host sponge. PMID:25957971

  12. Insertional mutagenesis identifies multiple networks of cooperating genes driving intestinal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    March, H Nikki; Rust, Alistair G; Wright, Nicholas A; ten Hoeve, Jelle; de Ridder, Jeroen; Eldridge, Matthew; van der Weyden, Louise; Berns, Anton; Gadiot, Jules; Uren, Anthony; Kemp, Richard; Arends, Mark J; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Winton, Douglas J; Adams, David J

    2011-12-01

    The evolution of colorectal cancer suggests the involvement of many genes. To identify new drivers of intestinal cancer, we performed insertional mutagenesis using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system in mice carrying germline or somatic Apc mutations. By analyzing common insertion sites (CISs) isolated from 446 tumors, we identified many hundreds of candidate cancer drivers. Comparison to human data sets suggested that 234 CIS-targeted genes are also dysregulated in human colorectal cancers. In addition, we found 183 CIS-containing genes that are candidate Wnt targets and showed that 20 CISs-containing genes are newly discovered modifiers of canonical Wnt signaling. We also identified mutations associated with a subset of tumors containing an expanded number of Paneth cells, a hallmark of deregulated Wnt signaling, and genes associated with more severe dysplasia included those encoding members of the FGF signaling cascade. Some 70 genes had co-occurrence of CIS pairs, clustering into 38 sub-networks that may regulate tumor development. PMID:22057237

  13. Identification of Legionella pneumophila Genes Important for Infection of Amoebas by Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Polesky, Andrea H.; Ross, Julianna T. D.; Falkow, Stanley; Tompkins, Lucy S.

    2001-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular gram-negative rod that causes pneumonia in humans. Free-living amoebas are thought to serve as a reservoir for Legionella infections. Signature-tagged mutagenesis was employed to identify Legionella pneumophila genes necessary for survival in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. Six mutant strains were defective in assays of invasion and intracellular growth. Four mutants also exhibited invasion and replication defects in Hartmannella vermiformis, an amoeba linked to hospital outbreaks of Legionella pneumonia. The six mutants also were tested in macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Two mutants had intracellular replication defects, and two different strains entered cells less efficiently. Two transposon insertions were in known L. pneumophila genes, lspK and aroB. The other four were in novel genes. One gene has similarity to a cytochrome c-type biogenesis protein of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Another has similarity to a transcriptional activator regulating flagellar biosynthesis in Vibrio cholera. The third is similar to traA of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, which is involved in conjugal transfer of DNA. The fourth has no homology. By using survival in amoeba as a selection, we have isolated mutant strains with a range of phenotypes; and we have potentially identified new L. pneumophila virulence genes. PMID:11159993

  14. PiggyBac transposon vectors: the tools of the human gene encoding

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuang; Jiang, Enze; Chen, Shuangshuang; Gu, Yuan; Shangguan, Anna Junjie; Lv, Tangfeng

    2016-01-01

    A transposon is a DNA segment, which is able to change its relative position within the entire genome of a cell. The piggyBac (PB) transposon is a movable genetic element that efficiently transposes between vectors and chromosomes through a “cut-and-paste” mechanism. During transposition, the PB transposase recognizes transposon-specific inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) sequences located on both ends of the transposon vector and eight efficiently moves the contents from its original positions and efficiently integrates them into TTAA chromosomal sites. PB has drawn much attention because of its transposition efficiency, safety and stability. Due to its priorities, PB can be used as a new genetic vehicle, a new tool for oncogene screening and a new method for gene therapy. PB has created a new outlook for human gene encoding. PMID:26958506

  15. Random and targeted transgene insertion in Caenorhabditis elegans using a modified Mos1 transposon.

    PubMed

    Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M Wayne; Sarov, Mihail; Taylor, Jon; Flibotte, Stephane; LaBella, Matthew; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Moerman, Donald G; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2014-05-01

    We have generated a recombinant Mos1 transposon that can insert up to 45-kb transgenes into the Caenorhabditis elegans genome. The minimal Mos1 transposon (miniMos) is 550 bp long and inserts DNA into the genome at high frequency (~60% of injected animals). Genetic and antibiotic markers can be used for selection, and the transposon is active in C. elegans isolates and Caenorhabditis briggsae. We used the miniMos transposon to generate six universal Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (mosSCI) landing sites that allow targeted transgene insertion with a single targeting vector into permissive expression sites on all autosomes. We also generated two collections of strains: a set of bright fluorescent insertions that are useful as dominant, genetic balancers and a set of lacO insertions to track genome position. PMID:24820376

  16. Random and targeted transgene insertion in C. elegans using a modified Mosl transposon

    PubMed Central

    Frokjaer-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M Wayne; Sarov, Mihail; Taylor, Jon; Flibotte, Stephane; LaBella, Matthew; Pozniakovski, Andrei; Moerman, Donald G; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2014-01-01

    We have generated a recombinant Mos1 transposon that can insert up to 45 kb transgenes into the C. elegans genome. The minimal Mos1 transposon (miniMos) is 550 bp long and inserts DNA into the genome at high frequency (~60% of injected animals). Genetic and antibiotic markers can be used for selection and the transposon is active in C. elegans isolates and C. briggsae. We have used the miniMos transposon to generate six universal MosSCI landing sites that allow targeted transgene insertion with a single targeting vector into permissive expression sites on all autosomes. We have also generated two collections of strains: A set of bright fluorescent insertions that are useful as dominant, genetic balancers and a set of lacO insertions to track genome position. PMID:24820376

  17. WRKY6 Transcription Factor Restricts Arsenate Uptake and Transposon Activation in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, Gabriel; Sánchez-Bermejo, Eduardo; de Lorenzo, Laura; Crevillén, Pedro; Fraile-Escanciano, Ana; TC, Mohan; Mouriz, Alfonso; Catarecha, Pablo; Sobrino-Plata, Juan; Olsson, Sanna; Leo del Puerto, Yolanda; Mateos, Isabel; Rojo, Enrique; Hernández, Luis E.; Jarillo, Jose A.; Piñeiro, Manuel; Paz-Ares, Javier; Leyva, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Stress constantly challenges plant adaptation to the environment. Of all stress types, arsenic was a major threat during the early evolution of plants. The most prevalent chemical form of arsenic is arsenate, whose similarity to phosphate renders it easily incorporated into cells via the phosphate transporters. Here, we found that arsenate stress provokes a notable transposon burst in plants, in coordination with arsenate/phosphate transporter repression, which immediately restricts arsenate uptake. This repression was accompanied by delocalization of the phosphate transporter from the plasma membrane. When arsenate was removed, the system rapidly restored transcriptional expression and membrane localization of the transporter. We identify WRKY6 as an arsenate-responsive transcription factor that mediates arsenate/phosphate transporter gene expression and restricts arsenate-induced transposon activation. Plants therefore have a dual WRKY-dependent signaling mechanism that modulates arsenate uptake and transposon expression, providing a coordinated strategy for arsenate tolerance and transposon gene silencing. PMID:23922208

  18. A set of mini-Mu transposons for versatile cloning of circular DNA and novel dual-transposon strategy for increased efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Elsi; Haapa-Paananen, Saija; Turakainen, Hilkka; Savilahti, Harri

    2016-07-01

    Mu transposition-based cloning of DNA circles employs in vitro transposition reaction to deliver both the plasmid origin of replication and a selectable marker into the target DNA of interest. We report here the construction of a platform for the purpose that contains ten mini-Mu transposons with five different replication origins, enabling a variety of research approaches for the discovery and study of circular DNA. We also demonstrate that the simultaneous use of two transposons, one with the origin of replication and the other with selectable marker, is beneficial as it improves the cloning efficiency by reducing the fraction of autointegration-derived plasmid clones. The constructed transposons now provide a set of new tools for the studies on DNA circles and widen the applicability of Mu transposition based approaches to clone circular DNA from various sources. PMID:27387339

  19. An epigenetic switch ensures transposon repression upon dynamic loss of DNA methylation in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Marius; Teissandier, Aurélie; Pérez-Palacios, Raquel; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is extensively remodeled during mammalian gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Most transposons become hypomethylated, raising the question of their regulation in the absence of DNA methylation. To reproduce a rapid and extensive demethylation, we subjected mouse ES cells to chemically defined hypomethylating culture conditions. Surprisingly, we observed two phases of transposon regulation. After an initial burst of de-repression, various transposon families were efficiently re-silenced. This was accompanied by a reconfiguration of the repressive chromatin landscape: while H3K9me3 was stable, H3K9me2 globally disappeared and H3K27me3 accumulated at transposons. Interestingly, we observed that H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 occupy different transposon families or different territories within the same family, defining three functional categories of adaptive chromatin responses to DNA methylation loss. Our work highlights that H3K9me3 and, most importantly, polycomb-mediated H3K27me3 chromatin pathways can secure the control of a large spectrum of transposons in periods of intense DNA methylation change, ensuring longstanding genome stability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11418.001 PMID:26814573

  20. Hyperactive PiggyBac Transposons for Sustained and Robust Liver-targeted Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Mario; Samara-Kuko, Emira; Ward, Natalie J; Waddingon, Simon N; McVey, John H; Chuah, Marinee KL; VandenDriessche, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The development of robust nonviral vectors could facilitate clinical gene therapy applications and may overcome some of the immune complications of viral vectors. Nevertheless, most nonviral gene deliver approaches typically yield only transient and/or low gene expression. To address these caveats, we have explored piggyBac transposons to correct hemophilia B by liver-directed factor IX (FIX) gene therapy in hemophilic mice. To achieve this, we combined the use of: (i) a hyperactive codon-optimized piggyBac transposase, (ii) a computationally enhanced liver-specific promoter, (iii) a hyperfunctional codon-optimized FIX transgene (FIX R338L Padua), and (iv) a modification of the transposon terminal repeats. This combination strategy resulted in a robust 400-fold improvement in vector performance in hepatocytes, yielding stable supraphysiologic human FIX activity (>1 year). Liver-specific expression resulted in the induction of FIX-specific immune tolerance. Remarkably, only very low transposon/transposase doses were required to cure the bleeding diathesis. Similarly, PB transposons could be used to express supraphysiologic factor VIII levels using low transposon/transposase doses. PB transposition did not induce tumors in a sensitive hepatocellular carcinoma-prone mouse model. These results underscore the potency and relative safety of the latest generation PB transposons, which constitutes a versatile platform for stable and robust secretion of therapeutic proteins. PMID:25034357

  1. A Universal Mariner Transposon System for Forward Genetic Studies in the Genus Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Grosse-Honebrink, Alexander; Minton, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    DNA transposons represent an essential tool in the armoury of the molecular microbiologist. We previously developed a catP-based mini transposon system for Clostridium difficile in which the expression of the transposase gene was dependent on a sigma factor unique to C. difficile, TcdR. Here we have shown that the host range of the transposon is easily extended through the rapid chromosomal insertion of the tcdR gene at the pyrE locus of the intended clostridial target using Allele-Coupled Exchange (ACE). To increase the effectiveness of the system, a novel replicon conditional for plasmid maintenance was developed, which no longer supports the effective retention of the transposon delivery vehicle in the presence of the inducer isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). As a consequence, those thiamphenicol resistant colonies that arise in clostridial recipients, following plating on agar medium supplemented with IPTG, are almost exclusively due to insertion of the mini transposon into the genome. The system has been exemplified in both Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium sporogenes, where transposon insertion has been shown to be entirely random. Moreover, appropriate screening of both libraries resulted in the isolation of auxotrophic mutants as well as cells deficient in spore formation/germination. This strategy is capable of being implemented in any Clostridium species. PMID:25836262

  2. Hybrid nonviral/viral vector systems for improved piggyBac DNA transposon in vivo delivery.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Ashley L; Singh, Brajesh K; Sinn, Patrick L

    2015-04-01

    The DNA transposon piggyBac is a potential therapeutic agent for multiple genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Recombinant piggyBac transposon and transposase are typically codelivered by plasmid transfection; however, plasmid delivery is inefficient in somatic cells in vivo and is a barrier to the therapeutic application of transposon-based vector systems. Here, we investigate the potential for hybrid piggyBac/viral vectors to transduce cells and support transposase-mediated genomic integration of the transposon. We tested both adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) as transposon delivery vehicles. An Ad vector expressing hyperactive insect piggyBac transposase (iPB7) was codelivered. We show transposase-dependent transposition activity and mapped integrations in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo from each viral vector platform. We also demonstrate efficient and persistent transgene expression following nasal delivery of piggyBac/viral vectors to mice. Furthermore, using piggyBac/Ad expressing Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR), we show persistent correction of chloride current in well-differentiated primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells derived from CF patients. Combining the emerging technologies of DNA transposon-based vectors with well-studied adenoviral and AAV delivery provides new tools for in vivo gene transfer and presents an exciting opportunity to increase the delivery efficiency for therapeutic genes such as CFTR. PMID:25557623

  3. Identifying microbial fitness determinants by Insertion Sequencing (INSeq) using genome-wide transposon mutant libraries

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Andrew L.; Wu, Meng; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2012-01-01

    Insertion Sequencing (INSeq) is a method for determining the insertion site and relative abundance of large numbers of transposon mutants in a mixed population of isogenic mutants of a sequenced microbial species. INSeq is based on a modified mariner transposon containing MmeI sites at its ends, allowing cleavage at chromosomal sites 16–17bp from the inserted transposon. Genomic regions adjacent to the transposons are amplified by linear PCR with a biotinylated primer. Products are bound to magnetic beads, digested with MmeI, and barcoded with sample-specific linkers appended to each restriction fragment. After limited PCR amplification, fragments are sequenced using a high-throughput instrument. The sequence of each read can be used to map the location of a transposon in the genome. Read count measures the relative abundance of that mutant in the population. Solid-phase library preparation makes this protocol rapid (18h), easy to scale-up, amenable to automation, and useful for a variety of samples. A protocol for characterizing libraries of transposon mutant strains clonally arrayed in multi-well format is provided. PMID:22094732

  4. An adaptable system for improving transposon-based gene expression in vivo via transient transgene repression

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joseph E.; Woodard, Lauren E.; Bear, Adham S.; Foster, Aaron E.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Transposons permit permanent cellular genome engineering in vivo. However, transgene expression falls rapidly postdelivery due to a variety of mechanisms, including immune responses. We hypothesized that delaying initial transgene expression would improve long-term transgene expression by using an engineered piggyBac transposon system that can regulate expression. We found that a 2-part nonviral Tet-KRAB inducible expression system repressed expression of a luciferase reporter in vitro. However, we also observed nonspecific promoter-independent repression. Thus, to achieve temporary transgene repression after gene delivery in vivo, we utilized a nonintegrating version of the repressor plasmid while the gene of interest was delivered in an integrating piggyBac transposon vector. When we delivered the luciferase transposon and repressor to immunocompetent mice by hydrodynamic injection, initial luciferase expression was repressed by 2 orders of magnitude. When luciferase expression was followed long term in vivo, we found that expression was increased >200-fold compared to mice that received only the luciferase transposon and piggyBac transposase. We found that repression of early transgene expression could prevent the priming of luciferase-specific T cells in vivo. Therefore, transient transgene repression postgene delivery is an effective strategy for inhibiting the antitransgene immune response and improving long-term expression in vivo without using immunosuppression.—Doherty, J. E., Woodard, L. E., Bear, A. S., Foster, A. E., Wilson, M. H. An adaptable system for improving transposon-based gene expression in vivo via transient transgene repression. PMID:23752206

  5. Construction and Characterization of Transposon Insertion Mutations in Corynebacterium diphtheriae That Affect Expression of the Diphtheria Toxin Repressor (DtxR)

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Diana Marra; Avdalovic, Ana; Holmes, Randall K.

    2002-01-01

    Transcription of the bacteriophage-borne diphtheria toxin gene tox is negatively regulated, in response to intracellular Fe2+ concentration, by the chromosomally encoded diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR). Due to a scarcity of tools, genetic analysis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae has primarily relied on analysis of chemically induced and spontaneously occurring mutants and on the results of experiments with C. diphtheriae genes cloned in Escherichia coli or analyzed in vitro. We modified a Tn5-based mutagenesis technique for use with C. diphtheriae, and we used it to construct the first transposon insertion libraries in the chromosome of this gram-positive pathogen. We isolated two insertions that affected expression of DtxR, one 121 bp upstream of dtxR and the other within an essential region of the dtxR coding sequence, indicating for the first time that dtxR is a dispensable gene in C. diphtheriae. Both mutant strains secrete diphtheria toxin when grown in medium containing sufficient iron to repress secretion of diphtheria toxin by wild-type C. diphtheriae. The upstream insertion mutant still produces DtxR in decreased amounts and regulates siderophore secretion in response to iron in a manner similar to its wild-type parent. The mutant containing the transposon insertion within dtxR does not produce DtxR and overproduces siderophore in the presence of iron. Differences in the ability of the two mutant strains to survive oxidative stress also indicated that the upstream insertion retained slight DtxR activity, whereas the insertion within dtxR abolished DtxR activity. This is the first evidence that DtxR plays a role in protecting the cell from oxidative stress. PMID:12270831

  6. The Parasol Protocol for computational mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Aronica, P G A; Verma, C; Popovic, B; Leatherbarrow, R J; Gould, I R

    2016-07-01

    To aid in the discovery and development of peptides and proteins as therapeutic agents, a virtual screen can be used to predict trends and direct workflow. We have developed the Parasol Protocol, a dynamic method implemented using the AMBER MD package, for computational site-directed mutagenesis. This tool can mutate between any pair of amino acids in a computationally expedient, automated manner. To demonstrate the potential of this methodology, we have employed the protocol to investigate a test case involving stapled peptides, and have demonstrated good agreement with experiment. PMID:27255759

  7. Fluorometric method of quantitative cell mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-12-12

    A method for assaying a cell culture for mutagenesis is described. A cell culture is stained first with a histochemical stain, and then a fluorescent stain. Normal cells in the culture are stained by both the histochemical and fluorescent stains, while abnormal cells are stained only by the fluorescent stain. The two stains are chosen so that the histochemical stain absorbs the wavelengths that the fluorescent stain emits. After the counterstained culture is subjected to exciting light, the fluorescence from the abnormal cells is detected.

  8. Fluorometric method of quantitative cell mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, Frank A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for assaying a cell culture for mutagenesis is described. A cell culture is stained first with a histochemical stain, and then a fluorescent stain. Normal cells in the culture are stained by both the histochemical and fluorescent stains, while abnormal cells are stained only by the fluorescent stain. The two stains are chosen so that the histochemical stain absorbs the wavelengths that the fluorescent stain emits. After the counterstained culture is subjected to exciting light, the fluorescence from the abnormal cells is detected.

  9. Transposons passively and actively contribute to evolution of the two-speed genome of a fungal pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Faino, Luigi; Seidl, Michael F.; Shi-Kunne, Xiaoqian; Pauper, Marc; van den Berg, Grardy C.M.; Wittenberg, Alexander H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic plasticity enables adaptation to changing environments, which is especially relevant for pathogens that engage in “arms races” with their hosts. In many pathogens, genes mediating virulence cluster in highly variable, transposon-rich, physically distinct genomic compartments. However, understanding of the evolution of these compartments, and the role of transposons therein, remains limited. Here, we show that transposons are the major driving force for adaptive genome evolution in the fungal plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. We show that highly variable lineage-specific (LS) regions evolved by genomic rearrangements that are mediated by erroneous double-strand repair, often utilizing transposons. We furthermore show that recent genetic duplications are enhanced in LS regions, against an older episode of duplication events. Finally, LS regions are enriched in active transposons, which contribute to local genome plasticity. Thus, we provide evidence for genome shaping by transposons, both in an active and passive manner, which impacts the evolution of pathogen virulence. PMID:27325116

  10. Transposons passively and actively contribute to evolution of the two-speed genome of a fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Faino, Luigi; Seidl, Michael F; Shi-Kunne, Xiaoqian; Pauper, Marc; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Wittenberg, Alexander H J; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2016-08-01

    Genomic plasticity enables adaptation to changing environments, which is especially relevant for pathogens that engage in "arms races" with their hosts. In many pathogens, genes mediating virulence cluster in highly variable, transposon-rich, physically distinct genomic compartments. However, understanding of the evolution of these compartments, and the role of transposons therein, remains limited. Here, we show that transposons are the major driving force for adaptive genome evolution in the fungal plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae We show that highly variable lineage-specific (LS) regions evolved by genomic rearrangements that are mediated by erroneous double-strand repair, often utilizing transposons. We furthermore show that recent genetic duplications are enhanced in LS regions, against an older episode of duplication events. Finally, LS regions are enriched in active transposons, which contribute to local genome plasticity. Thus, we provide evidence for genome shaping by transposons, both in an active and passive manner, which impacts the evolution of pathogen virulence. PMID:27325116

  11. Autonomous plasmid-like replication of a conjugative transposon

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Catherine A.; Babic, Ana; Grossman, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), a.k.a. conjugative transposons, are mobile genetic elements involved in many biological processes, including pathogenesis, symbiosis, and the spread of antibiotic resistance. Unlike conjugative plasmids that are extra-chromosomal and replicate autonomously, ICEs are integrated in the chromosome and replicate passively during chromosomal replication. It is generally thought that ICEs do not replicate autonomously. We found that when induced, Bacillus subtilis ICEBs1 undergoes autonomous plasmid-like replication. Replication was unidirectional, initiated from the ICEBs1 origin of transfer, oriT, and required the ICEBs1-encoded relaxase NicK. Replication also required several host proteins needed for chromosomal replication, but did not require the replicative helicase DnaC or the helicase loader protein DnaB. Rather, replication of ICEBs1 required the helicase PcrA that is required for rolling circle replication of many plasmids. Transfer of ICEBs1 from the donor required PcrA, but did not require replication, indicating that PcrA, and not DNA replication, facilitates unwinding of ICEBs1 DNA for horizontal transfer. Although not needed for horizontal transfer, replication of ICEBs1 was needed for stability of the element. We propose that autonomous plasmid-like replication is a common property of ICEs and contributes to the stability and maintenance of these mobile genetic elements in bacterial populations. PMID:19943900

  12. Screening of Bacillus subtilis transposon mutants with altered riboflavin production.

    PubMed

    Tännler, Simon; Zamboni, Nicola; Kiraly, Csilla; Aymerich, Stéphane; Sauer, Uwe

    2008-09-01

    To identify novel targets for metabolic engineering of riboflavin production, we generated about 10,000 random, transposon-tagged mutants of an industrial, riboflavin-producing strain of Bacillus subtilis. Process-relevant screening conditions were established by developing a 96-deep-well plate method with raffinose as the carbon source, which mimics, to some extent, carbon limitation in fed batch cultures. Screening in raffinose and complex LB medium identified more efficiently riboflavin overproducing and underproducing mutants, respectively. As expected for a "loss of function" analysis, most identified mutants were underproducers. Insertion mutants in two genes with yet unknown function, however, were found to attain significantly improved riboflavin titers and yields. These genes and possibly further ones that are related to them are promising candidates for metabolic engineering. While causal links to riboflavin production were not obvious for most underproducers, we demonstrated for the gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GapB how a novel, non-obvious metabolic engineering strategy can be derived from such underproduction mutations. Specifically, we improved riboflavin production on various substrates significantly by deregulating expression of the gluconeogenic genes gapB and pckA through knockout of their genetic repressor CcpN. This improvement was also verified under the more process-relevant conditions of a glucose-limited fed-batch culture. PMID:18582593

  13. Transposon Tn5 specifies streptomycin resistance in Rhizobium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, G; Iyer, V N

    1984-01-01

    Transposon Tn5 conferred streptomycin resistance on different strains of Rhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and Rhizobium trifolii but not on Escherichia coli. A gene (str) specifying this phenotype has been identified and localized on the physical and genetic map of Tn5. It is transcribed from the promoter of neo, the gene that encodes neomycin phosphotransferase. The str gene is downstream from neo in a single transcriptional unit, as revealed by molecular cloning of different segments of Tn5 and by cloning of the neo-str region of Tn5 downstream from a lac promoter. Fusion of the SalI-generated rightward segment of Tn5 (devoid of neo) to a part of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet, in a plasmid or downstream from a lac promoter in a plasmid resulted in significant levels of streptomycin resistance in an R. meliloti host, suggesting that the str gene product can function independent of neomycin phosphotransferase. A natural isolate of R. meliloti that does not express Tn5-associated streptomycin resistance has been identified. We have used the str of Tn5 as a genetic marker in Rhizobium spp. PMID:6327612

  14. Estimating allelic diversity generated by excision of different transposon types.

    PubMed

    Nordborg, M; Walbot, V

    1995-05-01

    Methods are presented for calculating the number and type of different DNA sequences generated by base excision and insertion events at a given site in a known DNA sequence. We calculate, for example, that excision of the Mu1 transposon from the bz1::Mu1 allele of maize should generate more than 500,000 unique alleles given the extent of base deletion (up to 34 bases removed) and base insertion (0-5 bases) observed thus far in sequenced excision alleles. Analysis of this universe of potential alleles can, for example, be used to predict the frequency of creation of stop codons or repair-generated duplications. In general, knowledge of the distribution of alleles can be used to evaluate models of both excision and repair by determining whether particular events occur more frequently than expected. Such quantitative analysis complements the qualitative description provided by the DNA sequence of individual events. Similar methods can be used to evaluate the outcome of other cases of DNA breakage and repair such as programmed V(D)J recombination in immunoglobin genes. PMID:24172918

  15. Structure and Evolution of Chlorate Reduction Composite Transposons

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Iain C.; Melnyk, Ryan A.; Engelbrektson, Anna; Coates, John D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genes for chlorate reduction in six bacterial strains were analyzed in order to gain insight into the metabolism. A newly isolated chlorate-reducing bacterium (Shewanella algae ACDC) and three previously isolated strains (Ideonella dechloratans, Pseudomonas sp. strain PK, and Dechloromarinus chlorophilus NSS) were genome sequenced and compared to published sequences (Alicycliphilus denitrificans BC plasmid pALIDE01 and Pseudomonas chloritidismutans AW-1). De novo assembly of genomes failed to join regions adjacent to genes involved in chlorate reduction, suggesting the presence of repeat regions. Using a bioinformatics approach and finishing PCRs to connect fragmented contigs, we discovered that chlorate reduction genes are flanked by insertion sequences, forming composite transposons in all four newly sequenced strains. These insertion sequences delineate regions with the potential to move horizontally and define a set of genes that may be important for chlorate reduction. In addition to core metabolic components, we have highlighted several such genes through comparative analysis and visualization. Phylogenetic analysis places chlorate reductase within a functionally diverse clade of type II dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductases, part of a larger family of enzymes with reactivity toward chlorate. Nucleotide-level forensics of regions surrounding chlorite dismutase (cld), as well as its phylogenetic clustering in a betaproteobacterial Cld clade, indicate that cld has been mobilized at least once from a perchlorate reducer to build chlorate respiration. PMID:23919996

  16. Evaluating the potential for undesired genomic effects of the piggyBac transposon system in human cells.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sunandan; Woodard, Lauren E; Charron, Elizabeth M; Welch, Richard C; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-02-18

    Non-viral transposons have been used successfully for genetic modification of clinically relevant cells including embryonic stem, induced pluripotent stem, hematopoietic stem and primary human T cell types. However, there has been limited evaluation of undesired genomic effects when using transposons for human genome modification. The prevalence of piggyBac(PB)-like terminal repeat (TR) elements in the human genome raises concerns. We evaluated if there were undesired genomic effects of the PB transposon system to modify human cells. Expression of the transposase alone revealed no mobilization of endogenous PB-like sequences in the human genome and no increase in DNA double-strand breaks. The use of PB in a plasmid containing both transposase and transposon greatly increased the probability of transposase integration; however, using transposon and transposase from separate vectors circumvented this. Placing a eGFP transgene within transposon vector backbone allowed isolation of cells free from vector backbone DNA. We confirmed observable directional promoter activity within the 5'TR element of PB but found no significant enhancer effects from the transposon DNA sequence. Long-term culture of primary human cells modified with eGFP-transposons revealed no selective growth advantage of transposon-harboring cells. PB represents a promising vector system for genetic modification of human cells with limited undesired genomic effects. PMID:25605795

  17. Evaluating the potential for undesired genomic effects of the piggyBac transposon system in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sunandan; Woodard, Lauren E.; Charron, Elizabeth M.; Welch, Richard C.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Wilson, Matthew H.

    2015-01-01

    Non-viral transposons have been used successfully for genetic modification of clinically relevant cells including embryonic stem, induced pluripotent stem, hematopoietic stem and primary human T cell types. However, there has been limited evaluation of undesired genomic effects when using transposons for human genome modification. The prevalence of piggyBac(PB)-like terminal repeat (TR) elements in the human genome raises concerns. We evaluated if there were undesired genomic effects of the PB transposon system to modify human cells. Expression of the transposase alone revealed no mobilization of endogenous PB-like sequences in the human genome and no increase in DNA double-strand breaks. The use of PB in a plasmid containing both transposase and transposon greatly increased the probability of transposase integration; however, using transposon and transposase from separate vectors circumvented this. Placing a eGFP transgene within transposon vector backbone allowed isolation of cells free from vector backbone DNA. We confirmed observable directional promoter activity within the 5′TR element of PB but found no significant enhancer effects from the transposon DNA sequence. Long-term culture of primary human cells modified with eGFP-transposons revealed no selective growth advantage of transposon-harboring cells. PB represents a promising vector system for genetic modification of human cells with limited undesired genomic effects. PMID:25605795

  18. Reliable transgene-independent method for determining Sleeping Beauty transposon copy numbers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The transposon-based gene delivery technique is emerging as a method of choice for gene therapy. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) system has become one of the most favored methods, because of its efficiency and its random integration profile. Copy-number determination of the delivered transgene is a crucial task, but a universal method for measuring this is lacking. In this paper, we show that a real-time quantitative PCR-based, transgene-independent (qPCR-TI) method is able to determine SB transposon copy numbers regardless of the genetic cargo. Results We designed a specific PCR assay to amplify the left inverted repeat-direct repeat region of SB, and used it together with the single-copy control gene RPPH1 and a reference genomic DNA of known copy number. The qPCR-TI method allowed rapid and accurate determination of SB transposon copy numbers in various cell types, including human embryonic stem cells. We also found that this sensitive, rapid, highly reproducible and non-radioactive method is just as accurate and reliable as the widely used blotting techniques or the transposon display method. Because the assay is specific for the inverted repeat region of the transposon, it could be used in any system where the SB transposon is the genetic vehicle. Conclusions We have developed a transgene-independent method to determine copy numbers of transgenes delivered by the SB transposon system. The technique is based on a quantitative real-time PCR detection method, offering a sensitive, non-radioactive, rapid and accurate approach, which has a potential to be used for gene therapy. PMID:21371313

  19. Novel Aminoglycoside Resistance Transposons and Transposon-Derived Circular Forms Detected in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Karah, Nabil; Dwibedi, Chinmay Kumar; Sjöström, Karin; Edquist, Petra; Johansson, Anders; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen equipped with a growing number of antibiotic resistance genes. Our study investigated the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance features of 28 consecutive carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii collected throughout Sweden in 2012 and 2013. The isolates mainly belonged to clonal complexes (CCs) with an extensive international distribution, such as CC2 (n = 16) and CC25 (n = 7). Resistance to carbapenems was related to blaOXA-23 (20 isolates), blaOXA-24/40-like (6 isolates), blaOXA-467 (1 isolate), and ISAba1-blaOXA-69 (1 isolate). Ceftazidime resistance was associated with blaPER-7 in the CC25 isolates. Two classical point mutations were responsible for resistance to quinolones in all the isolates. Isolates with high levels of resistance to aminoglycosides carried the 16S rRNA methylase armA gene. The isolates also carried a variety of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Several novel structures involved in aminoglycoside resistance were identified, including Tn6279, ΔTn6279, Ab-ST3-aadB, and different assemblies of Tn6020 and TnaphA6. Importantly, a number of circular forms related to the IS26 or ISAba125 composite transposons were detected. The frequent occurrence of these circular forms in the populations of several isolates indicates a potential role of these circular forms in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:26824943

  20. Novel Aminoglycoside Resistance Transposons and Transposon-Derived Circular Forms Detected in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dwibedi, Chinmay Kumar; Sjöström, Karin; Edquist, Petra; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen equipped with a growing number of antibiotic resistance genes. Our study investigated the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance features of 28 consecutive carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of A. baumannii collected throughout Sweden in 2012 and 2013. The isolates mainly belonged to clonal complexes (CCs) with an extensive international distribution, such as CC2 (n = 16) and CC25 (n = 7). Resistance to carbapenems was related to blaOXA-23 (20 isolates), blaOXA-24/40-like (6 isolates), blaOXA-467 (1 isolate), and ISAba1-blaOXA-69 (1 isolate). Ceftazidime resistance was associated with blaPER-7 in the CC25 isolates. Two classical point mutations were responsible for resistance to quinolones in all the isolates. Isolates with high levels of resistance to aminoglycosides carried the 16S rRNA methylase armA gene. The isolates also carried a variety of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Several novel structures involved in aminoglycoside resistance were identified, including Tn6279, ΔTn6279, Ab-ST3-aadB, and different assemblies of Tn6020 and TnaphA6. Importantly, a number of circular forms related to the IS26 or ISAba125 composite transposons were detected. The frequent occurrence of these circular forms in the populations of several isolates indicates a potential role of these circular forms in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:26824943

  1. New genetic techniques for group B streptococci: high-efficiency transformation, maintenance of temperature-sensitive pWV01 plasmids, and mutagenesis with Tn917.

    PubMed Central

    Framson, P E; Nittayajarn, A; Merry, J; Youngman, P; Rubens, C E

    1997-01-01

    Three techniques were developed to improve the genetic manipulation of group B streptococci (GBS). We first optimized a protocol for transformation of GBS by electroporation, which provided transformation efficiencies of 10(5) CFU/microgram. Variables that influenced the transformation efficiency were the glycine content of the competent cell growth media, the electric field strength during electroporation, the electroporation buffer composition, the host origin of the transforming plasmid, and the concentration of selective antibiotic at the final plating. Our transformation protocol provides an efficiency sufficient for cloning from ligation reactions directly into GBS, obviating an intermediate host such as Escherichia coli. Second, temperature-sensitive plasmids of the pWV01 lineage were shown to transform GBS, and their temperature-sensitive replication was confirmed. Lastly, the temperature-sensitive pWV01 plasmid pTV1OK, which contains Tn917, was used as a transposon delivery vector for the construction of genomic Tn917 mutant libraries. We have shown, for the first time, that Tn917 transposes to the GBS chromosome and at a frequency of 10(-3)/CFU. Furthermore, representative clones from a Tn917 library contained single transposon insertions that were randomly located throughout the chromosome. These techniques should provide useful methods for cloning, mutagenesis, and characterization of genes from GBS. PMID:9293004

  2. Recurrent Horizontal Transfers of Chapaev Transposons in Diverse Invertebrate and Vertebrate Animals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua-Hao; Feschotte, Cédric; Han, Min-Jin; Zhang, Ze

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of a transposable element (TE) into a new genome is regarded as an important force to drive genome variation and biological innovation. In addition, HT also plays an important role in the persistence of TEs in eukaryotic genomes. Here, we provide the first documented example for the repeated HT of three families of Chapaev transposons in a wide range of animal species, including mammals, reptiles, jawed fishes, lampreys, insects, and in an insect bracovirus. Multiple alignments of the Chapaev transposons identified in these species revealed extremely high levels of nucleotide sequence identity (79–99%), which are inconsistent with vertical evolution given the deep divergence time separating these host species. Rather, the discontinuous distribution amongst species and lack of purifying selection acting on these transposons strongly suggest that they were independently and horizontally transferred into these species lineages. The detection of Chapaev transposons in an insect bracovirus indicated that these viruses might act as a possible vector for the horizontal spread of Chapaev transposons. One of the Chapaev families was also shared by lampreys and some of their common hosts (such as sturgeon and paddlefish), which suggested that parasite–host interaction might facilitate HTs. PMID:24868016

  3. piggyBac transposons expressing full-length human dystrophin enable genetic correction of dystrophic mesoangioblasts

    PubMed Central

    Loperfido, Mariana; Jarmin, Susan; Dastidar, Sumitava; Di Matteo, Mario; Perini, Ilaria; Moore, Marc; Nair, Nisha; Samara-Kuko, Ermira; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Dickson, George; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic neuromuscular disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. We developed a novel gene therapy approach based on the use of the piggyBac (PB) transposon system to deliver the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of either full-length human dystrophin (DYS: 11.1 kb) or truncated microdystrophins (MD1: 3.6 kb; MD2: 4 kb). PB transposons encoding microdystrophins were transfected in C2C12 myoblasts, yielding 65±2% MD1 and 66±2% MD2 expression in differentiated multinucleated myotubes. A hyperactive PB (hyPB) transposase was then deployed to enable transposition of the large-size PB transposon (17 kb) encoding the full-length DYS and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Stable GFP expression attaining 78±3% could be achieved in the C2C12 myoblasts that had undergone transposition. Western blot analysis demonstrated expression of the full-length human DYS protein in myotubes. Subsequently, dystrophic mesoangioblasts from a Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dog were transfected with the large-size PB transposon resulting in 50±5% GFP-expressing cells after stable transposition. This was consistent with correction of the differentiated dystrophic mesoangioblasts following expression of full-length human DYS. These results pave the way toward a novel non-viral gene therapy approach for DMD using PB transposons underscoring their potential to deliver large therapeutic genes. PMID:26682797

  4. piggyBac transposons expressing full-length human dystrophin enable genetic correction of dystrophic mesoangioblasts.

    PubMed

    Loperfido, Mariana; Jarmin, Susan; Dastidar, Sumitava; Di Matteo, Mario; Perini, Ilaria; Moore, Marc; Nair, Nisha; Samara-Kuko, Ermira; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio; Dickson, George; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee K

    2016-01-29

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic neuromuscular disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. We developed a novel gene therapy approach based on the use of the piggyBac (PB) transposon system to deliver the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of either full-length human dystrophin (DYS: 11.1 kb) or truncated microdystrophins (MD1: 3.6 kb; MD2: 4 kb). PB transposons encoding microdystrophins were transfected in C2C12 myoblasts, yielding 65±2% MD1 and 66±2% MD2 expression in differentiated multinucleated myotubes. A hyperactive PB (hyPB) transposase was then deployed to enable transposition of the large-size PB transposon (17 kb) encoding the full-length DYS and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Stable GFP expression attaining 78±3% could be achieved in the C2C12 myoblasts that had undergone transposition. Western blot analysis demonstrated expression of the full-length human DYS protein in myotubes. Subsequently, dystrophic mesoangioblasts from a Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy dog were transfected with the large-size PB transposon resulting in 50±5% GFP-expressing cells after stable transposition. This was consistent with correction of the differentiated dystrophic mesoangioblasts following expression of full-length human DYS. These results pave the way toward a novel non-viral gene therapy approach for DMD using PB transposons underscoring their potential to deliver large therapeutic genes. PMID:26682797

  5. Analysis of an Ordered, Comprehensive STM Mutant Library in Infectious Borrelia burgdorferi: Insights into the Genes Required for Mouse Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tao; Gao, Lihui; Zhang, Chuhua; Odeh, Evelyn; Jacobs, Mary B.; Coutte, Loïc; Chaconas, George; Philipp, Mario T.; Norris, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of genes important in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease Borrelia has been hampered by exceedingly low transformation rates in low-passage, infectious organisms. Using the infectious, moderately transformable B. burgdorferi derivative 5A18NP1 and signature-tagged versions of the Himar1 transposon vector pGKT, we have constructed a defined transposon library for the efficient genome-wide investigation of genes required for wild-type pathogenesis, in vitro growth, physiology, morphology, and plasmid replication. To facilitate analysis, the insertion sites of 4,479 transposon mutants were determined by sequencing. The transposon insertions were widely distributed across the entire B. burgdorferi genome, with an average of 2.68 unique insertion sites per kb DNA. The 10 linear plasmids and 9 circular plasmids had insertions in 33 to 100 percent of their predicted genes. In contrast, only 35% of genes in the 910 kb linear chromosome had incapacitating insertions; therefore, the remaining 601 chromosomal genes may represent essential gene candidates. In initial signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) analyses, 434 mutants were examined at multiple tissue sites for infectivity in mice using a semi-quantitative, Luminex-based DNA detection method. Examples of genes found to be important in mouse infectivity included those involved in motility, chemotaxis, the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system, and other transporters, as well as putative plasmid maintenance genes. Availability of this ordered STM library and a high-throughput screening method is expected to lead to efficient assessment of the roles of B. burgdorferi genes in the infectious cycle and pathogenesis of Lyme disease. PMID:23133514

  6. Mutagenesis as a Genetic Research Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Morgan's three students (Muller, Sturtevant, and Bridges) introduced reductionist empirical methods to the study of the chromosomal theory of heredity. Herman J. Muller concentrated on mutations, namely changes in the heterocatalytic properties of genes, without losing their autocatalytic (self-replication) properties. Experimental induction of mutations allowed quantitative analyses of genes' parameters, but hopes to deduce their chemicophysical character were never fulfilled. Once the model for DNA structure was proposed, the reductionist notions of mutation analysis were successfully applied to the molecular genes. However, it was soon realized that the concept of the particulate gene was inadequate. The more the molecular analysis of the genome advanced, the clearer it became that the entities of heredity must be conceived within systems' perspectives, for which special tools for handling large number of variables were developed. Analytic mutagenesis, however, continues to be a major strategy for the study of the cellular and chromosomal mechanisms that control mutation inductions. PMID:20713742

  7. Mutagenesis assays of human amniotic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Everson, R.B.; Milne, K.L.; Warbuton, D.; McClamrock, H.D.; Buchanan, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Extracts of amniocentesis samples from 144 women were tested for the presence of mutagenic substances using tester strain TA1538 in the Ames Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test. Because the volume of amniotic fluid in these samples was limited (generally less than 10 ml), the authors investigated modifications of this mutagenesis assay that could increase its ability to detect effects from small quantities of test material. Using mutagenicity in samples of urine from smokers as a model, it appeared that improved ability to detect small amounts of mutagen could be obtained by reducing volumes of media and reagents while keeping the amount of test sample constant. Tests of amniotic fluid extracts by this modified procedure showed small increases in revertants, about 50% above dimethylsulfoxide solvent control values. The increases suggest the presence of small amounts of mutagenic material in many of the amniotic fluid samples. At the doses employed, mutagenic activity in these samples was not associated with maternal smoking.

  8. Homemade Site Directed Mutagenesis of Whole Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Laible, Mark; Boonrod, Kajohn

    2009-01-01

    Site directed mutagenesis of whole plasmids is a simple way to create slightly different variations of an original plasmid. With this method the cloned target gene can be altered by substitution, deletion or insertion of a few bases directly into a plasmid. It works by simply amplifying the whole plasmid, in a non PCR-based thermocycling reaction. During the reaction mutagenic primers, carrying the desired mutation, are integrated into the newly synthesized plasmid. In this video tutorial we demonstrate an easy and cost effective way to introduce base substitutions into a plasmid. The protocol works with standard reagents and is independent from commercial kits, which often are very expensive. Applying this protocol can reduce the total cost of a reaction to an eighth of what it costs using some of the commercial kits. In this video we also comment on critical steps during the process and give detailed instructions on how to design the mutagenic primers. PMID:19488024

  9. Sleeping Beauty transposon system for genetic etiological research and gene therapy of cancers.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Deng, Yang; Wu, Jianfeng; Cao, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is etiologically associated with somatic mutations of critical genes. Recently, a number of somatic mutations and key molecules have been found to be involved in functional networks affecting cancer progression. Suitable animal models are required to validate cancer-promoting or -inhibiting capacities of these mutants and molecules. Sleeping Beauty transposon system consists of a transposon that carries gene(s) of interest and a transposase that recognizes, excises, and reinserts genes in given location of the genome. It can create both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations, thus being frequently chosen to investigate the etiological mechanisms and gene therapy for cancers in animal models. In this review, we summarized current advances of Sleeping Beauty transposon system in revealing molecular mechanism of cancers and improving gene therapy. Understanding molecular mechanisms by which driver mutations contribute to carcinogenesis and metastasis may pave the way for the development of innovative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against malignant diseases. PMID:25455252

  10. A Helitron transposon reconstructed from bats reveals a novel mechanism of genome shuffling in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Grabundzija, Ivana; Messing, Simon A.; Thomas, Jainy; Cosby, Rachel L.; Bilic, Ilija; Miskey, Csaba; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Diem, Tanja; Dalda, Anna; Jurka, Jerzy; Pritham, Ellen J.; Dyda, Fred; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Helitron transposons capture and mobilize gene fragments in eukaryotes, but experimental evidence for their transposition is lacking in the absence of an isolated active element. Here we reconstruct Helraiser, an ancient element from the bat genome, and use this transposon as an experimental tool to unravel the mechanism of Helitron transposition. A hairpin close to the 3′-end of the transposon functions as a transposition terminator. However, the 3′-end can be bypassed by the transposase, resulting in transduction of flanking sequences to new genomic locations. Helraiser transposition generates covalently closed circular intermediates, suggestive of a replicative transposition mechanism, which provides a powerful means to disseminate captured transcriptional regulatory signals across the genome. Indeed, we document the generation of novel transcripts by Helitron promoter capture both experimentally and by transcriptome analysis in bats. Our results provide mechanistic insight into Helitron transposition, and its impact on diversification of gene function by genome shuffling. PMID:26931494

  11. Sleeping Beauty transposon system for genetic etiological research and gene therapy of cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaomei; Du, Yan; Deng, Yang; Wu, Jianfeng; Cao, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is etiologically associated with somatic mutations of critical genes. Recently, a number of somatic mutations and key molecules have been found to be involved in functional networks affecting cancer progression. Suitable animal models are required to validate cancer-promoting or -inhibiting capacities of these mutants and molecules. Sleeping Beauty transposon system consists of a transposon that carries gene(s) of interest and a transposase that recognizes, excises, and reinserts genes in given location of the genome. It can create both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations, thus being frequently chosen to investigate the etiological mechanisms and gene therapy for cancers in animal models. In this review, we summarized current advances of Sleeping Beauty transposon system in revealing molecular mechanism of cancers and improving gene therapy. Understanding molecular mechanisms by which driver mutations contribute to carcinogenesis and metastasis may pave the way for the development of innovative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against malignant diseases. PMID:25455252

  12. Preferential delivery of the Sleeping Beauty transposon system to livers of mice by hydrodynamic injection

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jason B; Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M; Aronovich, Elena L; Belur, Lalitha R; McIvor, R Scott; Hackett, Perry B

    2008-01-01

    Nonviral, DNA-mediated gene transfer is an alternative to viral delivery systems for expressing new genes in cells and tissues. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system combines the advantages of viruses and naked DNA molecules for gene therapy purposes; however, efficacious delivery of DNA molecules to animal tissues can still be problematic. Here we describe the hydrodynamic delivery procedure for the SB transposon system that allows efficient delivery to the liver in the mouse. The procedure involves rapid, high-pressure injection of a DNA solution into the tail vein. The overall procedure takes <1 h although the delivery into one mouse requires only a few seconds. Successful injections result in expression of the transgene in 5−40% of hepatocytes 1 d after injection. Several weeks after injection, transgene expression stabilizes at ∼1% of the level at 24 h, presumably owing to integration of the transposons into chromosomes. PMID:18079715

  13. A Helitron transposon reconstructed from bats reveals a novel mechanism of genome shuffling in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Grabundzija, Ivana; Messing, Simon A; Thomas, Jainy; Cosby, Rachel L; Bilic, Ilija; Miskey, Csaba; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Diem, Tanja; Dalda, Anna; Jurka, Jerzy; Pritham, Ellen J; Dyda, Fred; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Helitron transposons capture and mobilize gene fragments in eukaryotes, but experimental evidence for their transposition is lacking in the absence of an isolated active element. Here we reconstruct Helraiser, an ancient element from the bat genome, and use this transposon as an experimental tool to unravel the mechanism of Helitron transposition. A hairpin close to the 3'-end of the transposon functions as a transposition terminator. However, the 3'-end can be bypassed by the transposase, resulting in transduction of flanking sequences to new genomic locations. Helraiser transposition generates covalently closed circular intermediates, suggestive of a replicative transposition mechanism, which provides a powerful means to disseminate captured transcriptional regulatory signals across the genome. Indeed, we document the generation of novel transcripts by Helitron promoter capture both experimentally and by transcriptome analysis in bats. Our results provide mechanistic insight into Helitron transposition, and its impact on diversification of gene function by genome shuffling. PMID:26931494

  14. Natural transfer of conjugative transposon Tn916 between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bertram, J; Strätz, M; Dürre, P

    1991-01-01

    The conjugative streptococcal transposon Tn916 was found to transfer naturally between a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria. Enterococcus faecalis hosting the transposon could serve as a donor for Alcaligenes eutrophus, Citrobacter freundii, and Escherichia coli at frequencies of 10(-6) to 10(-8). No transfer was observed with several phototrophic species. Mating of an E. coli strain carrying Tn916 yielded transconjugants with Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis at frequencies of 10(-4) to 10(-6). Acetobacterium woodii was the only gram-positive organism tested that did not accept the transposon from a gram-negative donor. The results prove the ability of conjugative transposable elements such as Tn916 for natural cross-species gene transfer, thus potentially contributing to bacterial evolution. PMID:1846142

  15. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo. PMID:27130213

  16. The DcMaster Transposon Display maps polymorphic insertion sites in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DcMaster is a family of PIF/Harbinger-like class II transposable elements identified in carrot. We present a modified Transposon Display molecular marker system allowing amplification of genomic regions containing DcMaster elements. We scored 77 DcMaster Transposon Display (DcMTD) amplicons, of whic...

  17. Harbinger transposons and an ancient HARBI1 gene derived from a transposase.

    PubMed

    Kapitonov, Vladimir V; Jurka, Jerzy

    2004-05-01

    In this study we report main properties of Harbinger DNA transposons identified in protists, plants, insects, worms, and vertebrates. This is the first superfamily of eukaryotic DNA transposons where all autonomous transposons, even those that are hosted by species from different kingdoms, encode two proteins: a superfamily-specific transposase and a DNA-binding protein characterized by the presence of the conserved SANT/myb/trihelix motif. The last motif is known to be important for the DNA binding by different transcription regulators. Therefore, we suggest that this protein is necessary for coordinated expression of the Harbinger transposase. Although mammalian genomes are free of recognizable remnants of Harbingers, we identified a widely expressed HARBI1 gene encoding a 350-aa protein entirely derived from a Harbinger transposase some 450-500 million years ago. The HARBI1 proteins are conserved in humans, rats, mice, cows, pigs, chickens, frogs, and various bony fish, as well as other extremely important proteins, including RAG1 and RAG2. Conserved motifs detected in the Harbinger transposases are also well preserved in the HARBI1 proteins. Therefore, the HARBI1 proteins are expected to be nucleases important for functioning of bony vertebrates. We also found that the protein most similar to HARBI1 is encoded by an autonomous Harbinger 3_DR transposon that was transpositionally active in the zebrafish genome a few million years ago. Nonautonomous transposons derived from Harbinger3_DR are characterized by a striking preference for a 17-bp target site never seen previously in any other DNA transposon. Based on this observation, we suggest that the hypothetical HARBI1 nucleases are also characterized by a strong DNA-target specificity. PMID:15169610

  18. A novel method for somatic transgenesis of the mouse prostate using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Kimberly D.P.; Alsop, Jim; Buresh-Stiemke, Rita A.; Frantskevich, Katsiaryna; Malinowski, Rita; Roethe, Laura; Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In vivo ectopic gene expression is a common approach for prostate research through the use of transgenes in germline transgenic mice. For some other organs, somatic transgenesis with the Sleeping Beauty transposon system has allowed in vivo ectopic gene expression with higher throughput and lower cost than germline transgenic approaches. METHODS Mouse e16 urogenital sinuses (UGSs) were co-injected with plasmids expressing the Sleeping Beauty transposase and plasmids with control or activated BRAF expressing transposons. Following electroporation, the transduced UGSs were grown as allografts in mouse hosts for 8 weeks, and the resulting allografts were evaluated for several endpoints. RESULTS Transposon-transduced UGS allografts developed into prostatic tissue with normal tissue structure and cellular differentiation. Integration of transposon vectors into the genomes of transduced allografts was confirmed using linker-mediated PCR, sequencing, and in situ PCR. Transduction of UGS allografts with transposons expressing activated BRAF resulted in ectopic BRAF expression that was detectable at both the mRNA and protein levels. Prostatic ducts over-expressing activated BRAF also had ectopic activation of the ERK1/2 mitogen activated kinases and increased epithelial cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The Sleeping Beauty transposon system can be used to achieve somatic transgenesis of prostatic allografts. This new method for achieving ectopic gene expression in the prostate will complement other existing approaches such as ectopic gene expression in cell lines and in germline transgenic mice. Advantages of this new approach include preservation of stromal-epithelial interactions not possible with cell lines, and higher throughput and lower cost than traditional germline transgenic approaches. PMID:24647932

  19. Activity of the transposon Tam3 in Antirrhinum and tobacco: possible role of DNA methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Prescott, A; Lister, C; MacKay, S

    1989-01-01

    The transposon Tam3 from Antirrhinum majus can transpose in a heterologous host (Nicotiana tabacum); thus the element is autonomous, probably encoding the specific information required for its own transposition. In transgenic tobacco Tam3 rapidly becomes methylated at its ends whilst adjacent flanking sequences remain hypomethylated. This methylation may account for our failure to detect Tam3 transposition in the progeny of transgenic tobacco. Treatment with the inhibitor of cytosine methylation, 5 aza-cytosine appeared to induce transposon related activity at a low level. In Antirrhinum methylation also appears to be associated with inactivation of Tam3 copies. Images PMID:2545443

  20. A clinical isolate of transposon Tn5 expressing streptomycin resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Genilloud, O; Blázquez, J; Mazodier, P; Moreno, F

    1988-01-01

    The central region of transposon Tn5 carries three antibiotic resistance markers: neo, ble, and str. The str gene codes for a phosphotransferase that inactivates streptomycin. This activity is phenotypically expressed in several gram-negative bacteria but not in Escherichia coli. We identified a Tn5 variant in E. coli clinical isolates that express streptomycin resistance. This transposon carries a 6-base-pair deletion within the str gene, near the 3' end. The same kind of mutation had been previously obtained experimentally from Tn5. Images PMID:2830233

  1. [Integration of plasmids into E. coli K12 chromosomes, caused by a Bordetella transposon].

    PubMed

    Sivov, I G; Beliavskiĭ, O A; karataev, G I

    2000-01-01

    Transposition of Bordetella pertussis transposon in E. coli chromosome has been studied on a model of exclusion of donor multicopy pKK3 plasmid with coumermicin. TnBP3 induced the formation of co-integrates between the plasmid and chromosome. The structure of co-integrate was determined. Facts of exclusion of integrated structure and transposon transposition within integrated plasmid into new sites on a recipient chromosome were detected. Relationship between these processes and activity of bacterial cell recombination system has been determined. PMID:10876766

  2. Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation.

  3. Structural Basis for Transposon End Recognition by Hermes, an Octameric hAT DNA Transposase from Musca domestica

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Alison B.; Ewis, Hosam E.; Li, Xianghong; Knapp, Joshua A.; Laver, Thomas; Doss, Anna-Louise; Tolun, Gökhan; Steven, Alasdair C.; Grishaev, Alexander; Bax, Ad; Atkinson, Peter W.; Craig, Nancy L.; Dyda, Fred

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hermes is a member of the hAT transposon superfamily which has active representatives, including McClintock's archetypal Ac mobile genetic element, in many eukaryotic species. The crystal structure of the Hermes transposase-DNA complex reveals that Hermes forms an octameric ring organized as a tetramer of dimers. While isolated dimers are active in vitro for all the chemical steps of transposition, only octamers are active in vivo. The octamer can provide not only multiple specific DNA-binding domains to recognize repeated subterminal sequences within the transposon ends, which are important for activity, but also multiple non-specific DNA binding surfaces for target capture. The unusual assembly explains the basis of bipartite DNA recognition at hAT transposon ends, provides a rationale for transposon end asymmetry, and suggests how the avidity provided by multiple sites of interaction could allow a transposase to locate its transposon ends amidst a sea of chromosomal DNA. PMID:25036632

  4. Structural basis of hAT transposon end recognition by Hermes, an octameric DNA transposase from Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Alison B; Ewis, Hosam E; Li, Xianghong; Knapp, Joshua A; Laver, Thomas; Doss, Anna-Louise; Tolun, Gökhan; Steven, Alasdair C; Grishaev, Alexander; Bax, Ad; Atkinson, Peter W; Craig, Nancy L; Dyda, Fred

    2014-07-17

    Hermes is a member of the hAT transposon superfamily that has active representatives, including McClintock's archetypal Ac mobile genetic element, in many eukaryotic species. The crystal structure of the Hermes transposase-DNA complex reveals that Hermes forms an octameric ring organized as a tetramer of dimers. Although isolated dimers are active in vitro for all the chemical steps of transposition, only octamers are active in vivo. The octamer can provide not only multiple specific DNA-binding domains to recognize repeated subterminal sequences within the transposon ends, which are important for activity, but also multiple nonspecific DNA binding surfaces for target capture. The unusual assembly explains the basis of bipartite DNA recognition at hAT transposon ends, provides a rationale for transposon end asymmetry, and suggests how the avidity provided by multiple sites of interaction could allow a transposase to locate its transposon ends amidst a sea of chromosomal DNA. PMID:25036632

  5. Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided transposon cleavage initiates Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA production.

    PubMed

    Han, Bo W; Wang, Wei; Li, Chengjian; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2015-05-15

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect the animal germ line by silencing transposons. Primary piRNAs, generated from transcripts of genomic transposon "junkyards" (piRNA clusters), are amplified by the "ping-pong" pathway, yielding secondary piRNAs. We report that secondary piRNAs, bound to the PIWI protein Ago3, can initiate primary piRNA production from cleaved transposon RNAs. The first ~26 nucleotides (nt) of each cleaved RNA becomes a secondary piRNA, but the subsequent ~26 nt become the first in a series of phased primary piRNAs that bind Piwi, allowing piRNAs to spread beyond the site of RNA cleavage. The ping-pong pathway increases only the abundance of piRNAs, whereas production of phased primary piRNAs from cleaved transposon RNAs adds sequence diversity to the piRNA pool, allowing adaptation to changes in transposon sequence. PMID:25977554

  6. Ds insertion mutagenesis as an efficient tool to produce diverse variations for rice breeding.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Bachmann, Doris; La, Honggui; Ma, Zhigang; Venkatesh, Prasanna Nori; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2007-11-01

    The availability of diversified germplasm resources is the most important for developing improved rice varieties with higher seed yield or tolerance to various biotic or abiotic stresses. Here we report an efficient tool to create increased variations in rice by maize Ac/Ds transposon (a gene trap system) insertion mutagenesis. We have generated around 20,000 Ds insertion rice lines of which majority are homozygous for Ds element. We subjected these lines to phenotypic and abiotic stress screens and evaluated these lines with respect to their seed yields and other agronomic traits as well as their tolerance to drought, salinity and cold. Based on this evaluation, we observed that random Ds insertions into rice genome have led to diverse variations including a range of morphological and conditional phenotypes. Such differences in phenotype among these lines were accompanied by differential gene expression revealed by GUS histochemical staining of gene trapped lines. Among the various phenotypes identified, some Ds lines showed significantly higher grain yield compared to wild-type plants under normal growth conditions indicating that rice could be improved in grain yield by disrupting certain endogenous genes. In addition, several 1,000s of Ds lines were subjected to abiotic stresses to identify conditional mutants. Subsequent to these screens, over 800 lines responsive to drought, salinity or cold stress were obtained, suggesting that rice has the genetic potential to survive under abiotic stresses when appropriate endogenous genes were suppressed. The mutant lines that have higher seed yielding potential or display higher tolerance to abiotic stresses may be used for rice breeding by conventional backcrossing combining with molecular marker-assisted selection. In addition, by exploiting the behavior of Ds to leave footprints upon remobilization, we have shown an alternative strategy to develop new rice varieties without foreign DNA sequences in their genome. PMID

  7. Protein engineering: single or multiple site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Chung; Vaisvila, Romualdas

    2013-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis techniques are invaluable tools in molecular biology to study the structural and functional properties of a protein. To expedite the time required and simplify methods for mutagenesis, we recommend two protocols in this chapter. The first method for single site-directed mutagenesis, which includes point mutations, insertions, or deletions, can be achieved by an inverse PCR strategy with mutagenic primers and the high-fidelity Phusion(®) DNA Polymerase to introduce a site-directed mutation with exceptional efficiency. The second method is for engineering multiple mutations into a gene of interest. This can be completed in one step by PCR with mutagenic primers and by assembling all mutagenized PCR products using the Gibson Assembly™ Master Mix. This method allows multiple nucleotides to be changed simultaneously, which not only saves time but also reagents compared to traditional methods of mutagenesis. PMID:23423897

  8. Symposium on molecular and cellular mechanisms of mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    These proceedings contain abstracts only of the 21 papers presented at the Sympsoium. The papers dealt with molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and cellular responses to chemical and physical mutagenic agents. (ERB)

  9. Development of Safer Gene Delivery Systems to Minimize the Risk of Insertional Mutagenesis-Related Malignancies: A Critical Issue for the Field of Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    Integrating gene delivery systems allow for a more stable transgene expression in mammalian cells than the episomal ones. However, the integration of the shuttle vector within the cellular chromosomal DNA is associated with the risk of insertional mutagenesis, which, in turn, may cause malignant cell transformation. The use of a retroviral-derived vector system was responsible for the development of leukemia in five children, who participated in various clinical trials for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) in France and in the United Kingdom. Unfortunately, the hematological malignancy claimed the life of one patient in 2004, who was enrolled in the French clinical trial. In addition, adeno-associated-viral-(AAV-) mediated gene transfer induced tumors in animal models, whereas the Sleeping Beauty (SB) DNA transposon system was associated with insertional mutagenesis events in cell culture systems. On these grounds, it is necessary to develop safer gene delivery systems for the genetic manipulation of mammalian cells. This paper discusses the latest achievements that have been reported in the field of vector design. PMID:23209944

  10. Mutagenesis during plant responses to UVB radiation.

    PubMed

    Holá, M; Vágnerová, R; Angelis, K J

    2015-08-01

    We tested an idea that induced mutagenesis due to unrepaired DNA lesions, here the UV photoproducts, underlies the impact of UVB irradiation on plant phenotype. For this purpose we used protonemal culture of the moss Physcomitrella patens with 50% of apical cells, which mimics actively growing tissue, the most vulnerable stage for the induction of mutations. We measured the UVB mutation rate of various moss lines with defects in DNA repair (pplig4, ppku70, pprad50, ppmre11), and in selected clones resistant to 2-Fluoroadenine, which were mutated in the adenosine phosphotrasferase gene (APT), we analysed induced mutations by sequencing. In parallel we followed DNA break repair and removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers with a half-life τ = 4 h 14 min determined by comet assay combined with UV dimer specific T4 endonuclease V. We show that UVB induces massive, sequence specific, error-prone bypass repair that is responsible for a high mutation rate owing to relatively slow, though error-free, removal of photoproducts by nucleotide excision repair (NER). PMID:25542779

  11. Codon compression algorithms for saturation mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Pines, Gur; Pines, Assaf; Garst, Andrew D; Zeitoun, Ramsey I; Lynch, Sean A; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-05-15

    Saturation mutagenesis is employed in protein engineering and genome-editing efforts to generate libraries that span amino acid design space. Traditionally, this is accomplished by using degenerate/compressed codons such as NNK (N = A/C/G/T, K = G/T), which covers all amino acids and one stop codon. These solutions suffer from two types of redundancy: (a) different codons for the same amino acid lead to bias, and (b) wild type amino acid is included within the library. These redundancies increase library size and downstream screening efforts. Here, we present a dynamic approach to compress codons for any desired list of amino acids, taking into account codon usage. This results in a unique codon collection for every amino acid to be mutated, with the desired redundancy level. Finally, we demonstrate that this approach can be used to design precise oligo libraries amendable to recombineering and CRISPR-based genome editing to obtain a diverse population with high efficiency. PMID:25303315

  12. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the world’s leading cause of food borne salmonellosis and illness in people is linked strongly to its contamination of eggs produced by otherwise healthy appearing hens. Salmonella Enteritidis is noted for generating exceptional strain heterogeneity despite having a clonal ...

  13. Genome sequencing and transposon mutagenesis of Burkholderia seminalis TC3.4.2R3 identify genes contributing to suppression of orchid necrosis caused by B. gladioli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty six strains of Burkholderia spp. isolated from sugarcane were evaluated for biological control of leaf and pseudobulb necrosis of orchid caused by B. gladioli. Twenty nine of the sugarcane strains suppressed the disease in greenhouse assays. We generated a draft genomic sequence of one suppr...

  14. Environmental stress induces trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis in human cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Santillan, Beatriz A; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2015-03-24

    The dynamic mutability of microsatellite repeats is implicated in the modification of gene function and disease phenotype. Studies of the enhanced instability of long trinucleotide repeats (TNRs)-the cause of multiple human diseases-have revealed a remarkable complexity of mutagenic mechanisms. Here, we show that cold, heat, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses induce mutagenesis of a long CAG repeat tract in human cells. We show that stress-response factors mediate the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) of CAG repeats. We show further that SIM of CAG repeats does not involve mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, or transcription, processes that are known to promote TNR mutagenesis in other pathways of instability. Instead, we find that these stresses stimulate DNA rereplication, increasing the proportion of cells with >4 C-value (C) DNA content. Knockdown of the replication origin-licensing factor CDT1 eliminates both stress-induced rereplication and CAG repeat mutagenesis. In addition, direct induction of rereplication in the absence of stress also increases the proportion of cells with >4C DNA content and promotes repeat mutagenesis. Thus, environmental stress triggers a unique pathway for TNR mutagenesis that likely is mediated by DNA rereplication. This pathway may impact normal cells as they encounter stresses in their environment or during development or abnormal cells as they evolve metastatic potential. PMID:25775519

  15. Environmental stress induces trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Santillan, Beatriz A.; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic mutability of microsatellite repeats is implicated in the modification of gene function and disease phenotype. Studies of the enhanced instability of long trinucleotide repeats (TNRs)—the cause of multiple human diseases—have revealed a remarkable complexity of mutagenic mechanisms. Here, we show that cold, heat, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses induce mutagenesis of a long CAG repeat tract in human cells. We show that stress-response factors mediate the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) of CAG repeats. We show further that SIM of CAG repeats does not involve mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, or transcription, processes that are known to promote TNR mutagenesis in other pathways of instability. Instead, we find that these stresses stimulate DNA rereplication, increasing the proportion of cells with >4 C-value (C) DNA content. Knockdown of the replication origin-licensing factor CDT1 eliminates both stress-induced rereplication and CAG repeat mutagenesis. In addition, direct induction of rereplication in the absence of stress also increases the proportion of cells with >4C DNA content and promotes repeat mutagenesis. Thus, environmental stress triggers a unique pathway for TNR mutagenesis that likely is mediated by DNA rereplication. This pathway may impact normal cells as they encounter stresses in their environment or during development or abnormal cells as they evolve metastatic potential. PMID:25775519

  16. Sperm-mediated transgenesis in chicken using a PiggyBac transposon system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sperm-mediated transgenesis in chicken using a PiggyBac transposon system Emmanuel Quansah1,2, Julie Long2, David Donovan2, Stephen Becker2, Bhanu Telugu2, Juli Frey2, Nigel Urwin1 1,Charles Sturt University, Graham Center of Agricultural Innovation, Wagga Wagga. Australia and 2Beltsville Agricultu...

  17. [Role of transposons in origin and evolution of plant XY sex chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Shufen, Li; Sha, Li; Chuanliang, Deng; Longdou, Lu; Wujun, Gao

    2015-02-01

    The XY sex-determination system is crucial for plant reproduction. However, little is known about the mechanism of the origin and evolution of the XY sex chromosomes. It has been believed that a pair of autosomes is evolved to produce young sex chromosomes (neo-X chromosome and neo-Y chromosome) by loss of function or gain of function mutation, which influences the development of pistil or stamen. With the aggravation of the recombination suppression between neo-X and neo-Y and consequent expanding of the non-recombination region, the proto-sex chromosomes were finally developed to heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences and DNA methylation were probably involved in this process. Transposons, as the most abundant repetitive sequences in the genome, might be the initial motivation factors for the evolution of sex chromosome. Moreover, transposons may also increase heterochromatin expansion and recombination suppression of sex chromosome by local epigenetics modification. In this review, we summarize the function of transposon accumulation and the relationship between transposon and heterochromatization in the evolution of plant sex chromosome. PMID:25665642

  18. Repeated horizontal transfer of a DNA transposon in mammals and other tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Pace, John K; Gilbert, Clément; Clark, Marlena S; Feschotte, Cédric

    2008-11-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) is central to the evolution of prokaryotic species. Selfish and mobile genetic elements, such as phages, plasmids, and transposons, are the primary vehicles for HT among prokaryotes. In multicellular eukaryotes, the prevalence and evolutionary significance of HT remain unclear. Here, we identified a set of DNA transposon families dubbed SPACE INVADERS (or SPIN) whose consensus sequences are approximately 96% identical over their entire length (2.9 kb) in the genomes of murine rodents (rat/mouse), bushbaby (prosimian primate), little brown bat (laurasiatherian), tenrec (afrotherian), opossum (marsupial), and two non-mammalian tetrapods (anole lizard and African clawed frog). In contrast, SPIN elements were undetectable in other species represented in the sequence databases, including 19 other mammals with draft whole-genome assemblies. This patchy distribution, coupled with the extreme level of SPIN identity in widely divergent tetrapods and the overall lack of selective constraint acting on these elements, is incompatible with vertical inheritance, but strongly indicative of multiple horizontal introductions. We show that these germline infiltrations likely occurred around the same evolutionary time (15-46 mya) and spawned some of the largest bursts of DNA transposon activity ever recorded in any species lineage (nearly 100,000 SPIN copies per haploid genome in tenrec). The process also led to the emergence of a new gene in the murine lineage derived from a SPIN transposase. In summary, HT of DNA transposons has contributed significantly to shaping and diversifying the genomes of multiple mammalian and tetrapod species. PMID:18936483

  19. Generation of trangenic Xenopus laevis using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system.

    PubMed

    Sinzelle, L; Vallin, J; Coen, L; Chesneau, A; Du Pasquier, D; Pollet, N; Demeneix, B; Mazabraud, A

    2006-12-01

    Using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system, we have developed a simple method for the generation of Xenopus laevis transgenic lines. The transgenesis protocol is based on the co-injection of the SB transposase mRNA and a GFP-reporter transposon into one-cell stage embryos. Transposase-dependent reporter gene expression was observed in cell clones and in hemi-transgenic animals. We determined an optimal ratio of transposase mRNA versus transposon-carrying plasmid DNA that enhanced the proportion of hemi-transgenic tadpoles. The transgene is integrated into the genome and may be transmitted to the F1 offspring depending on the germline mosaicism. Although the transposase is necessary for efficient generation of transgenic Xenopus, the integration of the transgene occurred by an non-canonical transposition process. This was observed for two transgenic lines analysed. The transposon-based technique leads to a high transgenesis rate and is simple to handle. For these reasons, it could present an attractive alternative to the classical Restriction Enzyme Mediated Integration (REMI) procedure. PMID:16957880

  20. Generation of transgene-free induced pluripotent mouse stem cells by the piggyBac transposon

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Kosuke; Rad, Roland; Takeda, Junji; Bradley, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated from somatic cells by transgenic expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc. A major difficulty in the application of this technology for regenerative medicine, however, is the delivery of reprogramming factors. Whereas retroviral transduction increases the risk of tumorigenicity, transient expression methods have considerably lower reprogramming efficiencies. Here we show a highly efficient piggyBac transposon-based approach to generate integration-free iPSCs. Transposons carrying 2A peptide-linked reprogramming factors induced reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with equivalent efficiencies to retroviral transduction. Transposons were removed from these primary iPSCs by re-expressing transposase. Transgene-free iPSCs could be easily identified by HSVtk-FIAU selection. piggyBac excises without a footprint, leaving the iPSC genome without any genetic alteration. iPSCs fulfilled all criteria of pluripotency, such as expression of embryonic stem cell-specific markers, teratoma formation and contribution to chimeras. piggyBac transposon-based reprogramming may be used to generate therapeutically applicable iPSCs. PMID:19337237

  1. Comprehensive identification of essential Staphylococcus aureus genes using Transposon-Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH)

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Roy R; Allen, Andrew G; Owen, Paul J; Shalom, Gil; Stone, Karl; Harrison, Marcus; Burgis, Timothy A; Lockyer, Michael; Garcia-Lara, Jorge; Foster, Simon J; Pleasance, Stephen J; Peters, Sarah E; Maskell, Duncan J; Charles, Ian G

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an increasing problem with Staphylococcus aureus strains that are resistant to treatment with existing antibiotics. An important starting point for the development of new antimicrobial drugs is the identification of "essential" genes that are important for bacterial survival and growth. Results We have developed a robust microarray and PCR-based method, Transposon-Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH), that uses novel bioinformatics to identify transposon inserts in genome-wide libraries. Following a microarray-based screen, genes lacking transposon inserts are re-tested using a PCR and sequencing-based approach. We carried out a TMDH analysis of the S. aureus genome using a large random mariner transposon library of around a million mutants, and identified a total of 351 S. aureus genes important for survival and growth in culture. A comparison with the essential gene list experimentally derived for Bacillus subtilis highlighted interesting differences in both pathways and individual genes. Conclusion We have determined the first comprehensive list of S. aureus essential genes. This should act as a useful starting point for the identification of potential targets for novel antimicrobial compounds. The TMDH methodology we have developed is generic and could be applied to identify essential genes in other bacterial pathogens. PMID:19570206

  2. Precise marker excision system using an animal-derived piggyBac transposon in plants.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2014-02-01

    Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a footprint. Here, we present evidence that the piggyBac transposon also functions in plant cells. To demonstrate the use of the piggyBac transposon for effective marker excision in plants, we designed a transposition assay system that allows the piggyBac transposition to be visualized as emerald luciferase (Eluc) luminescence in rice cells. The Eluc signal derived from piggyBac excision was observed in hyperactive piggyBac transposase-expressing rice calli. Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analyses and sequencing revealed the efficient and precise transposition of piggyBac in these calli. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the excision of a selection marker from a reporter locus in T0 plants without concomitant re-integration of the transposon and at a high frequency (44.0% of excision events), even in the absence of negative selection. PMID:24164672

  3. A transposon-based analysis of gene mutations related to skin cancer development.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Rita M; Dupuy, Adam J; Bravo, Ana; Casanova, M Llanos; Alameda, Josefa P; Page, Angustias; Sánchez-Viera, Miguel; Ramírez, Angel; Navarro, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is by far the most frequent type of cancer in humans. NMSC includes several types of malignancies with different clinical outcomes, the most frequent being basal and squamous cell carcinomas. We have used the Sleeping Beauty transposon/transposase system to identify somatic mutations associated with NMSC. Transgenic mice bearing multiple copies of a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon T2Onc2 and expressing the SB11 transposase under the transcriptional control of regulatory elements from the keratin K5 promoter were treated with TPA, either in wild-type or Ha-ras mutated backgrounds. After several weeks of treatment, mice with transposition developed more malignant tumors with decreased latency compared with control mice. Transposon/transposase animals also developed basal cell carcinomas. Genetic analysis of the transposon integration sites in the tumors identified several genes recurrently mutated in different tumor samples, which may represent novel candidate cancer genes. We observed alterations in the expression levels of some of these genes in human tumors. Our results show that inactivating mutations in Notch1 and Nsd1, among others, may have an important role in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:22832494

  4. Mos1 transposon-based transformation of fish cell lines using baculoviral vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoo, Masako; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nakajima, Yumiko; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Kasai, Hisae; Asano, Shin-ichiro; Bando, Hisanori

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •The baculovirus vector infiltrates the cells of economic important fishes. •Drosophila Mos1 transposase expressed in fish cells maintains its ability to localize to the nucleus. •The baculoviral vector carrying Mos1 is a useful tool to stably transform fish cells. -- Abstract: Drosophila Mos1 belongs to the mariner family of transposons, which are one of the most ubiquitous transposons among eukaryotes. We first determined nuclear transportation of the Drosophila Mos1-EGFP fusion protein in fish cell lines because it is required for a function of transposons. We next constructed recombinant baculoviral vectors harboring the Drosophila Mos1 transposon or marker genes located between Mos1 inverted repeats. The infectivity of the recombinant virus to fish cells was assessed by monitoring the expression of a fluorescent protein encoded in the viral genome. We detected transgene expression in CHSE-214, HINAE, and EPC cells, but not in GF or RTG-2 cells. In the co-infection assay of the Mos1-expressing virus and reporter gene-expressing virus, we successfully transformed CHSE-214 and HINAE cells. These results suggest that the combination of a baculovirus and Mos1 transposable element may be a tool for transgenesis in fish cells.

  5. Precise marker excision system using an animal-derived piggyBac transposon in plants

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Osakabe, Keishi; Saika, Hiroaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and effective positive marker excision is indispensable for the introduction of desired mutations into the plant genome via gene targeting (GT) using a positive/negative counter selection system. In mammals, the moth-derived piggyBac transposon system has been exploited successfully to eliminate a selectable marker from a GT locus without leaving a footprint. Here, we present evidence that the piggyBac transposon also functions in plant cells. To demonstrate the use of the piggyBac transposon for effective marker excision in plants, we designed a transposition assay system that allows the piggyBac transposition to be visualized as emerald luciferase (Eluc) luminescence in rice cells. The Eluc signal derived from piggyBac excision was observed in hyperactive piggyBac transposase-expressing rice calli. Polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analyses and sequencing revealed the efficient and precise transposition of piggyBac in these calli. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the excision of a selection marker from a reporter locus in T0 plants without concomitant re-integration of the transposon and at a high frequency (44.0% of excision events), even in the absence of negative selection. PMID:24164672

  6. Isolation of the Chlamydomonas Regulatory Gene Nit2 by Transposon Tagging

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, R. A.; Lefebvre, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Genetic evidence suggests that the NIT2 gene of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii encodes a positive regulator of the nitrate-assimilation pathway. To learn more about the function of the NIT2 gene product, we isolated the gene using a transposon-tagging strategy. A nit2 mutation caused by the insertion of a transposon was identified by testing spontaneous nit2 mutants for the presence of new copies of Gulliver or TOC1, transposable elements that have been identified in Chlamydomonas. In 2 of the 14 different mutants that were analyzed, a Gulliver element was found to be genetically and phenotypically associated with the nit2 mutation. Using the Gulliver element as a probe, one of the transposon-induced nit2 alleles was isolated, and a sequence adjoining the transposon was used to isolate the corresponding wild-type locus. The NIT2 gene was delimited by mapping DNA rearrangements associated with nit2 mutations and mutant rescue by genetic transformation. The NIT2 gene encodes a 6-kb transcript that was not detected in cells grown in the presence of ammonium. Likewise, NIT2-dependent genes are repressed in ammonium-grown cells. These results suggest that repression of the NIT2 gene may mediate metabolite repression of the nitrate assimilation pathway in Chlamydomonas. PMID:8394263

  7. RNA clamping by Vasa assembles a piRNA amplifier complex on transposon transcripts.

    PubMed

    Xiol, Jordi; Spinelli, Pietro; Laussmann, Maike A; Homolka, David; Yang, Zhaolin; Cora, Elisa; Couté, Yohann; Conn, Simon; Kadlec, Jan; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Kaksonen, Marko; Cusack, Stephen; Ephrussi, Anne; Pillai, Ramesh S

    2014-06-19

    Germline-specific Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect animal genomes against transposons and are essential for fertility. piRNAs targeting active transposons are amplified by the ping-pong cycle, which couples Piwi endonucleolytic slicing of target RNAs to biogenesis of new piRNAs. Here, we describe the identification of a transient Amplifier complex that mediates biogenesis of secondary piRNAs in insect cells. Amplifier is nucleated by the DEAD box RNA helicase Vasa and contains the two Piwi proteins participating in the ping-pong loop, the Tudor protein Qin/Kumo and antisense piRNA guides. These components assemble on the surface of Vasa's helicase domain, which functions as an RNA clamp to anchor Amplifier onto transposon transcripts. We show that ATP-dependent RNP remodeling by Vasa facilitates transfer of 5' sliced piRNA precursors between ping-pong partners, and loss of this activity causes sterility in Drosophila. Our results reveal the molecular basis for the small RNA amplification that confers adaptive immunity against transposons. PMID:24910301

  8. Transposon-based vector systems for gene therapy clinical trials: challenges and considerations.

    PubMed

    Meir, Yaa-Jyuhn James; Wu, Sareina Chiung-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Much progress has been made in gene therapy, but significant challenges remain. One is development of a range of different tools that can be used for different therapeutic purposes. Another is site-specific gene targeting for safe and faithful therapeutic gene expression. Viruses have long been considered the most promising tools for human gene therapy. However, fatal side effects associated with viral vectors have hampered their clinical application. DNA transposons, widely utilized for decades as genetic tools in plants and insects, are now emerging as viable vectors for gene therapy. In this article, we will give a brief review of the adverse effects associated with virus-based gene therapy followed by a glimpse of the adeno-associated virus vector system, which is currently the most promising viral vector for gene therapy. The development of DNA transposon-based gene delivery systems and the advantages and limits of the most commonly used DNA transposon systems, Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, and piggyBac, will be extensively discussed Finally, we will focus on the most promising transposon system for gene therapy, piggyBac. Challenges and considerations for advancing piggyBac for therapeutic application will be critically addressed. PMID:22196059

  9. The TraDIS toolkit: sequencing and analysis for dense transposon mutant libraries

    PubMed Central

    Barquist, Lars; Mayho, Matthew; Cummins, Carla; Cain, Amy K.; Boinett, Christine J.; Page, Andrew J.; Langridge, Gemma C.; Quail, Michael A.; Keane, Jacqueline A.; Parkhill, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Transposon insertion sequencing is a high-throughput technique for assaying large libraries of otherwise isogenic transposon mutants providing insight into gene essentiality, gene function and genetic interactions. We previously developed the Transposon Directed Insertion Sequencing (TraDIS) protocol for this purpose, which utilizes shearing of genomic DNA followed by specific PCR amplification of transposon-containing fragments and Illumina sequencing. Here we describe an optimized high-yield library preparation and sequencing protocol for TraDIS experiments and a novel software pipeline for analysis of the resulting data. The Bio-Tradis analysis pipeline is implemented as an extensible Perl library which can either be used as is, or as a basis for the development of more advanced analysis tools. This article can serve as a general reference for the application of the TraDIS methodology. Availability and implementation: The optimized sequencing protocol is included as supplementary information. The Bio-Tradis analysis pipeline is available under a GPL license at https://github.com/sanger-pathogens/Bio-Tradis Contact: parkhill@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26794317

  10. [Insertion efficiency of Tgf2 transposon in the genome of Megalo-brama amblycephala].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiu-Ming; Huang, Chuang-Xin; Shen, Rui-Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Chen, Jie; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2013-08-01

    To study insertion efficiency of goldfish Tgf2 transposon in the genome of Megalobrama amblycephala, we built Tgf2-Mlyz2-RFP donor plasmid with goldfish Tgf2 transposon left and right arms, and then co-injected with goldfish Tgf2 transposase mRNA into the 1-2 cell stage fertilized eggs of M. amblycephala. In 30 d- and 180 d-stage larval, RFP fluorescence can be observed in back and side muscle of the fish. The rate of RFP fluorescence expression was 48.1%. In adult fish, PCR results demonstrated that integration efficiency of goldfish Tgf2 transposition system was 31.5% in M. am-blycephala genome. RT-PCR analysis showed that RFP RNAs were highly transcribed among all the 12 tissues in three transgenic fishes, while it could be highly detected only in muscle, skin, and kidney in another two individuals. Our results suggested that RFP expression in tissues vaied among different M. amblycephala. By means of the inverse PCR, the copy numbers of Tgf2 transposon were at least 2 in transgenic M. amblycephala. The average copy number of each fish was about 5. Over 50% of flanking sequences at the insertion site have homologous sequence in other vertebrate species. Our data suggest that goldfish Tgf2 transposon can efficiently mediate gene insertion in M. amblycephala, which could been used in transgene and gene trap in M. amblycephala. PMID:23956088

  11. Tryptophan auxotrophs were obtained by random transposon insertions in the Methanococcus maripaludis tryptophan operon.

    PubMed

    Porat, Iris; Whitman, William B

    2009-08-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is an anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon that utilizes H(2) or formate for the reduction of CO(2) to methane. Tryptophan auxotrophs were constructed by in vitro insertions of the Tn5 transposon into the tryptophan operon, followed by transformation into M. maripaludis. This method could serve for rapid insertions into large cloned DNA regions. PMID:19566682

  12. Use of Multicopy Transposons Bearing Unfitness Genes in Weed Control: Four Example Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Gressel, Jonathan; Levy, Avraham A.

    2014-01-01

    We speculate that multicopy transposons, carrying both fitness and unfitness genes, can provide new positive and negative selection options to intractable weed problems. Multicopy transposons rapidly disseminate through populations, appearing in approximately 100% of progeny, unlike nuclear transgenes, which appear in a proportion of segregating populations. Different unfitness transgenes and modes of propagation will be appropriate for different cases: (1) outcrossing Amaranthus spp. (that evolved resistances to major herbicides); (2) Lolium spp., important pasture grasses, yet herbicide-resistant weeds in crops; (3) rice (Oryza sativa), often infested with feral weedy rice, which interbreeds with the crop; and (4) self-compatible sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which readily crosses with conspecific shattercane and with allotetraploid johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). The speculated outcome of these scenarios is to generate weed populations that contain the unfitness gene and thus are easily controllable. Unfitness genes can be under chemically or environmentally inducible promoters, activated after gene dissemination, or under constitutive promoters where the gene function is utilized only at special times (e.g. sensitivity to an herbicide). The transposons can be vectored to the weeds by introgression from the crop (in rice, sorghum, and Lolium spp.) or from planted engineered weed (Amaranthus spp.) using a gene conferring the degradation of a no longer widely used herbicide, especially in tandem with an herbicide-resistant gene that kills all nonhybrids, facilitating the rapid dissemination of the multicopy transposons in a weedy population. PMID:24820021

  13. Use of multicopy transposons bearing unfitness genes in weed control: four example scenarios.

    PubMed

    Gressel, Jonathan; Levy, Avraham A

    2014-11-01

    We speculate that multicopy transposons, carrying both fitness and unfitness genes, can provide new positive and negative selection options to intractable weed problems. Multicopy transposons rapidly disseminate through populations, appearing in approximately 100% of progeny, unlike nuclear transgenes, which appear in a proportion of segregating populations. Different unfitness transgenes and modes of propagation will be appropriate for different cases: (1) outcrossing Amaranthus spp. (that evolved resistances to major herbicides); (2) Lolium spp., important pasture grasses, yet herbicide-resistant weeds in crops; (3) rice (Oryza sativa), often infested with feral weedy rice, which interbreeds with the crop; and (4) self-compatible sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which readily crosses with conspecific shattercane and with allotetraploid johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). The speculated outcome of these scenarios is to generate weed populations that contain the unfitness gene and thus are easily controllable. Unfitness genes can be under chemically or environmentally inducible promoters, activated after gene dissemination, or under constitutive promoters where the gene function is utilized only at special times (e.g. sensitivity to an herbicide). The transposons can be vectored to the weeds by introgression from the crop (in rice, sorghum, and Lolium spp.) or from planted engineered weed (Amaranthus spp.) using a gene conferring the degradation of a no longer widely used herbicide, especially in tandem with an herbicide-resistant gene that kills all nonhybrids, facilitating the rapid dissemination of the multicopy transposons in a weedy population. PMID:24820021

  14. Structures of Homologous Composite Transposons Carrying cbaABC Genes from Europe and North America

    PubMed Central

    Di Gioia, Diana; Peel, Michelle; Fava, Fabio; Wyndham, R. Campbell

    1998-01-01

    IS1071 is a class II transposable element carrying a tnpA gene related to the transposase genes of the Tn3 family. Copies of IS1071 that are conserved with more than 99% nucleotide sequence identity have been found as direct repeats flanking a remarkable variety of catabolic gene sequences worldwide. The sequences of chlorobenzoate catabolic transposons found on pBRC60 (Tn5271) in Niagara Falls, N.Y., and on pCPE3 in Bologna, Italy, show that these transposons were formed from highly homologous IS1071 and cbaABC components (levels of identity, >99.5 and >99.3%, respectively). Nevertheless, the junction sequences between the IS1071L and IS1071R elements and the internal DNA differ by 41 and 927 bp, respectively, suggesting that these transposons were assembled independently on the two plasmids. The formation of the right junction in both transposons truncated an open reading frame for a putative aryl-coenzyme A ligase with sequence similarity to benzoate- and p-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligases of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. PMID:9572977

  15. Piwi-pathway alteration induces LINE-1 transposon derepression and infertility development in cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Hadziselimovic, Faruk; Hadziselimovic, Nils O; Demougin, Philippe; Krey, Gunthild; Oakeley, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonia contain processing bodies that harbor P-element-induced wimpy testis (Piwi) proteins. Piwi proteins are associated specifically with Piwi-interacting RNAs to silence transposable DNA elements. Loss-of-function mutations in the Piwi pathway lead to derepression of transposable elements, resulting in defective spermatogenesis. Furthermore, deletion of gametocyte-specific factor 1 (GTSF1), a factor involved in Piwi-mediated transcriptional repression, causes male-specific sterility and derepression of LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons. No previous studies have examined GTSF1, L1 and PIWIL4 expression in cryptorchidism. We examined transposon-silencing genes and L1 transposon expression in testicular biopsies with Affymetrix microarrays and immunohistology. Seven members of the Tudor gene family, 3 members of the DEAD-box RNA helicase family, and the GTSF1 gene were found to show significantly lower RNA signals in the high-infertility-risk group. In the immunohistochemical analysis, patients from the low-infertility-risk group showed coherently stronger staining for GTSF1 and PIWIL4 proteins and weaker staining for L1 transposon when compared to the high-infertility-risk samples. These new findings provide first evidence consistent with the idea that infertility in cryptorchidism is a consequence of alterations in the Piwi pathway and transposon derepression induced by the impaired function of mini-puberty. PMID:25791297

  16. Self-synthesizing transposons: unexpected key players in the evolution of viruses and defense systems.

    PubMed

    Krupovic, Mart; Koonin, Eugene V

    2016-06-01

    Self-synthesizing transposons are the largest known transposable elements that encode their own DNA polymerases (DNAP). The Polinton/Maverick family of self-synthesizing transposons is widespread in eukaryotes and abundant in the genomes of some protists. In addition to the DNAP and a retrovirus-like integrase, most of the polintons encode homologs of the major and minor jelly-roll capsid proteins, DNA-packaging ATPase and capsid maturation protease. Therefore, polintons are predicted to alternate between the transposon and viral lifestyles although virion formation remains to be demonstrated. Polintons are related to a group of eukaryotic viruses known as virophages that parasitize on giant viruses of the family Mimiviridae and another recently identified putative family of polinton-like viruses (PLV) predicted to lead a similar, dual life style. Comparative genomic analysis of polintons, virophages, PLV and the other viruses with double-stranded (ds)DNA genomes infecting eukaryotes and prokaryotes suggests that the polintons evolved from bacterial tectiviruses and could have been the ancestors of a broad range of eukaryotic viruses including adenoviruses and members of the proposed order 'Megavirales' as well as linear cytoplasmic plasmids. Recently, a group of predicted self-synthesizing transposons was discovered also in prokaryotes. These elements, denoted casposons, encode a DNAP and a homolog of the CRISPR-associated Cas1 endonuclease that has an integrase activity but no capsid proteins. Thus, unlike polintons, casposons appear to be limited to the transposon life style although they could have evolved from viruses. The casposons are thought to have played a pivotal role in the origin of the prokaryotic adaptive immunity, giving rise to the adaptation module of the CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:26836982

  17. The Nucleoid Binding Protein H-NS Biases Genome-Wide Transposon Insertion Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Satoshi; Hubbard, Troy P.; Davis, Brigid M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS; also known as TnSeq) is a potent approach commonly used to comprehensively define the genetic loci that contribute to bacterial fitness in diverse environments. A key presumption underlying analyses of TIS datasets is that loci with a low frequency of transposon insertions contribute to fitness. However, it is not known whether factors such as nucleoid binding proteins can alter the frequency of transposon insertion and thus whether TIS output may systematically reflect factors that are independent of the role of the loci in fitness. Here, we investigated whether the histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein, which preferentially associates with AT-rich sequences, modulates the frequency of Mariner transposon insertion in the Vibrio cholerae genome, using comparative analysis of TIS results from wild-type (wt) and Δhns V. cholerae strains. These analyses were overlaid on gene classification based on GC content as well as on extant genome-wide identification of H-NS binding loci. Our analyses revealed a significant dearth of insertions within AT-rich loci in wt V. cholerae that was not apparent in the Δhns insertion library. Additionally, we observed a striking correlation between genetic loci that are overrepresented in the Δhns insertion library relative to their insertion frequency in wt V. cholerae and loci previously found to physically interact with H-NS. Collectively, our findings reveal that factors other than genetic fitness can systematically modulate the frequency of transposon insertions in TIS studies and add a cautionary note to interpretation of TIS data, particularly for AT-rich sequences. PMID:27578758

  18. Separation of stem cell maintenance and transposon silencing functions of Piwi protein

    PubMed Central

    Klenov, Mikhail S.; Sokolova, Olesya A.; Yakushev, Evgeny Y.; Stolyarenko, Anastasia D.; Mikhaleva, Elena A.; Lavrov, Sergey A.; Gvozdev, Vladimir A.

    2011-01-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and Piwi proteins have the evolutionarily conserved function of silencing of repetitive genetic elements in germ lines. The founder of the Piwi subfamily, Drosophila nuclear Piwi protein, was also shown to be required for the maintenance of germ-line stem cells (GSCs). Hence, null mutant piwi females exhibit two types of abnormalities, overexpression of transposons and severely underdeveloped ovaries. It remained unknown whether the failure of GSC maintenance is related to transposon derepression or if GSC self-renewal and piRNA silencing are two distinct functions of the Piwi protein. We have revealed a mutation, piwiNt, removing the nuclear localization signal of the Piwi protein. piwiNt females retain the ability of GSC self-renewal and a near-normal number of egg chambers in the ovarioles but display a drastic transposable element derepression and nuclear accumulation of their transcripts in the germ line. piwiNt mutants are sterile most likely because of the disturbance of piRNA-mediated transposon silencing. Analysis of chromatin modifications in the piwiNt ovaries indicated that Piwi causes chromatin silencing only of certain types of transposons, whereas others are repressed in the nuclei without their chromatin modification. Thus, Piwi nuclear localization that is required for its silencing function is not essential for the maintenance of GSCs. We suggest that the Piwi function in GSC self-renewal is independent of transposon repression and is normally realized in the cytoplasm of GSC niche cells. PMID:22065765

  19. Separation of stem cell maintenance and transposon silencing functions of Piwi protein.

    PubMed

    Klenov, Mikhail S; Sokolova, Olesya A; Yakushev, Evgeny Y; Stolyarenko, Anastasia D; Mikhaleva, Elena A; Lavrov, Sergey A; Gvozdev, Vladimir A

    2011-11-15

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and Piwi proteins have the evolutionarily conserved function of silencing of repetitive genetic elements in germ lines. The founder of the Piwi subfamily, Drosophila nuclear Piwi protein, was also shown to be required for the maintenance of germ-line stem cells (GSCs). Hence, null mutant piwi females exhibit two types of abnormalities, overexpression of transposons and severely underdeveloped ovaries. It remained unknown whether the failure of GSC maintenance is related to transposon derepression or if GSC self-renewal and piRNA silencing are two distinct functions of the Piwi protein. We have revealed a mutation, piwi(Nt), removing the nuclear localization signal of the Piwi protein. piwi(Nt) females retain the ability of GSC self-renewal and a near-normal number of egg chambers in the ovarioles but display a drastic transposable element derepression and nuclear accumulation of their transcripts in the germ line. piwi(Nt) mutants are sterile most likely because of the disturbance of piRNA-mediated transposon silencing. Analysis of chromatin modifications in the piwi(Nt) ovaries indicated that Piwi causes chromatin silencing only of certain types of transposons, whereas others are repressed in the nuclei without their chromatin modification. Thus, Piwi nuclear localization that is required for its silencing function is not essential for the maintenance of GSCs. We suggest that the Piwi function in GSC self-renewal is independent of transposon repression and is normally realized in the cytoplasm of GSC niche cells. PMID:22065765

  20. [Rapid site-directed mutagenesis on full-length plasmid DNA by using designed restriction enzyme assisted mutagenesis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baozhong; Ran, Duoliang; Zhang, Xin; An, Xiaoping; Shan, Yunzhu; Zhou, Yusen; Tong, Yigang

    2009-02-01

    To use the designed restriction enzyme assisted mutagenesis technique to perform rapid site-directed mutagenesis on double-stranded plasmid DNA. The target amino acid sequence was reversely translated into DNA sequences with degenerate codons, resulting in large amount of silently mutated sequences containing various restriction endonucleases (REs). Certain mutated sequence with an appropriate RE was selected as the target DNA sequence for designing mutation primers. The full-length plasmid DNA was amplified with high-fidelity Phusion DNA polymerase and the amplified product was 5' phosphorylated by T4 polynucleotide kinase and then self-ligated. After transformation into an E. coli host the transformants were rapidly screened by cutting with the designed RE. With this strategy we successfully performed the site-directed mutagenesis on an 8 kb plasmid pcDNA3.1-pIgR and recovered the wild-type amino acid sequence of human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). A novel site-directed mutagenesis strategy based on DREAM was developed which exploited RE as a rapid screening measure. The highly efficient, high-fidelity Phusion DNA polymerase was applied to ensure the efficient and faithful amplification of the full-length sequence of a plasmid of up to 8 kb. This rapid mutagenesis strategy avoids using any commercial site-directed mutagenesis kits, special host strains or isotopes. PMID:19459340

  1. The copy number of rice CACTA DNA transposons carrying MIR820 does not correlate with MIR820 expression

    PubMed Central

    Nosaka, Misuzu; Ishiwata, Aiko; Shimizu-Sato, Sae; Ono, Akemi; Ishimoto, Kiyoe; Noda, Yusaku; Sato, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    miR820 is a small RNA species (22 and 24 nucleotides), produced from transcripts originated from a region inside CACTA DNA transposons in rice. Because MIR820 is a transposon gene, its expression may depend on the transposon copy number. Here, we investigated the copy number of MIR820 and its expression levels in various cultivars and wild species of rice. We found no correlation between copy number and expression level, suggesting that MIR820 transcription is regulated not by the copy dosage but by the epigenetic state of each copy. PMID:23733074

  2. 2012 MUTAGENESIS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 19-23, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Demple, Bruce

    2012-08-23

    The delicate balance among cellular pathways that control mutagenic changes in DNA will be the focus of the 2012 Mutagenesis Gordon Research Conference. Mutagenesis is essential for evolution, while genetic stability maintains cellular functions in all organisms from microbes to metazoans. Different systems handle DNA lesions at various times of the cell cycle and in different places within the nucleus, and inappropriate actions can lead to mutations. While mutation in humans is closely linked to disease, notably cancers, mutational systems can also be beneficial. The conference will highlight topics of beneficial mutagenesis, including full establishment of the immune system, cell survival mechanisms, and evolution and adaptation in microbial systems. Equal prominence will be given to detrimental mutation processes, especially those involved in driving cancer, neurological diseases, premature aging, and other threats to human health. Provisional session titles include Branching Pathways in Mutagenesis; Oxidative Stress and Endogenous DNA Damage; DNA Maintenance Pathways; Recombination, Good and Bad; Problematic DNA Structures; Localized Mutagenesis; Hypermutation in the Microbial World; and Mutation and Disease.

  3. A Novel Piggybac Transposon Inducible Expression System Identifies a Role for Akt Signalling in Primordial Germ Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Glover, James D.; Taylor, Lorna; Sherman, Adrian; Zeiger-Poli, Caroline; Sang, Helen M.; McGrew, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we describe a single piggyBac transposon system containing both a tet-activator and a doxycycline-inducible expression cassette. We demonstrate that a gene product can be conditionally expressed from the integrated transposon and a second gene can be simultaneously targeted by a short hairpin RNA contained within the transposon, both in vivo and in mammalian and avian cell lines. We applied this system to stably modify chicken primordial germ cell (PGC) lines in vitro and induce a reporter gene at specific developmental stages after injection of the transposon-modified germ cells into chicken embryos. We used this vector to express a constitutively-active AKT molecule during PGC migration to the forming gonad. We found that PGC migration was retarded and cells could not colonise the forming gonad. Correct levels of AKT activation are thus essential for germ cell migration during early embryonic development. PMID:24223709

  4. Epigenome confrontation triggers immediate reprogramming of DNA methylation and transposon silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 epihybrids.

    PubMed

    Rigal, Mélanie; Becker, Claude; Pélissier, Thierry; Pogorelcnik, Romain; Devos, Jane; Ikeda, Yoko; Weigel, Detlef; Mathieu, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Genes and transposons can exist in variable DNA methylation states, with potentially differential transcription. How these epialleles emerge is poorly understood. Here, we show that crossing an Arabidopsis thaliana plant with a hypomethylated genome and a normally methylated WT individual results, already in the F1 generation, in widespread changes in DNA methylation and transcription patterns. Novel nonparental and heritable epialleles arise at many genic loci, including a locus that itself controls DNA methylation patterns, but with most of the changes affecting pericentromeric transposons. Although a subset of transposons show immediate resilencing, a large number display decreased DNA methylation, which is associated with de novo or enhanced transcriptional activation and can translate into transposon mobilization in the progeny. Our findings reveal that the combination of distinct epigenomes can be viewed as an epigenomic shock, which is characterized by a round of epigenetic variation creating novel patterns of gene and TE regulation. PMID:27001853

  5. Graphene oxide can induce in vitro and in vivo mutagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yi; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yinsong; Yang, Xiaoying; Yang, Rui; Wang, Baiqi; Yang, Jinrong; Zhang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted enormous interests due to its extraordinary properties. Recent studies have confirmed the cytotoxicity of GO, we further investigate its mutagenic potential in this study. The results showed that GO interfered with DNA replication and induced mutagenesis at molecular level. GO treatments at concentrations of 10 and 100 μg/mL altered gene expression patterns at cellular level, and 101 differentially expressed genes mediated DNA-damage control, cell apoptosis, cell cycle, and metabolism. Intravenous injection of GO at 4 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days clearly induced formation of micronucleated polychromic erythrocytes in mice, and its mutagenesis potential appeared to be comparable to cyclophosphamide, a classic mutagen. In conclusion, GO can induce mutagenesis both in vitro and in vivo, thus extra consideration is required for its biomedical applications.

  6. An algorithm for protein engineering: simulations of recursive ensemble mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Arkin, A P; Youvan, D C

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm for protein engineering, termed recursive ensemble mutagenesis, has been developed to produce diverse populations of phenotypically related mutants whose members differ in amino acid sequence. This method uses a feedback mechanism to control successive rounds of combinatorial cassette mutagenesis. Starting from partially randomized "wild-type" DNA sequences, a highly parallel search of sequence space for peptides fitting an experimenter's criteria is performed. Each iteration uses information gained from the previous rounds to search the space more efficiently. Simulations of the technique indicate that, under a variety of conditions, the algorithm can rapidly produce a diverse population of proteins fitting specific criteria. In the experimental analog, genetic selection or screening applied during recursive ensemble mutagenesis should force the evolution of an ensemble of mutants to a targeted cluster of related phenotypes. Images PMID:1502200

  7. Bacterial Transposons Are Co-Transferred with T-DNA to Rice Chromosomes during Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Ryul; An, Gynheung

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is widely utilized for delivering a foreign gene into a plant’s genome. We found the bacterial transposon Tn5393 in transgenic rice plants. Analysis of the flanking sequences of the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) identified that a portion of the Tn5393 sequence was present immediately next to the end of the T-DNA. Because this transposon was present in A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404, but not in EHA105 and GV3101, our findings indicated that Tn5393 was transferred from LBA4404 into the rice genome during the transformation process. We also noted that another bacterial transposon, Tn5563, is present in transgenic plants. Analyses of 331 transgenic lines revealed that 26.0% carried Tn5393 and 2.1% contained Tn5563. In most of the lines, an intact transposon was integrated into the T-DNA and transferred to the rice chromosome. More than one copy of T-DNA was introduced into the plants, often at a single locus. This resulted in T-DNA repeats of normal and transposon-carrying T-DNA that generated deletions of a portion of the T-DNA, joining the T-DNA end to the bacterial transposon. Based on these data, we suggest that one should carefully select the appropriate Agrobacterium strain to avoid undesirable transformation of such sequences. PMID:22570148

  8. Gateway-compatible transposon vector to genetically modify human embryonic kidney and adipose-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Spyros; Raskó, Tamas; Mátés, Lajos; Ivics, Zoltan; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Kouzi-Koliakou, Kokkona; Koliakos, George

    2012-07-01

    The Gateway technology cloning system and transposon technology represent state-of-the-art laboratory techniques. Combination of these molecular tools allows rapid cloning of target genes into expression vectors. Here, we describe a novel Gateway technology-compatible transposon plasmid that combines the advantages of Gateway recombination cloning with the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated transgene integrations. In our system the transposition is catalyzed by the novel hyperactive SB100x transposase, and provides highly efficient and precise transgene integrations into the host genome. A Gateway-compatible transposon plasmid was generated in which the potential target gene can be fused with a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) tag at the N-terminal. The vector utilizes the CAGGS promoter to control fusion protein expression. The transposon expression vector encoding the YFP-interferon-β protein (IFNB1) fusion protein together with the hyperactive SB100x transposase was used to generate stable cell lines in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and rat adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC). ASCs and HEK293 cells stably expressed and secreted the human IFNB1 for up to 4 weeks after transfection. The generated Gateway-compatible transposon plasmid can be utilized for numerous experimental approaches, such as gene therapy or high-throughput screening methods in primary cells, representing a valuable molecular tool for laboratory applications. PMID:22323455

  9. Inheritance of a Nuclear PIWI from Pluripotent Stem Cells by Somatic Descendants Ensures Differentiation by Silencing Transposons in Planarian.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Norito; Kashima, Makoto; Ishiko, Taisuke; Nishimura, Osamu; Rouhana, Labib; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Saito, Kuniaki; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2016-05-01

    Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) requires transposon silencing throughout the process. PIWIs, best known as key factors in germline transposon silencing, are also known to act in somatic differentiation of planarian PSCs (neoblasts). However, how PIWIs control the latter process remains elusive. Here, using Dugesia japonica, we show that a nuclear PIWI, DjPiwiB, was bound to PIWI-interacting RNAs (generally key mediators of PIWI-dependent transposon silencing), and was detected in not only neoblasts but also their descendant somatic cells, which do not express piwi. In contrast, cytoplasmic DjPiwiA and DjPiwiC were detected only in neoblasts, in accord with their transcription there. DjPiwiB was indispensable for regeneration, but dispensable for transposon silencing in neoblasts. However, transposons were derepressed at the onset of differentiation in DjPiwiB-knockdown planarians. Thus, DjPiwiB appears to be inherited by descendant somatic cells of neoblasts to ensure transposon silencing in those cells, which are unable to produce PIWI proteins. PMID:27165555

  10. A Stress-Activated Transposon in Arabidopsis Induces Transgenerational Abscisic Acid Insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hidetaka; Kim, Jong-Myong; Matsunaga, Wataru; Saze, Hidetoshi; Matsui, Akihiro; Endo, Takaho A; Harukawa, Yoshiko; Takagi, Hiroki; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Masuta, Yukari; Masuda, Seiji; Ishida, Junko; Tanaka, Maho; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morosawa, Taeko; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Kakutani, Tetsuji; Kato, Atsushi; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs), or transposons, play an important role in adaptation. TE insertion can affect host gene function and provides a mechanism for rapid increases in genetic diversity, particularly because many TEs respond to environmental stress. In the current study, we show that the transposition of a heat-activated retrotransposon, ONSEN, generated a mutation in an abscisic acid (ABA) responsive gene, resulting in an ABA-insensitive phenotype in Arabidopsis, suggesting stress tolerance. Our results provide direct evidence that a transposon activated by environmental stress could alter the genome in a potentially positive manner. Furthermore, the ABA-insensitive phenotype was inherited when the transcription was disrupted by an ONSEN insertion, whereas ABA sensitivity was recovered when the effects of ONSEN were masked by IBM2. These results suggest that epigenetic mechanisms in host plants typically buffered the effect of a new insertion, but could selectively "turn on" TEs when stressed. PMID:26976262

  11. Characterization of mariner-like transposons of the mauritiana Subfamily in seven tree aphid species.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, Imen; Mezghani, Maha; Casse, Nathalie; Denis, Françoise; Caruso, Aurore; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are Class II transposons present in all eukaryotic genomes in which MLEs have been searched for. This article reports the detection of MLEs in seven of the main fruit tree aphid species out of eight species studied. Deleted MLE sequences of 916-919 bp were characterized, using the terminal-inverted repeats (TIRs) of mariner elements belonging to the mauritiana Subfamily as primers. All the sequences detected were deleted copies of full-length elements that included the 3'- and 5'-TIRs but displayed internal deletions affecting Mos1 activity. Networks based on the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit-I (CO-I) and MLE sequences were incongruent, suggesting that mutations in transposon sequences had accumulated before speciation of tree aphid species occurred, and that they have been maintained in this species via vertical transmissions. This is the first evidence of the widespread occurrence of MLEs in aphids. PMID:25555688

  12. A Stress-Activated Transposon in Arabidopsis Induces Transgenerational Abscisic Acid Insensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hidetaka; Kim, Jong-Myong; Matsunaga, Wataru; Saze, Hidetoshi; Matsui, Akihiro; Endo, Takaho A.; Harukawa, Yoshiko; Takagi, Hiroki; Yaegashi, Hiroki; Masuta, Yukari; Masuda, Seiji; Ishida, Junko; Tanaka, Maho; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morosawa, Taeko; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Kakutani, Tetsuji; Kato, Atsushi; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs), or transposons, play an important role in adaptation. TE insertion can affect host gene function and provides a mechanism for rapid increases in genetic diversity, particularly because many TEs respond to environmental stress. In the current study, we show that the transposition of a heat-activated retrotransposon, ONSEN, generated a mutation in an abscisic acid (ABA) responsive gene, resulting in an ABA-insensitive phenotype in Arabidopsis, suggesting stress tolerance. Our results provide direct evidence that a transposon activated by environmental stress could alter the genome in a potentially positive manner. Furthermore, the ABA-insensitive phenotype was inherited when the transcription was disrupted by an ONSEN insertion, whereas ABA sensitivity was recovered when the effects of ONSEN were masked by IBM2. These results suggest that epigenetic mechanisms in host plants typically buffered the effect of a new insertion, but could selectively “turn on” TEs when stressed. PMID:26976262

  13. A computer program to display codon changes caused by mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, K

    1988-04-01

    A FORTRAN program for displaying the correspondence between codon changes and different possible base changes is presented. Changes of both single bases and dimers are considered. The user can specify the mutagenesis spectrum. Additionally, the user can choose whether or not to consider single or double events in a codon and whether or not to consider the possibility that the change of two bases (a dimer) can overlap a codon boundary. Furthermore, a variety of ways may be chosen to display and summarize the codon changes that can result from the specified mutagenesis. A user-supplied sequence or the genetic code table can be analyzed. PMID:3167596

  14. Mutagenesis protocols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by in vivo overlap extension.

    PubMed

    Alcalde, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    A high recombination frequency and its ease of manipulation has made Saccharomyces cerevisiae a unique model eukaryotic organism to study homologous recombination. Indeed, the well-developed recombination machinery in S. cerevisiae facilitates the construction of mutant libraries for directed evolution experiments. In this context, in vivo overlap extension (IVOE) is a particularly attractive protocol that takes advantage of the eukaryotic apparatus to carry out combinatorial saturation mutagenesis, site-directed recombination or site-directed mutagenesis, avoiding ligation steps and additional PCR reactions that are common to standard in vitro protocols. PMID:20676972

  15. Evidence of G.O.D.'s Miracle: Unearthing a RAG Transposon.

    PubMed

    Flajnik, Martin F

    2016-06-30

    Diversity of antibodies and T cell receptors is generated by gene rearrangement dependent on RAG1 and RAG2, enzymes predicted to have been derived from a transposable element (TE) that invaded an immunoglobulin superfamily gene early in the evolution of jawed vertebrates. Now, Huang et al. report the discovery of ProtoRAG in the lower chordate Amphioxus, the long-anticipated TE related to the RAG transposon. PMID:27368095

  16. Accurate Prediction of Transposon-Derived piRNAs by Integrating Various Sequential and Physicochemical Features

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Longqiang; Li, Dingfang; Zhang, Wen; Tu, Shikui; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) is the largest class of small non-coding RNA molecules. The transposon-derived piRNA prediction can enrich the research contents of small ncRNAs as well as help to further understand generation mechanism of gamete. Methods In this paper, we attempt to differentiate transposon-derived piRNAs from non-piRNAs based on their sequential and physicochemical features by using machine learning methods. We explore six sequence-derived features, i.e. spectrum profile, mismatch profile, subsequence profile, position-specific scoring matrix, pseudo dinucleotide composition and local structure-sequence triplet elements, and systematically evaluate their performances for transposon-derived piRNA prediction. Finally, we consider two approaches: direct combination and ensemble learning to integrate useful features and achieve high-accuracy prediction models. Results We construct three datasets, covering three species: Human, Mouse and Drosophila, and evaluate the performances of prediction models by 10-fold cross validation. In the computational experiments, direct combination models achieve AUC of 0.917, 0.922 and 0.992 on Human, Mouse and Drosophila, respectively; ensemble learning models achieve AUC of 0.922, 0.926 and 0.994 on the three datasets. Conclusions Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, our methods can lead to better performances. In conclusion, the proposed methods are promising for the transposon-derived piRNA prediction. The source codes and datasets are available in S1 File. PMID:27074043

  17. Transposon assisted gene insertion technology (TAGIT): a tool for generating fluorescent fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Gregory, James A; Becker, Eric C; Jung, James; Tuwatananurak, Ida; Pogliano, Kit

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a transposon (transposon assisted gene insertion technology, or TAGIT) that allows the random insertion of gfp (or other genes) into chromosomal loci without disrupting operon structure or regulation. TAGIT is a modified Tn5 transposon that uses Kan(R) to select for insertions on the chromosome or plasmid, beta-galactosidase to identify in-frame gene fusions, and Cre recombinase to excise the kan and lacZ genes in vivo. The resulting gfp insertions maintain target gene reading frame (to the 5' and 3' of gfp) and are integrated at the native chromosomal locus, thereby maintaining native expression signals. Libraries can be screened to identify GFP insertions that maintain target protein function at native expression levels, allowing more trustworthy localization studies. We here use TAGIT to generate a library of GFP insertions in the Escherichia coli lactose repressor (LacI). We identified fully functional GFP insertions and partially functional insertions that bind DNA but fail to repress the lacZ operon. Several of these latter GFP insertions localize to lacO arrays integrated in the E. coli chromosome without producing the elongated cells frequently observed when functional LacI-GFP fusions are used in chromosome tagging experiments. TAGIT thereby faciliates the isolation of fully functional insertions of fluorescent proteins into target proteins expressed from the native chromosomal locus as well as potentially useful partially functional proteins. PMID:20090956

  18. Transposon mouse models to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of hepatitis B viral induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Amy P; Tschida, Barbara R; Lo, Lilian H; Moriarity, Branden S; Rowlands, Dewi K; Largaespada, David A; Keng, Vincent W

    2015-11-14

    The major type of human liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and there are currently many risk factors that contribute to this deadly disease. The majority of HCC occurrences are associated with chronic hepatitis viral infection, and hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is currently a major health problem in Eastern Asia. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms associated with HBV-induced HCC has been difficult due to the heterogeneity and genetic complexity associated with this disease. A repertoire of animal models has been broadly used to study the pathophysiology and to develop potential treatment regimens for HBV-associated HCC. The use of these animal models has provided valuable genetic information and has been an important contributor to uncovering the factors involved in liver malignant transformation, invasion and metastasis. Recently, transposon-based mouse models are becoming more widely used in liver cancer research to interrogate the genome by forward genetics and also used to validate genes rapidly in a reverse genetic manner. Importantly, these transposon-based rapid reverse genetic mouse models could become crucial in testing potential therapeutic agents before proceeding to clinical trials in human. Therefore, this review will cover the use of transposon-based mouse models to address the problems of liver cancer, especially HBV-associated HCC occurrences in Asia. PMID:26576100

  19. Discovery of an Active RAG Transposon Illuminates the Origins of V(D)J Recombination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengfeng; Tao, Xin; Yuan, Shaochun; Zhang, Yuhang; Li, Peiyi; Beilinson, Helen A; Zhang, Ya; Yu, Wenjuan; Pontarotti, Pierre; Escriva, Hector; Le Petillon, Yann; Liu, Xiaolong; Chen, Shangwu; Schatz, David G; Xu, Anlong

    2016-06-30

    Co-option of RAG1 and RAG2 for antigen receptor gene assembly by V(D)J recombination was a crucial event in the evolution of jawed vertebrate adaptive immunity. RAG1/2 are proposed to have arisen from a transposable element, but definitive evidence for this is lacking. Here, we report the discovery of ProtoRAG, a DNA transposon family from lancelets, the most basal extant chordates. A typical ProtoRAG is flanked by 5-bp target site duplications and a pair of terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) resembling V(D)J recombination signal sequences. Between the TIRs reside tail-to-tail-oriented, intron-containing RAG1-like and RAG2-like genes. We demonstrate that ProtoRAG was recently active in the lancelet germline and that the lancelet RAG1/2-like proteins can mediate TIR-dependent transposon excision, host DNA recombination, transposition, and low-efficiency TIR rejoining using reaction mechanisms similar to those used by vertebrate RAGs. We propose that ProtoRAG represents a molecular "living fossil" of the long-sought RAG transposon. PMID:27293192

  20. Characterization of trimethoprim resistance by use of probes specific for transposon Tn7.

    PubMed Central

    Pulkkinen, L; Huovinen, P; Vuorio, E; Toivanen, P

    1984-01-01

    Transposon Tn7 codes for resistance to trimethoprim and streptomycin. For detection of Tn7 by DNA-DNA hybridization, two recombinant plasmids were constructed. The former contained a 1-kilobase BamHI fragment and the latter contained a 4.3-kilobase EcoRI-BamHI fragment of Tn7. These DNA fragments, which did not include the drug resistance genes, were used as probes for detecting Tn7-like sequences in bacterial strains by colony hybridization. They hybridized strongly to bacterial DNA known to carry Tn7 but not to DNA known to carry transposons other than Tn7. These probes were used to study the occurrence of Tn7 in bacterial strains isolated in the Turku City Hospital in Finland. Transposon Tn7 was present in 47.2% of 199 trimethoprim-resistant enterobacteria (MIC greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml). Among the 69 Proteus mirabilis strains studied, 75% contained Tn7, although none of these strains transferred trimethoprim resistance in conjugation tests. The reliability of colony hybridization was further confirmed by Southern hybridization to detect the Tn7-specific 2.6-kilobase HindIII restriction fragment. Colony hybridization proved to be a sensitive and rapid method for detecting Tn7-determined sequences. Images PMID:6089656

  1. Transposon Insertions, Structural Variations, and SNPs Contribute to the Evolution of the Melon Genome.

    PubMed

    Sanseverino, Walter; Hénaff, Elizabeth; Vives, Cristina; Pinosio, Sara; Burgos-Paz, William; Morgante, Michele; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián E; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Casacuberta, Josep Maria

    2015-10-01

    The availability of extensive databases of crop genome sequences should allow analysis of crop variability at an unprecedented scale, which should have an important impact in plant breeding. However, up to now the analysis of genetic variability at the whole-genome scale has been mainly restricted to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This is a strong limitation as structural variation (SV) and transposon insertion polymorphisms are frequent in plant species and have had an important mutational role in crop domestication and breeding. Here, we present the first comprehensive analysis of melon genetic diversity, which includes a detailed analysis of SNPs, SV, and transposon insertion polymorphisms. The variability found among seven melon varieties representing the species diversity and including wild accessions and highly breed lines, is relatively high due in part to the marked divergence of some lineages. The diversity is distributed nonuniformly across the genome, being lower at the extremes of the chromosomes and higher in the pericentromeric regions, which is compatible with the effect of purifying selection and recombination forces over functional regions. Additionally, this variability is greatly reduced among elite varieties, probably due to selection during breeding. We have found some chromosomal regions showing a high differentiation of the elite varieties versus the rest, which could be considered as strongly selected candidate regions. Our data also suggest that transposons and SV may be at the origin of an important fraction of the variability in melon, which highlights the importance of analyzing all types of genetic variability to understand crop genome evolution. PMID:26174143

  2. Comparison of inherently essential genes of Porphyromonas gingivalis identified in two transposon-sequencing libraries.

    PubMed

    Hutcherson, J A; Gogeneni, H; Yoder-Himes, D; Hendrickson, E L; Hackett, M; Whiteley, M; Lamont, R J; Scott, D A

    2016-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobe and keystone periodontal pathogen. A mariner transposon insertion mutant library has recently been used to define 463 genes as putatively essential for the in vitro growth of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 in planktonic culture (Library 1). We have independently generated a transposon insertion mutant library (Library 2) for the same P. gingivalis strain and herein compare genes that are putatively essential for in vitro growth in complex media, as defined by both libraries. In all, 281 genes (61%) identified by Library 1 were common to Library 2. Many of these common genes are involved in fundamentally important metabolic pathways, notably pyrimidine cycling as well as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis, and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. Also in common are genes encoding heat-shock protein homologues, sigma factors, enzymes with proteolytic activity, and the majority of sec-related protein export genes. In addition to facilitating a better understanding of critical physiological processes, transposon-sequencing technology has the potential to identify novel strategies for the control of P. gingivalis infections. Those genes defined as essential by two independently generated TnSeq mutant libraries are likely to represent particularly attractive therapeutic targets. PMID:26358096

  3. Delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) using the sleeping beauty transposon.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Bradley S

    2010-11-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved process that silences gene expression through double-stranded RNA species in a sequence-specific manner. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can promote sequence-specific degradation and/or translational repression of target RNA by activation of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Traditionally, silencing in mammalian cells had been achieved by transfection of synthetically derived siRNA duplexes, resulting in transient gene suppression of the target sequence. As the technology was advanced, inhibitory short-hairpin-shaped RNAs (shRNAs) could be produced by transcription from RNA polymerase-III (pol-III)-driven promoters, such as H1, U6, or cytomegalovirus (CMV)-enhanced pol III promoters. Following transcription, the shRNAs are processed by the enzyme Dicer into active siRNA. This approach allows for the continuous production of siRNA within cells using a DNA template and offers increased options for delivery of the pol-III-driven transcriptional units. A number of different viral vectors, as well as plasmid DNAs, have been utilized to deliver shRNA to mammalian cells. Here, the Tc1/mariner DNA transposon Sleeping Beauty (SB) is used as a tool to deliver shRNA-encoding transcriptional units. The SB transposon system uses a "cut-and-paste" mechanism to insert the transposon into random TA dinucleotides within the target genome. The shRNAs are then processed and used for gene knockdown. PMID:21041394

  4. Structure Prediction and Analysis of DNA Transposon and LINE Retrotransposon Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Abrusán, György; Zhang, Yang; Szilágyi, András

    2013-01-01

    Despite the considerable amount of research on transposable elements, no large-scale structural analyses of the TE proteome have been performed so far. We predicted the structures of hundreds of proteins from a representative set of DNA and LINE transposable elements and used the obtained structural data to provide the first general structural characterization of TE proteins and to estimate the frequency of TE domestication and horizontal transfer events. We show that 1) ORF1 and Gag proteins of retrotransposons contain high amounts of structural disorder; thus, despite their very low conservation, the presence of disordered regions and probably their chaperone function is conserved. 2) The distribution of SCOP classes in DNA transposons and LINEs indicates that the proteins of DNA transposons are more ancient, containing folds that already existed when the first cellular organisms appeared. 3) DNA transposon proteins have lower contact order than randomly selected reference proteins, indicating rapid folding, most likely to avoid protein aggregation. 4) Structure-based searches for TE homologs indicate that the overall frequency of TE domestication events is low, whereas we found a relatively high number of cases where horizontal transfer, frequently involving parasites, is the most likely explanation for the observed homology. PMID:23530042

  5. IS10/Tn10 transposition efficiently accommodates diverse transposon end configurations.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, R M; Kleckner, N

    1996-01-01

    Transposon Tn10 and its component insertion sequence IS10 move by non-replicative transposition. We have studied the array of reaction intermediates and products in a high efficiency in vitro IS10/Tn10 transposition reaction. Synapsis of two transposon ends, followed by cleavage and strand transfer, can occur very efficiently irrespective of the relative locations and orientations of the two ends. The two participating ends can occur in inverted or direct orientation on the same molecule or, most importantly, on two different molecules. This behavior contrasts sharply with that of Mu, in which transposition is strongly biased in favor of inverted repeat synapsis. Mechanistically, the absence of discrimination amongst various end configurations implies that the architecture within the IS10/Tn10 synaptic complex is relatively simple, i.e. lacking any significant intertwining of component DNA strands. Biologically these observations are important because they suggest that the IS10 insertion sequence module has considerable flexibility in the types of DNA rearrangements that it can promote. Most importantly, it now seems highly probable that a single non-replicative IS10 element can promote DNA rearrangements usually attributed to replicative transposition, i.e. adjacent deletions and cointegrates, by utilizing transposon ends on two sister chromosomes. Other events which probably also contribute to the diversity of IS10/Tn10-promoted rearrangements are discussed. Images PMID:8890185

  6. IS1-mediated intramolecular rearrangements: formation of excised transposon circles and replicative deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Turlan, C; Chandler, M

    1995-01-01

    A system is described which permits visualization and analysis of a number of molecular species associated with transposition activity of the bacterial insertion sequence, IS1, in vivo. The technique involves induction of an IS1 transposase gene carried by a plasmid which also includes an IS1-based transposable element. It is, in principle, applicable to the identification of transposition intermediates as well as unstable transposition products and those which are not detectable by genetic means. Thirteen novel molecular species were detected after 4 h of induction. Five major species were characterized, based on their behaviour as a function of time, on their hybridization patterns and on the nucleotide sequences of the transposon-backbone junctions. All result from intramolecular IS1 transposition events. The two reciprocal partner products of IS1-mediated deletions, the intramolecular equivalent of co-integrates generated by intermolecular transposition, have been identified. Both carry a single copy of the transposable element and present complementary distributions of deletion endpoints. These results establish, by direct physical means, that adjacent IS1-mediated deletions are accompanied by duplication of the element. A second type of molecule identified was an excised circular copy of the transposon, raising the possibility that IS1 is capable of following an intermolecular transposition pathway, via excised transposon circles, leading to direct insertion. Images PMID:7489730

  7. Transposon mouse models to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of hepatitis B viral induced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Amy P; Tschida, Barbara R; Lo, Lilian H; Moriarity, Branden S; Rowlands, Dewi K; Largaespada, David A; Keng, Vincent W

    2015-01-01

    The major type of human liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and there are currently many risk factors that contribute to this deadly disease. The majority of HCC occurrences are associated with chronic hepatitis viral infection, and hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is currently a major health problem in Eastern Asia. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms associated with HBV-induced HCC has been difficult due to the heterogeneity and genetic complexity associated with this disease. A repertoire of animal models has been broadly used to study the pathophysiology and to develop potential treatment regimens for HBV-associated HCC. The use of these animal models has provided valuable genetic information and has been an important contributor to uncovering the factors involved in liver malignant transformation, invasion and metastasis. Recently, transposon-based mouse models are becoming more widely used in liver cancer research to interrogate the genome by forward genetics and also used to validate genes rapidly in a reverse genetic manner. Importantly, these transposon-based rapid reverse genetic mouse models could become crucial in testing potential therapeutic agents before proceeding to clinical trials in human. Therefore, this review will cover the use of transposon-based mouse models to address the problems of liver cancer, especially HBV-associated HCC occurrences in Asia. PMID:26576100

  8. TE-array—a high throughput tool to study transposon transcription

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although transposable element (TE) derived DNA accounts for more than half of mammalian genomes and initiates a significant proportion of RNA transcripts, high throughput methods are rarely leveraged specifically to detect expression from interspersed repeats. Results To characterize the contribution of transposons to mammalian transcriptomes, we developed a custom microarray platform with probes covering known human and mouse transposons in both sense and antisense orientations. We termed this platform the “TE-array” and profiled TE repeat expression in a panel of normal mouse tissues. Validation with nanoString® and RNAseq technologies demonstrated that TE-array is an effective method. Our data show that TE transcription occurs preferentially from the sense strand and is regulated in highly tissue-specific patterns. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that transposon RNAs frequently originate within genomic TE units and do not primarily accumulate as a consequence of random ‘read-through’ from gene promoters. Moreover, we find TE expression is highly dependent on the tissue context. This suggests that TE expression may be related to tissue-specific chromatin states or cellular phenotypes. We anticipate that TE-array will provide a scalable method to characterize transposable element RNAs. PMID:24325565

  9. Jordan, an active Volvox transposable element similar to higher plant transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Schmitt, R; Kirk, D L

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated a 1595-bp transposable element from the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri following its insertion into the nitrate reductase (nitA) locus. This element, which we have named Jordan, has short (12-bp) terminal inverted repeats and creates a 3-bp target site duplication, like some higher plant transposons of the classic type. Contained within the first 200 bp of one end of the element are 55-bp inverted repeats, one of which begins with the terminal inverted repeat. Revertants of the transposon insertion into the nitA locus were obtained at a rate of approximately 10(-4) per Volvox embryo per generation. In each revertant examined, all transposon sequences were completely excised, but footprints containing both sets of duplicated bases, in addition to three to nine extra bases, were left behind. Jordan contains no significant open reading frames and so appears to be nonautonomous. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that Jordan is a member of a large family of homologous elements in the Volvox genome. We have isolated and characterized several of these homologs and found that they contain terminal very similar to those of Jordan. Efforts to utilize Jordan and its homologs as tools to tag and clone developmentally interesting genes of Volvox are discussed. PMID:8400878

  10. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  11. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  12. Coupled mutagenesis screens and genetic mapping in zebrafish.

    PubMed Central

    Rawls, John F; Frieda, Matthew R; McAdow, Anthony R; Gross, Jason P; Clayton, Chad M; Heyen, Candy K; Johnson, Stephen L

    2003-01-01

    Forward genetic analysis is one of the principal advantages of the zebrafish model system. However, managing zebrafish mutant lines derived from mutagenesis screens and mapping the corresponding mutations and integrating them into the larger collection of mutations remain arduous tasks. To simplify and focus these endeavors, we developed an approach that facilitates the rapid mapping of new zebrafish mutations as they are generated through mutagenesis screens. We selected a minimal panel of 149 simple sequence length polymorphism markers for a first-pass genome scan in crosses involving C32 and SJD inbred lines. We also conducted a small chemical mutagenesis screen that identified several new mutations affecting zebrafish embryonic melanocyte development. Using our first-pass marker panel in bulked-segregant analysis, we were able to identify the genetic map positions of these mutations as they were isolated in our screen. Rapid mapping of the mutations facilitated stock management, helped direct allelism tests, and should accelerate identification of the affected genes. These results demonstrate the efficacy of coupling mutagenesis screens with genetic mapping. PMID:12663538

  13. 2002 Gordon Research Conference on Mutagenesis. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-02

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on MUTAGENESIS was held at Bates College from 7/28/02 thru 8/2/02. The Conference was well-attended with 157 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students.

  14. CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Selma; Portegijs, Vincent; Kerver, Jana; Lemmens, Bennie B L G; Tijsterman, Marcel; van den Heuvel, Sander; Boxem, Mike

    2013-11-01

    The generation of genetic mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans has long relied on the selection of mutations in large-scale screens. Directed mutagenesis of specific loci in the genome would greatly speed up analysis of gene function. Here, we adapt the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate mutations at specific sites in the C. elegans genome. PMID:23979586

  15. What Can a Micronucleus Teach? Learning about Environmental Mutagenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Ana R.; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2009-01-01

    The micronucleus test is widely employed in environmental health research. It can also be an excellent tool for learning important concepts in environmental health. In this article we present an inquiry-based laboratory exercise where students explore several theoretical and practical aspects of environmental mutagenesis employing the micronucleus…

  16. Favipiravir elicits antiviral mutagenesis during virus replication in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Goodfellow, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis has emerged as a novel potential therapeutic approach to treat viral infections. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in the high mutation rates inherent to RNA viruses lead to viral extinction in cell culture, but evidence during infections in vivo is limited. In this study, we show that the broad-range antiviral nucleoside favipiravir reduces viral load in vivo by exerting antiviral mutagenesis in a mouse model for norovirus infection. Increased mutation frequencies were observed in samples from treated mice and were accompanied with lower or in some cases undetectable levels of infectious virus in faeces and tissues. Viral RNA isolated from treated animals showed reduced infectivity, a feature of populations approaching extinction during antiviral mutagenesis. These results suggest that favipiravir can induce norovirus mutagenesis in vivo, which in some cases leads to virus extinction, providing a proof-of-principle for the use of favipiravir derivatives or mutagenic nucleosides in the clinical treatment of noroviruses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03679.001 PMID:25333492

  17. GERM-LINE SPECIFIC FACTORS IN CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical mutagenesis test results ave not revealed evidence of germ-line specific mutagens. owever, conventional assays have indicated that there are male-female differences in mutagenic response, as well as quantitative/qualitative differences in induced mutations which depend u...

  18. A novel suicide shuttle plasmid for Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Su, Yiqi; Lin, Huixing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Lei; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s. The kanamycin (Kan) resistance gene was in the TnYLB-1 transposon. Temperature sensitivity and Kan resistance allowed the selection of mutant strains and construction of the mutant library. The SS2 and SEZ mutant libraries were successfully constructed using the pMar4s plasmid. Inverse-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Inverse-PCR) results revealed large variability in transposon insertion sites and that the library could be used for phenotype alteration screening. The thiamine biosynthesis gene apbE was screened for its influence on SS2 anti-phagocytosis; likewise, the sagF gene was identified to be a hemolytic activity-related gene in SEZ. pMar4s was suitable for mutant library construction, providing more information regarding SS2 and SEZ virulence factors and illustrating the pathogenesis of swine streptococcosis. PMID:27256117

  19. A novel suicide shuttle plasmid for Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Su, Yiqi; Lin, Huixing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Lei; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s. The kanamycin (Kan) resistance gene was in the TnYLB-1 transposon. Temperature sensitivity and Kan resistance allowed the selection of mutant strains and construction of the mutant library. The SS2 and SEZ mutant libraries were successfully constructed using the pMar4s plasmid. Inverse-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Inverse-PCR) results revealed large variability in transposon insertion sites and that the library could be used for phenotype alteration screening. The thiamine biosynthesis gene apbE was screened for its influence on SS2 anti-phagocytosis; likewise, the sagF gene was identified to be a hemolytic activity-related gene in SEZ. pMar4s was suitable for mutant library construction, providing more information regarding SS2 and SEZ virulence factors and illustrating the pathogenesis of swine streptococcosis. PMID:27256117

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of Transposon and Retroviral Insertions Reveals Preferential Integrations in Regions of DNA Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Vrljicak, Pavle; Tao, Shijie; Varshney, Gaurav K.; Quach, Helen Ngoc Bao; Joshi, Adita; LaFave, Matthew C.; Burgess, Shawn M.; Sampath, Karuna

    2016-01-01

    DNA transposons and retroviruses are important transgenic tools for genome engineering. An important consideration affecting the choice of transgenic vector is their insertion site preferences. Previous large-scale analyses of Ds transposon integration sites in plants were done on the basis of reporter gene expression or germ-line transmission, making it difficult to discern vertebrate integration preferences. Here, we compare over 1300 Ds transposon integration sites in zebrafish with Tol2 transposon and retroviral integration sites. Genome-wide analysis shows that Ds integration sites in the presence or absence of marker selection are remarkably similar and distributed throughout the genome. No strict motif was found, but a preference for structural features in the target DNA associated with DNA flexibility (Twist, Tilt, Rise, Roll, Shift, and Slide) was observed. Remarkably, this feature is also found in transposon and retroviral integrations in maize and mouse cells. Our findings show that structural features influence the integration of heterologous DNA in genomes, and have implications for targeted genome engineering. PMID:26818075

  1. Spatially explicit model of transposon-based genetic drive mechanisms for displacing fluctuating populations of anopheline vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kiszewski, A E; Spielman, A

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the prospect of transposon-based genetic drive mechanisms for replacing African vectors of malaria with nonvector anopheline mosquitoes, we developed a spatially explicit simulation model that determined the likelihood that released transgenic mosquitoes may proceed to fixation or extinction under diverse conditions. We compared the effect on fixation of long breeding seasons with relatively subtle population fluctuations to short breeding seasons with severe bottlenecks. Assuming 100% transposition efficiency among heterozygotes with fitness varying between 50 and 100% of that of wild-type mosquitoes, we simulated releases of 1, 10, 50, 90, and 99% of transposon-bearers in relation to wild mosquitoes as well as 1 and 10% releases that were repeated annually. We also evaluated diverse patterns of release including linear, marginal, focused, and scattered distribution. Random dispersal provided the most rapid fixation of transposons within populations. More massive releases allowed longer persistence of transposon-bearers but did not promote fixation, especially when breeding seasons were long. Relative fitness of transposon-bearers, however, proved more powerful than pattern or number of releases in determining whether a construct will become fixed or extinct. Even when fitness approaches that of the wild-type, fixation of a construct may require 150 generations or more. PMID:9701949

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of Transposon and Retroviral Insertions Reveals Preferential Integrations in Regions of DNA Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Vrljicak, Pavle; Tao, Shijie; Varshney, Gaurav K; Quach, Helen Ngoc Bao; Joshi, Adita; LaFave, Matthew C; Burgess, Shawn M; Sampath, Karuna

    2016-01-01

    DNA transposons and retroviruses are important transgenic tools for genome engineering. An important consideration affecting the choice of transgenic vector is their insertion site preferences. Previous large-scale analyses of Ds transposon integration sites in plants were done on the basis of reporter gene expression or germ-line transmission, making it difficult to discern vertebrate integration preferences. Here, we compare over 1300 Ds transposon integration sites in zebrafish with Tol2 transposon and retroviral integration sites. Genome-wide analysis shows that Ds integration sites in the presence or absence of marker selection are remarkably similar and distributed throughout the genome. No strict motif was found, but a preference for structural features in the target DNA associated with DNA flexibility (Twist, Tilt, Rise, Roll, Shift, and Slide) was observed. Remarkably, this feature is also found in transposon and retroviral integrations in maize and mouse cells. Our findings show that structural features influence the integration of heterologous DNA in genomes, and have implications for targeted genome engineering. PMID:26818075

  3. Sleeping Beauty Transposon Vectors in Liver-directed Gene Delivery of LDLR and VLDLR for Gene Therapy of Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Tytteli A K; Kurkipuro, Jere; Heikura, Tommi; Vuorio, Taina; Hytönen, Elisa; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2016-03-01

    Plasmid-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors were developed and used to deliver genes for low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR and VLDLR, respectively) or lacZ reporter into liver of an LDLR-deficient mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). SB transposase, SB100x, was used to integrate the therapeutic transposons into mice livers for evaluating the feasibility of the vectors in reducing high blood cholesterol and the progression of atherosclerosis. Hydrodynamic gene delivery of transposon-VLDLR into the livers of the mice resulted in initial 17-19% reductions in plasma cholesterol, and at the later time points, in a significant stabilization of the cholesterol level for the 6.5-month duration of the study compared to the control mice. Transposon-LDLR-treated animals also demonstrated a trend of stabilization in the cholesterol levels in the long term. Vector-treated mice had slightly less lipid accumulation in the liver and reduced aortic atherosclerosis. Clinical chemistry and histological analyses revealed normal liver function and morphology comparable to that of the controls during the follow-up with no safety issues regarding the vector type, transgenes, or the gene transfer method. The study demonstrates the safety and potential benefits of the SB transposon vectors in the treatment of FH. PMID:26670130

  4. The transposon-driven evolutionary origin and basis of histone deacetylase functions and limitations in disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Peek, Gregory W; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2011-08-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are homologous to prokaryotic enzymes that removed acetyl groups from non-histone proteins before the evolution of eukaryotic histones. Enzymes inherited from prokaryotes or from a common ancestor were adapted for histone deacetylation, while useful deacetylation of non-histone proteins was selectively retained. Histone deacetylation served to prevent transcriptions with pathological consequences, including the expression of viral DNA and the deletion or dysregulation of vital genes by random transposon insertions. Viruses are believed to have evolved from transposons, with transposons providing the earliest impetus of HDAC evolution. Because of the wide range of genes potentially affected by transposon insertions, the range of diseases that can be prevented by HDACs is vast and inclusive. Repressive chromatin modifications that may prevent transcription also include methylation of selective lysine residues of histones H3 and H4 and the methylation of selective DNA cytosines following specific histone lysine methylation. Methylation and acetylation of individual histone residues are mutually exclusive. While transposons were sources of disease to be prevented by HDAC evolution, they were also the source of numerous and valuable coding and regulatory sequences recruited by "molecular domestication." Those sequences contribute to evolved complex transcription regulation in which components with contradictory effects, such as HDACs and HATs, may be coordinated and complementary. Within complex transcription regulation, however, HDACs remain ineffective as defense against some critical infectious and non-infectious diseases because evolutionary compromises have rendered their activity transient. PMID:22704332

  5. Survey of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hAT transposons and MITE-like hATpin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Gerhard; Krebs, Carmen; Diez, Mercedes; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Weisshaar, Bernd; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Genome-wide analyses of repetitive DNA suggest a significant impact particularly of transposable elements on genome size and evolution of virtually all eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we analyzed the abundance and diversity of the hAT transposon superfamily of the sugar beet (B. vulgaris) genome, using molecular, bioinformatic and cytogenetic approaches. We identified 81 transposase-coding sequences, three of which are part of structurally intact but nonfunctional hAT transposons (BvhAT), in a B. vulgaris BAC library as well as in whole genome sequencing-derived data sets. Additionally, 116 complete and 497 truncated non-autonomous BvhAT derivatives lacking the transposase gene were in silico-detected. The 116 complete derivatives were subdivided into four BvhATpin groups each characterized by a distinct terminal inverted repeat motif. Both BvhAT and BvhATpin transposons are specific for species of the genus Beta and closely related species, showing a localization on B. vulgaris chromosomes predominantely in euchromatic regions. The lack of any BvhAT transposase function together with the high degree of degeneration observed for the BvhAT and the BvhATpin genomic fraction contrasts with the abundance and activity of autonomous and non-autonomous hAT transposons revealed in other plant species. This indicates a possible genus-specific structural and functional repression of the hAT transposon superfamily during Beta diversification and evolution. PMID:22246381

  6. Identification of the maize gravitropism gene lazy plant1 by a transposon-tagging genome resequencing strategy.

    PubMed

    Howard, Thomas P; Hayward, Andrew P; Tordillos, Anthony; Fragoso, Christopher; Moreno, Maria A; Tohme, Joe; Kausch, Albert P; Mottinger, John P; Dellaporta, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Since their initial discovery, transposons have been widely used as mutagens for forward and reverse genetic screens in a range of organisms. The problems of high copy number and sequence divergence among related transposons have often limited the efficiency at which tagged genes can be identified. A method was developed to identity the locations of Mutator (Mu) transposons in the Zea mays genome using a simple enrichment method combined with genome resequencing to identify transposon junction fragments. The sequencing library was prepared from genomic DNA by digesting with a restriction enzyme that cuts within a perfectly conserved motif of the Mu terminal inverted repeats (TIR). Paired-end reads containing Mu TIR sequences were computationally identified and chromosomal sequences flanking the transposon were mapped to the maize reference genome. This method has been used to identify Mu insertions in a number of alleles and to isolate the previously unidentified lazy plant1 (la1) gene. The la1 gene is required for the negatively gravitropic response of shoots and mutant plants lack the ability to sense gravity. Using bioinformatic and fluorescence microscopy approaches, we show that the la1 gene encodes a cell membrane and nuclear localized protein. Our Mu-Taq method is readily adaptable to identify the genomic locations of any insertion of a known sequence in any organism using any sequencing platform. PMID:24498020

  7. Identification of the Maize Gravitropism Gene lazy plant1 by a Transposon-Tagging Genome Resequencing Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Thomas P.; Hayward, Andrew P.; Tordillos, Anthony; Fragoso, Christopher; Moreno, Maria A.; Tohme, Joe; Kausch, Albert P.; Mottinger, John P.; Dellaporta, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Since their initial discovery, transposons have been widely used as mutagens for forward and reverse genetic screens in a range of organisms. The problems of high copy number and sequence divergence among related transposons have often limited the efficiency at which tagged genes can be identified. A method was developed to identity the locations of Mutator (Mu) transposons in the Zea mays genome using a simple enrichment method combined with genome resequencing to identify transposon junction fragments. The sequencing library was prepared from genomic DNA by digesting with a restriction enzyme that cuts within a perfectly conserved motif of the Mu terminal inverted repeats (TIR). Paired-end reads containing Mu TIR sequences were computationally identified and chromosomal sequences flanking the transposon were mapped to the maize reference genome. This method has been used to identify Mu insertions in a number of alleles and to isolate the previously unidentified lazy plant1 (la1) gene. The la1 gene is required for the negatively gravitropic response of shoots and mutant plants lack the ability to sense gravity. Using bioinformatic and fluorescence microscopy approaches, we show that the la1 gene encodes a cell membrane and nuclear localized protein. Our Mu-Taq method is readily adaptable to identify the genomic locations of any insertion of a known sequence in any organism using any sequencing platform. PMID:24498020

  8. Sleeping Beauty transposon-based system for rapid generation of HBV-replicating stable cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Zhang, Tian-Ying; Fang, Lin-Lin; Chen, Zi-Xuan; Song, Liu-Wei; Cao, Jia-Li; Yang, Lin; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-08-01

    The stable HBV-replicating cell lines, which carry replication-competent HBV genome stably integrated into the genome of host cell, are widely used to evaluate the effects of antiviral agents. However, current methods to generate HBV-replicating cell lines, which are mostly dependent on random integration of foreign DNA via plasmid transfection, are less-efficient and time-consuming. To address this issue, we constructed an all-in-one Sleeping Beauty transposon system (denoted pTSMP-HBV vector) for robust generation of stable cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of different genotype. This vector contains a Sleeping Beauty transposon containing HBV 1.3-copy genome with an expression cassette of the SV40 promoter driving red fluorescent protein (mCherry) and self-cleaving P2A peptide linked puromycin resistance gene (PuroR). In addition, a PGK promoter-driven SB100X hyperactive transposase cassette is placed in the outside of the transposon in the same plasmid.The HBV-replicating stable cells could be obtained from pTSMP-HBV transfected HepG2 cells by red fluorescence-activated cell sorting and puromycin resistant cell selection within 4-week. Using this system, we successfully constructed four cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of genotypes A-D. The replication and viral protein expression profiles of these cells were systematically characterized. In conclusion, our study provides a high-efficiency strategy to generate HBV-replicating stable cell lines, which may facilitate HBV-related virological study. PMID:27091097

  9. Quantitative insertion-site sequencing (QIseq) for high throughput phenotyping of transposon mutants.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Iraad F; Otto, Thomas D; Zhang, Min; Udenze, Kenneth; Wang, Chengqi; Quail, Michael A; Jiang, Rays H Y; Adams, John H; Rayner, Julian C

    2016-07-01

    Genetic screening using random transposon insertions has been a powerful tool for uncovering biology in prokaryotes, where whole-genome saturating screens have been performed in multiple organisms. In eukaryotes, such screens have proven more problematic, in part because of the lack of a sensitive and robust system for identifying transposon insertion sites. We here describe quantitative insertion-site sequencing, or QIseq, which uses custom library preparation and Illumina sequencing technology and is able to identify insertion sites from both the 5' and 3' ends of the transposon, providing an inbuilt level of validation. The approach was developed using piggyBac mutants in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but should be applicable to many other eukaryotic genomes. QIseq proved accurate, confirming known sites in >100 mutants, and sensitive, identifying and monitoring sites over a >10,000-fold dynamic range of sequence counts. Applying QIseq to uncloned parasites shortly after transfections revealed multiple insertions in mixed populations and suggests that >4000 independent mutants could be generated from relatively modest scales of transfection, providing a clear pathway to genome-scale screens in P. falciparum QIseq was also used to monitor the growth of pools of previously cloned mutants and reproducibly differentiated between deleterious and neutral mutations in competitive growth. Among the mutants with fitness defects was a mutant with a piggyBac insertion immediately upstream of the kelch protein K13 gene associated with artemisinin resistance, implying mutants in this gene may have competitive fitness costs. QIseq has the potential to enable the scale-up of piggyBac-mediated genetics across multiple eukaryotic systems. PMID:27197223

  10. Quantitative insertion-site sequencing (QIseq) for high throughput phenotyping of transposon mutants

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Iraad F.; Otto, Thomas D.; Zhang, Min; Udenze, Kenneth; Wang, Chengqi; Quail, Michael A.; Jiang, Rays H.Y.; Adams, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic screening using random transposon insertions has been a powerful tool for uncovering biology in prokaryotes, where whole-genome saturating screens have been performed in multiple organisms. In eukaryotes, such screens have proven more problematic, in part because of the lack of a sensitive and robust system for identifying transposon insertion sites. We here describe quantitative insertion-site sequencing, or QIseq, which uses custom library preparation and Illumina sequencing technology and is able to identify insertion sites from both the 5′ and 3′ ends of the transposon, providing an inbuilt level of validation. The approach was developed using piggyBac mutants in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum but should be applicable to many other eukaryotic genomes. QIseq proved accurate, confirming known sites in >100 mutants, and sensitive, identifying and monitoring sites over a >10,000-fold dynamic range of sequence counts. Applying QIseq to uncloned parasites shortly after transfections revealed multiple insertions in mixed populations and suggests that >4000 independent mutants could be generated from relatively modest scales of transfection, providing a clear pathway to genome-scale screens in P. falciparum. QIseq was also used to monitor the growth of pools of previously cloned mutants and reproducibly differentiated between deleterious and neutral mutations in competitive growth. Among the mutants with fitness defects was a mutant with a piggyBac insertion immediately upstream of the kelch protein K13 gene associated with artemisinin resistance, implying mutants in this gene may have competitive fitness costs. QIseq has the potential to enable the scale-up of piggyBac-mediated genetics across multiple eukaryotic systems. PMID:27197223

  11. Reprogramming of mouse amniotic fluid cells using a PiggyBac transposon system.

    PubMed

    Bertin, E; Piccoli, M; Franzin, C; Nagy, A; Mileikovsky, M; De Coppi, P; Pozzobon, M

    2015-11-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from mouse and human somatic cells by forced expression of defined transcription factors using different methods. Amniotic fluid (AF) cells are easy to obtain from routinely scheduled procedures for prenatal diagnosis and iPS cells have been generated from human AF. Here, we generated iPS cells from mouse AF cells, using a non-viral-based approach constituted by the PiggyBac (PB) transposon system. All iPS cell lines obtained exhibited characteristics of pluripotent cells, including the ability to differentiate toward derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26987920

  12. General survey of hAT transposon superfamily with highlight on hobo element in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ladevèze, Véronique; Chaminade, Nicole; Lemeunier, Françoise; Periquet, Georges; Aulard, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    The hAT transposons, very abundant in all kingdoms, have a common evolutionary origin probably predating the plant-fungi-animal divergence. In this paper we present their general characteristics. Members of this superfamily belong to Class II transposable elements. hAT elements share transposase, short terminal inverted repeats and eight base-pairs duplication of genomic target. We focus on hAT elements in Drosophila, especially hobo. Its distribution, dynamics and impact on genome restructuring in laboratory strains as well as in natural populations are reported. Finally, the evolutionary history of hAT elements, their domestication and use as transgenic tools are discussed. PMID:23111927

  13. A high-copy-number CACTA family transposon in temperate grasses and cereals.

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Tim; Jenkins, Glyn; Hasterok, Robert; Jones, R Neil; King, Ian P

    2003-01-01

    A lineage of CACTA family transposons has been identified in temperate grasses and cereals, and a full-length representative of the subfamily from Lolium perenne has been sequenced. Both the size and internal organization of the L. perenne element are typical of other CACTA family elements but its high copy number and strong conservation are unexpected. Comparison with homologs in other species suggests that this lineage has adopted a distinct and novel evolutionary strategy, which has allowed it to maintain its presence in genomes over long periods of time. PMID:12663547

  14. Insertional mutagenesis by transposable elements in the mammalian genome.

    PubMed

    Amariglio, N; Rechavi, G

    1993-01-01

    Several mammalian repetitive transposable genetic elements were characterized in recent years, and their role in mutagenesis is delineated in this review. Two main groups have been described: elements with symmetrical termini such as the murine IAP sequences and the human THE 1 elements and elements characterized by a poly-A rich tail at the 3' end such as the SINE and LINE sequences. The characteristic property of such mobile elements to spread and integrate in the host genome leads to insertional mutagenesis. Both germline and somatic mutations have been documented resulting from the insertion of the various types of mammalian repetitive transposable genetic elements. As foreseen by Barbara McClintock, such genetic events can cause either the activation or the inactivation of specific genes, resulting in their identification via an altered phenotype. Several disease states, such as hemophilia and cancer, are the result of this apparent aspect of genome instability. PMID:8385004

  15. European Community research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sors, A I

    1993-01-01

    Within the 12 Member States of the European Community (EC), environmental policy is now formulated primarily at Community level. As a result, the EC has important regulatory responsibilities for the protection of workers, consumers, and the general public from risks that may arise from environmental chemicals, foremost among them potential carcinogens and mutagens. An important part of EC environmental research and development is intended to provide a scientific basis for these regulations as well as increasing understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in environmental carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. This paper contains a brief introduction to EC environment policy and research, followed by an overview of EC chemicals control activities that are of particular relevance to the research and development program. Community-level research on environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is then reviewed in some detail, including the achievements of recent projects, the scientific content of the current program, and perspectives for the future. PMID:8143645

  16. Structural evidence for the rare tautomer hypothesis of spontaneous mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weina; Hellinga, Homme W.; Beese, Lorena S.

    2012-05-10

    Even though high-fidelity polymerases copy DNA with remarkable accuracy, some base-pair mismatches are incorporated at low frequency, leading to spontaneous mutagenesis. Using high-resolution X-ray crystallographic analysis of a DNA polymerase that catalyzes replication in crystals, we observe that a C {center_dot} A mismatch can mimic the shape of cognate base pairs at the site of incorporation. This shape mimicry enables the mismatch to evade the error detection mechanisms of the polymerase, which would normally either prevent mismatch incorporation or promote its nucleolytic excision. Movement of a single proton on one of the mismatched bases alters the hydrogen-bonding pattern such that a base pair forms with an overall shape that is virtually indistinguishable from a canonical, Watson-Crick base pair in double-stranded DNA. These observations provide structural evidence for the rare tautomer hypothesis of spontaneous mutagenesis, a long-standing concept that has been difficult to demonstrate directly.

  17. Antiviral Strategies Based on Lethal Mutagenesis and Error Threshold.

    PubMed

    Perales, Celia; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The concept of error threshold derived from quasispecies theory is at the basis of lethal mutagenesis, a new antiviral strategy based on the increase of virus mutation rate above an extinction threshold. Research on this strategy is justified by several inhibitor-escape routes that viruses utilize to ensure their survival. Successive steps in the transition from an organized viral quasispecies into loss of biologically meaningful genomic sequences are dissected. The possible connections between theoretical models and experimental observations on lethal mutagenesis are reviewed. The possibility of using combination of virus-specific mutagenic nucleotide analogues and broad-spectrum, non-mutagenic inhibitors is evaluated. We emphasize the power that quasispecies theory has had to stimulate exploration of new means to combat pathogenic viruses. PMID:26294225

  18. Efficient site-directed saturation mutagenesis using degenerate oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Steffens, David L; Williams, John G K

    2007-07-01

    We describe a reliable protocol for constructing single-site saturation mutagenesis libraries consisting of all 20 naturally occurring amino acids at a specific site within a protein. Such libraries are useful for structure-function studies and directed evolution. This protocol extends the utility of Stratagene's QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit, which is primarily recommended for single amino acid substitutions. Two complementary primers are synthesized, containing a degenerate mixture of the four bases at the three positions of the selected codon. These primers are added to starting plasmid template and thermal cycled to produce mutant DNA molecules, which are subsequently transformed into competent bacteria. The protocol does not require purification of mutagenic oligonucleotides or PCR products. This reduces both the cost and turnaround time in high-throughput directed evolution applications. We have utilized this protocol to generate over 200 site-saturation libraries in a DNA polymerase, with a success rate of greater than 95%. PMID:17595310

  19. Minimizing off-Target Mutagenesis Risks Caused by Programmable Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Kentaro; Gee, Peter; Hotta, Akitsu

    2015-01-01

    Programmable nucleases, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats associated protein-9 (CRISPR-Cas9), hold tremendous potential for applications in the clinical setting to treat genetic diseases or prevent infectious diseases. However, because the accuracy of DNA recognition by these nucleases is not always perfect, off-target mutagenesis may result in undesirable adverse events in treated patients such as cellular toxicity or tumorigenesis. Therefore, designing nucleases and analyzing their activity must be carefully evaluated to minimize off-target mutagenesis. Furthermore, rigorous genomic testing will be important to ensure the integrity of nuclease modified cells. In this review, we provide an overview of available nuclease designing platforms, nuclease engineering approaches to minimize off-target activity, and methods to evaluate both on- and off-target cleavage of CRISPR-Cas9. PMID:26501275

  20. Specific mutagenesis of a chlorophyll-binding protein. Progress report.

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton-Rye, Dr., Julian; Shen, Gaozhong

    1990-01-01

    During the first phase of the project regarding specific mutagenesis of the chlorophyll-binding protein CP47 in photosystem II (PS II) most of the time has been devoted to (1) establishment of an optimal procedure for the reintroduction of psbB (the gene encoding CP47) carrying a site-directed mutation into the experimental organism, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, (2) preparations for site-directed mutagenesis, and (3) creation and analysis of chimaeric spinach/cyanobacterial CP47 mutants of Synechocystis. In the coming year, psbB constructs with site-directed mutations in potential chlorophyll-binding regions of CP47 will be introduced into the Synechocystis genome, and site-directed mutants will be characterized according to procedures described in the original project description. In addition, analysis of chimaeric CP47 mutants will be continued.

  1. Oligonucleotide-directed site-specific mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Banga, S S; Boyd, J B

    1992-01-01

    An efficient technique has been developed for performing in vivo site-directed mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. This procedure involves directed repair of P-element-induced DNA lesions after injection of a modified DNA sequence into early embryos. An oligonucleotide of 50 base pairs, whose sequence spans the P-element insertion site, mediates base replacement in the endogenous gene. Restriction mapping, DNA sequencing, and polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrate that base substitutions present in an injected oligonucleotide are incorporated into genomic sequences flanking a P insertion site in the white gene. This analysis suggests that progeny bearing directed mutations are recovered with a frequency of about 0.5 x 10(-3). Because Drosophila remains a premier organism for the analysis of eukaryotic gene regulation, this system should find strong application in that analysis as well as in the analysis of DNA recombination, conversion, repair, and mutagenesis. Images PMID:1311850

  2. Minimizing off-Target Mutagenesis Risks Caused by Programmable Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kentaro; Gee, Peter; Hotta, Akitsu

    2015-01-01

    Programmable nucleases, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats associated protein-9 (CRISPR-Cas9), hold tremendous potential for applications in the clinical setting to treat genetic diseases or prevent infectious diseases. However, because the accuracy of DNA recognition by these nucleases is not always perfect, off-target mutagenesis may result in undesirable adverse events in treated patients such as cellular toxicity or tumorigenesis. Therefore, designing nucleases and analyzing their activity must be carefully evaluated to minimize off-target mutagenesis. Furthermore, rigorous genomic testing will be important to ensure the integrity of nuclease modified cells. In this review, we provide an overview of available nuclease designing platforms, nuclease engineering approaches to minimize off-target activity, and methods to evaluate both on- and off-target cleavage of CRISPR-Cas9. PMID:26501275

  3. Efficient generation of transgenic cattle using the DNA transposon and their analysis by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yum, Soo-Young; Lee, Song-Jeon; Kim, Hyun-Min; Choi, Woo-Jae; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Won-Wu; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Jong; Bae, Seong-Hun; Lee, Je-Hyeong; Moon, Joo-Yeong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Choong-Il; Son, Bong-Jun; Song, Sang-Hoon; Ji, Su-Min; Kim, Seong-Jin; Jang, Goo

    2016-01-01

    Here, we efficiently generated transgenic cattle using two transposon systems (Sleeping Beauty and Piggybac) and their genomes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Blastocysts derived from microinjection of DNA transposons were selected and transferred into recipient cows. Nine transgenic cattle have been generated and grown-up to date without any health issues except two. Some of them expressed strong fluorescence and the transgene in the oocytes from a superovulating one were detected by PCR and sequencing. To investigate genomic variants by the transgene transposition, whole genomic DNA were analyzed by NGS. We found that preferred transposable integration (TA or TTAA) was identified in their genome. Even though multi-copies (i.e. fifteen) were confirmed, there was no significant difference in genome instabilities. In conclusion, we demonstrated that transgenic cattle using the DNA transposon system could be efficiently generated, and all those animals could be a valuable resource for agriculture and veterinary science. PMID:27324781

  4. Autonomous and non-autonomous Tn3-family transposons and their role in the evolution of mobile genetic elements

    PubMed Central

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The Tn3 family of transposons includes diverse elements that encode homologous transposases and contain conserved terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs). The recent identification of non-autonomous elements, named TIMEs (Tn3-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements), has shed new light on the diversity and evolution of this transposon family. A common feature of TIMEs and other members of this family is their ability to mobilize genomic DNA for transposition as part of composite transposons. These elements significantly influence the structure and properties of plasmids and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs). They may contain and move by transposition (i) plasmid replication systems, (ii) toxin-antitoxin systems and (iii) site-specific recombination modules that can resolve plasmid multimers. Some Tn3 family elements may also transfer large segments of chromosomal DNA into plasmids, which increases the pool of mobile DNA that can take part in horizontal gene transfer. PMID:26442174

  5. Efficient generation of transgenic cattle using the DNA transposon and their analysis by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Lee, Song-Jeon; Kim, Hyun-Min; Choi, Woo-Jae; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Won-Wu; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Jong; Bae, Seong-Hun; Lee, Je-Hyeong; Moon, Joo-Yeong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Choong-Il; Son, Bong-Jun; Song, Sang-Hoon; Ji, Su-Min; Kim, Seong-Jin; Jang, Goo

    2016-01-01

    Here, we efficiently generated transgenic cattle using two transposon systems (Sleeping Beauty and Piggybac) and their genomes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Blastocysts derived from microinjection of DNA transposons were selected and transferred into recipient cows. Nine transgenic cattle have been generated and grown-up to date without any health issues except two. Some of them expressed strong fluorescence and the transgene in the oocytes from a superovulating one were detected by PCR and sequencing. To investigate genomic variants by the transgene transposition, whole genomic DNA were analyzed by NGS. We found that preferred transposable integration (TA or TTAA) was identified in their genome. Even though multi-copies (i.e. fifteen) were confirmed, there was no significant difference in genome instabilities. In conclusion, we demonstrated that transgenic cattle using the DNA transposon system could be efficiently generated, and all those animals could be a valuable resource for agriculture and veterinary science. PMID:27324781

  6. Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Sleeping Beauty Transposon-Based Stable Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Attila; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a source of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and resemble human embryonic stem (ES) cells in gene expression profiles, morphology, pluripotency, and in vitro differentiation potential. iPS cells are applied in disease modeling, drug screenings, toxicology screenings, and autologous cell therapy. In this protocol, we describe how to derive human iPS cells from fibroblasts by Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated gene transfer of reprogramming factors. First, the components of the non-viral Sleeping Beauty transposon system, namely a transposon vector encoding reprogramming transcription factors and a helper plasmid expressing the SB transposase, are electroporated into human fibroblasts. The reprogramming cassette undergoes transposition from the transfected plasmids into the fibroblast genome, thereby resulting in stable delivery of the reprogramming factors. Reprogramming by using this protocol takes ~4 weeks, after which the iPS cells are isolated and clonally propagated. PMID:26895068

  7. The nucleotide sequence of the tnpA gene completes the sequence of the Pseudomonas transposon Tn501.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, N L; Winnie, J N; Fritzinger, D; Pridmore, R D

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene (tnpA) which codes for the transposase of transposon Tn501 has been determined. It contains an open reading frame for a polypeptide of Mr = 111,500, which terminates within the inverted repeat sequence of the transposon. The reading frame would be transcribed in the same direction as the mercury-resistance genes and the tnpR gene. The amino acid sequence predicted from this reading frame shows 32% identity with that of the transposase of the related transposon Tn3. The C-terminal regions of these two polypeptides show slightly greater homology than the N-terminal regions when conservative amino acid substitutions are considered. With this sequence determination, the nucleotide sequence of Tn501 is fully defined. The main features of the sequence are briefly presented. PMID:2994007

  8. Transcriptional mutagenesis: causes and involvement in tumor development

    PubMed Central

    Brégeon, Damien; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of normal cells in a human do not multiply continuously but are quiescent and devote most of their energy to gene transcription. When DNA damages in the transcribed strand of an active gene are bypassed by an RNA polymerase, they can miscode at the damaged site and produce mutant transcripts. This process known as transcriptional mutagenesis can lead to the production of mutant proteins that could be important in tumor development. PMID:21346784

  9. Nitrosoguanidine and ultraviolet light mutagenesis in Eudorina elegans (chlorophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Toby, A.L.; Kemp, C.L.

    1980-06-01

    Reversion of an acetate requiring strain and the induction of sectored colonies are used to establish optimal conditions for nitrosoguanidine and ultraviolet light mutagenesis in Eudorina elegans Ehrenberg. Nitrosoguanidine is more effective in causing reversion of the acetate requiring strain and inducing auxotrophs. Morphogenetic mutants are more readily induced by ultraviolet light. The effectiveness of ultraviolet light as a mutagen is cell cycle dependent whereas the mutagenic action of nitrosoguanidine is not.

  10. A Chemical Mutagenesis Screen Identifies Mouse Models with ERG Defects.

    PubMed

    Charette, Jeremy R; Samuels, Ivy S; Yu, Minzhong; Stone, Lisa; Hicks, Wanda; Shi, Lan Ying; Krebs, Mark P; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M; Peachey, Neal S

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models provide important resources for many areas of vision research, pertaining to retinal development, retinal function and retinal disease. The Translational Vision Research Models (TVRM) program uses chemical mutagenesis to generate new mouse models for vision research. In this chapter, we report the identification of mouse models for Grm1, Grk1 and Lrit3. Each of these is characterized by a primary defect in the electroretinogram. All are available without restriction to the research community. PMID:26427409

  11. Metal mutagenesis in transgenic Chinese hamster cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, C B; Kargacin, B; Su, L; Cosentino, S; Snow, E T; Costa, M

    1994-01-01

    Metals are toxic agents for which genotoxic effects are often difficult to demonstrate. To study metal mutagenesis, we have used two stable hprt/gpt+ transgenic cell lines that were derived from Chinese hamster V79 cells. Both the G12 and G10 cell lines are known to be very sensitive to clastogens such as X-rays and bleomycin, with the mutagenic response of the integrated xanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (gpt) gene in G10 usually exceeding that of the same gene in the transgenic G12 cells. In studies with carcinogenic insoluble nickel compounds, a high level of mutagenesis was found at the gpt locus of G12 cells but not at the endogenous hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus of V79 cells. We have since demonstrated the similar recovery of a high frequency of viable G12 mutants with other insoluble nickel salts including nickel oxides (black and green). The relative mutant yield for the insoluble nickel compounds (G12 > G10) is the opposite of that obtained with nonmetal clastogens (G10 > G12). In the G12 cells, nickel mutagenesis may be related to the integration of the gpt sequence into a heterochromatic region of the genome. For some of the insoluble nickel compounds, significant inhibition of both cytotoxicity and mutant yield resulted when the G12 cells were pretreated with vitamin E. In comparison with the nickel studies, the mutagenic responses to chromium compounds in these cell lines were not as dramatic. Mutagenesis of the gpt target could not be demonstrated with other metals such as mercury or vanadium. PMID:7843139

  12. Highly Efficient Targeted Mutagenesis in Mice Using TALENs

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sudeepta Kumar; Wefers, Benedikt; Ortiz, Oskar; Floss, Thomas; Schmid, Bettina; Haass, Christian; Wurst, Wolfgang; Kühn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Targeted mouse mutants are instrumental for the analysis of gene function in health and disease. We recently provided proof-of-principle for the fast-track mutagenesis of the mouse genome, using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in one-cell embryos. Here we report a routine procedure for the efficient production of disease-related knockin and knockout mutants, using improved TALEN mRNAs that include a plasmid-coded poly(A) tail (TALEN-95A), circumventing the problematic in vitro polyadenylation step. To knock out the C9orf72 gene as a model of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, TALEN-95A mutagenesis induced sequence deletions in 41% of pups derived from microinjected embryos. Using TALENs together with mutagenic oligodeoxynucleotides, we introduced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient-derived missense mutations in the fused in sarcoma (Fus) gene at a rate of 6.8%. For the simple identification of TALEN-induced mutants and their progeny we validate high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) of PCR products as a sensitive and universal genotyping tool. Furthermore, HRMA of off-target sites in mutant founder mice revealed no evidence for undesired TALEN-mediated processing of related genomic sequences. The combination of TALEN-95A mRNAs for enhanced mutagenesis and of HRMA for simplified genotyping enables the accelerated, routine production of new mouse models for the study of genetic disease mechanisms. PMID:23979585

  13. Targeted mutagenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana using engineered TAL effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Christian, Michelle; Qi, Yiping; Zhang, Yong; Voytas, Daniel F

    2013-10-01

    Custom TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) are increasingly used as reagents to manipulate genomes in vivo. Here, we used TALENs to modify the genome of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We engineered seven TALENs targeting five Arabidopsis genes, namely ADH1, TT4, MAPKKK1, DSK2B, and NATA2. In pooled seedlings expressing the TALENs, we observed somatic mutagenesis frequencies ranging from 2-15% at the intended targets for all seven TALENs. Somatic mutagenesis frequencies as high as 41-73% were observed in individual transgenic plant lines expressing the TALENs. Additionally, a TALEN pair targeting a tandemly duplicated gene induced a 4.4-kb deletion in somatic cells. For the most active TALEN pairs, namely those targeting ADH1 and NATA2, we found that TALEN-induced mutations were transmitted to the next generation at frequencies of 1.5-12%. Our work demonstrates that TALENs are useful reagents for achieving targeted mutagenesis in this important plant model. PMID:23979944

  14. Tupaia small RNAs provide insights into function and evolution of RNAi-based transposon defense in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, David; Rudloff, Stefanie; Bastuck, Katharina; Ketting, René F.; Zischler, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Argonaute proteins comprising Piwi-like and Argonaute-like proteins and their guiding small RNAs combat mobile DNA on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. While Piwi-like proteins and associated piRNAs are generally restricted to the germline, Argonaute-like proteins and siRNAs have been linked with transposon control in the germline as well as in the soma. Intriguingly, evolution has realized distinct Argonaute subfunctionalization patterns in different species but our knowledge about mammalian RNA interference pathways relies mainly on findings from the mouse model. However, mice differ from other mammals by absence of functional Piwil3 and expression of an oocyte-specific Dicer isoform. Thus, studies beyond the mouse model are required for a thorough understanding of function and evolution of mammalian RNA interference pathways. We high-throughput sequenced small RNAs from the male Tupaia belangeri germline, which represents a close outgroup to primates, hence phylogenetically links mice with humans. We identified transposon-derived piRNAs as well as siRNAs clearly contrasting the separation of piRNA- and siRNA-pathways into male and female germline as seen in mice. Genome-wide analysis of tree shrew transposons reveal that putative siRNAs map to transposon sites that form foldback secondary structures thus representing suitable Dicer substrates. In contrast piRNAs target transposon sites that remain accessible. With this we provide a basic mechanistic explanation how secondary structure of transposon transcripts influences piRNA- and siRNA-pathway utilization. Finally, our analyses of tree shrew piRNA clusters indicate A-Myb and the testis-expressed transcription factor RFX4 to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of mammalian piRNA clusters. PMID:25802409

  15. Tupaia small RNAs provide insights into function and evolution of RNAi-based transposon defense in mammals.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, David; Rudloff, Stefanie; Bastuck, Katharina; Ketting, René F; Zischler, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Argonaute proteins comprising Piwi-like and Argonaute-like proteins and their guiding small RNAs combat mobile DNA on the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. While Piwi-like proteins and associated piRNAs are generally restricted to the germline, Argonaute-like proteins and siRNAs have been linked with transposon control in the germline as well as in the soma. Intriguingly, evolution has realized distinct Argonaute subfunctionalization patterns in different species but our knowledge about mammalian RNA interference pathways relies mainly on findings from the mouse model. However, mice differ from other mammals by absence of functional Piwil3 and expression of an oocyte-specific Dicer isoform. Thus, studies beyond the mouse model are required for a thorough understanding of function and evolution of mammalian RNA interference pathways. We high-throughput sequenced small RNAs from the male Tupaia belangeri germline, which represents a close outgroup to primates, hence phylogenetically links mice with humans. We identified transposon-derived piRNAs as well as siRNAs clearly contrasting the separation of piRNA- and siRNA-pathways into male and female germline as seen in mice. Genome-wide analysis of tree shrew transposons reveal that putative siRNAs map to transposon sites that form foldback secondary structures thus representing suitable Dicer substrates. In contrast piRNAs target transposon sites that remain accessible. With this we provide a basic mechanistic explanation how secondary structure of transposon transcripts influences piRNA- and siRNA-pathway utilization. Finally, our analyses of tree shrew piRNA clusters indicate A-Myb and the testis-expressed transcription factor RFX4 to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of mammalian piRNA clusters. PMID:25802409

  16. A semi-automated high-throughput approach to the generation of transposon insertion mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Yohann; Belougne, Jérôme; Scaglione, Sarah; Brandli, Dominique; Beclin, Christophe; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2007-01-01

    The generation of a large collection of defined transposon insertion mutants is of general interest to the Caenorhabditis elegans research community and has been supported by the European Union. We describe here a semi-automated high-throughput method for mutant production and screening, using the heterologous transposon Mos1. The procedure allows routine culture of several thousand independent nematode strains in parallel for multiple generations before stereotyped molecular analyses. Using this method, we have already generated >17 500 individual strains carrying Mos1 insertions. It could be easily adapted to forward and reverse genetic screens and may influence researchers faced with making a choice of model organism. PMID:17164286

  17. Virulence determinants of Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum identified by PCR signature-tagged mutagenesis and the spiC mutant as a candidate live attenuated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Xinan; Barrow, Paul; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang

    2014-01-31

    Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum) is the causative agent of pullorum disease (PD) in chickens which results in considerable economic losses to the poultry industries in developing countries. PCR-Signature Tagged Mutagenesis was used to identify virulence determinants of S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum and novel attenuated live vaccine candidates for use against this disease. A library of 1800 signature-tagged S. Gallinarum biovar Pullorum mutants was constructed and screened for virulence-associated genes in chickens. The attenuation of 10 mutants was confirmed by in vivo and in vitro competitive index (CI) studies. The transposons were found to be located in SPI-1 (2/10 mutants), SPI-2 (3/10), the virulence plasmid (1/10) and non-SPI genes (4/10). One highly attenuated spiC mutant persisted in spleen and liver for less than 10 days and induced high levels of circulating antibody and protective immunity against oral challenge in young broiler chickens. The spiC mutant is a potential new vaccine candidate for use with chickens against this disease. PMID:24355532

  18. Tc7, a Tc1-hitch hiking transposon in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Rezsohazy, R; van Luenen, H G; Durbin, R M; Plasterk, R H

    1997-01-01

    We have found a novel transposon in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Tc7 is a 921 bp element, made up of two 345 bp inverted repeats separated by a unique, internal sequence. Tc7 does not contain an open reading frame. The outer 38 bp of the inverted repeat show 36 matches with the outer 38 bp of Tc1. This region of Tc1 contains the Tc1-transposase binding site. Furthermore, Tc7 is flanked by TA dinucleotides, just like Tc1, which presumably correspond to the target duplication generated upon integration. Since Tc7 does not encode its own transposase but contains the Tc1-transposase binding site at its extremities, we tested the ability of Tc7 to jump upon forced expression of Tc1 transposase in somatic cells. Under these conditions Tc7 jumps at a frequency similar to Tc1. The target site choice of Tc7 is identical to that of Tc1. These data suggest that Tc7 shares with Tc1 all the sequences minimally required to parasitize upon the Tc1 transposition machinery. The genomic distribution of Tc7 shows a striking clustering on the X chromosome where two thirds of the elements (20 out of 33) are located. Related transposons in C. elegans do not show this asymmetric distribution. PMID:9321656

  19. Structure and context of Acinetobacter transposons carrying the oxa23 carbapenemase gene.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Steven J; Hall, Ruth M

    2016-05-01

    Theoxa23gene encoding the OXA-23 carbapenemase (and several minor variants of it) is widespread inAcinetobacter baumanniiclinical isolates and compromises treatment with carbapenem antibiotics. The gene is derived from the chromosome ofAcinetobacter radioresistenswhere it is an intrinsic gene, here designatedoxaAr InA. baumanniiand otherAcinetobacterspecies,oxa23is usually preceded by an IS, ISAba1, which supplies the strong promoter required for the gene to confer clinically relevant levels of resistance. TheoxaArgene appears to have been mobilized twice creating Tn2008and Tn2008B, both of which consist of a single ISAba1 and anA. radioresistens-derived fragment. Tn2006and Tn2009are clearly derived from Tn2008Band are each made up of Tn2008Bwith an additional segment of unknown origin and an additional ISAba1, creating a compound transposon. Tn2006, Tn2008and possibly Tn2008Bare globally disseminated, while Tn2009has as yet only been found in China. Of the four ISAba1-associated transposons, Tn2006has been most frequently observed worldwide and Tn2006in Tn6022, known as AbaR4, appears to contribute significantly to the dissemination ofoxa23 Moreover, AbaR4, Tn2006, Tn2008and Tn2009have each been found in conjugative plasmids, further facilitating their spread. PMID:26755496

  20. MiniTn7-transposon delivery vectors for inducible or constitutive fluorescent protein expression in Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N. P.; Gisler, Pascal; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the generation and function of two sets of bacterial plasmids that harbor fluorescent genes encoding either blue, cyan, yellow or red fluorescent proteins. In the first set, protein expression is controlled by the strong and constitutive nptII promoter whereas in the second set, the strong tac promoter was chosen that underlies LacIq regulation. Furthermore, the plasmids are mobilizable, contain Tn7 transposons and a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. Using Escherichia coli S17-1 as donor strain, the plasmids allow fast and convenient Tn7-transposon delivery into many enterobacterial hosts, such as the here-used E. coli O157:H7. This procedure omits the need of preparing competent recipient cells and antibiotic resistances are only transiently conferred to the recipients. As the fluorescence proteins show little to no overlap in fluorescence emission, the constructs are well suited for the study of multicolored synthetic bacterial communities during biofilm production or in host colonization studies, e.g. of plant surfaces. Furthermore, tac promoter-reporter constructs allow the generation of so-called reproductive success reporters, which allow to estimate past doublings of bacterial individuals after introduction into environments, emphasizing the role of individual cells during colonization. PMID:27445318

  1. Insights on genome size evolution from a miniature inverted repeat transposon driving a satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Scalvenzi, Thibault; Pollet, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The genome size in eukaryotes does not correlate well with the number of genes they contain. We can observe this so-called C-value paradox in amphibian species. By analyzing an amphibian genome we asked how repetitive DNA can impact genome size and architecture. We describe here our discovery of a Tc1/mariner miniature inverted-repeat transposon family present in Xenopus frogs. These transposons named miDNA4 are unique since they contain a satellite DNA motif. We found that miDNA4 measured 331 bp, contained 25 bp long inverted terminal repeat sequences and a sequence motif of 119 bp present as a unique copy or as an array of 2-47 copies. We characterized the structure, dynamics, impact and evolution of the miDNA4 family and its satellite DNA in Xenopus frog genomes. This led us to propose a model for the evolution of these two repeated sequences and how they can synergize to increase genome size. PMID:25193611

  2. Coordination of transposon expression with DNA replication in the targeting of telomeric retrotransposons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Beaucher, Michelle; Cheng, Yan; Rong, Yikang S

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila, a group of retrotransposons is mobilized exclusively to telomeres in a sequence-independent manner. How they target chromosome ends is not understood. Here, we focused on the telomeric element HeT-A and characterized the cell cycle expression and cytological distribution of its protein and RNA products. We determined the timing of telomere replication by creating a single lacO-marked telomere and provide evidence suggesting that transposon expression and recruitment to telomeres is linked to telomere replication. The HeT-A-encoded ORF1p protein is expressed predominantly in S phase, particularly in early S phase. Orf1p binds HeT-A transcripts and forms spherical structures at telomeres undergoing DNA replication. HeT-A sphere formation requires Verrocchio, a putative homolog of the conserved Stn1 telomeric protein. Our results suggest that coupling of telomere elongation and telomere replication is a universal feature, and raise the possibility that transposon recruitment to Drosophila telomeres is mechanistically related to telomerase recruitment in other organisms. Our study also supports a co-adaptive relationship between the Drosophila host and HeT-A mobile elements. PMID:24733842

  3. MiniTn7-transposon delivery vectors for inducible or constitutive fluorescent protein expression in Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Gisler, Pascal; Drissner, David

    2016-08-01

    Here we present the generation and function of two sets of bacterial plasmids that harbor fluorescent genes encoding either blue, cyan, yellow or red fluorescent proteins. In the first set, protein expression is controlled by the strong and constitutive nptII promoter whereas in the second set, the strong tac promoter was chosen that underlies LacI(q) regulation. Furthermore, the plasmids are mobilizable, contain Tn7 transposons and a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. Using Escherichia coli S17-1 as donor strain, the plasmids allow fast and convenient Tn7-transposon delivery into many enterobacterial hosts, such as the here-used E. coli O157:H7. This procedure omits the need of preparing competent recipient cells and antibiotic resistances are only transiently conferred to the recipients. As the fluorescence proteins show little to no overlap in fluorescence emission, the constructs are well suited for the study of multicolored synthetic bacterial communities during biofilm production or in host colonization studies, e.g. of plant surfaces. Furthermore, tac promoter-reporter constructs allow the generation of so-called reproductive success reporters, which allow to estimate past doublings of bacterial individuals after introduction into environments, emphasizing the role of individual cells during colonization. PMID:27445318

  4. Derivation and characterization of bovine induced pluripotent stem cells by transposon-mediated reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Talluri, Thirumala R; Kumar, Dharmendra; Glage, Silke; Garrels, Wiebke; Ivics, Zoltan; Debowski, Katharina; Behr, Rüdiger; Niemann, Heiner; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a seminal breakthrough in stem cell research and are promising tools for advanced regenerative therapies in humans and reproductive biotechnology in farm animals. iPSCs are particularly valuable in species in which authentic embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are yet not available. Here, we describe a nonviral method for the derivation of bovine iPSCs employing Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) transposon systems encoding different combinations of reprogramming factors, each separated by self-cleaving peptide sequences and driven by the chimeric CAGGS promoter. One bovine iPSC line (biPS-1) generated by a PB vector containing six reprogramming genes was analyzed in detail, including morphology, alkaline phosphatase expression, and typical hallmarks of pluripotency, such as expression of pluripotency markers and formation of mature teratomas in immunodeficient mice. Moreover, the biPS-1 line allowed a second round of SB transposon-mediated gene transfer. These results are promising for derivation of germ line-competent bovine iPSCs and will facilitate genetic modification of the bovine genome. PMID:25826726

  5. A comparison of dense transposon insertion libraries in the Salmonella serovars Typhi and Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Barquist, Lars; Langridge, Gemma C.; Turner, Daniel J.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Turner, A. Keith; Bateman, Alex; Parkhill, Julian; Wain, John; Gardner, Paul P.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Typhi and Typhimurium diverged only ∼50 000 years ago, yet have very different host ranges and pathogenicity. Despite the availability of multiple whole-genome sequences, the genetic differences that have driven these changes in phenotype are only beginning to be understood. In this study, we use transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing to probe differences in gene requirements for competitive growth in rich media between these two closely related serovars. We identify a conserved core of 281 genes that are required for growth in both serovars, 228 of which are essential in Escherichia coli. We are able to identify active prophage elements through the requirement for their repressors. We also find distinct differences in requirements for genes involved in cell surface structure biogenesis and iron utilization. Finally, we demonstrate that transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing is not only applicable to the protein-coding content of the cell but also has sufficient resolution to generate hypotheses regarding the functions of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) as well. We are able to assign probable functions to a number of cis-regulatory ncRNA elements, as well as to infer likely differences in trans-acting ncRNA regulatory networks. PMID:23470992

  6. A comprehensive transposon mutant library of Francisella novicida, a bioweapon surrogate

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Larry A.; Ramage, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Michael A.; Kaul, Rajinder; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Manoil, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known and is a category A select agent. We created a sequence-defined, near-saturation transposon mutant library of F. tularensis novicida, a subspecies that causes a tularemia-like disease in rodents. The library consists of 16,508 unique insertions, an average of >9 insertions per gene, which is a coverage nearly twice that of the greatest previously achieved for any bacterial species. Insertions were recovered in 84% (1,490) of the predicted genes. To achieve high coverage, it was necessary to construct transposons carrying an endogenous Francisella promoter to drive expression of antibiotic resistance. An analysis of genes lacking (or with few) insertions identified nearly 400 candidate essential genes, most of which are likely to be required for growth on rich medium and which represent potential therapeutic targets. To facilitate genome-scale screening using the mutant collection, we assembled a sublibrary made up of two purified mutants per gene. The library provides a resource for virtually complete identification of genes involved in virulence and other nonessential processes. PMID:17215359

  7. Control of Transposon-mediated Directed Mutation by the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Zhang, Zhongge

    2015-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) has been shown to control transport, cell metabolism and gene expression. We here present results supporting the novel suggestion that in certain instances, it also regulates mutation rate. Directed mutations are defined as mutations that occur at higher frequencies when beneficial than when neutral or detrimental. To date, the occurrence of directed point mutations has not been documented and confirmed, but a few examples of transposon-mediated directed mutation have been reported. Here we focus on the first and best-studied example of directed mutation, which involves the regulation of Insertion Sequence-5 (IS5) hopping into a specific site upstream of the glpFK glycerol utilization operon in Escherichia coli. This insertional event specifically activates expression of the glpFK operon, allowing growth of wild type cells with glycerol as a carbon source in the presence of non-metabolizable glucose analogues which normally block glycerol utilization. The sugar transporting PTS controls this process by regulating levels of cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate and cyclic AMP as established in previous publications. Direct involvement of the glycerol repressor, GlpR, and the cyclic AMP receptor protein, Crp, in the regulation of transposon-mediated directed mutation has been demonstrated. PMID:26159081

  8. Involvement of transposon-like elements in penicillin gene cluster regulation.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Mona; Palmer, Jonathan M; El-Naggar, Wael A; El-Sokkary, M A; Habib, El-Sayed E; Keller, Nancy P

    2010-05-01

    Subtelomeric secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters are frequently surrounded by DNA repeats and transposon-like elements. The Aspergillus nidulans penicillin cluster, 30kb from the telomere of chromosome VI, is bordered by such elements. Deletions of penicillin telomere proximal and distal border regions resulted in decreased penicillin production. A 3.7kb distal region called PbIa, consisting of the putative transposable element DNA-2, was examined further where its replacement by a pyrG marker presented a similar phenotype as loss of the global SM regulator LaeA, resulting in a decrease in penicillin gene expression and product formation. In contrast, placement of the pyrG marker on either side of PbIa had no effect on penicillin synthesis. A requirement for PbIa in penicillin production was also apparent in a histone deacetylase mutant, DeltahdaA, enhanced for penicillin production. Trans-complementation of the PbIa element near and within the terrequinone A cluster on chromosome V did not restore penicillin biosynthesis or increase production of terrequinone A. Taken together, this data provides evidence for transposon involvement in SM cluster regulation. PMID:20219692

  9. MiniTn7-transposon delivery vectors for inducible or constitutive fluorescent protein expression in Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N. P.; Gisler, Pascal; Drissner, David

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the generation and function of two sets of bacterial plasmids that harbor fluorescent genes encoding either blue, cyan, yellow or red fluorescent proteins. In the first set, protein expression is controlled by the strong and constitutive nptII promoter whereas in the second set, the strong tac promoter was chosen that underlies LacIq regulation. Furthermore, the plasmids are mobilizable, contain Tn7 transposons and a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. Using Escherichia coli S17-1 as donor strain, the plasmids allow fast and convenient Tn7-transposon delivery into many enterobacterial hosts, such as the here-used E. coli O157:H7. This procedure omits the need of preparing competent recipient cells and antibiotic resistances are only transiently conferred to the recipients. As the fluorescence proteins show little to no overlap in fluorescence emission, the constructs are well suited for the study of multicolored synthetic bacterial communities during biofilm production or in host colonization studies, e.g. of plant surfaces. Furthermore, tac promoter-reporter constructs allow the generation of so-called reproductive success reporters, which allow to estimate past doublings of bacterial individuals after introduction into environments, emphasizing the role of individual cells during colonization.

  10. Zinc-regulated genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed by transposon tagging.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, D S

    2000-01-01

    The biochemistry of human nutritional zinc deficiency remains poorly defined. To characterize in genetic terms how cells respond to zinc deprivation, zinc-regulated genes (ZRG's) were identified in yeast. Gene expression was probed using random lacZ reporter gene fusions, integrated by transposon tagging into a diploid genome as previously described. About half of the genome was examined. Cells exhibiting differences in lacZ expression on low or moderate ( approximately 0. 1 vs. 10 microm) zinc media were isolated and the gene fusions were sequenced. Ribonuclease protection assays demonstrated four- to eightfold increases for the RNAs of the ZAP1, ZRG17 (YNR039c), DPP1, ADH4, MCD4, and YEF3B genes in zinc-deficient cells. All but YEF3B were shown through reporter gene assays to be controlled by a master regulator of zinc homeostasis now known to be encoded by ZAP1. ZAP1 mutants lacked the flocculence and distended vacuoles characteristic of zinc-deficient cells, suggesting that flocculation and vacuolation serve homeostatic functions in zinc-deficient cells. ZRG17 mutants required extra zinc supplementation to repress these phenotypes, suggesting that ZRG17 functions in zinc uptake. These findings illustrate the utility of transposon tagging as an approach for studying regulated gene expression in yeast. PMID:10978274

  11. Immortalization of pig fibroblast cells by transposon-mediated ectopic expression of porcine telomerase reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Li, Yangyang; Chen, Yang; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xinyu; Xia, Xiaoli; Sun, Huaichang

    2016-08-01

    Pigs are the most economically important livestock, but pig cell lines useful for physiological studies and/or vaccine development are limited. Although several pig cell lines have been generated by oncogene transformation or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) immortalization, these cell lines contain viral sequences and/or antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, we established a new method for generating pig cell lines using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated ectopic expression of porcine telomerase reverse transcriptase (pTERT). The performance of the new method was confirmed by generating a pig fibroblast cell (PFC) line. After transfection of primary PFCs with the SB transposon system, one cell clone containing the pTERT expression cassette was selected by dilution cloning and passed for different generations. After passage for more than 40 generations, the cell line retained stable expression of ectopic pTERT and continuous growth potential. Further characterization showed that the cell line kept the fibroblast morphology, growth curve, population doubling time, cloning efficiency, marker gene expression pattern, cell cycle distribution and anchorage-dependent growth property of the primary cells. These data suggest that the new method established is useful for generating pig cell lines without viral sequence and antibiotic resistant gene. PMID:26341227

  12. Inter- and intraspecies transfer of a Clostridium difficile conjugative transposon conferring resistance to MLSB.

    PubMed

    Wasels, François; Monot, Marc; Spigaglia, Patrizia; Barbanti, Fabrizio; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Dupuy, Bruno; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2014-12-01

    Resistance to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B group of antibiotics in Clostridium difficile is generally due to erm(B) genes. Tn6194, a conjugative transposon initially detected in PCR-ribotype 027 isolates, is an erm(B)-containing element also detected in other relevant C. difficile PCR-ribotypes. In this study, the genome of a C. difficile PCR-ribotype 001 strain was sequenced, and an element with two nucleotidic changes compared to Tn6194 was detected. This element was transferred by filter mating assays to recipient strains of C. difficile belonging to PCR-ribotype 009 and 027 and to a recipient strain of Enterococcus faecalis. Transconjugants were characterized by Southern blotting and genome sequencing, and integration sites in all transconjugants were identified. The element integrated the genome of C. difficile at different sites and the genome of E. faecalis at a unique site. This study is the first molecular characterization of an erm(B)-containing conjugative transposon in C. difficile and provides additional evidence of the antibiotic resistance transmission risk among pathogenic bacteria occupying the same human intestinal niche. PMID:25055190

  13. Rapid recombinant protein production from piggyBac transposon-mediated stable CHO cell pools.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Matasci, Mattia; Kadlecova, Zuzana; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2015-04-20

    Heterogeneous populations of stably transfected cells (cell pools) can serve for the rapid production of moderate amounts of recombinant proteins. Here, we propose the use of the piggyBac (PB) transposon system to improve the productivity and long-term stability of cell pools derived from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. PB is a naturally occurring genetic element that has been engineered to facilitate the integration of a transgene into the genome of the host cell. In this report PB-derived cell pools were generated after 10 days of selection with puromycin. The resulting cell pools had volumetric productivities that were 3-4 times higher than those achieved with cell pools generated by conventional plasmid transfection even though the number of integrated transgene copies per cell was similar in the two populations. In 14-day batch cultures, protein levels up to 600 and 800 mg/L were obtained for an Fc-fusion protein and a monoclonal antibody, respectively, at volumetric scales up to 1L. In general, the volumetric protein yield from cell pools remained constant for up to 3 months in the absence of selection. In conclusion, transfection of CHO cells with the PB transposon system is a simple, efficient, and reproducible approach to the generation of cell pools for the rapid production of recombinant proteins. PMID:25758242

  14. Normalization of transposon-mutant library sequencing datasets to improve identification of conditionally essential genes.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Michael A; Ioerger, Thomas R

    2016-06-01

    Sequencing of transposon-mutant libraries using next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) has become a popular method for determining which genes and non-coding regions are essential for growth under various conditions in bacteria. For methods that rely on quantitative comparison of counts of reads at transposon insertion sites, proper normalization of TnSeq datasets is vitally important. Real TnSeq datasets are often noisy and exhibit a significant skew that can be dominated by high counts at a small number of sites (often for non-biological reasons). If two datasets that are not appropriately normalized are compared, it might cause the artifactual appearance of Differentially Essential (DE) genes in a statistical test, constituting type I errors (false positives). In this paper, we propose a novel method for normalization of TnSeq datasets that corrects for the skew of read-count distributions by fitting them to a Beta-Geometric distribution. We show that this read-count correction procedure reduces the number of false positives when comparing replicate datasets grown under the same conditions (for which no genuine differences in essentiality are expected). We compare these results to results obtained with other normalization procedures, and show that it results in greater reduction in the number of false positives. In addition we investigate the effects of normalization on the detection of DE genes. PMID:26932272

  15. MiMIC: a highly versatile transposon insertion resource for engineering Drosophila melanogaster genes

    PubMed Central

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Schulze, Karen L.; Haelterman, Nele A.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Evans-Holm, Martha; Carlson, Joseph W.; Levis, Robert W.; Spradling, Allan C.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the versatility of a collection of insertions of the transposon Minos mediated integration cassette (MiMIC), in Drosophila melanogaster. MiMIC contains a gene-trap cassette and the yellow+ marker flanked by two inverted bacteriophage ΦC31 attP sites. MiMIC integrates almost at random in the genome to create sites for DNA manipulation. The attP sites allow the replacement of the intervening sequence of the transposon with any other sequence through recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). We can revert insertions that function as gene traps and cause mutant phenotypes to wild type by RMCE and modify insertions to control GAL4 or QF overexpression systems or perform lineage analysis using the Flp system. Insertions within coding introns can be exchanged with protein-tag cassettes to create fusion proteins to follow protein expression and perform biochemical experiments. The applications of MiMIC vastly extend the Drosophila melanogaster toolkit. PMID:21985007

  16. Dual functions of Macpiwi1 in transposon silencing and stem cell maintenance in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Battistoni, Giorgia; El Demerdash, Osama; Gurtowski, James; Wunderer, Julia; Falciatori, Ilaria; Ladurner, Peter; Schatz, Michael C.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Wasik, Kaja A.

    2015-01-01

    PIWI proteins and piRNA pathways are essential for transposon silencing and some aspects of gene regulation during animal germline development. In contrast to most animal species, some flatworms also express PIWIs and piRNAs in somatic stem cells, where they are required for tissue renewal and regeneration. Here, we have identified and characterized piRNAs and PIWI proteins in the emerging model flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We found that M. lignano encodes at least three PIWI proteins. One of these, Macpiwi1, acts as a key component of the canonical piRNA pathway in the germline and in somatic stem cells. Knockdown of Macpiwi1 dramatically reduces piRNA levels, derepresses transposons, and severely impacts stem cell maintenance. Knockdown of the piRNA biogenesis factor Macvasa caused an even greater reduction in piRNA levels with a corresponding increase in transposons. Yet, in Macvasa knockdown animals, we detected no major impact on stem cell self-renewal. These results may suggest stem cell maintenance functions of PIWI proteins in flatworms that are distinguishable from their impact on transposons and that might function independently of what are considered canonical piRNA populations. PMID:26323280

  17. Transposon Mediated Integration of Plasmid DNA into the Subventricular Zone of Neonatal Mice to Generate Novel Models of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra; Núñez, Felipe Javier; Koschmann, Carl; Kolb, Bradley L.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    An urgent need exists to test the contribution of new genes to the pathogenesis and progression of human glioblastomas (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults with dismal prognosis. New potential therapies are rapidly emerging from the bench and require systematic testing in experimental models which closely reproduce the salient features of the human disease. Herein we describe in detail a method to induce new models of GBM with transposon-mediated integration of plasmid DNA into cells of the subventricular zone of neonatal mice. We present a simple way to clone new transposons amenable for genomic integration using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system and illustrate how to monitor plasmid uptake and disease progression using bioluminescence, histology and immuno-histochemistry. We also describe a method to create new primary GBM cell lines. Ideally, this report will allow further dissemination of the Sleeping Beauty transposon system among brain tumor researchers, leading to an in depth understanding of GBM pathogenesis and progression and to the timely design and testing of effective therapies for patients. PMID:25741859

  18. Sleeping Beauty transposon-based system for cellular reprogramming and targeted gene insertion in induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Grabundzija, Ivana; Wang, Jichang; Sebe, Attila; Erdei, Zsuzsanna; Kajdi, Robert; Devaraj, Anantharam; Steinemann, Doris; Szuhai, Károly; Stein, Ulrike; Cantz, Tobias; Schambach, Axel; Baum, Christopher; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Sarkadi, Balázs; Ivics, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of direct cell reprogramming and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology opened up new avenues for the application of non-viral, transposon-based gene delivery systems. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is highly advanced for versatile genetic manipulations in mammalian cells. We established iPS cell reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human foreskin fibroblasts by transposition of OSKM (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) and OSKML (OSKM + Lin28) expression cassettes mobilized by the SB100X hyperactive transposase. The efficiency of iPS cell derivation with SB transposon system was in the range of that obtained with retroviral vectors. Co-expression of the miRNA302/367 cluster together with OSKM significantly improved reprogramming efficiency and accelerated the temporal kinetics of reprogramming. The iPS cells displayed a stable karyotype, and hallmarks of pluripotency including expression of stem cell markers and the ability to differentiate into embryoid bodies in vitro. We demonstrate Cre recombinase-mediated exchange allowing simultaneous removal of the reprogramming cassette and targeted knock-in of an expression cassette of interest into the transposon-tagged locus in mouse iPS cells. This strategy would allow correction of a genetic defect by site-specific insertion of a therapeutic gene construct into ‘safe harbor’ sites in the genomes of autologous, patient-derived iPS cells. PMID:23275558

  19. Optimization of the piggyBac Transposon Using mRNA and Insulators: Toward a More Reliable Gene Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Bire, Solenne; Ley, Déborah; Casteret, Sophie; Mermod, Nicolas; Bigot, Yves; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Integrating and expressing stably a transgene into the cellular genome remain major challenges for gene-based therapies and for bioproduction purposes. While transposon vectors mediate efficient transgene integration, expression may be limited by epigenetic silencing, and persistent transposase expression may mediate multiple transposition cycles. Here, we evaluated the delivery of the piggyBac transposase messenger RNA combined with genetically insulated transposons to isolate the transgene from neighboring regulatory elements and stabilize expression. A comparison of piggyBac transposase expression from messenger RNA and DNA vectors was carried out in terms of expression levels, transposition efficiency, transgene expression and genotoxic effects, in order to calibrate and secure the transposition-based delivery system. Messenger RNA reduced the persistence of the transposase to a narrow window, thus decreasing side effects such as superfluous genomic DNA cleavage. Both the CTF/NF1 and the D4Z4 insulators were found to mediate more efficient expression from a few transposition events. We conclude that the use of engineered piggyBac transposase mRNA and insulated transposons offer promising ways of improving the quality of the integration process and sustaining the expression of transposon vectors. PMID:24312663

  20. Sleeping Beauty transposon screen identifies signaling modules that cooperate with STAT5 activation to induce B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Heltemes-Harris, Lynn M.; Larson, Jon D.; Starr, Timothy K.; Hubbard, Gregory K.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Largaespada, David A.; Farrar, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    STAT5 activation occurs frequently in human progenitor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). To identify gene alterations that cooperate with STAT5 activation to initiate leukemia we crossed mice expressing a constitutively active form of STAT5 (Stat5b-CA) to mice in which a mutagenic Sleeping Beauty transposon (T2/Onc) was mobilized only in B cells. Stat5b-CA mice typically do not develop B-ALL (<2% penetrance); in contrast, 89% of Stat5b–CA mice in which the T2/Onc transposon had been mobilized died of B-ALL by 3 months of age. High-throughput sequencing approaches were used to identify genes frequently targeted by the T2/Onc transposon; these included Sos1 (74%), Kdm2a (35%), Jak1 (26%), Bmi1 (19%), Prdm14 or Ncoa2 (13%), Cdkn2a (10%), Ikzf1 (8%), Caap1 (6%) and Klf3 (6%). Collectively, these mutations target three major cellular processes: (i) the JAK/STAT5 pathway (ii) progenitor B cell differentiation and (iii) the CDKN2A tumor suppressor pathway. Transposon insertions typically resulted in altered expression of these genes, as well as downstream pathways including STAT5, ERK and p38. Importantly, expression of Sos1 and Kdm2a, and activation of p38, correlated with survival, further underscoring the role these genes and associated pathways play in B-ALL. PMID:26500062

  1. Idaten is a new cold-inducible transposon of Volvox carteri that can be used for tagging developmentally important genes.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Noriko; Nishii, Ichiro

    2008-11-01

    A cold-inducible transposon called Jordan has previously been used to tag and recover genes controlling key aspects of Volvox development, including the process called inversion. In a search for additional genes, we isolated 17 new inversionless mutants from cultures grown at 24 degrees (the temperature that activates Jordan transposition). These mutants were stable at 32 degrees, but generated revertants at 24 degrees . DNA blots revealed that one mutant had a transposon unrelated to Jordan inserted in invA ("inversionless A"). This new transposon, which we named Idaten, has terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) beginning with CCCTA, and upon insertion it creates a 3-bp target-site duplication. It appears to belong to the CACTA superfamily of class II DNA transposons, which includes En/Spm. No significant open reading frames were in the Idaten sequence, but we retrieved another element with Idaten-type TIRs encoding a protein similar to the En/Spm transposase as a candidate for an Idaten-specific transposase. We found that in five of the new inversionless strains we could not find any Jordan insertions causing the phenotype to possess insertions of an Idaten family member in a single locus (invC). This clearly indicates that Idaten is a potentially powerful alternative to Jordan for tagging developmentally important genes in Volvox. PMID:18791222

  2. [Sequence analysis of bacterial transposon in NHX gene of Populus euphratica].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Yao; Ma, Ji; Cai, Lun; Zeng, You-Ling; Mei, Xin-Di; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2003-09-01

    The United Nations Environment Program estimates that approximately 20% of agricultural land and 50% of cropland in the world is salt-stressed. The gene NHX (Na+/H+ exchanger) encodes functional protein that catalyzes the countertransport of Na+ and H+ across membranes and may play an important role in plant salt tolerance. To clone the NHX from the wild plant Populus euphratica collected in Tarim basin and Xinjiang Wujiaqu district into a T-vector, designed primer was used to amplify 1kb NHX cDNA fragment with RT-PCR. Total RNA was extracted from Populus euphratica tissue (plant tissue was collected from Tarim basin and Xinjiang Wujiaqu district and stored in liquid nitrogen) according to the Plant RNA Mini Kits of Omega. First cDNAs were synthesized from 1 microg total RNA of Populus euphratica seedling. A pair of primers were used to perform RT-PCR. The amplified DNA fragment was purified and cloned into pMD18-T vector. However, 1kb and 2.3kb fragment were obtained from Tarim basin and Xinjiang Wujiaqu district and named as PtNHX and PwNHX, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that the cloned PtNHX fragment of Populus euphratica contains partial NHX coding region with 98%, 86%, 84% and 80% identity comparing with Atriplex gemelini, Suaeda maritima, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, respectively. This analysis suggests that NHX gene would be highly conserved in terms of evolution in plant; and it also suggests that the NHX gene of Populus euphratica also would have the similarity with that of Arabidopsis. It may be of great importance in improvement of the plant salt tolerance and breed of crop. At the same time, sequence analysis shows that PwNHX gene includes a coding region about 1350bp with 99% identity comparing with transposon Tn10 IS10-left transposase of Shigella flexneri. On the one hand, the NHX gene may lose its function because it was inserted a fragment in coding region. On the other hand, its product may play a important role in salt

  3. Mutagenesis of the borage Delta(6) fatty acid desaturase.

    PubMed

    Sayanova, O; Beaudoin, F; Libisch, B; Shewry, P; Napier, J

    2000-12-01

    The consensus sequence of the third histidine box of a range of Delta(5), Delta(6), Delta(8) and sphingolipid desaturases differs from that of the membrane-bound non-fusion Delta(12) and Delta(15) desaturases in the presence of glutamine instead of histidine. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to determine the importance of glutamine and other residues of the third histidine box and created a chimaeric enzyme to determine the ability of the Cyt b(5) fusion domain from the plant sphingolipid desaturase to substitute for the endogenous domain of the Delta(6) desaturase. PMID:11171152

  4. Pollen tetrads in the detection of environmental mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Although pollen is a very sensitive indicator of environmental mutagenesis, it is also sensitive to nonmutagenic environmental stress. By analyzing pollen tetrads, rather than individual pollen grains, it is possible to distinguish between mutagenic and nonmutagenic influences. Another advantage of using pollen tetrads in mutagenicity studies is that it is possible to discriminate between pre- and post-pachytene mutations. This eliminates the mutant sector problem of a single mutational event giving rise to a large number of mutant cells. Methods of analyzing pollen tetrads are described.

  5. Chemical mutagenesis: an emerging issue for public health.

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, L D; Barry, P Z

    1977-01-01

    Chemical mutagens are recognized as prevalent in the environment and a potential threat to the health of future generations. This paper presents an overview of chemical mutagenesis as an issue for public health. Several problems in the determination of risk to human populations are discussed, including difficulties of extrapolating scientific data to humans, the latency period between exposure and recognizable genetic damage, and the large number of chemicals which must be tested. Test systems are described. Possibilities of control through federal regulation are discussed. PMID:911015

  6. Mutagenesis in Newts: Protocol for Iberian Ribbed Newts.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Toshinori; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Newts have the remarkable capability of organ/tissue regeneration, and have been used as a unique experimental model for regenerative biology. The Iberian ribbed newt (Pleurodeles waltl) is suitable as a model animal. We have established methods for artificial insemination and efficient transgenesis using P. waltl newts. In addition to the transgenic technique, development of TALENs enables targeting mutagenesis in the newts. We have reported that TALENs efficiently disrupted targeted genes in newt embryos. In this chapter, we introduce a protocol for TALEN-mediated gene targeting in Iberian ribbed newts. PMID:26443218

  7. Molecular characterization of Vulmar1, a complete mariner transposon of sugar beet and diversity of mariner- and En/Spm-like sequences in the genus Beta.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Gunnar; Dechyeva, Daryna; Menzel, Gerhard; Dombrowski, Cora; Schmidt, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Transposons of the Tc1-mariner superfamily are widespread in eukaryotic genomes. We have isolated the mariner element Vulmar1 from Beta vulgaris L., which is 3909 bp long and bordered by perfect terminal inverted repeats of 32 bp with homology to terminal inverted repeats of transposons from soybean and rice. According to a characteristic amino acid signature, Vulmar1 can be assigned to the DD39D group of mariner transposons. Vulmar1 is flanked by a 5'-TA-3' target site duplication that is typical for mariner transposons. Southern hybridization revealed that mariner-like copies are highly abundant in Beta species, and sequence analysis of 10 transposase fragments from representative species of the four Beta sections revealed an identity between 34% and 100% after conceptual translation. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, Vulmar1 was detected in distal euchromatin as well as in some intercalary and pericentromeric regions of all B. vulgaris chromosomes. In addition, using PCR, we were able to amplify fragments of the transposase gene of En/Spm-like transposons in the genus Beta. En/Spm-like transposase sequences are highly amplified in four Beta sections and showed a considerable degree of conservation (88.5-100%) at the protein level, while the homology to corresponding regions of En/Spm transposons of other plant species ranges from 49.5% to 62.5%. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, En/Spm-like transposon signals of strong intensity were detected on all chromosomes of B. vulgaris. PMID:15644978

  8. An active DNA transposon nDart causing leaf variegation and mutable dwarfism and its related elements in rice.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Kazuo; Maekawa, Masahiko; Takagi, Kyoko; Takahara, Hiroyuki; Qian, Qian; Eun, Chang-Ho; Iida, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    While characterized mutable alleles caused by DNA transposons have been abundant in maize since the discovery of Dissociation conferring variegation by Barbara McClintock, only a few mutable alleles have been described in rice even though the rice genome contains various transposons. Here, we show that a spontaneous mutable virescent allele, pyl-v, is caused by the disruption of the nuclear-coded essential chloroplast protease gene, OsClpP5, due to insertion of a 607-bp non-autonomous DNA transposon, non-autonomous DNA-based active rice transposon one (nDart1), belonging to the hAT superfamily. The transposition of nDart1 can be induced by crossing with a line containing an autonomous element, aDart, and stabilized by segregating out of aDart. We also identified a novel mutable dwarf allele thl-m caused by an insertion of nDart1. The japonica cultivar Nipponbare carries no aDart, although it contains epigenetically silenced Dart element(s), which can be activated by 5-azacytidine. Nipponbare bears four subgroups of about 3.6-kb Dart-like sequences, three of which contain potential transposase genes, and around 3.6-kb elements without an apparent transposase gene, as well as three subgroups of about 0.6-kb nDart1-related elements that are all internal deletions of the Dart-like sequences. Both nDart1 and 3.6-kb Dart-like elements were also present in indica varieties 93-11 and Kasalath. nDart1 appears to be the most active mutagen among nDart1-related elements contributing to generating natural variations. A candidate for an autonomous element, aDart, and a possible application of nDart1 for transposon tagging are discussed. PMID:16367953

  9. Arrayed transposase-binding sequences on the ends of transposon Tn5090/Tn402.

    PubMed

    Kamali-Moghaddam, M; Sundström, L

    2001-02-15

    The transposon Tn5090/Tn402 encodes a 559 amino acid transposase, TniA, with a DDE motif. Gel mobility shifting and cleavage protection analysis with DNase I and hydroxyl radical probes revealed that TniA binds to multiple repeat sequences on either terminus of Tn5090/Tn402. Four of these TniA-binding 19mers occurred on the left-hand (t) end and two on the right-hand (i) end. Hydroxyl radical cleavage protection demonstrated the presence of 3-6 bp contact sequences on one face of the DNA helix. The binding pattern and organisation of repeats suggested parallels between Tn5090/Tn402 and Mu, which controls its transpositional activity in the assembly step of a higher order transpososome complex. The complex terminal structure and genes of transposase and nucleotide-binding proteins in tandem are hallmarks of the handful of Mu-like elements that are known to date. PMID:11160934

  10. Endogenous siRNAs derived from transposons and mRNAs in Drosophila somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Ghildiyal, Megha; Seitz, Hervé; Horwich, Michael D; Li, Chengjian; Du, Tingting; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Kittler, Ellen L W; Zapp, Maria L; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2008-05-23

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct RNA interference (RNAi) in eukaryotes. In flies, somatic cells produce siRNAs from exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a defense against viral infection. We identified endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), 21 nucleotides in length, that correspond to transposons and heterochromatic sequences in the somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. We also detected endo-siRNAs complementary to messenger RNAs (mRNAs); these siRNAs disproportionately mapped to the complementary regions of overlapping mRNAs predicted to form double-stranded RNA in vivo. Normal accumulation of somatic endo-siRNAs requires the siRNA-generating ribonuclease Dicer-2 and the RNAi effector protein Argonaute2 (Ago2). We propose that endo-siRNAs generated by the fly RNAi pathway silence selfish genetic elements in the soma, much as Piwi-interacting RNAs do in the germ line. PMID:18403677

  11. Distribution of Tetracycline Resistance Genes and Transposons among Phylloplane Bacteria in Michigan Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Elise L.; Jones, Alan L.

    1999-01-01

    The extent and nature of tetracycline resistance in bacterial populations of two apple orchards with no or a limited history of oxytetracycline usage were assessed. Tetracycline-resistant (Tcr) bacteria were mostly gram negative and represented from 0 to 47% of the total bacterial population on blossoms and leaves (versus 26 to 84% for streptomycin-resistant bacteria). A total of 87 isolates were screened for the presence of specific Tcr determinants. Tcr was determined to be due to the presence of Tet B in Pantoea agglomerans and other members of the family Enterobacteriacae and Tet A, Tet C, or Tet G in most Pseudomonas isolates. The cause of Tcr was not identified in 16% of the isolates studied. The Tcr genes were almost always found on large plasmids which also carried the streptomycin resistance transposon Tn5393. Transposable elements with Tcr determinants were detected by entrapment following introduction into Escherichia coli. Tet B was found within Tn10. Two of eighteen Tet B-containing isolates had an insertion sequence within Tn10; one had IS911 located within IS10-R and one had Tn1000 located upstream of Tet B. Tet A was found within a novel variant of Tn1721, named Tn1720, which lacks the left-end orfI of Tn1721. Tet C was located within a 19-kb transposon, Tn1404, with transposition genes similar to those of Tn501, streptomycin (aadA2) and sulfonamide (sulI) resistance genes within an integron, Tet C flanked by direct repeats of IS26, and four open reading frames, one of which may encode a sulfate permease. Two variants of Tet G with 92% sequence identity were detected. PMID:10543801

  12. Evolution of double-stranded DNA viruses of eukaryotes: from bacteriophages to transposons to giant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V; Krupovic, Mart; Yutin, Natalya

    2015-01-01

    Diverse eukaryotes including animals and protists are hosts to a broad variety of viruses with double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, from the largest known viruses, such as pandoraviruses and mimiviruses, to tiny polyomaviruses. Recent comparative genomic analyses have revealed many evolutionary connections between dsDNA viruses of eukaryotes, bacteriophages, transposable elements, and linear DNA plasmids. These findings provide an evolutionary scenario that derives several major groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses, including the proposed order “Megavirales,” adenoviruses, and virophages from a group of large virus-like transposons known as Polintons (Mavericks). The Polintons have been recently shown to encode two capsid proteins, suggesting that these elements lead a dual lifestyle with both a transposon and a viral phase and should perhaps more appropriately be named polintoviruses. Here, we describe the recently identified evolutionary relationships between bacteriophages of the family Tectiviridae, polintoviruses, adenoviruses, virophages, large and giant DNA viruses of eukaryotes of the proposed order “Megavirales,” and linear mitochondrial and cytoplasmic plasmids. We outline an evolutionary scenario under which the polintoviruses were the first group of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses that evolved from bacteriophages and became the ancestors of most large DNA viruses of eukaryotes and a variety of other selfish elements. Distinct lines of origin are detectable only for herpesviruses (from a different bacteriophage root) and polyoma/papillomaviruses (from single-stranded DNA viruses and ultimately from plasmids). Phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses provides compelling evidence of their independent origins from smaller members of the putative order “Megavirales,” refuting the speculations on the evolution of these viruses from an extinct fourth domain of cellular life. PMID:25727355

  13. Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes and transposons among phylloplane bacteria in Michigan apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, E L; Jones, A L

    1999-11-01

    The extent and nature of tetracycline resistance in bacterial populations of two apple orchards with no or a limited history of oxytetracycline usage were assessed. Tetracycline-resistant (Tc(r)) bacteria were mostly gram negative and represented from 0 to 47% of the total bacterial population on blossoms and leaves (versus 26 to 84% for streptomycin-resistant bacteria). A total of 87 isolates were screened for the presence of specific Tc(r) determinants. Tc(r) was determined to be due to the presence of Tet B in Pantoea agglomerans and other members of the family Enterobacteriacae and Tet A, Tet C, or Tet G in most Pseudomonas isolates. The cause of Tc(r) was not identified in 16% of the isolates studied. The Tc(r) genes were almost always found on large plasmids which also carried the streptomycin resistance transposon Tn5393. Transposable elements with Tc(r) determinants were detected by entrapment following introduction into Escherichia coli. Tet B was found within Tn10. Two of eighteen Tet B-containing isolates had an insertion sequence within Tn10; one had IS911 located within IS10-R and one had Tn1000 located upstream of Tet B. Tet A was found within a novel variant of Tn1721, named Tn1720, which lacks the left-end orfI of Tn1721. Tet C was located within a 19-kb transposon, Tn1404, with transposition genes similar to those of Tn501, streptomycin (aadA2) and sulfonamide (sulI) resistance genes within an integron, Tet C flanked by direct repeats of IS26, and four open reading frames, one of which may encode a sulfate permease. Two variants of Tet G with 92% sequence identity were detected. PMID:10543801

  14. The Mod(mdg4) component of the Su(Hw) insulator inserted in the P transposon can repress its mobility in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Karakozova, Marina; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Melnikova, Larisa; Parshikov, Aleksandr; Georgiev, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Transposable element P of Drosophila melanogaster is one of the best-characterized eukaryotic transposons. Successful transposition requires the interaction between transposase complexes at both termini of the P element. Here we found that insertion of one or two copies of the Su(Hw) insulator in the P transposon reduces the frequency of its transposition. Inactivation of a Mod(mdg4) component of the Su(Hw) insulator suppresses the insulator effect. Thus, the Su(Hw) insulator can modulate interactions between transposase complexes bound to the ends of the P transposon in germ cells. PMID:15280241

  15. Breeding of New Strains of Mushroom by Basidiospore Chemical Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jia; Kang, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Chang-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Chemical mutagenesis of basidiospores of Hypsizygus marmoreus generated new mushroom strains. The basidospores were treated with methanesulfonate methylester, an alkylating agent, to yield 400 mutant monokaryotic mycelia. Twenty fast-growing mycelia were selected and mated each other by hyphal fusion. Fifty out of the 190 matings were successful (mating rate of 26.3%), judged by the formation of clamp connections. The mutant dikaryons were cultivated to investigate their morphological and cultivation characteristics. Mutant strains No. 3 and No. 5 showed 10% and 6% increase in fruiting body production, respectively. Eight mutant strains showed delayed and reduced primordia formation, resulting in the reduced production yield with prolonged cultivation period. The number of the fruiting bodies of mutant No. 31, which displayed reduced primordial formation, was only 15, compared to the parental number of 65. Another interesting phenotype was a fruiting body with a flattened stipe and pileus. Dikaryons generated by mating with the mutant spore No. 14 produced flat fruiting bodies. Further molecular biological studies will provide details of the mechanism. This work shows that the chemical mutagenesis approach is highly utilizable in the development of mushroom strains as well as in the generation of resources for molecular genetic studies. PMID:22783115

  16. Mechanisms of Base Substitution Mutagenesis in Cancer Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bacolla, Albino; Cooper, David N.; Vasquez, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer genome sequence data provide an invaluable resource for inferring the key mechanisms by which mutations arise in cancer cells, favoring their survival, proliferation and invasiveness. Here we examine recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the predominant type of genetic alteration found in cancer cells, somatic single base substitutions (SBSs). Cytosine methylation, demethylation and deamination, charge transfer reactions in DNA, DNA replication timing, chromatin status and altered DNA proofreading activities are all now known to contribute to the mechanisms leading to base substitution mutagenesis. We review current hypotheses as to the major processes that give rise to SBSs and evaluate their relative relevance in the light of knowledge acquired from cancer genome sequencing projects and the study of base modifications, DNA repair and lesion bypass. Although gene expression data on APOBEC3B enzymes provide support for a role in cancer mutagenesis through U:G mismatch intermediates, the enzyme preference for single-stranded DNA may limit its activity genome-wide. For SBSs at both CG:CG and YC:GR sites, we outline evidence for a prominent role of damage by charge transfer reactions that follow interactions of the DNA with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other endogenous or exogenous electron-abstracting molecules. PMID:24705290

  17. Fitness Loss and Library Size Determination in Saturation Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nov, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Saturation mutagenesis is a widely used directed evolution technique, in which a large number of protein variants, each having random amino acids in certain predetermined positions, are screened in order to discover high-fitness variants among them. Several metrics for determining the library size (the number of variants screened) have been suggested in the literature, but none of them incorporates the actual fitness of the variants discovered in the experiment. We present the results of an extensive simulation study, which is based on probabilistic models for protein fitness landscape, and which investigates how the result of a saturation mutagenesis experiment – the fitness of the best variant discovered – varies as a function of the library size. In particular, we study the loss of fitness in the experiment: the difference between the fitness of the best variant discovered, and the fitness of the best variant in variant space. Our results are that the existing criteria for determining the library size are conservative, so smaller libraries are often satisfactory. Reducing the library size can save labor, time, and expenses in the laboratory. PMID:23844158

  18. Establishment of a counter-selectable markerless mutagenesis system in Veillonella atypica.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Xiaoli; Qi, Fengxia

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative sigma factor ecf3 as target, we successfully established the first markerless mutagenesis system in the Veillonella genus. This system will be a valuable tool for mutagenesis of multiple genes for gene function analysis as well as for gene regulation studies in Veillonella. PMID:25771833

  19. A mouse chromosome 4 balancer ENU-mutagenesis screen isolates eleven lethal lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ENU-mutagenesis is a powerful technique to identify genes regulating mammalian development. To functionally annotate the distal region of mouse chromosome 4, we performed an ENU-mutagenesis screen using a balancer chromosome targeted to this region of the genome. We isolated 11 lethal lines that map...

  20. Mobility and Generation of Mosaic Non-Autonomous Transposons by Tn3-Derived Inverted-Repeat Miniature Elements (TIMEs)

    PubMed Central

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Ludwiczak, Marta; Lyzwa, Katarzyna; Czarnecki, Jakub; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from post-flotation tailings of Zelazny Most in Poland, were identified using a positive selection trap plasmid strategy. This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons – Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. Another non-autonomous element “captured” with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. The identification of a portable site-specific recombination system is another intriguing example confirming the important role of non-autonomous TEs of the TIME family in shuffling genetic information in bacterial genomes. Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution

  1. A Broad Range of Dose Optima Achieve High-level, Long-term Gene Expression After Hydrodynamic Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons Using Hyperactive SB100x Transposase.

    PubMed

    Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M; Olson, Erik R; Somia, Nikunj V; Russell, Stephen J; McIvor, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been shown to enable long-term gene expression by integrating new sequences into host cell chromosomes. We found that the recently reported SB100x hyperactive transposase conferred a surprisingly high level of long-term expression after hydrodynamic delivery of luciferase-encoding reporter transposons in the mouse. We conducted dose-ranging studies to determine the effect of varying the amount of SB100x transposase-encoding plasmid (pCMV-SB100x) at a set dose of luciferase transposon and of varying the amount of transposon-encoding DNA at a set dose of pCMV-SB100x in hydrodynamically injected mice. Animals were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide in order to prevent an antiluciferase immune response. At a set dose of transposon DNA (25 µg), we observed a broad range of pCMV-SB100x doses (0.1-2.5 µg) conferring optimal levels of long-term expression (>10(11) photons/second/cm(2)). At a fixed dose of 0.5 μg of pCMV-SB100x, maximal long-term luciferase expression (>10(10) photons/second/cm(2)) was achieved at a transposon dose of 5-125 μg. We also found that in the linear range of transposon doses (100 ng), co-delivering the CMV-SB100x sequence on the same plasmid was less effective in achieving long-term expression than delivery on separate plasmids. These results show marked flexibility in the doses of SB transposon plus pCMV-SB100x that achieve maximal SB-mediated gene transfer efficiency and long-term gene expression after hydrodynamic DNA delivery to mouse liver. PMID:26784638

  2. Targeted Mutagenesis in Zebrafish Using Customized Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jonathan E.; Maeder, Morgan L.; Pearlberg, Joseph; Joung, J. Keith; Peterson, Randall T.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish mutants have traditionally been obtained using random mutagenesis or retroviral insertions, methods that cannot be targeted to a specific gene and require laborious gene mapping and sequencing. Recently, we and others have shown that customized zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can introduce targeted frame-shift mutations with high efficiency, thereby enabling directed creation of zebrafish gene mutations. Here we describe a detailed protocol for constructing ZFN expression vectors, for generating and introducing ZFN-encoding RNAs into zebrafish embryos, and for identifying ZFN-generated mutations in targeted genomic sites. All of our vectors and methods are compatible with previously described Zinc Finger Consortium reagents for constructing engineered zinc finger arrays. Using these methods, zebrafish founders carrying targeted mutations can be identified within four months. PMID:20010934

  3. Mutagenesis and differentiation induction in mammalian cells by environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.; Huberman, E.

    1980-01-01

    These studies indicate that in agreement with the somatic mutation hypothesis, chemical carcinogens: (1) are mutagenic for mammalian cells as tested in the cell-mediated assay; (2) the degree of mutagenicity is correlated with their degree of carcinogenicity; (3) that at least in cases when analyzed carefully the metabolites responsible for mutagenesis are also responsible for initiating the carcinogenic event; and (4) that a cell organ type specificity can be established using the cell-mediated assay. Studies with HL-60 cells and HO melanoma cells and those of others suggest that tumor-promoting phorbol diesters can alter cell differentiation in various cell types and that the degree of the observed alteration in the differentiation properties may be related to the potency of the phorbol esters. Thus these and similar systems may serve as models for both studies and identification of certain types of tumor promoting agents. (ERB)

  4. CRISPR-Cas9 enables conditional mutagenesis of challenging loci

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Joel A.; Seisenberger, Claudia; Beig, Joachim; Bürger, Antje; Iyer, Vivek; Maier, Viola; Perera, Sajith; Rosen, Barry; Skarnes, William C.; Wurst, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has produced a genome-wide collection of 15,000 isogenic targeting vectors for conditional mutagenesis in C57BL/6N mice. Although most of the vectors have been used successfully in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells, there remain a set of nearly two thousand genes that have failed to target even after several attempts. Recent attention has turned to the use of new genome editing technology for the generation of mutant alleles in mice. Here, we demonstrate how Cas9-assisted targeting can be combined with the IKMC targeting vector resource to generate conditional alleles in genes that have previously eluded targeting using conventional methods. PMID:27580957

  5. Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V; Collinson, Margaret E; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H A; Kürschner, Wolfram M; Sephton, Mark A

    2004-08-31

    During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly released in unseparated tetrads indicative of failure to complete the normal process of spore development. Although involvement of mutation has long been hinted at or proposed in theory, this finding provides concrete evidence for chronic environmental mutagenesis at the time of global ecological crisis. Prolonged exposure to enhanced UV radiation could account satisfactorily for a worldwide increase in land plant mutation. At the end of the Permian, a period of raised UV stress may have been the consequence of severe disruption of the stratospheric ozone balance by excessive emission of hydrothermal organohalogens in the vast area of Siberian Traps volcanism. PMID:15282373

  6. Radiosensitivity Parameters For Lethal Mutagenesis In Caenorhabditis Elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Wilson, J.W.; Katz, R.

    1994-01-01

    For the first time track structure theory has been applied to radiobiological effects in a living organism. Data for lethal mutagenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans, obtained after irradiation with nine different types of ions of atomic number 1-57 and gamma rays have yielded radiosensitivity parameters (E{sub 0}, sigma{sub 0}, Kappa, m = 68 Gy, 2.5 x 10(exp {minus}9) cm (exp 2), 750, 2) comparable with those found for the transformation of C3HT10 1/2 cells (180 Gy, 1.15 x 10(exp {minus}10) cm(exp 2), 750, 2) but remote from those (E{sub 0} and sigma{sub 0} = approx. 2 Gy, approx. 5 x 10(exp {minus}7) cm(exp 2)) for mammalian cell survival.

  7. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Whittle, Edward J.

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  8. CRISPR-Cas9 enables conditional mutagenesis of challenging loci.

    PubMed

    Schick, Joel A; Seisenberger, Claudia; Beig, Joachim; Bürger, Antje; Iyer, Vivek; Maier, Viola; Perera, Sajith; Rosen, Barry; Skarnes, William C; Wurst, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has produced a genome-wide collection of 15,000 isogenic targeting vectors for conditional mutagenesis in C57BL/6N mice. Although most of the vectors have been used successfully in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells, there remain a set of nearly two thousand genes that have failed to target even after several attempts. Recent attention has turned to the use of new genome editing technology for the generation of mutant alleles in mice. Here, we demonstrate how Cas9-assisted targeting can be combined with the IKMC targeting vector resource to generate conditional alleles in genes that have previously eluded targeting using conventional methods. PMID:27580957

  9. Marker reconstitution mutagenesis: a simple and efficient reverse genetic approach.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xie; Huang, Junqi; Padmanabhan, Anup; Bakka, Kavya; Bao, Yun; Tan, Brenda Yuelin; Cande, W Zacheus; Balasubramanian, Mohan K

    2011-03-01

    A novel reverse genetic approach termed 'marker reconstitution mutagenesis' was designed to generate mutational allelic series in genes of interest. This approach consists of two simple steps which utilize two selective markers. First, using one selective marker, a partial fragment of another selective marker gene is inserted adjacently to a gene of interest by homologous recombination. Second, random mutations are introduced precisely into the gene of interest, together with the reconstitution of the latter selective marker by homologous recombination. This approach was successfully tested for several genes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. It circumvents the problems encountered with other methods and should be adaptable to any organism that incorporates exogenous DNA by homologous recombination. PMID:21360732

  10. Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Kürschner, Wolfram M.; Sephton, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly released in unseparated tetrads indicative of failure to complete the normal process of spore development. Although involvement of mutation has long been hinted at or proposed in theory, this finding provides concrete evidence for chronic environmental mutagenesis at the time of global ecological crisis. Prolonged exposure to enhanced UV radiation could account satisfactorily for a worldwide increase in land plant mutation. At the end of the Permian, a period of raised UV stress may have been the consequence of severe disruption of the stratospheric ozone balance by excessive emission of hydrothermal organohalogens in the vast area of Siberian Traps volcanism. PMID:15282373

  11. Cationic Peptides Facilitate Iron-induced Mutagenesis in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Makarova, Olga; Müller, Uta; Rolff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the causative agent of chronic respiratory infections and is an important pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients. Adaptive mutations play an essential role for antimicrobial resistance and persistence. The factors that contribute to bacterial mutagenesis in this environment are not clear. Recently it has been proposed that cationic antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 could act as mutagens in P. aeruginosa. Here we provide experimental evidence that mutagenesis is the product of a joint action of LL-37 and free iron. By estimating mutation rate, mutant frequencies and assessing mutational spectra in P. aeruginosa treated either with LL-37, iron or a combination of both we demonstrate that mutation rate and mutant frequency were increased only when free iron and LL-37 were present simultaneously. Colistin had the same effect. The addition of an iron chelator completely abolished this mutagenic effect, suggesting that LL-37 enables iron to enter the cells resulting in DNA damage by Fenton reactions. This was also supported by the observation that the mutational spectrum of the bacteria under LL-37-iron regime showed one of the characteristic Fenton reaction fingerprints: C to T transitions. Free iron concentration in nature and within hosts is kept at a very low level, but the situation in infected lungs of cystic fibrosis patients is different. Intermittent bleeding and damage to the epithelial cells in lungs may contribute to the release of free iron that in turn leads to generation of reactive oxygen species and deterioration of the respiratory tract, making it more susceptible to the infection. PMID:26430769

  12. Cationic Peptides Facilitate Iron-induced Mutagenesis in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Makarova, Olga; Müller, Uta; Rolff, Jens

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the causative agent of chronic respiratory infections and is an important pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients. Adaptive mutations play an essential role for antimicrobial resistance and persistence. The factors that contribute to bacterial mutagenesis in this environment are not clear. Recently it has been proposed that cationic antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 could act as mutagens in P. aeruginosa. Here we provide experimental evidence that mutagenesis is the product of a joint action of LL-37 and free iron. By estimating mutation rate, mutant frequencies and assessing mutational spectra in P. aeruginosa treated either with LL-37, iron or a combination of both we demonstrate that mutation rate and mutant frequency were increased only when free iron and LL-37 were present simultaneously. Colistin had the same effect. The addition of an iron chelator completely abolished this mutagenic effect, suggesting that LL-37 enables iron to enter the cells resulting in DNA damage by Fenton reactions. This was also supported by the observation that the mutational spectrum of the bacteria under LL-37-iron regime showed one of the characteristic Fenton reaction fingerprints: C to T transitions. Free iron concentration in nature and within hosts is kept at a very low level, but the situation in infected lungs of cystic fibrosis patients is different. Intermittent bleeding and damage to the epithelial cells in lungs may contribute to the release of free iron that in turn leads to generation of reactive oxygen species and deterioration of the respiratory tract, making it more susceptible to the infection. PMID:26430769

  13. Precision Targeted Mutagenesis via Cas9 Paired Nickases in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi; Endo, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of CRISPR- (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) mediated heritable mutagenesis in plants highlight the need for accuracy of the mutagenesis directed by this system. Off-target mutations are an important issue when considering functional gene analysis, as well as the molecular breeding of crop plants with large genome size, i.e. with many duplicated genes, and where the whole-genome sequence is still lacking. In mammals, off-target mutations can be suppressed by using Cas9 paired nickases together with paired guide RNAs (gRNAs). However, the performance of Cas9 paired nickases has not yet been fully assessed in plants. Here, we analyzed on- and off-target mutation frequency in rice calli and regenerated plants using Cas9 nuclease or Cas9 nickase with paired gRNAs. When Cas9 paired nickases were used, off-target mutations were fully suppressed in rice calli and regenerated plants. However, on-target mutation frequency also decreased compared with that induced by the Cas9 paired nucleases system. Since the gRNA sequence determines specific binding of Cas9 protein–gRNA ribonucleoproteins at the targeted sequence, the on-target mutation frequency of Cas9 paired nickases depends on the design of paired gRNAs. Our results suggest that a combination of gRNAs that can induce mutations at high efficiency with Cas9 nuclease should be used together with Cas9 nickase. Furthermore, we confirmed that a combination of gRNAs containing a one nucleotide (1 nt) mismatch toward the target sequence could not induce mutations when expressed with Cas9 nickase. Our results clearly show the effectiveness of Cas9 paired nickases in delivering on-target specific mutations. PMID:26936792

  14. A genome-wide RNAi screen draws a genetic framework for transposon control and primary piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Muerdter, Felix; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Gillis, Jesse; Luo, Yicheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Caifu; Fekete, Richard; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A large fraction of our genome consists of mobile genetic elements. Governing transposons in germ cells is critically important, and failure to do so compromises genome integrity, leading to sterility. In animals, the piRNA pathway is the key to transposon constraint, yet the precise molecular details of how piRNAs are formed and how the pathway represses mobile elements remain poorly understood. In an effort to identify general requirements for transposon control and novel components of the piRNA pathway, we carried out a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila ovarian somatic sheet cells. We identified and validated 87 genes necessary for transposon silencing. Among these were several novel piRNA biogenesis factors. We also found CG3893 (asterix) to be essential for transposon silencing, most likely by contributing to the effector step of transcriptional repression. Asterix loss leads to decreases in H3K9me3 marks on certain transposons but has no effect on piRNA levels. PMID:23665228

  15. Cloning of a CACTA transposon-like insertion in intron I of tomato invertase Lin5 gene and identification of transposase-like sequences of Solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Proels, Reinhard K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Very few CACTA transposon-like sequences have been described in Solanaceae species. Sequence information has been restricted to partial transposase (TPase)-like fragments, and no target gene of CACTA-like transposon insertion has been described in tomato to date. In this manuscript, we report on a CACTA transposon-like insertion in intron I of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) invertase gene Lin5 and TPase-like sequences of several Solanaceae species. Consensus primers deduced from the TPase region of the tomato CACTA transposon-like element allowed the amplification of similar sequences from various Solanaceae species of different subfamilies including Solaneae (Solanum tuberosum), Cestreae (Nicotiana tabacum) and Datureae (Datura stramonium). This demonstrates the ubiquitous presence of CACTA-like elements in Solanaceae genomes. The obtained partial sequences are highly conserved, and allow further detection and detailed analysis of CACTA-like transposons throughout Solanaceae species. CACTA-like transposon sequences make possible the evaluation of their use for genome analysis, functional studies of genes and the evolutionary relationships between plant species. PMID:16473661

  16. Identification of Bari Transposons in 23 Sequenced Drosophila Genomes Reveals Novel Structural Variants, MITEs and Horizontal Transfer.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Antonio; Lovero, Domenica; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Marsano, René Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Bari elements are members of the Tc1-mariner superfamily of DNA transposons, originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, and subsequently identified in silico in 11 sequenced Drosophila genomes and as experimentally isolated in four non-sequenced Drosophila species. Bari-like elements have been also studied for their mobility both in vivo and in vitro. We analyzed 23 Drosophila genomes and carried out a detailed characterization of the Bari elements identified, including those from the heterochromatic Bari1 cluster in D. melanogaster. We have annotated 401 copies of Bari elements classified either as putatively autonomous or inactive according to the structure of the terminal sequences and the presence of a complete transposase-coding region. Analyses of the integration sites revealed that Bari transposase prefers AT-rich sequences in which the TA target is cleaved and duplicated. Furthermore evaluation of transposon's co-occurrence near the integration sites of Bari elements showed a non-random distribution of other transposable elements. We also unveil the existence of a putatively autonomous Bari1 variant characterized by two identical long Terminal Inverted Repeats, in D. rhopaloa. In addition, we detected MITEs related to Bari transposons in 9 species. Phylogenetic analyses based on transposase gene and the terminal sequences confirmed that Bari-like elements are distributed into three subfamilies. A few inconsistencies in Bari phylogenetic tree with respect to the Drosophila species tree could be explained by the occurrence of horizontal transfer events as also suggested by the results of dS analyses. This study further clarifies the Bari transposon's evolutionary dynamics and increases our understanding on the Tc1-mariner elements' biology. PMID:27213270

  17. Efficient generation of marker-free transgenic rice plants using an improved transposon-mediated transgene reintegration strategy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Jie; Li, Jun; Zou, Xiaowei; Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Qingliang; Xia, Ran; Yang, Ruifang; Wang, Dekai; Zuo, Zhaoxue; Tu, Jumin; Tao, Yuezhi; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xie, Qi; Zhu, Zengrong; Qu, Shaohong

    2015-01-01

    Marker-free transgenic plants can be developed through transposon-mediated transgene reintegration, which allows intact transgene insertion with defined boundaries and requires only a few primary transformants. In this study, we improved the selection strategy and validated that the maize (Zea mays) Activator/Dissociation (Ds) transposable element can be routinely used to generate marker-free transgenic plants. A Ds-based gene of interest was linked to green fluorescent protein in transfer DNA (T-DNA), and a green fluorescent protein-aided counterselection against T-DNA was used together with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based positive selection for the gene of interest to screen marker-free progeny. To test the efficacy of this strategy, we cloned the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxin gene into the Ds elements and transformed transposon vectors into rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PCR assays of the transposon empty donor site exhibited transposition in somatic cells in 60.5% to 100% of the rice transformants. Marker-free (T-DNA-free) transgenic rice plants derived from unlinked germinal transposition were obtained from the T1 generation of 26.1% of the primary transformants. Individual marker-free transgenic rice lines were subjected to thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR to determine Ds(Bt) reintegration positions, reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Bt expression levels, and bioassays to confirm resistance against the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis. Overall, we efficiently generated marker-free transgenic plants with optimized transgene insertion and expression. The transposon-mediated marker-free platform established in this study can be used in rice and possibly in other important crops. PMID:25371551

  18. Tudor-SN Interacts with Piwi Antagonistically in Regulating Spermatogenesis but Synergistically in Silencing Transposons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Hsueh-Yen; Gangaraju, Vamsi K.; Qi, Hongying; Liu, Na; Lin, Haifan

    2016-01-01

    Piwi proteins associate with piRNAs and functions in epigenetic programming, post-transcriptional regulation, transposon silencing, and germline development. However, it is not known whether the diverse functions of these proteins are molecularly separable. Here we report that Piwi interacts with Tudor-SN (Tudor staphylococcal nuclease, TSN) antagonistically in regulating spermatogenesis but synergistically in silencing transposons. However, it is not required for piRNA biogenesis. TSN is known to participate in diverse molecular functions such as RNAi, degradation of hyper-edited miRNAs, and spliceosome assembly. We show that TSN colocalizes with Piwi in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and embryonic somatic cells. In adult ovaries and testes, TSN is ubiquitously expressed and enriched in the cytoplasm of both germline and somatic cells. The tsn mutants display a higher mitotic index of spermatogonia, accumulation of spermatocytes, defects in meiotic cytokinesis, a decreased number of spermatids, and eventually reduced male fertility. Germline-specific TSN-expression analysis demonstrates that this function is germline-dependent. Different from other known Piwi interters, TSN represses Piwi expression at both protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, reducing piwi expression in the germline rescues tsn mutant phenotype in a dosage-dependent manner, demonstrating that Piwi and TSN interact antagonistically in germ cells to regulate spermatogenesis. However, the tsn deficiency has little, if any, impact on piRNA biogenesis but displays a synergistic effect with piwi mutants in transposon de-silencing. Our results reveal the biological function of TSN and its contrasting modes of interaction with Piwi in spermatogenesis, transposon silencing, and piRNA biogenesis. PMID:26808625

  19. Efficient Generation of Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants Using an Improved Transposon-Mediated Transgene Reintegration Strategy1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Jie; Li, Jun; Zou, Xiaowei; Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Qingliang; Xia, Ran; Yang, Ruifang; Wang, Dekai; Zuo, Zhaoxue; Tu, Jumin; Tao, Yuezhi; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xie, Qi; Zhu, Zengrong

    2015-01-01

    Marker-free transgenic plants can be developed through transposon-mediated transgene reintegration, which allows intact transgene insertion with defined boundaries and requires only a few primary transformants. In this study, we improved the selection strategy and validated that the maize (Zea mays) Activator/Dissociation (Ds) transposable element can be routinely used to generate marker-free transgenic plants. A Ds-based gene of interest was linked to green fluorescent protein in transfer DNA (T-DNA), and a green fluorescent protein-aided counterselection against T-DNA was used together with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based positive selection for the gene of interest to screen marker-free progeny. To test the efficacy of this strategy, we cloned the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxin gene into the Ds elements and transformed transposon vectors into rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. PCR assays of the transposon empty donor site exhibited transposition in somatic cells in 60.5% to 100% of the rice transformants. Marker-free (T-DNA-free) transgenic rice plants derived from unlinked germinal transposition were obtained from the T1 generation of 26.1% of the primary transformants. Individual marker-free transgenic rice lines were subjected to thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR to determine Ds(Bt) reintegration positions, reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Bt expression levels, and bioassays to confirm resistance against the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis. Overall, we efficiently generated marker-free transgenic plants with optimized transgene insertion and expression. The transposon-mediated marker-free platform established in this study can be used in rice and possibly in other important crops. PMID:25371551

  20. Tn-Seq Explorer: A Tool for Analysis of High-Throughput Sequencing Data of Transposon Mutant Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Solaimanpour, Sina; Sarmiento, Felipe; Mrázek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Tn-seq is a high throughput technique for analysis of transposon mutant libraries. Tn-seq Explorer was developed as a convenient and easy-to-use package of tools for exploration of the Tn-seq data. In a typical application, the user will have obtained a collection of sequence reads adjacent to transposon insertions in a reference genome. The reads are first aligned to the reference genome using one of the tools available for this task. Tn-seq Explorer reads the alignment and the gene annotation, and provides the user with a set of tools to investigate the data and identify possibly essential or advantageous genes as those that contain significantly low counts of transposon insertions. Emphasis is placed on providing flexibility in selecting parameters and methodology most appropriate for each particular dataset. Tn-seq Explorer is written in Java as a menu-driven, stand-alone application. It was tested on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux operating systems. The source code is distributed under the terms of GNU General Public License. The program and the source code are available for download at http://www.cmbl.uga.edu/downloads/programs/Tn_seq_Explorer/ and https://github.com/sina-cb/Tn-seqExplorer. PMID:25938432

  1. Comparison of three transposons for the generation of highly productive recombinant CHO cell pools and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Rajendra, Yashas; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2016-06-01

    Several naturally occurring vertebrate transposable elements have been genetically modified to enable the transposition of recombinant genes in mammalian cells. We compared three transposons-piggyBac, Tol2, and Sleeping Beauty-for their ability to generate cell pools (polyclonal cultures of recombinant cells) and clonal cell lines for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-DG44) as the host. Transfection with each of the dual-vector transposon systems resulted in cell pools with volumetric yields of tumor necrosis factor receptor-Fc fusion protein (TNFR:Fc) that were about ninefold higher than those from cell pools generated by conventional plasmid transfection. On average, the cell pools had 10-12 integrated copies of the transgene per cell. In the absence of selection, the volumetric productivity of the cell pools decreased by 50% over a 2-month cultivation period and then remained constant. The average volumetric TNFR:Fc productivity of clonal cell lines recovered from cell pools was about 25 times higher than that of cell lines generated by conventional transfection. In 14-day fed-batch cultures, TNFR:Fc levels up to 900 mg/L were obtained from polyclonal cell pools and up to 1.5 g/L from clonal cell lines using any of the three transposons. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1234-1243. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26616356

  2. A pair of transposons coordinately suppresses gene expression, independent of pathways mediated by siRNA in Antirrhinum.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Takako; Hiura, Satoshi; Ebinuma, Izuru; Senda, Mineo; Mikami, Tetsuo; Martin, Cathie; Kishima, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge is limited regarding mechanisms by which transposable elements control host gene expression. Two Antirrhinum lines, HAM2 and HAM5, show different petal colors, pale-red and white, respectively, although these lines contain the same insertion of transposon Tam3 in the promoter region of the nivea (niv) locus encoding chalcone synthase. Among 1000 progeny from HAM5 grown under the preferred conditions for the Tam3 transposition, a few showed an intermediate petal color between HAM2 and HAM5. Transposon tagging using these progeny identified a causative insertion of Tam3 for the HAM5 type (white) petal color, which was found 1.6 kb downstream of the niv gene. Insertion of Tam3 at the position 1.6 kb downstream of niv alone showed nearly wildtype petal pigmentation, and the niv expression reduced by only 50%. Severe suppression of niv observed in HAM5 required interaction of two Tam3 copies on either side of the niv coding sequence. DNA methylation and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were not associated with the suppression of niv expression in HAM5. Insertion of a pair of transposons in close proximity can interfere with the expression of gene located between the two copies, and also provide evidence that this interference is not directly associated with pathways mediated by siRNAs. PMID:23190182

  3. piggyBac Transposon plus Insulators Overcome Epigenetic Silencing to Provide for Stable Signaling Pathway Reporter Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mossine, Valeri V.; Waters, James K.; Hannink, Mark; Mawhinney, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified hematopoietic progenitors represent an important testing platform for a variety of cell-based therapies, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and other applications. Stable expression of a transfected gene of interest in the cells is often obstructed by its silencing. DNA transposons offer an attractive non-viral alternative of transgene integration into the host genome, but their broad applicability to leukocytes and other “transgene unfriendly” cells has not been fully demonstrated. Here we assess stability of piggyBac transposon-based reporter expression in murine prostate adenocarcinoma TRAMP-C2, human monocyte THP-1 and erythroleukemia K562 cell lines, along with macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that have differentiated from the THP-1 transfects. The most efficient and stable reporter activity was observed for combinations of the transposon inverted terminal repeats and one 5’- or two cHS4 core insulators flanking a green fluorescent protein reporter construct, with no detectable silencing over 10 months of continuous cell culture in absence of any selective pressure. In monocytic THP-1 cells, the functional activity of luciferase reporters for NF-κB, Nrf2, or HIF-1α has not decreased over time and was retained following differentiation into macrophages and DCs, as well. These results imply pB as a versatile tool for gene integration in monocytic cells in general, and as a convenient access route to DC-based signaling pathway reporters suitable for high-throughput assays, in particular. PMID:24376882

  4. Interaction of the Tn7-encoded transposition protein TnsB with the ends of the transposon.

    PubMed Central

    Arciszewska, L K; Craig, N L

    1991-01-01

    We have used several high resolution methods to examine the interaction of TnsB, a transposition protein encoded by the bacterial transposon Tn7, with its binding sites at the ends of the transposon. These binding sites lie within the DNA segments that are directly involved in transposition. We show that the binding of TnsB to DNA can promote DNA bending, suggesting that the interaction of TnsB with the ends may result in formation of a highly organized protein-DNA complex. We also identify likely positions of close contact between of TnsB and its binding sites. Analysis of the interaction of TnsB with intact Tn7 ends reveals TnsB occupies its binding sites in a particular order, the sites immediately adjacent to the transposon termini being occupied only after other inner sites are bound. Such ordered occupancy suggests that the various binding sites have differing apparent affinities for TnsB. Images PMID:1656385

  5. The Drosophila HP1 homologue Rhino is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual strand clusters

    PubMed Central

    Klattenhoff, Carla; Xi, Hualin; Li, Chengjian; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Khurana, Jaspreet S.; Zhang, Fan; Schultz, Nadine; Koppetsch, Birgit S.; Nowosielska, Anetta; Seitz, Herve; Zamore, Phillip D.; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary piRNAs silence transposons and maintain genome integrity during germ-line development. In Drosophila, transposon-rich heterochromatic clusters encode piRNAs either on both genomic strands (dual-strand clusters) or predominantly one genomic strand (uni-strand clusters). Primary piRNAs derived from these clusters are proposed to drive a ping-pong amplification cycle catalyzed by proteins that localize to the perinuclear nuage. We show that the HP1 homologue Rhino is required for nuage organization, transposon silencing, and ping-pong amplification of piRNAs. rhi mutations virtually eliminate piRNAs from the dual-strand clusters and block production of putative precursor RNAs from both strands of the major 42AB dual-strand cluster, but do not block production of transcripts or piRNAs from the uni-strand clusters. Furthermore, Rhino protein associates with the 42AB dual-strand cluster, but does not bind to uni-strand cluster 2 or flamenco. Rhino thus appears to promote transcription of dual-strand clusters, leading to production of piRNAs that drive the ping-pong amplification cycle. PMID:19732946

  6. Transposon-induced nuclear mutations that alter chloroplast gene expression. Annual report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Barkan, A.

    1992-12-31

    The goal of this project is to use mutant phenotypes as a guide to nuclear genes that determine the timing and localization of chloroplast development The immediate goals are to identify nuclear mutants with defects in chloroplast gene expression from maize lines harboring active Mu transposons; characterize their phenotypes to determine the precise defect in gene expression; clone several of the most interesting mutations by exploiting the transposon tag; and use the clones to further define the roles of these genes in modulating chloroplast gene expression. Three mutants were described earlier that had global defects in chloroplast gene expression. We have found that two of these mutations are allelic. Both alleles have global defects in chloroplast translation initiation, as revealed by the failure to assemble chloroplast mRNAs into polysomes. We have isolated and characterized three new mutants from Mu lines that have novel defects in chloroplast RNA metabolism. We are now ready to begin the task of cloning several of these genes, by using the Mu transposon tag.

  7. A gene trap transposon eliminates haematopoietic expression of zebrafish Gfi1aa, but does not interfere with haematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Thambyrajah, Roshana; Ucanok, Deniz; Jalali, Maryam; Hough, Yasmin; Wilkinson, Robert Neil; McMahon, Kathryn; Moore, Chris; Gering, Martin

    2016-09-01

    A transposon-mediated gene trap screen identified the zebrafish line qmc551 that expresses a GFP reporter in primitive erythrocytes and also in haemogenic endothelial cells, which give rise to haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that seed sites of larval and adult haematopoiesis. The transposon that mediates this GFP expression is located in intron 1 of the gfi1aa gene, one of three zebrafish paralogs that encode transcriptional repressors homologous to mammalian Gfi1 and Gfi1b proteins. In qmc551 transgenics, GFP expression is under the control of the endogenous gfi1aa promoter, recapitulates early gfi1aa expression and allows live observation of gfi1aa promoter activity. While the transposon integration interferes with the expression of gfi1aa mRNA in haematopoietic cells, homozygous qmc551 fish are viable and fertile, and display normal primitive and definitive haematopoiesis. Retained expression of Gfi1b in primitive erythrocytes and up-regulation of Gfi1ab at the onset of definitive haematopoiesis in homozygous qmc551 carriers, are sufficient to allow normal haematopoiesis. This finding contradicts previously published morpholino data that suggested an essential role for zebrafish Gfi1aa in primitive erythropoiesis. PMID:27432513

  8. piggyBac transposon plus insulators overcome epigenetic silencing to provide for stable signaling pathway reporter cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mossine, Valeri V; Waters, James K; Hannink, Mark; Mawhinney, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified hematopoietic progenitors represent an important testing platform for a variety of cell-based therapies, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and other applications. Stable expression of a transfected gene of interest in the cells is often obstructed by its silencing. DNA transposons offer an attractive non-viral alternative of transgene integration into the host genome, but their broad applicability to leukocytes and other "transgene unfriendly" cells has not been fully demonstrated. Here we assess stability of piggyBac transposon-based reporter expression in murine prostate adenocarcinoma TRAMP-C2, human monocyte THP-1 and erythroleukemia K562 cell lines, along with macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that have differentiated from the THP-1 transfects. The most efficient and stable reporter activity was observed for combinations of the transposon inverted terminal repeats and one 5'- or two cHS4 core insulators flanking a green fluorescent protein reporter construct, with no detectable silencing over 10 months of continuous cell culture in absence of any selective pressure. In monocytic THP-1 cells, the functional activity of luciferase reporters for NF-κB, Nrf2, or HIF-1α has not decreased over time and was retained following differentiation into macrophages and DCs, as well. These results imply pB as a versatile tool for gene integration in monocytic cells in general, and as a convenient access route to DC-based signaling pathway reporters suitable for high-throughput assays, in particular. PMID:24376882

  9. Inducible Transgene Expression in Human iPS Cells Using Versatile All-in-One piggyBac Transposons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Il; Oceguera-Yanez, Fabian; Sakurai, Chiho; Nakagawa, Masato; Yamanaka, Shinya; Woltjen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Transgenics is a mainstay of functional genomics. Conditionally overexpressing genes of interest (GOIs) helps to reveal their roles in the control of complex biological processes. Complemented by findings in classic animal model systems, recent advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) differentiation have led to sophisticated in vitro models of human development and disease. Yet, as transgenic elements encoding inducible systems must be introduced de novo into each genetically unique human stem cell line, robust and straightforward solutions to gene delivery are required. Transposons are a family of mobile DNA elements that have been adapted as experimental tools for stable genomic integration of transgenes. The piggyBac (PB) transposon from Trichoplusia ni presents a number of benefits over classic viral or BAC transgenesis: ease of application, simple integration-site mapping, and the unique capacity for traceless excision. Moreover, their large capacity permits the consolidation of multiple transgene components in a single vector system. In this chapter, we outline the features of a panel of "All-in-One" PB transposons designed for drug-inducible gene expression and provide guidelines to establish and validate populations or clones of transgenic hiPSCs. PMID:26025620

  10. pGLO Mutagenesis: A Laboratory Procedure in Molecular Biology for Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassiri, Eby A.

    2011-01-01

    A five-session laboratory project was designed to familiarize or increase the laboratory proficiency of biology students and others with techniques and instruments commonly used in molecular biology research laboratories and industries. In this project, the EZ-Tn5 transposon is used to generate and screen a large number of cells transformed with…

  11. Simple piggyBac transposon-based mammalian cell expression system for inducible protein production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijie; Michael, Iacovos P.; Zhou, Dongxia; Nagy, Andras; Rini, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Reported here is a piggyBac transposon-based expression system for the generation of doxycycline-inducible, stably transfected mammalian cell cultures for large-scale protein production. The system works with commonly used adherent and suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines and requires only a single transfection step. Moreover, the high uniform expression levels observed among clones allow for the use of stable bulk cell cultures, thereby eliminating time-consuming cloning steps. Under continuous doxycycline induction, protein expression levels have been shown to be stable for at least 2 mo in the absence of drug selection. The high efficiency of the system also allows for the generation of stable bulk cell cultures in 96-well format, a capability leading to the possibility of generating stable cell cultures for entire families of membrane or secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the system through the large-scale production (140–750 mg scale) of an endoplasmic reticulum-resident fucosyltransferase and two potential anticancer protein therapeutic agents. PMID:23476064

  12. Efficient Production of Fluorescent Transgenic Rats using the piggyBac Transposon.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianda; Shuai, Ling; Mao, Junjie; Wang, Xuepeng; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Leyun; Li, Yanni; Li, Wei; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Rats with fluorescent markers are of great value for studies that trace lineage-specific development, particularly those assessing the differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The piggyBac (PB) transposon is widely used for the efficient introduction of genetic modifications into genomes, and has already been successfully used to produce transgenic mice and rats. Here, we generated transgenic rats carrying either the desRed fluorescent protein (RFP) gene or the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene by injecting pronuclei with PB plasmids. We showed that the transgenic rats expressed the RFP or eGFP gene in many organs and had the capability to transmit the marker gene to the next generation through germline integration. In addition, rat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) carrying an RFP reporter gene can be derived from the blastocysts of the transgenic rats. Moreover, the RFP gene can be detected in chimeras derived from RFP ESCs via blastocyst injection. This work suggests that PB-mediated transgenesis is a powerful tool to generate transgenic rats expressing fluorescent proteins with high efficiency, and this technique can be used to derive rat ESCs expressing a reporter protein. PMID:27624004

  13. Endogenous Small RNA Mediates Meiotic Silencing of a Novel DNA Transposon

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yizhou; Smith, Kristina M.; Taylor, John W.; Freitag, Michael; Stajich, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    Genome defense likely evolved to curtail the spread of transposable elements and invading viruses. A combination of effective defense mechanisms has been shown to limit colonization of the Neurospora crassa genome by transposable elements. A novel DNA transposon named Sly1-1 was discovered in the genome of the most widely used laboratory “wild-type” strain FGSC 2489 (OR74A). Meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA, also simply called meiotic silencing, prevents the expression of regions of the genome that are unpaired during karyogamy. This mechanism is posttranscriptional and is proposed to involve the production of small RNA, so-called masiRNAs, by proteins homologous to those involved in RNA interference−silencing pathways in animals, fungi, and plants. Here, we demonstrate production of small RNAs when Sly1-1 was unpaired in a cross between two wild-type strains. These small RNAs are dependent on SAD-1, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase necessary for meiotic silencing. We present the first case of endogenously produced masiRNA from a novel N. crassa DNA transposable element. PMID:26109355

  14. Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt4 Signaling to Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Maitreyi; Martino Cortez, Yesenia; Wong-Deyrup, SiuWah; Tavares, Leticia; Schowalter, Sean; Flora, Pooja; Hill, Corinne; Nasrallah, Mohamad Ali; Chittur, Sridar; Rangan, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    Germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation are required for the sustained production of gametes. GSC differentiation in Drosophila oogenesis requires expression of the histone methyltransferase dSETDB1 by the somatic niche, however its function in this process is unknown. Here, we show that dSETDB1 is required for the expression of a Wnt ligand, Drosophila Wingless type mouse mammary virus integration site number 4 (dWnt4) in the somatic niche. dWnt4 signaling acts on the somatic niche cells to facilitate their encapsulation of the GSC daughter, which serves as a differentiation cue. dSETDB1 is known to repress transposable elements (TEs) to maintain genome integrity. Unexpectedly, we found that independent upregulation of TEs also downregulated dWnt4, leading to GSC differentiation defects. This suggests that dWnt4 expression is sensitive to the presence of TEs. Together our results reveal a chromatin-transposon-Wnt signaling axis that regulates stem cell fate. PMID:27019121

  15. A LTR copia retrotransposon and Mutator transposons interrupt Pgip genes in cultivated and wild wheats.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome. PMID:18301877

  16. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa. PMID:26706072

  17. S Elements: A Family of Tc1-like Transposons in the Genome of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, P. J.; Grimes, C. D.; Ambroziak, J.; Hackett, D. A.; Skinner, P.; Simmons, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The S elements form a diverse family of long-inverted-repeat transposons within the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. These elements vary in size and sequence, the longest consisting of 1736 bp with 234-bp inverted terminal repeats. The longest open reading frame in an intact S element could encode a 345-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide is homologous to the transposases of the mariner-Tc1 superfamily of transposable elements. S elements are ubiquitous in D. melanogaster populations and also appear to be present in the genomes of two sibling species; however, they seem to be absent from 17 other Drosophila species that were examined. Within D. melanogaster strains, there are, on average, 37.4 cytologically detectable S elements per diploid genome. These elements are scattered throughout the chromosomes, but several sites in both the euchromatin and β heterochromatin are consistently occupied. The discovery of an S-element-insertion mutation and a reversion of this mutation indicates that S elements are at least occasionally mobile in the D. melanogaster genome. These elements seem to insert at an AT dinucleotide within a short palindrome and apparently duplicate that dinucleotide upon insertion. PMID:8601484

  18. S elements: A family of Tc1-like transposons in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Merriman, P.J.; Grimes, C.D.; Ambroziak, J.

    1995-12-01

    The S elements form a diverse family of long-inverted-repeat transposons within the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. These elements very in size and sequence, the longest consisting of 1736 bp with 234-bp inverted terminal repeats. The longest open reading frame in an intact S element could encode a 345-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide is homologous to the transposases of the mariner-Tc1 superfamily of transposable elements. S elements are ubiquitous in D. melanogaster populations and also appear to be present in the genomes of two sibling species; however, they seem to be absent from 17 other Drosophila species that were examined. Within D. melanogaster strains, there are, on average, 37.4 cytologically detectable S elements per diploid genome. These elements are scattered throughout the chromosomes, but several sites in both the euchromatin and {beta} heterochromatin are consistently occupied. The discovery of an S-element-insertion mutation and a reversion of this mutation indicates that S elements are at least occasionally mobile in the D. melanogaster genome. These elements seem to insert at an AT dinucleotide within a short palindrome and apparently duplicate that dinucleotide upon insertion. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Drosophila transposon insertions as unknowns for structured inquiry recombination mapping exercises in an undergraduate genetics course.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Jeffrey M; Hughes, Tia M

    2009-06-01

    Structured inquiry approaches, in which students receive a Drosophila strain of unknown genotype to analyze and map the constituent mutations, are a common feature of many genetics teaching laboratories. The required crosses frustrate many students because they are aware that they are participating in a fundamentally trivial exercise, as the map locations of the genes are already established and have been recalculated thousands of times by generations of students. We modified the traditional structured inquiry approach to include a novel research experience for the students in our undergraduate genetics laboratories. Students conducted crosses with Drosophila strains carrying P[lacW] transposon insertions in genes without documented recombination map positions, representing a large number of unique, but equivalent genetic unknowns. Using the eye color phenotypes associated with the inserts as visible markers, it is straightforward to calculate recombination map positions for the interrupted loci. Collectively, our students mapped 95 genetic loci on chromosomes 2 and 3. In most cases, the calculated 95% confidence interval for meiotic map location overlapped with the predicted map position based on cytology. The research experience evoked positive student responses and helped students better understand the nature of scientific research for little additional cost or instructor effort. PMID:19332881

  20. A Transposon Screen Identifies Genetic Determinants of Vibrio cholerae Resistance to High-Molecular-Weight Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Tobias; Delgado, Fernanda; Umans, Benjamin D; Gerding, Matthew A; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2016-08-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are notoriously resistant to a variety of high-molecular-weight antibiotics due to the limited permeability of their outer membrane (OM). The basis of OM barrier function and the genetic factors required for its maintenance remain incompletely understood. Here, we employed transposon insertion sequencing to identify genes required for Vibrio cholerae resistance to vancomycin and bacitracin, antibiotics that are thought to be too large to efficiently penetrate the OM. The screen yielded several genes whose protein products are predicted to participate in processes important for OM barrier functions and for biofilm formation. In addition, we identified a novel factor, designated vigA (for vancomycin inhibits growth), that has not previously been characterized or linked to outer membrane function. The vigA open reading frame (ORF) codes for an inner membrane protein, and in its absence, cells became highly sensitive to glycopeptide antibiotics (vancomycin and ramoplanin) and bacitracin but not to other large antibiotics or detergents. In contrast to wild-type (WT) cells, the vigA mutant was stained with fluorescent vancomycin. These observations suggest that VigA specifically prevents the periplasmic accumulation of certain large antibiotics without exerting a general role in the maintenance of OM integrity. We also observed marked interspecies variability in the susceptibilities of Gram-negative pathogens to glycopeptides and bacitracin. Collectively, our findings suggest that the OM barrier is not absolute but rather depends on specific OM-antibiotic interactions. PMID:27216069

  1. ARTIST: High-Resolution Genome-Wide Assessment of Fitness Using Transposon-Insertion Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Sören; Davis, Brigid M.; Baranowski, Catherine; Zhang, Yanjia J.; Rubin, Eric J.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Transposon-insertion sequencing (TIS) is a powerful approach for deciphering genetic requirements for bacterial growth in different conditions, as it enables simultaneous genome-wide analysis of the fitness of thousands of mutants. However, current methods for comparative analysis of TIS data do not adjust for stochastic experimental variation between datasets and are limited to interrogation of annotated genomic elements. Here, we present ARTIST, an accessible TIS analysis pipeline for identifying essential regions that are required for growth under optimal conditions as well as conditionally essential loci that participate in survival only under specific conditions. ARTIST uses simulation-based normalization to model and compensate for experimental noise, and thereby enhances the statistical power in conditional TIS analyses. ARTIST also employs a novel adaptation of the hidden Markov model to generate statistically robust, high-resolution, annotation-independent maps of fitness-linked loci across the entire genome. Using ARTIST, we sensitively and comprehensively define Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Vibrio cholerae loci required for host infection while limiting inclusion of false positive loci. ARTIST is applicable to a broad range of organisms and will facilitate TIS-based dissection of pathways required for microbial growth and survival under a multitude of conditions. PMID:25375795

  2. Site-selected insertional mutagenesis of tomato with maize Ac and Ds elements.

    PubMed

    Cooley, M B; Goldsbrough, A P; Still, D W; Yoder, J I

    1996-08-27

    Site-selected insertion (SSI) is a PCR-based technique which uses primers located within the transposon and a target gene for detection of transposon insertions into cloned genes. We screened tomato plants bearing single or multiple copies of maize Ac or Ds transposable elements for somatic insertions at one close-range target and two long-range targets. Eight close-range Ds insertions near the right border of the T-DNA were recovered. Sequence analysis showed a precise junction between the transposon and the target for all insertions. Two insertions in separate plants occurred at the same site, but others appeared dispersed in the region of the right T-DNA border with no target specificity. However, insertions showed a preference for one orientation of the transposon. Use of plants with multiple Ac (HiAc) or Ds (HiDs) elements allowed detection of somatic insertions at two single-copy genes, PG (polygalacturonase) and DFR (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase). Certain HiDs plants showed much higher rates of insertion into PG than others. Insertions in PG and DFR were found throughout the gene regions monitored and, with the exception of one insertion in PG, the junctions between transposon and target were exact. SSI analysis of progeny from the HiDs parents revealed that in some cases the tendency to incur high levels of somatic insertions in PG was inherited. Inheritance of this character is an indication that SSI could be used to direct a search for germinal PG insertions in tomato. PMID:8804392

  3. Association of elevated mutagenesis in the spleen with genetic susceptibility to induced plasmacytoma development in mice.

    PubMed

    Felix, K; Kelliher, K; Bornkamm, G W; Janz, S

    1998-04-15

    Using the phage lambdaLIZ-based transgenic in vivo mutagenesis assay, mean mutant rates were determined in the spleen of mice exposed to sustained oxidative stress and were found to be increased approximately 3-fold in plasmacytoma-susceptible BALB/c and C.D2-Idh1-Pep3 mice, but not in plasmacytoma-resistant DBA/2N mice. This finding suggests a correlation between the genetic susceptibility to inflammation-induced peritoneal plasmacytomagenesis and the phenotype of increased mutagenesis in lymphoid tissues, raising the possibility that plasmacytoma resistance genes may inhibit tumor development by minimizing oxidative mutagenesis in B cells. PMID:9563470

  4. Dendrimer-enabled transformation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Oki, Aminat T; Seidman, David; Lancina, Michael G; Mishra, Manoj K; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M; Yang, Hu; Carlyon, Jason A

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes the emerging infection, granulocytic anaplasmosis. While electroporation can transform A. phagocytophilum isolated from host cells, no method has been developed to transform it while growing inside the ApV (A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole). Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers, well-defined tree-branched macromolecules used for gene therapy and nucleic acid delivery into mammalian cells, were recently shown to be effective in transforming Chlamydia spp. actively growing in host cells. We determined if we could adapt a similar system to transform A. phagocytophilum. Incubating fluorescently labeled PAMAM dendrimers with infected host cells resulted in fluorescein-positive ApVs. Incubating infected host cells or host cell-free A. phagocytophilum organisms with dendrimers complexed with pCis GFPuv-SS Himar A7 plasmid, which carries a Himar1 transposon cassette encoding GFPuv and spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance plus the Himar1 transposase itself, resulted in GFP-positive, antibiotic resistant bacteria. Yet, transformation efficiencies were low. The transformed bacterial populations could only be maintained for a few passages, likely due to random Himar1 cassette-mediated disruption of A. phagocytophilum genes required for fitness. Nonetheless, these results provide proof of principle that dendrimers can deliver exogenous DNA into A. phagocytophilum, both inside and outside of host cells. PMID:26369714

  5. Retroviral Vectors for Analysis of Viral Mutagenesis and Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Jonathan M.O.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Retrovirus population diversity within infected hosts is commonly high due in part to elevated rates of replication, mutation, and recombination. This high genetic diversity often complicates the development of effective diagnostics, vaccines, and antiviral drugs. This review highlights the diverse vectors and approaches that have been used to examine mutation and recombination in retroviruses. Retroviral vectors for these purposes can broadly be divided into two categories: those that utilize reporter genes as mutation or recombination targets and those that utilize viral genes as targets of mutation or recombination. Reporter gene vectors greatly facilitate the detection, quantification, and characterization of mutants and/or recombinants, but may not fully recapitulate the patterns of mutagenesis or recombination observed in native viral gene sequences. In contrast, the detection of mutations or recombination events directly in viral genes is more biologically relevant but also typically more challenging and inefficient. We will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the various vectors and approaches used as well as propose ways in which they could be improved. PMID:25254386

  6. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis for precision gene editing.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Noel J; Mozoruk, Jerry; Miller, Ryan B; Warburg, Zachary J; Walker, Keith A; Beetham, Peter R; Schöpke, Christian R; Gocal, Greg F W

    2016-02-01

    Differences in gene sequences, many of which are single nucleotide polymorphisms, underlie some of the most important traits in plants. With humanity facing significant challenges to increase global agricultural productivity, there is an urgent need to accelerate the development of these traits in plants. oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODM), one of the many tools of Cibus' Rapid Trait Development System (RTDS(™) ) technology, offers a rapid, precise and non-transgenic breeding alternative for trait improvement in agriculture to address this urgent need. This review explores the application of ODM as a precision genome editing technology, with emphasis on using oligonucleotides to make targeted edits in plasmid, episomal and chromosomal DNA of bacterial, fungal, mammalian and plant systems. The process of employing ODM by way of RTDS technology has been improved in many ways by utilizing a fluorescence conversion system wherein a blue fluorescent protein (BFP) can be changed to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) by editing a single nucleotide of the BFP gene (CAC→TAC; H66 to Y66). For example, dependent on oligonucleotide length, applying oligonucleotide-mediated technology to target the BFP transgene in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts resulted in up to 0.05% precisely edited GFP loci. Here, the development of traits in commercially relevant plant varieties to improve crop performance by genome editing technologies such as ODM, and by extension RTDS, is reviewed. PMID:26503400

  7. Efficient Gene Transfer and Targeted Mutagenesis in Fusobacterium nucleatum

    PubMed Central

    Haake, Susan Kinder; Yoder, Sean; Gerardo, Sharon Hunt

    2006-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative anaerobe important in dental biofilm ecology and infectious diseases with significant societal impact. The lack of efficient genetic systems has hampered molecular analyses in this microorganism. We previously reported construction of a shuttle plasmid, pHS17, using the native fusobacterial plasmid pFN1 and an erythromycin resistance cassette. However, the host range of pHS17 was restricted to F. nucleatum, ATCC 10953 and the transformation efficiency was limited. This study was undertaken to improve genetic systems for molecular analysis in F. nucleatum. We identified a second F. nucleatum strain, ATCC 23726, which is transformed with improved efficiency compared to ATCC 10953. Two novel second generation pFN1-based shuttle plasmids, pHS23 and pHS30, were developed and enable transformation of ATCC 23726 at 6.2 x 104 and 1.5 x 106 transformants/microgram of plasmid DNA, respectively. The transformation efficiency of pHS30, which harbors a catP gene conferring resistance to chloramphenicol, was more than 1,000-fold greater than that of pHS17. The improved transformation efficiency facilitated disruption of the chromosomal rnr gene using a suicide plasmid pHS19, the first demonstration of targeted mutagenesis in F. nucleatum. These results provide significant advances in the development of systems for molecular analysis in F. nucleatum. PMID:16115683

  8. Targeted mutagenesis using CRISPR/Cas system in medaka

    PubMed Central

    Ansai, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Masato

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system-based RNA-guided endonuclease (RGEN) has recently emerged as a simple and efficient tool for targeted genome editing. In this study, we showed successful targeted mutagenesis using RGENs in medaka, Oryzias latipes. Somatic and heritable mutations were induced with high efficiency at the targeted genomic sequence on the DJ-1 gene in embryos that had been injected with the single guide RNA (sgRNA) transcribed by a T7 promoter and capped RNA encoding a Cas9 nuclease. The sgRNAs that were designed for the target genomic sequences without the 5′ end of GG required by the T7 promoter induced the targeted mutations. This suggests that the RGEN can target any sequence adjacent to an NGG protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence, which occurs once every 8 bp. The off-target alterations at 2 genomic loci harboring double mismatches in the 18-bp targeting sequences were induced in the RGEN-injected embryos. However, we also found that the off-target effects could be reduced by lower dosages of sgRNA. Taken together, our results suggest that CRISPR/Cas-mediated RGENs may be an efficient and flexible tool for genome editing in medaka. PMID:24728957

  9. Analysis of HIV-2 Vpx by modeling and insertional mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnke, Lisa A. . E-mail: lmahnke@im.wustl.edu; Belshan, Michael; Ratner, Lee . E-mail: lratner@im.wustl.edu

    2006-04-25

    Vpx facilitates HIV-2 nuclear localization by a poorly understood mechanism. We have compared Vpx to an NMR structure HIV-1 Vpr in a central helical domain and probed regions of Vpx by insertional mutagenesis. A predicted loop between helices two and three appears to be unique, overlapping with a known novel nuclear localization signal. Overall, Vpx was found to be surprisingly flexible, tolerating a series of large insertions. We found that insertion within the polyproline-containing C-terminus destabilizes nuclear localization, whereas mutating a second helix in the central domain disrupts viral packaging. Other insertional mutants in the predicted loop and in a linker region between the central domain and the C-terminus may be useful as sites of intramolecular tags as they could be packaged adequately and retained preintegration complex associated integration activity in a serum starvation assay. An unexpected result was found within a previously defined nuclear localization motif near aa 71. This mutant retained robust nuclear localization in a GFP fusion assay and was competent for preintegration complex associated nuclear import. In summary, we have modeled helical content in Vpx and assessed potential sites of intramolecular tags which may prove useful for protein-protein interactions studies.

  10. Lethal Mutagenesis of HIV with Mutagenic Nucleoside Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Lawrence A.; Essigmann, John M.; Kazazi, Farhad; Zhang, Jue; Rose, Karl D.; Mullins, James I.

    1999-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replicates its genome and mutates at exceptionally high rates. As a result, the virus is able to evade immunological and chemical antiviral agents. We tested the hypothesis that a further increase in the mutation rate by promutagenic nucleoside analogs would abolish viral replication. We evaluated deoxynucleoside analogs for lack of toxicity to human cells, incorporation by HIV reverse transcriptase, resistance to repair when incorporated into the DNA strand of an RNA\\cdot DNA hybrid, and mispairing at high frequency. Among the candidates tested, 5-hydroxydeoxycytidine (5-OH-dC) fulfilled these criteria. In seven of nine experiments, the presence of this analog resulted in the loss of viral replicative potential after 9-24 sequential passages of HIV in human CEM cells. In contrast, loss of viral replication was not observed in 28 control cultures passaged in the absence of the nucleoside analog, nor with other analogs tested. Sequence analysis of a portion of the HIV reverse transcriptase gene demonstrated a disproportionate increase in G -> A substitutions, mutations predicted to result from misincorporation of 5-OH-dC into the cDNA during reverse transcription. Thus, "lethal mutagenesis" driven by the class of deoxynucleoside analogs represented by 5-OH-dC could provide a new approach to treating HIV infections and, potentially, other viral infections.

  11. Functional mapping of Cre recombinase by pentapeptide insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Petyuk, Vladislav; McDermott, Jeffrey; Cook, Malcolm; Sauer, Brian

    2004-08-27

    Cre is a site-specific recombinase from bacteriophage P1. It is a member of the tyrosine integrase family and catalyzes reciprocal recombination between specific 34-bp sites called loxP. To analyze the structure-function relationships of this enzyme, we performed large scale pentapeptide insertional mutagenesis to generate insertions of five amino acids at random positions in the protein. The high density of insertion mutations into Cre allowed us to identify an unexpected degree of functional tolerance to insertions into the 4-5 beta-hairpin and into the loop between helices J and K (both of which contact the DNA in the minor groove) and also into helix A. The phenotypes of the majority of inserts allowed us to confirm a variety of predictions made on the basis of sequence conservation, known three-dimensional structure, and proposed catalytic mechanism. In particular, most insertions into conserved regions or secondary structure elements inactivated Cre, and most insertions located in nonconserved, unstructured regions preserved Cre activity. Less expectedly, the non-conserved and poorly structured loops and linkers between helices A-B, E-F, and M-N did not tolerate insertions, thus identifying these as critical regions for recombinase activity. We purified and characterized in vitro several representatives of these "unexpected" Cre insertion mutants. The role of those regions in the recombination process is discussed. PMID:15218019

  12. Recurrent AAV2-related insertional mutagenesis in human hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nault, Jean-Charles; Datta, Shalini; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Franconi, Andrea; Mallet, Maxime; Couchy, Gabrielle; Letouzé, Eric; Pilati, Camilla; Verret, Benjamin; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Balabaud, Charles; Calderaro, Julien; Laurent, Alexis; Letexier, Mélanie; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Calvo, Fabien; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are liver tumors related to various etiologies, including alcohol intake and infection with hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus. Additional risk factors remain to be identified, particularly in patients who develop HCC without cirrhosis. We found clonal integration of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) in 11 of 193 HCCs. These AAV2 integrations occurred in known cancer driver genes, namely CCNA2 (cyclin A2; four cases), TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase; one case), CCNE1 (cyclin E1; three cases), TNFSF10 (tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 10; two cases) and KMT2B (lysine-specific methyltransferase 2B; one case), leading to overexpression of the target genes. Tumors with viral integration mainly developed in non-cirrhotic liver (9 of 11 cases) and without known risk factors (6 of 11 cases), suggesting a pathogenic role for AAV2 in these patients. In conclusion, AAV2 is a DNA virus associated with oncogenic insertional mutagenesis in human HCC. PMID:26301494

  13. Particulate matter inhibits DNA repair and enhances mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Manju; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gordon, Terry; Rom, William; Tang, Moon-Shong

    2008-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects including lung cancer. A recent epidemiology study has established that each 10 microg/m3 elevation in long-term exposure to average PM2.5 ambient concentration was associated with approximately 8% of lung cancer mortality. The underlying mechanisms of how PM contributes to lung carcinogenesis, however, remain to be elucidated. We have recently found that transition metals such as nickel and chromium and oxidative stress induced lipid peroxidation metabolites such as aldehydes can greatly inhibit nucleotide excision repair (NER) and enhance carcinogen-induced mutations. Because PM is rich in metal and aldehyde content and can induce oxidative stress, we tested the effect of PM on DNA repair capacity in cultured human lung cells using in vitro DNA repair synthesis and host cell reactivation assays. We found that PM greatly inhibits NER for ultraviolet (UV) light and benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) induced DNA damage in human lung cells. We further demonstrated that PM exposure can significantly increase both spontaneous and UV-induced mutagenesis. These results together suggest that the carcinogenicity of PM may act through its combined effect on suppression of DNA repair and enhancement of DNA replication errors. PMID:18804180

  14. Multiplex Conditional Mutagenesis Using Transgenic Expression of Cas9 and sgRNAs.

    PubMed

    Yin, Linlin; Maddison, Lisette A; Li, Mingyu; Kara, Nergis; LaFave, Matthew C; Varshney, Gaurav K; Burgess, Shawn M; Patton, James G; Chen, Wenbiao

    2015-06-01

    Determining the mechanism of gene function is greatly enhanced using conditional mutagenesis. However, generating engineered conditional alleles is inefficient and has only been widely used in mice. Importantly, multiplex conditional mutagenesis requires extensive breeding. Here we demonstrate a system for one-generation multiplex conditional mutagenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) using transgenic expression of both cas9 and multiple single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). We describe five distinct zebrafish U6 promoters for sgRNA expression and demonstrate efficient multiplex biallelic inactivation of tyrosinase and insulin receptor a and b, resulting in defects in pigmentation and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we demonstrate temporal and tissue-specific mutagenesis using transgenic expression of Cas9. Heat-shock-inducible expression of cas9 allows temporal control of tyr mutagenesis. Liver-specific expression of cas9 disrupts insulin receptor a and b, causing fasting hypoglycemia and postprandial hyperglycemia. We also show that delivery of sgRNAs targeting ascl1a into the eye leads to impaired damage-induced photoreceptor regeneration. Our findings suggest that CRISPR/Cas9-based conditional mutagenesis in zebrafish is not only feasible but rapid and straightforward. PMID:25855067

  15. Extinction of hepatitis C virus by ribavirin in hepatoma cells involves lethal mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Prieto, Ana M; Sheldon, Julie; Grande-Pérez, Ana; Tejero, Héctor; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan I; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction produced by enhanced mutation rates, is under investigation as an antiviral strategy that aims at counteracting the adaptive capacity of viral quasispecies, and avoiding selection of antiviral-escape mutants. To explore lethal mutagenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV), it is important to establish whether ribavirin, the purine nucleoside analogue used in anti-HCV therapy, acts as a mutagenic agent during virus replication in cell culture. Here we report the effect of ribavirin during serial passages of HCV in human hepatoma Huh-7.5 cells, regarding viral progeny production and complexity of mutant spectra. Ribavirin produced an increase of mutant spectrum complexity and of the transition types associated with ribavirin mutagenesis, resulting in HCV extinction. Ribavirin-mediated depletion of intracellular GTP was not the major contributory factor to mutagenesis since mycophenolic acid evoked a similar decrease in GTP without an increase in mutant spectrum complexity. The intracellular concentration of the other nucleoside-triphosphates was elevated as a result of ribavirin treatment. Mycophenolic acid extinguished HCV without an intervening mutagenic activity. Ribavirin-mediated, but not mycophenolic acid-mediated, extinction of HCV occurred via a decrease of specific infectivity, a feature typical of lethal mutagenesis. We discuss some possibilities to explain disparate results on ribavirin mutagenesis of HCV. PMID:23976977

  16. Transposons to toxins: the provenance, architecture and diversification of a widespread class of eukaryotic effectors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dapeng; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Vidal, Newton D.; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic effectors targeting nucleic acids, proteins and other cellular components are the mainstay of conflicts across life forms. Using comparative genomics we identify a large class of eukaryotic proteins, which include effectors from oomycetes, fungi and other parasites. The majority of these proteins have a characteristic domain architecture with one of several N-terminal ‘Header’ domains, which are predicted to play a role in trafficking of these effectors, including a novel version of the Ubiquitin fold. The Headers are followed by one or more diverse C-terminal domains, such as restriction endonuclease (REase), protein kinase, HNH endonuclease, LK-nuclease (a RNase) and multiple distinct peptidase domains, which are predicted to carry their toxicity determinants. The most common types of these proteins appear to have originated from prokaryotic transposases (e.g. TN7 and Mu) and combine a CDC6/ORC1-STAND clade NTPase domain with a C-terminal REase domain. Other than the so-called Crinkler effectors of oomycetes and fungi, these effectors are encoded by other eukaryotic parasites such as trypanosomatids (the RHS proteins) and the rhizarian Plasmodiophora, and symbionts like Capsaspora. Remarkably, we also find these proteins in free-living eukaryotes, including several viridiplantae, fungi, amoebozoans and animals. These versions might either still be transposons or function in other poorly understood eukaryote-specific inter-organismal and inter-genomic conflicts. These include the Medea1 selfish element of Tribolium that spreads via post-zygotic killing. We present a unified mechanism for the recombination-dependent diversification and action of this widespread class of molecular weaponry deployed across diverse conflicts ranging from parasitic to free-living forms. PMID:27060143

  17. Transposons to toxins: the provenance, architecture and diversification of a widespread class of eukaryotic effectors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dapeng; Burroughs, A Maxwell; Vidal, Newton D; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Aravind, L

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatic effectors targeting nucleic acids, proteins and other cellular components are the mainstay of conflicts across life forms. Using comparative genomics we identify a large class of eukaryotic proteins, which include effectors from oomycetes, fungi and other parasites. The majority of these proteins have a characteristic domain architecture with one of several N-terminal 'Header' domains, which are predicted to play a role in trafficking of these effectors, including a novel version of the Ubiquitin fold. The Headers are followed by one or more diverse C-terminal domains, such as restriction endonuclease (REase), protein kinase, HNH endonuclease, LK-nuclease (a RNase) and multiple distinct peptidase domains, which are predicted to carry their toxicity determinants. The most common types of these proteins appear to have originated from prokaryotic transposases (e.g. TN7 and Mu) and combine a CDC6/ORC1-STAND clade NTPase domain with a C-terminal REase domain. Other than the so-called Crinkler effectors of oomycetes and fungi, these effectors are encoded by other eukaryotic parasites such as trypanosomatids (the RHS proteins) and the rhizarian Plasmodiophora, and symbionts like Capsaspora Remarkably, we also find these proteins in free-living eukaryotes, including several viridiplantae, fungi, amoebozoans and animals. These versions might either still be transposons or function in other poorly understood eukaryote-specific inter-organismal and inter-genomic conflicts. These include the Medea1 selfish element of Tribolium that spreads via post-zygotic killing. We present a unified mechanism for the recombination-dependent diversification and action of this widespread class of molecular weaponry deployed across diverse conflicts ranging from parasitic to free-living forms. PMID:27060143

  18. Generation and screening of a comprehensive Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis transposon mutant bank

    PubMed Central

    Rathnaiah, Govardhan; Lamont, Elise A.; Harris, N. Beth; Fenton, Robert J.; Zinniel, Denise K.; Liu, Xiaofei; Sotos, Josh; Feng, Zhengyu; Livneh-Kol, Ayala; Shpigel, Nahum Y.; Czuprynski, Charles J.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Barletta, Raúl G.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's Disease in ruminants. This enteritis has significant economic impact and worldwide distribution. Vaccination is one of the most cost effective infectious disease control measures. Unfortunately, current vaccines reduce clinical disease and shedding, but are of limited efficacy and do not provide long-term protective immunity. Several strategies have been followed to mine the MAP genome for virulence determinants that could be applied to vaccine and diagnostic assay development. In this study, a comprehensive mutant bank of 13,536 MAP K-10 Tn5367 mutants (P > 95%) was constructed and screened in vitro for phenotypes related to virulence. This strategy was designated to maximize identification of genes important to MAP pathogenesis without relying on studies of other mycobacterial species that may not translate into similar effects in MAP. This bank was screened for mutants with colony morphology alterations, susceptibility to D-cycloserine, impairment in siderophore production or secretion, reduced cell association, and decreased biofilm and clump formation. Mutants with interesting phenotypes were analyzed by PCR, Southern blotting and DNA sequencing to determine transposon insertion sites. These insertion sites mapped upstream from the MAP1152-MAP1156 cluster, internal to either the Mod operon gene MAP1566 or within the coding sequence of lsr2, and several intergenic regions. Growth curves in broth cultures, invasion assays and kinetics of survival and replication in primary bovine macrophages were also determined. The ability of vectors carrying Tn5370 to generate stable MAP mutants was also investigated. PMID:25360421

  19. β-globin matrix attachment region improves stable genomic expression of the Sleeping Beauty transposon.

    PubMed

    Sjeklocha, Lucas; Chen, Yixin; Daly, Meghan C; Steer, Clifford J; Kren, Betsy T

    2011-09-01

    The liver is an attractive target for gene therapy due to its extensive capability for protein production and the numerous diseases resulting from a loss of gene function it normally provides. The Sleeping Beauty Transposon (SB-Tn)(1) system is a non-viral vector capable of delivering and mediating therapeutic transgene(s) insertion into the host genome for long-term expression. A current challenge for this system is the low efficiency of integration of the transgene. In this study we use a human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) and primary human blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) to test vectors containing DNA elements to enhance transposition without integrating themselves. We employed the human β-globin matrix attachment region (MAR) and the Simian virus 40 (SV40) nuclear translocation signal to increase the percent of HuH-7 cells persistently expressing a GFP::Zeo reporter construct by ∼50% for each element; while combining both did not show an additive effect. Interestingly, both elements together displayed an additive effect on the number of insertion sites, and in BOECs the SV40 alone appeared to have an inhibitory effect on transposition. In long-term cultures the loss of plasmid DNA, transposase expression and mapping of insertion sites demonstrated bona fide transposition without episomal expression. These results show that addition of the β-globin MAR and potentially other elements to the backbone of SB-Tn system can enhance transposition and expression of therapeutic transgenes. These findings may have a significant influence on the use of SB transgene delivery to liver for the treatment of a wide variety of disorders. PMID:21520245

  20. Effects of heat and UV radiation on the mobilization of transposon mariner-Mos1.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Sinara Santos; Schuch, André Passaglia; Pereira, Camila Moura; Loreto, Elgion Lucio Silva

    2015-09-01

    There are many complex interactions between transposable elements (TEs) and host genomes. Environmental changes that induce stressful conditions help to contribute for increasing complexity of these interactions. The transposon mariner-Mos1 increases its mobilization under mild heat stress. It has putative heat shock elements (HSEs), which are probably activated by heat shock factors (HSFs). Ultraviolet radiation (UVC) is a stressor that has been suggested as able to activate heat shock protein genes (Hsp). In this study, we test the hypothesis that if UVC induces Hsp expression, as heat does, it could also promote mariner-Mos1 transposition and mobilization. The Drosophila simulans white-peach is a mutant lineage that indicates the mariner-Mos1 transposition phenotypically through the formation of mosaic eyes. This lineage was exposed to UVC or mild heat stress (28 °C) in order to evaluate the induction of mariner-Mos1 expression by RT-qPCR, as well as the mariner-Mos1 mobilization activity based on the count number of red spots in the eyes. The effects of both treatments on the developmental time of flies and cell cycle progression were also investigated. Both the analysis of eyes and mariner-Mos1 gene expression indicate that UVC radiation has no effect in mariner-Mos1 transposition, although heat increases the expression and mobilization of this TE soon after the treatment. However, the expression of Hsp70 gene increased after 24 h of UVC exposure, suggesting different pathway of activation. These results showed that heat promotes mariner-Mos1 mobilization, although UVC does not induce the expression or mobilization of this TE. PMID:26092118

  1. Rescue of mutant fitness defects using in vitro reconstituted designer transposons in Mycoplasma mycoides

    PubMed Central

    Karas, Bogumil J.; Wise, Kim S.; Sun, Lijie; Venter, J. Craig; Glass, John I.; Hutchison, Clyde A.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Suzuki, Yo

    2014-01-01

    With only hundreds of genes contained within their genomes, mycoplasmas have become model organisms for precise understanding of cellular processes, as well as platform organisms for predictable engineering of microbial functions for mission-critical applications. Despite the availability of “whole genome writing” in Mycoplasma mycoides, some traditional methods for genetic engineering are underdeveloped in mycoplasmas. Here we demonstrate two facile transposon-mediated approaches for introducing genes into the synthetic cell based on M. mycoides. The marker-less approach involves preparing a fragment containing only a small genomic region of interest with flanking transposase-binding sites, followed by in vitro transposase loading and introduction into the cells. The marker-driven approach involves cloning an open reading frame (ORF) of interest into a vector containing a marker for mycoplasma transformation, as well as sites for transposase loading and random genomic integration. An innovative feature of this construct is to use a single promoter to express the transformation marker and the introduced ORF. The marker-driven approach can be conveniently applied to any exogenous or synthetic gene without any information on the effect of the gene on the strain, whereas the marker-less approach requires that the fragment has a recognizable effect. Using the marker-less method, we found that a region containing the nusG gene rescues a slow growth phenotype of a strain containing a larger deletion encompassing this gene. Using the marker-driven approach, we better defined this finding, thereby establishing that nusG is required for a normal growth rate in synthetic M. mycoides. These methods are suitable for complementation tests to identify genes responsible for assorted functions lacking in deletion mutants. These approaches are also expected to facilitate rapid testing of various natural and engineered genes or gene clusters from numerous sources in M. mycoides

  2. Cytoplasmic injection of murine zygotes with Sleeping Beauty transposon plasmids and minicircles results in the efficient generation of germline transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R; Ziegler, Maren; Most, Ilka; Forcato, Diego O; Schmeer, Marco; Schleef, Martin; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A

    2016-01-01

    Transgenesis in the mouse is an essential tool for the understanding of gene function and genome organization. Here, we describe a simplified microinjection protocol for efficient germline transgenesis and sustained transgene expression in the mouse model employing binary Sleeping Beauty transposon constructs of different topology. The protocol is based on co-injection of supercoiled plasmids or minicircles, encoding the Sleeping Beauty transposase and a transposon construct, into the cytoplasm of murine zygotes. Importantly, this simplified injection avoids the mechanical penetration of the vulnerable pronuclear membrane, resulting in higher survival rates of treated embryos and a more rapid pace of injections. Upon translation of the transposase, transposase-catalyzed transposition into the genome results in stable transgenic animals carrying monomeric transgenes. In summary, cytoplasmic injection of binary transposon constructs is a feasible, plasmid-based, and simplified microinjection method to generate genetically modified mice. The modular design of the components allows the multiplexing of different transposons, and the generation of multi-transposon transgenic mice in a single step. PMID:26470758

  3. Curupira-1 and Curupira-2, two novel Mutator-like DNA transposons from the genomes of human parasites Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Jacinto, Daniele S; Muniz, Heloisa Dos Santos; Venancio, Thiago M; Wilson, R Alan; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Demarco, Ricardo

    2011-08-01

    Transposons of the Mutator superfamily have been widely described in plants, but only recently have metazoan organisms been shown to harbour them. In this work we describe novel Mutator superfamily transposons from the genomes of the human parasites Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum, which we name Curupira-1 and Curupira-2. Curupira elements do not have Terminal Inverted Repeats (TIRs) at their extremities and generate Target Site Duplications (TSDs) of 9 base pairs. Curupira-2 transposons code for a conserved transposase and SWIM zinc finger domains, while Curupira-1 elements comprise these same domains plus a WRKY zinc finger. Alignment of transcript sequences from both elements back to the genomes indicates that they are subject to splicing to produce mature transcripts. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these transposons represent a new lineage of metazoan Mutator-like elements with characteristics that are distinct from the recently described Phantom elements. Description of these novel schistosome transposons provides new insights in the evolution of transposable elements in schistosomes. PMID:21756422

  4. Comprehensive MALDI-TOF Biotyping of the Non-Redundant Harvard Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 Transposon Insertion Mutant Library

    PubMed Central

    Oumeraci, Tonio; Jensen, Vanessa; Talbot, Steven R.; Hofmann, Winfried; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; von Neuhoff, Nils; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that is ubiquitously present in the aerobic biosphere. As an antibiotic-resistant facultative pathogen, it is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Its rapid and accurate identification is crucial in clinical and therapeutic environments. Methods In a large-scale MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based screen of the Harvard transposon insertion mutant library of P. aeruginosa strain PA14, intact-cell proteome profile spectra of 5547 PA14 transposon mutants exhibiting a plethora of different phenotypes were acquired and analyzed. Results Of all P. aeruginosa PA14 mutant profiles 99.7% were correctly identified as P. aeruginosa with the Biotyper software on the species level. On the strain level, 99.99% of the profiles were mapped to five different individual P. aeruginosa Biotyper database entries. A principal component analysis-based approach was used to determine the most important discriminatory mass features between these Biotyper groups. Although technical replicas were consistently categorized to specific Biotyper groups in 94.2% of the mutant profiles, biological replicas were not, indicating that the distinct proteotypes are affected by growth conditions. Conclusions The PA14 mutant profile collection presented here constitutes the largest coherent P. aeruginosa MALDI-TOF spectral dataset publicly available today. Transposon insertions in thousands of different P. aeruginosa genes did not affect species identification from MALDI-TOF mass spectra, clearly demonstrating the robustness of the approach. However, the assignment of the individual spectra to sub-groups proved to be non-consistent in biological replicas, indicating that the differentiation between biotyper groups in this nosocomial pathogen is unassured. PMID:25665154

  5. Use of Illumina sequencing to identify transposon insertions underlying mutant phenotypes in high-copy Mutator lines of maize.

    PubMed

    Williams-Carrier, Rosalind; Stiffler, Nicholas; Belcher, Susan; Kroeger, Tiffany; Stern, David B; Monde, Rita-Ann; Coalter, Robert; Barkan, Alice

    2010-07-01

    High-copy transposons have been effectively exploited as mutagens in a variety of organisms. However, their utility for phenotype-driven forward genetics has been hampered by the difficulty of identifying the specific insertions responsible for phenotypes of interest. We describe a new method that can substantially increase the throughput of linking a disrupted gene to a known phenotype in high-copy Mutator (Mu) transposon lines in maize. The approach uses the Illumina platform to obtain sequences flanking Mu elements in pooled, bar-coded DNA samples. Insertion sites are compared among individuals of suitable genotype to identify those that are linked to the mutation of interest. DNA is prepared for sequencing by mechanical shearing, adapter ligation, and selection of DNA fragments harboring Mu flanking sequences by hybridization to a biotinylated oligonucleotide corresponding to the Mu terminal inverted repeat. This method yields dense clusters of sequence reads that tile approximately 400 bp flanking each side of each heritable insertion. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by identifying the causal insertions in four genes whose disruption blocks chloroplast biogenesis at various steps: thylakoid protein targeting (cpSecE), chloroplast gene expression (polynucleotide phosphorylase and PTAC12), and prosthetic group attachment (HCF208/CCB2). This method adds to the tools available for phenotype-driven Mu tagging in maize, and could be adapted for use with other high-copy transposons. A by-product of the approach is the identification of numerous heritable insertions that are unrelated to the targeted phenotype, which can contribute to community insertion resources. PMID:20409008

  6. Multidrug Intrinsic Resistance Factors in Staphylococcus aureus Identified by Profiling Fitness within High-Diversity Transposon Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Mithila; Martin, Melissa J.; Santiago, Marina; Lee, Wonsik; Kos, Veronica N.; Meredith, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of life-threatening infections worldwide. The MIC of an antibiotic against S. aureus, as well as other microbes, is determined by the affinity of the antibiotic for its target in addition to a complex interplay of many other cellular factors. Identifying nontarget factors impacting resistance to multiple antibiotics could inform the design of new compounds and lead to more-effective antimicrobial strategies. We examined large collections of transposon insertion mutants in S. aureus using transposon sequencing (Tn-Seq) to detect transposon mutants with reduced fitness in the presence of six clinically important antibiotics—ciprofloxacin, daptomycin, gentamicin, linezolid, oxacillin, and vancomycin. This approach allowed us to assess the relative fitness of many mutants simultaneously within these libraries. We identified pathways/genes previously known to be involved in resistance to individual antibiotics, including graRS and vraFG (graRS/vraFG), mprF, and fmtA, validating the approach, and found several to be important across multiple classes of antibiotics. We also identified two new, previously uncharacterized genes, SAOUHSC_01025 and SAOUHSC_01050, encoding polytopic membrane proteins, as important in limiting the effectiveness of multiple antibiotics. Machine learning identified similarities in the fitness profiles of graXRS/vraFG, SAOUHSC_01025, and SAOUHSC_01050 mutants upon antibiotic treatment, connecting these genes of unknown function to modulation of crucial cell envelope properties. Therapeutic strategies that combine a known antibiotic with a compound that targets these or other intrinsic resistance factors may be of value for enhancing the activity of existing antibiotics for treating otherwise-resistant S. aureus strains. PMID:27531908

  7. Casposons: a new superfamily of self-synthesizing DNA transposons at the origin of prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas immunity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diverse transposable elements are abundant in genomes of cellular organisms from all three domains of life. Although transposons are often regarded as junk DNA, a growing body of evidence indicates that they are behind some of the major evolutionary innovations. With the growth in the number and diversity of sequenced genomes, previously unnoticed mobile elements continue to be discovered. Results We describe a new superfamily of archaeal and bacterial mobile elements which we denote casposons because they encode Cas1 endonuclease, a key enzyme of the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity systems of archaea and bacteria. The casposons share several features with self-synthesizing eukaryotic DNA transposons of the Polinton/Maverick class, including terminal inverted repeats and genes for B family DNA polymerases. However, unlike any other known mobile elements, the casposons are predicted to rely on Cas1 for integration and excision, via a mechanism similar to the integration of new spacers into CRISPR loci. We identify three distinct families of casposons that differ in their gene repertoires and evolutionary provenance of the DNA polymerases. Deep branching of the casposon-encoded endonuclease in the Cas1 phylogeny suggests that casposons played a pivotal role in the emergence of CRISPR-Cas immunity. Conclusions The casposons are a novel superfamily of mobile elements, the first family of putative self-synthesizing transposons discovered in prokaryotes. The likely contribution of capsosons to the evolution of CRISPR-Cas parallels the involvement of the RAG1 transposase in vertebrate immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, suggesting that recruitment of endonucleases from mobile elements as ready-made tools for genome manipulation is a general route of evolution of adaptive immunity. PMID:24884953

  8. Tetragonal Lysozyme Interactions Studied by Site Directed Mutagenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Lisa; Karr, Laurel J.; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc

    1999-01-01

    A number of recent experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth proceeds by the addition of aggregates, formed by reversible self association of the solute molecules in the bulk solution. Periodic bond chain and atomic force microscopy studies have indicated that the probable growth unit is at minimum a 43 tetramer, and most likely an octamer composed of two complete turns about the 43 axis. If these results are correct, then there are intermolecular interactions which are only formed in the solution and others only formed at the joining of the growth unit to the crystal surface. We have set out to study these interactions, and the correctness of this hypothesis, using site directed mutagenesis of specific amino acid residues involved in the different bonds. We had initially expressed wild type lysozyme in S. cervasiae with yields of approximately 5 mg/L, which were eventually raised to approximately 40 mg/L. We are now moving the expression to the Pichia system, with anticipated yields of 300 to (3)500 mg/L, comparable to what can be obtained from egg whites. An additional advantage of using recombinant protein is the greater genetic homogeneity of the material obtained and the absence of any other contaminating egg proteins. The first mutation experiments are TYR 23 (Registered) PHE or ALA and ASN 113 (Registered) ALA or ASP. Both TYR 23 and ASN 113 form part of the postulated dimerization intermolecular binding site which lead to the formation of the 43 helix. Tyrosine also participates in an intermolecular hydrogen bond with ARG 114. The results of these and subsequent experiments will be discussed.

  9. Tetragonal Lysozyme Interactions Studied by Site Directed Mutagenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Lisa; Karr, Laurel; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    A number of recent experimental and theoretical studies have indicated that tetragonal lysozyme crystal growth proceeds by the addition of aggregates, formed by reversible self association of the solute molecules in the bulk'solution. Periodic bond chain and atomic force microscopy studies have indicated that the probable growth unit is at minimum a 43 tetramer, and most likely an octamer composed of two complete turns about the 4(sub 3) axis. If these results are correct, then there are intermolecular interactions which are only formed in the solution and others only formed at the joining of the growth unit to the crystal surface. We have set out to study these interactions, and the correctness of this hypothesis, using site directed mutagenesis of specific amino acid residues involved in the different bonds. We had initially expressed wild type lysozyme in S. cervasiae with yields of approximately 5 mg/L, which were eventually raised to approximately 40 mg/L. We are now moving the expression to the Pichia system, with anticipated yields of 300 to greater than 500 mg/L, comparable to what can be obtained from egg whites. An additional advantage of using recombinant protein is the greater genetic homogeneity of the material obtained and the absence of any other contaminating egg proteins. The first mutation experiments are TYR 23 yields PHE or ALA and ASN 113 yields ALA or ASP. Both TYR 23 and ASN 113 form part of the postulated dimerization intermolecular binding site which lead to the formation of the 4(sub 3) helix. Tyrosine also participates in an intermolecular hydrogen bond with ARG 114. The results of these and subsequent experiments will be discussed.

  10. The ClosTron: Mutagenesis in Clostridium refined and streamlined.

    PubMed

    Heap, John T; Kuehne, Sarah A; Ehsaan, Muhammad; Cartman, Stephen T; Cooksley, Clare M; Scott, Jamie C; Minton, Nigel P

    2010-01-01

    The recent development of the ClosTron Group II intron directed mutagenesis tool for Clostridium has advanced genetics in this genus, and here we present several significant improvements. We have shown how marker re-cycling can be used to construct strains with multiple mutations, demonstrated using FLP/FRT in Clostridium acetobutylicum; tested the capacity of the system for the delivery of transgenes to the chromosome of Clostridium sporogenes, which proved feasible for 1.0kbp transgenes in addition to a marker; and extended the host range of the system, constructing mutants in Clostridium beijerinckii and, for the first time, in a B1/NAP1/027 'epidemic' strain of Clostridium difficile. Automated intron design bioinformatics are now available free-of-charge at our website http://clostron.com; the out-sourced construction of re-targeted intron plasmids has become cost-effective as well as rapid; and the combination of constitutive intron expression with direct selection for intron insertions has made mutant isolation trivial. These developments mean mutants can now be constructed with very little time and effort for the researcher. Those who prefer to construct plasmids in-house are no longer reliant on a commercial kit, as a mixture of two new plasmids provides unlimited template for intron re-targeting by Splicing by Overlap Extension (SOE) PCR. The new ClosTron plasmids also offer blue-white screening and other options for identification of recombinant plasmids. The improved ClosTron system supersedes the prototype plasmid pMTL007 and the original method, and exploits the potential of Group II introns more fully. PMID:19891996

  11. Structure-based design of combinatorial mutagenesis libraries

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Deeptak; Grigoryan, Gevorg; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The development of protein variants with improved properties (thermostability, binding affinity, catalytic activity, etc.) has greatly benefited from the application of high-throughput screens evaluating large, diverse combinatorial libraries. At the same time, since only a very limited portion of sequence space can be experimentally constructed and tested, an attractive possibility is to use computational protein design to focus libraries on a productive portion of the space. We present a general-purpose method, called “Structure-based Optimization of Combinatorial Mutagenesis” (SOCoM), which can optimize arbitrarily large combinatorial mutagenesis libraries directly based on structural energies of their constituents. SOCoM chooses both positions and substitutions, employing a combinatorial optimization framework based on library-averaged energy potentials in order to avoid explicitly modeling every variant in every possible library. In case study applications to green fluorescent protein, β-lactamase, and lipase A, SOCoM optimizes relatively small, focused libraries whose variants achieve energies comparable to or better than previous library design efforts, as well as larger libraries (previously not designable by structure-based methods) whose variants cover greater diversity while still maintaining substantially better energies than would be achieved by representative random library approaches. By allowing the creation of large-scale combinatorial libraries based on structural calculations, SOCoM promises to increase the scope of applicability of computational protein design and improve the hit rate of discovering beneficial variants. While designs presented here focus on variant stability (predicted by total energy), SOCoM can readily incorporate other structure-based assessments, such as the energy gap between alternative conformational or bound states. PMID:25611189

  12. Germinal cell mutagenesis in specially designed maize genotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Plewa, M J; Wagner, E D

    1981-01-01

    We have used three inbreds of Zea mays in our in situ and laboratory studies in environmental mutagenesis. Inbred W22 plants homozygous for wx-C were used in a study to detect the possible mutagenic properties of 32 pesticides or combination of pesticides under modern agricultural conditions. The large numbers of pollen grains analyzed and the ease in detecting mutant pollen grains enabled us to treat the experimental plants with field recommended rates of pesticides. In a current study we are evaluating the possible mutagenicity of Chicago municipal sewage sludge. We are measuring the frequency of mutant pollen grains in inbred M14 at both the wx-C and wx-90 heteroalleles. These plants were exposed to various concentrations of municipal sewage sludge under field conditions. We have inbred Early-Early Synthetic for five generations and tested this inbred with known mutagens. Early-Early Synthetic is a rapidly maturing inbred growing from kernel to anthesis in approximately 4 weeks and attaining a height of approximately 50 cm. Plants of this inbred have been chronically treated with ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) or maleic hydrazide (MH) under laboratory conditions and forward mutation at the wx locus was measured in the pollen grains. EMS and MH were mutagenic at concentrations of 1 microM and 10 nM, respectively. The concentrations of EMS and MH were calibrated in Early-Early Synthetic to a linear increase in the frequency of forward mutant pollen grains. The construction of a maize monitor for environmental mutagens is currently in progress. This assay will measure forward or reverse mutation at the wx locus in pollen grains, point mutation in somatic cells and will incorporate a cytogenetic endpoint in root-tip cells. Images FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 5. PMID:6780335

  13. Synthetic approach to stop-codon scanning mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Nie, Lihua; Lavinder, Jason J; Sarkar, Mohosin; Stephany, Kimberly; Magliery, Thomas J

    2011-04-27

    A general combinatorial mutagenesis strategy using common dimethoxytrityl-protected mononucleotide phosphoramidites and a single orthogonally protected trinucleotide phosphoramidite (Fmoc-TAG; Fmoc = 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl) was developed to scan a gene with the TAG amber stop codon with complete synthetic control. In combination with stop-codon suppressors that insert natural (e.g., alanine) or unnatural (e.g., p-benzoylphenylalanine, Bpa) amino acids, a single DNA library can be used to incorporate different amino acids for diverse purposes. Here, we scanned TAG codons through part of the gene for a model four-helix bundle protein, Rop, which regulates the copy number of ColE1 plasmids. Alanine was incorporated into Rop for mapping its binding site using an in vivo activity screen, and subtle but important differences from in vitro gel-shift studies of Rop function are evident. As a test, Bpa was incorporated using a Phe14 amber mutant isolated from the scanning library. Surprisingly, Phe14Bpa-Rop is weakly active, despite the critical role of Phe14 in Rop activity. Bpa is a photoaffinity label unnatural amino acid that can form covalent bonds with adjacent molecules upon UV irradiation. Irradiation of Phe14Bpa-Rop, which is a dimer in solution like wild-type Rop, results in covalent dimers, trimers, and tetramers. This suggests that Phe14Bpa-Rop weakly associates as a tetramer in solution and highlights the use of Bpa cross-linking as a means of trapping weak and transient interactions. PMID:21452871

  14. Genetic Regulation of Charged Particle Mutagenesis in Human Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, S.; Cherbonnel-Lasserre, C.; Liu, W.; Wiese, C.

    1999-01-01

    Our studies use a series of syngeneic, and where possible, isogenic human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines to assess the genetic factors that modulate susceptibility apoptosis and their impact on the mutagenic risks of low fluence exposures to 1 GeV Fe ions and 55 MeV protons. These ions are representative of the types of charged particle radiation that are of particular significance for human health in the space radiation environment. The model system employs cell lines derived from the male donor WIL-2. These cells have a single X chromosome and they are hemizygous for one mutation marker, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). TK6 and WTK1 cells were each derived from descendants of WIL-2 and were each selected as heterozygotes for a second mutation marker, the thymidine kinase (TK) gene located on chromosome 17q. The HPRT and TK loci can detect many different types of mutations, from single basepair substitutions up to large scale loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The single expressing copy of TK in the TK6 and WTKI cell lines is found on the same copy of chromosome 17, and this allele can be identified by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) identified when high molecular weight DNA is digested by the SacI restriction endonuclease and hybridized against the cDNA probe for TK. A large series of polymorphic linked markers has been identified that span more than 60 cM of DNA (approx. 60 megabasepairs) and distinguish the copy of chromosome 17 bearing the initially active TK allele from the copy of chromosome 17 bearing the silent TK allele in both TK6 and WTKI cells. TK6 cells express normal p53 protein while WTKI cells express homozygous mutant p53. Expression of mutant p53 can increase susceptibility to x-ray-induced mutations. It's been suggested that the increased mutagenesis in p53 mutant cells might be due to reduced apoptosis.

  15. Radiation mutagenesis from molecular and genetic points of view

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Park, M.S.; Okinaka, R.T.; Jaberaboansari, A.

    1993-02-01

    An important biological effect of ionizing radiation on living organisms is mutation induction. Mutation is also a primary event in the etiology of cancer. The chain events, from induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation to processing of these damages by the cellular repair/replication machinery, that lead to mutation are not well understood. The development of quantitative methods for measuring mutation-induction, such as the HPRT system, in cultured mammalian cells has provided an estimate of the mutagenic effects of x- and {gamma}-rays as wen as of high LET radiation in both rodent and human cells. A major conclusion from these mutagenesis data is that high LET radiation induces mutations more efficiently than g-rays. Molecular analysis of mutations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation have detected major structural alterations at the gene level. Our molecular results based on analysis of human HPRT deficient mutants induced by {gamma}-rays, {alpha}-particles and high energy charged particles indicate that higher LET radiation induce more total and large deletion mutations than {gamma}-rays. Utilizing molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Direct DNA sequencing, mutational spectra induced by ionizing radiation have been compared in different cell systems. Attempts have also been made to determine the mutagenic potential and the nature of mutation induced by low dose rate {gamma}-rays. Defective repair, in the form of either a diminished capability for repair or inaccurate repair, can lead to increased risk of heritable mutations from radiation exposure. Therefore, the effects of DNA repair deficiency on the mutation induction in mammalian cells is reviewed.

  16. Radiation mutagenesis from molecular and genetic points of view

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Park, M.S.; Okinaka, R.T.; Jaberaboansari, A.

    1993-01-01

    An important biological effect of ionizing radiation on living organisms is mutation induction. Mutation is also a primary event in the etiology of cancer. The chain events, from induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation to processing of these damages by the cellular repair/replication machinery, that lead to mutation are not well understood. The development of quantitative methods for measuring mutation-induction, such as the HPRT system, in cultured mammalian cells has provided an estimate of the mutagenic effects of x- and [gamma]-rays as wen as of high LET radiation in both rodent and human cells. A major conclusion from these mutagenesis data is that high LET radiation induces mutations more efficiently than g-rays. Molecular analysis of mutations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation have detected major structural alterations at the gene level. Our molecular results based on analysis of human HPRT deficient mutants induced by [gamma]-rays, [alpha]-particles and high energy charged particles indicate that higher LET radiation induce more total and large deletion mutations than [gamma]-rays. Utilizing molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Direct DNA sequencing, mutational spectra induced by ionizing radiation have been compared in different cell systems. Attempts have also been made to determine the mutagenic potential and the nature of mutation induced by low dose rate [gamma]-rays. Defective repair, in the form of either a diminished capability for repair or inaccurate repair, can lead to increased risk of heritable mutations from radiation exposure. Therefore, the effects of DNA repair deficiency on the mutation induction in mammalian cells is reviewed.

  17. TET2-mediated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine induces genetic instability and mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Emna; Talhaoui, Ibtissam; Cabagnols, Xenia; Della Valle, Véronique; Secardin, Lise; Rameau, Philippe; Bernard, Olivier A; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Abbes, Salem; Vainchenker, William; Saparbaev, Murat; Plo, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    The family of Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins is implicated in the process of active DNA demethylation and thus in epigenetic regulation. TET 1, 2 and 3 proteins are oxygenases that can hydroxylate 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) and further oxidize 5-hmC into 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC). The base excision repair (BER) pathway removes the resulting 5-fC and 5-caC bases paired with a guanine and replaces them with regular cytosine. The question arises whether active modification of 5-mC residues and their subsequent elimination could affect the genomic DNA stability. Here, we generated two inducible cell lines (Ba/F3-EPOR, and UT7) overexpressing wild-type or catalytically inactive human TET2 proteins. Wild-type TET2 induction resulted in an increased level of 5-hmC and a cell cycle defect in S phase associated with higher level of phosphorylated P53, chromosomal and centrosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, in a thymine-DNA glycosylase (Tdg) deficient context, the TET2-mediated increase of 5-hmC induces mutagenesis characterized by GC>AT transitions in CpG context suggesting a mutagenic potential of 5-hmC metabolites. Altogether, these data suggest that TET2 activity and the levels of 5-hmC and its derivatives should be tightly controlled to avoid genetic and chromosomal instabilities. Moreover, TET2-mediated active demethylation might be a very dangerous process if used to entirely demethylate the genome and might rather be used only at specific loci. PMID:27289557

  18. Biophysical Optimization of a Therapeutic Protein by Nonstandard Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pandyarajan, Vijay; Phillips, Nelson B.; Cox, Gabriela P.; Yang, Yanwu; Whittaker, Jonathan; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Weiss, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin provides a model for the therapeutic application of protein engineering. A paradigm in molecular pharmacology was defined by design of rapid-acting insulin analogs for the prandial control of glycemia. Such analogs, a cornerstone of current diabetes regimens, exhibit accelerated subcutaneous absorption due to more rapid disassembly of oligomeric species relative to wild-type insulin. This strategy is limited by a molecular trade-off between accelerated disassembly and enhanced susceptibility to degradation. Here, we demonstrate that this trade-off may be circumvented by nonstandard mutagenesis. Our studies employed LysB28, ProB29-insulin (“lispro”) as a model prandial analog that is less thermodynamically stable and more susceptible to fibrillation than is wild-type insulin. We have discovered that substitution of an invariant tyrosine adjoining the engineered sites in lispro (TyrB26) by 3-iodo-Tyr (i) augments its thermodynamic stability (ΔΔGu 0.5 ±0.2 kcal/mol), (ii) delays onset of fibrillation (lag time on gentle agitation at 37 °C was prolonged by 4-fold), (iii) enhances affinity for the insulin receptor (1.5 ± 0.1-fold), and (iv) preserves biological activity in a rat model of diabetes mellitus. 1H NMR studies suggest that the bulky iodo-substituent packs within a nonpolar interchain crevice. Remarkably, the 3-iodo-TyrB26 modification stabilizes an oligomeric form of insulin pertinent to pharmaceutical formulation (the R6 zinc hexamer) but preserves rapid disassembly of the oligomeric form pertinent to subcutaneous absorption (T6 hexamer). By exploiting this allosteric switch, 3-iodo-TyrB26-lispro thus illustrates how a nonstandard amino acid substitution can mitigate the unfavorable biophysical properties of an engineered protein while retaining its advantages. PMID:24993826

  19. The presence of conjugative transposon Tn916 in the recipient strain does not impede transfer of a second copy of the element.

    PubMed Central

    Norgren, M; Scott, J R

    1991-01-01

    Transfer of the conjugative transposon Tn916 from the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis to a transposon-free Streptococcus pyogenes strain occurs at the same frequency as transfer to a Tn916-containing recipient. This rules out a model for conjugal transfer of Tn916 in which a copy of the element in the recipient represses transposition of a copy introduced by conjugation. Homology-directed integration of the incoming transposon into the resident one is less frequent than insertion elsewhere in the chromosome. This shows that after conjugation, transposition occurs more frequently than homologous recombination. However, because transconjugants arising from homologous recombination can be selected, it is possible to use Tn916 as a shuttle for gram-positive organisms for which there is no easy means of introducing DNA. Images PMID:1846138

  20. The Folding of the Specific DNA Recognition Subdomain of the Sleeping Beauty Transposase Is Temperature-Dependent and Is Required for Its Binding to the Transposon DNA

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Gage O.; Konnova, Tatiana A.; Idiyatullin, Bulat; Hurr, Sophia H.; Zuev, Yuriy F.; Nesmelova, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of DNA transposition begins when the transposase enzyme binds to the transposon DNA. Sleeping Beauty is a member of the mariner family of DNA transposons. Although it is an important tool in genetic applications and has been adapted for human gene therapy, its molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here, we show that only the folded conformation of the specific DNA recognition subdomain of the Sleeping Beauty transposase, the PAI subdomain, binds to the transposon DNA. Furthermore, we show that the PAI subdomain is well folded at low temperatures, but the presence of unfolded conformation gradually increases at temperatures above 15°C, suggesting that the choice of temperature may be important for the optimal transposase activity. Overall, the results provide a molecular-level insight into the DNA recognition by the Sleeping Beauty transposase. PMID:25375127

  1. Genes Associated with Desiccation and Osmotic Stress in Listeria monocytogenes as Revealed by Insertional Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hingston, Patricia A.; Piercey, Marta J.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen whose survival in food processing environments may be associated with its tolerance to desiccation. To probe the molecular mechanisms used by this bacterium to adapt to desiccation stress, a transposon library of 11,700 L. monocytogenes mutants was screened, using a microplate assay, for strains displaying increased or decreased desiccation survival (43% relative humidity, 15°C) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The desiccation phenotypes of selected mutants were subsequently assessed on food-grade stainless steel (SS) coupons in TSB plus 1% glucose (TSB-glu). Single transposon insertions in mutants exhibiting a change in desiccation survival of >0.5 log CFU/cm2 relative to that of the wild type were determined by sequencing arbitrary PCR products. Strain morphology, motility, and osmotic stress survival (in TSB-glu plus 20% NaCl) were also analyzed. The initial screen selected 129 desiccation-sensitive (DS) and 61 desiccation-tolerant (DT) mutants, out of which secondary screening on SS confirmed 15 DT and 15 DS mutants. Among the DT mutants, seven immotile and flagellum-less strains contained transposons in genes involved in flagellum biosynthesis (fliP, flhB, flgD, flgL) and motor control (motB, fliM, fliY), while others harbored transposons in genes involved in membrane lipid biosynthesis, energy production, potassium uptake, and virulence. The genes that were interrupted in the 15 DS mutants included those involved in energy production, membrane transport, protein metabolism, lipid biosynthesis, oxidative damage control, and putative virulence. Five DT and 14 DS mutants also demonstrated similar significantly (P < 0.05) different survival relative to that of the wild type when exposed to osmotic stress, demonstrating that some genes likely have similar roles in allowing the organism to survive the two water stresses. PMID:26025900

  2. Genes Associated with Desiccation and Osmotic Stress in Listeria monocytogenes as Revealed by Insertional Mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Hingston, Patricia A; Piercey, Marta J; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-08-15

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen whose survival in food processing environments may be associated with its tolerance to desiccation. To probe the molecular mechanisms used by this bacterium to adapt to desiccation stress, a transposon library of 11,700 L. monocytogenes mutants was screened, using a microplate assay, for strains displaying increased or decreased desiccation survival (43% relative humidity, 15°C) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The desiccation phenotypes of selected mutants were subsequently assessed on food-grade stainless steel (SS) coupons in TSB plus 1% glucose (TSB-glu). Single transposon insertions in mutants exhibiting a change in desiccation survival of >0.5 log CFU/cm(2) relative to that of the wild type were determined by sequencing arbitrary PCR products. Strain morphology, motility, and osmotic stress survival (in TSB-glu plus 20% NaCl) were also analyzed. The initial screen selected 129 desiccation-sensitive (DS) and 61 desiccation-tolerant (DT) mutants, out of which secondary screening on SS confirmed 15 DT and 15 DS mutants. Among the DT mutants, seven immotile and flagellum-less strains contained transposons in genes involved in flagellum biosynthesis (fliP, flhB, flgD, flgL) and motor control (motB, fliM, fliY), while others harbored transposons in genes involved in membrane lipid biosynthesis, energy production, potassium uptake, and virulence. The genes that were interrupted in the 15 DS mutants included those involved in energy production, membrane transport, protein metabolism, lipid biosynthesis, oxidative damage control, and putative virulence. Five DT and 14 DS mutants also demonstrated similar significantly (P < 0.05) different survival relative to that of the wild type when exposed to osmotic stress, demonstrating that some genes likely have similar roles in allowing the organism to survive the two water stresses. PMID:26025900

  3. Synergetic Targeted Delivery of Sleeping-Beauty Transposon System to Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using LPD Nanoparticles Modified with a Phage-Displayed Targeting Peptide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Wang, Dong-Dong; Lin, Yiyang; Wang, Jianglin; Petrenko, Valery; Mao, Chuanbin

    2013-03-01

    An important criterion for effective gene therapy is sufficient chromosomal integration activity. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is a plasmid system allowing efficient insertion of transgenes into the host genome. However, such efficient insertion occurs only after the system is delivered to nuclei. Since transposons do not have the transducing abilities of viral vectors, efficient delivery of this system first into cells and then into cell nuclei is still a challenge. Here, a phage display technique using a major coat displayed phage library is employed to identify a peptide (VTAMEPGQ) that can home to rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs). A nanoparticle, called liposome protamine/DNA lipoplex (LPD), is electrostatically assembled from cationic liposomes and an anionic complex of protamine, DNA and targeting peptides. Various peptides are enveloped inside the LPD to improve its targeting capability for rMSCs and nuclei. The rMSC-targeting peptide and nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide can execute the synergetic effect to promote transfection action of LPD. The homing peptide directs the LPD to target the MSCs, whereas the NLS peptide directs transposon to accumulate into nuclei once LPD is internalized inside the cells, leading to increased gene expression. This suggests that rMSC-targeting peptide and NLS peptide within LPD can target to rMSCs and then guide transposon into nuclei. After entering the nuclei, SB transposon increase the insertion rates into cellular chromosomes. The targeting LPD does not show obvious cell toxicity and influence on the differentiation potential of rMSCs. Therefore, the integration of SB transposon and LPD system is a promising nonviral gene delivery vector in stem cell therapy. PMID:23885226

  4. The Bacteroides mobilizable transposon Tn4555 integrates by a site-specific recombination mechanism similar to that of the gram-positive bacterial element Tn916.

    PubMed Central

    Tribble, G D; Parker, A C; Smith, C J

    1997-01-01

    The Bacteroides mobilizable transposon Tn4555 is a 12.2-kb molecule that encodes resistance to cefoxitin. Conjugal transposition is hypothesized to occur via a circular intermediate and is stimulated by coresident tetracycline resistance elements and low levels of tetracycline. In this work, the ends of the transposon were identified and found to consist of 12-bp imperfect inverted repeats, with an extra base at one end. In the circular form, the ends were separated by a 6-bp "coupling sequence" which was associated with either the left or the right transposon terminus when the transposon was inserted into the chromosome. Tn4555 does not duplicate its target site upon insertion. Using a conjugation-based transposition assay, we showed that the coupling sequence originated from 6 bases of genomic DNA flanking either side of the transposon prior to excision. Tn4555 preferentially transposed into a 589-bp genomic locus containing a 207-bp direct repeat. Integration occurred before or after the repeated sequence, with one integration site between the two repeats. These observations are consistent with a transposition model based on site-specific recombination. In the bacteriophage lambda model for site-specific recombination, the bacteriophage recombines with the Escherichia coli chromosome via a 7-bp "crossover" region. We propose that the coupling sequence of Tn4555 is analogous in function to the crossover region of lambda but that unlike the situation in lambda, recombination occurs between regions of nonhomologous DNA. This ability to recombine into divergent target sites is also a feature of the gram-positive bacterial transposon Tn916. PMID:9098073

  5. [Antirestriction activity of the mercury resistance nonconjugative transposon Tn5053 is controlled by the protease ClpXP].

    PubMed

    Zavigel'skiĭ, G B; Kotova, V Iu; Mel'kina, O E; Pustovoĭt, K S

    2014-09-01

    When transformed into Escherichia coli K12 strains, the mercury resistance transposon Tn5053@ exhibits high antirestriction activity against the EcoKI type I restriction and modification system. The products of the genes merR and ardD contribute to the antirestriction activity of Tn5053. The merR gene encodes the MerR protein, the transcription regulator of the mer operon genes. The ardD gene is responsible for ArdD protein synthesis and is located within the tni operon. In the following study, it was demonstrated that the antirestriction activity of the transposon Tn5053 is absent in E. coli K12 strains with the mutant genes clpX, clpP, and recA. The antirestriction effect of Tn5053 is not enhanced by 2-aminopurine. The Tn5053 antirestriction activity is not altered in E. coli K12 with the mutant dam gene; however, it is decreased in the E. coli K12 mutD. It is assumed that the activities of the MerR and ArdD proteins lead to the formation of a significant amount of unmodified DNA in the bacterial cell, causing the SOS-dependent reduction of the EcoKI (R2M2S) enzyme activity associated with ClpXP-induced proteolysis of the R-subuinit. PMID:25735133

  6. Transposon-Based Reporter Marking Provides Functional Evidence for Intercellular Bridges in the Male Germline of Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Orsolya I; Kerekes, Andrea; Lipták, Nandor; Hiripi, Laszlo; Bodo, Szilard; Szaloki, Gabor; Klein, Sabine; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A; Bosze, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon system was established as a robust and efficient method for germline transgenesis in different mammalian species. The generation of transgenic mice, rats, rabbits and swine carrying an identical Venus reporter construct delivered by transposon-mediated gene transfer enables comparative studies of gene expression in these lines of mammalian models. Whereas comparable expression patterns of the Venus reporter were found in somatic tissues, preliminary studies suggested that a striking difference in reporter expression may exist in mature spermatozoa of these species. Here we clearly show the differential expression of Venus reporter protein during spermatogenesis of the two compared species, the laboratory rabbit and mice. We provide evidence for the functionality of intercellular bridges in the male germline and genotype-independent transgenic phenotype of rabbit spermatids. Our data suggest that the reporter rabbit line may be a suitable tool to identify molecular mechanisms in testicular development, and may contribute to develop better animal models for male infertility in men. PMID:27148973

  7. Excision and transposition of two Ds transposons from the bronze mutable 4 derivative 6856 allele of Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Dowe, M F; Roman, G W; Klein, A S

    1990-05-01

    The regulatory mutation bronze mutable 4 Derivative 6856 (bz-m4 D6856) contains a complex 6.7 kb Dissociation (Ds) element tagged with a duplication of low copy bz 3' flanking sequences (Klein et al. 1988). This creates a unique opportunity to study the transposition of a single member of the repetitive family of Ds elements. Eighteen full purple revertants (Bz' alleles) of bz-m4 were characterized enzymatically and by genomic mapping. For 17 of the Bz' alleles, reversion to a wild-type phenotype was caused by excision of the 6.7 kb Ds transposon. Nine of these Bz' alleles retained the transposon somewhere in their genome. In this study we show that like Ac (Schwartz 1989; Dooner and Belachew 1989), the 6.7 kb Ds element can transpose within a short physical distance, both proximal and distal to its original position. Additional bz sequences have been mapped immediately distal to the mutant locus in bz-m4 D6856; genetic evidence suggests these are flanked by two additional Ds elements. The remaining Bz' revertant, Bz':107, arose from excision of a more complex 13 kb Ds element. PMID:2166229

  8. Transposon-Based Reporter Marking Provides Functional Evidence for Intercellular Bridges in the Male Germline of Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Orsolya I.; Kerekes, Andrea; Lipták, Nandor; Hiripi, Laszlo; Bodo, Szilard; Szaloki, Gabor; Klein, Sabine; Ivics, Zoltan; Kues, Wilfried A.; Bosze, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon system was established as a robust and efficient method for germline transgenesis in different mammalian species. The generation of transgenic mice, rats, rabbits and swine carrying an identical Venus reporter construct delivered by transposon-mediated gene transfer enables comparative studies of gene expression in these lines of mammalian models. Whereas comparable expression patterns of the Venus reporter were found in somatic tissues, preliminary studies suggested that a striking difference in reporter expression may exist in mature spermatozoa of these species. Here we clearly show the differential expression of Venus reporter protein during spermatogenesis of the two compared species, the laboratory rabbit and mice. We provide evidence for the functionality of intercellular bridges in the male germline and genotype-independent transgenic phenotype of rabbit spermatids. Our data suggest that the reporter rabbit line may be a suitable tool to identify molecular mechanisms in testicular development, and may contribute to develop better animal models for male infertility in men. PMID:27148973

  9. piRNA-guided slicing of transposon transcripts enforces their transcriptional silencing via specifying the nuclear piRNA repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Senti, Kirsten-André; Jurczak, Daniel; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Brennecke, Julius

    2015-01-01

    PIWI clade Argonaute proteins silence transposon expression in animal gonads. Their target specificity is defined by bound ∼23- to 30-nucleotide (nt) PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that are processed from single-stranded precursor transcripts via two distinct pathways. Primary piRNAs are defined by the endonuclease Zucchini, while biogenesis of secondary piRNAs depends on piRNA-guided transcript cleavage and results in piRNA amplification. Here, we analyze the interdependencies between these piRNA biogenesis pathways in developing Drosophila ovaries. We show that secondary piRNA-guided target slicing is the predominant mechanism that specifies transcripts—including those from piRNA clusters—as primary piRNA precursors and defines the spectrum of Piwi-bound piRNAs in germline cells. Post-transcriptional silencing in the cytoplasm therefore enforces nuclear transcriptional target silencing, which ensures the tight suppression of transposons during oogenesis. As target slicing also defines the nuclear piRNA pool during mouse spermatogenesis, our findings uncover an unexpected conceptual similarity between the mouse and fly piRNA pathways. PMID:26302790

  10. Two hAT transposon genes were transferred from Brassicaceae to broomrapes and are actively expressed in some recipients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Renner, Susanne S; Xu, Yuxing; Qin, Yan; Wu, Jianqiang; Sun, Guiling

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence is pointing to an important role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of higher plants. However, reports of HGTs of transposable elements (TEs) in plants are still scarce, and only one case is known of a class II transposon horizontally transferred between grasses. To investigate possible TE transfers in dicots, we performed transcriptome screening in the obligate root parasite Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae), data-mining in the draft genome assemblies of four other Orobanchaceae, gene cloning, gene annotation in species with genomic information, and a molecular phylogenetic analysis. We discovered that the broomrape genera Phelipanche and Orobanche acquired two related nuclear genes (christened BO transposase genes), a new group of the hAT superfamily of class II transposons, from Asian Sisymbrieae or a closely related tribe of Brassicaceae, by HGT. The collinearity of the flanking genes, lack of a classic border structure, and low expression levels suggest that BO transposase genes cannot transpose in Brassicaceae, whereas they are highly expressed in P. aegyptiaca. PMID:27452947

  11. Abr1, a Transposon-Like Element in the Genome of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, Anton S. M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    1999-01-01

    A 300-bp repetitive element was found in the genome of the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, and designated Abr1. It is present in ∼15 copies per haploid genome in the commercial strain Horst U1. Analysis of seven copies showed 89 to 97% sequence identity. The repeat has features typical of class II transposons (i.e., terminal inverted repeats, subterminal repeats, and a target site duplication of 7 bp). The latter shows a consensus sequence. When used as probe on Southern blots, Abr1 identifies relatively little variation within traditional and present-day commercial strains, indicating that most strains are identical or have a common origin. In contrast to these cultivars, high variation is found among field-collected strains. Furthermore, a remarkable difference in copy numbers of Abr1 was found between A. bisporus isolates with a secondarily homothallic life cycle and those with a heterothallic life cycle. Abr1 is a type II transposon not previously reported in basidiomycetes and appears to be useful for the identification of strains within the species A. bisporus. PMID:10427018

  12. Distinct sets of PIWI proteins produce arbovirus and transposon-derived piRNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cells.

    PubMed

    Miesen, Pascal; Girardi, Erika; van Rij, Ronald P

    2015-07-27

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for transposon silencing in many model organisms. Its remarkable efficiency relies on a sophisticated amplification mechanism known as the ping-pong loop. In Alphavirus-infected Aedes mosquitoes, piRNAs with sequence features that suggest ping-pong-dependent biogenesis are produced from viral RNA. The PIWI family in Aedes mosquitoes is expanded when compared to other model organisms, raising the possibility that individual PIWI proteins have functionally diversified in these insects. Here, we show that Piwi5 and Ago3, but none of the other PIWI family members, are essential for piRNA biogenesis from Sindbis virus RNA in infected Aedes aegypti cells. In contrast, the production of piRNAs from transposons relies on a more versatile set of PIWI proteins, some of which do not contribute to viral piRNA biogenesis. These results indicate that functional specialization allows distinct mosquito PIWI proteins to process RNA from different endogenous and exogenous sources. PMID:26068474

  13. Two hAT transposon genes were transferred from Brassicaceae to broomrapes and are actively expressed in some recipients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Renner, Susanne S.; Xu, Yuxing; Qin, Yan; Wu, Jianqiang; Sun, Guiling

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence is pointing to an important role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of higher plants. However, reports of HGTs of transposable elements (TEs) in plants are still scarce, and only one case is known of a class II transposon horizontally transferred between grasses. To investigate possible TE transfers in dicots, we performed transcriptome screening in the obligate root parasite Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae), data-mining in the draft genome assemblies of four other Orobanchaceae, gene cloning, gene annotation in species with genomic information, and a molecular phylogenetic analysis. We discovered that the broomrape genera Phelipanche and Orobanche acquired two related nuclear genes (christened BO transposase genes), a new group of the hAT superfamily of class II transposons, from Asian Sisymbrieae or a closely related tribe of Brassicaceae, by HGT. The collinearity of the flanking genes, lack of a classic border structure, and low expression levels suggest that BO transposase genes cannot transpose in Brassicaceae, whereas they are highly expressed in P. aegyptiaca. PMID:27452947

  14. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship in AA Oryza species as revealed by Rim2/Hipa CACTA transposon display.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Jae; Lee, Ju Kyong; Hong, Sung-Won; Park, Yong-Jin; McNally, Kenneth L; Kim, Nam-Soo

    2006-04-01

    CACTA is a class 2 transposon, that is very abundantly present in plant genomes. Using Rim2/Hipa CACTA transposon display (hereafter Rim2/Hipa-TD), we analyzed several A-genome diploid Oryza species that have a high distribution of the CACTA motifs. High levels of polymorphism were detected within and between the Oryza species. The African taxa, O. glaberrima and O. barthii, both showed lower levels of polymorphism than the Asian taxa, O. sativa, O. rufipogon, and O. nivara. However, O. longistaminata, another African taxon, showed levels of polymorphism that were similar to the Asian taxa. The Latin American taxon, O. glumaepatula, and the Australian taxon, O. meridionalis, exhibited intermediate levels of polymorphism between those of the Asian and African taxa. The lowest level of polymorphism was observed in O. glaberrima (32.1%) and the highest level of polymorphism was observed in O. rufipogon (95.7%). The phylogenetic tree revealed three major groups at the genetic similarity level of 0.409. The first group consisted of three Asian taxa, O. sativa, O. rufipogon and O. nivara. The second group consisted of three African taxa, O. glaberrima, O. barthii, O. longistaminata, and an American taxon, O. glumaepatula. The third group contained an Australian taxon, O. meridionalis. The clustering patterns of these species matched well with their geographical origins. Rim2/Hipa-TD appears to be a useful marker system for studying the genetic diversity and species relationships among the AA diploid Oryza species. PMID:16755133

  15. Massive alterations of the methylation patterns around DNA transposons in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid.

    PubMed

    Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and reproducible genomic changes can be induced during the early stages of the life of nascent allopolyploid species. In a previous study, it was shown that following allopolyploidization, cytosine methylation changes can affect up to 11% of the wheat genome. However, the methylation patterns around transposable elements (TEs) were never studied in detail. We used transposon methylation display (TMD) to assess the methylation patterns of CCGG sites flanking three TE families (Balduin, Apollo, and Thalos) in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid. In addition, transposon display (TD), using a methylation-insensitive restriction enzyme, was applied to search for genomic rearrangements at the TE insertion sites. We observed that up to 54% of CCGG sites flanking the three TE families showed changes in methylation patterns in the first four generations of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, where hypermethylation was predominant. Over 70% of the changes in TMD patterns occurred in the first two generations of the newly formed allohexaploid. Furthermore, analysis of 555 TE insertion sites by TD and 18 cases by site-specific PCR revealed a full additive pattern in the allohexaploid, an indication for lack of massive rearrangements. These data indicate that following allopolyplodization, DNA-TE insertion sites can undergo a significantly high level of methylation changes compared with methylation changes of other genomic sequences. PMID:21217805

  16. piRNA-guided slicing of transposon transcripts enforces their transcriptional silencing via specifying the nuclear piRNA repertoire.

    PubMed

    Senti, Kirsten-André; Jurczak, Daniel; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Brennecke, Julius

    2015-08-15

    PIWI clade Argonaute proteins silence transposon expression in animal gonads. Their target specificity is defined by bound ∼23- to 30-nucleotide (nt) PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that are processed from single-stranded precursor transcripts via two distinct pathways. Primary piRNAs are defined by the endonuclease Zucchini, while biogenesis of secondary piRNAs depends on piRNA-guided transcript cleavage and results in piRNA amplification. Here, we analyze the interdependencies between these piRNA biogenesis pathways in developing Drosophila ovaries. We show that secondary piRNA-guided target slicing is the predominant mechanism that specifies transcripts—including those from piRNA clusters—as primary piRNA precursors and defines the spectrum of Piwi-bound piRNAs in germline cells. Post-transcriptional silencing in the cytoplasm therefore enforces nuclear transcriptional target silencing, which ensures the tight suppression of transposons during oogenesis. As target slicing also defines the nuclear piRNA pool during mouse spermatogenesis, our findings uncover an unexpected conceptual similarity between the mouse and fly piRNA pathways. PMID:26302790

  17. Transgenerational changes in plant physiology and in transposon expression in response to UV-C stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Migicovsky, Zoe; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Stress has a negative impact on crop yield by altering a gain in biomass and affecting seed set. Recent reports suggest that exposure to stress also influences the response of the progeny. In this paper, we analyzed seed size, leaf size, bolting time and transposon expression in 2 consecutive generations of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to moderate UV-C stress. Since previous reports suggested a potential role of Dicer-like (DCL) proteins in the establishment of transgenerational response, we used dcl2, dcl3 and dcl4 mutants in parallel with wild-type plants. These studies revealed that leaf number decreased in the progeny of UV-C stressed plants, and bolting occurred later. Transposons were also re-activated in the progeny of stressed plants. Changes in the dcl mutants were less prominent than in wild-type plants. DCL2 and DCL3 appeared to be more important in the transgenerational stress memory than DCL4 because transgenerational changes were less profound in the dcl2 and dcl3 mutants. PMID:25482751

  18. Mutagenesis of the rapamycin producer Streptomyces hygroscopicus FC904.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y R; Huang, J; Qiang, H; Lin, W L; Demain, A L

    2001-11-01

    Rapamycin (RPM) is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus FC904 isolated from soil in Fuzhou, China. It is a triene macrolide antibiotic with potential application as an immunosuppressant and drug for human gene therapy. In an attempt to improve rapamycin production, mutation and screening of the parent culture have been carried out. Thousands of survivors were obtained after mutagenesis by NTG (3 mg/ml) and UV (30 W, 15 cm, 30 seconds) of spore suspensions. None showed improved production of RPM. We determined the susceptibility to antibiotics of S. hygroscopicus FC904 by two fold dilutions of antibiotics in oatmeal agar plates. It was found that the strain was resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, RPM, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, but susceptible to mitomycin C (MIC, 10 microg/ml) and aminoglycosides such as gentamicin (MIC, 0.1 microg/ml), kanamycin (MIC, 0.1 microg/ml) and streptomycin (MIC, 0.3 microg/ml). Protoplasts of strain FC904 were prepared after finding the best conditions for their formation. They were treated with gentamicin, erythromycin, mitomycin C and NTG. Surprisingly, gentamicin was especially effective for obtaining higher RPM-producing mutants. Mutant C14 was selected by exposing the protoplasts of the parent strain FC904 to 1 microg/ml of gentamicin at 28 degrees C for 2 hours. A higher RPM-producing mutant (C14-1) was obtained from the protoplasts of mutant C14 treated with gentamicin, and its titer was 60% higher than that of the parent strain FC904 by HPLC analysis. Another improved mutant (C14-2) was obtained from the spores of mutant C 14 treated with 1 microg/ml of gentamicin plus 2 mg/ml of NTG at 28 degrees C for 2 hours. Mutant C14-2 had a titer 124% higher than FC904. The possible mechanism for the effect of gentamicin by using protoplasts or spore suspensions will be discussed, i.e. the possibility of gentamicin being a mutagen or a selective agent. PMID:11827040