T. Thielen; S. Maas; A. Zuerbes; D. Waldmann; K. Anagnostakos; J. Kelm
Two-stage reconstruction using an antibiotic loaded cement spacer is the preferred treat- ment method of late hip joint infections. Hip spacers maintain stability of the joint and length of the limb during treatment period. However, as the material strength of bone cement (PMMA) is limited, spacer fractures led to serious complications in the past. This study in- vestigated the load
Chang, Connie Y; Huang, Ambrose J; Palmer, William E
Serial radiographs are the mainstay in the longitudinal assessment of hip implants. The prosthesis, periprosthetic bone, and juxta-articular soft tissues are inspected for fracture, periosteal reaction, stress shielding, calcar resorption, osteolysis, bony remodeling, metallic debris, and heterotopic ossification. Comparison radiographs best confirm implant migration, subsidence, and aseptic loosening. Infection, particle disease, reaction to metal, and mechanical impingement are important causes of postsurgical pain, but in their earliest stages they may be difficult to diagnose using radiographs. This article addresses the role of radiography following hip arthroplasty. PMID:25633021
In the late 1990s, Lambda Research Inc., of Cincinnati, Ohio, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn Research Center to demonstrate low plasticity burnishing (LPB) on metal engine components. By producing a thermally stable deep layer of compressive residual stress, LPB significantly strengthened turbine alloys. After Lambda patented the process, the Federal Aviation Administration accepted LPB for repair and alteration of commercial aircraft components, the U.S. Department of Energy found LPB suitable for treating nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain. Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration confirmed LPB to completely eliminate the occurrence of fretting fatigue failures in modular hip implants.
Aaron A. Hofmann; Tyler D. Goldberg; Amie M. Tanner; Thomas M. Cook
Infection is a devastating complication after total-hip arthroplasty. Between June 1991 and December 2001, 42 patients were treated at our center for chronically infected total-hip arthroplasty using a 2-stage articulating antibiotic hip spacer technique. Of the 27 patients available for review, 26 (94%) remain clinically free of infection at an average 76 months (range, 28-148 months) postoperatively. Twenty-two (81%) patients
Bozic, Kevin J; Browne, James; Dangles, Chris J; Manner, Paul A; Yates, Adolph J; Weber, Kristy L; Boyer, Kevin M; Zemaitis, Paul; Woznica, Anne; Turkelson, Charles M; Wies, Janet L
This Technology Overview was prepared using systematic review methodology and summarizes the findings of studies published as of July 15, 2011, on modern metal-on-metal hip implants. Analyses conducted on outcomes by two joint registries indicate that patients who receive metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA) and hip resurfacing are at greater risk for revision than are patients who receive THA using a different bearing surface combination. Data from these registries also indicate that larger femoral head components have higher revision rates and risk of revision and that older age is associated with increased revision risks of large-head metal-on-metal THA. Several studies noted a correlation between suboptimal hip implant positioning and higher wear rates, local metal debris release, and consequent local tissue reactions to metal debris. In addition, several studies reported elevated serum metal ion concentrations in patients with metal-on-metal hip articulations, although the clinical significance of these elevated ion concentrations remains unknown. PMID:22661570
Dirk Jan F. Moojen; Bram Hentenaar; H. Charles Vogely; Abraham J. Verbout; René M. Castelein; Wouter J. A. Dhert
The efficacy and benefits of high-dose antibiotic cement spacers compared with beads in the treatment of an infected prosthesis have been shown. However, in clinical practice, commercial, low-dose antibiotic bone cement is often used. This study investigated the in vitro antibiotic release of hip spacers made from Refobacin-Palacos-R or Antibiotic-Simplex-P cement compared with Septopal beads. Antibiotic concentrations were measured during
Moojen, Dirk Jan F; Hentenaar, Bram; Charles Vogely, H; Verbout, Abraham J; Castelein, René M; Dhert, Wouter J A
The efficacy and benefits of high-dose antibiotic cement spacers compared with beads in the treatment of an infected prosthesis have been shown. However, in clinical practice, commercial, low-dose antibiotic bone cement is often used. This study investigated the in vitro antibiotic release of hip spacers made from Refobacin-Palacos-R or Antibiotic-Simplex-P cement compared with Septopal beads. Antibiotic concentrations were measured during 6 weeks. All carriers showed a burst release, but spacers showed little additional release after the first week. Cumulative release was 27.5 +/- 2.3 mg for Palacos, 23.8 +/- 0.2 mg for Simplex, and 188.3 +/- 9.3 mg for Septopal (P < .001). Despite the efficacy of high-dose antibiotic bone cement spacers, we believe one should be cautious toward using low-dose antibiotic bone cement for spacers because this could result in an unsuccessful eradication of infection. PMID:18534493
Berber, Reshid; Khoo, Michael; Cook, Erica; Guppy, Andrew; Hua, Jia; Miles, Jonathan; Carrington, Richard; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister
Background and purpose Muscle atrophy is seen in patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants, probably because of inflammatory destruction of the musculo-tendon junction. However, like pseudotumors, it is unclear when atrophy occurs and whether it progresses with time. Our objective was to determine whether muscle atrophy associated with MOM hip implants progresses with time. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 74 hips in 56 patients (32 of them women) using serial MRI. Median age was 59 (23–83) years. The median time post-implantation was 83 (35–142) months, and the median interval between scans was 11 months. Hip muscles were scored using the Pfirrmann system. The mean scores for muscle atrophy were compared between the first and second MRI scans. Blood cobalt and chromium concentrations were determined. Results The median blood cobalt was 6.84 (0.24–90) ppb and median chromium level was 4.42 (0.20–45) ppb. The median Oxford hip score was 34 (5–48). The change in the gluteus minimus mean atrophy score between first and second MRI was 0.12 (p = 0.002). Mean change in the gluteus medius posterior portion (unaffected by surgical approach) was 0.08 (p = 0.01) and mean change in the inferior portion was 0.10 (p = 0.05). Mean pseudotumor grade increased by 0.18 (p = 0.02). Interpretation Worsening muscle atrophy and worsening pseudotumor grade occur over a 1-year period in a substantial proportion of patients with MOM hip implants. Serial MRI helps to identify those patients who are at risk of developing worsening soft-tissue pathology. These patients should be considered for revision surgery before irreversible muscle destruction occurs. PMID:25588091
Gálvez, Verònica; de Arriba Arnau, Aida; Martínez-Amorós, Erika; Ribes, Carmina; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Cardoner, Narcís
ABSTRACT Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective treatment for geriatric depression, although its application might be challenging when medical comorbidities exist. The present case reports a 78-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD), who presented with a severe depressive episode with psychotic features (DSM IV). He successfully received a course of bitemporal (BT) ECT with a hip-aztreonam-spacer due to a hip fracture that occurred during hospitalization. This was followed by maintenance ECT (M-ECT) with a recent prosthesis collocation. This particular case illustrates the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in geriatric patients with somatic complications receiving ECT. PMID:25381759
Granchi, Donatella; Cenni, Elisabetta; Trisolino, Giovanni; Giunti, Armando; Baldini, Nicola
Sensitivity to implant materials is an unpredictable event, which may contribute to the process leading to the failure of the total hip replacement (THR). The aim of the current study was to investigate the informative power of skin testing in detecting the sensitization to the implant components in patients undergoing THR. A consecutive series of 223 patients was enrolled in the study, including 66 candidates to THR, 53 with stable implant, and 104 with THR loosening. The patch testing was performed by using the most relevant components of cobalt-based alloys (CoCrMo), Ti-based alloys (TiAlV), and bone cements. The frequency of positive patch testing in preimplant patients did not differ from that observed after THR. Patients with CoCrMo-failed implant showed a significant low frequency of nickel-positive skin reaction, while patients with TiAlV-THR had a high incidence of vanadium-positive patch testing. The panel of haptens showed a good performance in the identification of patients known to have a contact dermatitis. With regard to the THR outcome, patch testing was not able to discriminate between stable and failed implant. Sensitivity to at least one hapten, namely bone cement, as well as the positive medical history of hypersensitivity, influenced negatively the THR survival. Our results show the reliability of patch testing for investigating the sensitivity to implant components. The cause-effect relationship between sensitization and negative outcome cannot be established, but the shorter lifespan of THR in patients who have a positive patch testing supports the significant role of this event in contributing to the implant failure. PMID:16265661
Parisi, Thomas; Burroughs, Brian; Kwon, Young-Min
The use of modular implants in femoral stem design has grown increasingly popular over the last decade because of the theoretical advantage of more flexibility and optimization of femoral anteversion, limb length, and femoral component offset. With the benefit of increased surgical flexibility, however, modularity also carries the theoretical risks of fretting at the modular surfaces, sequelae of wear debris, and possible failure and fracture of the stem at the modular junction. Indeed, there have been an increasing number of reports of modular implants failing due to fracture at modular junctions. The S-ROM prosthesis (DePuy Orthopaedics, Inc, Warsaw, Indiana), however, has a stellar clinical record and has been used with good results in both primary and revision total hip arthroplasty. Only a single case of S-ROM failure at the stem-sleeve interface has been reported in the orthopedic literature. The aim of this case report was to present a succinct history of proximal modularity in total hip arthroplasty and to describe the only known case of this type of catastrophic failure in an S-ROM prosthesis with a metal-on-metal bearing. Despite a low level of serum metal ions on presentation, scanning electron microscopy showed findings consistent with corrosive processes and pseudotumor was seen at revision surgery. PMID:25760513
Darling, M D; Akin, R; Tarbox, M B; Stetson, C L; Patterson, J W; Tchernev, G; Chokoeva, A A; Lotti, T; Wollina, U
Intralymphatic histiocytosis (IH) is a rare condition that presents with livedoid, erythematous to violaceous patches and plaques near affected joints most commonly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in at least 8 reports overlying metal implants. We report the case of a 58 year-old Caucasian woman who developed an indurated violaceous reticulated plaque overlying her right hip after placement of a metal hip implant 6 years prior for treatment of osteoarthritis. Histopathology revealed a proliferation of D2-40-positive dilated lymphatic spaces in the dermis and intralymphatic proliferation of CD68-positive histiocytes. Lab results included negative serology for rheumatoid factor and negative leukocyte function testing for metal allergies. The patient was treated with pentoxifylline, which resulted in decreased induration and erythema of the lesion with almost complete resolution of the plaque. This case highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of cutaneous reactive angiomatoses, which are rare skin conditions that can present with similar clinical and histologic findings and can be differentiated on the basis of immunostains that highlight vascular and lymphatic endothelium and histiocytes. Pentoxifylline may be considered as a therapeutic option because of its anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet activity. PMID:26016979
Paustenbach, Dennis J; Galbraith, David A; Finley, Brent L
INTRODUCTION. There has been some recent concern regarding possible systemic health effects resulting from elevated blood cobalt concentrations in patients with cobalt containing hip implants. To date there are no blood cobalt criteria to help guide physicians when evaluating an individual hip implant patient's risk of developing systemic health effects because historically there was little or no concern about systemic cobalt toxicity in implant patients. OBJECTIVE. Our purpose is to describe recently completed research regarding the relationship between blood cobalt concentrations and clinical health effects. We discuss the possibility of systemic health effects in patients with metal containing implants and propose various blood cobalt concentrations that are not associated with an increased risk of developing certain adverse effects. METHODOLOGY. The primary literature search was conducted using PubMed and Web of Science using the following search terms: cobalt AND (toxicity OR health effects OR cardiotoxicity OR hematological OR endocrine OR immunological OR reproductive OR testicular effects OR neurological OR case report OR cohort OR Roncovite). The searches identified 6786 papers of which 122 were considered relevant. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry toxicological profile for cobalt and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development's National Center for Environmental Assessment's documentation on the provisional peer-reviewed toxicity value for cobalt were also utilized to identify secondary literature sources. RESULTS. Our review of the toxicology and medical literature indicates that highly elevated blood cobalt concentrations can result in certain endocrine, hematological, cardiovascular, and neurological effects in animals and/or humans. These studies, in addition to historical clinical findings involving the therapeutic use of cobalt, indicate that significant systemic effects of cobalt will not occur below blood cobalt concentrations of 300 ?g/L in most persons. Some individuals with specific risk factors for increased susceptibility (e.g., severe and sustained hypoalbuminemia) may exhibit systemic effects at lower cobalt blood concentrations. This review also describes several cobalt dosing studies performed with human volunteers that consumed cobalt for 15, 30, or 90 days. Overall, the results of these dosing studies indicate that sustained blood cobalt concentrations averaging 10-70 ?g/L for up to 90 days cause no significant clinical effects (maximum concentrations approached 120 ?g/L). Some proposed blood criteria for assessing implant wear and local tissue damage have been suggested by several medical groups. For example, the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency has proposed a blood cobalt guidance value of 7 ?g/L, and the Mayo Clinic has suggested serum cobalt concentrations greater than 10 ?g/L, but both of these values are primarily intended to address implant wear and to alert physicians to the possibility of an increased incidence of local effects. There is a clear lack of consensus regarding how to identify a specific numerical blood concentration of concern and whether whole blood or serum is a better matrix to assess total cobalt concentration. CONCLUSIONS. Based on currently available data, only under very unusual circumstances should a clinician expect that biologically important systemic adverse effects might occur in implant patients with blood cobalt concentrations less than 300 ?g/L. Patients with metal-containing hip implants who exhibit signs or symptoms potentially related to polycythemia, hypothyroidism, neurological, or cardiac dysfunction should be clinically evaluated for these conditions. Polycythemia appears to be the most sensitive endpoint. PMID:24256093
William L. Healy; Michael E. Ayers; Richard Iorio; Douglas A. Patch; David Appleby; Bernard A. Pfeifer
This study evaluates the impact of a clinical pathway (CP) and a hip implant standardization program (HISP) on the quality and cost of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Two hundred six unilateral THA operations for osteoarthritis were evaluated: 89 operations were performed in 1991 without a CP or HISP (4-year follow-up period); 117 operations were performed in 1993 with a CP
Objectives To examine mortality and revision rates among patients with osteoarthritis undergoing hip arthroplasty and to compare these rates between patients undergoing cemented or uncemented procedures and to compare outcomes between men undergoing stemmed total hip replacements and Birmingham hip resurfacing. Design Cohort study. Setting National Joint Registry. Population About 275?000 patient records. Main outcome measures Hip arthroplasty procedures were linked to the time to any subsequent mortality or revision (implant failure). Flexible parametric survival analysis methods were used to analyse time to mortality and also time to revision. Comparisons between procedure groups were adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, and complexity. Results As there were large baseline differences in the characteristics of patients receiving cemented, uncemented, or resurfacing procedures, unadjusted comparisons are inappropriate. Multivariable survival analyses identified a higher mortality rate for patients undergoing cemented compared with uncemented total hip replacement (adjusted hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.16); conversely, there was a lower revision rate with cemented procedures (0.53, 0.50 to 0.57). These translate to small predicted differences in population averaged absolute survival probability at all time points. For example, compared with the uncemented group, at eight years after surgery the predicted probability of death in the cemented group was 0.013 higher (0.007 to 0.019) and the predicted probability of revision was 0.015 lower (0.012 to 0.017). In multivariable analyses restricted to men, there was a higher mortality rate in the cemented group and the uncemented group compared with the Birmingham hip resurfacing group. In terms of revision, the Birmingham hip resurfacings had a similar revision rate to uncemented total hip replacements. Both uncemented total hip replacements and Birmingham hip resurfacings had a higher revision rate than cemented total hip replacements. Conclusions There is a small but significant increased risk of revision with uncemented rather than cemented total hip replacement, and a small but significant increased risk of death with cemented procedures. It is not known whether these are causal relations or caused by residual confounding. Compared with uncemented and cemented total hip replacements, Birmingham hip resurfacing has a significantly lower risk of death in men of all ages. Previously, only adjusted analyses of hip implant revision rates have been used to recommend and justify use of cheaper cemented total hip implants. Our investigations additionally consider mortality rates and suggest a potentially higher mortality rate with cemented total hip replacements, which merits further investigation. PMID:22700782
Pulfrey, David L.
ECE 331 - Biomedical Instrumentation Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, UBC Lab #6 Implant Design & Total Hip Arthroplasty Due: Start of NEXT Class (collect all data during lab) A) Prepare. 5. Measure the dimensions of your femur. C) Design implant 1. Download the SolidWorks femur model
Bergmann, Georg; Graichen, Friedmar; Dymke, Jörn; Rohlmann, Antonius; Duda, Georg N.; Damm, Philipp
When walking long distances, hip prostheses heat up due to friction. The influence of articulating materials and lubricating properties of synovia on the final temperatures, as well as any potential biological consequences, are unknown. Such knowledge is essential for optimizing implant materials, identifying patients who are possibly at risk of implant loosening, and proving the concepts of current joint simulators. An instrumented hip implant with telemetric data transfer was developed to measure the implant temperatures in vivo. A clinical study with 100 patients is planned to measure the implant temperatures for different combinations of head and cup materials during walking. This study will answer the question of whether patients with synovia with poor lubricating properties may be at risk for thermally induced bone necrosis and subsequent implant failure. The study will also deliver the different friction properties of various implant materials and prove the significance of wear simulator tests. A clinically successful titanium hip endoprosthesis was modified to house the electronics inside its hollow neck. The electronics are powered by an external induction coil fixed around the joint. A temperature sensor inside the implant triggers a timer circuit, which produces an inductive pulse train with temperature-dependent intervals. This signal is detected by a giant magnetoresistive sensor fixed near the external energy coil. The implant temperature is measured with an accuracy of 0.1°C in a range between 20°C and 58°C and at a sampling rate of 2–10 Hz. This rate could be considerably increased for measuring other data, such as implant strain or vibration. The employed technique of transmitting data from inside of a closed titanium implant by low frequency magnetic pulses eliminates the need to use an electrical feedthrough and an antenna outside of the implant. It enables the design of mechanically safe and simple instrumented implants. PMID:22927973
Kraaij, Gert; Zadpoor, Amir A; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Dankelman, Jenny; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Valstar, Edward R
The main cause of failure in total hip replacement is aseptic loosening which is associated with the formation of a periprosthetic fibrous (interface) tissue. Despite important applications for finite element modeling of loose implants, the mechanical properties of the bone-implant interface tissue have never been measured in humans. In this study, we performed unconfined compression tests to characterize the mechanical properties of the interface tissue and to determine the parameters of various hyperelastic material models which were fitted to the measurements. Human interface tissues were retrieved during 21 elective revision surgeries from aseptically loosened cemented (N=10) and uncemented hip implants (N=11). Specimens were tested at a fixed deformation rate of 0.1mm/min up to a maximum force of 10N. Elastic moduli for low and high strain regions of the stress-strain curves were determined. Interface tissue from aseptically loose cemented prostheses shows higher elastic moduli (mean=1.85MPa, 95% C.I.=1.76-1.95MPa) in the high strain region as compared to that of the interface tissue from the cementless group (mean=1.65MPa, 95% C.I.=1.43-1.88MPa). The 5-terms Mooney-Rivlin model ( [Formula: see text] ) described the stress-strain behavior the best. Large variations in the mechanical behavior were observed both between specimens from the same patient as between those of different patients. The material model parameters were therefore estimated for the mean data as well as for the curves with the highest and lowest strain at the maximum load. The model parameters found for the mean data were C1=-0.0074MPa, C2=0.0019MPa, C3=0MPa, C4=-0.0032MPa and C5=0MPa in the cemented group and C1=-0.0137MPa, C2=0.0069MPa, C3=0.0026MPa, C4=-0.0094MPa and C5=0MPa in the cementless group. The results of this study can be used in finite element computer. PMID:25023868
Szivek, J A; Magee, F P; Hanson, T; Hedley, A K
Bone remodeling adjacent to orthopedic implants has been attributed to bone strain changes. Although many animal studies have assessed bone remodeling near implants, the altered bone strains and even the strains in the intact bone prior to implantation have not been mapped extensively. Instead, bone changes are often correlated with implant stiffnesses. In this study, a benchtop loading system was developed using measurements from in vivo strain analysis to simulate physiologic loading of a canine femur. The effect on bone strains of three different stiffness canine hip implants with the same anatomic shape were compared by taking measurements from the proximal greyhound femur during loading. Peak compressive and tensile strains of the order of 200 to 400 microstrain were measured in the intact and implanted femora. The measurements indicate that during simulated in vivo loading, none of the implants substantially alter the normal strain state of the bone. If initial axial strains significantly affect the remodeling response of bone, the similarity of measurements with the different implants in place suggests that the same remodeling response would be expected to both the stiffest and least stiff implant, as has been noted in animal studies adjacent to the intermediate stiffness implant. It also suggests that this implant shape and initial bone implant interface condition can compensate for strain reductions expected near stiff straight-stemmed implants. PMID:8049183
Sharkness, C M; Hamburger, S; Moore, R M; Kaczmarek, R G
Data from the 1988 Medical Device Implant Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey are used to summarize information about the prevalence of artificial hips among adults in the United States. The 1988 National Health Interview Survey was a cross-sectional survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized United States population, and included 122,310 persons in 47,485 households in a multistage probability sample. The supplement supplied the first population-based estimates of prevalence and morbidity of selected medical devices. Projected to the United States population, the survey results indicate that an estimated 674,000 adults were using 811,000 hip implants. Hip implant recipients were significantly more likely to be older, to be white, and to have lower educational, income, and activity levels than the general population of adults. After age-stratification, however, only differences in activity limitation and race remained. Current economic outlays for hip replacement surgery are substantial. With the aging population, use of health services by patients with artificial hips will probably increase unless measures to reduce the need for replacement surgery are instituted. These measures include reducing injuries and improving biomaterials. Further investigation is needed to examine the activity limitation and racial difference in prevalence found in this study. PMID:8434101
Dabis, John; Abdul-Jabar, Hani B.; Dabis, Hosam
Dynamic hip screw fixation is a common orthopaedic procedure and to date, still can cause difficulties to the senior trauma surgeon. We present a case where an extra-capsular fracture of the proximal femur was managed with a dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation. She proceeded to the operating theatre, where the fracture was stabilized with a 75-mm DHS and short-barrelled plate. The implant position was checked with intraoperative screening and the position accepted. Following attempted mobilization at 11 days post-operatively, the patient developed a recurrence of her preoperative pain. X-ray showed that the implant screw had separated from the barrel. Later scrutiny of the intraoperative screening films revealed that the barrel and screw were not engaged at the time of surgery. Intraoperative screening films should be carefully checked to ensure congruity of implant components. PMID:26136561
Dabis, John; Abdul-Jabar, Hani B; Dabis, Hosam
Dynamic hip screw fixation is a common orthopaedic procedure and to date, still can cause difficulties to the senior trauma surgeon. We present a case where an extra-capsular fracture of the proximal femur was managed with a dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation. She proceeded to the operating theatre, where the fracture was stabilized with a 75-mm DHS and short-barrelled plate. The implant position was checked with intraoperative screening and the position accepted. Following attempted mobilization at 11 days post-operatively, the patient developed a recurrence of her preoperative pain. X-ray showed that the implant screw had separated from the barrel. Later scrutiny of the intraoperative screening films revealed that the barrel and screw were not engaged at the time of surgery. Intraoperative screening films should be carefully checked to ensure congruity of implant components. PMID:26136561
Cristofolini, L; Varini, E; Viceconti, M
Although prosthesis-bone micromotion is known to influence the stability of total hip replacement, no protocol exists to investigate resurfacing hip implants. An in-vitro protocol was developed to measure prosthesis-bone micromotions of resurfaced femurs. In order to assess the effect of all loading directions, the protocol included a variety of in-vitro loading scenarios covering the range of directions spanned by the hip resultant force in the most typical motor tasks. Gap-opening and shear-slippage micromotions were measured in the locations where they reach the maximum value. The applicability of the protocol was assessed on two commercial designs and different head sizes. Intra-specimen repeatability and inter-specimen reproducibility were excellent (comparable with the best protocols for cemented hip stems). Results showed that the protocol is accurate enough to detect prosthesis-bone micromotions of the order of a few microns. Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to the direction of the applied force. Using the whole range of hip loads enabled detection of maximum micromotions for any design (the peak value could be different for different loading directions). Application of the protocol during a test to failure indicated that the system could track micromotion up to the last instant prior to failure. The protocol proposed is thus completely validated and can be applied for preliminary screening of new epiphyseal designs. PMID:18161254
Objective To determine comparative safety and effectiveness of combinations of bearing surfaces of hip implants. Design Systematic review of clinical trials, observational studies, and registries. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, reference lists of articles, annual reports of major registries, summaries of safety and effectiveness for pre-market application and mandated post-market studies at the United States Food and Drug Administration. Study selection Criteria for inclusion were comparative studies in adults reporting information for various combinations of bearings (such as metal on metal and ceramic on ceramic). Data search, abstraction, and analyses were independently performed and confirmed by at least two authors. Qualitative data syntheses were performed. Results There were 3139 patients and 3404 hips enrolled in 18 comparative studies and over 830?000 operations in national registries. The mean age range in the trials was 42-71, and 26-88% were women. Disease specific functional outcomes and general quality of life scores were no different or they favoured patients receiving metal on polyethylene rather than metal on metal in the trials. While one clinical study reported fewer dislocations associated with metal on metal implants, in the three largest national registries there was evidence of higher rates of implant revision associated with metal on metal implants compared with metal on polyethylene. One trial reported fewer revisions with ceramic on ceramic compared with metal on polyethylene implants, but data from national registries did not support this finding. Conclusions There is limited evidence regarding comparative effectiveness of various hip implant bearings. Results do not indicate any advantage for metal on metal or ceramic on ceramic implants compared with traditional metal on polyethylene or ceramic on polyethylene bearings. PMID:22127517
Abstract: Total hip arthroplasty patients typically experience some degree of stress shieldingIn Vitro Assessment of Allowable Bone Loss for Implantation of a Zweymuller Stem for Total Hip Arthroplasty Revision Surgery J. M. Inouye1 , E. Ebramzadeh2 , S. Sangiorgio2 1 Department of Biomedical
Introduction Total hip arthroplasty patients typically experience some degree of stress shieldingIn Vitro Assessment of Allowable Bone Loss for Implantation of a Zweymuller Stem for Total Hip Arthroplasty Revision Surgery J. M. Inouye1, E. Ebramzadeh2, S. Sangiorgio2 1Department of Biomedical
Kelm, J.; Bohrer, P.; Schmitt, E.; Anagnostakos, K.
In case of periprosthetic hip infections the implantation of antibiotic-loaded PMMA spacers is accepted for an adequate treatment option. Although their indication for the treatment of destructive, bacterial infections of the proximal femur would make sense, literature data are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic-impregnated spacers in the treatment of proximal femur infections. In 10 consecutive patients (5 M/ 5 F, mean age 66 y.) with bacterial proximal femur infections, a femoral head/neck resection was prospectively performed with a subsequent implantation of an antibiotic-loaded spacer. The joint-specific outcome was evaluated by the Merle d´Aubigne and the Mayo hip score, the general outcome by SF-36. The time periods were divided into “infection situation”, “between stages” and meanly 1 year “after prosthesis implantation”. The spacers were meanly implanted over 90 [155-744] days. In all cases an infection eradication could be achieved. After infection eradication, a prosthesis implantation was performed in 8 cases. The general scores showed significant increases at each time period. With regard to the dimension “pain”, both scores demonstrated a significant increase between “infection situation” and “between stages”, but no significance between “between stages” and “after prosthesis implantation”. Spacers could be indicated in the treatment of proximal femur infections. Besides an infection eradication, a pain reduction is also possible. PMID:19841730
Maschke, R.; Lempe, B.; Taudt, Ch.; Rudek, F.; Baselt, T.; Basan, F.; Grunert, R.; Hartmann, P.
With 332,000 operations carried out every year, the implantation of an artificial hip joint is one of the most common surgical operations performed in the US. According to prognosis which takes the demographical change into account, the number of these operations will increase in the coming years. One of the essential requirements is the perfect reconstruction of the biomechanical functions, especially the knowledge about the center of the hip rotation and the length of the leg. Based on this information it is possible to ensure the right position of the newly set leg during surgery. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate an optical measurement method in order to gather information about the center of the hip joint and the leg length. An appropriate laboratory setup has been designed and implemented in order to evaluate two different approaches: a structured light-method consisting of a DLP-Beamer or a laser source which projects defined patterns onto the patient and a marker-based system. Together with this both methods are combined with custom software to determine the hip joint center and the leg length with an accuracy of around +/- 0.2 inches. The clinical use of the tested approaches would give the surgeon the opportunity to reset the implant-parameters in the course of the surgery. In this way subsequent illnesses such as scoliotic pelvis can be prevented.
Kelly, Michael P; Bozic, Kevin J
Total hip arthroplasty (THA), though a highly effective procedure for patients with end-stage hip disease, has become increasingly costly, both because of increasing procedure volume and because of the introduction and widespread use of new technologies. Data regarding procedure volume and procedure costs for THA were obtained from the National Inpatient Sample and other published sources for the years 1995 through 2005. Procedure volume increased 61% over the period studied. When adjusted for inflation, using the medical consumer price index, the average selling price of THA implants increased 24%. The selling price of THA implants as a percentage of total procedure costs increased from 29% to 60% during the period under study. The increasing cost of THA in the United States is a result of both increased procedure volume and increased cost of THA implants. No long-term outcome studies related to use of new implant technologies are available, and short-term results have been similar to those obtained with previous generations of THA implants. This study reinforces the need for a US total joint arthroplasty registry and for careful clinical and economic analyses of new technologies in orthopedics. PMID:19238268
Background and purpose Cementless total hip arthroplasty is currently favored by many orthopedic surgeons. The design of the porous surface is critically important for long-term fixation. We examined the clinical and radiographic outcome of the cementless titanium hip implant with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 109 hips (92 patients) that had undergone primary cementless total hip arthroplasty with bioactive glass ceramic bottom-coated implants. The mean follow-up period was 7 (3–9) years. Hip joint function was evaluated with the Merle d’Aubigné and Postel hip score, and radiographic changes were determined from anteroposterior radiographs. Results The mean hip score improved from 9.7 preoperatively to 17 at the final follow-up. The overall survival rate was 100% at 9 years, when radiographic loosening or revision for any reason was used as the endpoint. 3 stems in 2 patients subsided more than 3 mm vertically within 1 year after implantation. Radiographs of the interface of the stem and femur were all classified as bone ingrowth fixation. Conclusions The short-term results of this study show good outcome for cementless implants with a bottom coating of apatite-wollastonite containing bioactive glass ceramic. PMID:23043270
Cuckler, J M
Hip implant retrieval analysis is the most important source of insight into the performance of new materials and designs of hip arthroplasties. Even the most rigorous in vitro testing will not accurately simulate the behavior of implant materials and new designs of prosthetic arthroplasties. Retrieval analysis has revealed such factors as the effects of gamma-in-air sterilisation of polyethylene, fatigue failure mechanisms of polymethylmethacrylate bone cement, fretting corrosion of Morse taper junctions, third body wear effects of both hard-on-hard and hard-on-soft bearing couples, and the effects of impingement of components on the full spectrum of bearing surfaces, none of which was predicted by pre-implantation in vitro testing of these materials and combinations. The temporal sequence of the retrieval process is approximately six years from first implantation through retrieval analysis, laboratory investigation, and publication of results, and thus, in addition to rigorous clinical evaluation, represents the true development and insight cycle for new designs and materials. PMID:23118372
Liu, Xiaokang; Liu, Yingjie; Lian, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jianguang
The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of the lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after the implantation of interspinous device and the fusion of the adjacent segment. A total of 62 consecutive patients suffering L5/S1 lumbar disc herniation (LDH) with concomitant disc space narrowing or low-grade instability up to 5 mm translational slip in L5/S1 level were treated with lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) via posterior approach. Thirty-four of these patients (Coflex group) received an additional implantation of the interspinous spacer device (Coflex™) in the level L4/L5, while the rest of 28 patients (fusion group) underwent the fusion surgery alone. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at pre- and postoperative visits to compare the clinical outcomes and the changes of the L4/L5 vertebral disc degeneration on MRI in both Coflex and fusion group. Although both Coflex and fusion group showed improvements of the clinical outcomes assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) after surgery, patients in Coflex group had more significant amelioration (P < 0.05) compared to fusion group. During follow up, the postoperative disc degeneration changes in Coflex group assessed by the relative signal intensity (RSI) differed from those in fusion group (P < 0.05). The supplemental implantation of Coflex™ after the fusion surgery could delay the disc degeneration of the adjacent segment.
Wilson, Natalia A; Jehn, Megan; York, Sally; Davis, Charles M
FDA's Unique Device Identification (UDI) Rule will mandate manufacturers to assign unique identifiers to their marketed devices. UDI use is expected to improve implant documentation and identification. A 2012 American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons membership survey explored revision total hip and knee arthroplasty implant identification processes. 87% of surgeons reported regularly using at least 3 methods to identify failed implants pre-operatively. Median surgeon identification time was 20 min; median staff time was 30 min. 10% of implants could not be identified pre-operatively. 2% could not be identified intra-operatively. UDI in TJA registry and UDI in EMR were indicated practices to best support implant identification and save time. FDA's UDI rule sets the foundation for UDI use in patient care settings as standard practice for implant documentation. PMID:23890830
Chandra, A; Ryu, J J; Karra, P; Shrotriya, P; Tvergaard, V; Gaisser, M; Weik, T
Stress dependent electrochemical dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing surface degradation in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. The present study focuses on delineating the roles of mechanical stress and chemical conditions on the life expectancy of modular hip implants. First, material removal on a stressed surface of Ti6Al4V subjected to single asperity contact is investigated experimentally to identify the influence of contact load, in-plane stress and chemical environment on mean wear rates. A range of known stress levels are applied to the specimen while its surface is mechanically stimulated in different non-reactive to oxidizing aqueous environments. Evolution of surface degradation is monitored, and its mechanism is elucidated. This phase allows estimation of Preston Constant which is later used in the analysis. Second phase of the work is semi-analytical and computational, where, based on the estimated Preston constant and other material and process parameters, the scratch propensity (consisting of magnitude of scratch depth and their frequency per unit area) due to micro-motion in modular hip implants is estimated. The third phase views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient body weight, as well as proximity of the joint fluid to its iso-electric point play key roles in determining wear rates and associated life expectancies of modular hip implants. Sustained aeration of joint fluid, as well as proper tolerancing of mating surfaces, along with a proper choice of material microstructure may be utilized to extend implant life. PMID:22098898
Bertazzoni Minelli, Elisa; Benini, Anna; Samaila, Elena; Bondi, Manuel; Magnan, Bruno
Gentamicin (G) and vancomycin (V) concentrations in joints fluids obtained from patients during the first 24 hours after implantation of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spacers in two-stage revision for infected arthroplasty, and the inhibitory activity of joint fluids against different multiresistant clinical isolates were studied. A total of 12 patients undergoing two-stage revision surgery with implantation of industrial G spacers added with different amounts of V was studied. Serum and joint fluid samples were collected 1, 4, and 24 hours after spacer implantation. Antibiotics concentrations and joint bactericidal titer (JBT) of combination were determined against multiresistant staphylococcal strains. The local release of G and V from PMMA cement seemed prompt and effective. Serum levels were below the limit of detection. The same joint fluid showed different activity according to the susceptibility of the pathogens tested. Gentamicin and V were released from spacers at bactericidal concentrations exerting a strong inhibition against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) strains. PMID:24621165
Supplemental Information cas9 repeat spacer spacer dsDNA Transcription DNA scanning CRISPRcas1 cas2 System from S. pyogenes, Related to Figure 1 The system consists of a set of CRISPR-associated (CasRNA) and the host RNase III. After cleavage, one single protein, Cas9, recognizes and binds to the cleaved form
Howald, R; Kesteris, U; Klabunde, R; Krevolin, J
An understanding of how the cementing technique influences cement penetration is important for surgeons to plan and conduct hip resurfacing procedures. Therefore the aim of this study is to determine the influence of the following parameters on cement penetration: use of pulse lavage, type of cement, and the standing period of the cement. Nine fresh frozen paired whole cadaver femora were used to investigate cement penetration. The femora were divided into three paired groups: (A) compared the use of pulse lavage to no pulse lavage, (B) compared two low viscosity bone cements SULCEM-3 (Zimmer GmbH, Switzerland) and Surgical Simplex (Stryker Orthopaedics, USA), and (C) compared bone cement viscosities using standing times of 1.5 min. and 3 min. The Durom Hip Resurfacing implant (Zimmer GmbH, Switzerland) was used in all groups. A single slice was taken out of the center of each head. Cement penetration ratio (penetration area divided by the bone area enclosed by implant) and mean cement penetration depth were measured. Cement penetration is increased using pulse lavage, and has the tendency to increase with increasing the cement standing time from 1.5 to 3 min. No difference in cement penetration was found when different cement brands of comparable viscosity were used. PMID:19219834
Thomas M Grupp; Thomas Weik; Wilhelm Bloemer; Hanns-Peter Knaebel
BACKGROUND: Modular neck adapters for hip arthroplasty stems allow the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intraoperatively. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such a modular device due to high loads or surface contamination inside the modular coupling. Unfortunately we have experienced such a failure of implants and now report our clinical experience with
H. Fouad; S. M. Darwish
The subsurface fatigue that occurs in the Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) hip joint cup has been shown to be correlated with the contact stress at that cup. This cup stress is known to be affected by the implant design, dimensions and materials. In this study, 3D finite element modeling has been used to investigate the effects on the cup
Wear particle-induced inflammation leading to periprosthetic osteolysis remains a major cause of hip implant failure. As polyethylene particles from conventional metal-on-polyethylene implants have been associated with these failures, an interest in lower wear metal-on-metal (MM) bearings has emerged. However, the biological effects of nanometer-size chromium oxide particles, predominant type of wear particles produced by MM implants, remain mostly unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the cytotoxicity of nanometer-size Cr2O3 particles on macrophages in vitro, by analyzing their effects on cell mortality and cytokine release and comparing them with those of similarly-sized alumina (Al2O3) particles (known to be relatively bioinert). Results showed that at high concentrations, nanometer-size Cr2O3 particles can be cytotoxic to macrophages, inducing significant decreases in total cell numbers and increases in necrosis. Results also showed that, at high concentrations, the cytotoxicity of Cr 2O3 particles was overall higher than that of Al2O 3 particles, even though Cr2O3 and Al2O 3 are both stable forms of ceramic materials. However, it appeared to be lower than that of previously reported conventional polyethylene and CoCrMo particles. Therefore, chromium oxide particles may not be the main culprit in initiating the inflammatory reaction in MM periprosthetic tissues.
Mehran, Nima; North, Trevor; Laker, Michael
In the current era of total hip arthroplasty (THA), orthopedic surgeons have several fixation options at their disposal. The modern monoblock prosthesis, introduced by Dr. Sir John Charnley, has seen many modifications since its inception in the 1970s and continues to be the most commonly used prosthesis style for primary and revision THA. Proximal modular sleeve technology was introduced in 1967 by Konstantin Sivash, modifying his original 1956 Sivash Stem design. The design is now known as the S-ROM, and although design modifications continue to date, the fundamental structure of the S-ROM remains essentially unchanged. Several other proximal modular prostheses are now currently available for use in THA. Although this similarity in design enables considerable surgical flexibility, it also links their potential for catastrophic failure. This aim of this article was to present a brief history of proximal modularity in THA and to add to the small body of literature regarding catastrophic failure in modular hip implants, including its proposed etiologies including micromotion, fretting and corrosion. PMID:23823060
Stogiannidis, Ioannis; Puolakka, Timo; Pajamäki, Jorma; Moilanen, Teemu
Background Modern metal-on-metal hip resurfacing implants are being increasingly used for young and active patients, although the long-term outcome and failure mechanisms of these implants are still unknown. In this consecutive revision case series, early failures of femoral implants (at < 4 years) were studied. Methods 3 revisions were done due to a fracture of the femoral neck and 1 due to loosening and varus position of the femoral component. Femoral heads were removed en bloc 2–46 months after the primary operation, embedded in methylmethacrylate, sectioned, stained, and analyzed as whole-mount specimens in 4 55–62-year-old patients with osteoarthritis. Results Histopathology was characterized by new but also partly healed trabecular microfractures, bone demineralization, cysts, metallosis, and abnormal formation of new woven bone. All samples displayed signs of notching, osteoporosis, and aseptic necrosis, which seemed to have been the main reason for the subsequent development and symptoms of the patients and revision operations of the hips. Interpretation Based on these early revision cases, it appears that aseptic necrosis is a common cause of early loosening of resurfacing hip implants. PMID:20367416
Background Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) is characterized by periprosthetic soft tissue inflammation composed of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and vascular changes. Multiple hip implant classes have been reported to result in ALTR, and clinical differences may represent variation in the soft tissue response at the cellular and tissue levels. The purpose of this study was to describe similarities and differences in periprosthetic tissue structure, organization, and cellular composition by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry in ALTR resulting from two common total hip arthroplasty (THA) implant classes. Methods Consecutive patients presenting with ALTR from two major hip implant classes (N?=?54 patients with Dual-Modular Neck implant; N?=?14 patients with Metal-on-Metal implant) were identified from our prospective Osteolysis Tissue Database and Repository. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, BMI, length of implantation, and serum metal ion levels were recorded. Retrieved synovial tissue morphology was graded using light microscopy and cellular composition was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results Length of implantation was shorter in the DMN group versus MoM THA group (21.3 [8.4] months versus 43.6 [13.8] months respectively; p?0.005) suggesting differences in implant performance. Morphologic examination revealed a common spectrum of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis in both groups. Macrophages were more commonly present in diffuse sheets (Grade 3) in the MoM relative to DMN group (p?=?0.016). Perivascular lymphocytes with germinal centers (Grade 4) were more common in the DMN group, which trended towards significance (p?=?0.066). Qualitative differences in corrosion product morphology were seen between the two groups. Immunohistochemistry showed features of a CD4 and GATA-3 rich lymphocyte reaction in both implants, with increased ratios of perivascular T-cell relative to B-cell markers in the DMN relative to the MoM group (p?=?0.032). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that both implant classes display common features of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis with a CD4 and GATA-3 rich inflammatory infiltrate. Qualitative differences in corrosion product appearance, macrophage morphology, and lymphocyte distributions were seen between the two implant types. Our data suggests that ALTR represents a histological spectrum with implant-based features. PMID:25242891
Decking, R; Reuter, P; Hüttner, M; Puhl, W; Claes, L E; Scharf, H P
The surfaces of retrieved failed cementless total hip implants made of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum casting alloy and of wrought titanium 6-aluminum 4-vanadium alloy were studied with the use of scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). New implants of the same make served as controls. The XPS scans revealed a dense carbon layer on the entire analyzed specimen. The relative composition of the titanium alloy implants showed an overall agreement with the international standards for implants for surgery, and the overall surface composition did not change over the period of the implantation. However, an inhomogeneous distribution of the constituents could be demonstrated in the retrieved as well as in the new MEC-screw rings made of TiAl6V4 alloy, an implant that has been linked to a high early failure rate. In the CoCr-alloy components (Lord-screw rings) a high percentage of aluminum, mainly organized in aluminum inclusions, was found in the retrieved as well as in the new implants. PMID:12516084
Rodrigues, Danieli C; Urban, Robert M; Jacobs, Joshua J; Gilbert, Jeremy L
Titanium alloys are widely used in total-joint replacements due to a combination of outstanding mechanical properties, biocompatibility, passivity, and corrosion resistance. Nevertheless, retrieval studies have pointed out that these materials can be subjected to localized or general corrosion in modular interfaces when mechanical abrasion of the oxide film (fretting) occurs. Modularity adds large crevice environments, which are subject to micromotion between contacting interfaces and differential aeration of the surface. Titanium alloys are also known to be susceptible to hydrogen absorption, which can induce precipitation of hydrides and subsequent brittle failure. In this work, the surface of three designs of retrieved hip-implants with Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-6Al-4V modular taper interfaces in the stem were investigated for evidence of severe corrosion and precipitation of brittle hydrides during fretting-crevice corrosion in the modular connections. The devices were retrieved from patients and studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and chemical analysis. The surface qualitative investigation revealed severe corrosion attack in the mating interfaces with evidence of etching, pitting, delamination, and surface cracking. In vivo hydrogen embrittlement was shown to be a mechanism of degradation in modular connections resulting from electrochemical reactions induced in the crevice environment of the tapers during fretting-crevice corrosion. PMID:18683224
The influence of carbon (C) content, microstructure, crystallography and mechanical properties on the wear behaviour of metal-on-metal (MM) hip implants made from commercially available cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys designated as American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) grade F1537, F75 and as-cast were studied in this work. The as-received bars of wrought CoCrMo alloys (ASTM F1537 of either about 0.05% or 0.26% C) were each subjected to various heat treatments to develop different microstructures. Pin and plate specimens were fabricated from each bar and were tested against each other using a linear reciprocating pin-on-plate apparatus in 25% by volume bovine serum solution. The applied normal load was 9.81 N and the reciprocating plate had a sinusoidal velocity with an average speed of 26 mm/s. The wear was measured gravimetrically and it was found to be most strongly affected by alloy C content, irrespective of grain size or carbide morphology. More precisely, the wear behaviour was directly correlated to the dissolved C content of the alloys. Increased C in solid-solution coincided with lower volumetric wear since C helps to stabilize the face-centred cubic (FCC) crystal structure thus limiting the amount of strain induced transformation (SIT) to the hexagonal close-packed crystal structure (HCP). Based on the observed surface twinning in and around the contact zone and the potentially detrimental effect of the HCP phase, it was postulated that the MM wear behaviour of CoCrMo alloys in the present study was controlled by a deformation mechanism, rather than corrosion or tribochemical reactions.
Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Gallart, Xavier; Soriano, Alejandro
Infection remains a serious complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and is a leading cause of hip revision surgery. It is currently accepted that removal of the prosthesis is essential to curing an infection when facing chronic PJIs with prosthesis loosening. In order to avoid the disadvantages of a two-stage approach, some authors have proposed a one-stage hip revision for the treatment of hip prosthesis infection in selected patients using not only antibiotic-loaded cemented components but also cementless implant. In the case of a one-stage procedure, the patient is exposed to a single major procedure and therefore lower cumulative perioperative risk. A functional prosthesis replacement is completed without exposure to the complications associated with spacers. In addition, there are also benefits both financially and in terms of resource allocation. PMID:23898350
Christian, Whitney V; Oliver, Lindsay D; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Kreider, Marisa L; Finley, Brent L
In this paper, quantitative methods were used to evaluate the weight of evidence regarding a causative relationship between cobalt-chromium (CoCr)-containing hip implants and increased cancer risk. We reviewed approximately 80 published papers and identified no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and/or lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) values for specific endpoints of interest: genotoxic effects from in vitro studies with human cell lines as well as genotoxicity and tumor formation in animal bioassays. Test articles included Co particles and ions, Cr particles and ions, and CoCr alloy particles as well as CoCr alloy implants. The NOAEL/LOAEL values were compared with body burdens of Co/Cr particles and ions we calculated to exist in systemic tissues of hip implant patients under normal and excessive wear conditions. We found that approximately 40 tumor bioassays have been conducted with CoCr alloy implants or Co/Cr particles and ions at levels hundreds to thousands of times higher than those present in hip implant patients, and none reported a statistically significant increased incidence of systemic tumors. Results from in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays, which are relatively less informative owing to false positives and other factors, also indicated that DNA effects would be highly unlikely to occur as a result of wear debris from a CoCr implant. Hence, the toxicological weight of evidence suggests that CoCr-containing hip implants are unlikely to be associated with an increased risk of systemic cancers, which is consistent with published and ongoing cancer epidemiology studies involving patients with CoCr hip implants. PMID:25080401
Liu, Yaosheng; Su, Xiuyun; Zhou, Shiguo; Wang, Lei; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Shubin
Tantalum rod implant following core decompression is reported to be effective in early stage of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). The purpose of this study was to assess the survivorship and prognostic factors for radiographic progression and conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA) after treatment with a modified tantalum implant technology. 59 consecutive hips (45 patients) in whom ONFH was treated with core decompression, impaction bone grafting of 2 mm-composite bone filling material, and insertion of a porous tantalum implant. 57 hips (44 patients, mean age 43 years, range 21 to 70 years) with Steinberg Stage I-IVA ONFH were available for follow-up at a mean of 44.8 months (rang, 11 to 62 months). Outcome measures included HHS (Harris Hip Score), radiographic outcome, and survivorship analysis with reversion to THA. Radiographic progression occurred in 17 hips (17/57, 29.82%). 11 hips (11/57, 19.30%) were converted to THA. The overall survival rate was 72.49% at 60 months post-operatively. After logistic regression analysis, corticosteroid use and bone marrow edema were found to be predictors of radiographic progression. The Cox proportional-hazard model revealed that bone marrow edema was an independent prognostic factor for conversion to THA. This modified technology may make patients avoid the use of corticosteroid, especially those without bone marrow edema, and obtains encouraging survival rates and a delay in or prevention of THA. PMID:25932121
Grandjean, J.; Le Goic, G.; Favreliere, H.; Ledoux, Y.; Samper, S.; Formosa, F.; Devun, L.; Gradel, T.
This paper presents a metrological analysis of hip prosthesis components. When changing ceramic prostheses, the surgeon sometimes finds traces of alloy lying in the insert or the femoral head. These traces can be thin and accurate or as a wide band. From the measurements made on the contact areas of hip prosthesis components, we analyse these phenomena by highlighting the defects of form, waviness and roughness of these surfaces using a novel geometric parameterization (namely modal parameterization). The aim of this work is to isolate these defects to characterize the prostheses components. We show that this parameterization allows a multi-scale analysis of surfaces regardless of the type of wear of the prosthesis, and that the results offer some relevant explanations to the analysis of visible damage on the prostheses. In a later study, we are going to analyse the defects influence on the alteration of the performance of hip prostheses.
Nieuwenhuijse, Marc J; Nelissen, R G H H; Schoones, J W
Objective To determine the evidence of effectiveness and safety for introduction of five recent and ostensibly high value implantable devices in major joint replacement to illustrate the need for change and inform guidance on evidence based introduction of new implants into healthcare. Design Systematic review of clinical trials, comparative observational studies, and registries for comparative effectiveness and safety of five implantable device innovations. Data sources PubMed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, reference lists of articles, annual reports of major registries, summaries of safety and effectiveness for pre-market application and mandated post-market studies at the US Food and Drug Administration. Study selection The five selected innovations comprised three in total hip replacement (ceramic-on-ceramic bearings, modular femoral necks, and uncemented monoblock cups) and two in total knee replacement (high flexion knee replacement and gender specific knee replacement). All clinical studies of primary total hip or knee replacement for symptomatic osteoarthritis in adults that compared at least one of the clinical outcomes of interest (patient centred outcomes or complications, or both) in the new implant group and control implant group were considered. Data searching, abstraction, and analysis were independently performed and confirmed by at least two authors. Quantitative data syntheses were performed when feasible. Results After assessment of 10?557 search hits, 118 studies (94 unique study cohorts) met the inclusion criteria and reported data related to 15?384 implants in 13?164 patients. Comparative evidence per device innovation varied from four low to moderate quality retrospective studies (modular femoral necks) to 56 studies of varying quality including seven high quality (randomised) studies (high flexion knee replacement). None of the five device innovations was found to improve functional or patient reported outcomes. National registries reported two to 12 year follow-up for revision occurrence related to more than 200?000 of these implants. Reported comparative data with well established alternative devices (over 1?200?000 implants) did not show improved device survival. Moreover, we found higher revision occurrence associated with modular femoral necks (hazard ratio 1.9) and ceramic-on-ceramic bearings (hazard ratio 1.0-1.6) in hip replacement and with high flexion knee implants (hazard ratio 1.0-1.8). Conclusion We did not find convincing high quality evidence supporting the use of five substantial, well known, and already implemented device innovations in orthopaedics. Moreover, existing devices may be safer to use in total hip or knee replacement. Improved regulation and professional society oversight are necessary to prevent patients from being further exposed to these and future innovations introduced without proper evidence of improved clinical efficacy and safety. PMID:25208953
Pivec, Robert; Meneghini, R Michael; Hozack, William J; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Mont, Michael A
Corrosion at the modular neck-stem taper junction has become an increasingly important topic as several reports have identified this couple as a possible source for early failure with findings similar to failed metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties. Recently, two different modular stem systems from a single manufacturer were voluntarily recalled due to concerns of failure of the modular taper junction. We discuss how to approach the diagnosis and management of patients with these particular stem systems. We further reviewed the literature to evaluate whether this is a manufacturer-specific defect or indicative of a broader trend. Recent studies appear to implicate the basic design of the neck-stem taper junction, rather than a single manufacturer, which is at high risk for fretting and corrosion. PMID:24090661
Efstathopoulos, Nicolas E.; Lazarettos, John T.
We report a randomised prospective study comparing two implants, the Gamma trochanteric nail and the ACE trochanteric nail, in the treatment of intertrochanteric femoral fractures in the elderly. One hundred and twelve patients were randomised on admission into two treatment groups. Fifty-six patients were treated with Gamma nail implants, and 56 were treated with ACE trochanteric nail. The average age of these patients was 78 years. Twenty fractures were stable and 92 unstable. The mean follow-up time was 8 months (6 –12). Regular clinical and radiological review was done 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Operation time, fluoroscopy time, blood transfusion and complications were recorded. The mobility score was used to assess the pre-injury and postoperative mobility status. All the patients were treated within 36 h of their accident. There were no complications during surgery. All the patients were mobilised in the first 24 h postoperatively, regardless of the fracture type, and weight bearing was permitted as tolerated. Union of the fracture was achieved in all patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to the studied parameters. There was no mechanical failure of the implants despite the early patient mobilisation. Early operation and early mobilisation resulted in a good functional outcome in all patients. Both the trochanteric gamma nail and ACE trochanteric nail provide effective methods of treatment for intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients. PMID:16736148
Varano, R; Bobyn, J D; Medley, J B; Yue, S
The influence of microstructure on the wear of cobalt-based alloys used in metal-on-metal hip implants was investigated in a boundary lubrication regime designed to represent the conditions that occurred some of the time in vivo. These cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys were either wrought, with a total carbon content of 0.05 or 0.23 wt %, cast with a solution-annealing procedure or simply as-cast but not solution annealed. Bars of these different alloy grades were subjected to various heat treatments to develop different microstructures. The wear was evaluated in a linear-tracking reciprocating pin-on-plate apparatus with a 25 per cent bovine serum lubricant. The wear was found to be strongly affected by the dissolved carbon content of the alloys and mostly independent of grain size or the carbide characteristics. The increased carbon in solid solution caused reductions in volumetric wear because carbon helped to stabilize a face-centred cubic crystal structure, thus limiting the amount of strain-induced transformation to a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure. Based on the observed surface twining in and around the contact zone and the potentially detrimental effect of the hexagonal close-packed phase, it was postulated that the wear of cobalt-based alloys in the present study was controlled by a deformation mechanism. PMID:16669383
Hartmann, Albrecht; Hannemann, Franziska; Lützner, Jörg; Seidler, Andreas; Drexler, Hans; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Schmitt, Jochen
Introduction The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds) in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. Objective To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. Methods Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs) and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum) in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor), patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors). Results Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies) totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine) irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L). Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Discussion Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed „time out“ for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted indication for hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Patients with implanted MoM-bearing should receive regular and standardized monitoring of metal ion concentrations. Further research is indicated especially with regard to potential systemic reactions due to accumulation of metal products. PMID:23950923
McGill, Kevin C.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.
Microfracture is a marrow-stimulating technique used in the hip to treat cartilage defects associated with femoro-acetabular impingement, instability, or traumatic hip injury. These defects have a low probability of healing spontaneously and therefore often require surgical intervention. Originally adapted from the knee, microfracture is part of a spectrum of cartilage repair options that include palliative procedures such as debridement and lavage, reparative procedures such as marrow-stimulating techniques (abrasion arthroplasty and microfracture), and restorative procedures such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and osteochondral allograft/autografts. The basic indications for microfracture of the hip include focal and contained lesions typically less than 4 cm in diameter, full-thickness (Outerbridge grade IV) defects in weightbearing areas, unstable lesions with intact subchondral bone, and focal lesions without evidence of surrounding chondromalacia. Although not extensively studied in the hip, there are some small clinical series with promising early outcomes. Although the widespread use of microfracture in the hip is hindered by difficulties in identifying lesions on preoperative imaging and instrumentation to circumvent the femoral head, this technique continues to gain acceptance as an initial treatment for small, focal cartilage defects.
Ojala, Jarkko; Kapanen, Mika; Sipilä, Petri; Hyödynmaa, Simo; Pitkänen, Maunu
In this study, the clinical benefit of the improved accuracy of the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm, implemented in a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS), Varian Eclipse, was demonstrated with beams traversing a high-Z material. This is also the first study assessing the accuracy of the AXB algorithm applying volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique compared to full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. In the first phase the AXB algorithm was benchmarked against point dosimetry, film dosimetry, and full MC calculation in a water-filled anthropometric phantom with a unilateral hip implant. Also the validity of the full MC calculation used as reference method was demonstrated. The dose calculations were performed both in original computed tomography (CT) dataset, which included artifacts, and in corrected CT dataset, where constant Hounsfield unit (HU) value assignment for all the materials was made. In the second phase, a clinical treatment plan was prepared for a prostate cancer patient with a unilateral hip implant. The plan applied a hybrid VMAT technique that included partial arcs that avoided passing through the implant and static beams traversing the implant. Ultimately, the AXB-calculated dose distribution was compared to the recalculation by the full MC simulation to assess the accuracy of the AXB algorithm in clinical setting. A recalculation with the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) was also performed to quantify the benefit of the improved dose calculation accuracy of type 'c' algorithm (AXB) over type 'b' algorithm (AAA). The agreement between the AXB algorithm and the full MC model was very good inside and in the vicinity of the implant and elsewhere, which verifies the accuracy of the AXB algorithm for patient plans with beams traversing through high-Z material, whereas the AAA produced larger discrepancies. PMID:25207577
Baauw, M; van Hellemondt, G G; van Hooff, M L; Spruit, M
We evaluated the accuracy with which a custom-made acetabular component could be positioned at revision arthroplasty of the hip in patients with a Paprosky type 3 acetabular defect. A total of 16 patients with a Paprosky type 3 defect underwent revision surgery using a custom-made trabecular titanium implant. There were four men and 12 women with a median age of 67 years (48 to 79). The planned inclination (INCL), anteversion (AV), rotation and centre of rotation (COR) of the implant were compared with the post-operative position using CT scans. A total of seven implants were malpositioned in one or more parameters: one with respect to INCL, three with respect to AV, four with respect to rotation and five with respect to the COR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which CT data acquired for the pre-operative planning of a custom-made revision acetabular implant have been compared with CT data on the post-operative position. The results are encouraging. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:780-5. PMID:26033057
Long-term effectiveness of an ad hoc tailored titanium implant as a spacer for microvascular decompression in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia caused by megadolichoectatic basilar artery anomaly: 9-year follow-up.
Banczerowski, Péter; Czigléczki, Gábor; Nyáry, István
An enlarged, elongated, ectatic, and sclerotic aberration of the vertebrobasilar system is known as a megadolichoectatic basilar artery (BA) anomaly. The anomaly is often involved in the pathological process of trigeminal neuralgia by compressing and distorting the trigeminal nerve. First-line medical treatment includes drug therapy, but a second-line surgical procedure could be effective in medication-resistant cases. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man with a 12-year history of progressing trigeminal neuralgia who underwent microvascular decompression after the first-line drug treatment had failed. This case is unique because an in situ tailored titanium microplate was used as a spacer to alleviate compression by the BA on the trigeminal nerve. The titanium implant provided durable and sufficient retraction for the sclerotic arterial complex when the trigeminal nerve was placed in the tunnel of the implant. The 9-year follow-up examination proves the safety and long-term efficacy of titanium implants in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia caused by a megadolichoectatic BA anomaly. The method applied in this case was not intended to be and certainly is not an alternative to routine microvascular decompression-this surgical solution may be reserved for some extreme cases. PMID:25259563
Runa, M J; Mathew, M T; Fernandes, M H; Rocha, L A
In uncemented Ti6Al4V hip implants, the bone-stem interface is subjected to cyclic loading motion driven by the daily activities of the patients, which may lead to the complete failure of the implant in the long term. It may also compromise the proliferation and differentiation processes of osteoblastic cells (bone-forming cells). The main objective of this work is to approach for the first time the role of these organic materials on the bio-tribocorrosion mechanisms of cultured Ti6Al4V alloys. The colonized materials with MG63 osteoblastic-like cells were characterized through cell viability/proliferation and enzymatic activity. Tribocorrosion tests were performed under a reciprocating sliding configuration and low contact pressure. Electrochemical techniques were used to measure the corrosion kinetics of the system, under free potential conditions. All tests were performed at a controlled atmosphere. The morphology and topography of the wear scar were evaluated. The results showed that the presence of an osteoblastic cell layer on the implant surface significantly influences the tribocorrosion behavior of Ti6Al4V alloy. It was concluded that the cellular material was able to form an extra protective layer that inhibits further wear degradation of the alloy and decreases its corrosion tendency. PMID:25448346
Prentice, Jennifer R.; Clark, Matthew J.; Hoggard, Nigel; Morton, Allison C.; Tooth, Claire; Paley, Martyn N.; Stockley, Ian; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Wilkinson, J. Mark
There is public concern over the long term systemic health effects of metal released from hip replacement prostheses that use large-diameter metal-on-metal bearings. However, to date there has been no systematic study to determine which organs may be at risk, or the magnitude of any effect. We undertook a detailed cross-sectional health screen at a mean of 8 years after surgery in 35 asymptomatic patients who had previously received a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MoMHR) versus 35 individually age and sex matched asymptomatic patients who had received a conventional hip replacement. Total body bone mineral density was 5% higher (mean difference 0.05 g/cm2, P?=?0.02) and bone turnover was 14% lower (TRAP 5b, mean difference ?0.56IU/L, P?=?0.006; osteocalcin, mean difference ?3.08 ng/mL, P?=?0.03) in the hip resurfacing versus conventional hip replacement group. Cardiac ejection fraction was 7% lower (mean absolute difference ?5%, P?=?0.04) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 6% larger (mean difference 2.7 mm, P?=?0.007) in the hip resurfacing group versus those patients who received a conventional hip replacement. The urinary fractional excretion of metal was low (cobalt 5%, chromium 1.5%) in patients with MoMHR, but creatinine clearance was normal. Diuretic prescription was associated with a 40% increase in the fractional excretion of chromium (mean difference 0.5%, P?=?0.03). There was no evidence of difference in neuropsychological, renal tubular, hepatic or endocrine function between groups (P>0.05). Our findings of differences in bone and cardiac function between patient groups suggest that chronic exposure to low elevated metal concentrations in patients with well-functioning MoMHR prostheses may have systemic effects. Long-term epidemiological studies in patients with well-functioning metal on metal hip prostheses should include musculoskeletal and cardiac endpoints to quantitate the risk of clinical disease. PMID:23762480
Hothi, Harry S; Matthies, Ashley K; Berber, Reshid; Whittaker, Robert K; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J
It has been suggested that corrosion and fretting at the tapered, modular junctions of hip arthroplasties may contribute to implant failure. In this study the reliability of a commonly used peer-reviewed scoring system for visual assessment of corrosion and fretting at these junctions was evaluated. Volumetric material loss at the tapered head surface was measured and associations with the visual scores were investigated. We found that the inter-observer reproducibility and single-observer repeatability of the corrosion scores were substantial using Cohen's weighted Kappa statistic (k = 0.64-0.71). The reproducibility and repeatability of the fretting scores however were slight to fair (k = 0.18-0.31). Taper corrosion scores were significantly and moderately correlated with the volume of material loss measured (Spearman's r = 0.59; P < 0.001). We recommend the continued use of this scoring system but it should not be a substitute for measurement of material loss. PMID:24411082
Many concepts have been devised for the treatment of late periprosthetic infections of total hip prostheses. A two-stage revision with a temporary antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer and a cemented prosthesis appears to be the most preferred procedure although, in recent times, there seems to be a trend towards cementless implants and a shorter period of antibiotic treatment. Because of the differences in procedure, not only between studies but also within studies, it cannot be decided which period of parenteral antibiotic treatment and which spacer period is the most suitable. The fact that comparable rates of success can be achieved with different treatment regimens emphasises the importance of surgical removal of all foreign materials and the radical debridement of all infected and ischaemic tissues and the contribution of these crucial procedures to the successful treatment of late periprosthetic infections. PMID:19834595
Preliminary Results of Implantation in Animal Model and Osteoblast Culture Evaluation of Prototypes of Biomimetic Multispiked Connecting Scaffold for Noncemented Stemless Resurfacing Hip Arthroplasty Endoprostheses
Uklejewski, Ryszard; Rogala, Piotr; Winiecki, Mariusz; K?dzia, Andrzej; Ruszkowski, Piotr
We present the new fixation method for RHA (resurfacing hip arthroplasty) endoprostheses by means of the biomimetic multispiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold). Such connecting scaffold can generate new type of RHA endoprostheses, that is stemless and fixed entirely without cement. The preprototypes of this MSC-Scaffold were manufactured with modern additive laser additive technology (SLM). The pilot surgical implantations in animal model (two laboratory swine) of MSC-Scaffold preprototypes have showed after two months neither implant loosening, migration, and nor other early complications. From the results of performed histopathological evaluation of the periscaffold spikes bone tissue and 10-day culture of human osteoblasts (NHOst) we can conclude that (1) the scaffolding effect was obtained and (2) to improve the osseointegration of the scaffold spikes, their material surface should be physicochemically modified (e.g., with hydroxyapatite). Some histopathological findings in the periscaffold domain near the MSC-Scaffold spikes bases (fibrous connective tissue and metallic particles near the MSC-Scaffold spikes bases edges) prompt considering the necessity to optimize the design of the MSC-Scaffold in the regions of its interspike space near the spikes bases edges, to provide more room for new bone formation in this region and for indispensable post-processing (glass pearl blasting) after the SLM manufacturing. PMID:23984397
Background We present a descriptive and retrospective analysis of revision total hip arthroplasties (THA) using the MRP-TITAN stem (Peter Brehm, Weisendorf, GER) with distal diaphyseal fixation and metaphyseal defect augmentation. Our hypothesis was that the metaphyseal defect augmentation (Impaction Bone Grafting) improves the stem survival. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the aggregated and anonymized data of 243 femoral stem revisions. 68 patients with 70 implants (28.8%) received an allograft augmentation for metaphyseal defects; 165 patients with 173 implants (71.2%) did not, and served as controls. The mean follow-up was 4.4?±?1.8 years (range, 2.1–9.6 years). There were no significant differences (p?>?0.05) between the study and control group regarding age, body mass index (BMI), femoral defects (types I-III as described by Paprosky), and preoperative Harris Hip Score (HHS). Postoperative clinical function was evaluated using the HHS. Postoperative radiologic examination evaluated implant stability, axial implant migration, signs of implant loosening, periprosthetic radiolucencies, as well as bone regeneration and resorption. Results There were comparable rates of intraoperative and postoperative complications in the study and control groups (p?>?0.05). Clinical function, expressed as the increase in the postoperative HHS over the preoperative score, showed significantly greater improvement in the group with Impaction Bone Grafting (35.6?±?14.3 vs. 30.8?±?15.8; p???0.05). The study group showed better outcome especially for larger defects (types II C and III as described by Paprosky) and stem diameters???17 mm. The two groups did not show significant differences in the rate of aseptic loosening (1.4% vs. 2.9%) and the rate of revisions (8.6% vs. 11%). The Kaplan-Meier survival for the MRP-TITAN stem in both groups together was 93.8% after 8.8 years. [Study group 95.7% after 8.54 years ; control group 93.1% after 8.7 years]. Radiologic evaluation showed no significant change in axial implant migration (4.3% vs. 9.3%; p?=?0.19) but a significant reduction in proximal stress shielding (5.7% vs. 17.9%; p?0.05) in the study group. Periprosthetic radiolucencies were detected in 5.7% of the study group and in 9.8% of the control group (p?=?0.30). Radiolucencies in the proximal zones 1 and 7 according to Gruen occurred significantly more often in the control group without allograft augmentation (p???0.05). Conclusion We present the largest analysis of the impaction grafting technique in combination with cementless distal diaphyseal stem fixation published so far. Our data provides initial evidence of improved bone regeneration after graft augmentation of metaphyseal bone defects. The data suggests that proximal metaphyseal graft augmentation is beneficial for large metaphyseal bone defects (Paprosky types IIC and III) and stem diameters of 17 mm and above. Due to the limitations of a retrospective and descriptive study the level of evidence remains low and prospective trials should be conducted. PMID:23311769
Dutta, Debargh K; Potnis, Pushya A; Rhodes, Kelly; Wood, Steven C
Multinucleate giant cells (MGCs) are formed by the fusion of 5 to 15 monocytes or macrophages. MGCs can be generated by hip implants at the site where the metal surface of the device is in close contact with tissue. MGCs play a critical role in the inflammatory processes associated with adverse events such as aseptic loosening of the prosthetic joints and bone degeneration process called osteolysis. Upon interaction with metal wear particles, endothelial cells upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and other factors that enhance a localized immune response. However, the role of endothelial cells in the generation of MGCs has not been completely investigated. We developed a three-dimensional peripheral tissue-equivalent model (PTE) consisting of collagen gel, supporting a monolayer of endothelial cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) on top, which mimics peripheral tissue under normal physiological conditions. The cultures were incubated for 14 days with Cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr ASTM F75, 1-5 micron) wear particles. PBMC were allowed to transit the endothelium and harvested cells were analyzed for MGC generation via flow cytometry. An increase in forward scatter (cell size) and in the propidium iodide (PI) uptake (DNA intercalating dye) was used to identify MGCs. Our results show that endothelial cells induce the generation of MGCs to a level 4 fold higher in 3-dimentional PTE system as compared to traditional 2-dimensional culture plates. Further characterization of MGCs showed upregulated expression of tartrate resistant alkaline phosphatase (TRAP) and dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein, (DC-STAMP), which are markers of bone degrading cells called osteoclasts. In sum, we have established a robust and relevant model to examine MGC and osteoclast formation in a tissue like environment using flow cytometry and RT-PCR. With endothelial cells help, we observed a consistent generation of metal wear particle- induced MGCs, which heralds metal on metal hip failures. PMID:25894745
... They are used to support crowns , bridges or dentures . Implants are surgically placed in your jawbone. Most ... other methods of replacing missing teeth, such as dentures. There are many reasons it's important to replace ...
Reflor, H J; Wirth, C J; Schreiner, B
30 patients whose total endoprosthesis of the hip joint had been removed without any replacement, thus creating a so-called state of secondary resection, were followed up 6 months to 6 years after the operation. It was found that in almost two-thirds of the cases a subjective feeling of improved mobility was reported. The objective findings consisted in restrictions of the total rotation, abduction and adduction of 1/3 rd of the normal extent of mobility. An average value of 74.7 degrees was recorded for flexion. 28 patients stated that their walking performance was satisfactory to very good when using a walking-stick as support. More than three-quarters of the patients questioned stated their pain had been positively influenced by the creation of the state of secondary resection. Another objective finding was a difference between the length of the legs amounting to 4.2 cm on the average. We could prove the existence of a relationship between the difference in leg length and the roentgenologically visualised supporting of the resection area of the coxal end of the femur at the lateral pelvis. Since all the patients with the exception of two could resume their customary daily routine activities, the state of secondary resection after unsuccessful total endoprosthesis of the hip joint must be considered a reasonably acceptable alternative. PMID:549328
Madrala, A; Nuño, N
PMMA polymerization is an exothermic phenomenon during which stresses and porosity are observed. An experimental model is devised to directly measure radial forces, to be converted to radial stresses, at the stem/cement interface, and temperatures at both interfaces during cement curing. The effects of stem and bone cement initial temperatures (preheating or precooling vs. room temperature) as well as mixing method (hand vs. vacuum mixing) and cement type (Simplex P vs. Palacos R) on radial stress and temperatures are investigated. Compressive radial residual stresses at the stem/cement interface are measured for hand mixed PMMA with preheated stem, with a maximum magnitude of 1.0 MPa. No radial residual stresses are observed when the stem is initially at room temperature or precooled, suggesting that during curing, bone cement can polymerize away from the stem/cement interface generating radial stress in tension or gaps. The results demonstrate the reverse direction of polymerization for preheated stems. Stem preheating significantly increases transient temperatures at the bone/cement interface and also the risk of bone thermal necrosis, because the exposure time to high temperature is prolonged. The results provide interfacial characteristics for accurate modeling of bone cement polymerization to better understand the debonding process of cemented hip prostheses. PMID:20091924
Jameson, S S; Kyle, J; Baker, P N; Mason, J; Deehan, D J; McMurtry, I A; Reed, M R
United Kingdom National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines recommend the use of total hip replacement (THR) for displaced intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck in cognitively intact patients, who were independently mobile prior to the injury. This study aimed to analyse the risk factors associated with revision of the implant and mortality following THR, and to quantify risk. National Joint Registry data recording a THR performed for acute fracture of the femoral neck between 2003 and 2010 were analysed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the extent to which risk of revision was related to specific covariates. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse factors affecting peri-operative mortality (< 90 days). A total of 4323 procedures were studied. There were 80 patients who had undergone revision surgery at the time of censoring (five-year revision rate 3.25%, 95% confidence interval 2.44 to 4.07) and 137 patients (3.2%) patients died within 90 days. After adjusting for patient and surgeon characteristics, an increased risk of revision was associated with the use of cementless prostheses compared with cemented (hazard ratio (HR) 1.33, p = 0.021). Revision was independent of bearing surface and head size. The risk of mortality within 90 days was significantly increased with higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade (grade 3: odds ratio (OR) 4.04, p < 0.001; grade 4/5: OR 20.26, p < 0.001; both compared with grades 1/2) and older age (? 75 years: OR 1.65, p = 0.025), but reduced over the study period (9% relative risk reduction per year). THR is a good option in patients aged < 75 years and with ASA 1/2. Cementation of the femoral component does not adversely affect peri-operative mortality but improves survival of the implant in the mid-term when compared with cementless femoral components. There are no benefits of using head sizes > 28 mm or bearings other than metal-on-polyethylene. More research is required to determine the benefits of THR over hemiarthroplasty in older patients and those with ASA grades > 2. PMID:23109639
Diwanji, Sanket R; Kong, Il Kyu; Park, Young Hoon; Cho, Sang Gwon; Song, Eun Kyoo; Yoon, Taek Rim
Two-stage reconstruction using an antibiotic-loaded cement spacer is the preferred treatment of deep infection after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We evaluated the results of this technique for the treatment of primary hip infections. Nine consecutive patients with infected hip joints were treated using this technique. The average duration of follow-up was 42 months. Debridement and insertion of an antibiotic-loaded cement spacer was performed in the first stage. After eradication of infection, it was converted to THA in the second stage. Of the 9 hips, 8 were successfully converted to THA after an average of 23 weeks. One patient required spacer reinsertion, and another experienced reinfection after THA. Average Harris hip score improved from 38.37 before surgery to 57.62 between the 2 stages to 97.83 at final follow-up. Two-stage reconstruction using an antibiotic-loaded cement spacer was found to give satisfactory results for the treatment of hip infections with various etiologies. PMID:18534541
T Gosens; E. J van Langelaan; A. J Tonino
Sixty-three cementless Mallory-Head HA-coated femoral prostheses (Biomet, Warsaw, IN) were used in primary total hip arthroplasty in 50 patients with osteoarthritic hips because of congenital hip dysplasia. The implanted cup was also cementless (41 Harris Galante and 22 Ringlock). The patients were followed up for a mean period of 75.1 months (range, 44–110). Clinical and radiologic analysis were performed. Harris
I Braceras; J. I Alava; J. I Oñate; M Brizuela; A Garcia-Luis; N Garagorri; J. L Viviente; M. A de Maeztu
Implants for knee, hip and dental part replacement are becoming increasingly used in surgery. Unfortunately, their use is sometimes accompanied by failure due to infection, inflammation, integration problems with the surrounding tissues or bone, and implant failure due to mishandling. Surface treatment, such as ion implantation, has been identified as a good candidate to modify the surface properties of the
Tan, Shi Ming; Chin, Pak Lin
Tuberculosis (TB) arthritis of the hip is a debilitating disease that often results in severe cartilage destruction and degeneration of the hip. In advanced cases, arthrodesis of the hip confers benefits to the young, high-demand and active patient. However, many of these patients go on to develop degenerative arthritis of the spine, ipsilateral knee and contralateral hip, necessitating the need for a conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Conversion of a previously fused hip to a total hip arthroplasty presents as a surgical challenge due to altered anatomy, muscle atrophy, previous surgery and implants, neighbouring joint arthritis and limb length discrepancy. We report a case of advanced TB arthritis of the hip joint in a middle-aged Singaporean Chinese gentleman with a significant past medical history of miliary tuberculosis and previous hip arthrodesis. Considerations in pre-operative planning, surgical approaches and potential pitfalls are discussed and the operative technique utilized and post-operative rehabilitative regime of this patient is described. This case highlights the necessity of pre-operative planning and the operative technique used in the conversion of a previous hip arthrodesis to a total hip arthroplasty in a case of TB hip arthritis. PMID:25793173
Tan, Shi Ming; Chin, Pak Lin
Tuberculosis (TB) arthritis of the hip is a debilitating disease that often results in severe cartilage destruction and degeneration of the hip. In advanced cases, arthrodesis of the hip confers benefits to the young, high-demand and active patient. However, many of these patients go on to develop degenerative arthritis of the spine, ipsilateral knee and contralateral hip, necessitating the need for a conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Conversion of a previously fused hip to a total hip arthroplasty presents as a surgical challenge due to altered anatomy, muscle atrophy, previous surgery and implants, neighbouring joint arthritis and limb length discrepancy. We report a case of advanced TB arthritis of the hip joint in a middle-aged Singaporean Chinese gentleman with a significant past medical history of miliary tuberculosis and previous hip arthrodesis. Considerations in pre-operative planning, surgical approaches and potential pitfalls are discussed and the operative technique utilized and post-operative rehabilitative regime of this patient is described. This case highlights the necessity of pre-operative planning and the operative technique used in the conversion of a previous hip arthrodesis to a total hip arthroplasty in a case of TB hip arthritis. PMID:25793173
Li, Junyan; McWilliams, Anthony B.; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Stone, Martin H.; Redmond, Anthony C.; Stewart, Todd D.
Background Symptomatic leg length inequality accounts for 8.7% of total hip replacement related claims made against the UK National Health Service Litigation authority. It has not been established whether symptomatic leg length inequality patients following total hip replacement have abnormal hip kinetics during gait. Methods Hip kinetics in 15 unilateral total hip replacement patients with symptomatic leg length inequality during gait was determined through multibody dynamics and compared to 15 native hip healthy controls and 15 ‘successful’ asymptomatic unilateral total hip replacement patients. Finding More significant differences from normal were found in symptomatic leg length inequality patients than in asymptomatic total hip replacement patients. The leg length inequality patients had altered functions defined by lower gait velocity, reduced stride length, reduced ground reaction force, decreased hip range of motion, reduced hip moment and less dynamic hip force with a 24% lower heel-strike peak, 66% higher mid-stance trough and 37% lower toe-off peak. Greater asymmetry in hip contact force was also observed in leg length inequality patients. Interpretation These gait adaptions may affect the function of the implant and other healthy joints in symptomatic leg length inequality patients. This study provides important information for the musculoskeletal function and rehabilitation of symptomatic leg length inequality patients. PMID:25900447
Toxicology of wear particles of cobalt-chromium alloy metal-on-metal hip implants Part II: Importance of physicochemical properties and dose in animal and in vitro studies as a basis for risk assessment.
Madl, Amy K; Kovochich, Michael; Liong, Monty; Finley, Brent L; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Oberdörster, Günter
The objective of the Part II analysis was to evaluate animal and in vitro toxicology studies of CoCr particles with respect to their physicochemistry and dose relevance to metal-on-metal (MoM) implant patients as derived from Part I. In the various toxicology studies, physicochemical characteristics were infrequently considered and administered doses were orders of magnitude higher than what occurs in patients. Co was consistently shown to rapidly release from CoCr particles for distribution and elimination from the body. CoCr micron sized particles appear more biopersistent in vivo resulting in inflammatory responses that are not seen with similar mass concentrations of nanoparticles. We conclude, that in an attempt to obtain data for a complete risk assessment, future studies need to focus on physicochemical characteristics of nano and micron sized particles and on doses and dose metrics relevant to those generated in patients or in properly conducted hip simulator studies. PMID:25735266
Validation of primary metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties on the National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland using data from the London Implant Retrieval Centre: a study using the NJR dataset.
Sabah, S A; Henckel, J; Cook, E; Whittaker, R; Hothi, H; Pappas, Y; Blunn, G; Skinner, J A; Hart, A J
Arthroplasty registries are important for the surveillance of joint replacements and the evaluation of outcome. Independent validation of registry data ensures high quality. The ability for orthopaedic implant retrieval centres to validate registry data is not known. We analysed data from the National Joint Registry for England, Wales and Northern Ireland (NJR) for primary metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties performed between 2003 and 2013. Records were linked to the London Implant Retrieval Centre (RC) for validation. A total of 67,045 procedures on the NJR and 782 revised pairs of components from the RC were included. We were able to link 476 procedures (60.9%) recorded with the RC to the NJR successfully. However, 306 procedures (39.1%) could not be linked. The outcome recorded by the NJR (as either revised, unrevised or death) for a primary procedure was incorrect in 79 linked cases (16.6%). The rate of registry-retrieval linkage and correct assignment of outcome code improved over time. The rates of error for component reference numbers on the NJR were as follows: femoral head category number 14/229 (5.0%); femoral head batch number 13/232 (5.3%); acetabular component category number 2/293 (0.7%) and acetabular component batch number 24/347 (6.5%). Registry-retrieval linkage provided a novel means for the validation of data, particularly for component fields. This study suggests that NJR reports may underestimate rates of revision for many types of metal-on-metal hip replacement. This is topical given the increasing scope for NJR data. We recommend a system for continuous independent evaluation of the quality and validity of NJR data. PMID:25568407
In this resource provided by DeafTEC, the PacerSpacer resource is described in detail and recommended to instructors with deaf and hard of hearing students in their classrooms. The purpose of the software is to allow adequate time for students for students to read the slides before the instructor begins speaking in order to minimize distraction and allow for more process time. The software itself is described here as , "a small square of color, which begins as red, then changes to yellow briefly, and finally to green – like a traffic light with one square bulb. Place it in an out of the way spot on the background – the slide master(s) – of your presentation; then as each new slide comes up, wait to begin speaking until the PacerSpacer changes from red to yellow to green. It’s a way to hold you back from the urge to start speaking ‘too soon.’" Instructors will also find a download option for the software depending on their OS, as well as install instructions and a FAQ.
Matteo Bruzzone; Massimo La Russa; Giacomo Garzaro; Andrea Ferro; Paolo Rossi; Filippo Castoldi; Roberto Rossi
This perspective study analyzes the long-term outcomes of cementless anatomic total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with\\u000a developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Between 1990 and 2004, 100 ABG total hip prosthesis were implanted in 87 patients\\u000a with DDH. The average follow-up was 9 years (range 4–18 years). The mean Harris Hip Score was 87.13 (SD = 14.6) at the last\\u000a follow-up. Radiographic analysis
Szöllösy, Gregor; Rosso, Claudio; Fogerty, Simon; Petkin, Kalojan; Lafosse, Laurent
Rotator cuff repairs have a high failure rate proportional to the tear size. Various techniques have been described to improve the repair strength and failure rate. The described surgical technique uses a biodegradable subacromial balloon-shaped spacer (InSpace; OrthoSpace, Caesarea, Israel) that is implanted arthroscopically to protect our tendon repair. We describe the introduction technique and suggest some hints and tricks. The spacer is placed under direct vision in the subacromial space after the rotator cuff repair is finished. Correct placement is verified by moving the arm freely. The subacromial spacer may help to protect the rotator cuff repair by centering the humeral head and reducing friction between suture knots and the acromion. It may also help to flatten dog-ear formations. PMID:25473615
Di Puccio, Francesca; Mattei, Lorenza
Hip arthroplasty can be considered one of the major successes of orthopedic surgery, with more than 350000 replacements performed every year in the United States with a constantly increasing rate. The main limitations to the lifespan of these devices are due to tribological aspects, in particular the wear of mating surfaces, which implies a loss of matter and modification of surface geometry. However, wear is a complex phenomenon, also involving lubrication and friction. The present paper deals with the tribological performance of hip implants and is organized in to three main sections. Firstly, the basic elements of tribology are presented, from contact mechanics of ball-in-socket joints to ultra high molecular weight polyethylene wear laws. Some fundamental equations are also reported, with the aim of providing the reader with some simple tools for tribological investigations. In the second section, the focus moves to artificial hip joints, defining materials and geometrical properties and discussing their friction, lubrication and wear characteristics. In particular, the features of different couplings, from metal-on-plastic to metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic, are discussed as well as the role of the head radius and clearance. How friction, lubrication and wear are interconnected and most of all how they are specific for each loading and kinematic condition is highlighted. Thus, the significant differences in patients and their lifestyles account for the high dispersion of clinical data. Furthermore, such consideration has raised a new discussion on the most suitable in vitro tests for hip implants as simplified gait cycles can be too far from effective implant working conditions. In the third section, the trends of hip implants in the years from 2003 to 2012 provided by the National Joint Registry of England, Wales and Northern Ireland are summarized and commented on in a discussion. PMID:25621213
Bruzzone, Matteo; La Russa, Massimo; Garzaro, Giacomo; Ferro, Andrea; Rossi, Paolo; Castoldi, Filippo; Rossi, Roberto
This perspective study analyzes the long-term outcomes of cementless anatomic total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Between 1990 and 2004, 100 ABG total hip prosthesis were implanted in 87 patients with DDH. The average follow-up was 9 years (range 4-18 years). The mean Harris Hip Score was 87.13 (SD = 14.6) at the last follow-up. Radiographic analysis showed good results for the stems, while in 38% of the hips we recorded periacetabular bone resorption. Mean linear polyethylene wear was 0.23 mm/year. Ten revisions have been performed, survival rate was 99% for the stems and 90% for the cups. Cementless THA with hemispherical cup and anatomical stem is recommended when possible for patients with DDH although high rates of polyethylene wear and subsequent osteolysis have been the limiting factor in the long-term success of this implant. PMID:19876710
... your new hip. How Long Are Recovery and Rehabilitation? Usually, people do not spend more than 3 ... your overall health, and the success of your rehabilitation. It is important to get instructions from your ...
McMinn, D. J. W.; Ziaee, H.; Pradhan, C.
The best indication for hip resurfacing is a young active patient with severe hip arthritis, good hip morphology and reasonable bone quality. With revision of either component for any reason as the endpoint, there were 68 revisions in our series of 3,095 consecutive Birmingham Hip Resurfacings (BHR) (1997–2009), including all diagnoses in all ages. This equates to a revision rate of 2.2% and survivorships of 99, 97 and 96% at five, ten and 13 years, respectively. In patients under 55 years with osteoarthritis, the survivorship is 99 and 98% at ten and 13 years. These results provide medium-term evidence that BHR when performed well in properly selected patients offers excellent outcomes and implant survivorship. Small changes to implant materials and design can affect joint function and survivorship significantly as seen from the withdrawal of certain resurfacing devices recently from clinical use. The clinical history of one device cannot be extrapolated to other devices. PMID:21079954
Michael Clarius; Justus F. Becker; Holger Schmitt; Joern B. Seeger
While options for operative treatment of leg axis varus malalignment in patients with medial gonarthrosis include several\\u000a established procedures, such as unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or high tibial osteotomy\\u000a (HTO), there has been little focus on a less invasive option introduced more recently: the UniSpacer™ implant, a self-centering,\\u000a metallic interpositional device for the knee. This study
Findlay, S; Podolsky, D
The superheated debate over breast implants awakened a sleeping giant of an issue clouding "medical devices"--the government's clumsy nomenclature for any medical product that is not a drug, from breast implants and artificial hips to X-ray machines and surgical thread. Some 130 categories of high-risk devices are in use with little or no proof of safety, reliability or effectiveness. All appeared before 1976, the year that the Food and Drug Administration got the authority to regulate such products. Under activist chief David Kessler and with added clout from a 1990 law, the FDA plans to scrutinize the entire 130-item list. Five will get special attention starting early next year: saline-filled breast implants, inflatable penile implants, testicular implants, heart-bypass pumps and cranial stimulators. U.S. News has looked at all five devices, using FDA data obtained through the Freedom of Information Act. In-depth computer analysis suggested that penile implants deserve closer examination. Why is clear from the following report. PMID:10171242
Y. S. Choi; S. N. Cha; S. Y. Jung; J. W. Kim; J. E. Jung; J. M. Kim
Charged spacers in the field emission display (FED) are analyzed with the Monte Carlo method. The spacer is made of an insulator, which has generally a high secondary electron emission property. Under electron bombardment, the secondary electron emission induces charge on the spacer. We show that the surface of the spacer is charged positively in FED operation, which would cause
Schoof, Benjamin; Jakobs, Oliver; Schmidl, Stefan; Klatte, Till Orla; Frommelt, Lars; Gehrke, Thorsten; Gebauer, Matthias
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty with an incidence of approximately 1%. Due to the high risk of persisting infection, successful treatment of fungal PJI is challenging. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current management of fungal PJI of the hip and, by systematically reviewing the cases published so far, to further improve the medical treatment of this serious complication of total hip arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the available literature concerning fungal PJI in total hip arthroplasty, including 45 cases of fungal PJI. At the moment a two-stage revision procedure is favorable and there is an ongoing discussion on the therapeutic effect of antifungal drug loaded cement spacers on fungal periprosthetic infections of the hip. Due to the fact that there is rare experience with it, there is urgent need to establish guidelines for the treatment of fungal infections of total hip arthroplasty. PMID:25874063
Berend, Keith R; Turnbull, Nathan J; Howell, Robert E; Morris, Michael J; Adams, Joanne B; Lombardi, Adolph V
Articulating spacers have been reported to promote greater range of motion, preserve bone, facilitate reimplantation, and enhance functional recovery, as well as provide a vehicle for local administration of antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to review patients treated at our center for deep hip and knee infection with two-staged exchange using molded, articulating antibiotic-laden cement spacers following debridement. A query of our practice registry revealed 84 patients (84 hips) and 177 patients (182 knees) diagnosed with deep infection after THA and TKA respectively, and treated with two-staged exchange using molded articulating cement spacers. Mean follow-up was three years in both groups. Second-stage reimplantation was accomplished in 81 hips, and reinfection occurred in 11 of those (14%), with three responding to a single irrigation and debridement (I&D) procedure, one undergoing two I&Ds, one chronically infected diabetic patient treated with one-stage exchange to cemented components, five patients undergoing multiple procedures including repeat two-staged exchange in four, and one patient declining further treatment. Harris hip score at most recent averaged 69. Second-stage reimplantation was accomplished in 177 knees, and reinfection occurred in 28 of those (16%). Range of motion improved from 93° preoperatively to 101° at most recent, Knee Society clinical scores improved from 46 to 76, and functional scores improved from 32 to 47. Treatment of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty using molded, articulating antibiotic-laden acrylic cement spacers was successful in eradicating infection in 83% of hips (70 of 84) and 82% of knees (149 of 182) at an average of three years after reimplantation. PMID:26055030
Thomas P. Schmalzried; Paul C. Peters; Brian T. Maurer; Charles R. Bragdon; William H. Harris
The 20-year performance of metal-on-metal hip articulations has not been reported. Five McKee—Farrar total hip prostheses and one Sivash prosthesis were obtained at revision surgery after a mean implantation time of 21.3 years. A radiographic, histologic, implant, and wear analysis was performed on these total hip implants with cobalt—chrome metal-on-metal articulations. All cases were associated with femoral component loosening, but
Introduction The result of treatment of infections involving antibiotic-resistant organisms in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often poor. We evaluated the efficacy of 2-stage revision in TKAs infected with resistant organisms and compared the clinical outcomes with articulating and conventional static spacers, in terms of both infection control and function. Methods In a prospective manner, from June 2003 to January 2007 selected patients with a TKA infected with resistant organisms were enrolled and treated with 2-stage re-implantation. The 45 patients were divided into 2 groups: group A (23 patients) implanted with the articulating spacers and group S (22 patients) implanted with static spacers. All patients followed the same antibiotic protocols and had the same re-implantation criteria. The efficacy of infection control was evaluated using re-implantation rate, recurrence rate, and overall success rate. The functional and radiographic results were interpreted with the Hospital of Special Surgery (HSS) knee score and the Insall-Salvati ratio. Results With mean 40 (24–61) months of follow-up, 22 of 23 knees were re-implanted in group A and 21 of 22 were re-implanted in group S. Of these re-implanted prostheses, 1 re-infection occurred in group A and 2 occurred in group S. Range of motion after re-implantation, the final functional scores, and the satisfaction rate were better in group A. One third of the patients in group S, and none in group A, had a patella baja. Interpretation After 2-stage re-implantation of TKAs originally infected with resistant organisms, the clinical outcome was satisfactory—and similar to that reported after treatment of TKAs infected with low-virulence strains. Treatment with an articulating spacer resulted in better functional outcome and lower incidence of patella baja. PMID:21883049
Weisová, Drahomíra; Salášek, Martin; Pavelka, Tomáš
Hip fractures are ranked among the frequent injuries. These fractures have been often coupled with high energy trauma in children and in patients with normal bone structure, low energy trauma and osteoporotic fracture (fragility fracture) is typical in elder patients. Hip fractures are divided into five groups: femoral head fracture, femoral neck fracture, pertrochanteric, intertrochateric and subtrochanteric fracture. Surgical treatment is indicated in all patients unless contraindications are present. Long bed rest has been accompanied by a high risk of development of thromboembolic disease, pneumonia and bed sore. Healing in the wrong position and nonunions are often the result of conservative treatment. Screw osteosynthesis is performed in isolated femoral head factures. Three cannulated screws or a DHS plate (dynamic hip screw) are used in fractures of the femoral neck with normal femoral head perfusion, total hip replacement is recommended in elder patients and in case of loss of blood supply of the femoral head. Pertrochanteric and intertrochanteric fractures can be stabilized by the femoral nails (PFN, PFN A, PFH - proximal femoral nail), nails are suitable for minimally invasive insertion and provide higher stability in the shaft, or plates (DHS) designed for stable pertronchanteric and intertrochanteric fractures. Subtrochanteric fractures can be fixed also intramedullary (nails - PFN long, PFN A long) and extramedullary (plates - DCS dynamic condylar screw, proximal femoral LCP - locking compression plate). Open reduction with internal plate fixation is advantageous for pathological fractures, as biopsy sampling can be performed. Hip fracture rehabilitation is integral part of the treatment, including walking on crutches or with a walker with partial weight bearing for at least six weeks. PMID:24131459
del Toro, M D; Nieto, I; Guerrero, F; Corzo, J; del Arco, A; Palomino, J; Nuño, E; Lomas, J M; Natera, C; Fajardo, J M; Delgado, J; Torres-Tortosa, M; Romero, A; Martín-Rico, P; Muniain, M Á; Rodríguez-Baño, J
Hip hemiarthroplasty (HHA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) infections are usually considered as one entity; however, they may show important differences. We analyze these differences, as well as predictors of treatment failure (TF) and poor functional status among patients with prosthetic hip infections (PHIs). A multicenter cohort study of consecutive patients with PHIs was performed. The main outcome variable was TF after the first surgical treatment performed to treat the infection. Multivariate analysis was used to identify predictors of TF. A total of 127 patients with PHI were included (43 HHA, 84 THA). Patients with HHA infections were more frequently women (88% vs. 54%; p?0.001), had comorbidities (86% vs. 67%, p?=?0.02), and were older (median age 79 vs. 65 years, p?0.001), and the reason for arthroplasty was more frequently a fracture (100% vs. 18%, p?0.001). Failure of initial treatment and crude mortality were more frequent among HHA patients (44% vs. 23%, p?=?0.01 and 28% vs. 7%, p?=?0.001, respectively). However, HHA was not associated with TF in the multivariate analysis when hip fracture was considered; thus, variables independently associated with TF were hip fracture, inadequate surgical management, prosthesis retention, and higher C-reactive protein level. Failure of the first surgical treatment was associated with poorer functional status. HHA and THA infections showed significant differences in epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome. Although patients with HHA infections had a higher risk of TF, this was related to the reason for hip implant: a hip fracture. Success of the initial management of infection is a predictor of better clinical and functional outcome. PMID:24671411
Favetti, Fabio; Casella, Filippo; Papalia, Matteo; Panegrossi, Gabriele
Background The renewed popularity of resurfacing hip arthroplasty in the last 10 years has generated a remarkable quantity of scientific contributions based on mid- and short-term follow-up. More than one paper has reported a consistent early revision rate as a consequence of biological or biomechanical failure. Two major complications are commonly described with resurfacing implants: avascular necrosis and femoral-neck fracture. A close relationship between these two events has been suggested, but not firmly demonstrated, whereas cementing technique seems to be better understood as potential cause of failure. Methods We performed an in vitro study in which four different resurfacing implants were evaluated with a simulated femoral head, two types of cement, (low and high viscosity) and two cementing techniques: direct (cement apposition directly on the femoral head) and indirect (cement poured into the femoral component). Results High-viscosity cement showed homogeneous distribution over the entire femoral head. Low-viscosity cement showed a massive polar concentration with insufficient, if not absent, distribution in the equatorial zone. Conclusion Polar cement concentration could be a risk factor for early implant failure due to two effects on the femoral head: biological (excessive local exothermic reaction could cause osteocyte necrosis) and biomechanical (which could lead to uneven load distribution on the femoral head). PMID:21234563
Kain, Michael S. H.; Hersche, Otmar; Munzinger, Urs; Leunig, Michael
Hip resurfacing is femoral bone preserving, but there is controversy regarding the amount of bone removed at the acetabular side. We therefore compared the implanted acetabular cup sizes in primary THAs between two resurfacing devices and a conventional press-fit cup using a series of 2134 THAs (Allofit® cup 1643 hips, Durom® Hip Resurfacing 249 hips, and Birmingham Hip® Resurfacing 242 hips). The effects of patient demographics and cup position in the horizontal plane also were assessed. After controlling for gender, patients were matched for height, weight, body mass index, and age. The mean size for Allofit® cups was smaller than the sizes for Durom® and Birmingham Hip® Resurfacing cups in women (49.9 mm, 51.6 mm, 52.3 mm, respectively) and men (55.1 mm, 56.7 mm, 57.8 mm; respectively). Although patient height was associated with the implanted cup size, the cup position in the horizontal plane had no effect on the size used. Larger cups were used with hip resurfacing than for THA with a conventional press-fit cup. However, additional studies are needed to determine whether these small differences have any clinical implications in the long term. The association of cup size and patient height should be considered in future studies comparing component sizes among different implants. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19142691
Harnish, Roy; Prevrhal, Sven; Alavi, Abass; Zaidi, Habib; Lang, Thomas
Background To determine if metal artefact reduction (MAR) combined with a priori knowledge of prosthesis material composition can be applied to obtain CT-based attenuation maps with sufficient accuracy for quantitative assessment of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in lesions near metallic prostheses. Methods A custom hip prosthesis phantom with a lesion-sized cavity filled with 0.2 ml 18F-FDG solution having an activity of 3.367 MBq adjacent to a prosthesis bore was imaged twice with a chrome-cobalt steel hip prosthesis and a plastic replica, respectively. Scanning was performed on a clinical hybrid PET/CT system equipped with an additional external 137Cs transmission source. PET emission images were reconstructed from both phantom configurations with CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) and with CT-based attenuation correction using MAR (MARCTAC). To compare results with the attenuation-correction method extant prior to the advent of PET/CT, we also carried out attenuation correction with 137Cs transmission-based attenuation correction (TXAC). CTAC and MARCTAC images were scaled to attenuation coefficients at 511 keV using a tri-linear function that mapped the highest CT values to the prosthesis alloy attenuation coefficient. Accuracy and spatial distribution of the lesion activity was compared between the three reconstruction schemes. Results Compared to the reference activity of 3.37 MBq, the estimated activity quantified from the PET image corrected by TXAC was 3.41 MBq. The activity estimated from PET images corrected by MARCTAC was similar in accuracy at 3.32 MBq. CTAC corrected PET images resulted in nearly 40% overestimation of lesion activity at 4.70 MBq. Comparison of PET images obtained with the plastic and metal prostheses in place showed that CTAC resulted in a marked distortion of the 18F-FDG distribution within the lesion, whereas application of MARCTAC and TXAC resulted in lesion distributions similar to those observed with the plastic replica. Conclusions MAR combined with a tri-linear CT number mapping for PET attenuation correction resulted in estimates of lesion activity comparable in accuracy to that obtained with 137Cs transmission-based attenuation correction, and far superior to estimates made without attenuation correction or with a standard CT attenuation map. The ability to use CT images for attenuation correction is a potentially important development because it obviates the need for a 137Cs transmission source, which entails extra scan time, logistical complexity and expense. PMID:24710757
Bojan, Alicja J; Bragdon, Charles; Jönsson, Anders; Ekholm, Carl; Kärrholm, Johan
The accuracy and precision of RSA were evaluated in the experimental study of screw cut-out complication after fixation of trochanteric fractures. A plastic bone model of a two-part trochanteric fracture was constructed with a Gamma nail implant incorporating RSA markers. The femoral head fragment was attached to a separate rotational table and the femoral shaft was mounted on the micrometer. Three main motions were simulated: Femoral head translation and rotation along the axis of the lag screw and fracture fragment translation along anatomical axes. Accuracy and precision were determined according to ISO 16,087 and ASTM standard F2385-04. Translations along the lag screw axis were measured with a precision within ?±0.14?mm and an accuracy within?±0.03?mm. With simultaneous translations along all three anatomical axes, lowest precision was measured for the x-axis (±0.29, 0.07?mm, respectively), but improved when analyzed as a vector (±0.08, 0.03?mm). The precision and accuracy of femoral head rotations were within 0.5° and 0.18°, respectively. The resolution of the RSA method tested in this model was high, though it varied depending on the type of analyzed motion. This information is valuable when selecting and interpreting outcome parameters evaluating implant migration and osteosynthesis stability in future clinical RSA studies. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:705-711, 2015. PMID:25640537
Dhananjay Dendukuri; Sandeep K. Karode; Ashwani Kumar
In an earlier work [JMS 193 (2001) 69–84] computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were used for flow visualization in spacer filled rectangular channels. This work reports results of CFD simulations on new designs of spacers in similar channels. These new spacer designs involve changing the convex surface of circular cross section of filaments in commercial spacers to concave surfaces with
Pailhé, Régis; Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Sharma, Akash; Lafontan, Valérie; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Chiron, Philippe
There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Postel-Merle d'Aubigné (MDA) score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1) [100 Durom(®) (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA) and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing(®) (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA)] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2). The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001). In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom(®) implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time. PMID:24191180
Pailhé, Régis; Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Sharma, Akash; Lafontan, Valérie; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Chiron, Philippe
There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and Postel-Merle d’Aubigné (MDA) score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1) [100 Durom® (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA) and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing® (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA)] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2). The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001). In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom® implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time. PMID:24191180
Jauch, S Y; Huber, G; Haschke, H; Sellenschloh, K; Morlock, M M
Several bi-modular hip prostheses exhibit an elevated number of fretting-related postoperative complications most probably caused by excessive micromotions at taper connections. This study investigated micromotions at the stem-neck interface of two different designs: one design (Metha, Aesculap AG) has demonstrated a substantial number of in vivo neck fractures for Ti-Ti couplings, but there are no documented fractures for Ti-CoCr couplings. Conversely, for a comparable design (H-Max M, Limacorporate) with a Ti-Ti coupling only one clinical failure has been reported. Prostheses were mechanically tested and the micromotions were recorded using a contactless measurement system. For Ti-Ti couplings, the Metha prosthesis showed a trend towards higher micromotions compared to the H-Max M (6.5 ± 1.6 ?m vs. 3.6 ± 1.5 ?m, p=0.08). Independent of the design, prostheses with Ti neck adapter caused significantly higher interface micromotions than those with CoCr ones (5.1 ± 2.1 ?m vs. 0.8 ± 1.6 ?m, p=0.001). No differences in micromotions between the Metha prosthesis with CoCr neck and the H-Max M with Ti neck were observed (2.6 ± 2.0 ?m, p=0.25). The material coupling and the design are both crucial for the micromotions magnitude. The extent of micromotions seems to correspond to the number of clinically observed fractures and confirm the relationship between those and the occurrence of fretting corrosion. PMID:24332894
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
combinations of low stiffness materials to find an appropriate candidate for total hip arthroplasty [3 hip implant: thermography analysis Habiba Bougherara1 , Ehsan Ur Rahim1 , Suraj Shah1 , Lotfi Toubal2 measurements was used to investigate the stress and strain patterns in a novel composite hip implant made
Siopack, J S; Jergesen, H E
Total hip arthroplasty, or surgical replacement of the hip joint with an artificial prosthesis, is a reconstructive procedure that has improved the management of those diseases of the hip joint that have responded poorly to conventional medical therapy. In this review we briefly summarize the evolution of total hip arthroplasty, the design and development of prosthetic hip components, and the current clinical indications for this procedure. The possible complications of total hip arthroplasty, its clinical performance over time, and future directions in hip replacement surgery are also discussed. Images PMID:7725707
Hashemi-Nejad, A; Birch, N C; Goddard, N J
Aseptic loosening is the major problem in hip joint replacement. Improved cementing techniques have been shown to improve the long-term survival of implants significantly. To assess the use of modern cementing techniques in British surgeons, a detailed questionnaire was sent to all Fellows of The British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) regarding cement preparation, bone preparation, cementing technique and prostheses used in total hip arthroplasty. Excluding retired fellows, surgeons who use no cement, and those who had filled in forms inadequately, 668 responded, who between them performed 43,680 hip arthroplasties per year. In this survey, 21 different types of hip prostheses were implanted by the surgeons; 48% of hips implanted were Charnley type. Of the surgeons, 46% used Palacos with gentamicin as their cement for both the femur and acetabulum. For the femur, 44% of surgeons remove all cancellous bone, 40% use pulse lavage, 59% use a brush to clear debris, 94% dry the femur, 97% plug the femur, 76% use a cement gun and 70% pressurise the cement. For the acetabulum, 88% of surgeons retain the subchondral bone, 40% use pulse lavage, 100% dry the acetabulum, 22% use hypotensive anaesthesia and 58% pressurise the cement. Overall only 25% of surgeons (26% of hips implanted) use 'modern' cementing techniques. This has implications for the number of arthroplasties that may require early revision. PMID:7702322
Preventing venous thromboembolic disease in patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthopolasty: Evidence-based guideline and evidence report. American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2011. Harkess JW, Crockarell JR. Arthroplasty of the hip In: Canale ...
... it can go away and come back again. Acute bursitis can become chronic if it come backs or if a hip injury occurs. ... including the following: Repeated overuse or stress of the hip Rheumatoid arthritis Gout Pseudogout Injury ...
... ankle pump exercises, and early mobilization. Leg-length Inequality Sometimes a er a hip replacement, one leg ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Total Hip Replacement cont.
Pachore, Javahir A; Shah, Vikram I; Sheth, Ashish N; Shah, Kalpesh P; Marothi, Dhiraj P; Puri, Rahul
Background: Failed intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients are surgical challenge with limited options. Hip arthroplasty is a good salvage procedure even though it involves technical issues such as implant removal, bone loss, poor bone quality, trochanteric nonunion and difficulty of surgical exposure. Materials and Methods: 30 patients of failed intertrochanteric fractures where hip arthroplasty was done between May 2008 and December 2011 were included in study. 13 were males and 17 were females with average age of 67.3 years. There were 2 cemented bipolar arthroplasties, 19 uncemented bipolar, 4 cemented total hip arthroplasty and 5 uncemented total hip arthroplasties. 16 patients had a trochanteric nonunion, which was treated by tension band principles. Total hip was considered where there was acetabular damage due to the penetration of implant. Results: The average followup was 20 months (range 6-48 months). Patients were followed up from 6 to 48 months with average followup of 20 months. None of the patients were lost to followup. There was no dislocation. All patients were ambulatory at the final followup. Conclusion: A predictable functional outcome can be achieved by hip arthroplasty in elderly patients with failed intertrochanteric fractures. Though technically demanding, properly performed hip arthroplasty can be a good salvage option for this patient group. PMID:24379462
Wixson, Richard L
Accurate implant placement in total hip replacement is important in avoiding dislocation, impingement, and edge-loading throughout the patient's postoperative functional range of motion. Current implants and bearing surfaces now provide the potential for prolonged longevity of the reconstruction, which can be compromised by malposition of the components outside of designated "safe zones." Computer-assisted hip navigation offers the potential for more accurate placement of hip components and control of leg length and offset. Systems are now available that allow registration of the bony anatomy based on preoperative CT images, intraoperative fluoroscopic images, or imageless techniques based on palpation of the landmarks. In each of these approaches, cup position has been based on coordinate systems formed by identification of the anterior pelvic frontal plane. All systems have shown improved accuracy of acetabular cup placement compared with conventional manual techniques. Cup anteversion is less accurate than cup abduction with the imageless approach. Measurements made with the use of navigation systems also have shown a large variation in pelvic tilt or pelvic flexion-extension in series of cases, which can affect the appropriate cup position for each patient. The results of computer-assisted navigation in the future may be improved by incorporation of measurements of each patient's pelvic tilt, femoral stem position, and hip kinematics. PMID:18399618
Edwige Buffard; Régine Gschwind; Libor Makovicka; Céline David
Because of the ageing of the population, an increasing number of patients with hip prostheses are undergoing pelvic irradiation. Treatment planning systems (TPS) currently available are not always able to accurately predict the dose distribution around such implants. In fact, only Monte Carlo simulation has the ability to precisely calculate the impact of a hip prosthesis during radiotherapeutic treatment. Monte
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Grammatopoulos, G; Pandit, H G; da Assunção, R; Taylor, A; McLardy-Smith, P; De Smet, K A; Murray, D W; Gill, H S
The orientation of the acetabular component is influenced not only by the orientation at which the surgeon implants the component, but also the orientation of the pelvis at the time of implantation. Hence, the orientation of the pelvis at set-up and its movement during the operation, are important. During 67 hip replacements, using a validated photogrammetric technique, we measured how three surgeons orientated the patient's pelvis, how much the pelvis moved during surgery, and what effect these had on the final orientation of the acetabular component. Pelvic orientation at set-up, varied widely (mean (± 2, standard deviation (sd))): tilt 8° (2sd ± 32), obliquity -4° (2sd ± 12), rotation -8° (2sd ± 14). Significant differences in pelvic positioning were detected between surgeons (p < 0.001). The mean angular movement of the pelvis between set-up and component implantation was 9° (sd 6). Factors influencing pelvic movement included surgeon, approach (posterior > lateral), procedure (hip resurfacing > total hip replacement) and type of support (p < 0.001). Although, on average, surgeons achieved their desired acetabular component orientation, there was considerable variability (2sd ± 16) in component orientation. We conclude that inconsistency in positioning the patient at set-up and movement of the pelvis during the operation account for much of the variation in acetabular component orientation. Improved methods of positioning and holding the pelvis are required. PMID:24986939
Levy, Jonathan C; Triplet, Jacob; Everding, Nathan
Management of an infected shoulder arthroplasty remains challenging. Treatment goals include resolution of the infection, improvement in pain, and restoration of function. Two-stage revision with an antibiotic spacer and subsequent revision has shown variable success in achieving these goals. The practice of using a hemiarthroplasty and coating the stem with antibiotic cement without cementing the implant to the humerus (functional antibiotic spacer) during the first stage has the potential to achieve treatment goals without the need for a second revision. The goal of this study was to examine the outcomes of a maintained functional antibiotic spacer without a second revision for the management of infected shoulder arthroplasty. Fourteen patients with an infected shoulder arthroplasty underwent implantation of a functional antibiotic spacer, extensive surgical debridement, and a minimum of 6 weeks of treatment with postoperative intravenous antibiotics. The 9 patients who elected not to undergo revision surgery were included in this analysis. Pain scores, functional outcome scores, range of motion, strength, and patient satisfaction were measured for these patients at last follow-up and compared with preoperative scores. At an average follow-up of 25 months (range, 12-48 months), significant improvements were observed in functional outcome scores, shoulder abduction, and elevation, with a trend toward improvement in pain scores. One patient was unsatisfied with the result. No recurrent infection, progressive radiolucency, or change in position of the functional antibiotic spacer was observed. A functional antibiotic spacer effectively manages the infected shoulder arthroplasty while achieving significant improvements in function and motion. Patient satisfaction was high, with a relatively low rate of conversion to second-stage revision. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(6):e512-e519.]. PMID:26091225
Background and purpose Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is claimed to allow higher activity levels and to give better quality of life than total hip arthroplasty. In this literature review, we assessed the therapeutic value of hip resurfacing arthroplasty as measured by functional outcome. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Results 9 patient series, 1 case-control study, and 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) were included. Clinically and statistically significant improvement in sporting activity and hip scores were found in 10 studies. Interpretation Studies with low levels of evidence have shown improvement in various different hip scores and one RCT showed better outcomes with hip resurfacing arthroplasty. There is no high-level evidence to prove that there is improved clinical outcome using hip resurfacing arthroplasty. More randomized research needs to be done. PMID:20860440
Cochlear Implants Cochlear Implants Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/F ... treated only with a cochlear implant. How do cochlear implants work? Cochlear implants bypass damaged hair cells and ...
Michael A. Mont; Thorsten M. Seyler; Phillip S. Ragland; Roland Starr; Jochen Erhart; Anil Bhave
Patients with standard total hip arthroplasties may have reduced hip abduction and extension moments when compared with normal nonosteoarthritic hips. In comparison, patients after resurfacing total hip arthroplasty appear to have a near-normal gait. The authors evaluated temporal-spatial parameters, hip kinematics, and kinetics in hip resurfacing patients compared with patients with unilateral osteoarthritic hips and unilateral standard total hip arthroplasties.
Tani, Satoshi; Suetsua, Futoshi; Mizuno, Junichi; Uchikado, Hisaaki; Nagashima, Hiroyasu; Akiyama, Masahiko; Isoshima, Akira; Ohashi, Hiroki; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Abe, Toshiaki
Many commercially available hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers for cervical laminoplasty have been introduced but have disadvantages such as lack of plasticity, easy cracking, and occasional difficulty in fixation by sutures. Here we present the short-term results of a newly designed titanium spacer (Laminoplasty Basket) in open-door cervical laminoplasty, and evaluated clinically and radiologically. The titanium box-shaped spacer with two arms for fixation was easily inserted and fixed into the laminoplasty space with 4-mm or 5-mm length screws after the posterior cervical arch was repositioned for the canal expansion. Twenty-one patients with cervical myelopathy due to spondylosis or ossification of the longitudinal ligament or developmental narrow canal observed for more than 6 months postoperatively were enrolled in this study. The neurological condition of these patients improved from 9.4 points on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale preoperatively to 13.5 points at 6 months after surgery. Postoperative radiological evaluation showed no laminar closure or implant failure and cervical spine curvature was maintained. These results seemed to have no significant difference compared with those using HA spacers. This titanium spacer is a potential substitute for conventional HA or other similar devices in cervical laminoplasty. PMID:21206196
Choy, Won-Sik; Lee, Sang Ki; Bae, Kyoung Wan; Hwang, Yoon Sub; Park, Chang Kyu
Background This study examines the clinical and radiologic results of ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties with regard to wear, osteolysis, and fracture of the ceramic after a minimum follow-up of six years. Methods We evaluated the results of a consecutive series of 148 primary ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties that had been performed between May 2001 and October 2005 in 142 patients. The mean age was 57.2 years (range, 23 to 81 years). The mean follow-up period was 7.8 years (range, 6.1 to 10.1 years). Preoperative diagnosis was avascular necrosis in 77 hips (52%), degenerative arthritis in 36 hips (24.3%), femur neck fracture in 18 hips (12.2%), rheumatoid arthritis in 15 hips (10.1%), and septic hip sequelae in 2 hips (1.4%). Clinical results were evaluated with the Harris hip score, and the presence of postoperative groin or thigh pain. Radiologic analysis was done with special attention in terms of wear, periprosthetic osteolysis, and ceramic failures. Results The mean Harris hip score improved from 58.3 (range, 10 to 73) to 92.5 (range, 79 to 100) on the latest follow-up evaluation. At final follow-up, groin pain was found in 4 hips (2.7%), and thigh pain was found in 6 hips (4.1%). Radiologically, all femoral stems demonstrated stable fixations without loosening. Radiolucent lines were observed around the stem in 25 hips (16.9%), and around the cup in 4 hips (2.7%). Endosteal new bone formation was observed around the stem in 95 hips (64.2%) and around the cup in 88 hips (59.5%). No osteolysis was observed around the stem and cup. There were 2 hips (1.4%) of inclination changes of acetabular cup, 2 hips (1.4%) of hip dislocation, 1 hip (0.7%) of ceramic head fracture, and 1 hip (0.7%) of squeaking. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate of the prostheses was 98.1% at postoperative 7.8 years. Conclusions The ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty produced excellent clinical results and implant survival rates with no detectable osteolysis on a minimum six-year follow-up study. The ceramic-on-ceramic couplings could be a reasonable option of primary total hip arthroplasty for variable indications. PMID:24009902
Steffen Jacobsen; Lone Rømer; Kjeld Søballe
Background Hip dysplasia is considered pre-osteoarthritic, causing degeneration in young individuals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To determine the pattern of degenerative change in moderate to severely dysplastic hips in young patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and patients One hundred and ninety-three consecutively-referred younger patients with hip pain believed to be caused by hip dysplasia\\u000a constituted the study cohort. The average age was 35.5 years (range, 15–61 years). They were
Chandler, M; Kowalski, R S Z; Watkins, N D; Briscoe, A; New, A M R
The subject of the cementing technique in hip resurfacing has been poorly studied to date. The hip resurfacing prosthesis is unique in the family of cemented prostheses because the cement mantle is blind (hidden underneath the implant) and is radiographically obscured. This presents an immediate challenge to the surgeon at the time of surgery, but also has a longer-term implication in terms of lack of post-operative clinical observation. This should be compared with total hip replacement or total knee replacement where the cement mantle can at least be partially observed both intra- and post-operatively. With this in mind, the objective of this review is, firstly, to understand the cement mantles typically achieved in current clinical practice and, secondly, to identify those factors affecting the cement mantle and to consolidate them into an improved and reproducible cementing technique. The outcome of this work shows that the low-viscosity technique can commonly lead to excessive cement penetration in the proximal femoral head and an incompletely seated component, whereas a more consistent controlled cement mantle can be achieved with a high-viscosity cementing technique. Consequently, it is recommended that a high-viscosity technique should be used to minimize the build-up of excessive cement, to reduce the temperature created by the exothermic polymerization, and to help to ensure correct seating of the prosthesis. A combination of these factors is potentially critical to the clinical success of some articular surface replacement (ASR) procedures. It is important to note that we specifically studied the DePuy ASR system; therefore only the general principles (and not the specifics) of the cementing technique may apply to other resurfacing prostheses, because of differences in internal geometry, clearance, and surgical technique. PMID:16669398
B. Espehaug; O. Furnes; L. I. Havelin; L. B. Engesaeter; S. E. Vollset
sing data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, we have assessed the survival of 17 323 primary Charnley hip prostheses in patients with osteoarthritis based upon the type of cement used for the fixation of the implant. Overall, 9.2% had been revised after follow-up for ten years; 71% of the failures involved aseptic loosening of the femoral component. We observed significantly
Junnila, Mika; Seppänen, Matti; Mokka, Jari; Virolainen, Petri; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Mattila, Kimmo; Tuominen, Esa K J; Rantakokko, Juho; Äärimaa, Ville; Itälä, Ari; Mäkelä, Keijo T
Background and purpose - Concern has emerged about local soft-tissue reactions after hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). The Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) was the most commonly used HRA device at our institution. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) with this device. Patients and methods - From 2003 to 2011, BHR was the most commonly used HRA device at our institution, with 249 implantations. We included 32 patients (24 of them men) who were operated with a BHR HRA during the period April 2004 to March 2007 (42 hips; 31 in men). The mean age of the patients was 59 (26-77) years. These patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum metal ion measurements, the Oxford hip score questionnaire, and physical examination. The prevalence of ARMD was recorded, and risk factors for ARMD were assessed using logistic regression models. The mean follow-up time was 6.7 (2.4-8.8) years. Results - 6 patients had a definite ARMD (involving 9 of the 42 hips). 8 other patients (8 hips) had a probable ARMD. Thus, there was definite or probable ARMD in 17 of the 42 hips. 4 of 42 hips were revised for ARMD. Gender, bilateral metal-on-metal hip replacement and head size were not factors associated with ARMD. Interpretation - We found that HRA with the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing may be more dangerous than previously believed. We advise systematic follow-up of these patients using metal ion levels, MRI/ultrasound, and patient-reported outcome measures. PMID:25582189
Junnila, Mika; Seppänen, Matti; Mokka, Jari; Virolainen, Petri; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Mattila, Kimmo; Tuominen, Esa K J; Rantakokko, Juho; Äärimaa, Ville; Itälä, Ari; Mäkelä, Keijo T
Background and purpose Concern has emerged about local soft-tissue reactions after hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). The Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) was the most commonly used HRA device at our institution. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) with this device. Patients and methods From 2003 to 2011, BHR was the most commonly used HRA device at our institution, with 249 implantations. We included 32 patients (24 of them men) who were operated with a BHR HRA during the period April 2004 to March 2007 (42 hips; 31 in men). The mean age of the patients was 59 (26–77) years. These patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum metal ion measurements, the Oxford hip score questionnaire, and physical examination. The prevalence of ARMD was recorded, and risk factors for ARMD were assessed using logistic regression models. The mean follow-up time was 6.7 (2.4–8.8) years. Results 6 patients had a definite ARMD (involving 9 of the 42 hips). 8 other patients (8 hips) had a probable ARMD. Thus, there was definite or probable ARMD in 17 of the 42 hips. 4 of 42 hips were revised for ARMD. Gender, bilateral metal-on-metal hip replacement and head size were not factors associated with ARMD. Interpretation We found that HRA with the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing may be more dangerous than previously believed. We advise systematic follow-up of these patients using metal ion levels, MRI/ultrasound, and patient-reported outcome measures. PMID:25582189
Mokrousov, Igor; Rastogi, Nalin
Macroarray-based analysis is a powerful and economic format to study variations in "clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)" loci in bacteria. To date, it was used almost exclusively for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and was named spoligotyping (spacer oligonucleotides typing). Here, we describe the pipeline of this approach that includes search of loci and selection of spacers, preparation of the membrane with immobilized probes and spoligotyping itself (PCR and reverse hybridization). PMID:25981469
Gosens, T; van Langelaan, E J; Tonino, A J
Sixty-three cementless Mallory-Head HA-coated femoral prostheses (Biomet, Warsaw, IN) were used in primary total hip arthroplasty in 50 patients with osteoarthritic hips because of congenital hip dysplasia. The implanted cup was also cementless (41 Harris Galante and 22 Ringlock). The patients were followed up for a mean period of 75.1 months (range, 44-110). Clinical and radiologic analysis were performed. Harris Hip Score increased from 42 to 90 points; 97% of the patients had no or only mild pain, and limping decreased from 90% to 20%. Complications were marginal: no infections, one habitual dislocation, one peroperative fracture of the femur, and one transient ischiadic nerve palsy. Two HG cups were revised for augmented polyethylene wear. Radiographically, no subsidence of the prosthesis or bone atrophy of the proximal femur could be detected. No correlations were found between the radiologic phenomena and the clinical outcome, but the tightness of the prosthesis fit had a definitive influence on the radiographic bone remodeling pattern. The cementless Mallory-Head HA-coated femoral prosthesis shows excellent clinical and radiological mid-term results in osteoarthritic hip dysplasia patients. There was no need for the use of a specially designed dysplasia femoral prosthesis. PMID:12820080
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Dastane, Manish; Tarwala, Rupesh; Wan, Zhinian
Background Offset in THA correlates to abductor muscle function, wear, and impingement. Femoral offset after THA is not independent of the cup center of rotation (COR) so hip offset, a combination of femoral offset and change in hip COR, becomes the important measurement. Questions/purposes We therefore asked whether hip offset in arthritic hips would correlate with cup COR; whether offset could always be balanced within 6 mm of contralateral normal hips; and whether hip length could also be kept within 6 mm. Methods We compared hip offset of arthritic and contralateral normal hips on radiographs in 82 patients (82 hips) who had THA. We used computer navigation in all patients with the aim of reconstructing the hip offset and to compare hip offset change to the quantitative change of the hip COR. Results The preoperative radiographic change to equalize the offset ranged from ?12 to +21 mm (mean, 1.5); postoperatively the change was 1.4 ± 6.4 mm and was within ± 6 mm in 78 of 82 hips. As COR displaced superiorly from 3 to 6+ mm the offset had to be substantially increased. Only with COR 0–3 mm superior and 0–5 mm medial was offset always within 5 mm. Conclusions Hip offset reconstruction was directly related to the position of the hip COR, and navigation allowed quantitative control of offset and hip length. PMID:20844997
M. Piert; E. Winter; G. A. Becker; K. Bilger; H.-J. Machulla; W. Müller-Schauenburg; R. Bares; H. D. Becker
. The biological fate of allogenic bone grafts in the acetabular cavity and their metabolic activity after acetabular augmentation\\u000a is uncertain but is most important for the stability of hip implants after hip revision arthroplasty. The aim of this study\\u000a was to quantify regional bone metabolism after hip replacement operations. Dynamic [18F]fluoride ion positron emission tomography (PET) was used to
Buchholz, H W; Baars, G W; Dahmen, G; Behrend, R
The results of 106 patients with osteoarthritis secondary to severe congenital hip dysplasia and dislocations of the hip operated at the Endo-Klinik were evaluated after an average follow up of 21 months. 142 "St. Georg-Mini" total hips were implanted employing Refobacin-Palacos R. The clinical results were graded as "combined performance" which considered hip pain, walking distance, hip mobility and walking aids. In 93% of the cases "combined performance" was improved at follow up and 91.7% of the patients were satisfied with the result. The early (during hospitalization) and late (after discharge from hospital) complication rate which had an influence on the result at follow up was 2.1% (n = 3) and 3.5% (n = 4) respectively. There were no deep infections. An extended indication for total hip arthroplasty also for younger patients with severe osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia is discussed and can be advocated. PMID:4082742
Somford, Matthijs P.; Bolder, Stefan B. T.; Gardeniers, Jean W. M.; Slooff, Tom J. J. H.
Acetabular bone loss hampers implantation of a total hip arthroplasty in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip. The bone impaction grafting technique in combination with a cemented total hip can restore the bone stock in these patients, but do these reconstructions yield satisfying long-term results? We used this technique in 28 hips (22 consecutive patients). The degree of dislocation was graded preoperatively as Crowe I in five hips, Crowe II in eight hips, Crowe III in nine hips, and Crowe IV in four hips. We present the long-term results of this bone impaction grafting technique a minimum of 10 years after surgery. Two patients died before the minimum followup of 10 years, leaving 20 patients (26 hips). Two cups were revised, one cup for a sciatic nerve palsy (at 2 years) and the other for aseptic loosening after 12 years. The cumulative survival of the cup with revision for any reason as the end point was 96% at 10 years and 84% at 15 years. There were no femoral revisions during followup. The bone impaction grafting technique in combination with a cemented cup is an effective technique for developmental dysplasia of the hip with favorable long-term results. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196418
Kwak, Hong Suk; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong
Background Wear cannot be completely prevented after total hip arthroplasty. If severe polyethylene (PE) liner wear develops, the so-called catastrophic failure occurs and metallosis develops. We postulated that longevity of the new implant may be affected after revision surgery for metallosis following a catastrophic failure of a PE liner due to the substantial amount of PE wear particles and infiltration of the metal particles in this catastrophic condition. Methods Twenty-three hips of 23 patients were identified because they showed metallosis during revision total hip arthroplasties performed in Seoul National University Hospital between January 1996 and August 2004. They were followed for at least 6.5 years after the index revision total hip arthroplasty. The clinical and radiological results of revision total hip arthroplasties in these patients were evaluated. Results The median Harris hip score increased from 60 points before revision total hip arthroplasties to 90 points at the final follow-up. Osteolysis was detected at an average of 9.3 years after revision total hip arthroplasties in 13 hips and acetabular cup loosening at average 9.8 years after revision total hip arthroplasties in 9 hips. With radiographic evidence of osteolysis and loosening as the end points, the 15-year survival rates were 28.2% and 56.0%, respectively. Conclusions The survival rate of revision total hip arthroplasty in patients with metallosis following a catastrophic failure of a PE liner was low. PMID:25729518
Lenze, U.; Hasler, C. C.
Purpose The Ilizarov hip reconstruction is a well accepted but complication-prone operative salvage procedure in chronically dislocated hips, not least due to the long-term application of external fixation. Although the advantages of fully implantable devices are well known in limb lengthening and are described consistently, until now, external fixation has been used exclusively to perform the Ilizarov hip reconstruction procedure. We present a new technique of Ilizarov hip reconstruction with purely internal implants. Methods A 14-year-old girl with a history of spina bifida presented with a 4-cm-short right leg, a Trendelenburg gait and a complex neurological disease expression. Because of refusal of external fixation by the patient and significantly lower complication rates, an Ilizarov hip reconstruction without external fixation was performed. A locking compression plate was applied to fix the proximal femoral valgus-extension osteotomy and a motorised intramedullary distraction nail was used for the distal, lengthening–varisation osteotomy. Results A healing index of 33 days/cm and full weight bearing after 6 months were noted. At the 1 year follow-up, the patient showed an improvement of the Trendelenburg gait, as well as successful leg equalisation. Satisfaction to a high degree was additionally noted by factors such as reduced pain, the ability to wear workaday clothes and cosmetically appealing scars. No complications were recorded. Conclusion The exclusive use of internal implants for Ilizarov hip reconstruction is a feasible and patient-friendly alternative to traditional methods. Their use, however, may be restricted by geometric preconditions. PMID:21629378
Butler, W; Merrick, G; Kurko, B [Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Bittner, N [Tacoma\\Valley Radiation Oncology, Tacoma, WA (United States)
Purpose: To quantify the effect of metal hip prosthesis on the ability to track and localize electromagnetic transponders. Methods: Three Calypso transponders were implanted into two prostate phantoms. The geometric center of the transponders were identified on computed tomography and set as the isocenter. With the phantom stationary on the treatment table and the tracking array 14-cm above the isocenter, data was acquired by the Calypso system at 10 Hz to establish the uncertainty in measurements. Transponder positional data was acquired with unilateral hip prostheses of different metallic compositions and then with bilateral hips placed at variable separation from the phantom. Results: Regardless of hip prosthesis composition, the average vector displacement in the presence of a unilateral prosthesis was < 0.5 mm. The greatest contribution to overall vector displacement occurred in the lateral dimension. With bilateral hip prosthesis, the average vector displacement was 0.3 mm. The displacement in the lateral dimension was markedly reduced compared with a unilateral hip, suggesting that there was a countervailing effect with bilateral hip prosthesis. The greatest average vector displacement was 0.6 mm and occurred when bilateral hip prostheses were placed within 4 cm of the detector array. Conclusion: Unilateral and bilateral hip prostheses did not have any meaningful effect on the ability to accurately track electromagnetic transponders implanted in a prostate phantom. At clinically realistic distances between the hip and detection array, the average tracking error is negligible.
Bonnin, Michel P; Archbold, Pooler H A; Basiglini, Lucas; Fessy, Michel H; Beverland, David E
Acetabular offset (AO) is the distance between the centre of the femoral head and the true floor of the acetabulum. We quantified the AO in normal hips and compared the displacement of the centre of rotation of the hip (CRH) after conventional and anatomical cup implantation during THA. 100 CT-scans of normal hips were analysed before and after simulating implantation of the acetabular component. Mean AO was 30.8 mm ± 3.The medial shift of the CRH was 1.6 mm ± 1.2 with the anatomical and 4.8 mm ± 1.9 with the conventional technique (p<0.0001). Medialisation was greater than 5 mm in 44% of the cases when the conventional technique was used, but occurred in no case when using the anatomical technique. Differences between men and women were significant: 5.6 mm ± 1.6 and 3.5 mm ± 1.7 with the conventional technique; 2.0 mm ± 1.1 and 0.9 mm ± 0.9 with the anatomical technique (p<0.0001 for both measurements). The concept of hip offset cannot be limited to that of the femoral offset. AO widely varies and cannot be neglected. In patients with significant AO, surgeons should pay close attention to the preparation of the acetabulum. This should be done conservatively so that the acetabular cup can be placed anatomically in order to restore the native hip biomechanics. PMID:22865253
Razuin, R; Effat, O; Shahidan, M N; Shama, D V; Miswan, M F M
Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is characterized by hypoxia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, increased pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac arrest. It is a known cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cemented orthopaedic surgeries. The rarity of the condition as well as absence of a proper definition has contributed to under-reporting of cases. We report a 59-year-old woman who sustained fracture of the neck of her left femur and underwent an elective hybrid total hip replacement surgery. She collapsed during surgery and was revived only to succumb to death twelve hours later. Post mortem findings showed multiorgan disseminated microembolization of bone marrow and amorphous cement material. PMID:23817399
Duncan, G.M.; Day, R.S. [Bechtel Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Trumble, H.R. [Dept. of Energy, Richland, WA (United States)
Deactivation of the Hanford Site`s N Reactor included the disposal of a large number of radioactive reactor fuel spacers buried in silos outside the reactor building. Optimizing the disposal effort involved simultaneously solving objectives of low cost, schedule, dose minimization, and contamination control while satisfying a variety of regulatory requirements. The selected approach included removing the radioactive fuel spacers by crane-mounted electromagnet, spray painting for airborne control, using grouted large-diameter pipe sections for the burial container, and shipping by truck. Cost and schedule goals were achieved, doses were higher than predicted mainly due to delays in operations, surface contamination was minimized. and airborne contamination was precluded.
... treated with a soft brace called a "Pavlik harness." This brace keeps your baby's knees spread apart ... chest. If your baby is treated with this harness, the doctor will check your baby's hips every ...
Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry
This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…
Husson, J-L; Mallet, J-F; Huten, D; Odri, G-A; Morin, C; Parent, H-F
Everyday clinical practice frequently leads us to suspect a close relationship between the lumbar spine and the hip-joints. Sagittal balance fundamentally expresses a postural strategy mobilizing the dynamic structure of the lumbar-pelvic-femoral complex in an authentic balance by which obligatory coupled movements transmit stresses in a single structure, the spine, to the two-part structure of the lower limbs, and vice-versa. Flexion contracture is a frequent hip pathology, but congenital dislocation and ankylosis of the hip have the greatest impact on the spine, due to excessive mechanical strain and/or spinal malalignment, which is initially supple but becomes fixed. Clinical analysis, backed up if necessary by infiltration tests and imaging, guides indications for surgical management. These considerations suggest a general attitude that considers not just the hip itself, for which the patient is consulting, but the lumbar-pelvic-femoral complex as a whole (and also the knee) before undertaking total hip replacement. Femoro-acetabular impingement is a recently described pathology associating morphological hip-joint abnormality and labral and joint cartilage lesions, leading to early osteoarthritis of the hip. Abnormal spinal or pelvic parameters have not been found associated with femoro-acetabular impingement. Congenital pelvic tilt is a benign and often overlooked pathology in children. Supra- and infra-pelvic pelvic tilt in childhood palsy raises the difficult strategic issue of how to get these children in their wheelchair with a well-balanced spine over a straight pelvis and frontally and sagittally balanced hips. PMID:20447890
#12;with chest waders, hip boots,. or rain gear B~ H. n. P \\H KEn. .In. Fl....lll'l'y L >:ttl t G3I0Hrnm III Pnnl ng 0 \\\\ ""1111\\&100. I).C. _ '_ - I'd 10 'Il15 #12;Overboard with Chest Waders, Hip Fisheries Service Center for Estuarine and Menhaden Research Beaufort, N.C. 28516 ABSTRACT Neither chest
C ALVESJR; C. L. B. Guerra Neto; G. H. S. Morais; C. F. da Silva; V. Hajek
Standard plasma nitriding of commercially pure Ti or various Ti alloys for human body implants (e.g., hip, knee, shoulder and ankle implants) has already proven useful. However, its use in dental implantology is rather limited due to high nitriding temperatures. The small dental implants of complex geometries are frequently distorted. To solve this problem and benefit from the ability of
. Abstract Titanium and titanium alloys for dental implants and hip prostheses were surface-treated and of an acid (HCl/H2SO4 hot solution) etching performed on Ti dental implants after the sandROUGH SURFACES OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS FOR IMPLANTS AND PROSTHESES 1 E. Conforto, 2 B
Background The application of spacer gel represents a promising approach to reliably spare the rectal frontal wall during particle therapy (IJROBP 76:1251-1258, 2010). In order to qualify the spacer gel for the clinical use in particle therapy, a variety of measurements were performed in order to ensure the biological compatibility of the gel, its physical stability during and after the irradiation, and a proper definition of the gel in terms of the Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for the treatment planning system. The potential for the use of the spacer gel for particle therapy monitoring with off-line Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was also investigated. Results The spacer gel implanted to the prostate patient in direct neighbourhood to the clinical target volume does not interfere with the particle therapy treatment planning procedure applied at Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Centre (HIT). The performed measurements show that Bragg-peak position of the particles can be properly predicted on the basis of computed tomography imaging with the treatment planning system used at HIT (measured water equivalent path length of 1.011 ±0.011 (2?), measured Hounsfield Unit of 28.9 ±6.1 (2?)). The spacer gel samples remain physically unchanged after irradiation with a dose exceeding the therapeutic dose level. The independently measured Bragg-Peak position does not change within the time interval of 10 weeks. Conclusions As a result of the presented experiments, the first clinical application of spacer gel implant during prostate cancer treatment with carbon ions and protons was possible at HIT in 2012. The reported pre-clinical investigations demonstrate that use of spacer gel is safe in particle therapy in presence of therapy target motion and patient positioning induced particle range variations. The spacer gel injected between prostate and rectum enlarge the distance between both organs, which is expected to clinically significantly decrease the undesirable exposure of the most critical organ at risk, i.e. rectal frontal wall. Further research on the composition of spacer gel material might lead to additional clinical benefits by validation of particle therapy of prostate via post-therapeutic PET-imaging or by patient positioning based on the gel as a radio-opaque marker. PMID:23742233
Atkinson, Henry D; Johal, Karanjeev S; Willis-Owen, Charles; Zadow, Steven; Oakeshott, Roger D
There is limited morphological data on the sex differences between the commonly used pelvic parameters. This study analysed the CT scans of 100 consecutive Caucasian patients, 61 males and 39 females, undergoing hip resurfacing arthroplasty surgery for hip osteoarthritis in one institution.There were no sex differences in femoral torsion/anteversion, femoral neck angle and acetabular inclination. Males had a mean femoral torsion/anteversion of 8 degrees (range -5 to 26 degrees), a mean femoral neck angle of 129 degrees (range 119 to 138 degrees) and a mean acetabular inclination of 55 degrees (range 40 to 86 degrees). Females had a mean femoral torsion/anteversion of 9 degrees (range -2 to 31 degrees), a mean femoral neck angle of 128 degrees (range 121 to 138) and a mean acetabular inclination of 57 degrees (range 44 to 80 degrees). Females had a significantly greater acetabular version of 23 degrees (range 10 to 53) compared with 18 degrees in males (range 7 to 46 degrees (p = 0.02) and males had a significantly greater femoral offset of 55 mm (range 42 to 68 mm) compared with 48 mm (range 37 to 57 mm) in females (p = 0.00). There were no significant differences between measurements taken from each patient's right and left hips.These findings may be useful for the future design and the implantation of hip arthroplasty components. PMID:20950444
Michael Deem; Jiankui He
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in bacterial and archaeal DNA have recently been shown to be a new type of anti-viral immune system in these organisms. We here study the diversity of spacers in CRISPR under selective pressure. We propose a population dynamics model that explains the biological observation that the leader-proximal end of CRISPR is more diversified
Jiankui He; Michael W. Deem
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in bacterial and archaeal DNA have recently been shown to be a new type of anti-viral immune system in these organisms. We here study the diversity of spacers in CRISPR under selective pressure. We propose a population dynamics model that explains the biological observation that the leader-proximal end of CRISPR is more diversified
C Darve; Giovanna Vandoni
Following the proposal to introduce an actively cooled radiation screen (5-10 K) for the LHC machine, the design of the LHC cryostat foresees the need for spacers between the cold mass and the radiati on screen. The thermal impedance of the chosen material should be very high and the shape selected to withstrand the contact stress due to the displacements
Watt, P; Clements, B; Devadason, S; Chaney, G
A novel asthma spacer device, the "Funhaler", incorporates incentive toys which are isolated from the main inspiratory circuit by a valve. Here we show that its use does not compromise drug delivery. Improved adherence combined with satisfactory delivery characteristics suggest that the Funhaler may be useful for management of young asthmatics. PMID:12818901
Müller, M; Burger, C; Paul, C; Rangger, C
After repeated failure of osteosynthesis of a subcapital humerus fracture, the humeral joint got infected. Radical surgery, use of a temporary Palacos-Refobacin spacer, and secondary implantation of an inverse prosthesis achieved painlessness and satisfying functional results. PMID:15925965
Fixation using alternative implants for the treatment of hip fractures (FAITH): design and rationale for a multi-centre randomized trial comparing sliding hip screws and cancellous screws on revision surgery rates and quality of life in the treatment of femoral neck fractures
Background Hip fractures are a common type of fragility fracture that afflict 293,000 Americans (over 5,000 per week) and 35,000 Canadians (over 670 per week) annually. Despite the large population impact the optimal fixation technique for low energy femoral neck fractures remains controversial. The primary objective of the FAITH study is to assess the impact of cancellous screw fixation versus sliding hip screws on rates of revision surgery at 24 months in individuals with femoral neck fractures. The secondary objective is to determine the impact on health-related quality of life, functional outcomes, health state utilities, fracture healing, mortality and fracture-related adverse events. Methods/Design FAITH is a multi-centre, multi-national randomized controlled trial utilizing minimization to determine patient allocation. Surgeons in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia will recruit a total of at least 1,000 patients with low-energy femoral neck fractures. Using central randomization, patients will be allocated to receive surgical treatment with cancellous screws or a sliding hip screw. Patient outcomes will be assessed at one week (baseline), 10 weeks, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post initial fixation. We will independently adjudicate revision surgery and complications within 24 months of the initial fixation. Outcome analysis will be performed using a Cox proportional hazards model and likelihood ratio test. Discussion This study represents major international efforts to definitively resolve the treatment of low-energy femoral neck fractures. This trial will not only change current Orthopaedic practice, but will also set a benchmark for the conduct of future Orthopaedic trials. Trial registration The FAITH trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT00761813). PMID:24965132
R. Messalem; Y. Mirsky; N. Daltrophe; G. Saveliev; O. Kedem
Ion-conducting spacers were prepared by applying an ion-exchange coating to commercially available polypropylene netting. Homogeneous and heterogeneous types of coating were used. Homogeneous anion-exchange coating consisted of bromomethylated and aminated polysulfone, homogeneous cation-exchange coating of sulfonated polysulfone. All heterogeneous coatings consisted of ground ion-exchange resin, embedded in crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol). All the coated spacers increased the rate of desalting of
J. M. Schierholz; J. Beuth
The insertion of implants and medical devices has emerged as a common and often life-saving procedure. A current estimate of the rate of total hip replacement in the world is approximately one million a year, and knee replacements more than 250000. More than 30% of hospitalized patients have one or more vascular catheters in place. More than 10% of hospitalized
S. van Foreest-Timp
Many clinical situations ask for the simultaneous visualization of anatomical surfaces and synthetic meshes. Common examples include hip replacement surgery, intra-operative visualization of surgical instruments or probes, visualization of planning information, or implant surgery. To be useful for treatment planning and surgery, the combined visualization of anatomical information with mesh-surfaces should meet some requirements. First, anatomical information should be as
Kleinhans, Jennifer A.; Menge, Michael; Kretzer, Jan Philippe
This study gives an overview of the main macro- and microstructural differences of ten commercially available total hip resurfacing implants. The heads and cups of resurfacing hip implants from ten different manufacturers were analysed. The components were measured in a coordinate measuring machine. The microstructure of the heads and cups was inspected by scanning electron microscopy. The mean radial clearance was 84.86 ?m (range: 49.47–120.93 ?m). The implants were classified into three groups (low, medium and high clearance). All implants showed a deviation of roundness of less than 10 ?m. It was shown that all implants differ from each other and a final conclusion about the ideal design and material combination cannot be given based on biomechanical data. Widespread use of specific designs can only be recommended if clinical long-term follow-up studies are performed and analysed for each design. PMID:18600323
Anagnostakos, Konstantinos; Kelm, Jens; Regitz, Thilo; Schmitt, Eduard; Jung, Werner
The antibiotic release from and the bacteria growth inhibition by antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement hip spacers were studied. The cement used was Palacos R, and it was loaded with either one antibiotic powder (gentamicin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, or synercid) [monoantibiotic case] or two antibiotic powders (gentamicin + vancomycin or gentamicin + teicoplanin) [biantibiotic case] and then tested against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Antibiotic elution and bacteria growth were measured every 24 h simultaneously by fluorescence polarization immunoassay and photometrically, respectively. The gentamicin + vancomycin combination achieved the longest growth inhibition on S. epidermidis and MRSA (mean of 20 and 14 days, respectively). Gentamicin + teicoplanin-loaded spacers were capable of inhibiting growth on E. faecalis and S. aureus for the longest period (11 and 16 days, respectively). The highest concentrations of gentamicin and vancomycin could be assayed during the first 4 days. Teicoplanin concentrations could be detected only during the first 72 h, synercid was not detected at all, possibly because of the limitation of the detection technique used. A greater percentage of the gentamicin was released than of the vancomycin. The aminoglycosid-glycopeptid combination showed a synergistic effect on the release of gentamicin, but not on vancomycin or teicoplanin. Biantibiotic-impregnated hip spacers proved to be superior to monoantibiotic ones. Because of important differences between the conditions used for the present tests and the in vivo environment, any recommendation with regard to the use of monoantibiotic- and biantibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement spacers must await the results of further investigations. PMID:15578650
Dimitriou, Dimitris; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Li, Jing-Sheng; Nam, Kwang Woo; Park, Kwan Kyu; Kwon, Young-Min
Stair climbing is a physically demanding task and a painful limitation for patients suffering from severe hip osteoarthritis. Although total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the definitive treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis, it is not well understood whether THA restores hip kinematics during strenuous activities. The purpose of this study was to compare the 3D kinematics of THA and native hip during physically demanding tasks and correlate potential differences with THA components orientations/positions in patients with unilateral THA. In vivo hip kinematics were determined during step-up and leg stance activities using a validated combination of 3D CT-based computer modeling and dual fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS). The THA side demonstrated an average 3.4° (±6.5°, range: -5.9° to 15.2°) greater internal rotation than the contralateral native hip, during the step-up activity but not during leg stance. The difference in internal rotation was highly correlated to the difference in femoral anteversion and anterior translation of hip joint center between implanted and native hip (R(2) ?=?0.71, p?0.01). The results suggest the importance of accurate THA component placement in restoring normal hip kinematics during functional activities. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1087-1093, 2015. PMID:25626860
Arun S. Shanbhag; Joshua J. Jacobs; Jonathan Black; Jorge O. Galante; Tibor T. Glant
The interfacial membrane between implant and host—bone in aseptically loose total hip arthroplasties has a potential role in the etiology of local bone resorption and loosening of the prosthetic component. Inflammatory\\/potential “bone-resorbing” agents (cytokines\\/mediators) released by the cells of the interfacial membranes of loosened uncemented and cemented total hip arthroplasties were measured. Synovial tissues from patients with acute femoral neck
On the basis of a few examples some critical cases in the practice of hip-joint replacement are presented. In the field of traumatology indications are rare for the implantation of a tumour prosthesis. Recovery in case of new fractures after an arthroplasty of the hip demands procedures according to the individual case. One example of a rare complication at a later time, with Palacos material perforating into the pelvis and subsequent intestinal obstructions (ileus), is also presented. PMID:6132531
... Replacement PDF Version Size: 123 KB Audio Version Time: 10:01 Size: 9.4 MB November 2014 What Is a Hip Replacement? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of Publications for the Public Hip replacement surgery ...
People with very thin figures typically have to alter their clothing for protruding hip bones. This is because diagonal wrinkles radiate from the hip bones. This well-illustrated publication shows how to correct this problem ...
Antonio P. Fabrizi; Raffaella Maina; Luigi Schiabello
Insertion of an interspinous devices has became a common procedure for the treatment of different clinical picture of degenerative\\u000a spinal disease. We present our experience in 1,575 patients with the use of two different interspinous spacers: Device for\\u000a Intervertebral Assisted Motion (DIAM) and Aperius PercLID system. From 2000 through 2008, 1,315 consecutive patients underwent\\u000a DIAM implantation and 260 had an
Kannan, Arun; Bal, Chandra Sekhar; Kumar, Vijay; Mittal, Ravi; Damle, Nishikant
Background Iatrogenic devascularization of the femoral head is as an area of concern following hip resurfacing arthroplasty, with probable implications on short-term failure and long-term survival of the implant. Materials and methods We assessed the vascularity of 25 resurfaced femoral heads in 20 patients by comparison with preoperative and postoperative Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy images, the postoperative scans being done 9 months after the surgery. Results Eight out of 25 hips (32%) showed <55% of their preoperative uptake at a mean of 9 months after surgery and were categorized as showing reduced vascularity. Conclusion Our study reveals reduction in vascularity of the femoral-head remnant as a frequent occurrence after hip resurfacing. Our study also highlights the role of bone scintigraphy as tool in assessing the vascularity of resurfaced femoral heads. PMID:20957405
Moerenhout, Kevin G; Cherix, Stéphane; Rüdiger, Hannes A
Total hip replacement has seen a tremendous development and has become one of the most successful surgical interventions in orthopaedics. While during the first decades of development of total hip arthroplasty the fixation of the implant into the bone was the main concern, the focus has shifted towards surgical technique and soft tissue handling. In order to avoid permanent soft tissue damage, muscular dysfunction and concerns in regards to cosmetics, minimal invasive and anatomic approaches have been developed. We here provide a short overview on various methods of total hip replacements and we describe our technique through a minimal invasive direct anterior approach. While muscle and nerve damage is minimal, this technique allows for a rapid rehabilitation and is associated with an excellent functional outcome and a minimal risk for dislocation. PMID:23346746
Verhelst, L.; Guevara, V.; De Schepper, J.; Van Melkebeek, J.; Pattyn, C.; Audenaert, E. A.
The aim of this review is to evaluate the current available literature evidencing on peri-articular hip endoscopy (the third compartment). A comprehensive approach has been set on reports dealing with endoscopic surgery for recalcitrant trochanteric bursitis, snapping hip (or coxa-saltans; external and internal), gluteus medius and minimus tears and endoscopy (or arthroscopy) after total hip arthroplasty. This information can be used to trigger further research, innovation and education in extra-articular hip endoscopy. PMID:23610664
Background Severe acetabular deficiencies in cases of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) often require complex reconstructive procedures in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The use of autologous femoral head grafts for acetabular reconstruction has been described, but few data is available about clinical results, the rates of non-union or aseptic loosening of acetabular components. Methods In a retrospective approach, 101 patients with 118 THA requiring autologous femoral head grafts to the acetabulum because of DDH were included. Six patients had died, another 6 were lost to follow-up, and 104 hips were available for clinical and radiological evaluation at a mean of 68 ± 15 (13 to 159) months. Results The average Merle d'Aubigné hip score improved from 9 to 16 points. Seven implants had to be revised due to aseptic loosening (6.7%). The revisions were performed 90 ± 34 (56 to 159) months after implantation. The other hips showed a stable position of the sockets without any signs of bony non-union, severe radiolucencies at the implant-graft interface or significant resorption of the graft. Conclusion The use of autologous femoral head grafts with cementless cups in primary THA can achieve promising short- to midterm results in patients with dysplastic hips. PMID:21696624
Srinivasan, Anand; Jung, Edward; Levine, Brett Russell
Modular femoral components have been developed to aid in recreating native femoral version, limb length, and offset in total hip arthroplasty. Use of modular implants results in cost savings, as well. Inventory can be reduced while allowing intraoperative flexibility and options. With modular implants, the femoral prosthesis can be built in situ, which is helpful in minimizing incision length and surgical dissection. However, additional modular junctions are associated with increased concern for component failure through taper fretting, fatigue fracture, and local corrosion, which may contribute to elevated serum metal ion levels. The recent trend toward using larger diameter femoral heads may impart higher loads and stress than were seen previously. Although modular components offer a plethora of intraoperative options in primary and revision total hip arthroplasty, the long-term effects of these additional junctions remains unknown. PMID:22474091
Misra, Durgamadhab "Durga"
implantation was used to incorporate deuterium at the SiSiO2 interface. Polycrystalline silicon gate metal polycrystalline silicon8 and SixNy , used as a sidewall spacer, could limit the transportation of deuteriumPROOF COPY 047021APL Metal-oxide-silicon diodes on deuterium-implanted silicon substrate D. Misraa
Park, Kyung-Soon; Yoon, Taek-Rim; Lee, Tae-Min; Ahn, Yeong-Seub
Background: Most literature in the field of total hip arthroplasty (THA) for fused hips, until date has reported the results of using metal on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene bearings. Results of THA using ceramic on ceramic (CoC) bearings in fused hips have not been published in literature. This study reports the results of cementless THA using CoC articulation perfomed in fused hips. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients (25 hips) with fused hips underwent conversion to THA using CoC bearings and were followed up for a mean 5.4 years. The conventional posterolateral approach was used in 15 hips, a modified two incision technique in 7 hips and a direct lateral approach with greater trochanteric osteotomy in 3 hips. Postoperatively, range of motion exercises were encouraged after 2–3 days of bed rest and subsequent gradual weight bearing using crutches was begun. Results: Mean Harris hip score improved from 42.4 to 84.2 and mean leg lengthening of 36.6 mm was achieved. In the average 5.4 years (range 2.8-9.1 years) followup there were no cases with osteolysis around acetabular cup and femoral stem. In this study, there was no case of ceramic fracture. There was one case of squeaking. Conclusion: This study suggests that cementless THA performed for fused hips with CoC bearings can provide good early clinical results. PMID:26015635
Ringsmuth, Richard J. (Solano Beach, CA); Kaufman, Jay S. (Del Mar, CA)
A tube support grid and spacers therefor provide radially inward preloading of heat exchange tubes to minimize stress upon base welds due to differential thermal expansion. The grid comprises a concentric series of rings and spacers with opposing concave sides for conforming to the tubes and V-shaped ends to provide resilient flexibility. The flexibility aids in assembly and in transmitting seismic vibrations from the tubes to a shroud. The tube support grid may be assembled in place to achieve the desired inwardly radial preloading of the heat exchange tubes. Tab and slot assembly further minimizes stresses in the system. The radii of the grid rings may be preselected to effect the desired radially inward preloading.
This report discusses aluminum honeycomb spacers, which are used as an energy absorbent material in shipping packages for off site shipment of radioactive materials and which were ordered in two crush strengths, 1,000 psi and 2,000 psi for use in drop tests requested by the Packaging and Transportation group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the vendor and the SRTC Materials Laboratory performed crush strength measurements on test samples made from the material used to fabricate the actual spacers. The measurements of crush strength made in the SRTC Materials Laboratory are within 100 psi of the measurements made by the manufacturer for all samples tested and all test measurements are within 10% of the specified crush strength, which is acceptable to the P&T group for the planned tests.
Morvan, Gérard; Vuillemin, Valérie; Guerini, Henri; Mathieu, Philippe; Wybier, Marc; Zeitoun, Frédéric; Bossard, Philippe; Sterin, Patrick
More than 222 000 hip and knee prostheses are implanted each year in France and this number is growing. Simple radiography is generally used to examine these prostheses in situ but this method has several limitations, including superimposition, the inability to visualize some parts of the prosthesis and to study them in the axial plane, and poor visualization of intra- and peri-articular soft tissues. This article describes the advantages offered by computed tomography and ultrasonography in this setting PMID:22292309
Modular revision for recurrent dislocation of primary or revision total hip arthroplasty 1 1 Benefits or funds were received in partial or total support of the research material described in this article from Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana; and from a departmental research grant from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
Paul F Lachiewicz; Elizabeth Soileau; John Ellis
Two surgeons who used the same implants and surgical approach performed 23 revisions for recurrent dislocation of modular total hip arthroplasty (THA) with retention of components. For 17 primary hips, there was a mean of 3.8 (range, 2–10) dislocations before revision. Fifteen hips had exchange of the acetabular liner, 13 had a change in neck length, and 5 had a
Verettas, Dionysios-Alexandros; Chloropoulou, Pelagia; Xarchas, Konstantinos; Drosos, Georgios; Ververidis, Athanasios; Kazakos, Konstantinos
We present the results of 66 total hip arthroplasties in 62 patients of mean age 46 years (24-74 years), with developmental dysplasia of the hip. In all cases the centre of rotation of the new hip was positioned at the site of the true acetabulum. In all patients cementless press fit acetabular components of small diameter (42-44 mm) were used, articulating exclusively with a 22.25 mm modular metal femoral head, without the use of bone grafts or shortening osteotomies of the femur. Despite the use of small diameter femoral heads the rate of dislocation was 3%. After an average follow-up period of 9 years (4-18 years), no revisions were required for infection, loosening or wear or implant migration. Osteolytic lesions were seen in the periacetabular region in 3 patients who were symptom free. A total of 2 revisions were required for instability and 2 patients had the wires of their trochanteric osteotomy removed because of bursitis. Leg length inequality was improved in 55% of the patients and one postoperative transient sciatic nerve lesion settled within 4 months. We believe that in patients with painful dysplastic hips, the use of small diameter implants with the centre of rotation at the true acetabulum, can give very satisfactory results, without any supplementary procedures. PMID:25907394
C. Coolens; P. J. Childs
Heterogeneity corrections for radiotherapy dose calculations are based on the electron density of the disturbing heterogeneity. However, when CT planning a radiotherapy treatment, where metallic hip implants are present, considerable artefacts are seen in the images. Often, an additional problem arises whereby no information regarding the artificial hip's composition and geometry is available. This study investigates whether the extended CT
I. Kempf; M. Semlitsch
The purpose of this case study of severe metallosis is to draw the attention of orthopedic surgeons to extremely serious results of this kind in the event of the fracture of the ceramic ball in a total hip prosthesis. Eleven months after implantation of a KJF hip prosthesis with an aluminum oxide ceramic ball in combination with a polyethylene acetabular
Placing Dental Implants Before Placing an Implant Placing the Implants Complications from Surgery Implant Failure When you get implants, more ... Implant Most people are good candidates to get dental implants. You must have enough bone in your jaw ...
Parsons, Christopher; Batson, Ryan; Reighard, Shane; Tanner, Stephanie; Snider, Becky; Pace, Thomas B.
This report examines the clinical performance of three very similar total hip arthroplasty designs with distinctly different bearing surfaces used over the course 10-17 years. Clinical outcomes assessments for each group are compared in the context of varying implant related costs related to the latest technology at the time of surgery. Eighty-one surgeries were studied and differ by bearing surface. In this study, 36 hips are ceramic on polyethylene, 27 are metal on polyethylene and 18 are metal on metal. All polyethylene components are nonhighly cross-linked. The ceramic on polyethylene group has younger patients, on average, and higher percentage of patients with significant polyethylene wear. These groups have an average follow-up time of 8.6 years when assessing functional hip scores, thigh pain, groin pain, revision surgeries and radiographic osteolysis. The implant purchasing cost at the time of surgery was assessed to determine if a correlation exists between outcomes and the more technologically advanced implants use at the time of surgery. Based on midterm clinical outcome assessment, no correlation between initial hospital cost and clinical outcomes of one bearing surface over another can be found. PMID:25002938
Michael Jacobs; Robert Gorab; David Mattingly; Lorence Trick; Carleton Southworth
One hundred seventy-one primary total hip arthroplasties were evaluated in a prospective, randomized study. Ninety-five involved a metal-backed cup with an all-metal liner and 76 involved a metal-backed polyethylene cup that was used as the control. All were implanted with an S-ROM cementless femoral component with a 28 mm head. The mean follow-up period was 3.7 years (range, 3.0–5.7). The
Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Grove, Amy; Freeman, Karoline; Court, Rachel; Johnson, Samantha; Connock, Martin; Clarke, Aileen; Sutcliffe, Paul
Background Evolvements in the design, fixation methods, size, and bearing surface of implants for total hip replacement (THR) have led to a variety of options for healthcare professionals to consider. The need to determine the most optimal combinations of THR implant is warranted. This systematic review evaluated the clinical effectiveness of different types of THR used for the treatment of end stage arthritis of the hip. Methods A comprehensive literature search was undertaken in major health databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews published from 2008 onwards comparing different types of primary THR in patients with end stage arthritis of the hip were included. Results Fourteen RCTs and five systematic reviews were included. Patients experienced significant post-THR improvements in Harris Hip scores, but this did not differ between impact types. There was a reduced risk of implant dislocation after receiving a larger femoral head size (36 mm vs. 28 mm; RR?=?0.17, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.78) or cemented cup (vs. cementless cup; pooled odds ratio: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.89). Recipients of cross-linked vs. conventional polyethylene cup liners experienced reduced femoral head penetration and revision. There was no impact of femoral stem fixation and cup shell design on implant survival rates. Evidence on mortality and complications (aseptic loosening, femoral fracture) was inconclusive. Conclusions The majority of evidence was inconclusive due to poor reporting, missing data, or uncertainty in treatment estimates. The findings warrant cautious interpretation given the risk of bias (blinding, attrition), methodological limitations (small sample size, low event counts, short follow-up), and poor reporting. Long-term pragmatic RCTs are needed to allow for more definitive conclusions. Authors are encouraged to specify the minimal clinically important difference and power calculation for their primary outcome(s) as well CONSORT, PRISMA and STROBE guidelines to ensure better reporting and more reliable production and assessment of evidence. PMID:25003202
Prosser, Gareth H; Yates, Piers J; Wood, David J; de Steiger, Richard N; Miller, Lisa N
Background and purpose The outcome of modern resurfacing remains to be determined. The Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) started collection of data on hip resurfacing at a time when modern resurfacing was started in Australia. The rate of resurfacing has been higher in Australia than in many other countries. As a result, the AOANJRR has one of the largest series of resurfacing procedures. This study was undertaken to determine the results of this series and the risk factors associated with revision. Patients and methods Data from the AOANJRR were used to analyze the survivorship of 12,093 primary resurfacing hip replacements reported to the Joint Replacement Registry between September 1999 and December 2008. This was compared to the results of primary conventional total hip replacement reported during the same period. The Kaplan-Meier method and proportional hazards models were used to determine risk factors such as age, sex, femoral component size, primary diagnosis, and implant design. Results Female patients had a higher revision rate than males; however, after adjusting for head size, the revision rates were similar. Prostheses with head sizes of less than 50 mm had a higher revision rate than those with head sizes of 50 mm or more. At 8 years, the cumulative per cent revision of hip resurfacing was 5.3 (4.6–6.2), as compared to 4.0 (3.8–4.2) for total hip replacement. However, in osteoarthritis patients aged less than 55 years with head sizes of 50 mm or more, the 7-year cumulative per cent revision for hip resurfacing was 3.0 (2.2–4.2). Also, hips with dysplasia and some implant designs had an increased risk of revision. Interpretation Risk factors for revision of resurfacing were older patients, smaller femoral head size, patients with developmental dysplasia, and certain implant designs. These results highlight the importance of patient and prosthesis selection in optimizing the outcome of hip resurfacing. PMID:20180719
Background and purpose Dysplasia of the hip increases the risk of secondary degenerative change and subsequent total hip replacement. Here we report on age at diagnosis of dysplasia, previous treatment, and quality of life for patients born after 1967 and registered with a total hip replacement due to dysplasia in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. We also used the medical records to validate the diagnosis reported by the orthopedic surgeon to the register. Methods Subjects born after January 1, 1967 and registered with a primary total hip replacement in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register during the period 1987–2007 (n = 713) were included in the study. Data on hip symptoms and quality of life (EQ-5D) were collected through questionnaires. Elaborating information was retrieved from the medical records. Results 540 of 713 patients (76%) (corresponding to 634 hips) returned the questionnaires and consented for additional information to be retrieved from their medical records. Hip dysplasia accounted for 163 of 634 hip replacements (26%), 134 of which were in females (82%). Median age at time of diagnosis was 7.8 (0–39) years: 4.4 years for females and 22 years for males. After reviewing accessible medical records, the diagnosis of hip dysplasia was confirmed in 132 of 150 hips (88%). Interpretation One quarter of hip replacements performed in patients aged 40 or younger were due to an underlying hip dysplasia, which, in most cases, was diagnosed during late childhood. The dysplasia diagnosis reported to the register was correct for 88% of the hips. PMID:21434808
Oommen, Anil Thomas; Krishnamoorthy, Vignesh Prasad; Poonnoose, Pradeep Mathew; Korula, Ravi Jacob
Background: The use of allografts and autografts in the management of acetabular defects have been reported with varying results. Trabecular metal is an expensive option in the management of these defects. This study aims to assess the fate and efficacy of bone grafting for acetabular bone defects in total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 hips in 28 patients with acetabular deficiencies were treated with bone grafting and total hip replacement (THR). Seventeen hips had American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) type 2 (Paprosky type 2c) deficiency and 13 had AAOS type 3 (Paprosky type 3a) defects of the acetabulum. Allografts were used in 15 patients and autografts were used in the remaining 13. Cemented total hip arthroplasty was done in 18 hips and uncemented THR in 12. Seven patients underwent the procedure for, acetabular erosion and symptoms following hemiarthroplasty (4 out of 7), or, acetabular revision for failure (3 out of 7) following total hip arthroplasty. Acetabular deficiencies in other patients were due to posttraumatic causes, advanced primary hip arthritis and second stage treatment of postinfective arthritis. A mesh was used in 6 hips and screws were used in 13 hips for graft fixation. Results: Patients were followed up clinicoradiologically for a period of 10 months to 4 years (mean 23.4 months). One patient required staged revision due to infection. Two patients had early asymptomatic cup migration. One patient had graft lysis and change in cup inclination with persistent pain. He was not keen on further intervention at last followup. Other patients were pain free at the time of followup with radiographs showing maintenance of graft and implant position. Conclusion: Bone grafting is a suitable option in the management of acetabular defects in total hip arthroplasty, especially in resource challenged countries. PMID:26015607
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic...Prosthetic Devices § 888.3400 Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing...prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip)...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic...Prosthetic Devices § 888.3400 Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing...prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip)...
Context: Snapping hip, or coxa saltans, is a vague term used to describe palpable or auditory snapping with hip movements. As increasing attention is paid to intra-articular hip pathologies such as acetabular labral tears, it is important to be able to identify and understand the extra-articular causes of snapping hip. Evidence Acquisition: The search terms snapping hip and coxa sultans were used in PubMed to locate suitable studies of any publication date (ending date, November 2008). Results: Extra-articular snapping may be caused laterally by the iliotibial band or anteriorly by the iliopsoas tendon. Snapping of the iliopsoas tendon usually requires contraction of the hip flexors and may be difficult to differentiate from intra-articular causes of snapping. Dynamic ultrasound can help detect abrupt tendon translation during movement, noninvasively supporting the diagnosis of extra-articular snapping hip. The majority of cases of snapping hip resolve with conservative treatment, which includes avoidance of aggravating activities, stretching, and anti-inflammatory medication. In recalcitrant cases, surgery to lengthen the iliotibial band or the iliopsoas tendon has produced symptom relief but may result in prolonged weakness. Conclusions: In treating active patients with snapping soft tissues around the hip, clinicians should recognize that the majority of cases resolve without surgical intervention, while being mindful of the potential for concomitant intra-articular and internal snapping hips. PMID:23015936
J.-W. Xu; Y. T. Konttinen; T.-F. Li; V. Waris; J. Lassus; M. Matucci-Cerinic; T. Sorsa; S. Santavirta
Aseptic loosening is the predominant cause of total hip implant failure. It has been assumed that a layer or membrane, containing\\u000a macrophages, fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells, of synovial-like tissue develops at the implant-to-bone interface\\u000a almost invariably and, with time, somehow leads to loosening of the components from the surrounding bone. These cells produce\\u000a a variety of cytokines and proteolytic
... antenna. This part of the implant receives the sound, converts the sound into an electrical signal, and sends it to ... implants allow deaf people to receive and process sounds and speech. However, it is important to understand ...
Min-Yong Lee; S. W. Jin; Y. S. Sohn; S. K. Na; K. B. Rouh; Y. S. Joung; Y. J. Ki; I. K. Han; Y. W. Song; S. W. Park
New Concept of ion implantation technology, namely Locally-Differentiated-Scanning Ion Implantation (LDSI), is suggested for the first time in this report. The Vth variation caused by process non-uniformity in each process variables such as gate Critical Dimension (CD), spacer deposition Uniformity and spacer etch CD, etc, becomes big huddle in scale down and larger diameter wafer. This LDSI technology has been
von Lewinski, Gabriela; Floerkemeier, Thilo
Since 1998, short stem total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been performed at the authors' institution. Currently, 30% of THAs are performed with short stems. This article reports on complications that required revision of a short stem THA. Between September 2005 and February 2012, a total of 1953 Metha short stem THAs were performed; of these, 38 required revision due to mechanical complications. In 12 cases, the modular titanium neck adapter failed. In 19 cases, aseptic implant loosening occurred; of these, 11 cases were due to major stem subsidence. In 2 cases, via falsa (cortical penetration) implantation occurred. In 5 cases, periprosthetic fractures led to revision. This corresponds to an aseptic total revision rate of 1.3% for 26 short stems and 1.9% including the cases of all 38 documented revision cases. Thirty-four cases were revised with cementless standard hip stems, 2 cases were revised with short stems, and 2 cases were revised with long revision stems. Undersizing was analyzed in 58% of aseptic revisions. Fifty-four percent of revisions were performed in male patients - 23% with osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and 7% with short hip stems positioned in varus in coxa vara deformities. Seventy-two percent of revisions after marked early stem subsidence and position change into valgus were performed in female patients. Dysplastic hips with coxa valga did not show elevated revision rates. No revisions were performed for dislocation or femoral thigh pain. Short stem THA with the Metha implant is a bone-preserving option for various indications in select patient groups. PMID:25826634
Lewis, Cara L.; Sahrmann, Shirley A.; Moran, Daniel W.
Anterior hip or groin pain is a common complaint for which people are referred for physical therapy. We have observed that people with anterior hip pain often walk in greater hip extension than people without anterior hip pain, and that the pain is reduced when they walk in less hip extension. Therefore, we investigated anterior hip joint forces which may contribute to anterior hip pain and examined the effect of end range hip extension on the anterior hip joint force during gait. To do this, we used a 6 degree of freedom, 3-dimensional musculoskeletal model to estimate hip joint forces during gait. Within subjects, the maximum anterior hip joint force for gait trials with the most hip extension was compared to the anterior hip joint force for gait trials with the least hip extension. The musculoskeletal model indicated that increasing the maximum end range hip extension when walking results in an increase in the anterior hip joint force when compared to walking in less hip extension. Walking in greater hip extension may result in an increase in the anterior hip joint force, and thereby contribute to anterior hip pain. The findings of this study provide some evidence supporting the use of gait modification to reduce anterior hip force when treating people with anterior hip pain. PMID:20934338
Abdelnasser, Mohammad K; Klenke, Frank M; Whitlock, Patrick; Khalil, Aly M; Khalifa, Yaser E; Ali, Hassan M; Siebenrock, Klaus A
Pelvic discontinuity is a complex problem in revision total hip arthroplasty. Although rare, the incidence is likely to increase due to the ageing population and the increasing number of total hip arthroplasties being performed. The various surgical options available to solve this problem include plating, massive allografts, reconstruction rings, custom triflanged components and tantalum implants. However, the optimal solution remains controversial. None of the known methods completely solves the major obstacles associated with this problem, such as restoration of massive bone loss, implant failure in the short- and long-term and high complication rates. This review discusses the diagnosis, decision making, and treatment options of pelvic discontinuity in revision total hip arthroplasty. PMID:25385048
Abdul Halim Abdullah; Mohd Asri Mohd Nor; Alias Mohd Saman; Mohd Nasir Tamin; Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir
Aseptic loosening effects are critical issues in encouraging long term stability of cemented hip arthroplasty. Stress shielding is believed to be an important factor that contributes to the aseptic loosening problems. The numerous changes in the prosthesis stem design are intended to minimize the stress shielding and aseptic loosening problems and to improve the long term performance of the implants.
Smith, George H; Nutton, Richard W; Fraser, Simon C
We report a case of external iliac artery aneurysm rupture during removal of the acetabular component for septic loosening. Potentially fatal hemorrhage would have occurred if the risk had not been recognized, and the external iliac vessels exposed to gain vascular control before proceeding with implant removal. A review of the literature on vascular injury at revision hip surgery is presented. PMID:21074354
Philipp Damm; Friedmar Graichen; Antonius Rohlmann; Alwina Bender; Georg Bergmann
A new instrumented hip joint prosthesis was developed which allows the in vivo measurement of the complete contact loads in the joint, i.e. 3 force and 3 moment components. A clinically proven standard implant was modified. Inside the hollow neck, 6 semiconductor strain gauges are applied to measure the deformation of the neck. Also integrated are a small coil for
K.-H. Widmer; B. Zurfluh
Impingement between femoral neck and endoprosthetic cup is one of the causes for dislocation in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Choosing a correct combined orientation of both components, the acetabular cup and femoral stem, in manual or computer-assisted implantation will yield a maximized, stable range of motion (ROM) and will reduce the risk for dislocation. A mathematical model of a THA
... Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown Lengthening Procedure Dental Implants Single Tooth Implants Multiple Tooth Implants Full Mouth Dental Implants Sinus Augmentation Ridge Modification Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedures ...
Olsen, Michael; Al Saied, Mohamed; Morison, Zachary; Sellan, Michael; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H
Mid-head resection short-stem hip arthroplasty is a conservative alternative to conventional total hip replacement and addresses proximal fixation challenges in patients not suitable for hip resurfacing. It is unclear whether proximal femoral morphology impacts the ultimate failure load of mid-head resection implanted femurs, thus the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of native neck-shaft angle (NSA) and coronal implant alignment on proximal femoral strength. In total, 36 synthetic femurs with two different proximal femoral morphologies were utilized in this study. Of them, 18 femurs with a varus NSA of 120° and 18 femurs with a valgus NSA of 135° were each implanted with a mid-head resection prosthesis. Femurs within the two different femoral morphology groups were divided into three equal coronal implant alignment groups: 10° valgus, 10° varus or neutral alignment. Prepared femurs were tested for stiffness and to failure in axial compression. There was no significant difference in stiffness nor failure load between femurs implanted with valgus-, varus- or neutrally aligned implants in femurs with a NSA of 120° (p = 0.396, p = 0.111, respectively). Femurs implanted in valgus orientation were significantly stiffer and failed at significantly higher loads than those implanted in varus alignment in femurs with a NSA of 135° (p = 0.001, p = 0.007, respectively). A mid-head resection short-stem hip arthroplasty seems less sensitive to clinically relevant variations of coronal implant alignment and may be more forgiving upon implantation in some femoral morphologies, however, a relative valgus component alignment is recommended. PMID:25515228
Langton, D J; Jameson, S S; Joyce, T J; Gandhi, J N; Sidaginamale, R; Mereddy, P; Lord, J; Nargol, A V F
There is widespread concern regarding the incidence of adverse soft-tissue reactions after metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacement. Recent National Joint Registry data have shown clear differences in the rates of failure of different designs of hip resurfacing. Our aim was to update the failure rates related to metal debris for the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR). A total of 505 of these were implanted. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a failure rate of 25% at six years for the ASR resurfacing and of 48.8% for the ASR total hip replacement (THR). Of 257 patients with a minimum follow-up of two years, 67 (26.1%) had a serum cobalt concentration which was greater than 7 ?g/l. Co-ordinate measuring machine analysis of revised components showed that all patients suffering adverse tissue reactions in the resurfacing group had abnormal wear of the bearing surfaces. Six THR patients had relatively low rates of articular wear, but were found to have considerable damage at the trunion-taper interface. Our results suggest that wear at the modular junction is an important factor in the development of adverse tissue reactions after implantation of a large-diameter MoM THR. PMID:21768621
Font-Vizcarra, LluÍs; Izquierdo, Oscar; GarcÍa-NuÑo, Laura; GonzÁlez, Araceli; Diaz-Brito, VicenÇ; Castellanos, Juan
We report an 85-year-old woman with dementia and dependent for normal life activities who was admitted due to a left periprosthetic tibial fracture. The tibial component was replaced by one with a long stem and she was discharged. Four weeks after the intervention the patient was re-admitted due to an acute prosthetic joint infection. All the components were removed and a bone-cement spacer with a handmade stem with a metal core was implanted. Radiological signs of fracture consolidation were observed after 3 months of follow-up. Due to the previous health status of the patient, it was decided to keep the spacer as a definitive treatment. After 24 months, the patient was able to sit without pain and to stand up with help using a knee brace. There were no radiological or clinical signs of infection. PMID:24551027
Long, E O; Dawid, I B
The sequence arrangement of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) spacers in Drosophila melanogaster was analyzed with restriction endonucleases. Spacers, derived from cloned rDNA repeats and from uncloned purified rDNA, are internally repetitive, as demonstrated by the regular 250 base pairs interval between sites recognized by the enzyme Alu I. Length heterogeneity of spacers is due at least in part to varying numbers of repeated sequence elements. All spacers and analyzed, whether derived from X or from Y chromosomal rDNA, have a very similar sequence organization. The distance separating the repeated nontranscribed spacer sequences from the 5' end of the transcribed region is conserved in all ten cloned fragments examined, and is probably less than 150 base pairs, as measured by electron microscopy. Images PMID:114986
Yao, S.C.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Leech, W.J.
Heat-transfer augmentation by straight grid spacers in rod bundles is studied for single-phase flow and for post-critical heat flux dispersed flow. The heat transfer effect of swirling grid spacers in single-phase flow is also examined. Governing heat-transfer mechanisms are analyzed, and predictive formulations are established. For single-phase flow, the local heat transfer at a straight spacer and at its upstream or downstream locations are treated separately. The effect of local velocity increasing near swirling spacer is considered. For post critical heat flux (CHF) dispersed flow, the heat transfer by thermal radiation, fin cooling, and vapor convection near the spacer are calculated. The predictions are compared with experimental data with satisfactory agreement.
Parikh, Ankit; Anand, Utkarshini; Ugwu, Malachy C.; Feridooni, Tiam; Massoud, Emad; Agu, Remigius U.
Chronic inflammation and infection of the nasal sinuses, also referred to as Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS), severely affects patients’ quality of life. Adhesions, ostial stenosis, infection and inflammation relapses complicate chronic sinusitis treatment strategies. Drug-eluting stents, packings or implants have been suggested as reasonable alternatives for addressing these concerns. This article reviewed potential drug candidates for nasal implants, formulation methods/optimization and characterization methods. Clinical applications and important considerations were also addressed. Clinically-approved implants (Propel™ implant, the Relieva stratus™ MicroFlow spacer, and the Sinu-Foam™ spacer) for CRS treatment was an important focus. The advantages and limitations, as well as future considerations, challenges and the need for additional research in the field of nasal drug implant development, were discussed. PMID:24871904
Liao, Yifeng; Hoffman, Emily; Wimmer, Markus; Fischer, Alfons; Jacobs, Joshua; Marks, Laurence
After the rapid growth in the use of CoCrMo metal-on-metal hip replacements since the second generation was introduced circa 1990, metal-on-metal hip replacements have experienced a sharp decline in the last two years due to biocompatibility issues related to wear and corrosion products. Despite some excellent clinical results, the release of wear and corrosion debris and the adverse response of local tissues have been of great concern. There are many unknowns regarding how CoCrMo metal bearings interact with the human body. This perspective article is intended to outline some recent progresses in understanding wear and corrosion of metal-on-metal hip replacement both in-vivo and in-vitro. The materials, mechanical deformation, corrosion, wear-assisted corrosion, and wear products will be discussed. Possible adverse health effects caused by wear products will be briefly addressed, as well as some of the many open questions such as the detailed chemistry of corrosion, tribochemical reactions and the formation of graphitic layers. Nowadays we design almost routinely for high performance materials and lubricants for automobiles; humans are at least as important. It is worth remembering that a hip implant is often the difference between walking and leading a relatively normal life, and a wheelchair. PMID:23196425
Senthi, Surendra; Munro, Jacob T.
While total hip arthroplasty has progressed to become one of the most successful surgical procedures ever developed, infection remains a serious complication. We have conducted a review of the literature pertaining to management of deep infection in total hip arthroplasty, specifically focusing on clinically relevant articles published in the last five years. A search was conducted using MEDLINE and PubMed, as well as a review of the Cochrane database, using the terms “total hip arthroplasty”, “total hip replacement” and “infection”. References for all selected articles were cross-checked. While the so-called two-stage revision is generally considered to be the gold standard for management, numerous studies now report outcomes for implant retention and reassessing one-stage revision strategies. There are encouraging reports for complex reconstruction options in patients with associated severe bone stock loss. The duration of antibiotic therapy remains controversial. There is concern about increasing bacterial resistance especially with the widespread use of vancomycin and ertapenem (carbapenem). PMID:21085957
Hall, Marcella Runell
Hip-hop music and culture are often cited as being public pedagogy, meaning the music itself has intrinsic educational value. Non-profit organizations and individual educators have graciously taken the lead in utilizing hip-hop to educate. As the academy continues to debate its effectiveness, teachers and community organizers are moving forward.…
Heidi-Lynn Ploeg; Maja Bürgi; Urs P. Wyss
The accuracy of fatigue test prediction methods for the standard fatigue testing of hip stems was evaluated against the experimental results of static and fatigue tests. Axial unnotched strain-controlled material fatigue tests provided the required cyclic material properties. Finite element analysis of the hip stems predicted a maximum tensile stress to within 3–7% of strain gauge measurements. The four methods
Jakubowitz, Eike; Krachler, Michael; Thomsen, Marc; Heisel, Christian
Modular neck implants are an attractive treatment tool in total hip replacement. Concerns remain about the mechanical stability and metal ion release caused by the modular connection. Five different implant designs were investigated in an experimental set-up. In vivo conditions were simulated and the long-term titanium release was measured. Finally, the modular connections were inspected for corrosion processes and signs of fretting. No mechanical failure or excessive corrosion could be identified for the implants tested. The titanium releases measured were extremely low compared to in vivo and in vitro studies and were not in a critical range. PMID:19219434
Li, C X; Hussain, A; Kamali, A
In vitro wear data for hip joint devices reported in the literature vary in a wide range from one simulator study to another sometimes for the same type of device tested under identical physiological testing conditions. We hypothesized that non-bearing surface condition of the testing components could be an important factor affecting the simulator wear results. To confirm this hypothesis, fifteen 50 mm metal-on-metal hip resurfacing devices with identical bearing specifications were tested in a ProSim hip wear simulator for 5 million cycles. The heads were standard Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR) heads; whilst the pairing acetabular cups were identical to the standard BHR cup except their different back surface conditions, including: (a) off-the-shelf products after removing the hydroxyapatite (HA) coating; (b) semi-finished products without HA coating; and (c) purposely-made cups without cast-in beads and HA coating. Results showed that the different back surfaces of the cups used indeed caused significantly large variations in the gravimetrically measured wear loss. We postulated that materials loss from the non-bearing surface of the testing components could contribute to the gravimetrically measured wear loss during a wear simulator test both directly and indirectly. The results presented in this paper pertain to In vitro wear simulator study and have little clinical relevance to the performance of any implant in vivo. PMID:22070025
J. W. Xu; Y. T. Konttinen; V. Waris; H. Pätiälä; T. Sorsa; S. Santavirta
Summary The aim of the study was to assess the eventual presence, cellular localization and extent of expression of the osteoclast activating cytokine M-CSF (CSF-1) in the periprosthetic tissues around loose total hip replacement (THR). Synovial-like membrane was obtained from the implant-to-bone interface and pseudocapsule from ten total hip revisions performed for aseptic loosening and compared to ten hip synovial tissue
Samelko, Lauryn; Caicedo, Marco S.; Lim, Seung-Jae; Della-Valle, Craig; Jacobs, Joshua; Hallab, Nadim J.
The historical success of orthopedic implants has been recently tempered by unexpected pathologies and early failures of some types of Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum alloy containing artificial hip implants. Hypoxia-associated responses to Cobalt-alloy metal debris were suspected as mediating this untoward reactivity at least in part. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1? is a major transcription factor involved in hypoxia, and is a potent coping mechanism for cells to rapidly respond to changing metabolic demands. We measured signature hypoxia associated responses (i.e. HIF-1?, VEGF and TNF-?) to Cobalt-alloy implant debris both in vitro (using a human THP-1 macrophage cell line and primary human monocytes/macrophages) and in vivo. HIF-1? in peri-implant tissues of failed metal-on-metal implants were compared to similar tissues from people with metal-on-polymer hip arthroplasties, immunohistochemically. Increasing concentrations of cobalt ions significantly up-regulated HIF-1? with a maximal response at 0.3 mM. Cobalt-alloy particles (1 um-diameter, 10 particles/cell) induced significantly elevated HIF-1?, VEGF, TNF-? and ROS expression in human primary macrophages whereas Titanium-alloy particles did not. Elevated expression of HIF-1? was found in peri-implant tissues and synovial fluid of people with failing Metal-on-Metal hips (n?=?5) compared to failed Metal-on-Polymer articulating hip arthroplasties (n?=?10). This evidence suggests that Cobalt-alloy, more than other metal implant debris (e.g. Titanium alloy), can elicit hypoxia-like responses that if unchecked can lead to unusual peri-implant pathologies, such as lymphocyte infiltration, necrosis and excessive fibrous tissue growths. PMID:23840602
S. Van Foreest-timp; H. U. Lemke; K. Inamura; K. Doi; M. W. Vannier; A. G. Farman
Many clinical situations ask for the simultaneous visualization of anatomical surfaces and synthetic meshes. Common examples include hip replacement surgery, intra-operative visualization of surgical instruments or probes, visualization of planning information, or implant surgery. To be useful for treatment planning and surgery, the combined visualization of anatomical information\\u000awith mesh-surfaces should meet some requirements. First, anatomical information should be as
Hino, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Takao [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD., Kyoto (Japan)
The patterned ion implantation 'PARTIAL IMPLANT' has been developed as a productivity improvement tool. The Partial Implant can form several different ion dose areas on the wafer surface by controlling the speed of wafer moving and the stepwise rotation of twist axis. The Partial Implant system contains two implant methods. One method is 'DIVIDE PARTIAL IMPLANT', that is aimed at reducing the consumption of the wafer. The Divide Partial Implant evenly divides dose area on one wafer surface into two or three different dose part. Any dose can be selected in each area. So the consumption of the wafer for experimental implantation can be reduced. The second method is 'RING PARTIAL IMPLANT' that is aimed at improving yield by correcting electrical characteristic of devices. The Ring Partial Implant can form concentric ion dose areas. The dose of wafer external area can be selected to be within plus or minus 30% of dose of wafer central area. So the electrical characteristic of devices can be corrected by controlling dose at edge side on the wafer.
... filled breast implants, including data supporting a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness, approval letters, labeling and information on post-approval studies. Provide information on reports ...
Langouche, G.; Yoshida, Y.
In this tutorial we describe the basic principles of the ion implantation technique and we demonstrate that emission Mössbauer spectroscopy is an extremely powerful technique to investigate the atomic and electronic configuration around implanted atoms. The physics of dilute atoms in materials, the final lattice sites and their chemical state as well as diffusion phenomena can be studied. We focus on the latest developments of implantation Mössbauer spectroscopy, where three accelerator facilities, i.e., Hahn-Meitner Institute Berlin, ISOLDE-CERN and RIKEN, have intensively been used for materials research in in-beam and on-line Mössbauer experiments immediately after implantation of the nuclear probes.
Kumar Chellapilla; Kevin Larson; Patrice Y. Simard; Mary Czerwinski
HIPs, or Human Interactive Proofs, are challenges meant to be easily solved by humans, while remaining too hard to be economically solved by computers. HIPs are increasingly used to protect services against automatic script attacks. To be effective, a HIP must be difficult enough to discourage script attacks by raising the computation and\\/or development cost of breaking the HIP to
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to determine whether the five-year results of hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) in Canada justified the continued use of HRA; and second, to identify whether greater refinement of patient selection was warranted. This was a retrospective cohort study that involved a review of 2773 HRAs performed between January 2001 and December 2008 at 11 Canadian centres. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to analyse the predictors of failure of HRA. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to predict the cumulative survival rate at five years. The factors analysed included age, gender, body mass index, pre-operative hip pathology, surgeon's experience, surgical approach, implant sizes and implant types. The most common modes of failure were also analysed. The 2773 HRAs were undertaken in 2450 patients: 2127 in men and 646 in women. The mean age at operation was 50.5 years (sd 8.72; 18 to 82) and mean follow-up was 3.4 years (sd 2.1; 2.0 to 10.1). At the last follow-up a total of 101 HRAs (3.6%) required revision. Using revision for all causes of failure as the endpoint, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a cumulative survival of 96.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 96.1 to 96.9) at five years. With regard to gender, the five-year overall survival was 97.4% in men (95% CI 97.1 to 97.7) and 93.6% in women (95% CI 92.6 to 94.6). Female gender, smaller femoral components, specific implant types and a diagnosis of childhood hip problems were associated with higher rates of failure. The most common cause of failure was fracture of the femoral neck, followed by loosening of the femoral component. The failure rates of HRA at five years justify the ongoing use of this technique in men. Female gender is an independent predictor of failure, and a higher failure rate at five years in women leads the authors to recommend this technique only in exceptional circumstances for women. PMID:23908418
Brown, Thomas D; Elkins, Jacob M; Pedersen, Douglas R; Callaghan, John J
In contemporary total hip arthroplasty, instability has been a complication in approximately 2% to 5% of primary surgeries and 5% to 10% of revisions. Due to the reduction in the incidence of wear-induced osteolysis that has been achieved over the last decade, instability now stands as the single most common reason for revision surgery. Moreover, even without frank dislocation, impingement and subluxation are implicated in a set of new concerns arising with advanced bearings, associated with the relatively unforgiving nature of many of those designs. Against that backdrop, the biomechanical factors responsible for impingement, subluxation, and dislocation remain under-investigated relative to their burden of morbidity. This manuscript outlines a 15-year program of laboratory and clinical research undertaken to improve the scientific basis for understanding total hip impingement and dislocation. The broad theme has been to systematically evaluate the role of surgical factors, implant design factors, and patient factors in predisposing total hip constructs to impinge, sublux, and/or dislocate. Because this class of adverse biomechanical events had not lent itself well to study with existing approaches, it was necessary to develop (and validate) a series of new research methodologies, relying heavily on advanced finite element formulations. Specific areas of focus have included identifying the biomechanical challenges posed by dislocation-prone patient activities, quantifying design parameter effects and component surgical positioning effects for conventional metal-on-polyethylene implant constructs, and the impingement/dislocation behavior of non-conventional constructs, quantifying the stabilizing role of the hip capsule (and of surgical repairs of capsule defects), and systematically studying impingement and edge loading of hard-on-hard bearings, fracture of ceramic liners, confounding effects of patient obesity, and subluxation-mediated worsening of third body particle challenge. PMID:25328453
Barry, P. W.; O'Callaghan, C.
BACKGROUND: A study was performed to determine in vitro the difference in drug output of seven currently available spacer devices when used with different inhaled medications. METHODS: A glass multistage liquid impinger (MSLI) was used to determine the amount of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG, 5 mg), salbutamol (100 micrograms), or budesonide (200 micrograms) obtained in various particle size ranges from metered dose inhalers (MDIs) actuated directly into the MSLI or via one of seven different spacer devices; the Fisonair, Nebuhaler, Volumatic, Inspirease, Aerochamber, Aerosol Cloud Enhancer, and Dynahaler. RESULTS: In particles smaller than 5 microns in diameter the dose of DSCG recovered from the Fisonair and Nebuhaler was 118% and 124%, respectively, of that recovered using the MDI alone. The dose recovered from the smaller volume spacers was 90% (Inspirease), 36% (Aerochamber), 33% (Aerosol Cloud Enhancer), and 21% (Dynahaler) of that from the MDI alone. The Volumatic increased the amount of salbutamol in particles smaller than 5 microns to 117% of that from the MDI, and the Inspirease and Aerochamber spacers decreased it by nearly 50%. The amount of budesonide in small particles recovered after use of the Nebuhaler, Inspirease, and the Aerochamber was 92%, 101%, and 78%, respectively, of that from the MDI alone. CONCLUSIONS: Under the test conditions used, large volume spacers such as the Fisonair, Nebuhaler, and Volumatic delivered significantly more DSCG and salbutamol than the smaller spacers tested. The differences between spacers were less for budesonide than the other medications studied. This study shows that there are significant differences in the amount of drug available for inhalation when different spacers are used as inhalational aids with different drugs. Spacer devices need to be fully evaluated for each drug prescribed for them. Images PMID:8795674
Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Samiezadeh, Saeid; Klika, Václav; Bougherara, Habiba
Periprosthetic bone loss in response to total hip arthroplasty is a serious complication compromising patient's life quality as it may cause the premature failure of the implant. Stress shielding as a result of an uneven load sharing between the hip implant and the bone is a key factor leading to bone density decrease. A number of composite hip implants have been designed so far to improve load sharing characteristics. However, they have rarely been investigated from the bone remodeling point of view to predict a long-term response. This is the first study that employed a mechano-biochemical model, which considers the coupling effect between mechanical loading and bone biochemistry, to investigate bone remodeling after composite hip implantation. In this study, periprosthetic bone remodeling in the presence of Carbon fiber polyamide 12 (CF/PA12), CoCrMo and Ti alloy implants was predicted and compared. Our findings revealed that the most significant periprosthetic bone loss in response to metallic implants occurs in Gruen zone 7 (-43% with CoCrMo; -35% with Ti) and 6 (-40% with CoCrMo; -29% with Ti), while zone 4 has the lowest bone density decrease with all three implants (-9%). Also, the results showed that in terms of bone remodeling, the composite hip implant is more advantageous over the metallic ones as it provides a more uniform density change across the bone and induces less stress shielding which consequently results in a lower post-operative bone loss (-9% with CF/PA12 implant compared to -27% and -21% with CoCrMo and Ti alloy implants, respectively). PMID:25460403
F. Graichen; A. Rohlmann; G. Bergmann
Knowledge of the loads to which orthopaedic implants are subjected is a fundamental prerequisite for their optimal biomechanical design. Of particular importance are joint replacements for hip, shoulder and knee, vertebral body replacements and spinal fixation devices. In vivo measurements of forces and movements give the most accurate data to improve their long-term success. For in vivo measurements a wireless
Fujita, Kimie; Xia, Zhenlan; Liu, Xueqin; Mawatari, Masaaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko
Total hip arthroplasty reduces pain and restores physical function in patients with hip joint problems. This study examined lifestyle and health-related quality of life before and after total hip arthroplasty in Japanese and Chinese patients. Two hospitals in China recruited 120 patients and 120 Japanese patients matched by age and operative status were drawn from a prospective cohort database. Oxford Hip Score, EuroQol, and characteristics of Asian lifestyle and attitudes toward the operation were assessed. There were no differences between patients from the two countries in quality-of-life-scale scores: postoperative patients had significantly better quality-of-life scores than preoperative patients in both countries. In China, patients who reported that living at home was inconvenient had significantly worse Oxford Hip Scores than those who did not. Mean scores for anxiety items concerning possible dislocation and durability of the implant were significantly higher in Japanese than in Chinese subjects. Our findings suggest that providing information about housing conditions and lifestyles would result in improved quality of life and reduced anxiety in patients with implanted joints. PMID:24845456
Pibarot, Vincent; Vaz, Gualter; Chevillotte, Christophe; Béjui-Hugues, Jacques
Unconstrained tripolar hip implants provide an additional bearing using a mobile polyethylene component between the prosthetic head and the outer metal shell. Such a design increases the effective head diameter and therefore is an attractive option in challenging situations of unstable total hip arthroplasties. We report our experience with 54 patients treated using this dual mobility implant in such situations. We ascertained its ability to restore and maintain stability, and examined component loosening and component failure. At a minimum followup of 2.2 years (mean, 4 years; range, 2.2–6.8 years), one hip had redislocated 2 months postoperatively and was managed successfully without reoperation by closed reduction with no additional dislocation. Two patients required revision of the implant because of dislocation at the inner bearing. Technical errors were responsible for these failures. Three patients had reoperations for deep infections. The postoperative radiographs at latest followup showed very satisfactory osseointegration of the acetabular component because no radiolucent line or osteolysis was reported. Use of this unconstrained tripolar design was successful in restoring and maintaining hip stability. We observed encouraging results at short-term followup regarding potential for loosening or mechanical failures. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18780135
Patel, S; Thakrar, RR; Bhamra, J; Hossain, F; Tengrootenhuysen, M; Haddad, FS
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this study was to determine if hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) and cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) were comparable in correcting leg length and hip offset in patients with primary osteoarthritis. METHODS A retrospective analysis was performed of 80 patients who underwent either HRA or cementless THA for primary osteoarthritis (40 in each group) between 2006 and 2008. Standardised anteroposterior radiographs taken pre-operatively and at one year following surgery were used to calculate the total offset and leg length in both hips. RESULTS At one year following surgery, no leg length discrepancy was identified in either group. A difference of 0.39cm (p=0.046) remained between the mean total offset of the operated hip and the contralateral non-operated hip in the HRA group. No difference in offset was observed between the two hips after surgery in the THA group (p=0.875). CONCLUSIONS Leg length is restored by HRA and THA. A difference remains in offset after HRA although we attribute this to intentional medialisation of the acetabular cup. PMID:21929917
Background and purpose Population-based registry data from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) and from the National Joint Register of England and Wales have revealed that the outcome after hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is inferior to that of conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA). We analyzed the short-term survival of 4,401 HRAs in the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. Methods We compared the revision risk of the 4,401 HRAs from the Register to that of 48,409 THAs performed during the same time period. The median follow-up time was 3.5 (0–9) years for HRAs and 3.9 (0–9) years for THAs. Results There was no statistically significant difference in revision risk between HRAs and THAs (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.78–1.10). Female patients had about double the revision risk of male patients (RR = 2.0, CI: 1.4–2.7). Hospitals that had performed 100 or more HRA procedures had a lower revision risk than those with less than 100 HRAs (RR = 0.6, CI: 0.4–0.9). Articular Surface Replacement (ASR, DePuy) had inferior outcome with higher revision risk than the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing implant (BHR, Smith & Nephew), the reference implant (RR = 1.8, CI: 1.2–2.7). Interpretation We found that HRA had comparable short-term survivorship to THA at a nationwide level. Implant design had an influence on revision rates. ASR had higher revision risk. Low hospital procedure volume worsened the outcome of HRA. Female patients had twice the revision risk of male patients. PMID:22616745
Newman, S P; Millar, A B; Lennard-Jones, T R; Morén, F; Clarke, S W
The effect on aerosol deposition from a pressurised metered dose inhaler of a 750 cm3 spacer device with a one way inhalation valve (Nebuhaler, Astra Pharmaceuticals) was assessed by means of an in vivo radiotracer technique. Nine patients with obstructive lung disease took part in the study. The pattern of deposition associated with use of a metered dose inhaler alone was compared with that achieved with the spacer used both for inhalation of single puffs of aerosol and for inhalation of four puffs actuated in rapid succession and then inhaled simultaneously. On each occasion there was a delay of 1 s between aerosol release and inhalation, simulating poor inhaler technique. With the metered dose inhaler alone, a mean (SEM) 8.7 (1.8)% of the dose reached the lungs and 80.9 (1.9)% was deposited in the oropharynx. With single puffs from the spacer 20.9 (1.6)% of the dose (p less than 0.01) reached the lungs, only 16.5 (2.3)% (p less than 0.01) was deposited in the oropharynx, and 55.8 (3.1)% was retained within the spacer itself. With four puffs from the spacer 15.2 (1.5)% reached the lungs (p = 0.02 compared with the metered dose inhaler alone, p less than 0.01 compared with single puffs from the spacer), 11.4 (1.2)% was deposited in the oropharynx, and 67.5 (1.8)% in the device itself. It is concluded that the spacer device gives lung deposition of metered dose aerosols comparable to or greater than a correctly used inhaler and oropharyngeal deposition is greatly reduced. The spacer should be used preferably for the inhalation of single puffs of aerosol but may also be used for the inhalation of up to four puffs actuated in rapid succession and then inhaled simultaneously. Images PMID:6440305
... outcomes, primarily because of recent advances in surgical instrumentation and techniques. In addition to the live hip ... the surgery, but with this newer, you know, instrumentation, the availability of centers and surgeons has really ...
Kocyigit, Figen; Kuyucu, Ersin; Kocyigit, Ali
Pseudogout is the acutest form of arthritis in the elderly. Although clinical manifestations vary widely, polyarticular involvement is typical mimicking osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Monoarticular involvement is relatively rare and is generally provoked by another medical condition. There are reported cases of hip involvement by pseudogout in monoarticular form. However, all of the cases were presented as septic arthritis. In this report, we present a case of monoarticular hip involvement mimicking soft tissue abscess. We confirmed the pseudogout diagnosis after ultrasonographic evaluation of the involved hip joint and pathological and biochemical analysis of synovial fluid analysis. Diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical treatment in cases of the bizarre involvement of hip in pseudogout. PMID:25838961
Pyda, Micha?; Koczy, Bogdan; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Widuchowska, Ma?gorzata; Sto?tny, Tomasz; Mielnik, Micha?; Hermanson, Jacek
Background Hip resurfacing is a conservative type of total hip arthroplasty but its use is controversial, especially in patients with osteonecrosis. The aim of this study was analysis of the clinical and radiographic outcomes of hip resurfacing in patients with osteonecrosis. Material/Methods Between 2007 and 2008, 30 hip resurfacing arthroplasties were performed due to osteoarthritis secondary to avascular necrosis of femoral head staged as Ficat III and IV. Patients were qualified to resurfacing arthroplasty when the extent of avascular necrosis using Kerboul’s method was <200° and the angle between avascular necrosis and head-neck junction was >20°. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically before and 60 months after the operation. Results The mean Harris Hip Score (HHS) score increased from 47.8 to 94.25 (p<0.05). Physical activity level (University of California, Los Angeles activity score – UCLA activity score) improved from 3.7 to 7.55 (p<0.05). No implant migration was observed. Conclusions Management of osteonecrosis of the hip with resurfacing arthroplasty seems to be effective in strictly-selected patients. PMID:25618763
\\u000a In recent years numerous solutions for overcoming the architectural constraints of the Internet have emerged. One of the most\\u000a promising among them is the Host Identity Protocol (HIP) , which was recently approved as an experimental standard by the IETF. HIP adds an additional protocol layer between TCP\\u000a and IP to implement the Identifier\\/Locator split. Apart from mobility and multihoming,
Martin, S. W.; Kirby, K.; Pennock, P. W.
This paper is a refinement of previous studies in that only suitably radiographed dogs were included in the data base. The rate of hip dysplasia varied widely by breed from five percent in siberian huskies to eighty-three percent in english bulldogs. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dysplasia within at least two breeds; golden retrievers and old english sheepdogs. Physical size per se did not appear to be an important determinant of hip dysplasia. PMID:7459792
Nikander, Kurt; Nicholls, Clare; Denyer, John; Pritchard, John
Spacers and valved holding chambers (VHCs) are pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) accessory devices, designed to overcome problems that patients commonly experience when administering aerosol via a pMDI. Spacers were developed in direct response to patient-related issues with pMDI technique, particularly, poor coordination between actuation and inhalation, and local side-effects arising from oropharyngeal deposition. Current clinical guidelines indicate the need for widespread prescription and use of spacers, but, despite their apparent ubiquity, the devices themselves are, unfortunately, all too commonly "disused" by patients. An understanding of the background from which spacers developed, and the key factors influencing the optimization of the spacer and the later VHC, is crucial to developing an appreciation of the potential of these devices, both contemporary and future, for improving the delivery of pressurized aerosols to patients. This review, informed by a full patent search and an extensive scientific literature review, takes into account the clinical and laboratory evidence, commercial developments, and the sometimes serendipitous details of scientific anecdotes to form a comprehensive perspective on the evolution of spacers, from their origins, in the early days of the pMDI, up to the present day. PMID:25054481
Implant ethics is defined here as the study of ethical aspects of the lasting introduction of technological devices into the human body. Whereas technological implants relieve us of some of the ethical problems connected with transplantation, other difficulties arise that are in need of careful analysis. A systematic approach to implant ethics is proposed. The major specific problems are identified as those concerning end of life issues (turning off devices), enhancement of human capabilities beyond normal levels, mental changes and personal identity, and cultural effects. PMID:16131553
... used to treat the symptoms associated with advanced prostate cancer. Histrelin implant (Supprelin LA) is used to ... to use certain tests, such as ultrasound or MRI scans (radiology techniques designed to show the images ...
Zügner, Roland; Tranberg, Roy; Herberts, Peter; Romanus, Bertil; Kärrholm, Johan
Early designs of uncemented hip implants turned out to be failures mainly because the prerequisites for durable implant fixation were unknown. One exception was the chrome-cobalt stem of the Madreporic Lord prosthesis. We prospectively studied this prosthetic design in 107 hips that underwent surgery in 1979-1986. At the last follow-up, five stems and 54 cups had been revised, corresponding to stem and cup survival rates of 92%±3% and 45%±5% at 26years. In all, 66 hips with remaining Lord stems were available for clinical follow-up 26years (24-29) after the index operation. The mean total Harris hip and pain scores were 81 (SD 14) and 41 (SD 5). PMID:23142437
Background and purpose Adverse reactions to metal debris have been reported to be a cause of pain in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. We assessed the incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic adverse reactions in a consecutive series of patients with a modern large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. Methods We studied the early clinical results and results of routine metal artifact-reduction MRI screening in a series of 79 large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties (ASR; DePuy, Leeds, UK) in 68 patients. 75 hips were MRI scanned at mean 31 (12–52) months after surgery. Results 27 of 75 hips had MRI-detected metal debris-related abnormalities, of which 5 were mild, 18 moderate, and 4 severe. 8 of these hips have been revised, 6 of which were revised for an adverse reaction to metal debris, diagnosed preoperatively with MRI and confirmed histologically. The mean Oxford hip score (OHS) for the whole cohort was 21. It was mean 23 for patients with no MRI-based evidence of adverse reactions and 19 for those with adverse reactions detected by MRI. 6 of 12 patients with a best possible OHS of 12 had MRI-based evidence of an adverse reaction. Interpretation We have found a high early revision rate with a modern, large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. MRI-detected adverse rections to metal debris was common and often clinically “silent”. We recommend that patients with this implant should be closely followed up and undergo routine metal artifact-reduction MRI screening. PMID:21504335
HWJ Huiskes; HARRIE WEINANS; Rietbergen van R
Bone resorption around hip stems is a disturbing phenomenon, although its clinical significance and its eventual effects on replacement longevity are as yet uncertain. The relationship between implant flexibility and the extent of bone loss, frequently established in clinical patient series and animal experiments, does suggest that the changes in bone morphology are an effect of stress shielding and a
L. M. Wise; S. D. Waldman; M. Kasra; R. Cheung; A. Binnington; R. A. Kandel; L. M. White; M. D. Grynpas
Periprosthetic bone loss, which is a direct cause of aseptic loosening in total hip arthroplasty (THA), can be suppressed by bisphosphonates. It is unknown how the quality of this bone is affected in the presence of both wear debris (from implant) and bis- phosphonates. The objective of this study was to eval- uate the effect of zoledronate (ZLN) on bone
Gasbarra, Elena; Celi, Monica; Perrone, Fabio L; Iundusi, Riccardo; Di Primio, Luigia; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Tarantino, Umberto
Currently, an increasing number of younger patients undergo total hip arthroplasty surgery. This has led to a minimal invasive approach and the use of short, bone preserving, femoral stems. In this study, we sought to evaluate osseointegration of the Fitmore stem (Zimmer, Inc; Warsaw, IN) during the first 12 mo after surgery, which reflects the biological phenomenon of osseointegration with radiographic evaluation and bone densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). We evaluated 33 patients (mean age 62.3) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan around the stem and X-ray. Moreover, we studied functional recovery using the Harris Hip Score, timed up and go test, and a quality of life form (SF-36), during the follow-up period. At 12 mo, we observed an increased periprosthetic bone mineral density in region of interest 1 (1.7%) and region of interest 7 (8.3%), where there is usually a greater amount of bone resorption. Also Harris Hip Score, timed up and go test, and SF-36 showed an improvement of clinical conditions of all patients. We also used a control group with a standard stem implanted. Because this is the first study correlating osseointegration and clinical outcome of the Fitmore stem, further clinical studies will be necessary to confirm good/positive results and a long stable fixation. PMID:24613452
Mirza, Saqeb B; Dunlop, Douglas G; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Naqvi, Syed G; Gangoo, Shafat; Salih, Saif
Total Hip Replacement is one of the most common operations performed in the developed world today. An increasingly ageing population means that the numbers of people undergoing this operation is set to rise. There are a numerous number of prosthesis on the market and it is often difficult to choose between them. It is therefore necessary to have a good understanding of the basic scientific principles in Total Hip Replacement and the evidence base underpinning them. This paper reviews the relevant anatomical and biomechanical principles in THA. It goes on to elaborate on the structural properties of materials used in modern implants and looks at the evidence base for different types of fixation including cemented and uncemented components. Modern bearing surfaces are discussed in addition to the scientific basis of various surface engineering modifications in THA prostheses. The basic science considerations in component alignment and abductor tension are also discussed. A brief discussion on modular and custom designs of THR is also included. This article reviews basic science concepts and the rationale underpinning the use of the femoral and acetabular component in total hip replacement. PMID:20582240
Muhr, O; Stockhusen, H; Müller, O
Uncemented fixation and low-fraction materials are the basis of this experiment. Plastics with an elasticity similar to the bone ("isoelasticity") show very propitious material qualities. The direct cementless incorporation of test bodies must be checked. In 63 sheep isoelastic total hip joints were implanted. After 2 till 51 weeks the animals were sacrificed and 44 specimen of hips and organs were explored macroscopically, radiologically, spherimetrically and histologically. The result was: 1. Plastic hip prosthesis are incorporated in the bone, but the boundary layer is built by a collagenous fiber tissue. 2. Loosening brings resoption of the bone and expansion of the structural changed soft tissue. 3. The transformation of the femoral cortex to osteoporosis is considered possibly as the consequence of an insufficient biological transfer of the weight. 4. Fractures of the femoral prosthesis-stem could not be observed. 5. The radiology allows at the pelvis prosthesis a concret statement concerning stability, on the femoral part a probable one. 6. The abrasion is minimal, the tissue reaction to abrasion products is unessential. 7. Small abrasion particles are carried of by the lymph tract and stored in the first regional gland. A more distant spreading is not demonstrable. PMID:985179
Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Medel, Francisco; Puértolas, José Antonio
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) remains the gold standard acetabular bearing material for hip arthroplasty. Its successful performance has shown consistent results and survivorship in total hip replacement (THR) above 85% after 15 years, with different patients, surgeons, or designs. As THR results have been challenged by wear, oxidation, and liner fracture, relevant research on the material properties in the past decade has led to the development and clinical introduction of highly crosslinked polyethylenes (HXLPE). More stress on the bearing (more active, overweighted, younger patients), and more variability in the implantation technique in different small and large Hospitals may further compromise the clinical performance for many patients. The long-term in vivo performance of these materials remains to be proven. Clinical and retrieval studies after more than 5 years of in vivo use with HXLPE in THR are reviewed and consistently show a substantial decrease in wear rate. Moreover, a second generation of improved polyethylenes is backed by in vitro data and awaits more clinical experience to confirm the experimental improvements. Also, new antioxidant, free radical scavengers, candidates and the reinforcement of polyethylene through composites are currently under basic research. Oxidation of polyethylene is today significantly reduced by present formulations, and this forgiving, affordable, and wellknown material is still reliable to meet today’s higher requirements in total hip replacement. PMID:20111694
T E Johnston; R R Betz; B T Smith; M J Mulcahey
Study design: Post intervention, repeated measures design, comparing two interventions.Setting: Orthopedic pediatric hospital specializing in spinal cord injury.Methods: Nine subjects, ages 7–20 years, received an eight-channel implanted lower extremity functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for standing and walking. Electrodes were placed to stimulate hip and knee extension, and hip abduction and adduction. Standing and walking were achieved through constant stimulation
J. E. Alexander; J. J. Seibert; J. Aronson; S. L. Williamson; C. M. Glasier; A. B. Rodgers; S. L. Corbitt
A useful protocol for the evaluation of hip pain in the pediatric patient, using a combination of plain radiographs, hip ultrasound (US), and triple phase radionuclide bone scans is presented. Patients with hip pain were initially evaluated by plain radiographs of the pelvis and hips. If no diagnosis was reached, the hips were studied for effusions by real-time hip ultrasonography.
A. B. Spierings; S. Derler
As in many countries, a significant increase in the number of hip fractures is predicted due to the demographic changes in the population. To reduce the consequences for the patients and the social costs, hip protectors are considered to be effective in reducing the impact force on the hip and so to reduce the risk of hip fractures. The effectiveness
P Hildebrandt; M Sayyad; A Rzany; M Schaldach; H Seiter
The encrustation of materials used for urological implants is as yet an unresolved problem. The crystallisation-inhibiting effect of the glycosaminoglycan heparin was used to reduce encrustation. Heparin was covalently bound to the surface of slotted-tube stents of tantalum and stainless steel using a spacer molecule. To verify the inhibition of crystallisation processes, reproducible in vitro tests and in vivo tests
HIP-HOP DEBOUT Avec Thomas RAMIRES LIEU : Campus Jussieu - Centre sportif Jean Talbot : salle d'escrime PRESENTATION Découvrir et approfondir les bases des différents styles de Danse Hip-Hop debout : Lock Pop House
Subject explores the political and aesthetic foundations of hip hop. Students trace the musical, corporeal, visual, spoken word, and literary manifestations of hip hop over its thirty year presence in the American cultural ...
Matharu, Gulraj S; Daniel, Joseph; Ziaee, Hena; McMinn, Derek J W
We report the early failure of five ceramic-on-ceramic hip resurfacings (CoCHRs). The ceramic used for the acetabular liner was a novel ceramic-composite (two thirds polyurethane and one third alumina ceramic). All cases were revised for increasing metal ion levels (blood cobalt 3.93-208.0 ?g/l and chromium 1.57-17.5 ?g/l) due to ceramic liner fracture and/or accelerated wear of the ceramic femoral head coating. Patients underwent bearing exchange and revision using primary hip arthroplasty implants at a mean of 3.0 years following CoCHR. Intraoperatively all patients had metallosis. At 1 to 2 years of follow-up blood metal ions normalized with no complications. We do not recommend this particular type of ceramic-on-ceramic bearing for hip resurfacing. PMID:25453631
Cosmi, F; Hoglievina, M; Fancellu, G; Martinelli, B
The contact mechanics of two metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip prostheses was studied by means of the finite element method (FEM). The purpose of the work was to compare two total hip replacements (Durom and Metasul) with regard to the amount of wear debris released. Wear on the bearing surfaces was evaluated following Reye hypotheses from the pressure distribution, computed by means of three-dimensional FEM models; an approximate analytical model based on Hertz contact theory has also been developed and discussed. The results show that in the dry friction condition the Durom joint releases almost twice as much wear volume as produced by the Metasul joint. Therefore, while Durom implants can improve hip stability by increasing the prosthetic impingement-free range of motion (PIF-ROM), Metasul prostheses can be a valuable solution whenever wear represents a critical choice factor. PMID:17236520
Amstutz, Harlan C; Takamura, Karren M; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Le Duff, Michel J
Highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) has improved wear properties. This study reports the results of a small series of patients treated over 10 years ago with a metal-on-XLPE hip resurfacing.A total of 21 hips in 20 patients received a hip resurfacing with a cobalt-chromium metal femoral head and metal-backed acetabular cup lined with a XLPE insert and were retrospectively studied. Kaplan-Meier Survivorship was calculated.Five patients who had initial extreme cystic disease in the femoral head failed due to femoral loosening. Survivorship was 95.2% at 5 years and 81.0% at 10 years.We found that XLPE wear was not implicated in these failures, which were primarily attributed to poor bone quality of the femoral head, early bone preparation, cementing technique and excessive head reaming to near the neck diameter, necessitated for the implantation of a thick two-part socket. PMID:25362872
Improvement of balance along with bone-enhancing pharmacotherapy can improve the level of an individual's physical activity and mobility. Balance can be improved with enhancement of postural proprioception and muscular strength. Postural deformities have been shown to impair quality of life of osteoporotic individuals. Kyphotic posture has been demonstrated to contribute to propensity to fall in osteoporotic individuals. Kyphotic posturing and gait disorders can be managed through proprioceptive training, use of a weighted kypho-orthosis, muscle re-education, and safe resistance exercises. Proprioceptive balance training can reduce falls and fracture. Sarcopenia and osteoporotic fractures create musculoskeletal challenges that cannot be met with pharmacotherapy alone. Bone loss, imbalance, and gait disorder along with cognitive concerns can increase with aging. Even in healthy persons, predisposition to falls increases with age-related neuromuscular changes. Muscle strength decreases approximately 50% from age 30 to 80. Furthermore, the amount of body sway increases with reduction of proprioception. Therefore, measures that can decrease imbalance can reduce the risk for falls and fracture. In normal balance, ankle strategies are recruited rather than hip strategies. Strengthening of the lower extremity muscles reduces the risk for falls. Gait aids can also decrease the risk for falls. During a fall, the risk for hip fracture increases 30-fold if there is direct impact to the hip. The use of hip protectors can decrease the risk for hip fracture during a sideways fall. Training in effective safe-landing strategies should be included in fall prevention programs. PMID:16036094
Malanga, Gerard A; Dentico, Richard; Halperin, Jonathan S
Musculoskeletal ultrasonographic evaluation of the proximal lower limb includes the evaluation of the soft tissue structures, including tendons, ligaments, or muscles, and the bony structures of this region, include the hip, pubic symphysis, and sacroiliac joints. The evaluation of the hip or proximal lower limb region can be performed in an efficient and systematic manner. Ultrasonography of the lateral hip, intra-articular hip, medial thigh, and posterior thigh are discussed in the article. PMID:20797548
T. M. Theobald; J. A. Cauley; C. C. Gluer; C. H. Bunker; F. A. M. Ukoli; H. K. Genant
. Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced thickness of the femoral neck and shaft cortex, a wider intertrochanteric\\u000a region and a longer hip axis length were predictive of hip fracture among Caucasian women. We hypothesized that racial differences\\u000a in these features of hip geometry may contribute to explaining the differences in hip fracture incidence between women of\\u000a African origin and
Ramsden, D A; Baetz, K; Wu, G E
The variable domains of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors are assembled through the somatic, site specific recombination of multiple germline segments (V, D, and J segments) or V(D)J rearrangement. The recombination signal sequence (RSS) is necessary and sufficient for cell type specific targeting of the V(D)J rearrangement machinery to these germline segments. Previously, the RSS has been described as possessing both a conserved heptamer and a conserved nonamer motif. The heptamer and nonamer motifs are separated by a 'spacer' that was not thought to possess significant sequence conservation, however the length of the spacer could be either 12 +/- 1 bp or 23 +/- 1 bp long. In this report we have assembled and analyzed an extensive data base of published RSS. We have derived, through extensive consensus comparison, a more detailed description of the RSS than has previously been reported. Our analysis indicates that RSS spacers possess significant conservation of sequence, and that the conserved sequence in 12 bp spacers is similar to the conserved sequence in the first half of 23 bp spacers. PMID:8208601
Valladares Linares, R; Bucs, Sz S; Li, Z; AbuGhdeeb, M; Amy, G; Vrouwenvelder, J S
Forward osmosis (FO) indirect desalination systems integrate wastewater recovery with seawater desalination. Niche applications for FO systems have been reported recently, due to the demonstrated advantages compared to conventional high-pressure membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Among them, wastewater recovery has been identified to be particularly suitable for practical applications. However, biofouling in FO membranes has rarely been studied in applications involving wastewater effluents. Feed spacers separating the membrane sheets in cross-flow systems play an important role in biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of feed spacer thickness (28, 31 and 46 mil) on biofouling development and membrane performance in a FO system, using identical cross-flow cells in parallel studies. Flux development, biomass accumulation, fouling localization and composition were determined and analyzed. For all spacer thicknesses, operated at the same feed flow and the same run time, the same amount of biomass was found, while the flux reduction decreased with thicker spacers. These observations are in good agreement with biofouling studies for RO systems, considering the key differences between FO and RO. Our findings contradict previous cross-flow studies on particulate/colloidal fouling, where higher cross-flow velocities improved system performance. Thicker spacers reduced the impact of biofouling on FO membrane flux. PMID:24726992
Chen, Yijian; Cheng, Qi; Kang, Weiling
Self-aligned triple patterning (SATP) technique offers both improved resolution and quasi-2D design flexibility for scaling integrated circuits down to sub-15nm half pitch. By implementation of active layout decomposition/synthesis using mandrel and spacer engineering, SATP process represents a prospective trend that not only drives up the feature density, but also breaks the 1-D gridded limitations posed to future device design. In this paper, we shall present the research progress made in optimizing SATP process to improve its lithographic performance. To solve the previously reported difficulties in etching small mandrels and removing sacrificial spacers, new materials are tested and a promising scheme (using oxide as the mandrel and poly/amorphous Si as the sacrificial spacer) is identified. In the new process, a diluted HF process is applied to shrink the mandrel (oxide) line CD and a highly selective dry etch (which does not attack the mandrel and structural spacer) is developed to strip the sacrificial Si spacers, resulting in significantly improved process performance. We also address the issue of reducing SATP process complexity by exploring the feasibility of a 2-mask concept for specific types of layout.
... Vision Loss Using a Cochlear Implant Using a Cochlear Implant Note: This video may take several seconds to ... Cochlear Implant Video (Quicktime) Transcript of Using a Cochlear Implant Video NARRATOR: Mary, a woman with short gray ...
Implantable Medical Devices Updated:Oct 23,2014 Implantable Medical Devices - 2 types 1. Rhythm control ICD -- Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator ( ... medical treatment. 2. Support of the Circulation Implantable Medical Devices Left Ventricular Assist Device (Also known as ...
Over the last 30 years, the hip-hop movement has risen from the margins to become the preeminent force in US popular culture. In more recent times academics have begun to harness the power of hip-hop culture and use it as a means of infusing transformative knowledge into the mainstream academic discourse. On many college campuses, hip-hop's…
Schumacher, Maria A.; Piro, Kevin M.; Xu, Weijun; Hansen, Sonja; Lewis, Kim; Brennan, Richard G.
Summary Bacterial multidrug tolerance is largely responsible for the inability of antibiotics to eradicate infections and is caused by a small population of dormant bacteria called persisters. HipA is a critical Escherichia coli persistence factor that is normally neutralized by HipB, a transcription repressor, which also regulates hipBA expression. Here we report multiple structures of HipA and a HipA-HipB-DNA complex. HipA has a eukaryotic Ser/Thr kinase-like fold and can phosphorylate the translation factor, EF-Tu, suggesting a persistence mechanism via cell stasis. The HipA-HipB-DNA structure reveals the HipB-operator binding mechanism, ~70° DNA bending and unexpected HipA-DNA contacts. Dimeric HipB interacts with two HipA molecules to inhibit its kinase activity through sequestration and conformational inactivation. Combined, these studies suggest mechanisms for HipA-mediated persistence and its neutralization by HipB. PMID:19150849
Savarino, Lucia; Cadossi, Matteo; Chiarello, Eugenio; Fotia, Caterina; Greco, Michelina; Baldini, Nicola; Giannini, Sandro
Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MOM-HR) is offered as an alternative to traditional hip arthroplasty for young, active adults with advanced osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, concerns remain regarding wear and corrosion of the bearing surfaces and the resulting increase in metal ion levels. We evaluated three cohorts of patients with Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) at an average follow-up of 2, 5, and 9 years. We asked whether there would be differences in ion levels between the cohorts and inside the gender. Nineteen patients were prospectively analyzed. The correlation with clinical-radiographic data was also performed. Chromium, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Chromium and cobalt levels demonstrated a tendency to decrease over time. Such tendency was present only in females. An inverse correlation between chromium, implant size, and Harris hip score was present at short term; it disappeared over time together with the decreased ion levels. The prospective analysis showed that, although metal ion levels remained fairly constant within each patient, there was a relatively large variation between subjects, so mean data in this scenario must be interpreted with caution. The chronic high exposure should be carefully considered during implant selection, particularly in young subjects, and a stricter monitoring is mandatory. PMID:25580456
Oshima, Yasushi; Fetto, Joseph F
Metal-on-metal had been proposed as an optimal articulation in THRs, however, many monoblock prostheses have been recalled in the USA because of significant high rates of early failure. Metal-on-metal prostheses had been implanted in our institution, and this is a case history of a single patient, in whom metal-on-metal THRs with different femoral sizes of heads were implanted. A 57-year-old female patient underwent bilateral total hip replacements with metal-on-metal prostheses using metal-polyethylene "sandwich" liners 9 years ago on the right side and 7 years ago on the left side respectively. The only difference in both sides was the femoral head diameter of 28 mm in right and 34 mm in left. Seven years after the left surgery, the acetabular liner was dissociated, however, metallosis was not detected. Although the larger femoral head was thought to increase hip joint stability, it dictated a reduction in polyethylene thickness in this prosthesis design, and it was 4 mm in the left hip. Recently, metal-on-metal articulations are thought not to be optimal for hip joint bearing surface, however, this clinical failure was due to the polyethylene thickness and quality. PMID:25601670
Rajkumar, Veena; Rajendra, Barathi; How, Choon How; Ang, Seng Bin
Max was treated with SABA using an MDI and spacer with facemask and responded well to the initial treatment. You explained to the parents that nebulisers are neither required nor recommended in the treatment of wheezing in their child's situation. You advised the parents on the proper technique of MDI use with spacer and facemask, as well as care of the equipment. You also gave them a clearly written action plan regarding the efficient management of the next episode of wheeze with MDI and spacer. You further explained the side effects of oral bronchodilators and nebulisers, and why you refrained from using them. Max was given a follow-up appointment to assess his progress, and his parents were advised on the situations when they should go to a doctor or the emergency department. PMID:25631964
Rajkumar, Veena; Rajendra, Barathi; How, Choon How; Ang, Seng Bin
Max was treated with SABA using an MDI and spacer with facemask and responded well to the initial treatment. You explained to the parents that nebulisers are neither required nor recommended in the treatment of wheezing in their child’s situation. You advised the parents on the proper technique of MDI use with spacer and facemask, as well as care of the equipment. You also gave them a clearly written action plan regarding the efficient management of the next episode of wheeze with MDI and spacer. You further explained the side effects of oral bronchodilators and nebulisers, and why you refrained from using them. Max was given a follow-up appointment to assess his progress, and his parents were advised on the situations when they should go to a doctor or the emergency department. PMID:25631964
In this paper, new bolaform cholesteryl imide derivatives with different spacers were designed and synthesized. Their gelation behaviors in 23 solvents were investigated, and some of them were found to be low molecular mass organic gelators. The experimental results indicated that these as-formed organogels can be regulated by changing the flexible/rigid segments in spacers and organic solvents. Suitable combination of flexible/rigid segments in molecular spacers in the present cholesteryl gelators is favorable for the gelation of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations revealed that the gelator molecules self-assemble into different aggregates, from wrinkle and belt to fiber with the change of spacers and solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations between imide groups and assembly modes, depending on the substituent spacers in molecular skeletons. The present work may give some insight into the design and character of new organogelators and soft materials with special molecular structures. PMID:24083361
This website includes an animation which illustrates the ion implant process. Objective: Name the three common dopants used in implantation processes and explain the process of generating an ion beam from source to wafer. You can find this animation under the heading "Process & Equipment III." This simulation is from Module 026 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey
Hip fracture management by the geriatrician demands a close cooperation with orthopedic surgeons and a interdisciplinary approach with the implementation of protocole-driven care to standardize the care of most patients. From admission to discharge this orthogeriatric management is based on the comprehensive geriatric assessment to reduce the delays in surgery, the occurence of delirium or the most postoperative complications. This collaborative model of care seems to have the potential to improve function, admissions to nursing homes and mortality outcomes compared with usual care of geriatric patient with hip fracture. PMID:25536828
corresponding to the hip bone (Fig. 4). 5. Tape the pattern in place. 6. To maintain the original waist measurement, increase a dart, tuck or pleat near the spread by the amount you have added to the waist line; or convert the full- ness to gathers (Fig. 5). 7.... If the pattern has darts, tucks or pleats, move the fullness over the hip bone location. To move a dart, follow the directions on page 1 and refer to Figure 6. Make the new dart the width of the increased dart to maintain the original waistline measurement...
Traina, Francesco; Bordini, Barbara; De Fine, Marcello; Toni, Aldo
The effect of obesity on the long-term survival of total hip arthroplasty remains under discussion. Reviewing meta-analyses of large cohort studies a high body mass index has been correlated with a higher incidence of complications but not univocally with a lower implant survival rate. It has been suggested that body weight rather than body mass index might be a better parameter to evaluate prosthesis outcome. We reviewed 27,571 patients retrospectively with primary arthritis as a preoperative diagnosis. Patients were divided into 4 categories based on their body mass index, or into two groups based on the body weight (<80 kg and =80 kg). Implant survivorship was estimated with use of the Cox proportional hazards model with revision for aseptic loosening as the end point. Results were stratified for sex and implant tribology. When body mass index was used the 10 years implant survival in obese versus non-obese patients was not statistically different (p=0.058), but when body weight was used a statistically different implant survivorship was found for men (p=0.009). Therefore, weight rather than than body mass index influences survival of hip prostheses, and should be used as the discriminant parameter for further studies. PMID:22144336
In prosthetic applications, the reliability of implant materials over a period of thirty years is absolutely essential. Calculation\\u000a of the lifetimes of alumina ceramic heads is generally made on the basis of experimental fatigue and slow crack growth tests\\u000a using finite element analysis. This investigation is aimed at understanding the fatigue behaviour of fine-grained alumina\\u000a heads of hip joints. The
Russell D. Hull; Graham F. Pineo; Susan MacIsaac
Administration of low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in elective hip implant patients commonly begins 12 h preoperatively in European practices to optimize effectiveness, and 12 to 24 h postoperatively in North American practices to optimize safety. A meta-analysis comparing these two treatment regimes revealed that preoperative initiation demonstrated greater efficacy and superior safety for patients (10.0% rate of total deep-vein thrombosis vs.
Taylor, A G; Fincham, W J; Golding, M A; Cook, J
In two cases of infected total hip replacements, Peptococcus magnus was isolated in pure culture from the implant when it was removed. Fluorescent antibody and ELISA studies have shown that both patients developed an antibody response to this anaerobic coccus soon after the replacement operation. These results suggest that the organism is a true infective agent, which was probably responsible for the failure of the arthroplasty operation. PMID:372250
Yongde Zhang; Aaron W. Putnam; Anneliese D. Heiner; John J. Callaghan; Thomas D. Brown
A laboratory study assessed the reliability of detecting radiolucencies at the prosthesis\\/cement interface in femoral components for total hip replacement. Radiolucencies (thicknesses=0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm) were created by randomly masking non-tip Gruen zones (six per stem) in a group of 72 matte-finish femoral components. Only half of all Gruen zones were masked. The femoral components were reproducibly implanted
Gebel, Philipp; Oszwald, Markus; Ishaque, Bernd; Ahmed, Gaffar; Blessing, Recha; Thorey, Fritz; Ottersbach, Andreas
The purpose of this study was to analyse a new concept of using the the minimally invasive direct anterior approach (DAA) in total hip replacement (THR) in combination with the leg positioner (Rotex- Table) and a modified retractor system (Condor). We evaluated retrospectively the first 100 primary THR operated with the new concept between 2009 and 2010, regarding operation data, radiological and clinical outcome (HOOS). All surgeries were perfomed in a standardized operation technique including navigation. The average age of the patients was 68 years (37 to 92 years), with a mean BMI of 26.5 (17 to 43). The mean time of surgery was 80 min. (55 to 130 min). The blood loss showed an average of 511.5 mL (200 to 1000 mL). No intra-operative complications occurred. The postoperative complication rate was 6%. The HOOS increased from 43 points pre-operatively to 90 (max 100 points) 3 months after surgery. The radiological analysis showed an average cup inclination of 43° and a leg length discrepancy in a range of +/? 5 mm in 99%. The presented technique led to excellent clinic results, showed low complication rates and allowed correct implant positions although manpower was saved. PMID:22577504
ElMaraghy, Amr W.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Waddell, James P.
Objective To determine the immediate effect of reaming and insertion of the acetabular component with and without cement on periacetabular blood flow during primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Design A clinical experimental study. Setting A tertiary referral and teaching hospital in Toronto. Patients Sixteen patients (9 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 30 to 78 years and suffering from arthritis. Intervention Elective primary THA with a cemented (8 patients) and noncemented (8 patients) acetabular component. All procedures were done by a single surgeon who used a posterior approach. Main outcome measure Acetabular bone blood-flow measurements made with a laser Doppler flowmeter before reaming, after reaming and after insertion of the acetabular prosthesis. Results Acetabular blood flow after prosthesis insertion was decreased by 52% in the noncemented group (p < 0.001) and 59% in the cemented group (p < 0.001) compared with baseline (prereaming) values. Conclusion The significance of these changes in periacetabular bone blood flow during THA may relate to the extent of bony ingrowth, periprosthetic remodelling and ultimately the incidence of implant failure because of aseptic loosening. PMID:10851413
Ayal, Guy; Shauly, Eitan; Levi, Shimon; Siany, Amit; Adan, Ofer; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi
LER and LWR have long been considered a primary issue in process development and monitoring. Development of a low power process flavors emphasizes the effect of LER, LWR on different aspects of the device. Gate level performance, particularly leakage current at the front end of line, resistance and reliability in the back-end layers. Traditionally as can be seen in many publications, for the front end of line the focus is mainly on Poly and Active area layers. Poly spacers contribution to the gate leakage, for example, is rarely discussed. Following our research done on sources of gate leakage, we found leakage current (Ioff) in some processes to be highly sensitive to changes in the width of the Poly spacers - even more strongly to the actual Poly gate CDs. Therefore we decided to measure Poly spacers LWR, its correlation to the LWR in the poly, and its sensitivity to changes in layout and OPC. In our last year publication, we defined the terms LLER (Local Line Edge Roughness) and LLWR (Local Line Width Roughness). The local roughness is measured as the 3-sigma value of the line edge/width in a 5-nm segment around the measurement point. We will use these terms in this paper to evaluate the Poly roughness impact on Poly spacer's roughness. A dedicated test chip was designed for the experiments, having various transistors layout configurations with different densities to cover the all range of process design rules. Applied Materials LER and LWR innovative algorithms were used to measure and characterize the spacer roughness relative to the distance from the active edges and from other spaces. To accurately measure all structures in a reasonable time, the recipes were automatically generated from CAD. On silicon, after poly spacers generation, the transistors no longer resemble the Poly layer CAD layout, their morphology is different compared with Photo/Etch traditional structures , and dimensions vary significantly. In this paper we present metrology and characterization of poly spacer LLWR and LLER compared to that of the poly gate in various transistor shapes, showing that the relation between them depends on the transistor architecture (final layout, including OPC). We will show how the spacer deposition may reduce, keep or even enlarge the roughness measured on Poly, depending on transistor layout , but surprisingly, not dependent on proximity effects.
... during an optimal period to develop speech and language skills. A growing body of research, much of it funded by the NIDCD, has shown that when these children receive a cochlear implant ... a young age develop language skills at a rate comparable to children with ...
Clegg, Travis E; Roberts, Craig S; Greene, Joseph W; Prather, Brad A
Traumatic dislocations of the hip appear to be on the rise in North America. Multidetector CT, hip arthroscopy, and high field MRI have further defined the pathoanatomy of hip dislocations. They can be divided into simple and complex dislocations. At the University of Louisville, an algorithm has been developed to facilitate rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment of simple hip dislocations. In contrast to the treatment of simple hip dislocations, the treatment of complex hip dislocations (fracture-dislocations) is generally predicated on specific treatments of the associated fracture (e.g., femoral head fracture, femoral neck fracture, acetabular fracture, etc.). This review includes the mechanism of injury, epidemiology, associated injuries, evaluation, treatment, and functional outcomes of simple hip dislocations. PMID:19796765
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has proven successful in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with RA often require multiple revisions, and bone conservation is mandatory. A variety of short stems is currently available with mid-term results for osteoarthritis. This retrospective study evaluated mid-term clinical results of short stem THA in a series of patients with RA. Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 105 cementless short stems were implanted in patients with RA. Average patient age at the time of the index THA was 44.2 years, and average length of follow-up was 5 years. Clinical evaluation included physical examination and documentation of potential adverse events during the postoperative period. No radiographic failures occurred. Femoral and cup components showed some minor radiolucencies with sclerotic lines, but none involved 100% of the bone-prosthesis interface. Complications included femoral component subsidence in 2 hips after initial full weight bearing; 1 case resolved after 3 months, and the other case was revised to a standard shaft. One intraoperative dorsolateral stem tip perforation occurred with revision to a conventional length stem. Migration in 1 cup led to revision without removal of the short stem implant. No infections or joint dislocations were observed. The transfer of the short stem concept to an additional treatment option for patients with RA proved successful in the early to mid-term postoperative period. Complications and revisions were limited to early migration and early loosening of the implants in line with the results reported in the literature of cementless conventional THA in patients with RA. PMID:25826632
Cipriani, E.; Bracco, P.; Kurtz, S.M.; Costa, L.; Zanetti, M.
Fourteen explanted Dynesys® spinal devices were analyzed for biostability and compared with a reference, never implanted, control. Both poly(carbonate-urethane) (PCU) spacers and polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) cords were analyzed. The effect of implantation was evaluated through the observation of physical alterations of the device surfaces, evaluation of the chemical degradation and fluids absorption on the devices and examination of the morphological and mechanical features. PCU spacers exhibited a variety of surface damage mechanisms, the most significant being abrasion and localized, microscopic surface cracks. Evidence of oxidation and chain scission were detected on PCU spacers ATR–FTIR. ATR–FTIR, DSC and hardness measurements also showed a slight heterogeneity in the composition of PCU. The extraction carried out on the PCU spacers revealed the presence of extractable polycarbonate segments. One spacer and all PET cords visually exhibited the presence of adherent biological material (proteins), confirmed by the ATR–FTIR results. GC/MS analyses of the extracts from PET cords revealed the presence of biological fluids residues, mainly cholesterol derivatives and fatty acids, probably trapped into the fiber network. No further chemical alterations were observed on the PET cords. Although the observed physical and chemical damage can be considered superficial, greater attention must be paid to the chemical degradation mechanisms of PCU and to the effect of byproducts on the body. PMID:24043907
L. Dubs; N. Gschwend; U. Munzinger
Up to now, sporting activity after total hip arthroplasty has been limited or terminated completely because of the risk of failure. In the case of younger patients, it is desirable to know whether this attitude is justified. Consequently, an analysis has been made of 110 patients (all male, average age at the time of the operation 55 years, 42 bilateral).
Talley, Clarence, Sr.
Art has a way of helping students better understand and appreciate the world around them, particularly the things that are most important to them. Hip hop is one of those generational genres that capture the attention of young students like few other things do. Drawing on this genre to get students to create art is an excellent way to demonstrate…
When a garment is too tight in the hip area, crosswise wrinkles form above the hipline in front and in back. The garment also may cup under the seat area. When it's too loose, vertical folds fall from the waist to the hem ...
Molini, L.; Precerutti, M.; Gervasio, A.; Draghi, F.; Bianchi, S.
Ultrasound (US) has always had a relatively limited role in the evaluation of the hip due to the deep location of this joint. However, many hip diseases are well detectable at US, but before approaching such a study it is necessary to be thoroughly familiar with the normal anatomy and related US images. The study technique is particularly important as optimization of various parameters is required, such as probe frequency, focalization, positioning of the probe, etc. Also the patient’s position is important, as it varies according to the area requiring examination. For the study of the anterior structures, the patient should be in the supine position; for the medial structures, the leg should be abducted and rotated outward with the knee flexed; for the lateral structures, the patient should be in the controlateral decubitus position; for the posterior structures the patient must be in the prone position. US study of the hip includes assessment of the soft tissues, tendons, ligaments and muscles, and also of the bone structures, joint space and serous bursae. The purpose of this article is to review the normal anatomy of the hip as well as the US anatomy of this joint. PMID:23397030
Background The number of total hip arthroplasties in patients under 30 years is increasing over the years. Almost all of them will face at least one or more future revisions in their life. Therefore, the implant used should have a high survival rate, and needs to be easily revisable resulting in a low re-revision rate. Several studies have evaluated the outcome of total hip arthroplasties in patients under 30 years. However, only a few reported on the follow-up outcome of 10 years or more. In addition, none of these reports published data of the subsequent revisions of these implants within their original report. Methods We studied historically prospective collected data of 48 consecutive patients (69 hips) younger than 30 years, treated with a cemented primary total hip prosthesis between 1988 and 2004. Since the last evaluation of this cohort, two patients were lost to follow-up. For all hip revisions in this cohort, again cemented implants were used, mostly in combination with bone impaction grafting. Kaplan-Meier survival curves at 10- and 15 years for the primary total hip arthroplasties and revisions were determined. Results The mean age at time of primary surgery was 25 years (range, 16 to 29 years). Mean follow-up of the primary hips was 11.5 years (range, 7 to 23 years). During follow-up 13 revisions were performed; in 3 cases a two-stage total revision was performed for septic loosening and 9 cups were revised for aseptic loosening. There were no aseptic stem revisions. The 10 and 15-year survival rates with endpoint revision for aseptic loosening of the primary total hip were 90% (95% CI: 79 to 96) and 82% (95% CI: 65 to 92) respectively. None of our 13 subsequent revisions needed a re-revision within 10 years after re-implantation. Conclusions Cemented total hip implants in patients under 30 years have an encouraging outcome at 10 and 15 years after surgery in these young patients. The 13 revised hips, treated with bone grafting and the third generation cement technique, were performing well with no re-revisions within ten years after surgery. PMID:23339294
Remnev, M. A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Kateev, I. Yu.; Elesin, V. F. [MEPhI National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation)
Using the numerical solution to the Schroedinger equation, current-voltage characteristics of the resonant-tunneling diode with spacer layers were obtained. The dependences of the peak current of the resonant-tunneling diode on the emitter spacer width were plotted. It was shown that the peak current depends periodically on the emitter spacer width. The constructed electron density diagrams showed that the increase in the peak current is associated with the resonant level in the emitter spacer region.
T Okamura; S Hamaguchi; T Okada; S Kabashima
Cooling performance of superfluid helium (HeII) channels, separated by a porous spacer, has been experimentally investigated. The test channels were formed in parallel by FRP block. A spacer was used to separate two channels of the same shape. Both ends of the channels were kept open to an atmospherically pressurized HeII bath. Two types of spacers were examined—(1) FRP spacer,
Sariali, E; Mouttet, A; Pasquier, G; Durante, E; Catone, Y
Pre-operative computerised three-dimensional planning was carried out in 223 patients undergoing total hip replacement with a cementless acetabular component and a cementless modular-neck femoral stem. Components were chosen which best restored leg length and femoral offset. The post-operative restoration of the anatomy was assessed by CT and compared with the pre-operative plan. The component implanted was the same as that planned in 86% of the hips for the acetabular implant, 94% for the stem, and 93% for the neck-shaft angle. The rotational centre of the hip was restored with a mean accuracy of 0.73 mm (SD 3.5) craniocaudally and 1.2 mm (SD 2) laterally. Limb length was restored with a mean accuracy of 0.3 mm (SD 3.3) and femoral offset with a mean accuracy of 0.8 mm (SD 3.1). This method appears to offer high accuracy in hip reconstruction as the difficulties likely to be encountered when restoring the anatomy can be anticipated and solved pre-operatively by optimising the selection of implants. Modularity of the femoral neck helped to restore the femoral offset and limb length. PMID:19258608
Tobias, D.A.; Sherman, E.K. (Argonne National Laboratory, West, Idaho Falls, ID (USA))
Nondestructive examinations of irradiated experimental fuel elements conducted in the Argonne National Laboratory Hot Fuel Examination Facility/North (HFEF/N) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory include laser and contact profilometry (element diameter measurements), electrical eddy-current testing for cladding and thermal bond defects, bow and length measurements, neutron radiography, gamma scanning, remote visual exam, and photography. Profilometry was previously restricted to spiral profilometry of the element to prevent interference with the element spacer wire wrapped in a helix about the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II)-type fuel element from end to end. By removing the spacer wire prior to conducting profilometry examination, axial profilometry techniques may be used, which are considerably faster than spiral techniques and often result in data acquisition more important to experiment sponsors. Because the element must often be reinserted into the nuclear reactor (EBR-II) for additional irradiation, however, the spacer wire must be reinstalled on the highly irradiated fuel element by remote means after profilometry of the wireless elements. The element spacer wire-wrap machine developed at HFEF is capable of helically wrapping fuel elements with diameters up to 1.68 cm (0.660 in.) and 2.44-m (96-in.) lengths. The machine can accommodate almost any desired wire pitch length by simply inserting a new wrapper gear module.
This patent describes improvement in a loop spring for maintaining fuel rods in spaced apart relation in a fuel bundle space. The spacer including; first and second overlying spring supporting elements for supporting a spring. The spring supporting elements disposing the spring on opposite sides to and towards a ferrule for containing fuel rods. The spring elements of the type
Veronika Kralj-IglicPhD; Richard A. Brand
Hip stresses are generally believed to influence whether a hip develops osteoarthritis (OA); similarly, various osteotomies have been proposed to reduce contact stresses and the risk of OA. We asked whether elevated hip contact stress predicted osteoarthritis in initially asymp- tomatic human hips. We identified 58 nonoperatively treated nonsubluxated hips with developmental dysplasia (DDH) without symptoms at skeletal maturity; the
Some higher education officials believe that hip-hop music is eating away at the morals, and ultimately the classroom experience, of today's college students. Discusses why the gap exists between student and faculty attitudes toward hip-hop, how hip-hop music represents blackness, how people perceive hip-hop youth, the positive side of hip-hop,…
Jäger, Marcus; van Wasen, Andrea; Warwas, Sebastian; Landgraeber, Stefan; Haversath, Marcel; Group, Vitas
Since polyethylene is one of the most frequently used biomaterials as a liner in total hip arthroplasty, strong efforts have been made to improve design and material properties over the last 50 years. Antioxidants seems to be a promising alternative to further increase durability and reduce polyethylene wear in long term. As of yet, only in vitro results are available. While they are promising, there is yet no clinical evidence that the new material shows these advantages in vivo. To answer the question if vitamin-E enhanced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is able to improve long-term survivorship of cementless total hip arthroplasty we initiated a randomized long-term multicenter trial. Designed as a superiority study, the oxidation index assessed in retrieval analyses of explanted liners was chosen as primary parameter. Radiographic results (wear rate, osteolysis, radiolucency) and functional outcome (Harris Hip Scores, University of California-Los Angeles, Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Visual Analogue Scale) will serve as secondary parameters. Patients with the indication for a cementless total hip arthroplasty will be asked to participate in the study and will be randomized to either receive a standard hip replacement with a highly cross-linked UHMWPE-X liner or a highly cross-linked vitamin-E supplemented UHMWPE-XE liner. The follow-up will be 15 years, with evaluation after 5, 10 and 15 years. The controlled randomized study has been designed to determine if Vitamin-E supplemented highly cross-linked polyethylene liners are superior to standard XLPE liners in cementless total hip arthroplasty. While several studies have been started to evaluate the influence of vitamin-E, most of them evaluate wear rates and functional results. The approach used for this multicenter study, to analyze the oxidation status of retrieved implants, should make it possible to directly evaluate the ageing process and development of the implant material itself over a time period of 15 years. PMID:25002933
Giles W. Plant; Stèphane Woerly; Alan R. Harvey
Biocompatible polymer matrices for implantation into lesion sites in the brain were synthesized by incorporating peptide or aminosugar sequences intoN-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) hydrogels. RGD peptide sequences were chemically linked to the hydrogel backbone via a glycylglycine spacer; aminosugars were glucosamine (NHGlc) orN-acetylglucosamine residues. Unmodified or sequence containing HPMA hydrogels were implanted into the lesioned optic tract or cerebral cortex of juvenile
Clement, R Carter; Ahn, Jaimo; Mehta, Samir; Bernstein, Joseph
Management of geriatric hip fractures in a protocol-driven center can improve outcomes and reduce costs. Nonetheless, this approach has not spread as broadly as the effectiveness data would imply. One possible explanation is that operating such a center is not perceived as financially worthwhile. To assess the economic viability of dedicated hip fracture centers, the authors built a financial model to estimate profit as a function of costs, reimbursement, and patient volume in 3 settings: an average US hip fracture program, a highly efficient center, and an academic hospital without a specific hip fracture program. Results were tested with sensitivity analysis. A local market analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of supporting profitable hip fracture centers. The results demonstrate that hip fracture treatment only becomes profitable when the annual caseload exceeds approximately 72, assuming costs characteristic of a typical US hip fracture program. The threshold of profitability is 49 cases per year for high-efficiency hip fracture centers and 151 for the urban academic hospital under review. The largest determinant of profit is reimbursement, followed by costs and volume. In the authors’ home market, 168 hospitals offer hip fracture care, yet 85% fall below the 72-case threshold. Hip fracture centers can be highly profitable through low costs and, especially, high revenues. However, most hospitals likely lose money by offering hip fracture care due to inadequate volume. Thus, both large and small facilities would benefit financially from the consolidation of hip fracture care at dedicated hip fracture centers. Typical US cities have adequate volume to support several such centers. PMID:24579222
Williams, J.M.; Beardsley, G.M.; Buchanan, R.A.; Bacon, R.K.
The effects of N-ion implantation on the corrosive-wear properties of Ti-6Al-4V, an alloy used for construction of the femoral component of artificial hip joints in humans, were tested. In corrosive-wear tests designed to simulate pertinent hip-joint parameters, electrochemical corrosion currents were measured for cylindrical samples in saline electrolyte in an arrangement which allowed the samples to be rotated between loaded polyethylene pads simultaneously with the current measurement. To further quantify material removal, Zr markers were ion-implanted into some samples so that, by use of Rutherford backscattering, material removal could be detected by changes in position of the marker relative to the surface. Corrosion currents were greatly reduced by implantation of approximately 20 at. % N, but even implantation of the Zr markers also reduced corrosion currents. The marker experiments confirmed the low rate of material removal for the implanted samples. 10 references, 5 figures, 1 table.
Zainali, Kasra; Danscher, Gorm; Jakobsen, Thomas; Baas, Jorgen; Møller, Per; Bechtold, Joan E.; Soballe, Kjeld
Noncemented implants are the primary choice for younger patients undergoing total hip replacements. However, the major concern in this group of patients regarding revision is the concern from wear particles, periimplant inflammation, and subsequently aseptic implant loosening. Macrophages have been shown to liberate gold ions through the process termed dissolucytosis. Furthermore, gold ions are known to act in an anti-inflammatory manner by inhibiting cellular NF-?B-DNA binding. The present study investigated whether partial coating of titanium implants could augment early osseointegration and increase mechanical fixation. Cylindrical porous coated Ti-6Al-4V implants partially coated with metallic gold were inserted in the proximal region of the humerus in ten canines and control implants without gold were inserted in contralateral humerus. Observation time was 4 weeks. Biomechanical push out tests and stereological histomorphometrical analyses showed no statistically significant differences in the two groups. The unchanged parameters are considered an improvement of the coating properties, as a previous complete gold-coated implant showed inferior mechanical fixation and reduced osseointegration compared to control titanium implants in a similar model. Since sufficient early mechanical fixation is achieved with this new coating, it is reasonable to investigate the implant further in long-term studies. PMID:22847873
Heuberger, R; Wahl, P; Krieg, J; Gautier, E
In case of implant associated infection, implant preservation is associated with high failure rates. Therefore, a removal or exchange of the implant is most often mandatory for treatment success. Alternatively, under certain conditions, local antibiotic delivery can be applied - preserving the implant, using for example calcium sulphate as a resorbable carrier. In this work, third-body wear on total hip prostheses caused by calcium sulphate particles was tested in a hip simulator. Inlays made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) against 28 mm CoCrMo heads and 36 mm alumina pairings were tested in triplicate, both with and without calcium sulphate particles in the test liquid. Neither the alumina articulations nor the CoCrMo heads were affected by the calcium sulphate particles since calcium sulphate is a relatively soft material. The polyethylene inlays showed 39-89 % higher wear during exposure compared to references, but wear returned to normal when no more particles were added. Thus, calcium sulphate might be used as antibiotic carrier even in the presence of total hip prostheses without fearing excessive third-body wear. PMID:25340804
...Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890.3665 Section 890.3665...Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. (a) Identification. A congenital hip dislocation abduction splint is a device intended for...
Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Grumet, Robert C.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.
Context: Posterior hip pain is a relatively uncommon but increasingly recognized complaint in the orthopaedic community. Patient complaints and presentations are often vague or nonspecific, making diagnosis and subsequent treatment decisions difficult. The purposes of this article are to review the anatomy and pathophysiology related to posterior hip pain in the athletic patient population. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature via a MEDLINE search of all relevant articles between 1980 and 2010. Results: Many patients who complain of posterior hip pain actually have pain referred from another part of the body—notably, the lumbar spine or sacroiliac joint. Treatment options for posterior hip pain are typically nonoperative; however, surgery is warranted in some cases. Conclusions: Recent advancements in the understanding of hip anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment options have enabled physicians to better diagnosis athletic hip injuries and select patients for appropriate treatment. PMID:23015944
Background Total hip replacement is considered the best option for treatment of displaced intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck (FFN). The size of the femoral head is an important factor that influences the outcome of a total hip arthroplasty (THA): implants with a 28 mm femoral head are more prone to dislocate than implants with a 32 mm head. Obviously, a large head coupled to a polyethylene inlay can lead to more wear, osteolysis and failure of the implant. Ceramic induces less friction and minimal wear even with larger heads. Methods A total of 35 THAs were performed for displaced intracapsular FFN, using a 32 mm alumina-alumina coupling. Results At a mean follow-up of 80 months, 33 have been clinically and radiologically reviewed. None of the implants needed revision for any reason, none of the cups were considered to have failed, no dislocations nor breakage of the ceramic components were recorded. One anatomic cementless stem was radiologically loose. Conclusions On the basis of our experience, we suggest that ceramic-on-ceramic coupling offers minimal friction and wear even with large heads. PMID:21284879
Rieger, Johannes Sebastian; Jaeger, Sebastian; Schuld, Christian; Kretzer, Jan Philippe; Bitsch, Rudi Georg
Aseptic loosening of hip implants is a severe orthopaedic problem and a valid diagnosis is often difficult. A potential method to determine loosening of the prosthesis is a swing analysis of the bone-implant interface using a vibrational technique. In this study, hip models were constructed to assess the vibration behaviour of the stem and cup components. Four different states of implant loosening were simulated: (1) stem and cup stable, (2) stem loosened and cup stable, (3) stem and cup loosened, and (4) stem stable and cup loosened. The model was excited at the lateral condyle of the femur between 100 Hz and 2000 Hz. Resonance spectra were recorded using an optical laser vibrometer and an accelerometer-based system. Analysis of the spectra revealed shifts of the resonances towards lower frequencies, especially in the case of a loosened stem component. The integral value of the spectra was a second parameter that was sensitive to a stem loosening. In the case of a loosened cup, a peak count analysis resulted in a significantly higher number of counts. In our model, different states of implant loosening could be determined with a vibrational technique and the localisation of the loosened component could be distinguished as well. PMID:22673003
Beaulé, Paul E; Matar, Wadih Y; Poitras, Philippe; Smit, Kevin; May, Olivier
Either excessive or insufficient cement penetration within the femoral head after hip resurfacing influences the risk of femoral failures. However, the factors controlling cement penetration are not yet fully understood. We determined the effect of femoral component design and cementation technique on cement penetration. Six retrieved femoral heads were resurfaced for each implant (BHR, ASR, Conserve Plus, DuROM, ReCAP) using the manufacturers' recommendations for implantation. In addition, the BHR was implanted using the Conserve Plus high-viscosity cementation technique, "BHR/hvt," and vice versa for the Conserve, "Conserve/lvt." The average cement penetration was highest with BHR (65.62% +/- 15.16%) compared with ASR (12.25% +/- 5.12%), Conserve Plus(R) (19.43% +/- 5.28%), DuROM (17.73% +/- 3.96%), and ReCAP (26.09% +/- 5.20%). Cement penetration in BHR/hvt remained higher than all other implants equaling 36.7% +/- 6.6%. Greater femoral component design clearance correlated with cement mantle thickness. Femoral component design in hip resurfacing plays a major role in cement penetration. PMID:18923883
Megan M. Groh; Joseph Herrera
The hip labrum has many functions, including shock absorption, joint lubrication, pressure distribution, and aiding in stability,\\u000a with damage to the labrum associated with osteoarthritis. The etiology of labral tears includes trauma, femoroacetabular impingement\\u000a (FAI), capsular laxity\\/hip hypermobility, dysplasia, and degeneration. Labral tears present with anterior hip or groin pain,\\u000a and less commonly buttock pain. Frequently, there are also mechanical
Cyrus Cooper; Hazel Inskip; Peter Croft; Lesley Campbell; Gillian Smith; Magnus McLaren; David Coggon
Hip osteoarthritis is a major cause of pain and disability. The authors explored individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis in a population-based case-control study. The study was performed in two English health districts (Portsmouth and North Staffordshire) from 1993 to 1995. A total of 611 patients (210 men and 401 women) listed for hip replacement because of osteoarthritis over an
Jonas Franklin; Martin Englund; Torvaldur Ingvarsson; Stefan Lohmander
BACKGROUND: There have been reports both supporting and refuting an inverse relationship between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis (OA). We explore this relationship using a case-control study design. METHODS: Exclusion criteria were previous hip fracture (same side or contralateral side), age younger than 60 years, foreign nationality, pathological fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and cases were radiographic examinations were not found in
An expandable saline-gel implant having a detachable injection dome is described. The implant functions initially as a tissue expander. Once the correct size has been obtained, the injection dome is removed, leaving the implant in position. PMID:3823256
R. Michel; M. Nolte; M. Reich; F. Löer
Systemic effects of Co-Cr alloy\\/polyethylene hip joint prostheses were investigated using instrumental neutron activation to determine the concentrations of up to 16 elements. First, in a prospective study whole blood and serum taken from 10 patients from 1 day before to 90 days after implantation were analyzed. Secondly, in a retrospective study whole blood and serum from 23 patients who
Bo Nivbrant; Johan Kärrholm; Stefan Röhrl; Helén Hassander; Bengt Wesslén
Bone cement with reduced amount of monomer and low curing temperature may improve implant fixation due to reduced toxicity. We analyzed the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of such a cement (Cemex Rx) using Palacos R as control. The in vivo performance of the 2 cements was also evaluated in a prospective randomized study of 47 hips, where either of
Schwachmeyer, Verena; Damm, Philipp; Bender, Alwina; Dymke, Jörn; Graichen, Friedmar; Bergmann, Georg
Introduction After hip surgery, it is the orthopedist’s decision to allow full weight bearing to prevent complications or to prescribe partial weight bearing for bone ingrowth or fracture consolidation. While most loading conditions in the hip joint during activities of daily living are known, it remains unclear how demanding physiotherapeutic exercises are. Recommendations for clinical rehabilitation have been established, but these guidelines vary and have not been scientifically confirmed. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for practical recommendations by determining the hip joint contact forces and moments that act during physiotherapeutic activities. Methods Joint contact loads were telemetrically measured in 6 patients using instrumented hip endoprostheses. The resultant hip contact force, the torque around the implant stem, and the bending moment in the neck were determined for 13 common physiotherapeutic exercises, classified as weight bearing, isometric, long lever arm, or dynamic exercises, and compared to the loads during walking. Results With peak values up to 441%BW, weight bearing exercises caused the highest forces among all exercises; in some patients they exceeded those during walking. During voluntary isometric contractions, the peak loads ranged widely and potentially reached high levels, depending on the intensity of the contraction. Long lever arms and dynamic exercises caused loads that were distributed around 50% of those during walking. Conclusion Weight bearing exercises should be avoided or handled cautiously within the early post-operative period. The hip joint loads during isometric exercises depend strongly on the contraction intensity. Nonetheless, most physiotherapeutic exercises seem to be non-hazardous when considering the load magnitudes, even though the loads were much higher than expected. When deciding between partial and full weight bearing, physicians should consider the loads relative to those caused by activities of daily living. PMID:24204977
Banerjee, Samik; Cherian, Jeffrey J; Bono, James V; Kurtz, Steven M; Geesink, Rudolph; Meneghini, R Michael; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A
Unfavorable outcomes from trunnion fretting and corrosion damage have been reported in the literature, gross failures of tapers in primary total hip arthroplasties have been less frequently reported. We report on 5 patients, who presented with gross trunnion failures of modular metal-on-polyethylene or ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings from 5 implant manufacturers, all necessitating revision surgery. None of these patients had an antecedent history of trauma, and the majority presented with pain or instability. No common factor was identified that may be predictive of these type of failures. Since there were 5 different stem designs, this suggests that it may be a rare generic phenomenon occurring with multiple designs. Currently, further investigations are necessary, including retrieval analysis, to identify risk factors that may predispose to such failures. PMID:25499678
Vundelinckx, Bart J; Verhelst, Luk A; De Schepper, Jo
Recently, concerns have been raised about the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This has led to the recall of several resurfacing and large-diameter total hip arthroplasties (THA). Any MoM interface can be the cause of metal debris and adverse tissue reactions. We analyzed serum metal ions and HOOS scores in 19 of 306 patients treated with a THA with modular neck section. The only MoM interface in this particular implant is the taper between the neck and the stem. The articulating surface consists of a ceramic-on-polyethylene or ceramic-on-ceramic interface. As such, this study looks at the metal ion production from the modular neck section. One of 306 implants needed revision at 52-month follow-up because of an adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). PMID:23523216
Chambers, Bryan; Fankhauser, Richard A; Howard, Michael
We fashioned cement disk-shaped spacer models using antibiotic-loaded Palacos and embedded polyethylene and titanium into the surface of half of the models and inoculated the models with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA), or Staphylococcus epidermidis, and placed them in nutrient broth. Vancomycin was loaded into the cement of the MRSA spacer models and tobramycin into the MSSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis models. In the MSSA and MRSA models, no organisms survived beyond 48 hours in the antibiotic bath regardless of the presence of additional materials. At 96 hours, 86.6% of models with only antibiotic cement had viable Staphylococcus epidermidis, while 80% of models with antibiotic cement, polyethylene, and titanium had viable Staphylococcus epidermidis. Adding polyethylene and titanium to antibiotic-loaded cement does not promote bacterial survival. PMID:19292253
Steele, Garen D; Fehring, Thomas K; Odum, Susan M; Dennos, Anne C; Nadaud, Matthew C
The ASR (articular surface replacement) XL (DePuy, Warsaw, Ind) metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty offers the advantage of stability and increased motion. However, an alarming number of early failures prompted the evaluation of patients treated with this system. A prospective study of patients who underwent arthroplasty with the ASR XL system was performed. Patients with 2-year follow-up or any revision were included. Failure rates, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores, and radiographs were evaluated. Ninety-five patients (105 hips) were included. There were 16 revisions. Thirteen (12%) were aseptic acetabular failures. Eight were revised for aseptic loosening; 4, for metallosis; 1, for malposition; 2, for infection; and 1, for periprosthetic fracture. Mean time to revision was 1.6 years (0.18-3.4 years). The ASR XL with a revision rate of 12% is the second reported 1 piece metal-on-metal system with a significant failure rate at early follow-up. This particular class of implants has inherent design flaws that lead to early failure. PMID:21550764
Phillips, J R A; Boulton, C; Morac, C G; Manktelov, A R J
A total of 146 patients were identified from a prospective database of all hip fractures over a 10-year period at a United Kingdom teaching hospital. The financial costs were calculated and analysed and then compared with the money recovered through the tariff produced by Payment by Results.A total of 62% of the study group were female; mean age of 79 years; mean length of stay of 39 days.Fractures occurred around total hip replacement (THR) in 63 cases, revision THR in 27 cases and hemiarthroplasty in 56 cases. Fixation of the fracture was performed in 61 cases, revision arthroplasty in 62 cases and 23 were treated non-operatively.The mean cost of treatment was £23,469 per patient (range £615–£223,000; median £18,031). Ward costs were responsible for 80.3%, theatre costs 5.7%, implants 6.7% and investigations 7.3%. The difference in cost was statistically significant when further surgery was required (p = 0.01) and length of stay was greater than 30 days (p < 0.0001), and when compared with the money recovered by the Trust(mean £3702; p < 0.0001). These results reveal the significant economic impact of treating this group of patients at specialist centres. PMID:20673576
Randelli, Filippo; Banci, Lorenzo; Favilla, Sara; Maglione, Daniela; Aliprandi, Alberto
Patients with ASR implants (resurfacing and large-diameter (XL) metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty), even if asymptomatic and with a stable prosthesis, may present extremely high blood metal ion levels. We report on a consecutive series of fourteen ASR revisions, focusing on osteolysis and their radiographic correspondence and their correlation with blood metal ion levels. At revision, seven hips revealed severe periacetabular osteolysis which was radiographically undetectable in six and asymptomatic in five. Seven hips with no acetabular osteolysis had significantly lower serum Cr and Co ion concentrations (respectively 25.2, 41.1 ?g/l) compared to the seven hips with severe acetabular bone loss (respectively 70.1, 147.0 ?g/l). Elevated blood metal ion levels should be considered as a warning of undetectable and ongoing periprosthetic osteolysis in asymptomatic patients with ASR prosthesis. PMID:23528557
Abram, S G F; Murray, J B
The majority of displaced intracapsular fractures in our unit are managed with a Thompson hip hemiarthroplasty. Recent UK guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has, however, advised against the continued used of the Thompson implant in patients with hip fracture. The aim of this study was to review the outcomes and complications after Thompson hip hemiarthroplasty, including the impact of modern surgical approaches and cementing, whilst controlling for confounding factors. We reviewed the outcomes following Thompson hip hemiarthroplasty from a series of 807 cases performed between April 2008 and November 2013. Of these, 721 (89.3%) were cemented and 86 (10.7%) uncemented. A total of 575 (71.3%) procedures were performed in female patients. The anterolateral approach was performed in 753 (93.3%) and the posterior approach with enhanced soft tissue repair in 54 (6.7%). Overall, there were 23 dislocations (2.9%). Dislocation following the posterior approach occurred in 13.0% (seven of 54) in comparison to 2.1% (16 of 753) with the anterolateral approach (odds ratio (OR) 8.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-26.3), p<0.001). Patients were discharged home in 459 cases (56.9%), to a care home or other hospital in 273 cases (33.8%). Of the total number of patients, 75 died during their admission (9.3%), and 51.8% (338 of 653) returned home within 30 days. The 30-day mortality was 7.1% (57 cases) and the 1-year mortality was 16.6% (116 of 699). We recommend against the continued use of the posterior approach in hip hemiarthroplasty, as enhanced soft tissue repair did not reduce the dislocation rates to an acceptable level in this series utilising the Thompson implant. Our findings, however, demonstrate satisfactory results for patients treated with the Thompson hip hemiarthroplasty performed through an anterolateral approach. We suggest that the continued use of this implant in a carefully selected patient cohort is justifiable. PMID:25704140
Rohman, Lebur; Hadi, Saifullah; Whitwell, George
PURPOSE. To investigate consultant surgeons' knowledge about the costs of implants for various joint surgeries. METHODS. Questionnaires were distributed to consultant orthopaedic surgeons at 2 hospitals. Respondents were asked to estimate the implant costs of any brand for low-demand and high-demand total hip replacement (THR), total knee replacement (TKR), uni-compartmental knee replacement, arthroscopy shaver blade, total anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) fixation, and meniscal repair. The actual cost of each implant was obtained from the manufacturer. RESULTS. 16 consultant surgeons completed the questionnaires. The respective mean estimated and actual costs for a low-demand THR implant were £1714 (range, £600-3000) and £1448 (range, £985- 2335), with an overestimation of 18.4%. The respective costs for a high-demand THR implant were £2172 (range, £600-6000) and £1737 (range, £1192-2335), with an overestimation of 25%. The respective costs for a TKR implant were £1550 (range, £600-6000) and £1316 (range, £995-1535), with an overestimation of 17.8%. The respective costs for a uni-compartmental knee replacement implant were £1040 (range, £600-2000) and £1296 (range, £698-1470), with an underestimation of 19.7%. The respective costs for an arthroscopy shaver blade were £110 (range, £75-150) and £94 (range, £80-100), with an overestimation of 16.6%. The respective costs for a total ACL fixation implant were £246 (range, £80-500) and £306 (range, £272-335), with an underestimation of 19.4%. The respective costs for a meniscal repair implant were £153 (range, £50-250) and £242 (range, £170-260), with an underestimation of 37%. CONCLUSION. The knowledge among consultant orthopaedic surgeons about implant costs was poor. To reduce implant costs, cooperation between surgeons and hospital managers and measures to increase surgeons' awareness about cost-reduction programmes are needed. PMID:25163960
Satmarel, C; von Ferber, C; Blumen, A
We investigate hyperbranched polymers (HBPs) and highlight the relation between their architecture and their viscoelastic behavior, while paying special attention to the role of the chainlike spacer segments between branching points. For this we study the dynamics of HBP in solution, based on the generalized Gaussian structure formalism, an extension of the Rouse model, which disregards hydrodynamical and excluded volume effects. For HBP the dynamical effects display, beside the obvious contributions of localized modes on the spacers, also remarkable features, as we highlight based on the exact renormalization procedure recently developed by us in J. Chem. Phys. 123, 034907 (2005). We exemplify these features by analyzing the dynamics of randomly linked star polymers and study the impact both of the length and of the spacers' mobility on the normal modes' spectra. We compute these modes both by numerical diagonalization and also by employing our renormalization procedure; the excellent agreement between these methods allows us to extend the range of investigations to very large HBP. PMID:16689602
Pimenta, Luiz; Turner, Alexander W. L.; Dooley, Zachary A.; Parikh, Rachit D.; Peterson, Mark D.
This study investigates the biomechanical stability of a large interbody spacer inserted by a lateral approach and compares the biomechanical differences with the more conventional transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF), with and without supplemental pedicle screw (PS) fixation. Twenty-four L2-L3 functional spinal units (FSUs) were tested with three interbody cage options: (i) 18?mm XLIF cage, (ii) 26?mm XLIF cage, and (iii) 11?mm TLIF cage. Each spacer was tested without supplemental fixation, and with unilateral and bilateral PS fixation. Specimens were subjected to multidirectional nondestructive flexibility tests to 7.5?N·m. The range of motion (ROM) differences were first examined within the same group (per cage) using repeated-measures ANOVA, and then compared between cage groups. The 26?mm XLIF cage provided greater stability than the 18?mm XLIF cage with unilateral PS and 11?mm TLIF cage with bilateral PS. The 18?mm XLIF cage with unilateral PS provided greater stability than the 11?mm TLIF cage with bilateral PS. This study suggests that wider lateral spacers are biomechanically stable and offer the option to be used with less or even no supplemental fixation for interbody lumbar fusion. PMID:23213284
Pimenta, Luiz; Turner, Alexander W L; Dooley, Zachary A; Parikh, Rachit D; Peterson, Mark D
This study investigates the biomechanical stability of a large interbody spacer inserted by a lateral approach and compares the biomechanical differences with the more conventional transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF), with and without supplemental pedicle screw (PS) fixation. Twenty-four L2-L3 functional spinal units (FSUs) were tested with three interbody cage options: (i) 18?mm XLIF cage, (ii) 26?mm XLIF cage, and (iii) 11?mm TLIF cage. Each spacer was tested without supplemental fixation, and with unilateral and bilateral PS fixation. Specimens were subjected to multidirectional nondestructive flexibility tests to 7.5?N·m. The range of motion (ROM) differences were first examined within the same group (per cage) using repeated-measures ANOVA, and then compared between cage groups. The 26?mm XLIF cage provided greater stability than the 18?mm XLIF cage with unilateral PS and 11?mm TLIF cage with bilateral PS. The 18?mm XLIF cage with unilateral PS provided greater stability than the 11?mm TLIF cage with bilateral PS. This study suggests that wider lateral spacers are biomechanically stable and offer the option to be used with less or even no supplemental fixation for interbody lumbar fusion. PMID:23213284
Stedrý, V; Hajný, P
The authors evaluate a group of 192 patients operated in 1983 at the Orthopaedic Clinic of the Institute for Postgraduate Medical Training to whom 196 cemented total endoprostheses of the hip joint type Poldi were implanted. Of these 53.1 % patients were operated on account of primary arthritis, 29.1 % on account of postdysplastic arthritis of the hip joint. In four patients conversion of an osseous ankylosis to an endoprosthesis was performed. In 59.7 % a medium Poldi socket was used, in 36.5 % a small Poldi socket and in 13.8 % a large Poldi socket. For fixation in all patients Palacos cement with first generation technique was used. In seven patients augmentation of a dysplastic acetabulum by an autogenous graft, as described by Harris, was made. The number of peroperative complications and technical errors does not exceed data in the literature. 15.8 % hip joints were re-operated - 0.5 % on account of a relapsing dislocation, 0.5 % because of early failure of the cement-bone bond due to bad cementing technique of the acetabular component, 1 % on account of late septic release, 0.5 % because of isolated aseptic release of the shank, 2.6 % because of aseptic release of both components and 10.7 % on account of aseptic release of the acetabular component, on average 8.3 years after surgery. Aseptic release of the socket correlates significantly with the size of the socket used and with the original diagnosis. The mean wear of the small socket is 0.22 mm per year, of the medium socket 0.28 mm per year and of the large socket 0.12 mm per year. Sockets of small size become released four times as frequently as medium and large ones and release is twice as frequent after surgery of secondary postdysplastic arhritis than after implantation on account of deforming arthritis of the hip joint. When evaluating the group of 60 hip joints according to HHS in 31.7 % excellent results were achieved, in 28.3 % good results, in 20 % satisfactory results and in 20 % poor results. The authors did not find a positive correlation between painfulness of the joint and signs of aseptic release of the socket on X-ray examination. Key words: TEP of the hip joint, aseptic release, bone cement, complications of TEP of the hip joint. PMID:20470634
Posseme, N., E-mail: email@example.com; Pollet, O.; Barnola, S. [CEA-LETI-Minatec, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)
Silicon nitride spacer etching realization is considered today as one of the most challenging of the etch process for the new devices realization. For this step, the atomic etch precision to stop on silicon or silicon germanium with a perfect anisotropy (no foot formation) is required. The situation is that none of the current plasma technologies can meet all these requirements. To overcome these issues and meet the highly complex requirements imposed by device fabrication processes, we recently proposed an alternative etching process to the current plasma etch chemistries. This process is based on thin film modification by light ions implantation followed by a selective removal of the modified layer with respect to the non-modified material. In this Letter, we demonstrate the benefit of this alternative etch method in term of film damage control (silicon germanium recess obtained is less than 6?A), anisotropy (no foot formation), and its compatibility with other integration steps like epitaxial. The etch mechanisms of this approach are also addressed.
Posseme, N.; Pollet, O.; Barnola, S.
Silicon nitride spacer etching realization is considered today as one of the most challenging of the etch process for the new devices realization. For this step, the atomic etch precision to stop on silicon or silicon germanium with a perfect anisotropy (no foot formation) is required. The situation is that none of the current plasma technologies can meet all these requirements. To overcome these issues and meet the highly complex requirements imposed by device fabrication processes, we recently proposed an alternative etching process to the current plasma etch chemistries. This process is based on thin film modification by light ions implantation followed by a selective removal of the modified layer with respect to the non-modified material. In this Letter, we demonstrate the benefit of this alternative etch method in term of film damage control (silicon germanium recess obtained is less than 6 A), anisotropy (no foot formation), and its compatibility with other integration steps like epitaxial. The etch mechanisms of this approach are also addressed.
Mathew, MT; Nagelli, C; Pourzal, R; Fischer, A; Laurent, MP; Jacobs, JJ; Wimmer, MA
The demand for total hip replacement (THR) surgery is increasing in the younger population due to faster rehabilitation and more complete restoration of function. Up to 2009, metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joint bearings were a popular choice due to their design flexibility, post-operative stability and relatively low wear rates. The main wear mechanisms that occur along the bearing surface of MoM joints are tribochemical reactions that deposit a mixture of wear debris, metal ions and organic matrix of decomposed proteins known as a tribolayer. No in-depth electrochemical studies have been reported on the structure and characteristics of this tribolayer or about the parameters involved in its formation. In this study, we conducted an electrochemical investigation of different surfaces (bulk-like: control, nano-crystalline: new implant and tribolayer surface: retrieved implant) made out of two commonly used hip CoCrMo alloys (high-carbon and low-carbon). As per ASTM standard, cyclic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were conducted. The results obtained from electrochemical parameters for different surfaces clearly indicated a reduction in corrosion for the tribolayer surface (Icorr: 0.76 ?A/cm2). Further, polarization resistance (Rp:2.39±0.60M?/cm2) and capacitance (Cdl:15.20±0.75 ?F/cm2) indicated variation in corrosion kinetics for the tribolayer surface, that attributed to its structure and stability in a simulated body environment. PMID:24099949
Bonnaig, Nicolas S; Freiberg, Richard A; Freiberg, Andrew A
This article describes a new mechanism of failure of a ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to fretting corrosion and failure of the Morse taper. A 46-year-old man with hip osteonecrosis underwent THA in 2006. A ceramic-on-ceramic, un-cemented THA with a titanium femoral component and metal-on-ceramic Morse taper was implanted. Two years postoperatively, he presented with swelling in his groin and a painless medial thigh mass. The thigh mass was diagnosed as an abscess. Incision and drainage was performed and resulted in a sinus tract that continuously drained copious amounts of seropurulent fluid. Two months later, the patient underwent irrigation, debridement, and explantation of his hip. Frozen sections showed no signs of infection. There was dramatic visible wear of the Morse taper and pieces of metal embedded in the ceramic. Permanent sections showed chronic inflammation and foreign body reaction. He subsequently underwent an uneventful re-implantation with a metal-on-highly-cross-linked-polyethylene THA. In this case, failure of the morse taper led to metal debris, which reacted with the ceramic and caused dramatic third-body wear. The thigh mass, which appeared to be an infection, proved to be a massive foreign body granuloma. Malfunction of the morse taper as reported in this case represents a possible failure mechanism of a ceramic-on-ceramic THA. PMID:21323272
Malak, Sharif; Anderson, Iain A.
Computer-assisted navigation systems for hip resurfacing arthroplasty are designed to minimize the chance of implant malposition. However, there is little evidence computer navigation is useful in the presence of anatomical deformity. We therefore determined the accuracy of an image-free resurfacing hip arthroplasty navigation system in the presence of a pistol grip deformity of the head and femoral neck junction and of a slipped upper femoral epiphysis deformity. We constructed an artificial phantom leg from machined aluminum with a simulated hip and knee. The frontal and lateral plane implant-shaft angles for the guide wire of the femoral component reamer were calculated with the computer navigation system and with an electronic caliper combined with micro-CT. There was a consistent disagreement between the navigation system and our measurement system in both the frontal plane and lateral plane with the pistol grip deformity. We found close agreement only for the frontal plane angle calculation in the presence of the slipped upper femoral epiphysis deformity, but calculation of femoral head size was inaccurate. The use of image-free navigation for the positioning of the femoral component appears questionable in these settings. PMID:19421830
Prieto, Hernan A; Berbari, Elie F; Sierra, Rafael J
Adverse local tissue reactions occurring in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) could potentially lead to secondary failure modes such as dislocation or infection. The authors report a series of 124 patients treated with MoM hip arthroplasty between 2006 and 2010 with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Eight hips presented with acute delayed or late periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) (defined as an infection occurring after 3 months in an otherwise well functioning implant). The rate of infection observed was higher than expected, almost 4 times higher (5.6%) compared to previous historical cohorts from our institution (1.3%). This high risk of infection in patients with DePuy ASR implants requires further study but we theorize that the increased prevalence of infection could be due to a combination of particulate debris, molecular (rather than particulate) effects of Co and Cr ions on soft tissues, and/or products of corrosion that may change the local environment predisposing to infection. PMID:24851788
Munir, Selin; Walter, William L; Walsh, William Robert
Modular hip implants allows for the adjustment of leg length, offset, and the ability to remove the head for acetabular exposure during primary and revision surgery. The design of the Morse taper facilitates the intimate contact of the conical trunnion of the femoral stem (male component), with the conical bore of the femoral head (female component). Orthopaedic trunnion tapers are not standardized and vary in length, taper angle, and base dimension. Variations in the design and surface characteristics of the trunnion, will directly reflect on the interface at the taper junction and can influence the likelihood of subsequent wear, corrosion and longevity of the implant. The effect of surface topography of trunnions on commercially available hip stems has not yet been considered as a possible contributing factor in the corrosion observed at taper junctions. In this study we analyzed the surface topography and surface roughness of randomly selected commercially available femoral hip stem trunnions to obtain a greater insight into their surface characteristics. PMID:25319315
Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong
We previously reported the five-to-six-year results of the use of third-generation alumina-on-alumina bearings in a consecutive series of 100 primary cementless total hip arthroplasties. This report presents the longer-term outcomes of these same bearings, at a minimum of ten years postoperatively. Eighty-six of eighty-eight hips available for the study retained the original bearings at the time of the latest follow-up. Thirteen hips were associated with noise, and six hips demonstrated fretting of the femoral neck on radiographs. Two hips required a change of the bearings because of a ceramic head fracture. The ten-year survival rate of the alumina-on-alumina total hip prostheses, with revision of any implant for any reason as the end point, was 99.0%. On the basis of those results, we concluded that the rate of survival of primary cementless total hip prostheses with third-generation alumina-on-alumina bearings is excellent at ten years. However, the risk of ceramic fracture, noise, and impingement between the metal neck and the ceramic liner should be a concern to surgeons, and patients should be informed of these risks before surgery. PMID:20660234
Murphy, Colin G; Bonnin, Michel P; A?t Si Selmi, Tarik
Patients with lower limb amputation have a high incidence of hip and knee osteoarthritis in both the residual limb and the contralateral limb. Hip disarticulation is a radical surgery usually performed in younger patients after malignancy or trauma. Compliance is poor with existing prostheses, resulting in increased dependency on and use of the remaining sound limb. We describe a case of a crutch-walking 51-year-old woman who presented with severe left hip arthritis 25 years after a right hip disarticulation, and was treated with total hip arthroplasty. Total hip arthroplasty without a contralateral hip joint is challenging. We discuss the complex technical considerations associated with the patient's arthroplasty, in particular the selection of prostheses and bearing surfaces, and the preoperative and intraoperative assessment of limb length and offset. PMID:25950539
Zhao, Dewei; Liu, Baoyi; Wang, Benjie; Yang, Lei; Xie, Hui; Huang, Shibo; Zhang, Yao; Wei, Xiaowei
Tantalum rod implantation with vascularized iliac grafting has been reported to be an effective method for the treatment of young patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) to avert the need for total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, there have been unsatisfactory success rates for end-stage ONFH. The authors describe a modified technique using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) associated with porous tantalum rod implantation combined with vascularized iliac grafting for the treatment of end-stage ONFH. A total of 24 patients (31 hips) with end-stage ONFH were treated with surgery; ARCO IIIc stage was observed in 19 hips and ARCO IV stage was observed in 12 hips. All patients were followed for a mean time of 64.35 ± 13.03 months (range 26-78). Operations on only five hips were converted to THA. The joint-preserving success rate of the entire group was 89.47% for ARCO stage IIIc and 75% for ARCO stage IV. The mean Harris hip score of the 31 hips improved significantly from 38.74 ± 5.88 points (range 22-50) to 77.23 ± 14.75 points (range 33-95). This intervention was safe and effective in delaying or avoiding total hip replacement for end-stage ONFH. PMID:25802840
Blackmer-Krasinski, C.; Morinville, W. R.
Indium is a key element in the formation of well, channel, and halo profiles in semiconductor fabrication. Indium has the advantage of being a large atom with a small projected range, creating a steeper implant profile than the boron implant used in the past [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology, ITT, 2002]. Typically, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to provide implant profiles; however, when a set of indium-implanted samples were analyzed on the Cameca IMS-6F, non-repeatability of the implant profile was observed in the samples that had not received an oxide spacer prior to implantation. This non-repeatability was not observed when the same samples were analyzed on the Perkin-Elmer 6300 quadrupole secondary ion mass spectrometer. Several reasons for this were hypothesized: (1) an amorphous layer was being created due to the large size of the indium atom; (2) increased damage and surface roughening occurred on the samples that did not receive an oxide layer prior to implantation; (3) Gibbsian segregation similar to that of Cu in SiO 2 was being observed [Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Wiley, New York, 1989, p. 2.2-1]; and (4) sample heating was changing the thermodynamic properties of the samples. To explore these possibilities, two sets of indium-implanted samples—with and without spacer oxide—were analyzed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) for surface roughness and with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for differences in amorphization. SIMS analysis was also conducted on both types of dynamic SIMS instruments to develop an analytical protocol for determining the indium implant profile. Repeatable results, consistent with analysis on the quadrupole SIMS, were obtained by utilizing the cold finger on the Cameca 6F.
Orlik, Julia; Zhurov, Alexei; Middleton, John
Unlike primary stability of coated cementless implants, their secondary stability has been poorly studied. This paper considers some theoretical aspects of the secondary stability of a coated cementless hip implant in a human femur. The bone is separated from the implant by a thin layer of microscopic peaks and troughs formed on the surface of the coating. The size of the peaks and troughs is very small compared with the macrosize of the implant stem and bone in contact. The study of the bone-stem contact by direct application of the finite element method is prohibitively costly. A two-scale asymptotic homogenisation procedure that takes into account the microgeometry of the interface layer and mechanical properties of bone and the implant material is applied to obtain effective, homogenised contact parameters. These parameters can be used in finite element analyses involving smooth interfaces, which require hundreds of times fewer finite elements. With the homogenisation technique and finite element analyses for a simplified design, two parameters were found to be most important--the normal contact stiffness and the friction coefficient. They both increase several times as bone grows into the rough surface of the implant and mineralises, thus providing a stronger interface and resulting in reduced micromotions. PMID:14630470
Agashe, Mandar; Song, Sang-Heon; Tong, Xue-Bo; Hong, Jin-Ho; Song, Hae-Ryong
Subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy has been used for painful hip joint dislocation in patients with severe cerebral palsy. The goal of this study was to evaluate 11 patients (17 hips) with severe cerebral palsy who had chronically dislocated and painful hips treated with subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy using a monolateral external fixator. A retrospective review was performed of 11 patients (average age, 17.8 years) with severe quadriplegic cerebral palsy with flexion-adduction contractures due to chronically dislocated and painful hips. A subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy with a monolateral fixator was performed in all patients. Patients were analyzed clinicoradiologically, and caregivers were asked about ease of handling, transfers, and perineal care. At an average follow-up of 37 months (range, 14-72 months), all caregivers were satisfied with the surgery and felt that their child was more comfortable and could sit with support for a longer time period and that perineal care, wheelchair mobilization, and transfers were much easier. A total of 11 complications in 7 patients were observed, including pin-tract infections, delayed consolidation, abduction deformity, and hypostatic pneumonia. The complication rate of subtrochanteric valgus osteotomy was comparable with other methods, and this method had the advantage of shorter surgical time, ease of application, no internal implant with lesser chance of infection or heterotopic calcification, and less intraoperative blood loss with less morbidity. PMID:23379924
Randelli, Filippo; Banci, Lorenzo; D'Anna, Alessandro; Visentin, Ornella; Randelli, Gianni
Second-generation metal-on-metal bearings have been used since the late 1980s as alternative bearings to eliminate aseptic loosening due to polyethylene wear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term results of a series of Metasul (Zimmer GmbH, Winterthur, Switzerland) metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA). One hundred forty-nine cementless THAs with a 28-mm Metasul articulation were performed in 111 consecutive patients. The results were retrospectively reviewed at 13 years postoperatively. Clinical and radiographic evaluations and implant survivorship were performed. Seven hips (4.7%) were revised. The overall survivorship with revision for any reason as the end point was 0.94. The average Harris hip score was 91.4. Expansive osteolysis was found adjacent to the stem in 4 hips. Metal wear-related aseptic loosening was not the major reason for failure in our Metasul metal-on-metal THAs. Recurrent dislocation was the main reason for revision in our series. PMID:21621954
Bia?ecki, Jacek; Klimowicz-Bodys, Ma?gorzata Dorota; Wierzcho?, Edward; Ko?omecki, Krzysztof
Hip joint dysplasia is a deformation of the articular elements (pelvic acetabulum, head of the femur, and/or ligament of the head of the femur) leading to laxity of the hip components and dislocation of the femoral head from the pelvic acetabulum. Diagnosis is based on symptoms observed during clinical and radiological examinations. There are two treatment options: conservative and surgical. The classic surgical procedures are juvenile pubic symphysiodesis (JPS), triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO), total hip replacement (THR), and femoral head and neck resection (FHNE). The aim of this experiment was to present an original technique of filling the acetabulum with a polypropylene implant, resting the femoral neck directly on the mesh. The experiment was performed on eight sheep. The clinical value of the new surgical technique was evaluated using clinical, radiological, and histological methods. This technique helps decrease the loss of limb length by supporting the femoral neck on the mesh equivalent to the femoral head. It also reduces joint pain and leads to the formation of stable and mobile pseudarthrosis. The mesh manifested osteoprotective properties and enabled the formation of a stiff-elastic connection within the hip joint. The method is very cost-effective and the technique itself is simple to perform. PMID:24987672
Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Yoon, Byung-Ho; Koo, Kyung-Hoi
Hip arthroscopy has been reported to be useful and promising for the treatment of hip pathologies. However, it is not known whether the utilization of hip arthroscopy has increased in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate national trends regarding the utilization of hip arthroscopy in Korea. We retrospectively reviewed nationwide data obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). All new admissions for hip arthroscopy are recorded nationwide by HIRA using the ICD-10 code and the code for arthroscopic devices. Using archived data, we determined the trends in utilization of hip arthroscopy between 2007 and 2010. The number of hip arthroscopies increased more than twofold over the study period, from 596 to 1,262. A third of cases were performed in hospitals. Furthermore, a bimodal distribution was observed for men (20 to 24 yr and 45 to 49 yr) and an unimodal distribution for women (50 to 54 yr). Our results show an increasing trends in the utilization of hip arthroscopy from 2007 to 2010, which is in-line with recent findings of increased utilization with the rest of the world. PMID:24550658
Cianferotti, Luisella; Fossi, Caterina; Brandi, Maria Luisa
Hip fractures are one of the most serious conditions in frail elderly subjects, greatly increasing morbidity and mortality, and decreasing healthy life years. Since their first introduction on the market, hip protectors have been revealed to be a potential preventive measure for hip fractures, in addition to other well-known recognized medical interventions and rehabilitation procedures. However, randomized controlled trials have given contradictory results regarding their efficacy. Moreover, little data are available on the cost effectiveness of hip protectors. Adherence is a major problem in assessing the effectiveness of hip protectors in preventing fractures. Indeed, there is a lack of general consensus on a standard definition and quantitative objective estimation of adherence to hip protectors, along with still scarce evidence on specific interventions on how to ameliorate it. From what is known so far, it seems reasonable to advise the use of hip protectors in aged care facilities, since recent pooled analyses have suggested their efficacy in this setting. The introduction of sensors combined with hip protectors will probably address this issue, both for monitoring and optimizing compliance, especially in elderly people. In the meantime, new, well-designed studies following specific guidelines are strongly encouraged and needed. In particular, studies in community-dwelling elderly individuals at high risk of first or further fragility fractures are required. The optimization of the tested devices in a preclinical setting according to international standard biomechanical testing is necessary. PMID:25926045
Tuomas Aura; Aarthi Nagarajan; Andrei Gurtov
The Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is an Internet security and multi- addressing mechanism specified by the IETF. HIP introduces a new layer between the transport and network layers of the TCP\\/IP stack that maps host identifiers to network locations, thus separating the two conflicting roles that IP addresses have in the current Internet. This paper analyzes the security and functionality
Donald R. Gore
We used impaction bone grafting for total hip revision on 26 hips in 25 patients. Average patient age was 68 (34-89) years, and average duration from last surgery was 9 years. In all cases morselized allograft bone was used for the graft, and the femoral component was a collarless, polished, tapered stem. Average duration of surgery was 2.4 h, intraoperative
Curtin, Brian; Friebe, Ilvy
Radiofrequency devices are often used during arthroscopic surgery, most commonly of the shoulder and knee, and increasingly in hip arthroscopy. The most commonly described complication is elevation of joint temperature, leading to capsular shrinkage, chondrolysis, and nerve damage. A less commonly reported complication is that of dermal burns from the heated irrigation fluid. There are several case reports describing dermal burns after shoulder arthroscopy; however, to the authors' knowledge, there are none describing the complication in hip arthroscopy that is often performed by surgeons doing limited if any shoulder arthroscopy. The authors report this case to raise awareness that the use of radiofrequency devices can also lead to extra-articular complications because of the effect of elevated irrigant fluid temperatures on the patient's skin. Sufficiently high temperatures were generated inside the joint, causing a superficial second-degree burn from the outflow irrigant. In the course of instrument switching from sucker/shaver to radiofrequency wand, the outflow valve was inadvertently left open with no attached suction while the radiofrequency wand was in use. Most second-degree burns like the one reported require only conservative therapy with cool compresses to decrease the temperature of the wound. The authors did recommend bacitracin ointment to prevent superficial wound infection, however unlikely with no disruption of the skin. The authors continue to use radio-frequency devices in hip arthroscopy, but are vigilant to maintain dedicated suction at the outflow tubing throughout the procedure. Surgeons should take strict precautions to avoid this preventable complication and follow all manufacturer instructions on the use of such devices. PMID:25102513
Hach, V; Delfs, G
The HELICA-Endoprosthesis is a newly developed cementless hip prosthesis for dogs. It was implanted in 39 dogs that had severe hip osteoarthritis and a history of hip pain, as well as in one dog that had chronic hip luxation. One dog had a bilateral arthroplasty. The body weight of the patients ranged between 22 and 54 kg and their ages between nine months and 10 years. Both the femoral stem and acetabular component of the prosthesis were screwed into position following bony preparation. Additional fixation was not necessary as the components remain fixed in position until osteointegration is complete. There are currently five sizes of prosthesis available, and the various components such as the stem, cup and head are readily interchangeable. Although it appeared that good osseous anchorage of the prostheses in the bone on the surgery table had been obtained, three patients experienced both stem and cup loosening (one week, three weeks and six months after surgery). In one animal, stem loosening was observed six weeks after surgery, and another dog experienced a cup loosening two weeks postoperatively. Most of the complications were due to technical errors that occurred during the learning phase. Surgical revisions were successful in three out of five animals. In two animals we had to perform a femoral head and neck excision. Two other animals experienced radiographic bone resorption underneath the segmented collar of the femoral prosthesis but did not show any significant clinical signs of lameness. Another dog that showed signs of ischial neuropraxy after surgery, recovered completely within six weeks after surgery. All of the dogs were capable of weight bearing on the operated leg one day after surgery. The main advantage of the HELICA-Endoprosthesis is the relatively easy surgical technique and short surgery time. The initial clinical results in these 40 cases have been very encouraging. The aim of this study was to assess the early clinical results in these 39 dogs. Final evaluation can only be based on the results of gait analysis, long-term follow-up, and post mortem histological analysis. PMID:19290398
Krishnan, Harry; Magnussen, Alex; Sharma, Aadhar; Skinner, John
Due to their improved wear rates, Metal-on-metal bearings have been increasingly used in the past decade by orthopaedic surgeons carrying out total hip arthroplasty. However there is increasing evidence that there are significant complications associated with such implants. One well documented complication is that of metallic debris leading to pseudotumour formation, however there is less known about associations with other tumours within the pelvis. We present two cases where an intra-pelvic mass in patients with metal-on-metal implants were diagnosed as being of a different aetiology. This highlights the need for careful assessment of such patients in order to guide appropriate management. PMID:25560054
Derby, B.; Miodownik, M.
Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is investigated as a technique for joining the cermet WC-15% Co to itself. Encapsulation of the specimens prior to HIPing was carried out using steel encapsulation, glass encapsulation and self encapsulation. The bonds were evaluated using a four point bend method. It is shown that the glass and steel encapsulation methods have a number of inherent problems which make them inappropriate for near net shape processing. In contrast the novel self encapsulation method, described for the first time in this communication, is both simple and effective, producing joined material with bulk strength. The concept of self encapsulation is potentially widely applicable for joining composite materials.
Arja Häkkinen; Håkan Borg; Mikko Hakulinen; Jukka Jurvelin; Esa Anttila; Tapani Parviainen; Ilkka Kiviranta
Background Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is considered a bone-preserving procedure and may eliminate proximal femoral stress shielding\\u000a and osteolysis. However, in addition to implant-related stress-shielding factors, various patient-related factors may also\\u000a have an effect on bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur in patients with HRA. Thus, we studied the effects of stem-neck\\u000a angle, demographic variables, and physical functioning on
L. M. Wise; S. D. Waldman; M. Kasra; R. Cheung; A. Binnington; R. A. Kandel; L. M. White; M. D. Grynpas
Periprosthetic bone loss, which is a direct cause of aseptic loosening in total hip arthroplasty (THA), can be suppressed\\u000a by bisphosphonates. It is unknown how the quality of this bone is affected in the presence of both wear debris (from implant)\\u000a and bisphosphonates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of zoledronate (ZLN) on bone quality in
Alimi, Marjan; Shin, Benjamin; Macielak, Michael; Hofstetter, Christoph P.; Njoku, Innocent; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Elowitz, Eric; Härtl, Roger
Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objective?StaXx XD (Spine Wave, Inc., Shelton, CT, United States) is an expandable polyaryl-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) wafer implant utilized in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. PEEK implants have been successfully used as interbody devices. Few studies have focused on expandable PEEK devices. The aim of the current study is to determine the radiographic and clinical outcome of expandable PEEK cages utilized for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion in patients with lumbar degenerative diseases. Methods?Forty-nine patients who underwent lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of expandable PEEK cages and posterior instrumentation were included. The clinical outcome was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiographic parameters including disk height, foraminal height, listhesis, local disk angle of the index level/levels, regional lumbar lordosis, and graft subsidence were measured preoperatively, postoperatively, and at latest follow-up. Results?At an average follow-up of 19.3 months, the minimum clinically important difference for the ODI and VAS back, buttock, and leg were achieved in 64, 52, 58, and 52% of the patients, respectively. There was statistically significant improvement in VAS back (6.42 versus 3.11, p?0.001), VAS buttock (4.66 versus 1.97, p?=?0.002), VAS leg (4.55 versus 1.96, p?0.001), and ODI (21.7 versus 12.1, p?0.001) scores. There was a significant increase in the average disk height (6.49 versus 8.18?mm, p?=?0.037) and foraminal height (15.6 versus 18.53?mm, p?=?0.0001), and a significant reduction in the listhesis (5.13 versus 3.15?mm, p?=?0.005). The subsidence of 0.66?mm (7.4%) observed at the latest follow-up was not significant (p?=?0.35). Conclusions?Midterm results indicate that expandable PEEK spacers can effectively and durably restore disk and foraminal height and improve the outcome without significant subsidence.
Fernández-Valencia, Jenaro; Gallart, Xavier; Bori, Guillem; Ramiro, Sebastián Garcia; Combalía, Andrés; Riba, Josep
The prognosis associated with the DePuy ASR hip cup is poor and varies according to the series. This implant was withdrawn from use in 2010 and all patients needed to be assessed. We present the results of the assessment of our patients treated with this device, according to the Spanish Society of Hip Surgery (SECCA) algorithm published in 2011. This retrospective study evaluates 83 consecutive ASR cups, followed up at a mean of 2.9 years. Serum levels of chromium and cobalt, as well as the acetabular abduction angle, were determined in order to assess their possible correlation with failure, defined as the need for revision surgery. The mean Harris Hip Score was 83.2 (range 42-97). Eight arthroplasties (13.3%) required revision due to persistent pain and/or elevated serum levels of chromium/cobalt. All the cups had a correct abduction angle, and there was no correlation between elevated serum levels of metal ions and implant failure. Since two previous ASR implants were exchanged previously to the recall, the revision rate for ASR cups in our centre is 18.2% at 2.9 years. PMID:25431677
Background Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is an alternative to metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, especially for young and physically active patients. However, wear which might be detected by increased serum ion levels is a matter of concern. Methods The aims of this preliminary study were to determine the raise of metal ion levels at 2-years follow-up in a prospective setting and to evaluate differences between patients with either resurfacing or total hip arthroplasty. Furthermore we investigated if the inclination of the acetabular component and the arc of cover would influence these findings. Therefore, 36 patients were followed prospectively. Results The results showed increments for Co and Cr in both implant groups. Patients treated with large-diameter total hip arthroplasty showed fourfold and threefold, respectively, higher levels for Co and Cr compared to the resurfacing group (Co: p?0,001 and Cr: p?=?0,005). Nevertheless, we observed no significant correlation between serum ion levels, inclination and arc of cover. Discussion In order to clarify the biologic effects of ion dissemination and to identify risks concerning long-term toxicity of metals, the exposure should be monitored carefully. Therefore, long-term studies have to be done to determine adverse effects of Co and Cr following metal-on-metal hip replacement. PMID:22494794
Kraay, M J; Bigach, S D
Degenerative problems of the hip in patients with childhood and adult onset neuromuscular disorders can be challenging to treat. Many orthopaedic surgeons are reluctant to recommend total hip replacement (THR) for patients with underlying neuromuscular disorders due to the perceived increased risks of dislocation, implant loosening, and lack of information about the functional outcomes and potential benefits of these procedures in these patients. Modular femoral components and alternative bearings which facilitate the use of large femoral heads, constrained acetabular components and perhaps more importantly, a better understanding about the complications and outcomes of THR in the patient with neuromuscular disorders, make this option viable. This paper will review the current literature and our experience with THR in the more frequently encountered neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25381404
Friesecke, C; Granes, R; Siemssen, N
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare benign but aggressive disease of the synovium. If the hip is involved early destruction of the joint is common due to the tight structure of the capsule and arthroplasty is unavoidable in these cases. We implanted a cemented total hip replacement in a 17-year-old female patient who had histologically confirmed PVNS. Because of massive bony destruction in the acetabulum a reconstruction with homologous bone (two femoral heads) from the bone bank was necessary. After 5 years the bone transplant had become integrated, there were no signs of recurrence and the patient was pain-free with a normal joint function. There were no signs of loosening. PMID:23989470
Diatlov, M M
A T-shaped metallic plate can stabilize the hip bone fragments at the bottom of the cotyloid cavity (on its medial side). The shape of the plate follows the shape of the bone in the region between the cavity and the tuber of the sciatic bone. The plate is applied to the pubic, iliac, and ischial bones in the region of the small pelvis, which is especially difficult for surgical intervention. The three ends of the plate are attached to the hip bone fragments with screws. The plate is used in patients with horizontal peracetabular fractures with considerable dislocation. The implant described in this work increases the flexibility of surgical treatment of isolated and combined injuries of pelvis. It is especially useful in case of injuries of intrapelvic organs. PMID:17598481
Hsu, Andrew R; Gross, Christopher E; Levine, Brett R
Pseudotumor formation after hip arthroplasty is a rare complication that can occur with various head-liner articulation couples. Adverse local tissue reactions and pseudotumors have been shown to present as prosthetic infections or implant failures with a broad array of laboratory and imaging findings. We report a case of pseudotumor formation resulting from modular neckstem corrosion in a well-fixed ceramic-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty. The patient underwent successful revision surgery using an extended trochanteric osteotomy, long-stem revision femoral component, and headliner exchange. It is critical that surgeons are aware of the potential complications with increased component modularity and the possibility of adverse local tissue reactions resulting from fretting and crevice corrosion at modular junctions. PMID:23365811
Zaoui, Amine; Zadegan, Frédéric; Sedel, Laurent; Nizard, Rémy
Alumina-on-alumina bearings in total hip arthroplasty have been developed in an attempt to minimise debris and the occurrence of osteolytic lesions. The outstanding tribological properties of this bearing system are explained by low surface roughness, high hardness for major scratch resistance, and high wettability. Since the 1970s, technological improvements in the manufacturing process of alumina components together with a better understanding of Morse taper technology have provided a surgical grade material with high density, high purity and small grains. Published studies on the outcome of total hip arthroplasty performed with this new generation of implants showed high survivorship especially in young and active patients, with survival rates free of revision of 90.8% to 97.4% at ten years. However, concern remains over ceramic liner fracture and squeaking, which has been noted recently with increasing prevalence. This review will discuss the current knowledge on the use of alumina-on-alumina bearings. PMID:21191579
Garellick, Göran; Kärrholm, Johan
Background and purpose Since the introduction of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Sweden, both components have most commonly been cemented. A decade ago the frequency of uncemented fixation started to increase, and this change in practice has continued. We therefore analyzed implant survival of cemented and uncemented THA, and whether the modes of failure differ between the two methods of fixation. Patients and methods All patients registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register between 1992 and 2007 who received either totally cemented or totally uncemented THA were identified (n = 170,413). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with revision of any component, and for any reason, as the endpoints was performed. Cox regression models were used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for revision for various reasons, adjusted for sex, age, and primary diagnosis. Results Revision-free 10-year survival of uncemented THA was lower than that of cemented THA (85% vs. 94%, p < 0.001). No age or diagnosis groups benefited from the use of uncemented fixation. Cox regression analysis confirmed that uncemented THA had a higher risk of revision for any reason (RR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.4–1.6) and for aseptic loosening (RR = 1.5, CI: 1.3–1.6). Uncemented cup components had a higher risk of cup revision due to aseptic loosening (RR = 1.8, CI: 1.6–2.0), whereas uncemented stem components had a lower risk of stem revision due to aseptic loosening (RR = 0.4, CI: 0.3–0.5) when compared to cemented components. Uncemented stems were more frequently revised due to periprosthetic fracture during the first 2 postoperative years than cemented stems (RR = 8, CI: 5–14). The 5 most common uncemented cups had no increased risk of revision for any reason when compared with the 5 most commonly used cemented cups (RR = 0.9, CI: 0.6–1.1). There was no significant difference in the risk of revision due to infection between cemented and uncemented THA. Interpretation Survival of uncemented THA is inferior to that of cemented THA, and this appears to be mainly related to poorer performance of uncemented cups. Uncemented stems perform better than cemented stems; however, unrecognized intraoperative femoral fractures may be an important reason for early failure of uncemented stems. The risk of revision of the most common uncemented cup designs is similar to that of cemented cups, indicating that some of the problems with uncemented cup fixation may have been solved. PMID:20180715
Toh, Eng-Huat; Huiqi Wang, Grace; Chan, Lap; Samudra, Ganesh S.; Yeo, Yee-Chia
In this paper, the impact-ionization metal-oxide-semiconductor (I-MOS) transistor structure is further optimized by utilizing a double-spacer fabrication process. This novel fabrication process allows for performance optimization through independent tuning of four individual implants which form a shallow source region, a lightly-doped drain region, a heavily-doped drain region, and a deep source region. The performance optimization is guided by detailed understanding of the device physics and will be described. The breakdown voltage needed for avalanche breakdown is optimized using the shallow source extension, and the lightly-doped drain extension reduces the impact of drain bias on breakdown voltage and hence the threshold voltage. The heavily-doped drain and deep source implants reduce the parasitic series resistance of the transistor. The double-spacer I-MOS is fabricated and characterized. Detail analysis and physical explanation of the impact of drain/gate bias on the device characteristics will be given. In addition, excellent subthreshold swing and good device performance are achieved.
X. Ma; T. S. Sudarshan
This paper reports the electrical conduction and breakdown characteristics of thin-wall ceramic spacers for a field emission display (FED). These spacers bridge two thin-film electrodes, which represent the FED cathode and the phosphor anode in a FED. Techniques to set up a high aspect-ratio thin-wall spacer without glue were developed. An extra-low light detection 3D-imaging system using an intensified CCD
Min Li; Shaokai Wang; Zuoguang Zhang; Boming Wu
Three-dimensional (3-D) spacer fabric composite is a newly developed sandwich structure, the reinforcement of which is integrally\\u000a woven by advanced textile technique. Two facesheets of 3-D spacer fabric are connected by continuous fibers, named pile in\\u000a the core, providing excellent properties like outstanding integrity, debonding resistance, light weight, good designability\\u000a and so on. Usually the 3-D spacer fabric composite without
Yang-Kyu Choi; Tsu-Jae King; Chenming Hu
A spacer lithography process technology using a sacrificial layer and a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) spacer layer has been developed, and is demonstrated to achieve sub-40 nm structures with conventional dry etching. The minimum-sized features are defined not by photolithography but by the CVD film thickness. Therefore the spacer lithography technology yields CD (Critical Dimension) variations of minimum-sized features which
Pierre-Edouard Fournier; Didier Raoult
BACKGROUND: In order to estimate whether multi-spacer typing (MST), based on the sequencing of variable intergenic spacers, could serve for the identification of Rickettsia at the species level, we applied it to 108 rickettsial isolates or arthropod amplicons that include representatives of 23 valid Rickettsia species. RESULTS: MST combining the dksA-xerC, mppA-purC, and rpmE-tRNAfMet spacer sequences identified 61 genotypes, allowing
J. I. Oñate; M. Comin; I. Braceras; A. Garcia; J. L. Viviente; M. Brizuela; N. Garagorri; J. L. Peris; J. I. Alava
The most important factor affecting performance and longevity of hip joint and knee implants is the wear rate of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component. UHMWPE wear debris has been linked to complications including tissue inflammation, bone loss (osteolysis) and implant loosening. Reduction of debris has been addressed by investigating new polyethylene formulations, manufacturing and finishing processes, including surface treatments and
Althuizen, Martje N R; V Hooff, Miranda L; v d Berg-v Erp, Saskia H M; V Limbeek, Jacques; Nijhof, Marc W
Concerns have recently been raised about large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties (LDH THA). Metal ion release due to wear may cause osteolysis, pseudotumours and necrosis. In addition, fixation of certain acetabular components is thought to be suboptimal. We present the short term outcome of the Durom LDH THA. Retrospectively, a consecutive series of 64 implants in 60 patients was analysed with a mean follow-up of 37 months. Clinical and radiological evaluation was performed on a regular basis, followed by additional evaluations when indicated. The 10-year revision percentage was calculated and compared with National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) standards. Six patients (six hips) underwent cup revision (9%). Four of these cups showed no or minimal bone fixation. Three patients had a pseudotumour. In two revision cases, ALVAL (aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion) was present. Lack of bone ingrowth and the presence of ARMD (adverse reaction to metal debris) seem to contribute to a high failure rate of the Durom LDH THA. The predicted ten-year revision rate of 14.2% (95% CI 5.6-22.8) is, given the broad confidence interval, not significantly outside NICE recommended standards. However, it is not clear which factors, if any, predict implant failure. Therefore, we do not advocate the use of this implant. PMID:23233178
Cadossi, M; Chiarello, E; Savarino, L; Mazzotti, A; Tedesco, G; Greco, M; Giannini, S
A 44-year-old female hairdresser who underwent metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MOMHR) for hip osteoarthritis developed a benign pelvic pseudotumour. Elevated levels of chromium and cobalt ions were detected in the blood. Patch testing after pseudotumor formation, showed positive skin reactions to cobalt and nickel. Marked hypereosinophilia was noted, as well as the presence of eosinophils in the pseudotumor mass. A revision to a ceramic-on-ceramic implant was performed. Radiographs showed no implant loosening or bone resorption. We hypothesized that a steep cup positioning as well as hypersensitivity response to the metal nanoparticles and ion release may have induced pseudotumour development. Currently there is no evidence that negative patch testing reduces the probability to develop an adverse reaction to metal debris therefore we suggest to carefully investigate patient medical history regarding occupation exposure and daily contact with jewellery, beauty and cleaning products before implanting MOMHR. The main challenge is to identify a sensitive patient candidate to MOMHR never suspected to be. PMID:24825038
Morrey, Bernard F
Hip instability remains a costly complication of primary (3%) and revision (10%) procedures. In those with well-oriented components, instability may be anticipated in about 70% from advancement of the trochanter. Articular reorientation readily is affected by the use of modular cups with elevated rims. This has proven to be an effective strategy both to lessen the likelihood of an initial dislocation after both primary and revision procedures. It has also proven to be an effective strategy to treat the unstable implant, especially if cup orientation has been defined as the primary problem. Larger head sizes in the range of low-friction arthroplasty, such as 32 mm, are not any more stable than 22-mm diameter implants. Anatomic-sized heads as used in bipolar devices are effective in treating established instability in up to 90% of instances. The most popular current option is that of the constrained head/cup articulation. Good short-term results have revealed success in more than 90%. However, the effectiveness is design dependent, and the long-term effectiveness understandably is questioned as reports of mechanical failure begin to emerge. PMID:15577472
Background and purpose There is growing interest in minimally invasive surgery techniques in total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this study, we investigated the learning curve and the early complications of the direct anterior approach in hip replacement. Methods In the period January through December 2010, THA was performed in 46 patients for primary osteoarthritis, using the direct anterior approach. These cases were compared to a matched cohort of 46 patients who were operated on with a conventional posterolateral approach. All patients were followed for at least 1 year. Results Operating time was almost twice as long and mean blood loss was almost twice as much in the group with anterior approach. No learning effect was observed in this group regarding operating time or blood loss. Radiographic evaluation showed adequate placement of the implants in both groups. The early complication rate was higher in the anterior approach group. Mean time of hospital stay and functional outcome (with Harris hip score and Oxford hip score) were similar in both groups at the 1-year follow-up. Interpretation The direct anterior approach is a difficult technique, but adequate hip placement was achieved radiographically. Early results showed no improvement in functional outcome compared to the posterolateral approach, but there was a higher early complication rate. We did not observe any learning effect after 46 patients. PMID:22880711
Miki?, Zelimir Dj; Lesi?, Aleksandar R
November 2012 marked the 50th anniversary of the first implantation of a successful and long-lived hip endoprosthesis, which was performed by Prof Sir John Charnley in the "Centre for Hip Surgery" at a small country place in the north-west England. John Charnley (1911-1982) finished medical school at the Victoria University of Manchester in 1935, and than started training in orthopaedics at the Manchester Royal Infirmary, and completed it after the Second World War, in which he served as a volunteer. After that he continued working in the same hospital, and, apart from that he worked as a lecturer at the University of Manchester, and from 1949 as a visiting surgeon in the Wrightington Hospital. In 1958 Charnley decided to put his efforts into the development of hip replacement research and surgery, and initiated the foundation of the "Centre for Hip Surgery" with Biomechanical laboratory in the Wrightington Hospital in 1960, where the intesive basic and clinical research started, and becuase of that Charnley in 1962 left Manchester and moved with a full time practice at the Wrightington Hospital. That period of research time was not easy, there were many "trial and tribulations", but, owing to the tenacity and inventive mind of Charnley, in 1962 a new prosthesis consisting of a cemented metal stem with a 22 mm head articulating with a cemented polyethilene acetabular component, and with a low frictional torque was designed. The first such prosthesis, which later produced excellent long-term results, was implanted on November 22nd, 1962, and today, when we look back over a distance of fifty years, we can conclude that that day could be considered as a beginning of a modem aloarthroplastic surgery, and certainly as one of the greatest orthopaedic advance in the whole of the 20th century; and all that was initiated and promoted by Prof. Sir John Charnley. PMID:24669557
Wang, Meina; Han, Yuchun; Qiao, Fulin; Wang, Yilin
A peptide gemini surfactant, 12-G(NH2)LG(NH2)-12, has been constructed with two dodecyl chains separately attached to the two terminals of a glutamic acid-lysine-glutamic acid peptide and the aggregation behavior of the surfactant was studied in aqueous solution. The 12-G(NH2)LG(NH2)-12 molecules form fiber-like precipitates around pH 7.0, and the precipitation range is widened on increasing the concentration. At pHs 3.0 and 11.0, 12-G(NH2)LG(NH2)-12 forms soluble aggregates because each molecule carries two positively charged amino groups at the two ends of the peptide spacer at pH 3.0, while each molecule carries one negatively charged carboxyl group in the middle of the peptide spacer at pH 11.0. 12-G(NH2)LG(NH2)-12 displays a similar concentration-dependent process at these two pHs: forming small micelles above the critical micelle concentration and transferring to fibers at pH 3.0 or twisted ribbons at pH 11.0 above the second critical concentration. The fibers formed at pH 3.0 tend to aggregate into bundles with twisted structure. Both the twisted fibers at pH 3.0 and the twisted ribbons at pH 11.0 contain ?-sheet structure formed by the peptide spacer. PMID:25588349
Davison, Michelle; Bhaya, Devaki
Advances in sequencing technology have allowed for the study of complex and previously unexplored microbial and viral populations; however, linking host-phage partners using in silico techniques has been challenging. Here, we describe the flow-through for creation of a virome, and its subsequent analysis with the viral assembly and analysis module "Viritas," which we have recently developed. This module allows for binning of contigs based on tetranucleotide frequencies, putative phage-host partner identification by CRISPR spacer matching, and identification of ORFs. PMID:25981482
Orban, H; Cîrstoiu, C; Adam, R
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multisystem disease with a large spectrum of clinical manifestations and a variable course. Lupus is marked by both humoral and cellular immunologic abnormalities, including multiple auto-antibodies especially anti DNA antibodies. Epidemiology - female predominance, occurring usually between second and fourth decade of life, more frequently in hispanic and black patients. Family predominance has been noticed. Provocative agents - ultraviolet light, viral infections, drugs and situational stresses. Pathogenesis - pathological features can affect a large spectrum of internal organs and systems - osteoarticulary injuries, skin rash, lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis, digestive system lesions. Musculo skeletal abnormalities include migratory arthritis, effusion and stiffness in small and large joints. Articular erosions are uncommon. Skeletal abnormalities include osteopenia and osteonecrosis, due to two pathological mechanisms: vasculitis and long term corticotherapy. Fifteen to twenty percent of SLE patients are affected by femoral head avascular necrosis (FHAN). Diagnosis rests on clinical signs - hip pain, limited range of motion, walking with a limp.; radiological findings - best grouped in Arlet-Ficat standing system; MRI - high sensitivity, especially in infraradiological stages. Treatment - in incipient stages core decompression represents the best therapeutical option. In advanced, arthritis stages, total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the standart treatment. Three implant types are available: bipolar, uncemented and cemented. An increased number of cotyloidites occurred after bipolar implants. Emphasised osteopenia and excessive bleeding represent contraindications for uncemented implants. Considering all of this, cemented implants are considered, the right choice, methacrylate cement providing strong and durable fixation of THA implants to bone. No meaningful differences were observed in postoperative functional recovery between LSE patients and other etiology FHAN patients. PMID:17966453
Blaž Mav?i?; Aleš Igli?; Veronika Kralj-Igli?; Richard A. Brand; Rok Vengust
Hip stresses are generally believed to influence whether a hip develops osteoarthritis (OA); similarly, various osteotomies\\u000a have been proposed to reduce contact stresses and the risk of OA. We asked whether elevated hip contact stress predicted osteoarthritis\\u000a in initially asymptomatic human hips. We identified 58 nonoperatively treated nonsubluxated hips with developmental dysplasia\\u000a (DDH) without symptoms at skeletal maturity; the control
MacKenzie, James R; O'Connor, Gregory J; Marshall, Deborah A; Faris, Peter D; Dort, Leslie C; Khong, Hoa; Parker, Robyn D; Werle, Jason R; Beaupre, Lauren A; Frank, Cyril B
This prospective observational study of 499 patients with hip resurfacing and 255 patients with total hip arthroplasty compared outcomes for 2 years. We used propensity scores to identify matched cohorts of 118 patients with hip resurfacing and 118 patients with total hip arthroplasty. We used these cohorts to compare improvements in the Western Ontario and McMaster University (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index and Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36 physical function component (SF-36 PF) scores at 3 months and at 1 and 2 years postsurgery. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements from baseline in WOMAC and SF-36 PF. Improvements in SF-36 PF were greater for patients with hip resurfacing than for patients with total hip arthroplasty 1 and 2 years postsurgery; improvements in WOMAC were similar for both groups. The clinical significance of this observation needs further investigation. PMID:22285258
Hallmann, S.; Glockner, P.; Daniel, C.; Seyda, V.; Emmelmann, C.
The perfect fit of hip stem prostheses is supposed to have positive effects on their lifetime performance. Moreover, the ingrowth of tissue into the surface of the implant has to be assured to create a firm and load bearing contact. For the manufacturing of customized hip stem prostheses, the technology of Selective Laser Melting has shown promising results. Poor surface quality, however, makes it necessary to finish up the part by e.g., sand blasting or polishing. With the use of laser ablation for post-processing, reproducible and functionalized surface morphologies might be achievable. Hence, with the motive to produce customized hip stem prostheses, a combined process chain for both mentioned laser technologies is developed. It is examined what type of surface should be produced at which part of the process chain. The produced implants should contain the demanded final surface characteristics without any conventional post-processing. Slight advantages for the Selective Laser Melting regarding the accuracy for different geometrical structures of 400 ?m depth were observed. However, an overall improvement of surface quality after the laser ablation process in terms of osseointegration could be achieved. A complete laser based production of customized hip stem implants is found to be with good prospects.
Introduction There is no current consensus on the most appropriate prosthesis for treating symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip in young, active patients. Modern metal on metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HR) has gained popularity as it is theoretically more stable, bone conserving and easier to revise than total hip arthroplasty. Early results of metal on metal resurfacing have been encouraging. We have compared two well matched cohorts of patients with regard to function, pain relief and patient satisfaction. Methods This prospective study compares 2 cohorts of young, active patients treated with hip resurfacing (137 patients, 141 hips) and custom uncemented (CADCAM) stems (134 patients, 141 hips). All procedures were performed by a single surgeon. Outcome measures included Oxford, WOMAC and Harris hip scores as well as an activity score. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired student's t-test. Results One hundred and thirty four and 137 patients were included in the hip replacement and resurfacing groups respectively. The mean age of these patients was 54.6 years. The mean duration of follow up for the hip resurfacing group was 19.2 months compared to 13.4 months for the total hip replacement group. Pre operative oxford, Harris and WOMAC scores in the THA group were 41.1, 46.4 and 50.9 respectively while the post operative scores were 14.8, 95.8 and 5.0. In the HR group, pre- operative scores were 37.0, 54.1 and 45.9 respectively compared to 15.0, 96.8 and 6.1 post operatively. The degree of improvement was similar in both groups. Conclusion There was no significant clinical difference between the patients treated with hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty in the short term. PMID:20167056
V. Kyriazis; C. Rigas
Objective. This study attempts to identify temporal gait parameters, which characterize the pre- and postoperative course of hip monoarthritic patients who undergo cementless hip replacement.Background and methods. Twenty-five female hip monoarthritic subjects (mean age 51, SD 5.0) were studied preoperatively; 20 out of them were studied at 1 and 8–10 years after the operation with a 22-m conductive walkway system
Davies, H; Foote, J; Spencer, R F
Restoration of hip biomechanics is a crucial component of successful total hip replacement. Preoperative templating is recommended to ensure that the size and orientation of implants is optimised. We studied how closely natural femoral offset could be reproduced using the manufacturers' templates for 10 femoral stems in common use in the UK. A series of 23 consecutive preoperative radiographs from patients who had undergone unilateral total hip replacement for unilateral osteoarthritis of the hip was employed. The change in offset between the templated position of the best-fitting template and the anatomical centre of the hip was measured. The templates were then ranked according to their ability to reproduce the normal anatomical offset. The most accurate was the CPS-Plus (Root Mean Square Error 2.0 mm) followed in rank order by: C stem (2.16), CPT (2.40), Exeter (3.23), Stanmore (3.28), Charnley (3.65), Corail (3.72), ABG II (4.30), Furlong HAC (5.08) and Furlong modular (7.14). A similar pattern of results was achieved when the standard error of variability of offset was analysed. We observed a wide variation in the ability of the femoral prosthesis templates to reproduce normal femoral offset. This variation was independent of the seniority of the observer. The templates of modern polished tapered stems with high modularity were best able to reproduce femoral offset. The current move towards digitisation of X-rays may offer manufacturers an opportunity to improve template designs in certain instances, and to develop appropriate computer software. PMID:19197861
Ernstberger, Thorsten; Buchhorn, Gottfried; Baums, Mike Herbert; Heidrich, Gabert
The purpose of this study was to investigate how different materials affect the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detectability of interbody test spacers (ITS). We evaluated the post-implantation MRI scans with T1 TSE sequences for three different ITS made of titanium, carbon fibre-reinforced polymers (CFRP) and titanium-coated CFRP, respectively. The main target variables were total artefact volume (TAV) and median artefact area (MAA). Additionally, implant volume (IV)/TAV and cross section (CS)/MAA ratio were determined. The t test and Newman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons were used for statistical analysis. TAV and MAA did not differ significantly between CFRP and titanium-coated CFRP, but were approximately twice as high for the titanium ITS (p < 0.001). MRI detectability was optimum for CFRP and titanium-coated CFRP, but was limited at the implant-bone interface of the titanium ITS. The material's susceptibility and the implant's dimensions affected MRI artefacting. Based on TAV, the volume of titanium surface coating in the ITS studied has no influence on susceptibility in MRI scans with T1 TSE sequences. PMID:17515239
Peters, Christopher L
Treatment of structural hip disease such as FAI and acetabular dysplasia has increased dramatically over the past decade with the goal of preservation of the native hip joint. A number of patient and disease specific parameters including the amount of underlying hip osteoarthrosis can help predict success with joint preservation surgery. Total hip arthroplasty remains a very good option in young patients who are not ideal candidates for joint preservation surgery. Future developments will help to better identify ideal surgical candidates and improve understanding of the disease processes. PMID:25842248
Pep?o?ski, Artur; P?omi?ski, Janusz
Dislocation after total hip replacement remains a significant problem in orthopedic practice. Despite the use of more modem implants risk of instability is estimated at a few percent for primary treatment and for several procedures. The standard procedure in case of the first dislocation is reduction of the prosthesis in general anesthesia. Further investigation is individual, each case must be thoroughly examined for proper execution of the original surgery and the risk of the next dislocation. Regardless of the subsequent procedures performed a key role in the event of instability prosthesis plays properly conducted rehabilitation and patient education. PMID:24779210
Drummond, James; Tran, Phong; Fary, Camdon
Recent alarming joint registry data highlighting increased revision rates has prompted further research into the area of metal-on-metal hip replacements and resurfacings. This review article examines the latest literature on the topic of adverse reactions to metal debris and summarises the most up-to-date guidelines on patient management. Adverse reactions to metal debris can cause significant damage to soft tissue and bone if not diagnosed early. Furthermore, not every patient with an adverse reaction to metal debris will be symptomatic. As such, clinicians must remain vigilant when assessing and investigating these patients in order to detect failing implants and initiate appropriate management. PMID:26132653
Background and purpose Little is known about the effect of the learning curve for different types of total hip arthroplasties (THAs). We investigated the prostheses survival of THAs just after the implementation of a model new to the hospital, and compared these results with the results of THAs done when more than 100 implantations had been undertaken. In addition, we investigated whether differences exist between different types of femoral stems and acetabular cups at the early implementation phase. Patients and methods We used comprehensive registry data from all units (n = 76) that performed THAs for primary osteoarthritis in Finland between 1998 and 2007. Complete data including follow-up data to December 31, 2010 or until death were available for 33,819 patients (39,125 THAs). The stems and cups used were given order numbers in each hospital and classified into 5 groups: operations with order number (a) 1–15, (b) 16–30, (c) 31–50, (d) 51–100, and (e) > 100. We used Cox’s proportional hazards modeling for calculation of the adjusted hazard ratios for the risk of revision during the 3 years following the implementation of a new THA endoprosthesis type in the groups. Results Introduction of new endoprosthesis types was common, as more than 1 in 7 patients received a type that had been previously used in 15 or less operations. For the first 15 operations after a stem or cup type was introduced, there was an elevated risk of revision (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5). There were differences in the risk of early revision between stem and cup types at implementation. Interpretation The first 15 operations with a new stem or cup model had an increased risk of early revision surgery. Stems and cups differed in their early revision risk, particularly at the implementation phase. Thus, the risk of early revision at the implementation phase should be considered when a new type of THA is brought into use. PMID:23368748
Stöver, T; Lenarz, T
Cochlear implants (CI) represent the "gold standard" for the treatment of congenitally deaf children and postlingually deafened adults. Thus, cochlear implantation is a success story of new bionic prosthesis development. Owing to routine application of cochlear implants in adults but also in very young children (below the age of one), high demands are placed on the implants. This is especially true for biocompatibility aspects of surface materials of implant parts which are in contact with the human body. In addition, there are various mechanical requirements which certain components of the implants must fulfil, such as flexibility of the electrode array and mechanical resistance of the implant housing. Due to the close contact of the implant to the middle ear mucosa and because the electrode array is positioned in the perilymphatic space via cochleostomy, there is a potential risk of bacterial transferral along the electrode array into the cochlea. Various requirements that have to be fulfilled by cochlear implants, such as biocompatibility, electrode micromechanics, and although a very high level of technical standards has been carried out there is still demand for the improvement of implants as well as of the materials used for manufacturing, ultimately leading to increased implant performance. General considerations of material aspects related to cochlear implants as well as potential future perspectives of implant development will be discussed. PMID:19353453
Levine, Brett R.; Hsu, Andrew R.; Skipor, Anastasia K.; Hallab, Nadim J.; Paprosky, Wayne G.; Galante, Jorge O.; Jacobs, Joshua J.
Abstract: We previously reported on the metal ion concentrations of cobalt, chromium, and titanium that were found in the serum of patients three years after they had undergone primary total hip arthroplasty as compared with the concentrations found in the serum of control patients who did not have an implant. This study is a concise update on the serum metal levels found in a cohort of these patients ten years after the time of hip implantation. Of the original seventy-five subjects, metal ion levels were available for forty patients (53%). Ten patients (hybrid group) had received a hybrid total hip replacement that consisted of a modular cobalt-alloy femoral stem with a cobalt-alloy femoral head that had been inserted with cement and a titanium acetabular socket that had been inserted without cement. Nine patients (cobalt-chromium [CoCr] group) had received an implant with an extensively porous-coated modular cobalt-alloy femoral stem and femoral head along with a titanium acetabular socket; the femoral and acetabular components had each been inserted without cement. Eight patients (titanium group) had undergone insertion of a proximally porous-coated modular titanium-alloy femoral stem with a cobalt-alloy femoral head and a titanium acetabular socket; the femoral and acetabular components had each been inserted without cement. Thirteen patients (control group) from the original control group of patients who had not received an implant served as control subjects. Serum metal levels were measured with use of high-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The hybrid total hip arthroplasty group had mean cobalt levels that were 3.2 times higher at 120 months than they were at baseline, and the cobalt levels in that group were significantly higher than those in the titanium total hip arthroplasty group at thirty-six, sixty, eighty-four, ninety-six, and 120 months (p < 0.01). The hybrid group had mean chromium levels that were 3.9 times higher at 120 months than they were at baseline, and the CoCr total hip arthroplasty group had chromium levels that were 3.6 times higher at 120 months than they were at baseline. The serum titanium levels were higher in the titanium group at all follow-up time intervals as compared with the levels in all other groups, and the level in the titanium group at 120 months was eighteen times higher than it was at baseline (p < 0.01). Patients with well-functioning primary metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacements had elevated serum metal levels for as many as ten years postoperatively. Furthermore, metal release at the modular femoral head-neck junctions, rather than passive dissolution from porous ingrowth surfaces, was likely the dominant source of serum cobalt and chromium. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23515985
Hallab, Nadim James; Caicedo, Marco; Finnegan, Alison; Jacobs, Joshua J
Background All prostheses with metallic components release metal debris that can potentially activate the immune system. However, implant-related metal hyper-reactivity has not been well characterized. In this study, we hypothesized that adaptive immunity reaction(s), particularly T-helper type 1 (Th1) responses, will be dominant in any metal-reactivity responses of patients with total joint replacements (TJAs). We tested this hypothesis by evaluating lymphocyte reactivity to metal "ions" in subjects with and without total hip replacements, using proliferation assays and cytokine analysis. Methods Lymphocytes from young healthy individuals without an implant or a history of metal allergy (Group 1: n = 8) were used to assess lymphocyte responses to metal challenge agents. In addition, individuals (Group 2: n = 15) with well functioning total hip arthroplasties (average Harris Hip Score = 91, average time in-situ 158 months) were studied. Age matched controls with no implants were also used for comparison (Group 3, n = 8, 4 male, 4 female average age 70, range 49–80). Group 1 subjects' lymphocyte proliferation response to Aluminum+3, Cobalt+2, Chromium+3, Copper+2, Iron+3, Molybdenum+5, Manganeese+2, Nickel+2, Vanadium+3 and Sodium+2 chloride solutions at a variety of concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mM) was studied to establish toxicity thresholds. Mononuclear cells from Group 2 and 3 subjects were challenged with 0.1 mM CrCl3, 0.1 mM NiCl2, 0.1 mM CoCl2 and approx. 0.001 mM titanium and the reactions measured with proliferation assays and cytokine analysis to determine T-cell subtype prominence. Results Primary lymphocytes from patients with well functioning total hip replacements demonstrated a higher incidence and greater magnitude of reactivity to chromium than young healthy controls (p < 0.03). Of the 15 metal ion-challenged subjects with well functioning total hip arthroplasties, 7 demonstrated a proliferative response to Chromium, Nickel, Cobalt and/or Titanium (as defined by a statistically significant >2 fold stimulation index response, p < 0.05) and were designated as metal-reactive. Metals such as Cobalt, Copper, Manganese, and Vanadium were toxic at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM while other metals, such as Aluminum, Chromium, Iron, Molybdenum, and Nickel, became toxic at much higher concentrations (>10 mM). The differential secretion of signature T-cell subsets' cytokines (Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes releasing IFN-gamma and IL-4, respectively) between those total hip arthroplasty subjects which demonstrated metal-reactivity and those that did not, indicated a Th1 type (IFN-gamma) pro-inflammatory response. Conclusion Elevated proliferation and production of IFN-gamma to metals in hip arthroplasty subjects' lymphocytes indicates that a Th1 (vs. Th2) type response is likely associated with any metal induced reactivity. The involvement of an elevated and specific lymphocyte response suggests an adaptive (macrophage recruiting) immunity response to metallic implant debris rather than an innate (nonspecific) immune response. PMID:18271968
... will develop a blood clot. (See "Patient information: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient ... information: Hip pain (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: ...
John M Wright; Heber C Crockett; Sam Delgado; Stephen Lyman; Mike Madsen; Thomas P Sculco
A group of 42 primary total hip arthroplasties performed through an abridged surgical incision (group 1) was prospectively compared to a cohort of 42 primary total hip arthroplasties performed through a standard surgical incision (group 2). The length of the incision was 8.8 ± 1.5 cm for group 1 and 23.0 ± 2.1 cm for group 2. The groups were
Hack, Juliana; Bliemel, Christopher; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Bücking, Benjamin
Hip fractures are among the most common fractures in elderly people. The annual number of femoral fractures is even expected to increase because of an aging society. Due to the high number of comorbidities, there are special challenges in treating geriatric hip fracture patients, which require a multidisciplinary management. This includes surgical treatment allowing full weight bearing in the immediate postoperative period, osteoporosis treatment and falls prevention as well as an early ortho-geriatric rehabilitation program. PMID:25919823
Carol Pei Wei Chong; Judith A. Savige; Wen Kwang Lim
Increasing number of older patients are admitted to hospital with hip fractures. This review evaluates the common medical\\u000a problems that arise as a consequence of having a hip fracture. Older patients with fractures commonly have co-morbidities\\u000a that require evaluation prior to and after surgery. Joint acute orthopaedic–geriatric units have been established to provide\\u000a comprehensive orthopaedic and medical care with some
Effect of spacer layer thickness on magnetic interactions in self-assembled single domain iron been studied as a function of spacer layer thickness. Alumina as well as iron nanoparticles were 2008 The magnetic characteristics of iron nanoparticles embedded in an alumina thin film matrix have
Using cathode spacers to minimize reactor size in air cathode microbial fuel cells Qiao Yang January 2012 Available online 30 January 2012 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Spacer Oxygen demand Scale up a b s t r a c t Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require more compact reactor designs
Dimeric (gemini) surfactants are made up of two amphiphilic moieties connected at the level of, or very close to, the head groups by a spacer group of varying nature: hydrophilic or hydrophobic, rigid or flexible. These surfactants represent a new class of surfactants that is finding its way into surfactant-based formulations. The nature of the spacer group (length, flexibility, chemical
Liu, Tao; Li, Yingjun; Wang, Xiaodi; Ye, Qing; Li, Huan; Liang, Yunxiang; She, Qunxin; Peng, Nan
Acquisition of de novo spacer sequences confers CRISPR-Cas with a memory to defend against invading genetic elements. However, the mechanism of regulation of CRISPR spacer acquisition remains unknown. Here we examine the transcriptional regulation of the conserved spacer acquisition genes in Type I-A of Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Csa3a, a MarR-like transcription factor encoded by the gene located adjacent to csa1, cas1, cas2 and cas4 cluster, but on the reverse strand, was demonstrated to specifically bind to the csa1 and cas1 promoters with the imperfect palindromic sequence. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the transcription level of csa1, cas1, cas2 and cas4 was significantly enhanced in a csa3a-overexpression strain and, moreover, the Csa1 and Cas1 protein levels were increased in this strain. Furthermore, we demonstrated the hyperactive uptake of unique spacers within both CRISPR loci in the presence of the csa3a overexpression vector. The spacer acquisition process is dependent on the CCN PAM sequence and protospacer selection is random and non-directional. These results suggested a regulation mechanism of CRISPR spacer acquisition where a single transcriptional regulator senses the presence of an invading element and then activates spacer acquisition gene expression which leads to de novo spacer uptake from the invading element. PMID:25567986
V. S. Martsinkovskii
Superior performance has resulted in pulse face seals being used increasingly for centrifugal machines. New designs of such seals are now being developed, particularly designs that use spacer fluid to provide leaktight sealing. Let us consider the method of static and dynamic calculations of a pulse seal with spacer fluid fed into the face pair (see Fig. 1). An O-ring
The Effect of Charge-Reversal Amphiphile Spacer Composition on DNA and siRNA Delivery Xiao April 7, 2010 A series of charge-reversal amphiphiles with different spacers separating the headgroup from the hydrophobic chains are described for delivery of DNA and siRNA. Among them, the amphiphiles
W. Kraemer; G. Proebstle; W. Uebelhack; T. Keheley; K. Tsuda; S. Kato
Critical power performance of reload fuel assemblies has a significant influence on economy in terms of fuel cycle costs and on operational flexibility of boiling water reactors. Well-known advantages in critical power performance attributed to the spacer design have been a stimulus for the development of a new spacer concept. The development was aimed at maximizing the effectiveness of phase
Saraf, Shyam Kumar; Tuli, Surendra Mohan
Tuberculosis (TB) of the hip is second to spine only hence a good number of cases are visiting the medical facilities every year. Many present in the advanced stage of the disease due to delayed diagnosis. In early stages of TB of hip, there is a diagnostic dilemma when plain X-rays are negative. In the present time, diagnostic modalities have improved from the days when diagnosis was based essentially on clinicoradiological presentation alone. By the time definite radiological changes appear on plain X-ray, the disease has moderately advanced. The modern diagnostic facilities like ultrasonography (USG) or magnetic resonance imaging of the hip joint, USG guided aspiration of synovial fluid and obtaining the material for polymerase chain reaction and tissue diagnosis must be utilized. In the treatment, current emphasis is more on mobility with stability at hip. Joint debridement, skeletal traction, and mobilization exercises may give more satisfying results as compared to the immobilization by hip spica. Adults with advanced arthritis and healed infection should be informed and discussed the various treatment modalities including the joint replacement. More and more surgeons are taking up the challenge of putting the total hip replacement in the active stage of the disease. Until the long term results in active disease are well established, we recommend it for the healed disease only in selected cases. PMID:25593352
Robert A. Ersek; Jose Alberto Navarro; Dora Zsofia Nemeth; George Sas
Breast implants have evolved from the original saline-filled, smooth-surfaced silicone rubber bag to silicone gel-filled smooth-walled sacs to a combination of a silicone gel-filled bag within a saline-filled sac, and, most recently, a reversed, double-lumen implant with a saline bag inside of a gel-filled bag. Texture-surfaced implants were first used in 1970 when the standard silicone gelfilled implant was covered
Ng, Pei-Sze; Laing, Brian M.; Balasundarum, Ganesan; Pingle, Maneesh; Friedman, Alan; Bergstrom, Donald E.
A series of aliphatic and aromatic spacer molecules designed to cap the ends of DNA duplexes have been synthesized. The spacers were converted into dimethoxytrityl protected phosphoramidites as synthons for oligonucleotides synthesis. The effect of the spacers on the stability of short DNA duplexes was assessed by melting temperature studies. Endcaps containing amide groups were found to be less stabilizing than the hexaethylene glycol spacer. Endcaps containing either a terthiophene or a naphthalene tetracarboxylic acid dimide were found to be significantly more stabilizing. The former showed a preference for stacking above an A•T base pair. Spacers containing only methylene (-CH2-) and amide (-CONH-) groups interact weakly with DNA and consequently may be optimal for applications that require minimal influence on DNA structure but require a way to hold the ends of double-stranded DNA together. PMID:20715857
Subramanian, Kavithaa Thirumalai; Balashanmugam, Natchimuthu; Shashi Kumar, Panaghra Veeraiah
Abrasive flow finishing (AFF) is a non-conventional finishing technique that offers better accuracy, efficiency, consistency, economy in finishing of complex/difficult to machine materials/components and provides the possibility of effective automation as aspired by the manufacturing sector. The present study describes the finishing of a hip joint made of ASTM grade Co-Cr alloy by Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) process. The major input parameters of the AFF process were optimized for achieving nanometric finishing of the component. The roughness average (Ra) values were recorded during experimentation using surface roughness tester and the results are discussed in detail. The surface finished hip joints were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and residual stress analysis using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The discussion lays emphasis on the significance, efficacy and versatile nature of the AFF process in finishing of bio-medical implants.
Hasenstab, M. Suzanne; Laughton, Joan
The use of cochlear implants in children with profound bilateral hearing loss is discussed, focusing on how a cochlear implant works; steps in a cochlear implant program (evaluation, surgery, programing, and training); and rehabilitation procedures involved in auditory development and speech development. (JDD)
Cip, Johannes; von Strempel, Archibald; Bach, Christian; Luegmair, Matthias; Benesch, Thomas; Martin, Arno
Taper junctions of large diameter metal-on-metal femoral heads and femoral stems were described as metal ion generator due to accelerated wear and corrosion. However, literature about the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) total hip arthroplasty (THA) invariably deals with stems manufactured by DePuy Orthopedics (Warsaw, IN, USA). Nothing is known whether different stems with common 12/14 mm tapers affect failure rate or ion release. 99 ASR THA (88 patients) implanted with CoxaFit or ARGE Geradschaft stems (K-Implant, Hannover, Germany) were retrospectively analyzed. After a mean follow-up of 3.5 years revision rate was 24.5%, mostly due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). CT scan revealed component loosening in 10.3% and pseudotumoral lesions in 12.6%. Elevated ion concentrations (>7 ?g/l) were found in 38.6%. PMID:25108735
Huot Carlson, J Caitlin; Van Citters, Douglas W; Currier, John H; Bryant, Amber M; Mayor, Michael B; Collier, John P
A series of 78 retrieved modular hip devices were assessed for fretting and corrosion. Damage was common at both the head-neck junction (54% showing corrosion; 88% showing fretting) and at the stem-sleeve junction (88% corrosion; 65% fretting). Corrosion correlated to in vivo duration, patient activity, and metal (vs ceramic) femoral heads but did not correlate to head carbon content. Femoral stem fatigue fracture was observed in seven retrievals; all had severe corrosion, were under increased stress, and were in vivo longer than the non-fractured cohort. This study emphasizes the potential for stem fracture when small diameter femoral stems with large offsets are used in heavy and active patients. Designs which reduce fretting and corrosion in modular implants is warranted as patients demand longer lasting implants. PMID:22209042
Zilkens, Christoph; Miese, Falk; Jäger, Marcus; Bittersohl, Bernd; Krauspe, Rüdiger
Hip joint instability and impingement are the most common biomechanical risk factors that put the hip joint at risk to develop premature osteoarthritis. Several surgical procedures like periacetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia or hip arthroscopy or safe surgical hip dislocation for femoroacetabular impingement aim at restoring the hip anatomy. However, the success of joint preserving surgical procedures is limited by the amount of pre-existing cartilage damage. Biochemically sensitive MRI techniques like delayed Gadolinium Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) might help to monitor the effect of surgical or non-surgical procedures in the effort to halt or even reverse joint damage. PMID:22053256
Steffen Jacobsen; Stig Sonne-Holm; Kjeld Søballe; Peter Gebuhr; Bjarne Lund
Objectives(1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2) to investigate the relationship between minimal JSW and self reported hip pain of the cohort.
Proposes an alternative invention strategy for research-based argumentative writing. Investigates the coincidental usage of the term "whatever" in hip-hop, theory, and composition studies. Presents a "whatever-pedagogy" identified as "hip-hop pedagogy," a writing practice that models itself after digital sampling's rhetorical strategy of…
Hill, Mandy J.; Hallmark, Camden J.; McNeese, Marlene; Blue, Nike; Ross, Michael W.
The goal of this paper was to determine the effectiveness of the HIP HOP for HIV Awareness intervention, an innovative model utilising an exchange of an HIV test for a hip hop concert ticket, in a metropolitan city among African American youth and young adults. A subset of intervention participants participated in standardised testing, sex…
Lewis, Cara L; Ferris, Daniel P
Robotic lower limb exoskeletons hold significant potential for gait assistance and rehabilitation; however, we have a limited understanding of how people adapt to walking with robotic devices. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that people reduce net muscle moments about their joints when robotic assistance is provided. This reduction in muscle moment results in a total joint moment (muscle plus exoskeleton) that is the same as the moment without the robotic assistance despite potential differences in joint angles. To test this hypothesis, eight healthy subjects trained with the robotic hip exoskeleton while walking on a force-measuring treadmill. The exoskeleton provided hip flexion assistance from approximately 33% to 53% of the gait cycle. We calculated the root mean squared difference (RMSD) between the average of data from the last 15 min of the powered condition and the unpowered condition. After completing three 30-min training sessions, the hip exoskeleton provided 27% of the total peak hip flexion moment during gait. Despite this substantial contribution from the exoskeleton, subjects walked with a total hip moment pattern (muscle plus exoskeleton) that was almost identical and more similar to the unpowered condition than the hip angle pattern (hip moment RMSD 0.027, angle RMSD 0.134, p<0.001). The angle and moment RMSD were not different for the knee and ankle joints. These findings support the concept that people adopt walking patterns with similar joint moment patterns despite differences in hip joint angles for a given walking speed. PMID:21333995
Shannon D Scott; Martin H Osmond; Kathy A O'Leary; Ian D Graham; Jeremy Grimshaw; Terry Klassen
BACKGROUND: Despite recent research supporting the use of metered dose inhalers with spacer devices (MDI\\/spacers) in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) for acute exacerbations of asthma, uptake of this practice has been slow. The objectives of this study were to determine the barriers and supports to implementing MDI\\/spacer research and to identify factors associated with early and late adoption of MDI\\/spacers
Komatsu, Shohei; Hori, Yuichi; Fukumoto, Takumi; Murakami, Masao; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Ku, Yonson
Few potentially curative treatment options exist apart from hepatic resection for patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Proton radiotherapy is a promising new modality which has an inherent anti-tumor effect against HCC. However, the application of proton radiotherapy for tumors adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract is restricted because the tolerance dose of the intestine is extremely low. A novel two-step treatment was developed with surgical spacer placement and subsequent proton radiotherapy to administer proton radiotherapy with curative intent. This report presents a case of a patient with a huge unresectable HCC treated by this method who achieved disease-free survival of more than 2 years. This new strategy may potentially be an innovative and standard therapy for unresectable HCC in the near future. PMID:20380016
Lenzi, Tommaso; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Agrawal, Sunil K
In this paper, we study the human locomotor adaptation to the action of a powered exoskeleton providing assistive torque at the user's hip during walking. To this end, we propose a controller that provides the user's hip with a fraction of the nominal torque profile, adapted to the specific gait features of the user from Winter's reference data . The assistive controller has been implemented on the ALEX II exoskeleton and tested on ten healthy subjects. Experimental results show that when assisted by the exoskeleton, users can reduce the muscle effort compared to free walking. Despite providing assistance only to the hip joint, both hip and ankle muscles significantly reduced their activation, indicating a clear tradeoff between hip and ankle strategy to propel walking. PMID:23529105
Hoerth, Rebecca M; Katunar, María R; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Orellano, Juan C; Ceré, Silvia M; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Ballarre, Josefina
Permanent metal implants are widely used in human medical treatments and orthopedics, for example as hip joint replacements. They are commonly made of titanium alloys and beyond the optimization of this established material, it is also essential to explore alternative implant materials in view of improved osseointegration. The aim of our study was to characterize the implant performance of zirconium in comparison to titanium implants. Zirconium implants have been characterized in a previous study concerning material properties and surface characteristics in vitro, such as oxide layer thickness and surface roughness. In the present study, we compare bone material quality around zirconium and titanium implants in terms of osseointegration and therefore characterized bone material properties in a rat model using a multi-method approach. We used light and electron microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate the osseointegration in terms of compositional and structural properties of the newly formed bone. Regarding the mineralization level, the mineral composition, and the alignment and order of the mineral particles, our results show that the maturity of the newly formed bone after 8 weeks of implantation is already very high. In conclusion, the bone material quality obtained for zirconium implants is at least as good as for titanium. It seems that the zirconium implants can be a good candidate for using as permanent metal prosthesis for orthopedic treatments. PMID:24170339
Tudor, Francois; Ariamanesh, Amir; Potty, Anish; Hashemi-Nejad, Aresh
Background Management of the degenerate hip in patients with neuromuscular conditions should be aimed at improving quality of life and ease of nursing care. Arthroplasty poses a significant challenge with predisposition to dislocation and loosening due to anatomical abnormalities, soft tissue contractures and impaired muscle tone. Methods We present a series of 11 hips (9 patients) following total hip resurfacing arthroplasty for painful osteoarthritis in patients with differing neuromuscular conditions. Patients were assessed clinically and radiographically and also for satisfaction of their carers due to improved ability to provide nursing care. Mean patient age was 33.1 years (range 13–49 years) with mean follow up at publication 63.7 months (41–89 months). All patients were operated by a single surgeon (AHN) and received the required post operative care and physiotherapy. Soft tissue releases were performed when necessary. All hips were assessed clinically and radiographically at 6 weeks and 6 months and 1 year post-operatively. Six month follow-up also included a questionnaire with scoring of care-provider satisfaction. Results Ten hips had good clinical results with improvement in pain and function and radiologically showed no signs of loosening. One hip required revision to proximal femoral excision due to dislocation and loose acetabular component with severe pain. None of the other hips dislocated. Analysis of care provider satisfaction assessing ability to provide personal care, positioning and transferring, comfort, interaction and communication scored excellent to good in 10 patients and satisfactory in one. Conclusion We believe hip resurfacing arthroplasty to be a viable option in the treatment of the complex problem of osteoarthritis in the hips of patients with neuromuscular disease. The improved biomechanics confer greater stability when compared to conventional total hip arthroplasty. Although technically demanding, a successful result has been shown to improve patient pain, function and ease of nursing care. Level of evidence Level IV. PMID:24396224
Traina, Francesco; Faldini, Cesare
Ceramic bearing surfaces are increasingly used for total hip replacement, notwithstanding that concern is still related to ceramic brittleness and its possible mechanical failure. The aim of this systematic review is to answer three questions: (1) Are there risk factors for ceramic component fracture following total hip replacement? (2) Is it possible to perform an early diagnosis of ceramic component failure before catastrophic fracture occurs? (3) Is it possible to draw guidelines for revision surgery after ceramic components failure? A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed and reference citations from publications identified in the literature search were reviewed. The use of 28?mm short-neck femoral head carries an increased risk of fracture. Acetabular component malposition might increase the risk of ceramic liner fractures. Synovial fluid microanalysis and CT scan are promising in early diagnosis of ceramic head and liner failure. Early revision is suggested in case of component failure; no consensus exists about the better coupling for revision surgery. Ceramic brittleness remains a major concern. Due to the increased number of ceramic on ceramic implants, more revision surgeries and reports on ceramic components failure are expected in the future. An algorithm of diagnosis and treatment for ceramic hip failure is proposed. PMID:23844356
Singh, Gurpal; Meyer, Heiko; Ruetschi, Marcel; Chamaon, Kathrin; Feuerstein, Bernd; Lohmann, Christoph H
Large-diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings evolved from the success of hip resurfacing. These implants were used in revision surgery in cases with well-fixed acetabular cups but loose or failed femoral stems, to avoid cup revision. Early data showed low rates of dislocation and potentially low wear profiles due to better fluid film lubrication. The risk of impingement was also thought to be low due to the increased head-neck ratio. Subsequently large-diameter MoM heads gained popularity in primary hip replacement. Recent data has emerged on the unacceptably high revision rates among patients with large-diameter MoM total hip arthroplasties (THAs), high blood levels of metal ions, and adverse tissue reactions. The head-neck (cone-taper) modular interface probably represents the weak link in large metal heads that have been used on conventional tapers. Increased torque of the large head, micromotion, and instability at the cone-taper interface, synergistic interactions between corrosion and wear, edge loading, low clearance, and psoas impingement are the likely causes for early failure of these prostheses. PMID:23529961
Blyth, P; Stott, N S; Anderson, I A
We report development of a PC-based virtual reality training system for hip fracture fixation that comprises a surgical simulator and an assessment component. The simulator allows hip fracture fixation to be performed on a virtual hip model using two-dimensional radiographic images to guide fracture reduction and implant placement. Ten operative scenarios with increasing complexities of fracture type are available. The face validity of the simulator was tested using a 26 item feedback questionnaire, with answers on a 5 cm visual analogue scale from 'disagree strongly' to 'agree strongly'. Ten study participants, aged 20-50, and with variable levels of surgical skills, each performed six operative scenarios on the simulator before completing the questionnaire. The results showed that the simulator had good face validity, with the majority of subjects stating it provided a realistic view of the operating environment (median score 8.2/10) and that the three-dimensional view provided was all that was required (median score 7.8/10). The subjects considered the simulator was able to test problem solving ability (median score 8.0/10). These results confirm that this simulator achieves good face validity without computationally intensive touch feedback (haptics). Overall, this study demonstrates that non-haptic simulators have a larger role to play in virtual simulation than is currently recognised. PMID:17659287
Parker, Simon J. M.; Khan, Wasim; Mellor, Simon
Background. Modular total hip arthroplasties are increasingly popular because customisation allows optimal restoration of patient biomechanics. However, the introduction of component interfaces provides greater opportunities for failure. We present a case of late nontraumatic dissociation of the head-neck interface, more than 10 years after insertion. Case Description. A 58-year-old woman had a left metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty in 2002 for hip dysplasia. Following an uneventful 10-year period, she presented to hospital in severe pain after standing from a seated position, and radiographs demonstrated complete dissociation of the modular femoral head from the stem, with the femoral head remaining in its cup. There was no prior trauma or infection. Mild wear and metallosis were present on the articulating surface between the femoral head and trunnion. Soft tissues were unaffected. Discussion and Conclusions. This is the latest occurrence reported to date for nontraumatic component failure in such an implant by more than 7 years. The majority of cases occur in the context of dislocation and attempted closed reduction. We analyse and discuss possible mechanisms for failure, aiming to raise awareness of this potential complication and encouraging utmost care in component handling and insertion, as well as the long term follow-up of such patients.
McCalden, R W; Charron, K D; Davidson, R D; Teeter, M G; Holdsworth, D W
We present a case of early retrieval of an Oxinium femoral head and corresponding polyethylene liner where there was significant surface damage to the head and polyethylene. The implants were retrieved at the time of revision surgery to correct leg-length discrepancy just 48 hours after the primary hip replacement. Appropriate analysis of the retrieved femoral head demonstrated loss of the Oxinium layer with exposure of the underlying substrate and transfer of titanium from the acetabular shell at the time of a reduction of the index total hip replacement. In addition, the level of damage to the polyethylene was extensive despite only 48 hours in situ. The purpose of this report is to highlight the care that is required at the time of reduction, especially with these hard femoral counter-faces such as Oxinium. To our knowledge, the damage occurring at the time of reduction has not been previously reported following the retrieval of an otherwise well-functioning hip replacement. PMID:21357966
Eastern portal, looking W. Note hipped roof covered with wood shingles, added in 1993. The hipped roof is unique in U.S. covered bridges. - Doe River Bridge, Spanning Doe River, Third Avenue, Elizabethton, Carter County, TN
Vrouwenvelder, J S; Graf von der Schulenburg, D A; Kruithof, J C; Johns, M L; van Loosdrecht, M C M
Biofouling was studied in full-scale and pilot-scale installations, test-rigs and membrane fouling monitors by conventional methods as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Independent of permeate production, the feed spacer channel pressure drop and biomass concentration increased similarly in a nanofiltration pilot installation. In the presence of a feed spacer the absolute feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biomass accumulation was much higher than when a feed spacer was absent: in both spiral-wound nanofiltration and reverse osmosis systems biofouling is dominantly a feed spacer problem. This conclusion is based on (i) in-situ visual observations of the fouling accumulation, (ii) in-situ non-destructive observations of the fouling accumulation and velocity distribution profiles using MRI, and (iii) differences in pressure drop and biomass development in monitors with and without feed spacer. MRI studies showed that even a restricted biofilm accumulation on the feed channel spacer influenced the velocity distribution profile strongly. Biofouling control should be focused on the development of low fouling feed spacers and hydrodynamic conditions to restrict the impact of biomass accumulation on the feed channel pressure drop increase. PMID:19058830
McKnight, M L; Shaffer, H B
We report the presence, in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of all of the sexual species of the salamander family Ambystomatidae, of a shared 240-bp intergenic spacer between tRNAThr and tRNAPro. We place the intergenic spacer in context by presenting the sequence of 1,746 bp of mtDNA from Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum, describe the nucleotide composition of the intergenic spacer in all of the species of Ambystomatidae, and compare it to other coding and noncoding regions of Ambystoma and several other vertebrate mtDNAs. The nucleotide substitution rate of the intergenic spacer is approximately three times faster than the substitution rate of the control region, as shown by comparisons among six Ambystoma macrodactylum sequences and eight members of the Ambystoma tigrinum complex. We also found additional inserts within the intergenic spacers of five species that varied from 87-444 bp in length. The presence of the intergenic spacer in all sexual species of Ambystomatidae suggests that it arose at least 20 MYA and has been a stable component of the ambystomatid mtDNA ever since. As such, it represents one of the few examples of a large and persistent intergenic spacer in the mtDNA of any vertebrate clade. PMID:9364774
Madhogarhia, Manish [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Munshi, P.; Lukose, Sijo; Subramanian, M. P.; Muralidhar, C. [Non Destructive Evaluation Division, Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad 500258 (India)
X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a relatively new technique developed in the late 1970's, which enables the nondestructive visualization of the internal structure of objects. Beam hardening caused by the polychromatic spectrum is an important problem in X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). It leads to various artifacts in reconstruction images and reduces image quality. In the present work we are considering the Artifact Reduction in Total Hip Prosthesis CT Scan which is a problem of medical imaging. We are trying to reduce the cupping artifact induced by beam hardening as well as metal artifact as they exist in the CT scan of a human hip after the femur is replaced by a metal implant. The correction method for beam hardening used here is based on a previous work. Simulation study for the present problem includes a phantom consisting of mild steel, aluminium and perspex mimicking the photon attenuation properties of a hum hip cross section with metal implant.
Bernthal, Nicholas M; Celestre, Paul C; Stavrakis, Alexandra I; Ludington, John C; Oakes, Daniel A
Outcomes of ultralarge-diameter femoral heads used in metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) are relatively unknown. This study reports on early failures of the ASR XL (Depuy, Warsaw, Ind) and assesses whether a correlation with cup positioning exists. A retrospective review of 70 consecutive MOM THAs with ultralarge-diameter femoral head and monoblock acetabular component was conducted. Minimum follow-up was 24 months. Of 70 THAs, 12 (17.1%) required revision within 3 years for pain (7), loosening (3), and squeaking (2). Three additional THAs noted squeaking, 2 noted grinding, and 3 additional hips had persistent pain. In total, 20 (28.6%) of 70 demonstrated implant dysfunction. Acetabular components for all symptomatic hips were in acceptable range of cup abduction and anteversion. The failures noted with this design do not correlate to cup placement. The high rate of implant dysfunction at early follow-up suggests serious concerns with the concept of MOM THA with an ultralarge-diameter femoral head paired with a monoblock acetabular cup. PMID:22000575
Wang, Long; Lei, Pengfei; Xie, Jie; Li, Kanghua; Dai, Zixun; Hu, Yihe
There is an increasing trend towards cementless modular femoral prostheses for revision hip replacement surgery, especially in patients with severe proximal femoral bone defects. However, for minor femoral bone defects, the benefit of cementless modular is not clear. We designed a retrospective cross-sectional study to compare outcomes of the two femoral implant designs. There were no significant differences in terms of visual analog pain scores, Harris hip scores, femoral bone restoration, stem subsidence, leg length correction, or overall complication rate. Three femoral reoperations (11%) occurred in the cemented group, and two (9%) in the cementless modular group. One femoral stem re-revised (4%) in the cemented group due to recurrent deep infection. Five-year survival for femoral reoperation was 88.2% for patients with the cemented implant and 91.3% for cementless group. Both groups had good clinical and radiological outcomes for femoral revision in patients with minor femoral bone defects during medium-term follow-up. PMID:24077449
Rittmeister, M; Peters, A
Surgical approaches to the hip for total hip arthroplasty (THA) are termed minimally invasive when allowing for a skin incision length of 10 cm or less. The aim of this study was to explore if a minimally invasive posterior approach compared to a classic anterolateral approach negatively influenced surgical time, blood loss, implant position, or perioperative complications. Two groups of THA patients mainly differing with respect to the surgical approach were compared. Results of 76 consecutive THA via a posterior mini-incision approach were recorded prospectively and those of 76 controls operated via a classic anterolateral approach were recorded retrospectively. THA was performed by the same surgeon in every case. Surgical time or intraoperative blood loss were not different among the groups. Total 24-h blood loss was significantly less in patients undergoing THA via minimally invasive posterior approaches. Median cup inclination was 45 degrees in both groups. Cup anteversion was 15 degrees (classic anterolateral) and 12 degrees (minimally invasive posterior), respectively. Stem position was regarded as neutral in 80% of THA through classic anterolateral and in 76 % through minimally invasive dorsal incisions. Complications occurred in 8% (classic anterolateral) and 9% (minimally invasive posterior) of THA patients. Surgical time, blood loss, risk of malpositioned implants, or complications were not increased for THA patients operated through minimally invasive posterior incisions compared to those operated via classic anterolateral approaches. PMID:16688429
Huppertz, Alexander; Radmer, Sebastian; Wagner, Moritz; Roessler, Torsten; Hamm, Bernd; Sparmann, Martin
The number of total hip arthroplasties is continuously rising. Although less invasive surgical techniques, sophisticated component design, and intraoperative navigation techniques have been introduced, the rate of peri- and postoperative complications, including dislocations, fractures, nerve palsies, and infections, is still a major clinical problem. Better patient outcome, faster recovery and rehabilitation, and shorter operation times therefore remain to be accomplished. A promising strategy is to use minimally invasive techniques in conjunction with modular implants, aimed at independently reconstructing femoral offset and leg length on the basis of highly accurate preoperative planning. Plain radiographs have clear limitations for the correct estimation of hip joint geometry and bone quality. Three-dimensional assessment based on computed tomography (CT) allows optimizing the choice and positions of implants and anticipating difficulties to be encountered during surgery. Postoperative CT is used to monitor operative translation and plays a role in arthroplastic quality management. Radiologists should be familiar with the needs of orthopedic surgeons in terms of CT acquisition, post-processing, and data transfer. The CT protocol should be optimized to enhance image quality and reduce radiation exposure. When dedicated orthopedic CT protocols and state-of-the-art scanner hardware are used, radiation exposure can be decreased to a level just marginally higher than that of conventional preoperative radiography. Surgeons and radiologists should use similar terminology to avoid misunderstanding and inaccuracies in the transfer of preoperative planning. PMID:24622927
Shuigen Yang; Hongbin Luo; Yajuan Qin; Hongke Zhang
Host Identity Protocol (HIP) is designed to provide secure and continuous communication by separating the identifier and locator\\u000a roles of the Internet Protocol (IP) address. HIP also has efficient solutions to support host mobility. In this paper, we\\u000a propose a location management scheme based on Domain Name System (DNS) for HIP. In the proposed scheme, a new DNS HIP resource
C. Bergot; V. Bousson; A. Meunier; M. Laval-Jeantet; J. D. Laredo
: In this retrospective study of hip fracture risk evaluation from hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, our objectives\\u000a were to determine which part of the femoral neck length contributes most to the fracture risk and to define a geometric parameter\\u000a better than hip axis length (HAL) for discriminating hip fracture patients. Forty-nine Caucasian women with a nontraumatic\\u000a femoral neck
Nakeyshaey M. Tillie Allen
This article explores a new approach in the field of social work entitled Hip-Hop Therapy (HHT). Hip- Hop can be described as an urban mainstream culture driven by youth and young adults. HHT uses Hip-Hop music and culture to engage youth and address their issues in therapy by encouraging them to reflect on Hip-Hop lyrics as they relate to the
P. Croft; D. Coggon; M. Cruddas; C. Cooper
OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that farmers are at high risk of hip osteoarthritis and to investigate possible causes for such a hazard. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey. SETTING--Five rural general practices. SUBJECTS--167 male farmers aged 60-76 and 83 controls from mainly sedentary jobs. All those without previous hip replacement underwent radiography of the hip. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Hip replacement for osteoarthritis or radiological
Background Vertebrate mitogenomes are economically organized and usually lack intergenic sequences other than the control region. Intergenic spacers located between the tRNAThr and tRNAPro genes (“T-P spacers”) have been observed in several taxa, including gadiform species, but information about their biological roles and putative functions is still lacking. Results Sequence characterization of the complete European hake Merluccius merluccius mitogenome identified a complex T-P spacer ranging in size from 223–532 bp. Further analyses of 32 gadiform species, representing 8 families and 28 genera, revealed the evolutionary preserved presence of T-P spacers across all taxa. Molecular complexity of the T-P spacers was found to be coherent with the phylogenetic relationships, supporting a common ancestral origin and gain of function during codfish evolution. Intraspecific variation of T-P spacer sequences was assessed in 225 Atlantic cod specimens and revealed 26 haplotypes. Pyrosequencing data representing the mito-transcriptome poly (A) fraction in Atlantic cod identified an abundant H-strand specific long noncoding RNA of about 375 nt. The T-P spacer corresponded to the 5’ part of this transcript, which terminated within the control region in a tail-to-tail configuration with the L-strand specific transcript (the 7S RNA). Conclusions The T-P spacer is inferred to be evolutionary preserved in gadiform mitogenomes due to gain of function through a long noncoding RNA. We suggest that the T-P spacer adds stability to the H-strand specific long noncoding RNA by forming stable hairpin structures and additional protein binding sites. PMID:25145347
Patil, Ganesh C.; Qureshi, S.
In this paper, it has been shown that employing an underlap channel created by using the dual spacers in dopant-segregated Schottky barrier (DSSB) SOI MOSFET not only reduces the off-state leakage, short-channel effects and the parasitic overlap capacitances but also suppresses the variability induced by process fluctuations in the Schottky barrier height, dopant-segregation length and SOI film thickness of the device. However, the reduced effective gate voltage due to voltage drop across the underlap lengths also reduces the on-state drive current of the device. To alleviate this trade-off, a novel dual-k spacer underlap channel DSSB SOI structure has also been proposed in which the increased fringing electric field effect due to high-k inner spacer layer not only improves the on-state drive current but also reduces the off-state leakage current in both n-channel and p-channel devices. Despite the presence of high-k inner spacer layer increasing the fringing gate capacitance, the scalability in an optimized dual-k spacer underlap structure has improved by ˜60% and ˜35%, respectively over the conventional spacer overlap and underlap channel structures. In addition, the variability in an optimized dual-k spacer underlap structure has also been reduced by ˜50% and ˜30% respectively over the conventional spacer overlap and underlap channel structures. This clearly indicates that the proposed dual-k spacer underlap structure is a better choice for low-variability nanoscale CMOS logic circuits. The detailed fabrication flow of this novel device has also been proposed which demonstrates the use of conventional CMOS processes.
Schultz, André; Sly, Peter D; Zhang, Guicheng; Venter, André; le Souëf, Peter N; Devadason, Sunalene G
Background Inhaled corticosteroid use reduces respiratory symptoms in young children with recurrent wheeze. Delivery of steroids with pressurised metered dose inhalers and spacers is influenced by children’s proficiency/technique in using delivery devices. Objectives To investigate the influence of an incentive device, the Funhaler®, on spacer technique and symptom control in young children with asthma and recurrent wheeze. Methods Randomised controlled trial where 132 2–6 year old asthmatic children received regular inhaled fluticasone through Aerochamber Plus®, or Funhaler®. The setting was a research clinic at Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, Australia. Subjects were followed up for a year. The main outcome measure was asthma symptoms. Proficiency in spacer technique was measured as salbutamol inhaled from spacer onto filter. Quality of life was measured three-monthly. Groups were compared in terms of spacer technique, symptoms and quality of life. The relationship between spacer technique and clinical outcome was examined. Results There was no difference between Funhaler and Aerochamber groups in wheeze free days, cough free days, bronchodilator free days or quality of life (p = 0.90, 0.87, 0.74 and 0.11 respectively). Spacer technique was better in the Funhaler group (p = 0.05), particularly in subjects younger than 4 years of age (p = 0.002). Drug dose on filter (as the mean of five 100?g doses) ranged from zero to 136?g. Conclusion Use of Funhaler® incentive device does not improve clinical outcome, but improves spacer technique in children younger than 4 years. Variability in drug delivery is large in young children using pMDI-spacers. PMID:22040259
Xu, J.; Ma, J.; Li, T.; Waris, E.; Alberty, A.; Santavirta, S.; Konttinen, Y.
BACKGROUND—The interfacial membrane between bone and implant has been shown to be a key tissue in the process of aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasty. The cells within the interfacial membrane produce numerous inflammatory mediators which, through complex mechanisms, cause periprosthetic osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) have similar biological functions. They have been found to stimulate bone resorption.?OBJECTIVE—To investigate the presence, cellular localisation, and extent of expression of EGF and TGF? in interfacial membrane retrieved from revision total hip arthroplasty and compare it with that in synovial membrane from primary total hip arthroplasty.?METHODS—Ten interfacial membranes and 10 synovial membranes were stained with avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex for EGF and TGF?. The staining process was done using the Lab Vision Autostainer. The results were measured by a semiautomatic VIDAS image analysis system.?RESULTS—Immunoreactivity for both EGF and TGF? was found in the endothelial cells of blood vessels, macrophages, and fibroblasts, both in interfacial membranes and synovial membranes. However, the number of EGF (980 (370)) and TGF? (1070 (360)) positive cells per mm2 was greater in interfacial membranes than in the synovial membranes (220 (200), 270 (100); p<0.01).?CONCLUSION—It is suggested that owing to their increased expression in interfacial membrane, EGF and TGF? may have an important pathogenetic role in stimulating periprosthetic bone resorption in aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasty.?? PMID:11005785
Mulliken, B. D.; Bourne, R. B.; Rorabeck, C. H.; Nayak, N.
We reviewed the results of 172 plasma-sprayed, titanium primary total hip arthroplasties inserted without cement and followed 5 to 7 years. Hips were replaced for a wide range of diagnoses and patient ages. No femoral components had been revised nor were any considered unstable. Clinical results have been excellent; 88% of hips had either no or slight amount of pain and only 5% of patients had thigh pain when specifically asked. Radiographically, this femoral component achieved stability after an initial subsidence in 9% of cases. Extensive femoral bone resorption was rare, and distal cortical hypertrophy was commonly seen. Pelvic osteolysis occurred in 16 (9%) cases and was considered major in 10 of these. It was the cause of failure of 3 acetabular components. Femoral endosteal lysis was not observed. We concluded that mechanical stability of the Mallory-Head titanium total hip prostheses is excellent. However, significant pelvic osteolysis had occurred commonly with this implant design, and will continue to pose major reconstructive problems in the future. Images Figure 5 Figure 7a Figure 7b Figure 7c Figures 8 a-b Figures 9 a-b Figures 10 a-b Figures 11a-d PMID:9129271
Agarwala, Sanjay; Jhunjhunwala, Hari Ram; Pachore, Jawahir A; Joglekar, Siddharth B; Eachempati, Krishna Kiran
Introduction: Management of bone loss is a challenge in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A retrospective review was performed to study the use of uncemented distal locked prosthesis in cases with proximal femoral bone loss. Materials and Methods: Uncemented stems with distal interlocking were used in 65 hips during revision THAs with 38 hips having Paprosky IIIB/IV defects between January 1998 and February 2004. There were 48 males and 17 females in the study with an average age of 53 years (range 30-80 years). Radiographic and clinical outcome evaluation using the Harris hip score (HHS) were performed. Results: An improvement in HHS (mean: 33 points) was observed at final followup (mean: 9 years). Regeneration of proximal bone stock was observed without signs of loosening or subsidence and none of the stems were revised. Three patients developed recurrent dislocation while one had a stem subsidence of 1cm following removal of interlocking bolts. Conclusion: Uncemented distal locked prosthesis provide adequate stability in revision THA, aiding the reconstruction of bony deficiencies while avoiding the disadvantages of fully porous or cemented implants. PMID:23533020
Bhandari, Mohit; Sprague, Sheila; Schemitsch, Emil H.
Summary Hip fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the burden of disability associated with hip fractures globally vindicates the need for high-quality research to advance the care of patients with hip fractures. Historically, large, multi-centre randomized controlled trials have been rare in the orthopaedic trauma literature. Similar to other medical specialties, orthopaedic research is currently undergoing a paradigm shift from single centre initiatives to larger collaborative groups. This is evident with the establishment of several collaborative groups in Canada, in the United States, and in Europe, which has proven that multi-centre trials can be extremely successful in orthopaedic trauma research. Despite ever increasing literature on the topic of his fractures, the optimal treatment of hip fractures remains unknown and controversial. To resolve this controversy large multi-national collaborative randomized controlled trials are required. In 2005, the International Hip Fracture Research Collaborative was officially established following funding from the Canadian Institute of Health Research International Oppurtunity Program with the mandate of resolving controversies in hip fracture management. This manuscript will describe the need, the information, the organization, and the accomplishments to date of the International Hip Fracture Research Collaborative. PMID:19550238
Guenther, Daniel; Schmidl, Stefan; Klatte, Till O; Widhalm, Harald K; Omar, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian; Gehrke, Thorsten; Kendoff, Daniel; Haasper, Carl
AIM: To evaluate a possible association between the various levels of obesity and peri-operative charac-teristics of the procedure in patients who underwent endoprosthetic joint replacement in hip and knee joints. METHODS: We hypothesized that obese patients were treated for later stage of osteoarthritis, that more conservative implants were used, and the intra-and perioperative complications increased for such patients. We evaluated all patients with body mass index (BMI) ? 25 who were treated in our institution from January 2011 to September 2013 for a primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients were split up by the levels of obesity according to the classification of the World Health Organization. Average age at the time of primary arthroplasty, preoperative Harris Hip Score (HHS), Hospital for Special Surgery score (HSS), gender, type of implanted prosthesis, and intra-and postoperative complications were evaluated. RESULTS: Six thousand and seventy-eight patients with a BMI ? 25 were treated with a primary THA or TKA. Age decreased significantly (P < 0.001) by increasing obesity in both the THA and TKA. HHS and HSS were at significantly lower levels at the time of treatment in the super-obese population (P < 0.001). Distribution patterns of the type of endoprostheses used changed with an increasing BMI. Peri- and postoperative complications were similar in form and quantity to those of the normal population. CONCLUSION: Higher BMI leads to endoprosthetic treat-ment in younger age, which is carried out at significantly lower levels of preoperative joint function. PMID:25621218
Mok, Gary; Benz, Eileen; Vallee, Jean-Paul; Miralbell, Raymond; Zilli, Thomas
Dose-escalated radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer improves disease control but is also associated with worse rectal toxicity. A spacer placed between the prostate and rectum can be used to displace the anterior rectal wall outside of the high-dose radiation regions and potentially minimize radiation-induced rectal toxicity. This systematic review focuses on the published data regarding the different types of commercially available prostate-rectum spacers. Dosimetric results and preliminary clinical data using prostate-rectum spacers in patients with localized prostate cancer treated by curative radiation therapy are compared and discussed. PMID:25304788
The linguistic dimensions of globalized hip-hop cannot be understood simply as a byproduct of English as an American export. As hip-hop mobilizes, it is common (and arguably necessary) for global hip-hop communities to struggle through purposeful, semiotically rooted dialectics over what constitutes "authentic" and respectable forms of local…
Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.
Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
La danse hip-hop APPRENTISSAGE, TRANSMISSION, SOCIALISATION Roberta Shapiro Isabelle Kauffmann Felicia McCarren La transfiguration du hip-hop Élaboration artistique d'une expression populaire danse hip-hop Chapitre 3 La danse à l `envers Chapitre 4 Historique des formes d'apprentissage de la
Rachna Dhamija; J. D. Tygar
In this paper, we propose a new class of Human Interactive Proofs (HIPs) that allow a human to distinguish one computer from another. Unlike traditional HIPs, where the computer issues a challenge to the user over a network, in this case, the user issues a challenge to the computer. This type of HIP can be used to detect phishing attacks,
Gary M. Kiebzak; Garth A. Beinart; Karen Perser; Catherine G. Ambrose; Sherwin J. Siff; Michael H. Heggeness
Background: Women are not aggressively treated for osteoporosis after hip fracture; the treatment status of men with hip fracture has not been extensively studied. Objective: To evaluate the outcome and treatment sta- tus of men with hip fracture. Methods: Data from medical records were obtained for 363 patients (110 men and 253 women) aged 50 years and older with atraumatic
Tribe, H; Malek, S; Stammers, J; Ranawat, V; Skinner, J A
Oxinium™ (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, US) has been used in hip arthroplasty since 2003. The surface coating is hard and provides low wear rates but if this surface coating is damaged, the soft metal core is at risk of accelerated wear. Previous reports have described accelerated wear following intra and postoperative hip dislocation. We report a case of advanced wear of an in situ Oxinium™ femoral head implant following a cracked acetabular liner. The liner had disengaged from the titanium shell, allowing the Oxinium™ head to articulate directly with the shell. The disengaged liner led to dislocation of the Oxinium™ head, with associated pronounced wear of the head and the acetabular cup. The patient had a successful revision procedure. We advise close follow-up of patients with Oxinium™ implants, especially if associated with dislocation and closed reduction. PMID:24165329
Domb, Benjamin G; Stake, Christine E; Finch, Nathan A; Cramer, T Luke
Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical technique often performed in athletes who want an expeditious return to sport. To the authors' knowledge, no studies in the literature provide a time frame or criteria for return to sport after hip arthroscopy. The purpose of this study was to develop an aggregate recommendation for return to sport after hip arthroscopy based on data assimilated from high-volume hip arthroscopy centers. Twenty-seven orthopedic surgeons from high-volume hip arthroscopy centers completed a survey regarding return to sport after hip arthroscopy. The questionnaire asked surgeons to give a time frame for return to sport and to choose meaningful criteria that an athlete must meet prior to return to sport. Surgeons were asked to categorize various common sports as high, medium, or low risk with regard to the hip. The aggregate results were used to create standardized recommendations for time, criteria, and risk for return to competitive sports. Regarding time frame for return to sport, 70% of surgeons recommended 12 to 20 weeks. In addressing criteria for return to sport, 85% of surgeons recommended that patients need to be able to reproduce all motions involved in their sport without pain. A majority of surgeons recommended criteria of pain-free running, jumping, lateral agility drills, and single-leg squats. Finally, surgeons categorized sports requiring the most movement and impact of the hip joint (football, basketball, wrestling, and martial arts) as high-risk sports. Sports with less impact on the hip, such as golf, were ranked as low risk. PMID:25275978
Nelson, Amanda E.; Liu, Felix; Lynch, John A.; Renner, Jordan B.; Schwartz, Todd A.; Lane, Nancy E.; Jordan, Joanne M.
Objective To investigate hip shape by active shape modeling (ASM) as a potential predictor of incident radiographic and symptomatic hip OA (rHOA and srHOA). Methods All hips developing rHOA from baseline (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] grade 0/1) to mean 6 year follow up (KL ?2, 190 hips), and 1:1 control hips (KLG 0/1 at both times, 192 hips) were included. Proximal femur shape was defined on baseline AP pelvis radiographs and submitted to ASM, producing a mean shape and continuous variables representing independent modes of shape variation. Mode scores (n=14, explaining 95% of shape variance) were simultaneously included in logistic regression models, with incident rHOA and srHOA as dependent variables, adjusted for intra-person correlations, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), baseline KL and/or symptoms. Results We evaluated 382 hips from 342 individuals: 61% women, 83% white, with mean age 62 years and BMI 29 kg/m2. Several modes differed by sex and race, but no modes were associated with incident rHOA overall. Among men only, modes 1 and 2 were significantly associated (for a 1-SD decrease in mode 1 score, OR 1.7 [95% CI 1.1, 2.5], and for a 1-SD increase in mode 2 score, OR 1.5 [95% CI 1.0, 2.2]) with incident rHOA. A 1-SD decrease in mode 2 or 3 score increased the odds of srHOA by 50%. Conclusion This study confirms other reports that variations in proximal femur shape have a modest association with incident hip OA. The observation of proximal femur shape associations with hip symptoms requires further investigation. PMID:23926053
Garcia-Rey, Eduardo; Cruz-Pardos, Ana
Abstract Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in young patients has a high loosening rate, due in part to acetabular deformities that may compromise bone fixation and polyethylene wear. We therefore asked whether wear or osteolysis and loosening differ in patients under 40 years of age with alumina-on-alumina THA compared to those who are older. We prospectively followed 56 patients (63 hips) younger than 40 years (Group 1) and 247 patients (274 hips) older than 40 (Group 2) who had an alumina-on-alumina THA. The minimum followup was 4 years (mean, 5.6 years; range, 4–9 years). The two groups differed in various features: there were no patients with primary osteoarthritis in Group 1 and they had worse preoperative function and range of mobility, while weight, activity level, and implant size were greater in Group 2. The survival rate for cup loosening at 80 months postsurgery was 90.8% (95% confidence interval, 82.9–98.6%) for Group 1 and 96.5% (95% confidence interval, 94.2–98.7%) for Group 2. Cup loosening was less frequent with primary osteoarthritis than with severe developmental dysplasia of the hip. Although an alumina-on-alumina THA provided similar midterm survival and radiographic loosening in both age groups, the preoperative diagnosis seems more important than age for outcome. Continued followup will be required to determine if the alumina-on-alumina bearings in young patients result less risk of osteolysis and loosening. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19495898
Ito, Hideya; Takatori, Yoshio; Moro, Toru; Oshima, Hirofumi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Sakae
In this study, we aimed to determine whether the outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (THA) after rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) are equal to those of primary THA, and to elucidate the characteristics of THA after RAO. The clinical and radiographic findings of THA after RAO (44 hips), with minimum 24 months of follow-up, were compared with a matched control group of 58 hips without prior RAO. We found that the outcomes in terms of functional scores and complication rates did not differ between THA after RAO and THA without previous pelvic osteotomy, indicating that the results of THA after RAO are equivalent to those of primary THA. Although THA after RAO requires technical considerations, similar clinical outcomes to primary THA can be expected. PMID:25456635
Stresses and strains are major factors influencing growth, remodeling and repair of musculoskeletal tissues. Therefore, knowledge of forces and deformation within bones and joints is critical to gain insight into the complex behavior of these tissues during development, aging, and response to injury and disease. Sensors have been used in vivo to measure strains in bone, intraarticular cartilage contact pressures, and forces in the spine, shoulder, hip, and knee. Implantable sensors have a high impact on several clinical applications, including fracture fixation, spine fixation, and joint arthroplasty. This review summarizes the developments in strain-measurement-based implantable sensor technology for musculoskeletal research. PMID:23369655
C. Voigt; C. Arndt; W. Schüler; R. Scholz
\\u000a After total hip replacement impingement of implant components may occur during every-day patient activities causing increased\\u000a shear stresses at the acetabular implant-bone interface. In the literature impingement related lever-out moments are noted\\u000a for a number of acetabular components. In the current study the three-dimensional strain distribution was measured at the\\u000a hemispherical macro-structured interface of a standard acetabular press-fit cup in
Miller, Lisa N; Prosser, Gareth H; Graves, Stephen E; Davidson, David C; Stanford, Tyman E
Background and purpose Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of resurfacing hip arthroplasty despite the lack of literature on the long-term outcome. In particular, there is little evidence regarding the outcome of revisions of primary resurfacing. The purpose of this analysis was to examine the survivorship of primary resurfacing hip arthroplasties that have been revised. Patients and methods Over 12,000 primary resurfacing hip arthroplasties were recorded by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry between September 1, 1999 and December 31, 2008. During this time, 397 revisions for reasons other than infection were reported for these primary resurfacings and classified as acetabular, femoral, or both acetabular and femoral revisions. The survivorship of the different types of revisions was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using proportional hazard models. Additionally, the outcome of a femoral-only revision was compared to that of primary conventional total hip arthroplasty. Results Acetabular-only revision had a high risk of re-revision compared to femoral-only and both acetabular and femoral revision (5-year cumulative per cent revision of 20%, 7%, and 5% respectively). Femoral-only revision had a risk of re-revision similar to that of revision of both the acetabular and femoral components. Femoral-only revision had over twice the risk of revision of primary conventional total hip arthroplasty. Interpretation Revision of a primary resurfacing arthroplasty is associated with a major risk of re-revision. The best outcome is achieved when either the femoral-only or both the acetabular and femoral components are revised. Technically straightforward femoral-only revisions generally have a worse outcome than a primary conventional total hip arthroplasty. PMID:20170416
Social activism and education have been associated with hip-hop since it emerged in New York City 38 years ago. Therefore, it might not be surprising that universities have become interested in hip-hop. This article aims to highlight this "hip-hop academisation" and analyse the discursive mechanisms that manifest in these academisation…
Gross, K. A.; Walsh, W.; Swarts, E.
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings are used extensively on orthopaedic devices to improve the adhesion of bone to the prosthesis. This approach increases the integrity and longevity of the implanted prosthesis. Four HAp-coated hip components recovered from patients during revision surgery were investigated for bone attachment and coating modification after storage in ethanol or formaldehyde. Orthopedic components displayed preferable bone attachment on microtextured areas and little bone on smoother areas. The coating microstructure differed between three coatings that remained on the prosthesis surface, ranging from completely crystalline coatings made by vacuum plasma spraying to less crystalline coatings manufactured by air plasma spraying. Coating failure for the lower crystallinity coatings was observed by a crack at the interface that was possibly caused by the dissolution of an amorphous phase. While higher crystallinity coatings degraded by coating delamination, the lower crystallinity coating produced loose particulate on the outer coating surface. Coating morphology as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed lamellae fracture, chemical dissolution, osteoclastic resorption, and precipitation in agreement with previously identified in-vitro events. The coating longevity appeared to be extended in those areas subject to lower levels of stress and more bone coverage.
Martell, John M; Verner, James J; Incavo, Stephen J
We report the 2-year results for a prospective randomized trial comparing highly cross-linked with standard polyethylene in total hip replacements. In our study, 46 hips were available for radiographic analysis at 2- and 3-year follow-up. Femoral bearings were 28-mm cobalt chrome with the polyethylene insert randomly selected at the time of implantation to be highly cross-linked polyethylene (Crossfire; Stryker Howmedica Osteonics, Allendale, NJ) or standard polyethylene (N(2)/Vac, Stryker Howmedica Osteonics). Polyethylene wear rates were measured based on anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral pelvis radiographs at 6 weeks and at yearly intervals using a validated computer-assisted edge-detection method. Wear rates between the 2 groups were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test at the 95% level. A significant reduction in 2- and 3-dimensional linear wear rates (42% and 50%) was found in the highly cross-linked group (P =.001 and P =.005). PMID:14560412
Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.
Spacers are disclosed for applications such as field emission flat panel displays and vacuum microelectronics, and which involves the application of aerogel/xerogel technology to the formation of the spacer. In a preferred approach the method uses a mold and mold release agent wherein the gel precursor is a liquid which can be applied to the mold filling holes which expose the substrate (either the baseplate or the faceplate). A release agent is applied to the mold prior to precursor application to ease removal of the mold after formation of the dielectric spacer. The shrinkage of the gel during solvent extraction also improves mold removal. The final spacer material is a good dielectric, such as silica, secured to the substrate. 3 figs.
Greene, N; Holtom, P D; Warren, C A; Ressler, R L; Shepherd, L; McPherson, E J; Patzakis, M J
In vitro studies of antibiotic elution from polymethylmethacrylate cement comparing Simplex (Howmedica, Rutherford, NJ) with Palacos brands (Richards, Memphis, TN) have shown variable results. This study compares the elution of tobramycin and vancomycin from Simplex and Palacos beads and spacers. Six-millimeter beads and spacers were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline, and the solution was sampled and changed daily until the concentration of antibiotic fell below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus. In all groups, the Palacos PMMA beads and spacers showed elution at higher levels and remained above the MIC longer than did the Simplex PMMA beads. Tobramycin had superior elution to vancomycin in all groups. This in vitro study shows that Palacos PMMA has superior elution properties to Simplex PMMA in tobramycin and vancomycin beads and spacers. PMID:9544361
generated in a fuel bundle with Spacer Grids (SG) and Mixing Vanes (MV). CFD calculations were performed using different turbulence models for steady state simulations. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) scheme was applied to time dependent cases. The simulations...
Alouane, Ahmed; Labruère, Raphaël; Le Saux, Thomas; Schmidt, Frédéric; Jullien, Ludovic
Self-immolative spacers are covalent assemblies tailored to correlate the cleavage of two chemical bonds after activation of a protective part in a precursor: Upon stimulation, the protective moiety is removed, which generates a cascade of disassembling reactions leading to the temporally sequential release of smaller molecules. Originally introduced to overcome limitations for drug delivery, self-immolative spacers have gained wide interest in medicinal chemistry, analytical chemistry, and material science. For most applications, the kinetics of the disassembly of the activated self-immolative spacer governs functional properties. This Review addresses kinetic aspects of self-immolation. It provides information for selecting a particular self-immolative motif for a specific demand. Moreover, it should help researchers design kinetic experiments and fully exploit the rich perspectives of self-immolative spacers. PMID:26053475
Yun, Seok Jin; Lim, Sang Ho; Lee, Seong-Rae
In stacks using a Ru/Ta composite spacer [Pt/Co]6/Ru/Ta/CoFeB/MgO, both strong interlayer exchange coupling and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are achieved. The composite spacer has the additional advantages of high post-annealing stability over a conventional Ru spacer; for a Ru (0.8 nm)/Ta (0.4 nm) spacer, where the antiparallel coupling is strongest, the coupling strength remains nearly constant at the highest annealing temperature of 375 °C. An interlayer exchange coupling is observed at very small Ru thicknesses down to 0.2 nm, which can be compared with the previous limit of 0.6 nm.
Sabhyata Bhatia; Madan Singh Negi; Malathi Lakshmikumaran
EcoRI restriction of theB. nigra rDNA recombinants, isolated from a lambda genomic library, showed that the 3.9-kb fragment corresponded to the Intergenic\\u000a Spacer (IGS), which was sequenced and found to be 3,928 by in size. Sequence and dot-matrix analyses showed that the organization\\u000a of theB. nigra rDNA IGS was typical of most rDNA spacers, consisting of a central repetitive region
... interested in replacing a missing tooth or teeth, dental implants may be an option for you. Most people ... restorative dentist will make the crowns, bridges or dentures that the implant or implants will support. Your ...
Hovis, S.; Saito, Y.; McDuffee, F.; Morita, K.; Gruhn, J.
A project was undertaken to develop and test an all-dielectric compact optical cable for low fiber count applications. Cables were made utilizing 900 micron tight buffer fiber and a fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) grooved spacer with continuous helical grooves. These cables exhibited superior crush and impact resistance which are traits sought after in many applications. The primary result of this project was to demonstrate the advantages and feasibility of FRP grooved spacer cables.
Ying Zhou; Pei Feng; Pengjian Li; Huanlong Hu; Cijun Shuai
\\u000a Optimization of nozzle was crucial process to improve quality of production of roll casting, and nozzle without spacer should\\u000a be pre-designed before placing spacer in it. Using orthogonal experiment design, three main structure dimensions and the speed\\u000a of roll casting sheet were chosen as 4 factors, to make orthogonal array of 3 levels for simulation of nozzle. It was concluded
Aditya, Priyam; Madhav, V N V; Bhide, S V; Aditya, Amita
An increase in the marginal discrepancy is seen after cementation with a luting agent and provision of cement space with a die-spacer is the most preferred method to avoid it. Recommended thickness of die-spacer is 25-40 ?m. Smaller die-spacer thickness was consistently found at the axio-occlusal line angles as compared to the other surfaces which has been postulated to that the spacer paint tends to flow away from the sharp line angles and cusp tips as a result of increased surface tension. The absence of adequate relief spaces in these areas impedes the flow of cement beyond the occlusal portion of the casting, which would result in incomplete seating because of hydraulic pressure. Fifty stone dies were duplicated from a steel die and were divided into five groups of sample size 10, where the die-spacer was selectively placed. Measurements were taken at four points, 90° apart from each other with the help of optical microscope. Later all the castings were cemented using Glass Inomer cement as a luting agent, under a 10 kg static load and measurements were recorded. Statistical analysis showed samples with no spacer had the maximum pre and post cementation gap while the least discrepancy was seen in group with additional layer of die-spacer painted over the axio-occlusal line angle. The results were highly significant which clearly indicated the superiority of this group over others. Within limitations of the study, it can be said that application of additional layer of die-spacer at the axio-occlusal line angle will help in decreasing the post cementation marginal discrepancy in full cast metal crowns. PMID:23997463
C. Polanco; M. Pérez Vega
The sequence of the 18S–25S ribosomal RNA gene intergenic spacer (IGS) of Avena sativa was determined. DNA was cloned after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the IGS. The spacer of 3980 bp is composed of non-repeated sequences and five tandem arrays of repeated sequences, named A to E. Homology between oats IGS and other grass species was found. Tandem arrays
Jauch, Sabrina Yvonne; Huber, Gerd; Sellenschloh, Kay; Haschke, Henning; Baxmann, Marc; Grupp, Thomas M; Morlock, Michael M
The stem-neck taper interface of bimodular hip endoprostheses bears the risk of micromotions that can result in ongoing corrosion due to removal of the passive layer and ultimately cause implant fracture. We investigated the extent of micromotions at the stem-neck interface and the seating behavior of necks of one design made from different alloys during daily activities. Modular hip prostheses (n?=?36, Metha®, Aesculap AG, Germany) with neck adapters (CoCr29Mo6 or Ti6Al4V) were embedded in PMMA (ISO 7206-4) and exposed to cyclic loading with peak loads ranging from walking (Fmax ?=?2.3?kN) to stumbling (Fmax ?=?5.3?kN). Translational and rotational micromotions at the taper interface and seating characteristics during assembly and loading were determined using four eddy-current sensors. Seating during loading after implant assembly was dependent on load magnitude but not on material coupling. Micromotions in the stem-neck interface correlated positively with load levels (CoCr: 2.6-6.3?µm, Ti: 4.6-13.8?µm; p?0.001) with Ti neck adapters exhibiting significantly larger micromotions than CoCr (p?0.001). These findings explain why high body weights and activities related to higher loads could increase the risk of fretting-induced implant failures in clinical application, especially for Ti-Ti combinations. Still, the role of taper seating is not clearly understood. PMID:23553890
The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial acetabular implant stability and late acetabular implant migration in press fit cups combined with screw fixation of the acetabular component in order to answer the question whether screws are necessary for the fixation of the acetabular component in cementless primary total hip arthroplasty. One hundred and seven hips were available for follow-up after primary THA using a cementless, porous-coated acetabular component. A total of 631 standardized radiographs were analyzed digitally by the "single-film-x-ray-analysis" method (EBRA). One hundred 'and one (94.4%) acetabular components did not show significant migration of more than 1 mm. Six (5.6%) implants showed migration of more than 1 mm. Statistical analysis did not reveal preoperative patterns that would identify predictors for future migration. Our findings suggest that the use of screw fixation for cementless porous- coated acetabular components for primary THA does not prevent cup migration. PMID:21486725
Berman, L; Klenerman, L
Several studies have documented the failure of neonatal clinical screening to reduce the incidence of hip dislocation later in infancy. In addition, the practice of splinting unstable hips is said to result in the treatment of many infants who would have developed normally if left unsplinted. Ultrasound provides a detailed image of the bony and cartilaginous neonatal hip. The results of conventional testing for hip instability were compared with ultrasound screening in 1001 neonates. As a result of the ultrasonic image 14 of 17 infants with hip instability were not splinted and developed normally. Two babies without detectable clinical signs were shown to have severe hip abnormalities. It is suggested that clinically normal but dysplastic hips do exist and that ultrasound will detect them. In addition, the overtreatment that is current practice might be avoided. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:3094625
Thaunat, Mathieu; Murphy, Colin G; Chatellard, Romain; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Graveleau, Nicolas; Meyer, Alain; Laude, Frédéric
Capsulotomy during hip arthroscopy improves the mobility of arthroscopic instruments and helps gain greater access to key areas of the hip. During the past decade, its use has expanded dramatically as the complexity of hip arthroscopy has advanced. We report a novel approach for hip arthroscopy that consists of performing an extra-articular capsulotomy under endoscopic control before exploration of the hip joint. The principle of this new concept is to replicate an anterior Hueter approach of the hip joint. We describe the surgical technique and discuss its advantages compared with conventional hip arthroscopy techniques using either a peripheral- or central-compartment starting point. This new approach is easy to master, can be performed with a 30° optic system, does not require fluoroscopic assistance, allows a reduction in both the force and duration of traction, and reduces the risk of labral or chondral damage. PMID:25473614
Elkins, Jacob M.; O’Brien, Megan K.; Stroud, Nicholas J.; Pedersen, Douglas R.; Callaghan, John J.
Background Impingement events, in addition to their role immediately proximate to frank dislocation, hold the potential to damage new-generation hard-on-hard bearings as a result of the relatively unforgiving nature of the materials and designs. Because of the higher stiffness and tighter design tolerances of metal-on-metal and ceramic implants, surgical positioning plausibly has become even more important. Questions/purposes We asked (1) whether, and under what cup orientation conditions, hard-on-hard impingements might challenge implant material failure strength; and (2) whether particle generation propensity at impingement and egress sites would show similar dependence on cup orientation. Methods Realistic computational simulations were enabled by multistage finite element analyses, addressing both global construct motion and loading, and focal stress concentrations at neck impingement and rim egress sites. The global model, validated by a cadaveric simulation in a servohydraulic hip simulator, included both hardware components and advanced anisotropic capsule characterization. Parametric computational runs explored the effect of cup orientation for both ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal bearing couples for two distinct motion sequences associated with dislocation. Results Stress concentrations from impingement increased nearly linearly with increased cup tilt and with cup anteversion. In some situations, peak values of stress approached or exceeded 1 GPa, levels challenging the yield strength of cobalt-chromium implants, and potentially the fracture strength of ceramics. The tendency for impingement events to generate debris, indexed in terms of a new scraping severity metric, showed orientation dependences similar to that for bulk material failure. Conclusions Damage propensity arising from impingement events in hard total hip bearings is highly orientation-dependent. PMID:20953853
A variety of disorders may result in hip or groin pain, particularly in adolescents who partake in sports. Both intra-articular\\u000a and extra-articular pathologies should be considered. We will review a select group of abnormalities that are gaining recognition\\u000a in this age group.
Craig, Elizabeth A
272 Dispatch Protein folding: Chaperones get Hip Thomas Ziegelhoffer, Jill L. Johnson and Elizabeth the complexity of the Hsp70 `chaperone machine' that mediates early steps of protein folding in cells. Address of protein folding and translocation through their ability to recognize non-native conformations of proteins
Tarrant, S. M.; Hardy, B. M.; Byth, P. L.; Brown, T. L.; Attia, J.; Balogh, Z. J.
There is a high rate of mortality in elderly patients who sustain a fracture of the hip. We aimed to determine the rate of preventable mortality and errors during the management of these patients. A 12 month prospective study was performed on patients aged > 65 years who had sustained a fracture of the hip. This was conducted at a Level 1 Trauma Centre with no orthogeriatric service. A multidisciplinary review of the medical records by four specialists was performed to analyse errors of management and elements of preventable mortality. During 2011, there were 437 patients aged > 65 years admitted with a fracture of the hip (85 years (66 to 99)) and 20 died while in hospital (86.3 years (67 to 96)). A total of 152 errors were identified in the 80 individual reviews of the 20 deaths. A total of 99 errors (65%) were thought to have at least a moderate effect on death; 45 reviews considering death (57%) were thought to have potentially been preventable. Agreement between the panel of reviewers on the preventability of death was fair. A larger-scale assessment of preventable mortality in elderly patients who sustain a fracture of the hip is required. Multidisciplinary review panels could be considered as part of the quality assurance process in the management of these patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1178–84. PMID:25183587
From its humble origins some 30 years ago in New York's bombed-out, poverty-ravaged South Bronx, hip-hop has risen to become a dominant cultural force both here and abroad. Strictly defined, the term refers to the entire cultural constellation that accompanies rap music, which in 2001 surpassed country music as the most popular musical genre in…
This article introduces a dance that blends the traditional cultural heritage of the Philippines with modern music and moves. "Hip Hop Stick Dance" incorporates Tinikling (the Philippine national dance) and Arnis (a Filipino style of martial arts) to create a contemporary combination of rhythm, dance, and fitness. It was designed to introduce…
Turner, K. C. Nat
This study draws on ethnographic data from a year-long multimodal media production (MMP) course and the experience of an African American female adolescent who used the production of multimodal Hip Hop texts to express her creativity and growing socially conscious view of the world. The study demonstrates how students made meaning multimodally and…
Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H
Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. PMID:20807386
Carpintero, Pedro; Caeiro, Jose Ramón; Carpintero, Rocío; Morales, Angela; Silva, Samuel; Mesa, Manuel
Nowadays, fracture surgery represents a big part of the orthopedic surgeon workload, and usually has associated major clinical and social cost implications. These fractures have several complications. Some of these are medical, and other related to the surgical treatment itself. Medical complications may affect around 20% of patients with hip fracture. Cognitive and neurological alterations, cardiopulmonary affections (alone or combined), venous thromboembolism, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, urinary tract complications, perioperative anemia, electrolytic and metabolic disorders, and pressure scars are the most important medical complications after hip surgery in terms of frequency, increase of length of stay and perioperative mortality. Complications arising from hip fracture surgery are fairly common, and vary depending on whether the fracture is intracapsular or extracapsular. The main problems in intracapsular fractures are biological: vascularization of the femoral head, and lack of periosteum -a major contributor to fracture healing- in the femoral neck. In extracapsular fractures, by contrast, the problem is mechanical, and relates to load-bearing. Early surgical fixation, the role of anti-thromboembolic and anti-infective prophylaxis, good pain control at the perioperative, detection and management of delirium, correct urinary tract management, avoidance of malnutrition, vitamin D supplementation, osteoporosis treatment and advancement of early mobilization to improve functional recovery and falls prevention are basic recommendations for an optimal maintenance of hip fractured patients. PMID:25232517
Grumet, Robert C.; Frank, Rachel M.; Slabaugh, Mark A.; Virkus, Walter W.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.
Context: Historically, the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome has been used to describe a spectrum of conditions that cause lateral-sided hip pain, including greater trochanteric bursitis, snapping iliotibial band, and/or strains or tendinopathy of the abductor mechanism. Diagnosis of these conditions may be difficult because clinical presentations are variable and sometimes inconclusive. Especially difficult is differentiating intrinsic pain from pain referred to the greater trochanteric region. The purposes of this article are to review the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology of the lateral hip. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search of all relevant papers between 1980 and January 2010. Results: Recent advances in imaging and an improved understanding of pathomechanics have helped to guide the evaluation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment for patients presenting with lateral hip pain. Conclusion: Various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities can be used to effectively manage the athletic patient presenting with lateral hip pain. PMID:23015937
López-Sánchez, María Cristina; Armesto Pérez, Víctor; Montero Furelos, Luis Ángel; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Tomás Ramón; Calvo Arrojo, Gabriela; Díaz Román, Tomás Miguel
Hip pain is a frequent cause of medical attention in the daily clinical practice. Among the different causes included in the differential diagnosis we find ischiofemoral impingement, described initially in patients after joint replacement surgery, but later found in patients with no history of a causal disease. PMID:23017777
Allison A Campbell
During the past century, synthetic materials and devices have been developed to the point at which they can be used successfully to replace and\\/or restore function to diseased or damaged tissues. In the field of orthopedics, the use of metal implants has significantly improved the quality of life for countless individuals. Critical factors for implant success include proper design, material
Zablotsky, M H
Adjunctive treatment with various chemotherapeutic regimens in implant dentistry are reviewed along with the indications for specific approaches. The use of systemic antibiotics, topical antimicrobials, and various mechanical modalities are discussed in relation to patient maintenance and the repair of ailing implants. PMID:8358373
Kojima, G. K.
Miniature ultrasonic echosonometer implanted within laboratory animals obtains energy from RF power oscillator that is electronically transduced via induction loop to power receiving loop located just under animal's skin. Method of powering device offers significant advantages over those in which battery is part of implanted package.
Fryer, T. B.; Mccutcheon, E. P.; Sandler, H.; Freund, W.
Multiplexed biotelemetry system for animal research combines several power-saving features. Implantable sensor measures up to eight parameters simultaneously, including blood flow. Microamp transistors, switching circuits, and CMOS technology are used to lower power requirements. However, when blood flow is monitored, these measures are insufficient to reduce power enough for long-term operation from implantable primary battery.
Snir, Nimrod; Park, Brian K; Garofolo, Garret; Marwin, Scott E
Revision of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) or hip resurfacing is associated with high complication rates. The authors propose dual-mobility components as a surgical option and present short- to mid-term results of MoM hips revised with dual-mobility components. Eighteen consecutive hips that underwent revision of MoM THA or hip resurfacing using dual-mobility components were identified. At final follow-up (mean, 17.5 months), the visual analog scale, modified Harris Hip Score, and SF-12 scores had all improved (P<.05, P<.01, and P<.05, respectively). There were no dislocations or other complications. Revision of failed MoM THA or hip resurfacing using a dual-mobility device is an effective strategy. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(6):369-374.]. PMID:26091212
Gondusky, Joseph S; Pinkos, Kevin A; Choi, Leera; Patel, Jay J; Barnett, Steven; Gorab, Robert S
Simultaneous bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been performed successfully, with good outcomes and low complication rates reported. Most published studies on the topic used anterolateral or posterior surgical approaches. The anterior approach is performed under live fluoroscopy with the patient supine, obviating the need for patient repositioning during bilateral surgery. The authors report their experience with simultaneous bilateral anterior approach total hip arthroplasty. The authors retrospectively reviewed data for 75 patients (150 hips). Mean follow-up was 26 months (range, 5-60 months). Mean patient age was 59 years and the majority were American Society of Anesthesiology class 2 (range, 1-3). Mean total surgical time was 144 minutes (72 minutes per hip). Mean blood loss was 565 mL. Mean hospital length of stay was 2.75 days (range, 1-4 days). Ninety-six percent of patients were able to ambulate on postoperative day 1. Sixty-eight percent of patients were discharged to home. Mean Harris Hip Score improved from 50 to 97. All patients noted a return to preoperative level of activity or higher. Complications included 1 atraumatic minimally displaced trochanteric fracture occurring 2 weeks postoperatively, 1 pulmonary embolism on postoperative day 3 treated without sequelae, 1 episode of postoperative atrial fibrillation, and 4 minor local wound complications. No readmission, infection, nerve palsy, dislocation, reoperation, or death occurred. Anterior approach THA has the advantage of a single supine position for bilateral simultaneous surgery and the current study supports its use in appropriate patients. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(7):e611-e615.]. PMID:26186324
Parvizi, Javad; Antoci, Valentin; Hickok, Noreen J; Shapiro, Irving M
In this review, we discuss current advances leading to an exciting change in implant design for orthopedic surgery. The initial biomaterial approaches in implant design are being replaced by cellular-molecular interactions and nanoscale chemistry. New designs address implant complications, particularly loosening and infection. For infection, local delivery systems are an important first step in the process. Selfprotective 'smart' devices are an example of the next generation of orthopedic implants. If proven to be effective, antibiotics or other active molecules that are tethered to the implant surface through a permanent covalent bond and tethering of antibiotics or other biofactors are likely to transform the practice of orthopedic surgery and other medical specialties. This new technology has the potential to eliminate periprosthetic infection, a major and growing problem in orthopedic practice. PMID:17187471
SUGIMOTO, DAI; MYER, GREGORY D.; BUSH, HEATHER M.; HEWETT, TIMOTHY E.
Sugimoto, D, Myer, GD, Bush, HM, and Hewett, TE. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes. Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the purpose was to investigate the compliance effects of a trunk and hip–focused INT exercises on hip abductor strength in young women athletes. In a controlled laboratory study design, 21 high school women volleyball players (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.4 years, weight = 64.0 ± 7.4 kg, height = 171.5 ± 7.0 cm) completed isokinetic hip abductor strength testing in pre- and postintervention, which consisted of 5 phases of supervised progressive trunk and hip–focused INT exercises twice a week for 10 weeks. The compliance effects were analyzed based on the changed hip abductor strength values between pre- and postintervention and 3 different compliance groups using 1-way analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The participants in the high-compliance group demonstrated significant hip abductor peak torque increases compared with noncompliance group (p = 0.02), but not between moderate-compliance and noncompliance groups (p = 0.27). The moderate correlation coefficient value (r = 0.56) was recorded between the isokinetic hip abductor peak torque changes and the 3 compliance groups. Because of the observed significant effects and moderate linear association, the effectiveness of a trunk and hip–focused INT protocol to improve hip abduction strength seems dependent on compliance. Compliance of trunk and hip–focused INT is an important aspect of increasing hip abductor strength increase in young women athletes. PMID:24751656
Gutzeit, Andreas; Kalberer, Fabian
This study introduces and validates the Hip Lag Sign, a new clinical parameter to determine hip abductor damage, which appears to be one major cause for greater trochanteric pain syndrome. 26 patients who underwent standardized MRI-examination were prospectively enrolledbetween October 2009 and March 2012. A standard physical examination of the hip was performed, including the Hip Lag Sign as it is defined for the first time in this work. Hip Lag Sign results were statistically compared toMR images, to pain levels measured with the visual analogue scale and to results of the modified Harris Hip Score as a universal and well established diagnostic tool for the hip. Chi2- and Mann-Whitney-U-analysis were applied. Diagnostic accuracy was tested with 2×2-table-calculations.Kappa statistics were used to analyze inter-observer variability. A positive Hip Lag Sign is significantly associated with MRI-proven hip abductor damage (p<0.001). The Hip Lag Sign has a sensitivity of 89.47% and a specificity of 96.55%. The positive and negative predictive values are 94.44%, resp. 93.33%. Its diagnostic Odds Ratio is 239.000 (p<0.001; 95%-CI: 20.031-2827.819). The number needed to diagnose was 1.16.Inter-observer consistency was 98.1% and kappa statistics for inter-observer variability were 0.911. The Hip Lag Sign is specific and sensitive, easy and fast to perform and allows a reliable assessment on the hip abductors' status, especially when there is no access to further diagnostic devices such as MRI for example due to restricted resources like in developing countries. Thus, we recommend the inclusion of the Hip Lag Sign into everyday hip examinations, especially dealing with patients suffering from greater trochanteric pain syndrome. PMID:24622208
Adam, Rodney D.; Ortega, Ynes R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Sterling, Charles R.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite which has emerged as an important cause of epidemic and endemic diarrhea. Water-borne as well as food-borne outbreaks have occurred, including a large number of U.S. cases associated with raspberries imported from Guatemala. Molecular markers exist for tracing the epidemiology of many of the bacterial pathogens associated with water-borne or food-borne diarrhea, such as serotyping and pulsed-field electrophoresis. However, there are currently no molecular markers available for C. cayetanensis. The intervening transcribed spacer (ITS) regions between the small- and large-subunit rRNA genes demonstrate much greater sequence variability than the small-subunit rRNA sequence itself and have been useful for the molecular typing of other organisms. Thus, ITS1 variability might allow the identification of different genotypes of C. cayetanensis. In order to determine the degree of ITS1 variability among C. cayetanensis isolates, the ITS1 sequences of C. cayetanensis isolates from a variety of sources, including raspberry-associated cases, cases from Guatemala, and pooled and individual isolates from Peru, were obtained. The ITS1 sequences of all five raspberry-associated isolates were identical, consistent with their origin from a single source. In contrast, one of the two Guatemala isolates and two Peruvian isolates contained multiple ITS1 sequences. These multiple sequences could represent multiple clones from a single clinical source or, more likely, variability of the ITS1 region within the genome of a single clone. PMID:10834999
K. M. Karlsson; I. Sernbo; K. J. Obrant; I. Redlund-Johnell; O. Johnell
A total of 125 consecutive hip fracture patients were investigated regarding hip geometry. There were 33 men of mean age 76 ± 10 years, and 92 women of mean age 78 ± 9 years. Patients with previous hip surgery were excluded. Hip geometry (hip-axis length, width of collum femoris, and femoral shaft and neck-shaft angle) were registered on both plain
Colman, Matthew; Choi, Lisa; Chen, Antonia; Crossett, Lawrence; Tarkin, Ivan; McGough, Richard
To examine the mortality and implant survivorship of proximal femoral replacement (PFR), revision total hip arthroplasty (REV) and open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of acute periprosthetic fractures of the proximal femur, we retrospectively reviewed 97 consecutive acute periprosthetic proximal femoral fractures from 2000–2010. Three groups were defined: PFR (n=21), REV (n=19), and ORIF (n=57). Outcome measures were all-cause mortality, implant failure, and reoperation. Competing Risks survival analysis of overall mortality during the mean 35-month follow-up showed no statistical difference between the three groups (p=0.65; 12 and 60 month mortality for PFR: 37%, 45%; REV: 16%, 46%; ORIF: 14%, 100%). Implant survival was worse for the PFR group (p=0.03, 12 and 60-month implant failure rate for PFR: 5%, 39%; REV: 7%, 7%; ORIF 2%, 2%). We conclude that PFR as compared with REV or ORIF may have worse medium-term implant survival, primarily due to instability and dislocation. PMID:23856062
Background Aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasties is generally caused by periprosthetic bone resorption due to tissue reactions on polyethylene wear particles. In vitro testing of polyethylene cups incorporated with vitamin E shows increased wear resistance. The objective of this study is to compare vitamin E-stabilized highly cross-linked polyethylene with conventional cross-linked polyethylene in “reversed hybrid” total hip arthroplasties (cemented all-polyethylene cups combined with uncemented femoral stems). We hypothesize that the adjunction of vitamin E leads to a decrease in polyethylene wear in the long-term. We also expect changes in bone mineral density, less osteolysis, equal functional scores and increased implant survival in polyethylene cemented cups incorporated with vitamin E in the long-term. Design A double-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Patients to be included are aged under 70, suffer from non-inflammatory degenerative joint disease of the hip and are scheduled for a primary total hip arthroplasty. The study group will receive a reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty with a vitamin E-stabilized highly cross-linked polyethylene cemented cup. The control group will receive a reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty with a conventional cross-linked polyethylene cemented cup. Radiological follow-up will be assessed at 6 weeks and at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years postoperatively, to determine polyethylene wear and osteolysis. Patient-reported functional status (HOOS), physician-reported functional status (Harris Hip Score) and patients’ physical activity behavior (SQUASH) will also be assessed at these intervals. Acetabular bone mineral density will be assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at 6 weeks and at 1 year and 2 years postoperatively. Implant survival will be determined at 10 years postoperatively. Discussion In vitro results of vitamin E-stabilized polyethylene are promising, showing increased wear resistance. However, controlled clinical follow-up data are not available at this moment. This randomized controlled trial has been designed to determine wear, bone mineral density, functional outcome and survival in reversed hybrid total hip arthroplasty comparing cemented vitamin E-stabilized highly cross-linked polyethylene cups with cemented conventional cross-linked polyethylene cups. Trial registration Dutch Trial Registry NTR3049 PMID:22994935
Uribe, Juliana; Gremillard, Laurent; Reynard, Bruno
This paper considers the degradation of alumina and zirconia toughened alumina vs. alumina for hip implants. The materials are as assumed to be load bearing surfaces subjected to shocks in wet conditions. The load is a peak of force; 9 kN was applied over 15 ms at 2 Hz for 800,000 cycles. The volumetric wear and roughness are lower for ZTA than for alumina. The long ZTA ageing did not seem to have a direct influence on the roughness. The ageing increased the wear volumes of ZTA and it was found to have a higher wear resistance compared to alumina.
Background A discrepancy in leg length and femoral offset restoration is the leading cause of patient dissatisfaction in hip replacement surgery and has profound implications on patient quality of life. The aim of this study is to compare biomechanical hip reconstruction in hip resurfacing, large-diameter femoral head hip arthroplasty and conventional total hip replacement. Method Sixty patient's post-operative radiographs were reviewed; 20 patients had a hip resurfacing (HR), 20 patients had a Large Head Metal-on-metal (LHM) hip replacement and 20 patients had a conventional small head Total Hip Replacement (THR). The leg length and femoral offset of the operated and unoperated hips were measured and compared. Results Hip resurfacing accurately restored hip biomechanics with no statistical difference in leg length (P = 0.07) or femoral offset (P = 0.95) between the operated and non-operative hips. Overall HR was superior for reducing femoral offset discrepancies where it had the smallest bilateral difference (-0.2%, P = 0.9). The traditional total hip replacement was least effective at restoring the hip anatomy. Conclusion The use of a larger-diameter femoral head in hip resurfacing does not fully account for the superior biomechanical restoration, as LHM did not restore femoral offset as accurately. We conclude that restoration of normal hip biomechanics is best achieved with hip resurfacing. PMID:22206621
Lynch, T Sean; Terry, Michael A; Bedi, Asheesh; Kelly, Bryan T
Arthroscopic surgery in the hip joint has historically lagged behind its counterparts in the shoulder and knee. However, the management of hip injuries in the athletic population has rapidly evolved over the past decade with our improved understanding of mechanical hip pathology as well as the marked improvement in imaging modalities and arthroscopic techniques. Current indications for hip arthroscopic surgery may include symptomatic labral tears, femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), hip capsular laxity/instability, chondral lesions, disorders of the peritrochanteric or deep gluteal space, septic joint, loose bodies, and ligamentum teres injuries. Furthermore, hip arthroscopic surgery is developing an increasingly important role as an adjunct diagnostic and therapeutic tool in conjunction with open femoral and/or periacetabular osteotomy for complex hip deformities. Arthroscopic techniques have evolved to allow for effective and comprehensive treatment of various hip deformities. Techniques for extensile arthroscopic capsulotomies have allowed for improved central and peripheral compartment exposure and access for labral takedown, refixation, treatment of chondral injury, and osteochondroplasty of the femoral head-neck junction and acetabular rim. While favorable short-term and midterm clinical outcomes have been reported after arthroscopic treatment of prearthritic hip lesions, greater long-term follow-up is necessary to assess the efficacy of hip arthroscopic surgery in altering the natural history and progressive degenerative changes associated with FAI. PMID:23449836
Background and purpose Earlier studies have suggested that the hip extension angle and the hip flexor moment in walking are affected by hip dysplasia, but to our knowledge there have been no reports on running or evaluations of self-reported health. We evaluated differences in walking, running, and self-reported health between young adults with symptomatic hip dysplasia and healthy controls. Patients and methods Walking and running in 32 patients with hip dysplasia, mean 34 (18–53) years old, was compared with walking and running in 32 controls, mean 33 (18–54) years old. Joint kinematics and kinetics—quantified by the peak hip extension angle and the peak net joint moment of hip flexion during walking and running—were recorded using a motion-capture system, and health was evaluated using the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS). Results The peak hip extension angle during walking was less in the patients than in the controls (–10.4 (SD 4.8) degrees vs. –13.2 (SD 4.5) degrees; p = 0.02). Similarly, the peak net joint moment of hip flexion during walking was lower in the patients than in the controls (0.57 (SD 0.13) N*m/kg vs. 0.70 (SD 0.22) N*m/kg; p = 0.008). In all dimensions of HAGOS, the patients scored lower than the controls. Furthermore, the hip extension angle and the net joint moment of hip flexion correlated with the HAGOS subscales pain and physical function in sport and recreation. Interpretation Patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia do modify walking and running, and we therefore suggest that the impairment found in this study should play an important role in the evaluation of later operative and training interventions. PMID:23594221
Undoped self-assembled GaN quantum dots (QD) stacked in superlattices (SL) with AlN spacer layers were submitted to thermal annealing treatments. Changes in the balance between the quantum confinement, strain state of the stacked heterostructures and quantum confined Stark effect lead to the observation of GaN QD excitonic recombination above and below the bulk GaN bandgap. In Eu-implanted SL structures, the GaN QD recombination was found to be dependent on the implantation fluence. For samples implanted with high fluence, a broad emission band at 2.7 eV was tentatively assigned to the emission of large blurred GaN QD present in the damage region of the implanted SL. This emission band is absent in the SL structures implanted with lower fluence and hence lower defect level. In both cases, high energy emission bands at approx. 3.9 eV suggest the presence of smaller dots for which the photoluminescence intensity was seen to be constant with increasing temperatures. Despite the fact that different deexcitation processes occur in undoped and Eu-implanted SL structures, the excitation population mechanisms were seen to be sample-independent. Two main absorption bands with maxima at approx. 4.1 and 4.7 to 4.9 eV are responsible for the population of the optically active centres in the SL samples. PMID:21711897