Sample records for hippeastrum breviflorum herb

  1. Hippeastrum Is Hardly a Humdrum Classroom Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the plant Amaryllis, which is the common name for the Hippeastrum species. Describes how to grow and bloom Amaryllis in soil using hydroponics. Introduces experiments investigating the anatomy of the bulb, growing and elongation rates, the flower, and foliage. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  2. Hyoscyamus niger, a useful local lesion host for a mosaic virus in Hippeastrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. N. de Leeuw

    1972-01-01

    Samenvatting Bladeren vanHyoscyamus niger planten vertoonden chlorotische lokale lesies 7 dagen na inoculatie met sap van mozaïekziekeHippeastrum-planten. Met sap vanHippeastrum-planten zonder mozaïeksymptomen werd geen reactie verkregen. In dooppreparaten gemaakt van chlorotische lesies inHyoscyamus-bladeren en van bladeren vanHippeastrum planten met mozaïeksymptomen werden draadvormige virusdeeltjes van 648–772 nm aangetroffen. Het virus kon met sap geperst uit geïnoculeerdeHyoscyamus-planten weer op gezondeHippeastrum-planten worden overgebracht.

  3. Vacuole/extravacuole distribution of soluble protease in Hippeastrum petal and Triticum leaf protoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.J.; Mulready, P.; Cutt, J.

    1981-11-01

    The subcellular distribution of soluble protease in anthesis-stage, anthocyanin-containing Hippeastrum cv. Dutch Red Hybrid petal protoplasts has been reevaluated and that of Triticum aestivum L. var. Red Coat leaf protoplasts determined using /sup 125/I-fibrin as a protease substrate and improved methods for protoplast and vacuole volume estimation. Results indicate that about 20% of the Hippeastrum petal-soluble protease and about 90% of the wheat leaf-soluble protease can be assigned to the vacuole. Protoplast isolation enzyme labeled with /sup 125/I has been used to assess the efficiency of removing isolation enzyme from protoplasts by repeated washing and by separation of protoplasts from debris using density centrifugation. Results of these studies suggest that protoplasts prepared by both methods retain low levels of isolation enzyme. However, when protoplasts prepared by either method were lysed with washing medium lacking osmoticum, little isolation enzyme contaminated the lysates.

  4. Mechanism of entomotoxicity of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Van Damme, Els J M; De Vos, Winnok H; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-09-01

    Plant lectins have received a lot of attention because of their insecticidal properties. When orally administered in artificial diet or in transgenic plants, lectins provoke a wide range of detrimental effects, including alteration of the digestive enzyme machinery, fecundity drop, reduced feeding, changes in oviposition behavior, growth and development inhibition and mortality. Although many studies reported the entomotoxicity of lectins, only a few of them investigated the mode of action by which lectins exert toxicity. In the present paper we have studied for the first time the insecticidal potential of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) (HHA) bulbs against the larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). Bioassays on neonate larvae showed that this mannose-specific lectin affected larval growth, causing a development retardation and larval weight decrease. Using primary cell cultures from S. littoralis midguts and confocal microscopy we have elucidated FITC-HHA binding and internalization mechanisms. We found that HHA did not exert a toxic effect on S. littoralis midgut cells, but HHA interaction with the brush border of midgut cells interfered with normal nutrient absorption in the S. littoralis midgut, thereby affecting normal larval growth in vivo. This study thus confirms the potential of mannose-specific lectins as pest control agents and sheds light on the mechanism underlying lectin entomotoxicity. PMID:22677323

  5. The Herb Garden Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each…

  6. Culinary herbFAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.

  7. Herbs in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan

    2011-12-01

    Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research. PMID:22117784

  8. Herb-drug interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriane Fugh-Berman

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin,

  9. Radiolysis of herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilan, Wu; Xujia, Zhang; Rongyao, Yuan; Yongke, He

    1995-08-01

    Radiolysis of 124 types of herbs was studied. The majority were stable under ?-irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. Radiolytic decomposition was detected at 10 kGy for 16 types of herbs (12.9%) and at 5 kGy for 6 types (4.8%). No detectable radiolytic decomposition was found at <2 kGy. The model system study showed: 1, ?-radiolysis is different from thermohydrolysis and photolysis; 2, water adsorbed on herbs evidently affects the radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Pulse and ?-radiolysis of baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-?- D-glycoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalic-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to the attack of OH radical. The addition of fructose and glucose can inhibit the ?-radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by ?-ray, but important measure and step should be adopted. That is: 1, the herbs must exist in dry state; 2, it is preferred to make bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine and honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs; 3, the producer must pay attention to executing strictly manufacture procedure to reduce the microbiological contamination, thus subsequently lower the applied dose.

  10. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  11. Growing Herbs in Texas

    E-print Network

    Masabni, Joseph

    2009-04-08

    cuttings in full sun; space 12?24 in. apart Harvest and dry leaves as needed Tea, potpourri, jelly, vinegar, dessert 11 Table 3. Perennial herbs continued. Herb Height (inches) Description Culture Harvest Use Southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) 48... (Artemisia dracunculus) 24 Select French tarragon; fine, dark green leaves Prefers well-drained soils; full sun; grow from divisions or root cuttings; space 12 in. apart Harvest leaves when flowering begins Leaves: salad, sauce, egg, vegetable...

  12. Herbed Tomato Casserole Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Herbed Tomato Casserole Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 1 small onion, finely chopped 28 ounces low sodium tomatoes, canned, diced 1 1/4 cups low sodium stuffing mix, finely crushed 1 1 tomatoes and pour into a mixing bowl. 4. Add 1 cup stuffing mix, sugar, oregano, rosemary to bowl. Mix well

  13. Herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-01

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:10675182

  14. Herbs in exercise and sports

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size. PMID:22738233

  15. Herbs in exercise and sports.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chee Keong; Muhamad, Ayu Suzailiana; Ooi, Foong Kiew

    2012-01-01

    The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size. PMID:22738233

  16. Hepatoprotective Herbs, Avicenna Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi-Baghbanan, Hamid; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Minaei, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liver injury or dysfunction is considered as a serious health problem. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders are expensive and cause further damage. Hence, hepatoprotective effects of some herbal drugs have been investigated, and one of the methods to choose herbs in order to study their biological effects is to search in ancient medical texts. Avicenna who is known as the prince of physicians had collected and classified Greek, Persian and Islamic medicine in the best possible way in the book of Canon in Arabic. Objectives: Avicenna’s book of The Canon of Medicine was reviewed to find the hepatoprotective herbs. Patients and Methods: Three different versions of the Canon were prepared and utilized. To find scientific names of plants we took advantage of three botany references. All of the herbs were investigated on the basis of scientific data from hepatoprotective effects point of view. The searched term was “hepatoprotective” without narrowing and limiting. The searched databases included Cochrane library, Web of science, SID, Irandoc and IranMedex. Results: 18 plants were found. 85% of the presented species, genus or families of plants were reported to have hepatoprotective properties and in the remaining 15% there were no reports of hepatoprotective effect. Flowers and fruits were the most used part of the plants. Most of the plants had simultaneous protective effects on multiple organs but the protective effect on the liver was mostly accompanied by protective effect on the stomach (83%). The average temperament of these herbs is "hot" in the 2nd phase of the 2nd grade, and "dry" in the 3rd phase of the 2nd grade. Hepatoprotective herbs mostly prescribed as a part of hepatoprotective compound drugs formula or other formula for liver diseases are Crocus sativus, Pistacia lentiscus, and Cinnamomum spp. Conclusions: Maybe there is common mechanism for protecting both liver and stomach. Aquilaria agallocha, Aquilaria malaccensis, and Ruscus aculeatus whose hepatoprotective effects have not yet been reported are considered as good candidates for future investigations. Given that Crocus sativus, and Cinnamomum spp are used as flavors in most countries, they will be introduced for more investigation in order to produce hepatoprotective drugs. PMID:24719702

  17. Chinese herb nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, a 44-year-old woman progressed from normal renal function to advanced renal failure and end-stage renal disease within 8 months. Biopsy revealed extensive interstitial fibrosis with focal lymphocytic infiltration. She received a cadaveric renal transplant in January 1996 and had an uneventful posttransplant course. As a result of a minor motor vehicle accident, the patient had received acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine for pain relief approximately 5 months before the onset of renal symptoms. After the transplant, analysis of the herbal remedies clearly indicated the presence of aristolochic acid in 2 of the 6 Chinese herbs ingested. Ingestion of aristolochic acid has been linked to a newly defined entity, Chinese herb nephropathy (CHN). This article discusses the history of CHN and its implication in the current case and in other recent similar cases and makes recommendations to avoid future problems caused by unregulated use of herbal medicines. This is the first reported case of CHN in the USA. PMID:16389336

  18. Antioxidants from tropical herbs.

    PubMed

    Razab, Rasyidah; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina

    2010-03-01

    Plants that contain high amounts of polyphenolic compounds are potential candidates for natural antioxidant sources. Studies are on going in the search for new sources of antioxidants. Not much data are available on the antioxidant capacity of tropical herbs. With this in mind, 19 commonly consumed Malaysian herbs were analyzed for their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. A majority of these plants have never been studied before with regards to their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. The shoots of Anacardium occidentale, the shoots and fruits of Barringtonia racemosa, Pithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa had high polyphenolic contents (> 150 microg gallic acid equivalents/mg dried plant) and antioxidant activities when measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (>1.2 mM) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays (>2.4 mM). A strong correlation was observed between the two antioxidant assays (FRAP vs TEAC) implying that the plants could both scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidants. There was also a strong correlation between the antioxidant activities and polyphenolic content suggesting the observed antioxidant activities were contributed mainly by the polyphenolics in the plants. PMID:20420325

  19. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF BERRY CROPS AND HERBS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Berry fruits and herbs are good sources of natural antioxidants. In addition to usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, extracts of berries and herbs are also rich in anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Berry fruits and herbs have shown a remarkably high scavenging activity toward ch...

  20. Science Nation: HERB the Robot Butler

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Researchers at Intel Labs located on the campus of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh are figuring out a way to take the drudgery out of house work. They are creating a robot butler named HERB that doesn't mind doing the mundane. HERB stands for Home Exploring Robotic Butler. The idea is to create a robot that can walk into a home, assess the layout and move about on its own. To do that, HERB is being designed to be smart and resourceful. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), researchers are programming HERB to think on its own.

  1. What are Herbs? Trees, shrubs, annuals, vines,

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    #12;What are Herbs? Trees, shrubs, annuals, vines, and more primitive plants, such as ferns, mosses, etc. valued for their flavor, fragrance, medicinal and healthful qualities, economic must be saved or purchased every year. #12;Warm Season Annuals (Plant: March-September) Herbs Part

  2. Interaction of Herbs and Glibenclamide: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Amita; Eapen, Cicy; Prasanth, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    Herbs and herbal products are considered to be safer and people mix it often with the oral hypoglycemic agent in diabetes therapy. But numerous reports say that every combination of herbs and drugs is not safe. Some combinations may be beneficial and some may be harmful also. So before taking any herbal remedies with oral hypoglycemic agent, patient should consult physician. In this paper we are summarizing the reports available on the interaction of herbal remedies to one of the oral hypoglycemic agents (glibenclamide) and categorizing the effect of the combination is beneficial and harmful. PMID:22844612

  3. Herbinfo: Discussion Group for the Uses of Herbs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The HerbInfo list is open, unmoderated, and intended to be an all-purpose list to discuss herbs. Due to the general nature of the list, all subjects related to herbs and their uses are considered to be on topic, regardless of their level of knowledge or expertise.

  4. Lead and cadmium in herbs and medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marja Roitto; Bertalan Galambosi

    The aim of this literature review was to pool data on heavy metal accumula- tion in herbs, spices and medicinal plants in Europe. A comparative study performed by MTT Agrifood Research Finland in 1990 showed that lead concentration in Finnish herbs was clearly lower that in herbs produced in other parts in Europe. Cadmium concentrations did not differ much between

  5. Medicinal Herb REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

    E-print Network

    Doudna, Jennifer A.

    , with the assistance of the American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (San Francisco), horticulturist Elaine for regulating Qi are used in Chinese traditional medicine primarily for pain in the chest and the abdomenChinese Medicinal Herb Garden The REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia

  6. Culantro: A Much Utilized, Little Understood Herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Ramcharan

    1999-01-01

    Culantro (Eryngium foetidum L., Apiaceae) is a biennial herb indigenous to continental Tropical America and the West Indies. Although widely used in dishes throughout the Caribbean, Latin America, and the Far East, culantro is relatively unknown in the United States and many other parts of the world and is often mis-taken and misnamed for its close relative cilantro or coriander

  7. Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    . Carefully stir in bell peppers and onions. 6. Cover and chill until ready to serve. Equipment: Cutting boardItalian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters

  8. Updates on the clinical evidenced herb-warfarin interactions.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of "interacting herbs." In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:24790635

  9. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:24790635

  10. Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Hongxiang; Tang, George; Go, Vay Liang W

    2009-01-01

    Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation), Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana) and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to). The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes. PMID:19523223

  11. Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, N

    2000-01-01

    Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases resulting from lipid peroxidation. Our studies on spices and herbs have given us over a hundred compounds, known and new, having high antioxidant activity. From the Labiatae family, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare and O. majorana gave 26 active comopounds. Over 40 antioxidative compounds from Zingiber officinale, 26 compounds from Curcuma domestica = C. longa, C. xanthorrhiza and Z. cassumunar were determined, these belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. From the family Myrtaceae, 25 compounds from the berries of Pimenta dioica were determined and 3 carbazoles were isolated from Murraya koenigii. Structure-activity relationships of some of the isolated compounds were also discussed. PMID:11237173

  12. Systematic Review of Breastfeeding and Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; Gardner, Zoë E.; Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Low Dog, Tieraona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Despite popular and historical use, there has been little modern research conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of herb use during breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the clinical literature on herbal medicine and lactation. Methods The databases PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HealthSTAR, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Reprotox were systematically searched for human trials from 1970 until 2010. Reference lists from relevant articles were hand-searched. Results Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Clinical studies were divided into three categories: survey studies (n=11), safety studies (n=8), and efficacy studies (n=13). Six studies were randomized controlled trials. The most common herbs studied were St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) (n=3), garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract (n=2), and senna (Cassia senna L.) (n=2). Studies were very heterogeneous with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Overall, poor methodological quality predominated among the studies. Conclusions Our review concludes that further research is needed to assess the prevalence, efficacy, and safety of commonly used herbs during breastfeeding. PMID:22686865

  13. Thermoluminscence of irradiated herbs and spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamoon, A.; Abdul-Fattah, A. A.; Abulfaraj, W. H.

    1994-07-01

    Several types of herbs and spices from the local market were irradiated with different doses of ? radiations. Doses varied from a few kilograys to 10 kilograys. Thermoluminescence of the irradiated samples and their controls was investigated. For the same type of herb or spice glow curves of different magnitudes, corresponding somewhat to the doses given, were obtained from the irradiated samples. Most control samples gave little or insignificant glow. Glow curves from different herbs and spices irradiated with the same doses were not similar in the strength of the glow signal given. Samples of the black pepper obtained from different packages sometimes give glow curves of very different intensities. Samples from irradiated black pepper were found to show little fading of their glow curves even at 9 months postirradiation. All irradiations were done under the same experimental conditions and at a dose rate of approximately 1 kGy h-1. The glow curves were obtained using a heating rate of about 9°C s-1 and a constant nitrogen flow rate.

  14. Cheeses of Turkey: 3. Varieties containing herbs or spices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali A. Hayaloglu

    2008-01-01

    Ripened cheese varieties containing herbs are traditional in Turkey and have been manufactured for more than 200 years in\\u000a the east and southeast of the country. They are manufactured from raw milk, semi-hard in texture and salty in taste and have\\u000a the aroma of garlic or thyme due to added herbs. Twenty-five types of herb, including Allium, Thymus, Silene and

  15. Herbs-are they safe enough? an overview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Gupta, Rajiv; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2012-01-01

    Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many compounds in common use not only have a significant effect on the body but may also interact with pharmaceuticals and also with other alternative products. Concurrent use of herbs with drugs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs leading to herb-drug interactions. Currently, there is very little information published on herb-herb or herb-drug interactions as compared to the use of herbs which is progressively growing across the world. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs. The article reviews the recent literature on the adverse effects of herbal remedies including the most widely sold herbal medicinal products, like liquorice, garlic, ginger, green tea, and turmeric, etc., and reinforce the safety aspect of herbal products, which are considered to be relatively safe by common people. PMID:22747079

  16. [Ancient clinical application of herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bao-luo; Han, Yuan-yuan; Ma, Yu-xia; Gao, Shu-zhong

    2014-09-01

    In order to further improve the curative effect of the herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus, we collected a wide range of literature on herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus and then systematically arranged them to analyze and summarize the technology and operating methods of herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus. We also briefly discussed issues on application of medicine, locust tree skin and ginger, the method of kneading dough for medical uses, and the appropriate size of moxa cone and its using frequency in order to form clear concepts and standardized operations to provide theories and operational basis for the clinical application of modern herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus. PMID:25509757

  17. Novel Two-Stage Analytic Approach in Extraction of Strong Herb-Herb Interactions in TCM Clinical Treatment of Insomnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuezhong Zhou; Josiah Poon; Paul Kwan; Runshun Zhang; Yinghui Wang; Simon K. Poon; Baoyan Liu; Daniel Sze

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper, we aim to investigate strong herb-herb interactions in TCM for effective treatment of insomnia. Given that\\u000a extraction of herb interactions is quite similar to gene epistasis study due to non-linear interactions among their study\\u000a factors, we propose to apply Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) that has shown useful in discovering hidden interaction\\u000a patterns in biomedical domains. However, MDR

  18. Herb-drug interactions: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zeping; Yang, Xiaoxia; Ho, Paul Chi Lui; Chan, Sui Yung; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Eli; Duan, Wei; Koh, Hwee Ling; Zhou, Shufeng

    2005-01-01

    Herbs are often administered in combination with therapeutic drugs, raising the potential of herb-drug interactions. An extensive review of the literature identified reported herb-drug interactions with clinical significance, many of which are from case reports and limited clinical observations. Cases have been published reporting enhanced anticoagulation and bleeding when patients on long-term warfarin therapy also took Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen). Allium sativum (garlic) decreased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration of saquinavir, but not ritonavir and paracetamol (acetaminophen), in volunteers. A. sativum increased the clotting time and international normalised ratio of warfarin and caused hypoglycaemia when taken with chlorpropamide. Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) caused bleeding when combined with warfarin or aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), raised blood pressure when combined with a thiazide diuretic and even caused coma when combined with trazodone in patients. Panax ginseng (ginseng) reduced the blood concentrations of alcohol (ethanol) and warfarin, and induced mania when used concomitantly with phenelzine, but ginseng increased the efficacy of influenza vaccination. Scutellaria baicalensis (huangqin) ameliorated irinotecan-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in cancer patients.Piper methysticum (kava) increased the 'off' periods in patients with parkinsonism taking levodopa and induced a semicomatose state when given concomitantly with alprazolam. Kava enhanced the hypnotic effect of alcohol in mice, but this was not observed in humans. Silybum marianum (milk thistle) decreased the trough concentrations of indinavir in humans. Piperine from black (Piper nigrum Linn) and long (P. longum Linn) peppers increased the AUC of phenytoin, propranolol and theophylline in healthy volunteers and plasma concentrations of rifamipicin (rifampin) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Eleutheroccus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) increased the serum concentration of digoxin, but did not alter the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and alprazolam in humans. Hypericum perforatum (hypericum; St John's wort) decreased the blood concentrations of ciclosporin (cyclosporin), midazolam, tacrolimus, amitriptyline, digoxin, indinavir, warfarin, phenprocoumon and theophylline, but did not alter the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine, pravastatin, mycophenolate mofetil and dextromethorphan. Cases have been reported where decreased ciclosporin concentrations led to organ rejection. Hypericum also caused breakthrough bleeding and unplanned pregnancies when used concomitantly with oral contraceptives. It also caused serotonin syndrome when used in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. sertraline and paroxetine). In conclusion, interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequences. There are other theoretical interactions indicated by preclinical data. Both pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanisms have been considered to play a role in these interactions, although the underlying mechanisms for the altered drug effects and/or concentrations by concomitant herbal medicines are yet to be determined. The clinical importance of herb-drug interactions depends on many factors associated with the particular herb, drug and patient. Herbs should be appropriately labeled to alert consumers to potential interactions when concomitantly used with drugs, and to recommend a consultation with their general practitioners and other medical carers. PMID:15916450

  19. [The content of Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in selected species of herbs and herb infusions].

    PubMed

    Raczuk, Jolanta; Biardzka, Elzbieta; Daruk, Justyna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was the recognition of the contents and distributions of calcium, magnesium, iron and copper in 6 herb species (matricaria chamomila, tilia cordata, equisetum arvense, melissa officinalis, mentha piperita, hypericum perforatum) and in the herb infusions. The samples were digested using a microwave oven, and the elements concentration was determined by AAS method. The following levels of Ca, Mg, Mg and Cu in the herbs were determined: 6872-19802 mg/kg Ca, 4630-8530 mg/kg Mg, 149.9-415.6 mg/kg Fe and 15.15-24.64 mg/kg Cu. The values of extractions in the infusions of herb were as follows: 16.1-73.8% Ca, 14.4-37.3% Mg, 5.1-9.7% Fe, 13.1-21.8% Cu. This indicates, that a very small part of the iron can be potentially treated as a bioavailable fraction for persons, using plant drugs as infusions. One glass of infusion (250 cm3) contain elements in quantities corresponding to: 0.78-2.61% average daily dietary intake (ADDIs) of Ca, 0.76-1.36% ADDIs of Mg, 0.26-0.38% ADDIs of Cu and only 0.15-0.33% ADDIs of Fe. PMID:18666620

  20. Xylans from the medicinal herb Phyllanthus niruri.

    PubMed

    Mellinger, Caroline G; Carbonero, Elaine R; Cipriani, Thales R; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2005-01-01

    Phyllanthus niruri is a well-known medicinal herb that is widely used in Asia, Africa, and South America. The characterization of two purified polysaccharides from the whole plant has been investigated. Methylation analysis and (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed the chemical structure of two xylans. A hot 15% aqueous KOH fraction yielded a linear beta-(1-->4)-linked xylan, and 2% aqueous KOH afforded a complex acidic heteroxylan, with a (1-->4)-linked beta-Xylp main chain, substituted by rhamnose, arabinose, and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid side chains. These contained nonreducing end-units of arabinose, xylose, galactose, glucose, and nonmethylated glucuronic acid. PMID:15679336

  1. Alteration of pulse in human subjects by three Chinese herbs.

    PubMed

    Wang, W K; Chen, H L; Hsu, T L; Wang, Y Y

    1994-01-01

    Human subjects were fed with extract of three Chinese herbs, Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium roots and Ganoderma lucidum. Pulse of the radial artery was examined. Our results indicate that each herb has a specific effect on the Fourier components of the pulse, and is in agreement with traditional Chinese medical descriptions. PMID:7992821

  2. Thermoluminescent (TL) trap characteristics in irradiated oregano herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    The aim of this article is to investigate in a very simple way the trap characteristics of the irradiated oregano herb. The preparation of the polymineral dust obtained from the herb is described and then, through a fading experiment, the characteristics of the trapping levels responsible of the thermoluminescent emission are discussed.

  3. Antioxidative Activities of Water Extracts of Some Malaysian Herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bandar Baru Nilai

    This study was conducted on selected local herbs such as ulam raja (Cosmos caudatus), kesum (Polygonum minus), selom (Oenanthe javanica), pegaga (Centella asiatica) and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) to investigate their antioxidative activities. The water extracts of the herbs were analysed for total phenolic content, reducing antioxidant power, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test was also accried

  4. Health benefits of herbs and spices: Public Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Williams

    2006-01-01

    Recommendations for intakes fo food in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating do not yet include suggested intakes of herbs and spices, although several dietary guidelines refer to their benefits. Future consideration should be given to including more explicit recommendations about the place of herbs and spices in a healthy diet

  5. Micropropagation of Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Shivanee; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, P S

    2013-04-01

    For conservation and genetic transformation, a successful in vitro micropropagation protocol for Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb has been established for the first time. MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/L) and BA (5 mg/L) induced 100 % shoot regeneration with an average of 41.4 shoots of 8.4 cm per culture. Excised in vitro shoots when transferred to MS + IBA (0.5 mg/L) produced 20 roots/shoot of 20.2 cm average length in 100 % cultures. Of the three explants, leaf, petiole and root, leaf displayed quickest response followed by petiole while root was the slowest. Hardening of plantlets was achieved with 82 % survival. The hardened plants were maintained in pots with garden soil under controlled (Temp. 25?±?2 °C) conditions. RAPD exhibited genetic fidelity with 100 % monomorphism in regenerants. PMID:24431498

  6. Several Culinary and Medicinal Herbs Are Important Sources of Dietary Antioxidants1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steinar Dragland; Haruki Senoo; Kenjiro Wake; Kari Holte; Rune Blomhoff

    We assessed the contribution of culinary and medicinal herbs to the total intake of dietary antioxi- dants. Our results demonstrate that there is more than a 1000-fold difference among antioxidant concentrations of various herbs. Of the dried culinary herbs tested, oregano, sage, peppermint, garden thyme, lemon balm, clove, allspice and cinnamon as well as the Chinese medicinal herbs Cinnamomi cortex

  7. Herbs and hazards: risk of aristolochic acid nephropathy in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Khodaie, Laleh; Nasri, Hamid; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are usually considered as inherently harmless products. Nonetheless, various renal injuries have been reported in association with several herbs. The best-known herb-induced chronic kidney disease is aristolochic acid nephropathy. Aristolochic acid is found in Chinese slim herbs. Balkan endemic nephropathy is nowadays considered as an aristolochic acid nephropathy. Plants of Aristolochiaceae (also known as birthwort, dutchman's pipe, and somersworth) is named zaravand or chopoghak in Persian and it grows in different mountainous and rural areas of Iran. The fruit and the steam of the Aristolochiacae are named zaravand gerd (nokhod alvand) and zaravand dearaz, respectively, and have different usage in Iranian teadirional such as treatment of headache, back pain, and anxiety. Some patients with end-stage renal disease and bilateral small kidneys have a history of exposure to some herbal remedies. We need to consider the possibility of environmental toxins and even Aristolochia nephrotoxicity as a potential danger in Iran. PMID:25599730

  8. Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice

    PubMed Central

    Jana, S.; Shekhawat, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    Anethum graveolens L. (dill) has been used in ayurvedic medicines since ancient times and it is a popular herb widely used as a spice and also yields essential oil. It is an aromatic and annual herb of apiaceae family. The Ayurvedic uses of dill seeds are carminative, stomachic and diuretic. There are various volatile components of dill seeds and herb; carvone being the predominant odorant of dill seed and ?-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, myristicin are the most important odorants of dill herb. Other compounds isolated from seeds are coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and steroids. The main purpose of this review is to understand the significance of Anethum graveolens in ayurvedic medicines and non-medicinal purposes and emphasis can also be given to the enhancement of secondary metabolites of this medicinal plant. PMID:22228959

  9. Pathologie vgtale (synthse) Le striga, mauvaise herbe parasite des crales

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pathologie végétale (synthèse) Le striga, mauvaise herbe parasite des céréales africaines ; accepté le 6 novembre 1995) Résumé — La mauvaise herbe parasite Striga hermonthica cause de graves conducteurs de sève des 2 plantes. Cela permet au parasite de prélever chez son hôte l'eau, les élé- ments

  10. Antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities of selected medicinal herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Liu; T. B. Ng

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidative and superoxide- and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities and pro-oxidant effect of twelve selected medicinal herbs were studied. The aqueous extracts of Coptis chinensis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Prunella vulgaris and Senecio scandens exhibited the highest potency in inhibiting rat erythrocyte hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in rat kidney and brain homogenates. The aforementioned four herbs also demonstrated strong superoxide- and hydroxyl radical-scavenging

  11. Transient complete atrioventricular block associated with herb intake.

    PubMed

    Kolettis, Theofilos M; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Novas, Ioannis; Sideris, Dimitrios A

    2005-05-01

    We report a case of transient complete atrioventricular block in a 38-year-old man, after intake of a mixture of herbs, intended to aid cigarette smoking cessation. Since all other causes of conduction disturbances were excluded, a side-effect of the herbal remedy was identified as the most likely diagnosis. Given that most patients are unaware of the potential risks of the intake of various herbs, we would urge that their usage be regulated. PMID:15878559

  12. Antiviral Chinese medicinal herbs against respiratory syncytial virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuang-Cheng Ma; Jiang Du; Paul Pui-Hay But; Xue-Long Deng; Yong-Wen Zhang; Vincent Eng-Choon Ooi; Hong-Xi Xu; Spencer Hon-Sun Lee; Song Fong Lee

    2002-01-01

    Forty-four medicinal herbs were tested for antiviral activities against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by means of the cytopathologic effect (CPE) assay. Twenty-seven of the 44 medicinal herbs showed potent or moderate antiviral activities against RSV with 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) ranging from 6.3 to 52.1 ?g\\/ml, and with selectivity index (SI) ranging from 2.0 to 32.1. Further purification of the

  13. The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences. PMID:18499033

  14. Antimutagenic property of a Chinese herb

    SciTech Connect

    Hongen Zhang; Te-Hsiu Ma; Byeong-Seon Jeong; Chang-Deok Won [Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong (China)

    1994-12-31

    The root extracts of a Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has been used as internal medicine to improve liver and kidney functions for centuries. The antimutagenic property of this drug was evaluated with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay in this study. The Trad-MCN bioassay is a well-established test for chromosome damage induced by physical or chemical agents in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequency. Inflorescences of the Tradescantia plant cuttings were first exposed to 35 R soft X-rays (80 Kv, 5 ma, 1 mm Al filter, dose rate around 50 R/min) and followed by drug treatments at 1%, 3% and 6% concentrations of the aqueous solution for a total of 24 hr recovery period. The positive (X-rays), negative (nutrient solution) and drug control (3% drug solution) groups were maintained in each of the three series of repeated experiments. Flower buds of the treated and control groups were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 ratio) for preparation of slides to score MCN frequencies in the early tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells. The mean MCN frequencies (MCN/100 tetrads + SD) of the positive control (X-irradiated) was 26.67 + 9.62; the negative control was 2.92 + 1.90; the drug control was 2.06 + 1.50 and the 35 R X-ray/6% drug treated was 18.75 + 6.54. A 30% reduction of chromosome damage was observed. Antimutagenic effects were relatively lower at lower concentrations. This antimutagenic effect could be the results of the meiotic inhibition, DNA repair or radical elimination from the X-irradiation plant cells.

  15. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

    2013-01-01

    Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

  16. Evaluation of metabolism-mediated herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Na, Dong Hee; Ji, Hye Young; Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Myung Sun; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Hye Suk

    2011-11-01

    As the use of herbal medicines increases, the public health consequences of drug-herb interactions are becoming more significant. Herbal medicines share the same drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, including cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and P-glycoprotein, with several clinically important drugs. Interactions of several commonly used herbal medicines, such as Ginko biloba, milk thistle, and St. John's wort, with therapeutic drugs including warfarin, midazolam, alprazolam, indinavir, saquinavir, digoxin, nifedipine, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, irinotecan, and imatinib in humans have been reported. Many of these drugs have very narrow therapeutic indices. As the herb-drug interactions can significantly alter pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs, the drugs interacting with herbal medicines should be identified by appropriate in vitro and in vivo methods. A good understanding of the mechanisms of herb-drug interactions is also essential for assessing and minimizing clinical risks. In vitro methods are useful for providing mechanistic information and evaluating multiple components in herbal medicines. This review describes major factors affecting the metabolism of herbal medicines, mechanisms of herb-drug interactions mediated by CYPs and UGTs, and several in vitro methods to assess the herb-drug interactions. Finally, drug interactions of Ginkgo biloba and St. John's wort, as representative herbal medicines, are described. PMID:22139684

  17. Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability.

    PubMed

    Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Zeder, Christophe; Siriprapa, Pudsadee; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri

    2009-01-01

    Spices and herbs are extensively used in indigenous diets in tropical regions where prevalence of iron deficiency is still high. They are rich in polyphenolic compounds that are expected to inhibit iron absorption by forming iron complexes in the intestine, making dietary iron less available for absorption. The effects of six spices and herbs (chili pepper, garlic, 'Pak kyheng' (Thai leafy vegetable), shallot, tamarind, turmeric) and one mixture of spices (curry paste) on iron availability were determined by measuring the percentage dialyzable iron after addition of spices and herbs to a rice meal after simulated digestion. All tested spices and herbs contained from 0.5 to 33 mg polyphenol per meal and were potent inhibitors of iron availability (20-90%), reducing iron availability in a dose-dependent manner--with the exception of tamarind, which at 11 mg polyphenol per meal enhanced iron availability. Our findings demonstrate that culinary spices and herbs can play an important role in iron nutrition. PMID:18651292

  18. [Relationships between properties and functional targets of Chinese herbs].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Tao, Ou; Luo, Ji; Wang, Yun

    2011-07-01

    Functional targets are the objects that Chinese herbal medicines act directly upon. If the relationships between the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were analyzed clearly, it would benefit the overall understanding of the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal treatments. In this paper, data regarding the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were collected from the 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. After analyzing and assessing the data, the relationships were defined between the four qi, meridian entry and medicinal functional targets and between the four qi, five flavors and mode of function. Then the relationships between a single herbal medicine and a prescription were analyzed, and the results conformed with the traditional knowledge of Chinese herbal nature and efficacy. This demonstrated that the holistic mechanisms of the properties of Chinese herbs adhere to the findings, which may be beneficial for the development and compatibility of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:21749831

  19. The Classification of Sri Lankan Medicinal Herbs: An Extensive Comparison of the Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Waisundara, Viduranga Y.; Watawana, Mindani I.

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lanka has variety of herbs whose effectiveness has been proven across many generations. These herbs are classified into two groups — ‘heating’ and ‘cooling’, based on the physiological reactions upon consumption. Application-wise, the ‘cooling’ herbs are administered to patients contracted with diabetes, imbalances in the lipid profile, or even cancer. However, this classification has been misunderstood due to inconsistent interpretations and lack of scientific reasoning. This study systematically determines the rationale behind this classification, by specifically evaluating the antioxidant activity of 18 herbs — nine herbs from each category. The oxygen radical absorbance capacities, DPPH radical scavenging activities, and the total phenolic contents are analyzed here. The ‘heating’ herbs have a comparatively lower antioxidant potential than the ‘cooling’ herbs. The total phenolic contents correlate with the antioxidant values. It can be hypothesized that the high antioxidant potential of the ‘cooling’ herbs may have been responsible for the containment of the diseases mentioned previously. PMID:25161925

  20. Original article Tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three Scots

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three Scots pine stands with different - To evaluate the impact of herb layer structure on the transpiration of Scots pine ecosystems in north-eastern Germany, we measured tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three stands. Parameters of tree

  1. A Study on the Performance and Mechanism of Soil-reinforcement by Herb Root System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Cheng; Xiaojie Yang; Aiping Liu; Hengsheng Fu; Ming Wan

    A study is carried out on the mechanic function and the mechanism of soil reinforcement by herb root systems is discussed, in which there are four primary functions analyzed and four sorts of soil- stabilities in using herb roots are raised. An experimental comparison with mechanics in the function of soil-reinforcement of various herb roots was conducted. The results revealed

  2. The Role of Allelopathy, Heat, and Charred Wood in the Germination of Chaparral Herbs1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    The Role of Allelopathy, Heat, and Charred Wood in the Germination of Chaparral Herbs1 Sterling C of herbs were tested for germination in response to Adenostoma leachate and charred stems, direct heat, and their combinations. For herbs present pre-and post-fire, germination was best under control conditions

  3. Detection of Herb-Symptom Associations from Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Bing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Run-Shun; Wang, Ying-Hui; Peng, Yonghong; Hu, Jing-Qing; Xie, Qi; Xue, Yan-Xing; Xu, Li-Li; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Bao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an individualized medicine by observing the symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief) of patients. We aim to extract the meaningful herb-symptom relationships from large scale TCM clinical data. Methods. To investigate the correlations between symptoms and herbs held for patients, we use four clinical data sets collected from TCM outpatient clinical settings and calculate the similarities between patient pairs in terms of the herb constituents of their prescriptions and their manifesting symptoms by cosine measure. To address the large-scale multiple testing problems for the detection of herb-symptom associations and the dependence between herbs involving similar efficacies, we propose a network-based correlation analysis (NetCorrA) method to detect the herb-symptom associations. Results. The results show that there are strong positive correlations between symptom similarity and herb similarity, which indicates that herb-symptom correspondence is a clinical principle adhered to by most TCM physicians. Furthermore, the NetCorrA method obtains meaningful herb-symptom associations and performs better than the chi-square correlation method by filtering the false positive associations. Conclusions. Symptoms play significant roles for the prescriptions of herb treatment. The herb-symptom correspondence principle indicates that clinical phenotypic targets (i.e., symptoms) of herbs exist and would be valuable for further investigations. PMID:25650023

  4. The Public Health Impact of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; Heitzer, Marjet; Wesa, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased exponentially in recent years despite the lack of regulatory oversight and in the face of growing safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the public health implications and safety concerns associated with dietary supplement use, especially by cancer patients. Botanical research is actively pursued at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Integrative Medicine department. Work of the MSKCC Center for the Study of Botanical Immunomodulators is described, and guidelines for cancer patients’ use of dietary supplements outlined. Herbs and other botanicals are complex, physiologically active agents, but little is known about most of the popular, widely available dietary supplements. Herb-drug interactions, a major concern, are exacerbated in the cancer setting. Biologically active agents may interfere with chemotherapy and other prescription medications. They may exert anti-coagulant activity at rather inconvenient times such as during surgery, and create other serious problems. Research on the bioavailability, effective dosage, safety and benefits of these complex agents is sorely needed. Oncology professionals and other healthcare providers should educate themselves and their patients about these issues. Probably the largest, continuously-updated free information resource is MSKCC’s AboutHerbs website (www.mskcc.org/AboutHerbs). PMID:19890479

  5. Conditional allogrooming in the herb-field mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Stopka; Romana Graciasova

    Among members of the family Muridae, the herb-field mouse, Apodemus microps, is unique in that aggression is almost entirely lacking. This species, therefore, is a model organism for experimental studies of social behavior without the confounding influence of aggression. We used video surveillance cameras to assess the importance of self-grooming and allogrooming in the social life of this species. Detailed

  6. Compensatory reproduction in a biennial herb following insect defloration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Hendrix

    1979-01-01

    The ability of the biennial herb, Pastinaca sativa L. (wild parsnip), to respond to and compensate for destruction of primary umbel seeds by the larvae of Depressaria pastinacella (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) was analyzed by comparing umbel and seed production of damaged and undamaged plants collected from five populations. Plants with a basal stem diameter smaller than 8 mm suffer a reduction

  7. Herbs and alternative therapies in the hypertension clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Mansoor

    2001-01-01

    The use of alternative therapies, herbs, and supplements occurs at a very high rate among patients attending a variety of health care settings. Such therapy may cause significant interactions or effects on hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders and needs to be considered by clinicians. In this brief review, we highlight several commonly used alternative therapies that may have a clinical

  8. E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs Nearly one- ... Preidt Friday, December 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages E. Coli Infections Food Safety FRIDAY, Dec. 19, 2014 (HealthDay ...

  9. Chemical constituents from Mongolian herb Syringa pinnatifolia var. alashanensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Wang, Na-Na; Wu, Ji-Mu; Xue, Pei-Feng

    2015-02-01

    Two new sesquiterpenes, innatifolone A (1) and pinnatifolone B (2), along with 6 known compounds, furostan (3), isocalamendiol (4), pluviatolide (5), (8S,8'R,9S)-cubebin (6), 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl) tetrahydrofuran (7), and methyl 3-acetoxy-12-oleanen-28-oate (8), were isolated from Mongolian herb Syringa pinnatifolia. PMID:25769897

  10. Herbs–Are they Safe Enough? An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Divya Singh; Rajiv Gupta; Shubhini A. Saraf

    2012-01-01

    Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many

  11. Herbs—Are they safe enough! An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Divya Singh; Rajiv Gupta; Shubhini A. Saraf

    2011-01-01

    Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many

  12. College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension Growing Herbs Outdoors

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    -test recommendations. Stop fertilizing perennial plants when fall temperatures are around freezing. Fertilizing on the recommendations on the seed packet or plant label. Seeds and transplants are commonly purchased at garden centers officinalis). Plant Spacing & Labeling When planting, space herbs according to the recommendations on seed

  13. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies on plant mineral concentrations provided evidence of differences in mineral composition in plants species and their role in mineral supply to ruminants. We determined temporal differences in macro- and micromineral concentrations of grasses, legumes and herbs grown in a multi-species grassla...

  14. Resources limit the fecundity of three woodland herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. McCall; R. B. Primack

    1987-01-01

    Effects of supplemental hand pollination on fruit set, seed number, and seed weight were examined for 3 perennial, woodland herbs, Uvularia sessilifolia, Geranium maculatum, and Maianthemum canadense. We found no evidence for pollen limitation of any measure of fecundity. Low light probably limited fecundity in Geranium, while soil nitrogen limited the number of sseds\\/fruit in Maianthemum. For Geranium and Maianthemum

  15. Herb–Drug Interactions: Challenges and Opportunities for Improved Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Argikar, Aneesh A.; Lin, Yvonne S.; Nagar, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Supported by a usage history that predates written records and the perception that “natural” ensures safety, herbal products have increasingly been incorporated into Western health care. Consumers often self-administer these products concomitantly with conventional medications without informing their health care provider(s). Such herb–drug combinations can produce untoward effects when the herbal product perturbs the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters. Despite increasing recognition of these types of herb–drug interactions, a standard system for interaction prediction and evaluation is nonexistent. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying herb–drug interactions remain an understudied area of pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of herbal product interaction liability is challenging due to variability in herbal product composition, uncertainty of the causative constituents, and often scant knowledge of causative constituent pharmacokinetics. These limitations are confounded further by the varying perspectives concerning herbal product regulation. Systematic evaluation of herbal product drug interaction liability, as is routine for new drugs under development, necessitates identifying individual constituents from herbal products and characterizing the interaction potential of such constituents. Integration of this information into in silico models that estimate the pharmacokinetics of individual constituents should facilitate prospective identification of herb–drug interactions. These concepts are highlighted with the exemplar herbal products milk thistle and resveratrol. Implementation of this methodology should help provide definitive information to both consumers and clinicians about the risk of adding herbal products to conventional pharmacotherapeutic regimens. PMID:24335390

  16. Effects of herbs and drugs during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Wong, H B

    1979-01-01

    Prior to considering the effects of herbs and drugs during pregnancy and lactation, attention is directed to the relevance of herbal medicines to human patients. When a drug is taken orally, its absorption, biotransformation, and excretion will affect its blood level. It then makes its way to the capillaries surrounding the alveoli of the breast, and the drug must cross the endothelium of the capillaries into the alveolar cells of the breast and then be excreted into the lumen with the milk. Most of the drugs are excreted into milk by a process of diffusion as a result of a variation in the concentration gradient between plasma and milk. Transfer of drugs also depends on their molecular size. A table of drugs which have been found to be excreted or not, and if so whether the levels would be significant for the infant or not, is presented. Several years of observation of prescription habits of herbalists in Singapore have brought to the surface the use of certain herbs which form the core of different prescriptions. The following "core" herbs and their variations are described: radix angelicae sinensis; radix rehmanniae; radix poeoniae alba; rhizoma ligusticum wallichii; rhizoma atractylis macrocephacae; glycyrrhiza radiz; ginseng radiz; gelatinum assini; radix codonopsis philosula; radix astragali; rhizoma cyperi; cinnamonium cassia; fritillaria cirrhosa; and poncirus trifoliata. These "core" herbs are used in various presentations and combinations in various amounts in certain prescriptions for certain purposes during pregnancy. It is difficult to confirm the effects which the Chinese herbalists claim when these herbs are prescribed for pregnant women. The conclusion is that there is no specific effect on the pregnant woman, but this does not exclude the possibility of a beneficial psychosomatic effect. It must also not be forgotten that the acttive principles can cross the placenta and reach the fetus. PMID:262485

  17. Synergistic antioxidant activities of eight traditional Chinese herb pairs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Jian; Li, Da-Peng; Li, Jin-Kui; Li, Ming-Hua; Chen, Yi-Lun; Zhang, Pei-Zheng

    2009-06-01

    Many Chinese therapeutic herbs that are traditionally used in combination demonstrate significantly better pharmacological effects when used in the combination than when used alone. However, the pharmacological mechanism for this synergism is still not well understood. In the present study, the antioxidant activities of six herbs ((Paeonia lactiflora (PL), Atractylodes macrocephala (AMA), Angelica sinensis (AS), Astragalus membranaceus (AME), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU) and Rheum officinale (RO)), which were historically combined into eight traditional Chinese herb pairs (TCHPs) (AME-AS, AME-AMA, AME-RO, AME-GU, AME-PL, PL-AS, PL-AMA and PL-GU), were investigated in vitro by assessing the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH)-radical scavenging abilities of the herbs. The results of this study showed that all eight TCHPs had a significantly larger scavenging capacity than would be expected from the theoretical sum of those of the respective constituent herbs (p<0.05). Furthermore, the AME-GU, AME-PL and AME-AMA pairs not only showed a significant synergistic effect in the DPPH scavenging assay, but they also demonstrated similar results in hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical anion scavenging assays. Interestingly, the AME-AMA combination had a significantly higher superoxide anion (0.2 g/ml) and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability than the AME or AMA. The changes in the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also investigated. Our study showed a significant correlation between the rate of enhancement in antioxidant capacity and the rate of increase in flavonoid content. Thus, the flavonoids are likely responsible for the synergistic effects present in TCHPs. PMID:19483308

  18. Traditional and Commercial Herb Use in Health Self-Management among Rural Multiethnic Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Altizer, Kathryn; Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bell, Ronny A.; Sandberg, Joanne; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the role of traditional and commercial herbs in older adults’ health self-management based on Leventhal’s Self-Regulatory Model conceptual framework. Sixty-two African American and white adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing the forms of herbs currently being used, sources of information about them, interpretations of health (acute symptoms or chronic conditions) that lead to their use, and the initiation and suspension of use. Traditional herbs are native to the region or have been traditionally cultivated; usually taken raw or boiled to produce tea; and used for treating mild symptoms. Commercial herbs are prepared as pills, extracts, or teas; they are purchased at local stores or ordered by catalog or internet; and used for health promotion, illness prevention or treatment of chronic conditions. Herbs are widely used among older adults; this analysis differentiates the types of herbs they use and their reasons for herbs use. PMID:24991081

  19. An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy.

    PubMed

    Agarwa, Parul; Sharma, Bhawna; Fatima, Amreen; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and leaves are hairy, more over it has two types of stomata, anisocytic and paracytic. A herb, C. pluricaulis has emerged as a good source of the traditional medicine for the treatment of liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, and CNS disease. Pharmacological results have validated the use of this species in traditional medicine. All the parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. Expansion of research materials would provide more opportunities for the discovery of new bioactive principles from C. pluricaulis. PMID:25182446

  20. An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwa, Parul; Sharma, Bhawna; Fatima, Amreen; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and leaves are hairy, more over it has two types of stomata, anisocytic and paracytic. A herb, C. pluricaulis has emerged as a good source of the traditional medicine for the treatment of liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, and CNS disease. Pharmacological results have validated the use of this species in traditional medicine. All the parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. Expansion of research materials would provide more opportunities for the discovery of new bioactive principles from C. pluricaulis. PMID:25182446

  1. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, K; Nakano, M; Kawahata, T; Mori, H; Otake, T; Ueba, N; Oishi, I; Inami, R; Yamane, M; Nakamura, M; Murata, H; Nakanishi, T

    1998-08-01

    The anti-HIV-1 activity of aromatic herbs in Labiatae was evaluated in vitro. Forty five extract from among 51 samples obtained from 46 herb species showed significant inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. In particular, the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis, a family of Mentha x piperita "grapefruit mint," Mentha x piperita var. crispa, Ocimum basilicum cv "cinnamon," Perilla frutescens var. crispa f. viridis, Prunella vulgaris subsp. asiatica and Satureja montana showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity (with an ED of 16 microg/ml). The active components in the extract samples were found to be water-soluble polar substances, not nonpolar compounds such as essential oils. In addition, these aqueous extracts inhibited giant cell formation in co-culture of Molt-4 cells with and without HIV-1 infection and showed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. PMID:9743251

  2. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH)-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA). We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost. PMID:21592323

  3. Occurrence of enniatins and beauvericin in 60 Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling; Rychlik, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A total of 60 Chinese medicinal herbs were examined for contamination of the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) A, A1, B, B1 and beauvericin (BEA). The herbs under study are commonly used in China as both medicines and food. The dried samples of herbs were randomly collected from traditional Chinese medicine stores in Zhejiang province, China. Sample preparation was achieved by methanol extraction, followed by a simple membrane filtration step; no tedious clean-ups were involved. ENNs A, A1, B, B1 and BEA were analysed by the recently developed stable isotope dilution assays, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With limits of detection ranging between 0.8 and 1.2 µg kg(-1) for the analytes under study, 25% of all analysed samples were contaminated with at least one of the ENNs and BEA. BEA was the most frequently detected toxin with a 20% incidence in all samples. The percentages of ENN-positive samples were lower: each single ENN was detected in 6.7-11.7% of all samples. Considering the total amounts of the five mycotoxins in single samples, values between 2.5 and 751 µg kg(-1) were found. The mean total amount in positive samples was 126 µg kg(-1). Regarding ginger, the frequent occurrence of ENNs and BEA in dried ginger could be confirmed in samples from Germany. However, in fresh ginger root the toxins were not detectable. This is the first report on the presence of ENNs and BEA in Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24720681

  4. Collected seeds and fruits from herbs as prehistoric food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Ernst Behre

    2008-01-01

    New investigations of two archaeobotanical finds are presented: a large assemblage of pure fruits of Polygonum lapathifolium from Bremen-Strom, Germany and the gut contents of a bog body from Kayhausen near Oldenburg, Germany. The general question\\u000a is to find out for sure which herb species were intentionally gathered for human consumption. To accept species as such, they\\u000a have to fulfil

  5. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kora?, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  6. Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.

    PubMed

    Biermaier, Barbara; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and its secondary metabolites in food. The objective of the present study was to examine selected dried culinary herbs for the presence of S. chartarum chemotype S, to assess the potential risk of a contamination of foods with macrocyclic trichothecenes. In total, 50 Stachybotrys isolates from different types of culinary herbs (n=100) such as marjoram (Origanum majorana Linné (L.)), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja hortensis L.) were examined by MTT-cell culture test (effect-based bioassay), ELISA, and by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selected toxic and non-toxic isolates (n=15) were genetically characterized by PCR and sequencing. Five isolates (10%) were highly toxic in the MTT-cell culture test, and the production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was proven by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. These five isolates were genetically confirmed as S. chartarum chemotype S. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a contamination of dried culinary herbs with toxigenic S. chartarum. PMID:25346283

  7. Medicinal herbs in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenrui; Li, Qiang; Liu, Ruijun; Niu, Yinbo; Pan, Yalei; Zhai, Yuankun; Mei, Qibing

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease with wide prevalence, especially in the elderly population. Osteoporosis induced fractures not only decrease the patient's life quality, but also cause heavy financial burden to the society. Although current medications for osteoporosis are effective, numerous adverse effects have been observed accompanying their clinical applications. Effective prevention and therapy strategies with high safety are critical, which benefit both individual patients and the whole society. Traditional Chinese medicines have been used for thousands of years to treat bone related diseases in China and a number of modern preparations have been developed that are currently commercially available. In addition, several medicinal herbs demonstrated therapeutic effects against osteoporosis in animal models. This paper reviewed the anti-osteoporotic effects of traditional Chinese formulas, medicinal herbs and bioactive constituents based on clinical trials and in vivo animal studies. Due to the lack of rigorous studies to compare the effectiveness with conventional interventions, traditional formulas are recommended as alternative medications or supplements to treat osteoporosis at the current stage. Although there are abundant natural resources with anti-osteoporotic effects, either in the form of medicinal herbs or bioactive components, much work need to be accomplished before they are developed into potential drugs. PMID:24467532

  8. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

    2013-01-01

    Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs. PMID:23766719

  9. A brief study of toxic effects of some medicinal herbs on kidney

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Increased use of complementary and alternative herbal medicines in the treatment of various diseases.Some herbal therapies may be causes of potential toxicity that may be renal toxicity caused by the ingestion of herbs. The goal of this study is the toxic and beneficial effects of medicinal herbs on renal health by which evidence for benefit or toxicity has been found. Included are nephrotoxicity from aristolochic acid and other components within herbs, herb-drug interactions, heavy metal toxicity in herbs and adulterants during careless preparation of herbal medicine, resulting in adverse renal effects and renal toxicity from contaminants within the extracts. The review aims to provide knowledge and guide to encourage future toxicity studies on the kidney by medicinal herbs. PMID:23326775

  10. Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui; Banbury, Linda K; Leach, David N

    2008-12-01

    Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm), flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood). These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 40-1990 micromol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 micromol TE/g), Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 micromol TE/g), Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 micromol TE/g), Artemisia anomala herb (1400 micromol TE/g), Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 micromol TE/g) and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 micromol TE/g). Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action. PMID:18955214

  11. Medicinal Herbs for Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Cochrane Hepatobiliary Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping Liu; Eric Manheimer; Kiichiro Tsutani; Christian Gluud

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS:The databases of the Cochrane Collaboration, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and BIOSIS were searched combined with manual searches of five Chinese and one Japanese journals. We included randomized trials comparing medicinal herbs with placebo, no intervention, nonspecific treatment, other herbs, or interferon

  12. Effect of a variety of Chinese herbs and an herb-containing dentifrice on volatile sulfur compounds associated with halitosis: An in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-yu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Zhu-ting

    2010-01-01

    Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro. Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of bacterial activity and VSC inhibition. Extracted substances from Chinese herbs were identified by VSC inhibition tests with a Halimeter and microbial sensitivity testing. The effectiveness on halitosis was compared between a dentifrice containing one of the effective Chinese herbs (ie, chrysanthemum flower [Chrysanthemum morifolium flos]), 4 commercially available antihalitosis dentifrices, and a positive control that received no treatment. Results: Ten volunteers provided saliva samples for VSC testing. Of the 40 herbs tested, 14 extracts had percent inhibition rates of VSCs >50%. Ten herbs showed greatest effect against all culturable microorganisms with bacterial inhibition >70%. There was a weak positive correlation between bacteriostasis and the anti-VSC activity of the herbs with a correlation coefficient of 0.2579 (Pearson). The mean (SD) values of the VSC testing were as follows: dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower, 55.91 (8.16) ppb; Crest Tea Refreshing Dentifrice®, 48.39 (7.48) ppb (P = NS); Cortex Phellodendri Dentifrice®, 139.90 (14.70) ppb (P < 0.01); Colgate Total Plus Whitening®, 120.94 (15.58) ppb (P < 0.01); Zhong Hua Chinese Herbs Dentifrice®, 136.96 (13.06) ppb (P < 0.01); and positive control, 312.38 (28.58) ppb (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Of 40 herbs tested, 14 Chinese herbs were found to be effective for VSC inhibition. A dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower reduced the formation of VSC in vitro, showing a significantly greater effect than the control group and 3 of 4 dentifrices already on the market. PMID:24683259

  13. Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Myagmar, B E; Aniya, Y

    2000-06-01

    In the present study we evaluated the free radical scavenging action of some medicinal herbs growing in Mongolia. The aqueous extract of nine herbs Chamenerion angustifolium (Ch.ang), Equisetum arvense (Eq.arv), Gentiana decumbens (Gn.dec), Geranium pratense (Gr.pra), Lomatogonium carinthiacum (L.car), Nonea poulla (N.pl), Phodococcum vitis-idaea (Ph.v), Sphallerocarpus gracilis (Sph.gr), Stellera chamaejasme (St.cha) were used in the present experiment. The free radical scavenging action was determined in vitro and ex vivo by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and chemiluminescence (CL) analyzer. The results showed that extracts of Ch.ang, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v, Sph.gr and St. cha possess strong scavenging action of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. On the other hand, the radical scavenging action of Eq.arv was low. Extracts of N.pl and Ph.v markedly inhibited the CL generated from rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 system whereas the CL was moderately inhibited by Eq.arv, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car and St.cha. The extracts of Ch.ang and Sph.gr did not decrease the CL generation. Ch.ang, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v and St.cha also depressed reactive oxygen production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate ex vivo. Thus it was confirmed that the medicinal herbs from Mongolia possess high antioxidant potency in vitro and ex vivo. PMID:11185733

  14. The Effects of Herbs and Fruits on Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Md Noor, Sabariah; Ismail, Patimah; Othman, Fauziah

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, herbal therapy is the first and basis form of treatment for most types of diseases. About 75–80% of the world's population prefers herbal therapy as a major treatment due to its better adequacy and satisfactoriness, which enhance human body's symmetry with minimal side effects. Fruits and plants have been presented from the past as promising tools in becoming a natural anticancer agents. Many of these plant extracts are currently used in cancer therapy and prevention. This review paper will particularly explore and emphasize on herbs and fruits used in the treatment of the leukaemia. PMID:25250054

  15. Carcinogenicity of some folk medicinal herbs in rats.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, G J; Chung, E B; Ghosh, B; Shukla, Y N; Basak, S P; Morton, J F; Pradhan, S N

    1978-03-01

    Twelve medicinal herbs were bioassayed to correlate a high incidence of esophageal carcinoma in natives of different places with their habitual consumption of these products. Outbred NIH Black rats were given 72 weekly sc injections of the total aqueous extracts of the plant materials. The tanninrich plant extracts from Areca catechu and Rhus copallina produced local tumors in 100 and 33%, respectively, of the experimental animals. Other materials included Diospyros virginiana and extracts from plants not rich in tannins. Diospyros and extracts of Sassafras albidum and Chenopodium ambrosiodes were tumorigenic in over 50% of the treated animals. PMID:625070

  16. Hepatitis induced by traditional Chinese herbs; possible toxic components.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J A; Kane, S P; Jain, S

    1995-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are widely available in the United Kingdom for the treatment of chronic skin disorders. Their benefits are considerable, but their use is completely unregulated. Two patients are described here who suffered an acute hepatitic illness related to taking traditional Chinese herbs. Both recovered fully. The mixtures that they took included two plant components also contained within the mixture taken by a previously reported patient who suffered fatal hepatic necrosis. These cases high-light the need for greater awareness of both the therapeutic and toxic potential of herbal remedies, as well as greater control of their use. PMID:7890220

  17. Herb-drug interactions: focus on metabolic enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Hee; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Yoon Gyoon

    2011-11-01

    As the uses of herbal medicines from traditional natural products are increased, the need for pharmacokinetic studies and relevant data are also increased for safe pharmacotherapy. The market entry for the traditional herbal medicine is easier compared with that for synthetic drugs because of a lower regulatory barrier. Thus, the exact mechanisms for the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of active components in herbal medicines and the potential herb-drug interactions are not always fully understood. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies and relevant data of commonly used herbal remedies are accumulating in this field. In this review, the effects of nine botanicals (ginkgo, green tea, grapes, licorice, saw palmetto, garlic milk thistle, ginseng and St. John's wort) on metabolic enzymes and transporters affecting absorption and disposition of herbal products are summarized. The source of samples (extracts and individual components), the species (human and animal) and in vivo and in vitro systems were separately reviewed for a better understanding of herb-drug interactions. PMID:22139685

  18. Herb–drug interactions: an overview of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) is to evaluate critically the evidence regarding interactions between herbal medicinal products (HMPs) and synthetic drugs. METHODS Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant SRs. RESULTS Forty?six SRs of 46 different HMPs met our inclusion criteria. The vast majority of SRs were of poor methodological quality. The majority of these HMPs were not associated with severe herb–drug interactions. Serious herb–drug interactions were noted for Hypericum perforatum and Viscum album. The most severe interactions resulted in transplant rejection, delayed emergence from anaesthesia, cardiovascular collapse, renal and liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, bradycardia, hypovolaemic shock, inflammatory reactions with organ fibrosis and death. Moderately severe interactions were noted for Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, Piper methysticum, Serenoa repens and Camellia sinensis. The most commonly interacting drugs were antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. CONCLUSION The majority of the HMPs evaluated in SRs were not associated with drug interactions with serious consequences. However, the poor quality and the scarcity of the primary data prevent firm conclusions. PMID:22670731

  19. A retrospective of the career of Ray Herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, G. A.; Ferry, J. A.; Daniel, R. E.; Klody, G. M.

    1999-04-01

    Ray Herb's career in the development of electrostatic accelerators spans 65 years. He began in 1933 by pressurizing a Van de Graaff generator, for the first time. Over the next six years, the group at the University of Wisconsin, under his direction, developed the fundamentals of equipotential rings, potential grading, corona triode control, and other basic mechanisms for the practical use of electrostatic accelerators while making fundamental contributions to experimental nuclear physics. This group held the world's record in sustaining potential difference of 4.5 MV. During World War II, he worked on radar at the Radiation Laboratory. After the war, Herb resumed his career with further fundamental contributions including metal/ceramic bonding, ultrahigh vacuum pumping, negative ion source development and metal charge carriers. The company, National Electrostatics, under his direction manufactured the accelerator which still holds the world's record for the highest sustained potential difference of 32±1.5 MV. Throughout his career he led teams which made the electrostatic accelerator a valuable tool for applications in a wide variety of scientific fields, well beyond nuclear physics.

  20. Herbs in epilepsy: evidence for efficacy, toxicity, and interactions.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Phillip L; Drillings, Ian M; Conry, Joan A

    2011-09-01

    Herbs and dietary supplements enjoy widespread use in the treatment of epilepsy although supportive data yielding efficacy and safety are lacking. Ten specific products, American hellebore, betony, blue cohosh, kava, mistletoe, mugwort, pipsissiwa, skullcap, valerian, and melatonin, have either multiple-cited recommendations for use in epilepsy or a rationale for antiepileptic action and are discussed in detail. These items paradoxically often have a proconvulsant effect in addition to potentially serious adverse effects. Herb-drug interactions also occur at the level of the P450 hepatic enzyme system of drug catabolism and the P-glycoprotein transport system regulating the entry of exogenous compounds into the vasculature or blood-brain barrier. Thus, significant pharmacokinetic interactions may occur, in addition to pharmacodynamic interactions and proconvulsant effects of alternative medications themselves. Patients should be inquired as to the nature of any alternative medicine products they are using, with the view that these products may be reasonable if traditional antiepileptic drug therapy is continued, potential adverse effects of the alternative agents are monitored, and the alternative and traditional agents do not conflict. PMID:22062945

  1. Life Histories and Demography of Shade-Tolerant Temperate Forest Herbs: A Paulette Bierzychudek

    E-print Network

    Bierzychudek, Paulette

    forest. Most of the species that have been studied are deciduous perennials. These species generally have growth rates of temperate deciduous forest herbs, or on the temporal stability of their population sizesLife Histories and Demography of Shade-Tolerant Temperate Forest Herbs: A Review Paulette

  2. Inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of some herbs on human platelet aggregation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saulnier Pierre; Lynn Crosbie; Asim K. Duttaroy

    2005-01-01

    Effect of aqueous extract of several herbs on human platelet aggregation in vitro was investigated. Out of 28 herbs\\/ nutriceuticals investigated, camomile, nettle alfalfa, garlic and onion exhibited most significant anti-platelet activity (? 45% inhibition). Aqueous extracts of alfalfa, fresh nettle, and camomile inhibited ADP induced-platelet aggregation by 73, 65 and 60%, respectively, compared with control (P < 0.05). Camomile

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi-Jung Kim; Hong-Sun Yook; Myung-Woo Byun

    2000-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5–10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5–25% by a dose of 10 kGy.

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on microbial contamination and extraction yields of Korean medicinal herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-J. Kim; H.-S. Yook; M.-W. Byun

    2000-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5-10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5-25% by a dose of 10 kGy.

  5. Effects of herbs and essential oils on in vitro batch culture ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...

  6. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  7. Pharmacogenomics and Herb-Drug Interactions: Merge of Future and Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue-Li; Zeng, Mei-Zi; He, Fa-Zhong; Luo, Zhi-Ying; Luo, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Gen; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide using of herb products and the increasing potential herb-drug interaction issue has raised enthusiasm on discovering the underlying mechanisms. Previous review indicated that the interactions may be mediated by metabolism enzymes and transporters in pharmacokinetic pathways. On the other hand, an increasing number of studies found that genetic variations showed some influence on herb-drug interaction effects whereas these genetic factors did not draw much attention in history. We highlight that pharmacogenomics may involve the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic pathways to affect herb-drug interaction. We are here to make an updated review focused on some common herb-drug interactions in association with genetic variations, with the aim to help safe use of herbal medicines in different individuals in the clinic.

  8. Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using ?-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (?-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

  9. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  10. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Ró?a?ska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached <10(4) CFU/g. Results achieved in the study indicate good hygienic conditions in the production process of spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type. PMID:25846909

  11. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

  12. Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae): an American herb in the Old World.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel F

    2008-05-01

    People in the Indian region often apply shankhapushpi and vishnukranti, two Sanskrit-based common names, to Evolvulus alsinoides. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal American species transported into the area. The period of introduction is uncertain, but probably took place in the 1500s or 1600s. Examination of relationships of Evolvulus alsinoides, geographic distribution, its names in Asia, medical uses, and chemical and laboratory analysis indicates that the alien plant was adopted, given an ancient Indian name, and incorporated into some Old World pharmacopoeias. The herb apparently was included in medicines because it not only reminded people of certain aspects of their gods and goddesses, but also because the chemicals it contained were useful against some maladies. PMID:18384986

  13. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. PMID:22988474

  14. Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Kang, Se Chan; Lee, Chang Min; Choi, Han; Lee, Jae Hyun; Oh, Joa Sub; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2006-11-01

    Herb extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic activity with a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17-estradiol = 1.00) (7.8e-3) (RP for + control), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.3e-3), Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Zingiber officinale, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica, Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum and Pueraria lobata (root) (9.5e-4-1.0e-4), and Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus and Adenophora stricta (9.0e-5-8.0e-5). In the antiproliferative assay, five human cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung and ovary) were used. Eriobotrya japonica showed strong cytotoxicity in ER-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and lung (A549) carcinoma cell lines. PMID:16906642

  15. Information Resource: About Herbs, Botanicals, and Other Products

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site from the Integrative Medicine Service of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) provides oncologists and other healthcare professionals with objective information on medicinal herbs and other botanicals. Users may search for a particular plant name or browse the entire catalog by letter of the alphabet. Searches yield a clinical summary for each plant, a description of purported uses, information on adverse effects and drug interactions, and so on. The site also includes a News and Alerts section, a FAQs page (mostly about possible risks and complications), and evaluations of alternative or unproved cancer therapies. The general reader should also find this regularly updated Web site helpful, but MSKCC cautions against substituting the site "for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem."

  16. Ipomea hederacea Jacq.: a medicinal herb with promising health benefits.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory), a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23128091

  17. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  18. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Isabel; Sizoo, Eric; van Egmond, Hans; Kroeger, Katy; Legarda, Teresa M; Burdaspal, Pedro; Reif, Klaus; Stroka, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs (senna pods, botanical name Cassia angustifolia; devil's claw, botanical name Harpagophytum procumbens; and ginger roots, botanical name Zingiber officinale). The method, which was tested in a mini-collaborative study by 4 laboratories, is based on an immunoaffinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation and fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. It allows the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels lower than 2 ng/g. A second extractant (acetone-water) was tested and compared to the proposed methanol-water extractant. Several post-column derivatization options (electrochemically generated bromine, photochemical reaction, and chemical bromination) as well as different integration modes (height versus area) were also investigated. No differences were found depending on the choice of derivatization system or the signal integration mode used. The method was tested for 3 different matrixes: senna pods, ginger root, and devil's claw. Performance characteristics were established from the results of the study and resulted in HorRat values ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 with mean recoveries from 78 to 91% for the extraction with methanol-water and HorRat values ranging from 0.10-1.03 with mean recoveries from 98 to 103% for the extraction with acetone-water. As a result, the method, with all tested variations, was found to be fit-for-purpose for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs at levels of 1 microg/kg and above. PMID:16792057

  19. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  20. Role of indigenous herbs in the management of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Nishteswar, K.; Joshi, Hemang; Karra, Rahul Dutt

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is a natural phenomenon and decline of physiological and structural changes are incurable in advancing years of human life. When such degenerative changes occur in the brain they may lead to dementia and other memory related conditions. The Ayurvedic classics identified the importance of higher faculties dealing with memory and introduced a separate group of drugs namely Medhya Rasayanas. Regular intake of such drugs will help to prevent the onset of degenerative changes in the brain prematurely. Ayurveda can play a useful role in the management of such geriatric conditions. The current review has been done with a view to update documented Ayurvedic therapeutic modalities for certain geriatric conditions suggested by Ayurvedic classics in the management of diseases called V?tavy?dhi (nervous system disorders), which also include conditions related to memory functions. Recent studies have started validating the claims recorded in Ayurvedic texts. The pathogenesis and remedies for V?tavy?dhi documented in Ayurvedic classics have been reviewed with special emphasis on disorders related to dementia. A review of recent researches on the herbs mentioned in management of v?ta disorders including dementia have been done to understand their role in management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are many herbs of ethno-medicinal source studied experimentally for their potential in treatment of AD. A judicious combination of modern research methodology and Ayurvedic principles could go a long way in the management and care of AD which is going to be a heavy burden on the society in the future. PMID:25737604

  1. The Quantitative Ideas and Methods in Assessment of Four Properties of Chinese Medicinal Herbs.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jialei; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Xiaolei; Han, Jinxiang

    2014-11-14

    The purpose of this review is to summarize and reflect on the current status and problems of the research on the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. Hot, warm, cold, and cool are the four properties/natures of Chinese medicinal herbs. They are defined based on the interaction between the herbs with human body. How to quantitatively assess the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbs based on the theoretical system of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remains to be a challenge. Previous studies on the topic from several perspectives have been presented. Results and problems were discussed. New ideas based on the technology of biophoton radiation detection are proposed. With the development of biophoton detection technology, detection and characterization of human biophoton emission has led to its potential applications in TCM. The possibility of using the biophoton analysis system to study the interaction of Chinese medicinal herbs with human body and to quantitatively determine the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbal is entirely consistent with the holistic concept of TCM theory. The statistical entropy of electromagnetic radiations from the biological systems can characterize the four properties of Chinese medicinal herbs, and the spectrum can characterize the meridian tropism of it. Therefore, we hypothesize that by the use of biophoton analysis system, the four properties and meridian tropism of Chinese medicinal herbs can be quantitatively expressed. PMID:25395193

  2. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

  3. Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.

    PubMed

    ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Pawe?; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Gra?yna; Zawi?lak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality. PMID:24364459

  4. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sheng-Shing; Tsai, Chiu-Lin; Tu, Ching-Yeh; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions. Methods Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient. Results During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ?70 mg/dL). Conclusion Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. PMID:25733840

  5. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n?=?148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3?days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. PMID:24879887

  6. Study of genotoxic effects of antidiarrheal medicinal herbs on human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Settheetham, W; Ishida, T

    1995-01-01

    The use of medicinal herbs has been a common practice in Asia but their genotoxic properties are little known. In the present study, genotoxic effects of three antidiarrheal herbs, guava leaf, mangosteen peel and pomegranate peel, were examined using established human cell lines, Raji and P3HR-1. Cells were treated with boiled-water extract of the herbs at various concentrations for 24 and 48 hours in vitro. Cell growth and viability were dose dependently reduced. No apparent chromosomal aberrations were induced by the treatment. Administration of pomegranate extract induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation. This genotoxicity test system is simple and convenient for the primary screening. PMID:8629131

  7. In vitro and in vivo assessment of CYP2C9-mediated herb–herb interaction of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinmin; Peng, Yunru; Jing, Xinyue; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    According to traditional Chinese medicine theories, Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix should not be used together in one prescription, because their interaction leads to an unexpected consequence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to find out whether CYP2C9 was involved in this herb–herb interaction by using tolbutamide as a probe substrate in vivo and in vitro. Both Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix showed induction activity toward CYP2C9, while the combination of them showed a more potent induction activity toward CYP2C9 in vivo. In vitro study revealed only the combination of the herbs could induce the activity of CYP2C9. Thus, both in vivo and in vitro study indicated combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix could induce the activity of CYP2C9 to a high level, which may result in decreased plasma levels of major active ingredients of these two herbs, as well as other herbs in the prescriptions. Further research also appears to be necessary to identify the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of the active ingredients in Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix. PMID:25202272

  8. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra-) Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang-hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-ling; Xing, Xue-feng; Chen, Fei-long; Tan, Xiao-mei; Luo, Jia-bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48?mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination. PMID:25691910

  9. [Postmarketing herbs clinical evaluation should concern about re-evaluating symptoms].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2010-06-01

    Re-evaluation of premarketing medicine is a important supplementary of clinical and elementary research. It is a basement that establish the medicine administration supervisition , found and integrity postmarketing washing out mechanism and define reasonable using drug. After drug marketing, we must not only concern on the re-evaluation of herbs security but also focus on evaluating herbs suitable symptom, as well as its dosage and course of treatment, ect. The re-evaluation of symptoms were seen as the core and feature of traditional Chinese medicine's clinical evaluation. It is also seen as hot spot and difficulty of the research . This article try to focus on simply illustrating the necessity and research thinking of re-evaluation symptoms of postmarketing herbs. So we can define the re-evaluation of postmarketing drug's objection, method, and basement. It will provide beneficial experience and reference to re-evaluation symptom of marketed herbs. PMID:20822030

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on cerebral ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan-Yu Su; Ching-Liang Hsieh

    2011-01-01

    s  Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators,\\u000a reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article\\u000a reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral\\u000a ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The

  11. Antioxidant activity and components of Salvia plebeia R.Br. — a Chinese herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liwei Gu; Xinchu Weng

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of the extracts from Salvia plebeia R.Br. which was screened out of over 700 species of Chinese herbs, were tested in lard at 110°C using the Oxidative Stability Instrument. The ethyl acetate extract of the herb was re-extracted by solvents (with increasing polarity) into petroleum ether-, diethyl ether-, acetone-and-ethanol-soluble fractions. The fractions obtained were then separated according

  12. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  13. Screening of Chinese medicinal herbs for bioactivity against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi Long Liu; Swee Hock Goh; Shuit Hung Ho

    2007-01-01

    Extracts of 40 species of Chinese medicinal herb from 32 different botanical families were screened for contact, fumigant and feeding-deterrent activities against the two stored-grain insects Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum. Thirty Chinese medicinal herbs exhibited insecticidal or feeding-deterrent activities against the two species of insects. Extracts of Artemisia argyi, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Evodia rutaecarpa, Litsea cubeba, Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis,

  14. Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage) modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbricus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Vattem, DA; Lester, CE; DeLeon, RC; Jamison, BY; Maitin, V

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. Objective: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage) modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed (ad libitum) on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v)] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW) induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Results: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation. PMID:23598918

  15. [A case of law-evading herbs poisoning that induced shock and myocardial damage].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Minoru; Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Miyazaki, Dai; Okamori, Satoshi; Akuzawa, Hisashi; Yuasa, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Law-evading herbs may induce poisoning symptoms, especially when they contain synthetic cannabinoids. However, their detailed pharmacological effects have not yet been clarified. Some reports have previously described symptoms of poisoning, but only a few reports have so far described shock and myocardial damage (MD). We experienced a case of shock and MD in a patient who had smoked law-evading herbs. A 61-year-old male presented at an emergency department 8 hours after smoking law-evading herbs (Rush Trip, High Men Monster) with chest pain. A vasopressor agent was administered to treat shock and antiarrhythmic drugs were administered due to ventricular arrhythmia. The contents of the law-evading herbs were unknown, so an in-hospital follow-up was conducted to treat the patient's symptoms. The follow-up blood test showed an increased level of cardiac enzymes, which thereafter demonstrated a spontaneous remission. The systemic conditions tended to improve and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the 5th hospital day. The contents of the law-evading herbs in question were thereafter,analyzed, and synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-210, JWH-081 and JWH-122) as well as caffeine were detected. The cause for the poisoning symptoms were suspected to be the presence of synthetic cannabinoids and caffeine. Such law-evading herbs may contain synthetic cannabinoids and caffeine which both may induce shock and MD. PMID:25771668

  16. A systematic review of single chinese herbs for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li-Min; Li, Ju-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore herbal medicine. In particular, many Chinese herbs have demonstrated some interesting therapeutic properties. The following databases were searched from their inception: MEDLINE (PUBMED), ALT HEALTH WATCH (EBSCO), CINAH and Cochrane Central. Only single Chinese herbs are included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and performed quality assessment. The quality assessment of a clinical trial is based on the Jadad criteria. Seven Chinese herbs and six randomized controlled clinical trials were identified under the predefined criteria. Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A (Lycopodium serratum) and Ginseng have been assessed for their clinical efficacy with limited favorable evidence. No serious adverse events were reported. Chinese herbs show promise in the treatment of AD in terms of their cognitive benefits and more importantly, their mechanisms of action that deal with the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease. However, the current evidence in support of their use is inconclusive or inadequate. Future research should place emphasis on herbs that can treat the root of the disease. PMID:19737808

  17. A Systematic Review of Single Chinese Herbs for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li-Min; Li, Ju-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore herbal medicine. In particular, many Chinese herbs have demonstrated some interesting therapeutic properties. The following databases were searched from their inception: MEDLINE (PUBMED), ALT HEALTH WATCH (EBSCO), CINAH and Cochrane Central. Only single Chinese herbs are included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and performed quality assessment. The quality assessment of a clinical trial is based on the Jadad criteria. Seven Chinese herbs and six randomized controlled clinical trials were identified under the predefined criteria. Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A (Lycopodium serratum) and Ginseng have been assessed for their clinical efficacy with limited favorable evidence. No serious adverse events were reported. Chinese herbs show promise in the treatment of AD in terms of their cognitive benefits and more importantly, their mechanisms of action that deal with the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease. However, the current evidence in support of their use is inconclusive or inadequate. Future research should place emphasis on herbs that can treat the root of the disease. PMID:19737808

  18. An Overview of Important Ethnomedicinal Herbs of Phyllanthus Species: Present Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Bharti; Martín, Juan Pedro; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius. PMID:24672382

  19. Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.

    PubMed

    Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Po?owniak, M; Kozik, V

    2012-11-15

    Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the ?g/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. PMID:22868119

  20. Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results The content of investigated 11 fatty acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid, obviously varied among three species, suggesting each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis according to the absolute and relative contents of fatty acids, showed that 30 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to the species. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides reliable platform to classify these three Panax species, which is helpful for ensuring their safety and efficacy. PMID:23336351

  1. Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

  2. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.

    PubMed

    Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

  3. Arsenic, cadmium and lead in medicinal herbs and their fractionation.

    PubMed

    Arpadjan, S; Celik, G; Ta?kesen, S; Güçer, S

    2008-08-01

    Arsenic, cadmium and lead were determined for quality control monitoring purposes of Bulgarian herbs and their infusions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Twelve samples of yarrow (Achillea millefolium), 18 of chamomile (Flores Chamomillae), 8 of bearberry leaves (Folia uvae ursi), 24 of peppermint (Mentha piperitae folium), 10 of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa), 14 of oregano (Origanum vulgare) and 12 of thyme (Thymus serpyllum) were analyzed. The studied toxic elements were present in the medicinal plants (12-225 microg/kg As, 15-268 microg/kg Cd, 0.2-8.6 mg/kg Pb). Arsenic was found in all herbal infusions at levels up to 0.4 microg/l. Cadmium was present in infusions of chamomile, hibiscus, peppermint and thyme at levels up to 0.7 microg/l. Lead was detected only in hibiscus infusions (2-3 microg/l). It was established that the major part of arsenic and lead in herbal infusions existed in biomacromolecular fraction. Cadmium appears to be present mainly in cationic form at pH 1 (stomach acidity), but at pH 7.6 (intestine acidity) there is a non-cationic fraction as well. PMID:18614270

  4. Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms—anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

  5. Critical analysis of herbs acting on Mutravaha srotas

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Savitha D.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda has given prime importance to Mutravaha srotas (urinary system) and Srotogata Vikaras (urinary disorders). Being a system responsible for homeostasis of fluids in the body it also detoxifies the body by eliminating certain waste products through urine. When diseased, people produce symptoms such as, increased or decreased urine production, painful maturition, formation of stones, and thereby obstructed micturition, increased frequency of micturition, and so on. There are many herbs with varied actions specifically aimed at mitigating urinary system disorders. Drugs such as Jambu, Amrasthi, and the like, reduce the increased flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutrasangrahaneeya, whereas, drugs like Ikshu, Kustha, and so on, increase the flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutravirechaneeya. There are drugs like Padma, Utpala, and so on, which impart normal color to the urine and are known as Mutravirajaneeya dravyas. Asmarighna dravyas break down the calculi and remove them through the urine. These dravyas, when used under proper direction, help in relieving the pain and apathy caused by the disease. PMID:22131705

  6. Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Consolación; Rodríguez-Torres, Alfonso; Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen. PMID:22331454

  7. Cadmium, mercury and lead in medicinal herbs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caldas, E D; Machado, L L

    2004-04-01

    Samples of herbal medicine used in Brazil were analyzed, after nitric digestion, for the content of cadmium, mercury and lead, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Fifteen samples of ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba), 13 of celastraceae (Maytenus ilicifolia), 14 of cascara buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana), 13 of eggplant (Solanum melongena), 15 of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), 13 of Brazilian ginseng (Pffafia glomerata), 17 of centella asiatic (Hydrocotyle asiatica), 13 of guarana (Paullinia cupana), 12 of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) and five samples of chlorella (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were analyzed. Cadmium, mercury and lead were not detected (limit of quantifications of 0.20, 0.01 and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively) in any sample of artichoke, eggplant and guarana. Cadmium was found in samples of the other medicinal herbs at levels up to 0.74 microg/g and mercury up to 0.087 microg/g. Three samples of horse chestnut contained 153, 156 and 1480 microg Pb/g, while the highest concentration found in the other samples analyzed was 22 microg Pb/g. The estimated lead intake through the consumption of horse chestnut reached 440% of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), and might be of concern to consumers if the medicine was taken on a long-term basis. Cadmium and mercury exposure through the herbal medicines does not appear to be of health concern. PMID:15019183

  8. Linking vital rates to invasiveness of a perennial herb.

    PubMed

    Ramula, Satu

    2014-04-01

    Invaders generally show better individual performance than non-invaders and, therefore, vital rates (survival, growth, fecundity) could potentially be used to predict species invasiveness outside their native range. Comparative studies have usually correlated vital rates with the invasiveness status of species, while few studies have investigated them in relation to population growth rate. Here, I examined the influence of five vital rates (plant establishment, survival, growth, flowering probability, seed production) and their variability (across geographic regions, habitat types, population sizes and population densities) on population growth rate (?) using data from 37 populations of an invasive, iteroparous herb (Lupinus polyphyllus) in a part of its invaded range in Finland. Variation in vital rates was often related to habitat type and population density. The performance of the populations varied from declining to rapidly increasing independently of habitat type, population size or population density, but differed between regions. The population growth rate increased linearly with plant establishment, and with the survival and growth of vegetative individuals, while the survival of flowering individuals and annual seed production were not related to ?. The vital rates responsible for rapid population growth varied among populations. These findings highlight the importance of both regional and local conditions to plant population dynamics, demonstrating that individual vital rates do not necessarily correlate with ?. Therefore, to understand the role of individual vital rates in a species ability to invade, it is necessary to quantify their effect on population growth rate. PMID:24390414

  9. Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

    2009-01-01

    Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

  10. Chinese medicinal herbs inhibit growth of murine renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lau, B H; Ruckle, H C; Botolazzo, T; Lui, P D

    1994-01-01

    Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing immune functions. We previously showed that a murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) suppressed macrophage function in vitro and that this suppression was abolished by co-incubation with extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs. We now report that these phytochemicals are capable of inhibiting growth of Renca in vivo. BALB/c mice were transplanted intraperitoneally (IP) with 1-2 x 10(5) Renca cells. One day after tumor transplant, mice were randomized into two groups. One group was treated IP, daily for 10 days, with 100 microliters of phytochemicals containing 500 micrograms each of Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum, while the other group received saline as controls. A cure rate of 57% was obtained with these phytochemicals when the initial tumor load was 2 x 10(5), and 100% when the initial tumor load was 1 x 10(5). Additional experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms involved in this protection. Splenic macrophages from tumor-bearing mice were shown to have depressed chemiluminescent oxidative burst activity, and this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Splenocytes from mice transplanted with Renca responded less favorably to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in generating lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells; again this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Our data suggest that these phytochemicals may have exerted their antitumor effects via augmentation of phagocyte and LAK cell activities. PMID:7812364

  11. Chinese medicinal herbs reverse macrophage suppression induced by urological tumors.

    PubMed

    Rittenhouse, J R; Lui, P D; Lau, B H

    1991-08-01

    Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing macrophage function. In this study we demonstrated in vitro suppression of macrophage chemiluminescent oxidative burst associated with viable cells and cell-free extracts of two urological neoplasms--murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) and murine bladder tumor (MBT). Suppression was reversed by extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs, Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL). Murine macrophage cell line J774 was incubated with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extract for 18 hours at 37C and 5% CO2. Chemiluminescent oxidative burst as an indicator of macrophage function was triggered by adding zymosan A suspension containing luminol and assayed in an automated luminometer. Photon emission over time was counted and the results were expressed as integrated photon emission. Significant dose-related depression of oxidative burst occurred with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extracts. Depression was partially or completely reversed by the presence of 50-100 micrograms./ml. of either the AM or the LL extract. AM and LL have previously been shown to modulate immune response. Data from this study suggest that they may also exert their antitumor activity via abolition of tumor-associated macrophage suppression. PMID:1856958

  12. Herb network construction and co-module analysis for uncovering the combination rule of traditional Chinese herbal formulae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM. PMID:21172056

  13. Effect of a variety of Chinese herbs and an herb-containing dentifrice on volatile sulfur compounds associated with halitosis: An in vitro analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-yu Li; Jun Wang; Zhu-ting Xu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro.Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of

  14. An innovative example of herb residues recycling by gasification in a fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feiqiang; Dong, Yuping; Dong, Lei; Jing, Yuanzhuo

    2013-04-01

    A utilization way of herb residues is designed to convert herb residues to gas fuel in industrial-scale by a circulating fluidized bed gasifier in this paper. The product gas is used in the production of Chinese medicine, and the heat of the flue gas from the boiler can be used in herb residues drying to realize the energy recycling and no herb residues discharge. The gasification characteristics of herb residues in the circulating fluidized bed of 300 kg/h were investigated for about 200 h. The results indicated that the gas composition and tar yield were affected by biomass flow rate, equivalence ratio (ER), moisture content and char circulating. The lower heating value of product gas was 4-5 MJ/m(3) using herb residues as feedstock. When mean biomass flow rate was at 5.5 kg m(-2)s(-1) and ER at 0.35, the product gas reached a good condition with lower heating value of 4.89 MJ/m(3) and cold gas efficiency of 62.36%. When the moisture content changed from 12.5% to 18.7%, the concentrations of H2, CO and CO2 changed from 4.66% to 6.92%, 11.23% to 10.15%, and 16.55% to 17.82% respectively, and the tar content in gas decreased from 15.1g/m(3) to 14.4 g/m(3) when the moisture content increased from 12.5% to 15.4%. There are metal oxides in the ash of herb residues, especially CaO, MgO, K2O, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 which have obvious function on tar catalytic decomposition. The ash that attaches to the char particles can decrease the tar yield and improve the quality of gas after returning to the gasifier. PMID:23313058

  15. The last large pelletron accelerator of the Herb era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, S.; Narayanan, M. M.; Joshi, R.; Gargari, S.; Kanjilal, D.; Datta, S. K.; Mehta, G. K.

    1999-04-01

    Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the high voltage terminal and consequently the option of further stripping the ion species of the selected charge states at high energy dead section, and elaborate pulsing system in the pre-acceleration region consisting of a beam chopper, a travelling wave deflector, a light ion buncher (1-80 amu) and a heavy ion buncher (>80 amu). NSC was established as a heavy ion accelerator based inter university centre in 1985. It became operational in July 1991 to cater to the research requirements of a large user community which at present includes about fifty universities, twenty-eight colleges and a dozen other academic institutes and research laboratories. The number of users in Materials and allied sciences is about 500. Various important modifications have been made to improve the performance of the accelerator in the last seven years. These include replacement of the corona voltage grading system by a resistor based one, a pick-up loop to monitor charging system performance, conversion from basic double unit structure to singlet, installation of a spiral cavity based phase detector system with post-accelerator stripper after the analyzing magnet, and a high efficiency multi harmonic buncher. Installation of a turbo pump based stripper gas recirculation system in the terminal is also planned. A brief description of utilization of the machine will be given.

  16. Tropical forest fragmentation limits pollination of a keystone understory herb.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Adam S; Frey, Sarah J K; Robinson, W Douglas; Kress, W John; Betts, Matthew G

    2014-08-01

    Loss of native vegetation cover is thought to be a major driver of declines in pollination success worldwide. However, it is not well known whether reducing the fragmentation of remaining vegetation can ameliorate these negative effects. We tested the independent effects of composition vs. configuration on the reproductive success of a keystone tropical forest herb (Heliconia tortuosa). To do this we designed a large-scale mensurative experiment that independently varied connected forest-patch size (configuration) and surrounding amount of forest (composition). In each patch, we tested whether pollen tubes, fruit, and seed set were associated with these landscape variables. We also captured hummingbirds as an indication of pollinator availability in a subset of patches according to the same design. We found evidence for an effect of configuration on seed set of H. tortuosa, but not on other aspects of plant reproduction; proportion of seeds produced increased 40% across the gradient in patch size we observed (0.64 to > 1300 ha), independent of the amount of forest in the surrounding landscape at both local and landscape scales. We also found that the availability of pollinators was dependent upon forest configuration; hummingbird capture rates increased three and one-half times across the patch size gradient, independent of forest amount. Finally, pollinator availability was strongly positively correlated with seed set. We hypothesize that the effects of configuration on plant fitness that we observed are due to reduced pollen quality resulting from altered hummingbird availability and/or movement behavior. Our results suggest that prioritizing larger patches of tropical forest may be particularly important for conservation of this species. PMID:25230471

  17. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned. PMID:24097370

  18. Inhibition of protein glycation by extracts of culinary herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Dearlove, Rebecca P; Greenspan, Phillip; Hartle, Diane K; Swanson, Ruthann B; Hargrove, James L

    2008-06-01

    We tested whether polyphenolic substances in extracts of commercial culinary herbs and spices would inhibit fructose-mediated protein glycation. Extracts of 24 herbs and spices from a local supermarket were tested for the ability to inhibit glycation of albumin. Dry samples were ground and extracted with 10 volumes of 50% ethanol, and total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) were measured. Aliquots were incubated in triplicate at pH 7.4 with 0.25 M fructose and 10 mg/mL fatty acid-free bovine albumin. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. In general, spice extracts inhibited glycation more than herb extracts, but inhibition was correlated with total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.89). The most potent inhibitors included extracts of cloves, ground Jamaican allspice, and cinnamon. Potent herbs tested included sage, marjoram, tarragon, and rosemary. Total phenolics were highly correlated with FRAP values (R(2) = 0.93). The concentration of phenolics that inhibited glycation by 50% was typically 4-12 microg/mL. Relative to total phenolic concentration, extracts of powdered ginger and bay leaf were less effective than expected, and black pepper was more effective. Prevention of protein glycation is an example of the antidiabetic potential for bioactive compounds in culinary herbs and spices. PMID:18598169

  19. A Review on the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs and Formulae with Hypolipidemic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Sham, Tung-Ting; Chan, Chi-On; Wang, You-Hua; Yang, Jian-Mei; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, characterized by the abnormal blood lipid profiles, is one of the dominant factors of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For the low cost, effectiveness, and fewer side effects, the popularity of using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to handle hyperlipidemia is increasing and its role in health care has been recognized by the public at large. Despite the importance of TCM herbs and formulations, there is no comprehensive review summarizing their scientific findings on handling hyperlipidemia. This review summarizes the recent experimental and clinical results of nine representative single Chinese herbs and seven classic TCM formulae that could improve lipid profiles so as to help understand and compare their underlying mechanisms. Most of single herbs and formulae demonstrated the improvement of hyperlipidemic conditions with multiple and diverse mechanisms of actions similar to conventional Western drugs in spite of their mild side effects. Due to increasing popularity of TCM, more extensive, well-designed preclinical and clinical trials on the potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions as well as their mechanisms are warranted. Hyperlipidemic patients should be warned about the potential risks of herb-drug interactions, particularly those taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. PMID:25110708

  20. Chinese medicinal herbs modulate mutagenesis, DNA binding and metabolism of aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Wong, B Y; Lau, B H; Tadi, P P; Teel, R W

    1992-06-01

    Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumors while Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL) are often used as an adjunct in cancer therapy. In this study, we determined the effects of aqueous extracts of these four herbs on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced mutagenesis using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as the bacterial tester strain and rat liver 9000 x g supernatant as the activation system. The effects of these herbs on [3H]AFB1 binding to calf-thymus DNA were assessed. Organosoluble and water-soluble metabolites of AFB1 were extracted and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mutagenesis assays revealed that all of these herbs produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of histidine-independent revertant (His+) colonies induced by AFB1. At a concentration of 1.5 mg/plate, SB and OD in combination exhibited an additive effect. The trend of inhibition of these four herbs on AFB1-induced mutagenesis was: SB greater than LL greater than AM. LL, OD and SB significantly inhibited AFB1 binding to DNA, reduced AFB1-DNA adduct formation, and also significantly decreased the formation of organosoluble metabolites of AFB1. Our data suggest that these Chinese medicinal herbs possess cancer chemopreventive properties. PMID:1377337

  1. [Aromatic trees and herbs that connect Heaven and earth].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that aromatic substances (essential oils) contained in plants often exert psychological effects ranging from sedative to excitatory actions. Medicinal effects have also been confirmed through numerous experiences. In ancient times, aromatic trees and herbs were offered to deities, mostly as incenses that were believed to carry people's wishes, such as requests to cure sick people, to Heaven. In the medieval periods, their deep and subtle aromas elevated aromatics to so-called "treasures of the world," while their various medicinal activities including the psychological effects made them useful as treatment measures. Demands for aromatics in our time as raw materials for cosmetics far outweigh those as medicines. The market for aromatics, however, has become virtually non-existent, as the popularity of synthetic aromatics for cosmetics grew. In West Asia, olibanum and myrrh were highly regarded both as incense and analgesics for tooth pain. In India, sandalwood was prized as incense, and sometimes as an antidote for poisonous snakebites. In China and Japan, agalloch (Kyara is agalloch of the highest quality) was considered the most significant of the aromatics. Agalloch and many other aromatics were in possession of the Emperor's family in 8th century Japan; some of which are kept in Nara to this day. Olfactory sense is ultimately identified in the olfactory area of the frontal lobe of the human brain. When stimuli reach the olfactory area, they also affect other cells such as those around the hypothalamus when they go through it. The hypothalamus is the center of instinctive behaviors with the centers for appetite, sexuality, blood pressure and thirst, and greatly affects the psychological side of the human behavior with its delicate connection to the autonomic nerve system. It therefore may not be surprising that aromatics were often used in medicine, which once had close ties with shamanism, animism and other religious activities. Aromatics smokes that connected people on the earth with deities in Heaven healed people's mind, sometimes curing illness through what is now called aromatherapy. In fact, such use of aromatics is still practiced in China, where aromatics are highly regarded as treatment agents. There have also been reports of aromatics being used for psychological and mental disorders. PMID:18548886

  2. Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuan; Bai, Ai-Ping

    2014-10-21

    Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed. PMID:25339799

  3. Toxicity of the Chinese herb mu tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis). What history tells us.

    PubMed

    Zhu, You-Ping

    2002-01-01

    Plant sources of some traditional Chinese herbs may have changed over time. History records of herbal toxicity should be viewed critically when different plants might have been used under the same name in earlier eras. The current main source of the Chinese herb Mu Tong is Aristolochia manshuriensis. Examination of classical Chinese herbal literature revealed that until the mid 17th century the original source plants of Mu Tong had been several Akebia species. From the 17th century until the early 20th century Clematis species were the main source of Mu Tong. A manshuriensis has only been widely used since the 1950s. Renal failure due to ingestion of large doses of A. manshuriensis has been reported in China and other countries while no such toxicity has been recorded in traditional Chinese herbal texts. Documentation of traditional Chinese herbal literature should help to ensure the safe use of Chinese herbs. PMID:12503251

  4. Heavy metals in spices and herbs from wholesale markets in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nordin, N; Selamat, J

    2013-01-01

    As, Cd, Pb and Hg were analysed in commonly consumed spices and herbs in Malaysia. The range of As, Cd, Pb and Hg content was 0.24-2.54, 0.23-8.07, 1.54-8.94 and 0.06-0.52?µg?g(-1), respectively. The highest concentration of Cd, Pb and Hg in spices and herbs exceeded the maximum permitted proportion, which are 1, 2 and 0.05?µg?g(-1), respectively. This study suggests further monitoring of Cd, Pb and Hg on daily consumption of spices and herbs and its toxicological implication for consumers since only the amount of As was lower than the permitted concentration. PMID:24786623

  5. Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

    2014-06-01

    Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study. PMID:24621269

  6. Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Herbs with Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The concurrent use of drugs and herbal products is becoming increasingly prevalent over the last decade. Several herbal products have been known to modulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which are recognized as representative drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter, respectively. Thus, a summary of knowledge on the modulation of CYP and P-gp by commonly used herbs can provide robust fundamentals for optimizing CYP and/or P-gp substrate drug-based therapy. Herein, we review ten popular medicinal and/or dietary herbs as perpetrators of CYP- and P-gp-mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The main focus is placed on previous works on the ability of herbal extracts and their phytochemicals to modulate the expression and function of CYP and P-gp in several in vitro and in vivo animal and human systems. PMID:25632290

  7. [Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts. PMID:24025211

  8. Determination of aflatoxins in medicinal herbs by HPLC. An efficient method for routine analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Catalán, Jesús; Piqué, Ester; Falcó, Gemma; Borrego, Natividad; Rodamilans, Miquel; Llobet, Juan M

    2005-01-01

    A fast and easy to perform method for the routine determination of aflatoxins in medicinal herbs was developed. The described method involves a single-step extraction with a non-chlorinated solvent, an immunoaffinity clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Whilst assays with naturally contaminated and with spiked samples of several herbs showed that the recoveries were somewhat low and dependent on the kind of sample and the degree of grinding, the intra-batch reproducibility was good, allowing a reliable quantitation by the standard-addition method. Good linearity, repeatability and accuracy were demonstrated in assays involving several medicinal herbs. The limit of quantitation was of the order of 0.05-0.1 ng/g, being dependent of the species analysed, and the method required no tedious concentration or back-extraction steps. PMID:15997853

  9. Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods/Design The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ? 5 servings/day to ? 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ? 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B) selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet). Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. Discussion This study will provide information on midlife women’s bone health and how a dietary intervention increasing fruit and vegetable/herb intake affects bone, inflammatory and metabolic markers and urinary electrolyte excretion. It assesses changes in nutrient intake, estimated dietary acid load and sodium: potassium ratios. The study also explores whether specific fruit/vegetables and herbs with bone resorbing properties has an effect on bone markers. Trial registration ACTRN 12611000763943 PMID:23305630

  10. [Isolation and structure determination of furan sesquiterpene from Chinese traditional herb ezhu (rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.)].

    PubMed

    Zhao, R; Chen, C; Wu, Y

    1991-05-01

    It has been reported that curdione is a major component in Chinese traditional herb ezhu. But no curdione was found in the herb ezhu collected from Guangdong province, instead a furan sesquiterpene was isolated. Its structure and configuration were determined by the analysis of IR, UV, MS, NMR and circular dichroism. PMID:1781896

  11. Negative indirect effects of an avian insectivore on the fruit set of an insect-pollinated herb

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Blair O.

    Negative indirect effects of an avian insectivore on the fruit set of an insect-pollinated herb T indirect effects of an avian insectivore on the fruit set of an insect-pollinated herb. Á/ Oikos 109: 297Á an observational study along the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico to determine if avian aerial insectivores had

  12. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kam Ming; Leung, Hoi Yan

    2007-01-01

    Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging. PMID:17386115

  13. [Thinking about evaluation of proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs during switch process of non-prescription drugs].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dongsheng; Cheng, Gang; Li, Xinling; Zhou, Jieming; Xiao, Aili; Zhang, Chengxu; Du, Xiaoxi

    2010-12-01

    To enhance the scientific and fair evaluation about proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs during the switch process of non-prescription drugs, and to ensure those medicines to be used safely by the public in their self-medication. Combined with current research status of toxic herbs, the experience and knowledge accumulated in the practical work of selection and switch of OTC Chinese medicines for years, thinking about the feasible standards about evaluation and management of proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs at this stage. Initially established ideas and methods about evaluation of proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs during the switch process of non-prescription drugs. Basically solved the main problem currently faced by toxic herbs during the OTC switch process of proprietary Chinese medicines, effectively promoted the work on OTC switch, and had the important significance in making consumers use non-prescription drugs conveniently and safely. PMID:21438414

  14. Comparison of anti-oxidant activities of seventy herbs that have been used in Korean traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seong-Hee; Choi, Seong-Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Yoo, Sangho

    2008-01-01

    Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority (about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority (more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers (more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/ Rubus schizostylus, Schisandra chinensis Baillon/ Schizandra chinensis and Terminalia chebula Retzius/ Terminalia chebula. Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them. PMID:20126599

  15. The Integration of Medicinal Plants and Culinary Herbs in Agroforestry Systems for the Caribbean: A Study in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Palada; J. M. Mitchell; B. N. Becker; P. K. R. Nair

    Medicinal plants and culinary herbs are horticultural crops with socio- economic significance in the Caribbean. People of the Caribbean maintain the tradition of making 'bush (herb) tea' as part of their daily activity. 'Bush tea' is made with a variety of herbs that are combined for their culinary and medicinal properties. A project was initiated to study the role of

  16. Effect of boreal forest logging on nectar production of four understory herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Pengelly; Ralph V. Cartar

    2011-01-01

    The rate of floral nectar production, an important trait for supporting populations of pollinators, is known to be affected by local environment. This study examines the effect, 9 years after an anthropogenic disturbance—variable retention logging,—on the rate of daily nectar production of four common herbs (Chamerion angustifolium, Delphinium glaucum, Mertensia paniculata and Vicia americana) in the boreal forest of Alberta,

  17. Changes in use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) among clinicians enrolled in an online curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathi J Kemper; Paula Gardiner; Charles Woods

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about clinicians' use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS), how their personal HDS use changes with time and training, and how changes in their personal use affect their confidence or communication with patients about HDS. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of clinicians before and after an on-line curriculum about HDS in winter-spring, 2005. RESULTS:

  18. Effects of Fire on the Demography of the Endangered, Geophytic Herb Silene spaldingii (Caryophyllaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Lesica

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the effects of disturbances such as fire on plant demography helps elucidate the mechanisms that cause changes in community composition. I studied the effects of spring and fall fires onSilene spaldingii, an endangered perennial herb of grasslands in northwest Montana. Individual S. spaldingii plants were mapped, and size and flowering were recorded for 1 yr prior and 5 yr

  19. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system.

    PubMed

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sensory evaluation (0.4 %) by using 9-point hedonic scale. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated after various processing treatments viz. pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s), sterilization (121 °C, 15 min), separation etc. These changes were determined using viscosity, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) value, ethanol stability, colour characteristics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). It was observed that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk resulted in decreased HMF content, ethanol stability and lightness whereas antioxidant activity, redness and yellowness increased as compared to control. It can be concluded that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk at 0.4 % concentration altered the functional properties of milk and Pueraira tuberosa could be suitable for preparation of low heat treated functional dairy food products. PMID:25694723

  20. Retrospect and prospect of active principles from Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Wang; Lu-qi Huang; Xi-can Tang; Hai-yan Zhang

    2010-01-01

    With an ageing population, dementia has become one of the world's primary health challenges. However, existing remedies offer limited benefits with certain side effects, which has prompted researchers to seek complementary and alternative therapies. China has long been known for abundant usage of various herbs. Some of these herbal decoctions are effective in stimulating blood circulation, supplementing vital energy and

  1. Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

  2. Evolution de la capacit de germination des semences de mauvaises herbes enfouies dans le sol

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evolution de la capacité de germination des semences de mauvaises herbes enfouies dans le sol Jean mois, des sachets sont prélevés pour évaluer en laboratoire la capacité germinative des semences germination in situ) à un taux annuel de 17 p. 100 ; les semences de toutes les autres espèces se conservent

  3. Pharmacists’ attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Abahussain, Nada A.; Abahussain, Eman A.; Al-Oumi, Fawaz M.

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait. Results The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5) years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists’ knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait. PMID:25214928

  4. Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thaveechai Vachirayonstien; Duanthanorm Promkhatkaew; Malee Bunjob; Asawachai Chueyprom; Pranee Chavalittumrong; Pathom Sawanpanyalert

    2010-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C.

  5. Functional role of anthocyanins in high-light winter leaves of the evergreen herb Galax urceolata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Hughes; H. S. Neufeld; K. O. Burkey

    2005-01-01

    Summary • High-light leaves of the evergreen herb Galax urceolata exhibit a striking color change from green to red during winter months due to anthocyanin synthesis in outermost mesophyll cells. Here we investigate three possible functions of this color change. •T o test the hypothesis that anthocyanins function as light attenuators, maximum photosystem II efficiency ( F v \\/F m

  6. Caesar Salad $5.5 Caesar salad, herb croutons, Parmesan cheese,

    E-print Network

    Makovicky, Peter

    SALADS Caesar Salad $5.5 Caesar salad, herb croutons, Parmesan cheese, Caesar dressing Add Your choice of a garden or Caesar SOUPS All Beef Chili Cup $4.5 Bowl $5.5 Classic chili flavors with your choice of a side salad or side Caesar BEVERAGES Fountain Beverages $3 Pepsi, Diet Pepsi, Sierra

  7. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

  8. Preliminary studies on the inorganic constituents of some indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs on oral glucose tolerance test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajit Kar; B. K Choudhary; N. G Bandyopadhyay

    1999-01-01

    Medicinal herbs used in indigenous medicines in crude forms for the management of diabetes mellitus, contain both the organic and inorganic constituents. It is known that certain inorganic mineral elements (potassium, zinc, calcium, traces of chromium, etc.) play an important role in the maintenance of normal glucose-tolerance and in the release of insulin from ? cells of islets of Langerhans.

  9. FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF ANTHOCYANINS IN HIGH-LIGHT WINTER LEAVES OF THE EVERGREEN HERB GALAX URCEOLATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High light leaves of the evergreen herb Galax urceolata exhibit a striking color change from green to red during winter months, caused by anthocyanin synthesis in outermost mesophyll cells. Here we investigate three possible functions of this color change. To test the hypothesis that anthocyanins fu...

  10. Chinese herbs as modulators of human mesangial cell proliferation: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y C; Sun, C M; Tsai, W J; Ou, J C; Chen, W P; Lin, C Y

    1998-07-01

    In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as follows (in microg/ml): Selaginella tamariscina (MLS-032), 56.0 +/- 2.0; Ixeris chinensis (MLS-033), 62.7 +/- 1.7; Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (MLS-034), 25.0 +/- 1.5; Scutellaris rivularis (MLS-036), 39.6 +/- 1.1; Condonacanthus paucifiorus (MLS-042),63.6 +/- 2.6; Xanthium strumarium (MLS-043), 42.8 +/- 1.3; Daemonoropus margaritae (MLS-044), 56.1 +/- 1.9. These findings indicate that human mesangial cells were most sensitive to MLS-034 treatment. These herbs also decreased interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Moreover, TNF-alpha mRNA expression was inhibited by MLS-034. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved, because no cell deaths were observable. We hypothesize that the inhibitory mechanisms of these Chinese herbs may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in human mesangial cells. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure compounds from these Chinese herbs and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. PMID:9665376

  11. Immunomodulatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Some Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benny K. H. Tan; J. Vanitha

    2004-01-01

    The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals to support the immune system or to fight infections is based on centuries-old tradition. We review reports on seven Chinese herbs, (Aloe vera Mill. (Aloaceae), Angelica species (Umbelliferae), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (Leguminosae), Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. (Ganodermataceae), Panax ginseng C.A Mey. (Araliaceae), Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) with emphasis to their

  12. Network understanding of herb medicine via rapid identification of ingredient-target interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power. PMID:24429698

  13. Analysis of the effective delayed neutron fraction in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    SciTech Connect

    Milosevic, M.; Pesic, M.; Avdic, S.; Nikolic, D. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1994-12-31

    The results of measurements {beta}{sub eff} and {beta}{sub eff}/{Lambda} and calculation results based on various sets of evaluated six-group delayed neutron parameters for the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE are shown in this paper.

  14. COMMON HERBS USED IN DIFFERENT SKIN DISORDERS AS DESCRIBED IN AYURVEDIC CLASSICS

    PubMed Central

    Singh, O.R; Das, B.; Padhi, M.M.; Tewari, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    Diseases of skin account for a great deal of misery, suffering, incapacity and economic loss, Including the genetic causes the diet, climate, sunlight mental factors and allergy etc. have been proved as aetiological factors beyond doubts. Natural herbs seem to be more promising in the field of dematology as already described in ancient Ayurvedic texts. PMID:22557091

  15. Adaptive significance of nitrogen storage in Bistorta bistortoides , an alpine herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. Jaeger; Russell K. Monson

    1992-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the importance of nitrogen storage to seasonal aboveground growth in the alpine herb Bistorta bistortoides. Stored reserves accounted for 60% of the total nitrogen allocated to the shoot during the growing season. The stored nitrogen was equally partitioned between preformed buds of the shoot and the roots\\/rhizome. Reliance on stored N was similar in populations

  16. Network Understanding of Herb Medicine via Rapid Identification of Ingredient-Target Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.

  17. Fingerprint of Herb Product by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Product authentication, quality assurance, and identification of adulterants/contamination are major issues facing the dietary supplement industry. Scutellaria lateriflora is an herb widely used as a remedy for many ailments ranging from rabies to epilepsy. It could be easily contaminated by similar...

  18. Reproductive ecology of the Australian herb Trachymene incisa subsp.?incisa (Apiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne C. DavilaA; Glenda M. Wardle

    2002-01-01

    Within the Apiaceae, subtle variation in reproductive characters such as dichogamy, pollinator specificity and umbel density may cause cryptic specialisation and be responsible for the diversity of life histories and gender expression in the family. To address the paucity of information for Australian species we investigated the reproductive ecology of the native perennial herb, Trachymene incisa Rudge subsp. incisa. T.

  19. VARIATION IN RESPONSES OF LATE-SERAL HERBS TO DISTURBANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cara R. Nelson; Charles B. Halpern; Joseph A. Antos

    2007-01-01

    Clonal herbs that attain maximum development in late-seral forest are often assumed to have similar responses to disturbance and to be functionally equivalent. However, little is known about the demographic or physiological responses of these plants to disturbance or to the altered conditions of the post-disturbance environment. Following harvest of a mature coniferous forest, we compared abundance, demographic changes, and

  20. Chinese Medicinal Herbs for Childhood Pneumonia: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qianchun; Wu, Darong; Mao, Wei; Liu, Xusheng; Bao, Kun; Lin, Qizhan; Lu, Fuhua; Zou, Chuan; Li, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for Childhood Pneumonia. Methods. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The searched electronic databases included PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, and VIP. All studies included were assessed for quality and risk bias. Review Manager 5.1.6 software was used for data analyses, and the GRADEprofiler software was applied to classify the systematic review results. Results. Fourteen studies were identified (n = 1.824). Chinese herbs may increase total effective rate (risk ratio (RR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–1.26) and improve cough (total mean difference (MD), ?2.18; 95% CI, (?2.66)–(?1.71)), fever (total MD, ?1.85; 95% CI, (?2.29)–(?1.40)), rales (total MD, ?1.53; 95% CI, (?1.84)–(?1.23)), and chest films (total MD, ?3.10; 95% CI, (?4.11)–(?2.08)) in Childhood Pneumonia. Chinese herbs may shorten the length of hospital stay (total MD, ?3.00; 95% CI, (?3.52)–(?2.48)), but no significant difference for adverse effects (RR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.09–1.72) was identified. Conclusion. Chinese herbs may increase total effective rate and improve symptoms and signs. However, large, properly randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are required. PMID:23554826

  1. Medicinal Herbs Used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. Okoli; O. Aigbe; Ohaju-Obodo; J. K. Mensah

    2007-01-01

    Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Esan people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well- developed herbal medicine used to cure and manage various disease conditions. Herbal medicine offered remedies to common ailments ranging from common cold to complex pathological disorders including those

  2. Evaluating the consequences of habitat fragmentation: a case study in the common forest herb Trillium camschatcense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Tomimatsu; Masashi Ohara

    2006-01-01

    The effects of habitat fragmentation on remnant plant populations have rarely been studied extensively using a single species. We have attempted to quantify the effects of forest fragmentation (primarily that of population size) on populations of Trillium camschatcense, a representative spring herb in the Tokachi plain of Hokkaido, Japan. In this region, intensive agricultural development over the past 100 years has

  3. Flowering of understory herbs following thinning in the western Cascades, Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Briana C. Lindh

    2008-01-01

    Thinning of young forest stands encourages development of the understory layer by increasing the levels of light and belowground resources. High-intensity thinning, with associated ground disturbance and high light levels, can lead to dominance by early seral species or by a few species of shrubs, while low-intensity thinning may not increase resource levels enough to encourage forest herbs. Changes in

  4. Herb medicine Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in bile duct ligation rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzung-Yan Lee; Hen-Hong Chang; Jenn-Han Chen; Ming-Lung Hsueh; Jong-Jen Kuo

    2007-01-01

    The accumulation of hydrophilic bile acids in the liver is considered to play a pivotal role in the induction of hepatic injury. Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) decoction is an aqueous extract from three different herbs: Artemisia capillaries Thunb (Compositae), Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae), Rheum officinale Baill (Polygonaceae), which has been recognized as a hepatoprotective agent for various types of liver diseases. Therefore,

  5. A novel and rapid method to screen for ?-lactamase inhibitors from extracts of herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Zaichang; Yang Xiaosheng; Niu Yule

    Based on starch-iodine agar plate, a novel screening method that can be used to screen for ?-lactamase inhibitors from extracts of herbs is established. The extracts of 100 traditional Chinese medicines were screened for ?- lactamase inhibitors by this method. The inhibition rates of the Rheum palmatum L., Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., Hypericum japonicum Thunb., Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr., Oxalis

  6. Antioxidant activity and anti-adipogenic effects of wild herbs mainly cultivated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Lee, Jong Seok; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24141244

  7. Life?History Variation in Contrasting Habitats: Flowering Decisions in a Clonal Perennial Herb ( Veratrum album )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elze Hesse; Mark Rees

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying intraspecific demographic variation pro- vides a powerful tool for exploring the diversity and evolution of life histories. We investigate how habitat-specific demographic variation and the production of multiple offspring types affect the population dynamics and evolution of delayed reproduction in a clonal perennial herb with monocarpic ramets (white hellebore). In this species, flow- ering ramets produce both seeds and

  8. Fire History of a Temperate Forest with an Endemic Fire-Dependent Herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A. Hoss; Charles W. Lafon; Henri D. Grissino-Mayer; Serena R. Aldrich; Georgina G. DeWeese

    2008-01-01

    A dendroecological fire history study was conducted for The Nature Conser- vancy's Narrows Preserve on Peters Mountain, Virginia, where the predominant vegetation is oak (Quercus L.)-dominated forest containing some other hardwoods and pines (Pinus L.). The site encompasses all the known habitat of the endangered and endemic Peters Mountain mallow (Iliamna corei Sherff.), a perennial herb that requires fire for

  9. YIELD POTENTIAL OF SELECTED MEDICINAL HERBS AT THREE PLANT SPACINGS IN NEW MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted to determine the production potential of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica) medicinal herbs at two sites in New Mexico. Las Cruces, N.M. is at an elevation of 1,186 m and h...

  10. Trichome production and spatiotemporal variation in herbivory in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Torang; M. Gaudeul; J. Aûgren

    Allocation theory suggests that the optimal level of resistance against herbivores should vary with the risk of herbivory if allocation to resistance is costly. The perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata has a genetically based polymorphism for trichome production and occurs in a glabrous and a trichome-producing form. Leaf trichomes (hairs) can protect plants against insect herbivores, and may increase tolerance to

  11. A systematic review of single Chinese herbs for Alzheimer's disease treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Min Fu; Ju-Tzu Li

    2009-01-01

    The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the

  12. Stimulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs on human lymphocytes in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E Shan; Y Yoshida; T Sugiura; U Yamashita

    1999-01-01

    The effects of eight kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) on human lymphocytes was studied in vitro. The extract of Cinnamomum cassia presl markedly stimulated human lymphocytes to proliferate. Codonopsis pilosula, Oldenlandia diffusa and Rhizoma typhonii weakly stimulated. These extracts enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity, but failed to enhance natural killer (NK)-cell activity. The extracts of these CMHs have stimulatory

  13. Immunomodulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs and Oldenlandia diffusa in particular

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yoshida; M. Q. Wang; J. N. Liu; B. E. Shan; U. Yamashita

    1997-01-01

    The effect of eight different Chinese medicinal herbs (CMHs) on lymphocytes was studied in vitro using murine spleen cells. Among the studied eight CMHs, Astragalus membranaceus and Oldenlandia diffusa markedly stimulated murine spleen cells to proliferate. The responder cells for CMHs were B cells, because the response was depleted by the treatment of spleen cells with anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) antibody and

  14. [Screening of antiviral agents from medicinal herbs by means of Hepadnaviruses models].

    PubMed

    Mi, Z; Chen, H; Zhang, X; Li, Z; Chen, W; Shao, X

    1997-01-01

    The antiviral study of 21 Chinese medicinal herbs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The extracts of phyllanthus urinarin and polygonum cuspidatum exhibite obvious effects on duck hepatitis B virus and human hepatitis B virus, while the extract of Eclipta alba showed limited inhibition on HBV DAN polymerase. PMID:10683913

  15. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism for the Medicinal Herb Folium Eriobotryae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Su-Shing; Zhang, Lilei; Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Zhang, Shuwei; Pan, Yanqiu; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases like diabetes, cancers, atherosclerosis and arthritis. Thus, lots of concerns have been raised toward developing novel anti-inflammatory agents. Many alternative herbal medicines possess excellent anti-inflammatory properties, yet their precise mechanisms of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, a novel systems pharmacology approach based on a large number of chemical, biological and pharmacological data was developed and exemplified by a probe herb Folium Eriobotryae, a widely used clinical anti-inflammatory botanic drug. The results show that 11 ingredients of this herb with favorable pharmacokinetic properties are predicted as active compounds for anti-inflammatory treatment. In addition, via systematic network analyses, their targets are identified to be 43 inflammation-associated proteins including especially COX2, ALOX5, PPARG, TNF and RELA that are mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, the rheumatoid arthritis pathway and NF-?B signaling pathway. All these demonstrate that the integrated systems pharmacology method provides not only an effective tool to illustrate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of herbs, but also a new systems-based approach for drug discovery from, but not limited to, herbs, especially when combined with further experimental validations. PMID:25636035

  16. Effect of packaging materials and storage on major volatile compounds in three Australian native herbs.

    PubMed

    Chaliha, Mridusmita; Cusack, Andrew; Currie, Margaret; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Smyth, Heather

    2013-06-19

    Lemon myrtle, anise myrtle, and Tasmanian pepper leaf are commercial Australian native herbs with a high volatile or essential oil content. Packaging of the herbs in high- or low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) has proven to be ineffective in preventing a significant loss of volatile components on storage. This study investigates and compares the effectiveness of alternate high-barrier property packaging materials, namely, polyvinylidene chloride coated polyethylene terephthalate/casted polypropylene (PVDC coated PET/CPP) and polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/aluminum foil/linear low-density polyethylene (PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE), in prevention of volatile compound loss from the three native herbs stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. Concentrations of major volatiles were monitored using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. After 6 months of storage, the greatest loss of volatiles from lemon myrtle was observed in traditional LDPE packaging (87% loss) followed by storage in PVDC coated PET/CPP (58% loss) and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE (loss of 23%). The volatile loss from anise myrtle and Tasmanian pepper leaf stored in PVDC coated PET/CPP and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE packaging was <30%. This study clearly indicates the importance of selecting the correct packaging material to retain the quality of herbs with high volatile content. PMID:23682630

  17. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, “Dongeuibogam,” we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in “Dongeuibogam.” These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects.

  18. Anti-Aging Effects of Some Selected Iranian Folk Medicinal Herbs-Biochemical Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Aghamohammadali-Sarraf, Fatemeh; Badiei, Simin; Faraji, Zakie; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baeeri, Maryam; Gholami, Mahdi; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): In the current study, the effects of selected folk medicinal herbs were evaluated in D-galactose-induced aging in male mice. Materials and Methods: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 12 groups composing sham, control, and treated groups. Aging was induced by administration of D-galactose (500 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks). A positive control group was assigned that received vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day). The extract of herbs was prepared, lyophilized, and used in this study. The herbs were administered by gavage for 4 weeks to D-galactose-aged animals at the selected doses (mg/kg/day) as follows: Zingiber officinale (250), Glycyrrhiza glabra (150), Rosmarinus officinalis (300), Peganum harmala (50), Aloe vera (150), Satureja hortensis (200), Teucrium scordium (200), Hypericum perforatum (135) and Silybum marianum (150). One group of animals was assigned as sham and not given D-galactose. Results: At the end of treatment, pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interlukine-1? (IL-?), interlukine-6 (IL-6), NF-kappaB (NF-?b), total antioxidant power (TAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as lipid peroxidation (LPO) marker and male sex hormones i.e. testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in the blood. Conclusion: These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes. PMID:24494070

  19. A Systematic Review of the Reporting of Adverse Events Associated With Medical Herb Use Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Denise; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Nasser, Hafsa; Saper, Robert; White, Laura; Vohra, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Information about the safety of herbal medicine often comes from case reports published in the medical literature, thus necessitating good quality reporting of these adverse events. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the comprehensiveness of reporting of published case reports of adverse events associated with herb use in the pediatric population. Methods: Electronic literature search included 7 databases and a manual search of retrieved articles from inception through 2010. We included published case reports and case series that reported an adverse event associated with exposure to an herbal product by children under the age of 18 years old. We used descriptive statistics. Based on the International Society of Epidemiology's “Guidelines for Submitting Adverse Events Reports for Publication,” we developed and assigned a guideline adherence score (0-17) to each case report. Results: Ninety-six unique journal papers were identified and represented 128 cases. Of the 128 cases, 37% occurred in children under 2 years old, 38% between the ages of 2 and 8 years old, and 23% between the ages of 9 and 18 years old. Twenty-nine percent of cases were the result of an intentional ingestion while 36% were from an unintentional ingestion. Fifty-two percent of cases documented the Latin binomial of the herb ingredients; 41% documented plant part. Thirty-two percent of the cases reported laboratory testing of the herb, 20% documented the manufacturer of the product, and 22% percent included an assessment of the potential concomitant therapies that could have been influential in the adverse events. Mean guideline adherence score was 12.5 (range 6-17). Conclusions: There is considerable need for improvement in reporting adverse events in children following herb use. Without better quality reporting, adverse event reports cannot be interpreted reliably and do not contribute in a meaningful way to guiding recommendations for medicinal herb use. PMID:24416663

  20. Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry to search for cannabis in herb mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    Herb mixtures including cannabis among the other herbs have recently appeared. When cannabinoids from herb extracts are detected by chemical examinations such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, forensic analysts have to determine whether cannabis is actually in the mixture or the cannabinoids are spiked. Morphological examinations are time-consuming, since it is difficult to find several pieces of cannabis among a large number of herb pieces using a microscope. Here, we propose a procedure for efficiently searching for cannabis in herb mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI/IMS). Pieces of herb mixtures were spread on double-sided adhesive tape attached to a stainless steel plate. The pieces were then covered with a conductive sheet and pressed. After a solution containing a matrix reagent was sprayed, the distribution of cannabinoids in the sample was visualized by MALDI/IMS. Then, just the pieces with cannabinoids could be picked up selectively with tweezers and decolorized. Cystolith hairs and trichomes, which are characteristic of cannabis, were observed in most of these pieces using a biological microscope. This MALDI/IMS procedure enables cannabis to be found in herb mixtures without inefficient random sampling and microscopic morphological examination. PMID:24838491

  1. Effects of Five Ayurvedic Herbs on Locomotor Behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson’s Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, R. L. M.; Brogan, B.; Whitworth, A. J.; Okello, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current conventional treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B. monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. PMID:25091506

  2. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  3. Application of EPR Spectroscopy to Examination of the Effect of Sterilization Process on Free Radicals in Different Herbs.

    PubMed

    Paw?owska-Góral, Katarzyna; Ramos, Pawe?; Pilawa, Barbara; Kurzeja, Ewa

    2013-03-01

    Free radicals in the original and sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom were studied. An X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was the experimental technique. Effect of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on amplitudes, linewidths, and lineshape parameters of the EPR spectra was tested. Free radicals concentrations in the non- and sterilized herb samples were compared. The aim of this work was to determine properties and concentration of free radicals in steam sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom. It was pointed out that free radicals (~10(18)?spin/g) exist in both the original and sterilized herbs. Complex free radical system with oxygen and carbon paramagnetic centers characterizes the examined herbs. Homogeneously dipolar broadened EPR spectra were measured for all the tested herbs. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the examined samples. Practical usefulness of EPR method in food technology was discussed. PMID:23487576

  4. Evaluation of antioxidative/antimicrobial potential of Oriental nutraceutical herb extracts in raw and cooked goat meat and beef products

    E-print Network

    Han, Jaejoon

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of alcohol extracts of several Oriental nutraceutical herbs on storage properties of raw and cooked ground goat meat and beef. White peony root, red peony root, sappanwood stem, rehmania root...

  5. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong; Yu, Shenjing; Ren, Chunsheng; Xiu, Zhilong

    2012-02-01

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (?bmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  6. [Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

  7. Interactions between herbs and conventional drugs: overview of the clinical data.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Angelo A

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the clinical evidence of interactions between herbal and conventional medicines. Herbs involved in drug interactions--or that have been evaluated in pharmacokinetic trials--are discussed in this review. While many of the interactions reported are of limited clinical significance and many herbal products (e.g. black cohosh, saw palmetto, echinacea, hawthorn and valerian) seem to expose patients to minor risk under conventional pharmacotherapy, a few herbs, notably St. John's wort, may provoke adverse events sufficiently serious to endanger the patients' health. Healthcare professionals should remain vigilant for potential interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs, especially when drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are used. PMID:22236736

  8. Chinese herbs ( Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojun Yin; L. Ardó; K. D. Thompson; A. Adams; Z. Jeney; G. Jeney

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) on immune response of carp was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing Astragalus (0.5%), Ganoderma (0.5%) and combination of two herbs (Astragalus 0.5% and Ganoderma 0.5%) for 5 weeks. Other groups of fish were vaccinated (i.p.) against Aeromonas hydrophila\\/Aeromonas salmonicida (Shering Plough, Essex, U.K.) at the beginning of the experiment

  9. Effect of dietary medicinal herbs on lipid metabolism and stress recovery in red sea bream Pagrus major

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Cheol Ji; Osamu Takaoka; Si-Woo Lee; Jae-Ho Hwang; Yang-Su Kim; Katsuya Ishimaru; Manabu Seoka; Gwan-Sik Jeong; Kenji Takii

    2009-01-01

    The effect of dietary medicinal herbs on lipid metabolism and stress recovery was investigated in red sea bream Pagrus major. Fish (mean body weight 24.0 ± 0.2 g) were fed on test fish meal diets supplemented with either Massa Medicata (Mm), Crataegi\\u000a Fructus (Cf), Artemisia capillaries (Ac), or Cnidium officinale (Co), or with a mixture of the four herbs (HM) for 12 weeks. A

  10. Biological Inhibitory Effects of the Chinese Herb Danggui on Brain Astrocytoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Hwa Lee; Jong-Shiaw Jin; Wen-Chiuan Tsai; Yu-Ting Chen; Wen-Liang Chang; Chen-Wen Yao; Lia-Fa Sheu; Ann Chen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of the traditional Chinese herb danggui in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Our aim was to examine whether it might similarly be used to treat glioblastoma multiforme. Methods: The lipid-soluble active ingredients of danggui were extracted with acetone (AS-AC) or chlorophenol (AS-CH) and their antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects were studiedin vitro on

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from fruits, herbs and spices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Mueller; Stefanie Hobiger; Alois Jungbauer

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in various diseases with high prevalence within populations such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and asthma. Here we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of various fruits, herbs and spices in a lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage model. These compounds acted by reduction of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, enhancement of anti-inflammatory IL-10 production, or reduction of

  12. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds in commercially grown native Australian herbs and spices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izabela Konczak; Dimitrios Zabaras; Matthew Dunstan; Patricia Aguas

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant capacities and phenolic composition in six native, commercially grown, Australian herbs and spices were investigated. Tasmannia pepper leaf, followed by anise myrtle and lemon myrtle contained the highest levels of total phenolics (TP; 102.1; 55.9 and 31.4mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)\\/g dry weight (DW), respectively). Tasmannia pepper leaf exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay) followed

  13. Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.

    PubMed

    Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis ( B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis ( Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata ( Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

  14. Cytoprotective and pro-apoptotic activities of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich extracts.

    PubMed

    Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Konczak, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Three commercially grown native herbs unique to Australia, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata R. Br., Winteracea; TPL), anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum Vickery, Craven & Biffen, Myrtaceae; AM) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora F. Muell, Myrtaceae; LM) as well as a reference sample bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae; BL) were examined for potential cytoprotective properties. All native herbs exhibited greater cellular antioxidant activity as measured by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay than bay leaf and reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by 25-50%. All herb extracts reduced the proliferation of colon (HT-29; IC(50)=0.75-1.39mg/ml), stomach (AGS; IC(50)=0.59-1.88mg/ml), bladder (BL13; IC(50)=0.56-1.12mg/ml) and liver (HepG2; IC(50)=0.38-1.36mg/ml) cancer cells. No significant reduction of cell viability of non-transformed colon (CCD-18Co; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) and mixed stomach and intestine (Hs 738.St/Int; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) cells was observed. Flow cytometry analysis and the results of the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay conducted with respectively, promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells suggest an increase in apoptosis following treatment with the herb extracts. The occurrence of apoptotic cells coincided with an increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. The results of the CBMNCyt assay suggested no direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells as a result of treatment with all extracts, applied at final concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml. PMID:23017386

  15. Comparative study on the free flavonoid aglycones in herbs of different species of Polygonum L.

    PubMed

    Smolarz, Helena D

    2002-01-01

    The flavonoid aglycones were studied in the herbs of the following taxons of the Polygonum L. genus: P. hydropiper L, P. bistorta L., P. aviculare L., P. persicaria L., P. lapathifolium ssp. tomentosum (Schrank) Dans, P. lapathifolium ssp. nodosum (Pers.) Dans, P. amphibium L., P. mite Schrank, P. conolvulus L. (Bilderdykia convolvulus L.) by means of the RP-HPLC method. The content of taxifolin, quercetin, quercetin-3-methyl ether, kaempferol, myritcetin, luteolin, isorhamnetin and rhamnetin were determined. PMID:12365607

  16. Forest herb layer response to long-term light deficit along a forest developmental series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plue, J.; Van Gils, B.; De Schrijver, A.; Peppler-Lisbach, C.; Verheyen, K.; Hermy, M.

    2013-11-01

    Temperate deciduous forest communities are slow-changing systems, with herbaceous understorey communities displaying a delayed response to overstorey canopy and light dynamics. While light availability constrains herbaceous understorey diversity and composition in space and time, its response in the long-term absence of light has seldom been quantified, particularly as it is often confounded by covariation in soil conditions. We studied a developmental high-forest series in two widespread NW-European temperate deciduous forest communities with different dominant canopy tree species: Stellario-Carpinetum (Oak-hornbeam canopy) and Milio-Fagetum (Beech canopy). All plots had soil conditions which were not significantly different, enabling investigation into the direct effects of the long-term absence of light on the herbaceous understorey, disentangled from the confounding effects of soil variation. Plant species richness measures declined with canopy cover continuity in the herb layer of the oak-hornbeam stands, whereas richness in the herb layer of the beech stands displayed a unimodal response. Nonetheless, in both plant communities, species richness and closed-forest species richness were negatively affected by the extended absence of light in stands with the longest period of continuous canopy cover. The long-term limitation or decline in quantitative and qualitative light availability as a result of extended periods of canopy cover was shown to be the primary driver behind losses in alpha-diversity, community composition turn-over and individual species dynamics. Heliophilous species were lost from both communities, while closed-forest species also declined, as a direct consequence of the prolonged period without ample light on the forest floor. This study demonstrates how the herb layer is affected by the absence of light on the forest floor mediated by long periods of continuous canopy cover. Despite different temporal responses in herb layer richness and composition between different shade-casting canopy species, the eventual outcome in the prolonged absence of light is independent of dominant canopy species.

  17. Micropropagation of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum), a rare Indian medicinal herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Purohit; Ashish Dave; Gotam Kukda

    1994-01-01

    In vitro clonal multiplication of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et. Fernand.), a rare Indian medicinal herb, has been achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 22.2 µM benzyladenine using young shoot bases as explants. Shoots multiplied at a rate of four-fold every 3 weeks. All shoots rooted when transferred to MS medium with 3\\/4-strength inorganic and organic

  18. The use of immunostimulating herbs in fish. An overview of research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeney Galina; G. Yin; L. Ardó; Z. Jeney

    2009-01-01

    The use of immunostimulants as an alternative to the drugs, chemicals and antibiotics currently being used to control fish\\u000a diseases in fish culture is attracting the attention of many researchers. In this context, many have focused on the use of\\u000a medicinal plant products as potential therapeutic measures for modulating the immune response and, specifically, on the use\\u000a of herbs to

  19. In vitro plantlet production system for Kaempferia galanga, a rare Indian medicinal herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatima Shirin; Sandeep Kumar; Yogeshwar Mishra

    2000-01-01

    A rapid clonal propagation system for Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae), a rare folk medicinal herb has been developed. Various concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and a range\\u000a of auxins have been investigated for in vitro plantlet production, using rhizomes as explants. In vitro plantlet production has been achieved on 0.75 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 12 ?M BA, 3 ?M

  20. Variation in dormancy and germination in three co-occurring perennial forest herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Albrecht; Brian C. McCarthy

    Mesic deciduous forest herbs often disperse seed with morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) that prevents germination during\\u000a unfavorable periods for seedling survival. However, for seeds of some species with MPD, seasonal separation of root and shoot\\u000a emergence and variation in dormancy levels can complicate interpretation of seedling emergence timing in the field. We tested\\u000a whether dormancy-break and germination requirements differed among co-occurring

  1. Two novel butanol rhamnosides from an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. V. Mallavadhani; K. Narasimhan

    2009-01-01

    Two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (3–11), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-FABMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  2. Two novel butanol rhamnosides from an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta.

    PubMed

    Mallavadhani, U V; Narasimhan, K

    2009-01-01

    Two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (3-11), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-O-beta-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-FABMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:19401919

  3. Antimicrobial and biofilm effects of herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lau, Denny; Plotkin, Balbina J

    2013-11-01

    Of the twenty-two components of tea decoctions commonly used to treat infections, only Scutellaria, Taraxacum, Tussilago and Glycyrrhiza exhibited antimicrobial activity. The activity, when present, was organism specific, i.e., anti-Staphylococcus aureus, including anti-MRSA activity under aerobic and/or anaerobic conditions. However, with the exception of Scutellaria, sub-inhibitory concentrations of the herbs exhibited a pattern of inducing enhanced production of biofilm. PMID:24427955

  4. Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2), and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P?=?0.000). The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 ?g/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7?±?12.3 ?g/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79?±?7.62 ?g/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro. PMID:22682026

  5. Chemical studies on the constituents of the chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia helioscopia L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2006-07-01

    Euphoheliosnoid D (1), a new jatrophone-type diterpenoid, was isolated together with 22 known metabolites from the Chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia helioscopia L. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 14-23 were obtained from the species for the first time while compound 14, 2alpha-hydroxy helioscopinolide B, was isolated as a new natural product. PMID:16819227

  6. The influence of pollen addition and ramet isolation on current sexual reproduction in a clonal herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Ganger

    1997-01-01

    Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense Desf.), a rhizomatous, perennial herb, was the subject of a 2-year field experiment that examined two factors potentially\\u000a affecting fruit and seed production: pollen addition and ramet isolation. Ramets were either open pollinated or overpollinated\\u000a by hand to supplement natural levels. Rhizomes of the ramets were either severed, to prevent resource supplementation from\\u000a the genet, or

  7. An efficient micropropagation system for Eclipta, alba —A valuable medicinal herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Baskaran; N. Jayabalan

    2005-01-01

    Summary  An efficient rapid and large-scale in vitro clonal propagation of the valuable medicinal herb Eclipta alba (Asteraceae) by enhanced axillary shoot proliferation in cotyledonary node segments was designed. The medium type, various carbon sources,\\u000a plant growth regulators, and coconut water markedly influenced in vitro propagation of Eclipta alba. An in vitro plantlet production system has been investigated on Murashige and

  8. Simultaneous determination of 76As, 122Sb and 153Sm in Chinese medicinal herbs by epithermal neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Yi

    2009-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the simultaneous determination of As, Sb and Sm in Chinese medicinal herbs using epithermal neutron activation analysis were investigated. The minimum detectable concentrations of 76As, 122Sb and 153Sm in lichen and medicinal herbs depended on the weight of the irradiated sample, and irradiation and decay durations. Optimal conditions were obtained by wrapping the irradiated target with 3.2 mm borated polyethylene neutron filters, which were adopted to screen the original reactor fission neutrons and to reduce the background activities of 38Cl, 24Na and 42K. Twelve medicinal herbs, commonly consumed by Taiwanese children as a diuretic treatment, were analysed since trace elements, such as As and Sb, in these herbs may be toxic when consumed in sufficiently large quantities over a long period. Various amounts of medicinal herbs, standardised powder, lichen and tomato leaves were weighed, packed into polyethylene bags, irradiated and counted under different conditions. The results indicated that about 350 mg of lichen irradiated for 24 h and counted for 20 min following a 30-60 h decay period was optimal for irradiation in a 10(11)n/cm s epithermal neutron flux. The implications of the content of the studied elements in Chinese medicinal herbs are discussed. PMID:18752261

  9. Assessment of the microbiological safety of dried spices and herbs from production and retail premises in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sagoo, S K; Little, C L; Greenwood, M; Mithani, V; Grant, K A; McLauchlin, J; de Pinna, E; Threlfall, E J

    2009-02-01

    A study of dried spices and herbs from retail and production premises to determine the microbiological status of such products was undertaken in the UK during 2004. According to EC Recommendation 2004/24/EC and European Spice Association specifications, 96% of 2833 retail samples and 92% of 132 production batches were of satisfactory/acceptable quality. Salmonella spp. were detected in 1.5% and 1.1% of dried spices and herbs sampled at production and retail, respectively. Overall, 3.0% of herbs and spices contained high counts of Bacillus cereus (1%, > or =10(5) cfu g(-1)), Clostridium perfringens (0.4%, > or =10(3) cfu g(-1)) and/or Escherichia coli (2.1%, > or =10(2) cfu g(-1)). Ninety percent of samples examined were recorded as being 'ready-to-use', 96% of which were of satisfactory/acceptable quality. The potential public health risk of using spices and herbs as an addition to ready-to-eat foods that potentially undergo no further processing is therefore highlighted in this study. Prevention of microbial contamination in dried herbs and spices lies in the application of good hygiene practices during growing, harvesting and processing from farm to fork, and effective decontamination. In addition, the importance of correct food handling practices and usage of herbs and spices by end users cannot be overemphasised. PMID:19028303

  10. Application of Caco-2 Cell Line in Herb-Drug Interaction Studies: Current Approaches and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, C.; Fasinu, P.S.; Rosenkranz, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Caco-2 model is employed in pre-clinical investigations to predict the likely gastrointestinal permeability of drugs because it expresses cytochrome P450 enzymes, transporters, microvilli and enterocytes of identical characteristics to the human small intestine. The FDA recommends this model as integral component of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Most dedicated laboratories use the Caco-2 cell line to screen new chemical entities through prediction of its solubility, bioavailability and the possibility of drug-drug or herb-drug interactions in the gut lumen. However, challenges in the inherent characteristics of Caco-2 cell and inter-laboratory protocol variations have resulted to generation of irreproducible data. These limitations affect the extrapolation of data from pre-clinical research to clinical studies involving drug-drug and herb-drug interactions. This review addresses some of these caveats and enumerates the plausible current and future approaches to reduce the anomalies associated with Caco-2 cell line investigations focusing on its application in herb-drug interactions. PMID:24735758

  11. [Screening of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Chinese dietary herbs].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Zhang, Kaibin; Ji, Xiuhong; Wang, Yanwen; Jeffrey, Zidichouski; Tong, Yan; Gao, Huimin; Zhang, Junzeng; Wang, Zhimin

    2012-05-01

    The present study was conducted to develop new inhibitors of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase from Chinese dietary herbs. Sixty-three dietary herbs from 39 taxonomic families were selected and extracted with aqueous ethanol or water. The extracts were then tested with in vitro enzyme assays for their ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase activities. Orlistat and acarbose were used as two positive controls. The extracts of Nelumbo nucifera, Curcuma longa, Piper longum and Morus alba showed strong pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects with IC50 at (28.00 +/- 5.51), (5.24 +/- 0.51), (14.76 +/- 2.58), (4.78 +/- 0.58), (3.41 +/- 0.67) mg x L(-1), respectively. These extracts also showed potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 at (1.98 +/- 0.13), (0. 18 + 0.007), (0.71 +/- 0.08), (0.077 +/- 0.005), (0.089 +/- 0.006) g x L(-1), respectively. The results provide useful information for developing new drugs or natural health products for hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia from Chinese dietary herbs. PMID:22803384

  12. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Framework for Quantitative Prediction of an Herb–Drug Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

    2014-01-01

    Herb–drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb–drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb–drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions. PMID:24670388

  13. Investigation of the Biosynthetic Potential of Endophytes in Traditional Chinese Anticancer Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kristin I.; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man Yuen; Neilan, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a rich empirical knowledge of the use of plants for the treatment of disease. In addition, the microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are also of interest as the producers of the compounds responsible for the observed plant bioactivity. The present study has pioneered the use of genetic screening to assess the potential of endophytes to synthesize bioactive compounds, as indicated by the presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) genes. The total DNA extracts of 30 traditional Chinese herbs, were screened for functional genes involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. The four PCR screens were successful in targeting four bacterial PKS, six bacterial NRPS, ten fungal PKS and three fungal NRPS gene fragments. Analysis of the detected endophyte gene fragments afforded consideration of the possible bioactivity of the natural products produced by endophytes in medicinal herbs. This investigation describes a rapid method for the initial screening of medicinal herbs and has highlighted a subset of those plants that host endophytes with biosynthetic potential. These selected plants can be the focus of more comprehensive endophyte isolation and natural product studies. PMID:22629306

  14. Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

    2011-01-01

    Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method. PMID:22207851

  15. Genetic diversity of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, detected by ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    He, Jun; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu; Chen, Shao-Feng

    2007-10-01

    Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. is an important Chinese medicinal herb. Because of overharvesting, the wild populations of this herb have greatly declined and become fragmentized. In this paper, ISSR markers were used to determine the genetic diversity and genetic structure of this variety represented by a total of 153 individuals from three natural populations and three cultivated populations. Fourteen primers produced a total of 251 bands, of which 227 were polymorphic (PPB=90.44%). For the natural populations, the results showed that genetic differentiation was mainly within populations (GST=0.1952), with low genetic diversity at the population level. At the population level, genetic diversity of the cultivated populations was relatively higher than that of the natural populations (PPB=57.24% vs. 53.38%, HE=0.153 vs. 0.151, HO=0.241 vs. 0.235). This pattern can be explained by the recent introduction and artificial selection of cultivars from comparatively wide areas of origin, and subsequent gene flow among populations in cultivation. Although the neighbour-joining cluster analysis seemed to suggest that there was conspicuous genetic differentiation between the natural and cultivated populations, the AMOVA showed that only 4.84% of the total variance existed between groups of natural and cultivated populations, while 67.51% of the variance occurred within populations. In the end, some suggestions for conservation of this important herb are proposed. PMID:17973204

  16. TCMID: traditional Chinese medicine integrative database for herb molecular mechanism analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruichao; Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Shi, Tieliu

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative to modern western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is receiving increasingly attention worldwide. Great efforts have been paid to TCM’s modernization, which tries to bridge the gap between TCM and modern western medicine. As TCM and modern western medicine share a common aspect at molecular level that the compound(s) perturb human’s dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological condition, the relationship between compounds (in herb, refer to ingredients) and their targets (proteins) should be the key factor to connect TCM and modern medicine. Accordingly, we construct this Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID, http://www.megabionet.org/tcmid/), which records TCM-related information collected from different resources and through text-mining method. To enlarge the scope of the TCMID, the data have been linked to common drug and disease databases, including Drugbank, OMIM and PubChem. Currently, our TCMID contains ?47 000 prescriptions, 8159 herbs, 25 210 compounds, 6828 drugs, 3791 diseases and 17 521 related targets, which is the largest data set for related field. Our web-based software displays a network for integrative relationships between herbs and their treated diseases, the active ingredients and their targets, which will facilitate the study of combination therapy and understanding of the underlying mechanisms for TCM at molecular level. PMID:23203875

  17. Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Huang, Tung-Liang

    2005-02-01

    In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:15681161

  18. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  19. Inhibitory effect of anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory herbs on herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, C Y; Hsieh, C L; Wu, S L; Lai, I L; Ho, T Y

    2001-01-01

    The increasing clinical use of acyclovir, ganciclovir, and foscarnet against herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus has been associated with the emergence of drug-resistant herpesvirus strains. To develop anti-HSV compounds from plants, 31 herbs used as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents in Chinese medicine were screened. Five different preparations (cold aqueous, hot aqueous, ethanolic, acid ethanolic, and methanolic) from 31 herbs were analyzed by plaque reduction assay, and 7 extracts. which showed significant antiviral activities, were further elucidated for their antiviral mechanisms. Our results showed that ethanolic extract of Rheum officinale and methanolic extract of Paeonia suffruticosa prevented the process of virus attachment and penetration. Aqueous extract of P. suffruticosa and ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan inhibited virus attachment to cell surface. Aqueous extract of Sophora flavescens and methanolic extract of M. toosendan showed no effect on virus attachment and penetration. These data indicated that these 4 herbs have a potential value as a source of new powerful anti-HSV compounds. PMID:11789588

  20. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects. PMID:20974978

  1. TCMID: Traditional Chinese Medicine integrative database for herb molecular mechanism analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruichao; Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Shi, Tieliu

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative to modern western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is receiving increasingly attention worldwide. Great efforts have been paid to TCM's modernization, which tries to bridge the gap between TCM and modern western medicine. As TCM and modern western medicine share a common aspect at molecular level that the compound(s) perturb human's dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological condition, the relationship between compounds (in herb, refer to ingredients) and their targets (proteins) should be the key factor to connect TCM and modern medicine. Accordingly, we construct this Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID, http://www.megabionet.org/tcmid/), which records TCM-related information collected from different resources and through text-mining method. To enlarge the scope of the TCMID, the data have been linked to common drug and disease databases, including Drugbank, OMIM and PubChem. Currently, our TCMID contains ?47 000 prescriptions, 8159 herbs, 25 210 compounds, 6828 drugs, 3791 diseases and 17 521 related targets, which is the largest data set for related field. Our web-based software displays a network for integrative relationships between herbs and their treated diseases, the active ingredients and their targets, which will facilitate the study of combination therapy and understanding of the underlying mechanisms for TCM at molecular level. PMID:23203875

  2. Biology and damage of an undescribed baridine weevil on amryllis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The weevil subfamily Baridinae is comprised of several economically important species that cause damage to the roots and fruits of plants. In the early 1990's, a baradine weevil was observed feeding on and occasionally killing amaryllis (Hippeastrum Herb) plants in Florida. A survey was conducted to...

  3. Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

    2014-05-01

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria. Because these herbs are consumed without appropriate heating, transfer to human bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24607424

  4. [Analysis of common volatile constituents in herbal pair chuanxiong rhizome-notoperygium root and its single herb].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-ru; Zhou, Tao; Liang, Yi-zeng; Zou, Qiao; Zeng, Xiao; Zhang, Bin

    2007-10-01

    Analysis of common volatile constituents in herbal pair (HP) Chuanxiong Rhizome (CXR)-Notoperygium root (NR) and its single herb was performed by the method of alternative moving window factor analysis (AMWFA). In total, 65, 71, and 79 volatile chemical components in volatile oil of CXR, NR, and HP CXR-NR were separately determined qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 83.69%, 96.04% and 95.39% total contents of volatile oil of CXR, NR, and HP CXR-NR respectively. Analysis by the method of AMWFA indicates that there are 45 common volatile constituents in HP CXR-NR and single herb CXR, and 63 common volatile constituents in HP CXR-NR and single herb NR and 31 common volatile constituents among these three systems. The experimental results also show that the number of volatile chemical components in HP CXR-NR is almost equal to the sum of the number in the two single herbs, and volatile chemical components in HP CXR-NR are mainly from single herb NR. PMID:18229618

  5. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Herb Usage Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Julia; White, Laura F.; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Bharmal, Nazleen; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies display a wide range of herb use prevalence among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States. We searched databases indexing the literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, and Medline. We included studies that reported herbal medicine prevalence among ethnic minorities, African American, Hispanic, or Asian adults living in the United States. Data from 108 included studies found the prevalence of herb use by African Americans was 17 % (range 1–46 %); for Hispanics, 30 % (4–100 %); and for Asians, 30 % (2–73 %). Smaller studies were associated with higher reported herb use (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference (p = 0.01) between regional and national studies with regional studies reporting higher use. While herb usage surveys in racial/ethnic minorities show great variability, indications suggest high prevalence. More research is needed to understand herb use among ethnic/racial minorities, reasons for use, and barriers to disclosure of use to clinicians. PMID:22723252

  6. Can medical herbs stimulate regeneration or neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  7. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-09-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

  8. ``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-05-01

    In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

  9. Determination of 16 insect growth regulators in edible Chinese traditional herbs by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia

    2012-03-01

    A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 ?g kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens. PMID:22271101

  10. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor ?B Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

  11. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  12. Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

  13. Treatment of advanced breast cancer with chinese medicinal herbs of Fei decoction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lv, G M; Hu, M; Chen, R Z; Zhu, L L; Tao, Ch J; Xia, X D; Gong, Y L; Li, P; Wan, H J

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old female underwent surgery for cancer of the right breast mammary (T3N2M0) in Sep 2010. Following post surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy of CAF regimens (cyclophosphamide+adriamycin+fluorouracil) was administered. Two years later, multiple pulmonary and skeletal metastatic lesions had been found by CT (computerized tomography) and ECT (emission computed tomograph) imaging. She received the treatment of second-line chemotherapy regimens of GP (cisplatin + gemcitabine). In the meantime, we administered Chinese traditional herb drugs (Fei Decoction, mixed a variety of effective herbal components) to help her recover from the poor condition. After taking the Chinese herbs for 2 months, the tumour marker (CEA, CA15-3) dramatically decreased, resulting in the normal range. Both lung and bone metastatic sites reduced according to CT and ECT imaging, and the patient felt free from the complaint of pulmonary and cardiac discomfort. Over time, the quality of life has been greatly improved, we have managed to prolong the PFS (progression-free-survival) and TTP (time-to-progression) from the onset to date. CTM (Chinese traditional medicine) considers human body as a dynamic platform in which all organs are correlative and bind each other. Relationship between heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney is like an interlink between mother and son, and runs in cycle as a circle. In the course of this combined treatment, we showed that Chinese herbal medicine played an important role in the therapy of breast cancer. Chinese herbs might be an additional choice with their better benefits and tolerability in the treatment of recurrent breast cancer. PMID:24725126

  14. The evaluation of a fast and simple pesticide multiresidue method in various herbs by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    ?ozowicka, Bo?ena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczy?ski, Piotr; Mici?ski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid-solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validated sample preparation procedures were compared. Under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 70-119% for MSPD for most pesticides and 70-118% for LSE, but with several exceptions. Precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were ?16% for MSPD and <18% for LSE. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99254 for both methods. LODs (limits of detection) and LOQs (limits of quantification) for MSPD were within the ranges of 0.003-0.03 and 0.005-0.04 mg/kg, respectively. The data demonstrate that the MSPD method was successfully used for the analysis of 163 pesticides in the following herbs: chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), linden (Tilia), lungwort (Pulmonaria L.), melissa (Melissa L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This paper indicates the potential of MSPD for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues. This method was therefore validated at three spiking levels (the first ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg, the second from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg and the third from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/kg) and applied to real samples (n = 15). MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs. PMID:23670401

  15. Variation in responses of late-seral herbs to disturbance and environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Cara R; Halpern, Charles B; Antos, Joseph A

    2007-11-01

    Clonal herbs that attain maximum development in late-seral forest are often assumed to have similar responses to disturbance and to be functionally equivalent. However, little is known about the demographic or physiological responses of these plants to disturbance or to the altered conditions of the post-disturbance environment. Following harvest of a mature coniferous forest, we compared abundance, demographic changes, and physiological acclimation of three clonal herbs (Asarum caudatum, Clintonia uniflora, and Pyrola picta) that differ in belowground morphology and leaf longevity. We measured ramet density, leaf area, and demographic variables (survival, clonal growth, flowering, and seedling establishment) before and for two years after harvest, and in adjacent undisturbed forest. Acclimation to increased solar radiation was assessed two years after harvest by measuring leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and chlorophyll a:b ratios of leaves produced in the current year. Although initial declines in abundance were similar, demographic responses indicate that patterns of recovery varied greatly among species. Two years after logging, ramet survival and clonal growth (production of new ramets) of Clintonia were greater in the harvest area than in the forest. Asarum had lower survival in the harvest area, but greater clonal growth, and Pyrola showed no difference in either survival or growth between environments. Only Asarum produced seedlings, although their survival was low in the harvest area. All species had higher LMA in the harvest area, but only Clintonia (with annual leaves) had a higher chlorophyll a:b ratio, suggesting the greatest potential for acclimation to increased light. Our results demonstrate that forest herbs with greater rhizome plasticity and shorter leaf duration have greater potential to acclimate after disturbance than those with rigid architectures and persistent leaves. Thus, species with comparable successional roles can vary substantially in their demographic and physiological responses to disturbance, with potential consequences for long-term recovery. PMID:18051657

  16. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance. PMID:25071580

  17. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089

  18. The herb community of a tropical forest in central Panamá: dynamics and impact of mammalian herbivores.

    PubMed

    Royo, Alejandro A; Carson, Walter P

    2005-08-01

    Mammals are hypothesized to either promote plant diversity by preventing competitive exclusion or limit diversity by reducing the abundance of sensitive plant species through their activities as browsers or disturbance agents. Previous studies of herbivore impacts in plant communities have focused on tree species and ignored the herbaceous community. In an experiment in mature-phase, tropical moist forest sites in central Panamá, we studied the impact of excluding ground-dwelling mammals on the richness and abundance of herbs in 16, 30x45-m plots. Within each plot, we censused the herbaceous community in 28, 2x2-m subplots (1,792 m2 total area sampled). We identified over 54 species of herbs averaging 1.21 ramets m-2 and covering approximately 4.25% of the forest floor. Excluding mammals for 5 years had no impact on overall species richness. Within exclosures, however, there was a significant two-fold increase in the density of rare species. Overall herbaceous density and percent cover did not differ between exclosures and adjacent control plots, although cover did increase over time. Mammalian exclusion significantly increased the total cover of three-dominant herb species, Pharus latifolius, Calathea inocephala, and Adiantum lucidum, but did not affect their density. This study represents one of the most extensive herbaceous community censuses conducted in tropical forests and is among a few that quantify herbaceous distribution and abundance in terms of both density and cover. Additionally, this work represents the first community level test of mammalian impacts on the herbaceous community in a tropical forest to date. Our results suggest that ground dwelling mammals do not play a key role in altering the relative abundance patterns of tropical herbs in the short term. Furthermore, our results contrast sharply with prior studies on similar temporal and spatial scales that demonstrate mammals strongly alter tree seedling composition and reduce seedling density. Thus, we question the pervasiveness of top-down control on tropical plant communities and the paradigm that defaunation will inexorably lead to widespread, catastrophic shifts in plant communities. PMID:16010533

  19. Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Norman; Keenan Thomas; Pedro Guillaumon; Alan R. Smith

    2014-06-10

    Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

  20. Multiple Harvest Yield Response of Microirrigated Herbs to Nitrogen and Potassium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Csizinszky

    2003-01-01

    Italian parsley, Petroselinum crispum, summer savory, Satureja hortensis, sweet marjoram, Origanum majorana, and French thyme, Thymus vulgaris, were evaluated for potential yield in a multiple harvest system during the fall-winter-spring (Nov.-June) 1995–1996 and (Dec.-June) 1996–1997. The herbs were grown with a full-bed polyethylene mulch-micro-(trickle)-irrigation system using two nitrogen and potassium rates (0.68 N & 0.74 Kkg·ha·day and 1.8 N &

  1. Antifeedants from Chinese medicinal herb, Erythrina variegata var. orientalis, against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; Chu, Sha Sha; Jiang, Guo Hua; Liu, Shao Liang

    2012-02-01

    The screening for insecticidal principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the stem bark of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis possessed significant feeding deterrence against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the stem bark extract of E. variegata var. orientalis resulted in the isolation of two alkaloids, identified as erysopine and erysovine from their spectroscopic data. Erysopine and erysovine possessed antifeedant activity against S. zeamais adults with EC50 values of 108.5 and 89.7 ppm, respectively. PMID:22474945

  2. The Effects of Uygur Herb Hyssopus officinalis L. on the Process of Airway Remodeling in Asthmatic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Ma, Xiumin; Ma, Zhixing; Sun, Zhan; Yu, Wenyan; Wang, Jing; Li, Fengsen; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    It has been proved that Uygur herb Hyssopus offcinalis L. could affect the levels of some cytokines (such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-?) in asthmatic mice. By detection of the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and the morphological changes, the aim of this research is to reveal the mechanism of Uygur herb Hyssopus offcinalis L. in the process of airway remodeling. It was observed that the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 increased, but the ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1 decreased in airway remodeling group. However, the expression of both MMP-9 and TIMP-1 decreased after being treated with dexamethasone and Hyssopus offcinalis L., accompanied by the relieved pathological changes, including collagen deposition, mucus secretion, and smooth muscle proliferation. It is suggested that Uygur herb Hyssopus offcinalis L. could inhibit airway remodeling by correcting imbalance of MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. PMID:25383084

  3. [The motive characteristics and pattern of manifestation of Chinese medicinal herb during the period of "Cultural Revolution"].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2009-01-01

    During the period of "Cultural Revolution", there started a movement of Chinese medicinal herb throughout the whole country. As a national movement meeting the needs of the time, not only had the guarantee of national policy, but also had the support of finance and the propaganda of People's Daily, PLA Daily and Red Flag Magazine. The movement had all kinds of different manifestations such as cooperative medical care, mobile medical team, research team, three tu (folk recipe, folk healer, folk medicine), four selves (self-planting, self-collection, self-making, self-use), exhibition of Chinese medicinal herb, compiling the handbook of Chinese medicinal herb etc. It had reference values to the current medical care system. PMID:19824359

  4. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein) from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals in chicken meat. Graphical abstract PMID:22429523

  5. Preliminary observations on the effects of the Chinese medicinal herbs Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum on lymphocyte blastogenic responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Hersh, E M; Lee, S L; McLaughlin, M; Loo, T L; Mavligit, G M

    1983-01-01

    The biological effects of extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs, Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum, on in vitro lymphocyte blastogenesis were assessed. Aqueous extracts augmented the spontaneous [3H]thymidine incorporation in the mononuclear cells (MNC) of 14 normal subjects from 273.0 to 609.3 counts per minute (cpm) and 252.9 to 656.9 cpm for the two herbs, respectively. The stimulation indices were 2.4 and 3.1, respectively (p less than 0.001). They also augmented the proliferation of normal subjects' lymphocytes induced by suboptimal concentrations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) from 5084.6 to 23,398.3 and 221.7 to 24,132.8 cpm, of concanavalin A (con A) from 4046.5 to 15,661.5 and 677.6 to 14,644.6 cpm, and of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) from 4377.9 to 24,405.6 and 322.7 to 11,730.0 cpm, respectively (p less than 0.00). Herb extracts augmented the PHA responses of the MNC from 14 cancer patients significantly (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively). Extracts of L. lucidum also augmented the con A response of patients (p less than 0.05). The augmenting effect of the herbs on the PHA, con A, and PWM responses was dose dependent, and proliferation was inhibited at higher concentrations. The optimal concentration for stimulating the MNC of cancer patients was 100 micrograms/ml, compared to 10 micrograms/ml for the MNC of normal donors. MNC of seven patients depressed the mitogen responses of normal cells in a co-culture system. This was partially abrogated in five by preincubating the patients' cells in herb extracts for 45 min or by irradiation of the patients' cells. These results suggest that the herb extracts contain immunomodulatory components which may be useful in the immunotherapy of disease. PMID:6644339

  6. Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs.

    PubMed

    Kiselova, Yoana; Ivanova, Diana; Chervenkov, Trifon; Gerova, Daniela; Galunska, Bistra; Yankova, Tatyana

    2006-11-01

    The water phase antioxidant activity of extracts from 23 Bulgarian medicinal plants was studied in relation to their polyphenol content in comparison with mate, black tea, honeybush and rooibos foreign species. Antioxidant activity was measured by the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) cation radical decolorization assay, and the total polyphenol content was assayed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Five Bulgarian plant extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of mate, which is 21.7% of all Bulgarian herbs included in this study. These were Alchemilla vulgaris L. (4.79 +/- 0.14 mm), Sambucus ebulus L. (4.03 +/- 0.07 mm), Mentha spicata L. (3.90 +/- 0.03 mm), Fragaria vesca L. (3.74 +/- 0.06 mm), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (3.63 +/- 0.05 mm). Another eight Bulgarian medicinal plant extracts exhibited an intermediate antioxidant activity - lower than that of mate and higher than that of honeybush, which makes 34.8% of all Bulgarian herbs included in the study. More than half of the herbal extracts included in the present study exhibited antioxidant activity higher than or comparable to the reference foreign plants. A positive correlation (r = 0.92) between antioxidant activity and polyphenol content was found, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous plant extracts is due to a great extent to their polyphenols. PMID:16906640

  7. Chinese Herb and Formulas for Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis and Antiplatelet Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Yin, Hui-Jun; Shi, Da-zhuo; Chen, Ke-ji

    2012-01-01

    Atherothrombosis, which directly threatens people's health and lives, is the main cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Platelets play a key role in the development of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) and contribute to cardiovascular events. Oral antiplatelet drugs are a milestone in the therapy of cardiovascular atherothrombotic diseases. In recent years, many reports have shown the possibility that “resistance” to oral anti-platelet drugs and many adverse reactions, such as serious bleeding risk, which provides an impetus for developing new anti-platelet drugs possesses highly efficiency and fewer adverse effects. Study on the blood stasis syndrome and promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis is the most active field of research of integration of traditional and western medicine in China. Blood-stasis syndrome and platelet activation have close relationship, many Chinese herb and formulas for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis possess definite anti-platelet effect. This paper covers the progress of anti-platelet mechanism of Chinese herb and formulas for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis and is to be deeply discussed in further research. PMID:22454656

  8. In vivo enhancement of natural killer cell activity through tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jyoti; Damle, Aparna; Vaishnav, Pankaj P; Albers, Ruud; Joshi, Manoj; Banerjee, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a tea fortified with five herbs selected from Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda) for their putative immunoenhancing effect (Withania somnifera, Glycyrrhzia glabra, Zingiber officinale, Ocimum sanctum and Elettaria cardamomum) on innate immunity was investigated. Ex vivo natural killer (NK) cell activity was assessed after consumption of fortified tea compared with regular tea in two independent double-blind intervention studies. Both studies were conducted in India with healthy volunteers (age >or= 55 years) selected for a relatively low baseline NK cell activity and a history of recurrent coughs and colds. In a pilot study conducted with 32 volunteers, the consumption of Natural Care tea significantly improved the NK cell activity of the volunteers in comparison with a population consuming regular tea. These results were validated in an independent crossover study with 110 volunteers. Data from these two studies indicate that regular consumption of the tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs enhanced NK cell activity, which is an important aspect of the (early) innate immune response to infections. PMID:19504465

  9. A Systematic Review of the Reporting of Adverse Events Associated with Medical Herb Use among Children

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Adams, Denise; Filippelli, Amanda; Nasser, Hafsa; Saper, Robert; White, Laura; Vohra, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To perform a systematic review of adverse events associated with herb use in the pediatric population. Since many health care providers get their information about the safety of herbal medicine from case reports published in the medical literature, it is important to assess the quality of these case reports. Methods Electronic literature search included 7 databases and a manual search of retrieved articles from inception through 2010. We included case reports and case series that reported an adverse event associated with exposure to an herbal product by children under the age of 18 years old. Based on the International Society of Epidemiology's “Guidelines for Submitting Adverse Events Reports for Publication”, we assigned a guideline adherence score (0-17) to each case report. Results Ninety-six unique journal papers were identified and represented 128 cases. Of the 128 cases, 37% occurred in children under 2 years old, 38% between the ages of 2 – 8 years old, and 23 % between the ages 9-18 years old. In a few cases, the child used a product that was contaminated (5%) or adulterated (2%). Twenty-nine percent of cases were the result of an intentional ingestion while 36% were from an unintentional ingestion. Mean guideline adherence score was 12.5 (range 6 – 17). Conclusions There is considerable need for improvement in reporting adverse events in children following herb use. Without better quality reporting, adverse event reports cannot be interpreted reliably, and do not contribute in a meaningful way to guiding clinical recommendations. PMID:19203654

  10. Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of the Traditional Chinese Herb, Phyllanthus amarus

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 to response towards exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and the extract reduced bioluminescence in E. coli [pSB401] and E. coli [pSB1075]. In addition to this, methanolic extract of P. amarus significantly inhibited selected quorum sensing-regulated virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Increasing concentrations of the methanolic extracts of P. amarus reduced swarming motility, pyocyanin production and P. aeruginosa PA01 lecA?lux expression. Our data suggest that P. amarus could be useful for attenuating pathogens and hence, more local traditional herbs should be screened for its anti-quorum sensing properties as their active compounds may serve as promising anti-pathogenic drugs. PMID:24169540

  11. [Efficacy and safety of symphytum herb extract cream in the treatment of pressure ulcers].

    PubMed

    Stepán, J; Ehrlichova, J; Hladikova, M

    2014-04-01

    In an open, prospective use study, 161 patients with 198 decubitus ulcers (pressure ulcers, ITT population) in stages II and III were treated with the topical preparation symphytum herb extract cream. The bandages with the cream were changed every 2-3 days. The primary parameters evaluated were the area of the sore and the depth of the wound (planimetrically in mm). In all, 151 patients with a total of 184 pressure sores (PP population) were included and received treatment over a period of 4 weeks in order to evaluate the treatment results. Complete healing of the pressure sores within 4 weeks was observed in 85.9?% (PP population)/79.8?% (ITT population) of the treated ulcers. Over a treatment duration of 25-30 days, a 89.2?% reduction of the total decubitus area was observed. The same result was found for the depth of the pressure ulcer with a reduction of 88?%. The overall treatment success was from both the perspective of the physician and the patient considered successful in 90.4?% (5-point scale) of cases and 87.9% (100 mm VAS, PP population). Two cases of local irritation were observed after 25/30 days (1.2?% of the patients with exposure), thus showing very good skin compatibility. The efficacy of symphytum herb extract cream is surprisingly good in the treatment of pressure ulcers. PMID:24048776

  12. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, A.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.; Bortolin, E.; Calicchia, A.; Onori, S.

    2007-08-01

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as "irradiated") for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

  13. Renal interstitial fibrosis and urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi).

    PubMed

    Nortier, J L; Vanherweghem, J L

    2002-12-27

    A new renal disease called 'Chinese-herb nephropathy' (CHN) has been reported to occur in women who have ingested slimming pills containing powdered extracts of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra (ST). Moderate to end-stage renal disease developed, requiring renal replacement therapy by dialysis or transplantation. Phytochemical analyses of the pills revealed the presence of aristolochic acids (AA) instead of tetrandrine, suggesting the substitution of ST (Han fang ji) by Aristolochia fangchi containing nephrotoxic and carcinogenic AA. A typical histological feature of CHN is a progressive interstitial fibrosis leading to a severe atrophy of the proximal tubules, as documented by the urinary excretion rates of markers of tubular integrity (reduction of neutral endopeptidase enzymuria and high levels of microproteinurias). Removal of the native kidneys and ureters in end-stage CHN patients provided a high prevalence of urothelial carcinoma (46%). Tissue samples contained AA-related DNA adducts, which are not only specific markers of prior exposure to AA but are also directly involved in tumorigenesis. Exposure to Aristolochia species (spp.) is associated with the development of renal interstitial fibrosis (CHN) and urothelial cancer in humans. Health professionals should be aware that in traditional Chinese medicine, Aristolochia spp. are considered interchangeable with certain other herbal ingredients and are also sometimes mistaken for ST, Akebia, Asarum, Clematis spp. and Cocculus spp. in herbal remedies. PMID:12505369

  14. Immunosuppressive effects of the traditional Chinese herb Qu Mai on human alloreactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Reid-Adam, J; Yang, N; Song, Y; Cravedi, P; Li, X-M; Heeger, P

    2013-05-01

    Current therapies for transplant rejection are suboptimally effective. In an effort to discover novel immunosuppressants we used cytokine ELISPOT and ELISAs to screen extracts from 53 traditional Chinese herbs for their ability to suppress human alloreactive T cells. We identified a dichloromethane-soluble fraction (Qu Mai fraction AD [QMAD]) of Qu Mai (Dianthus superbus) as a candidate. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of QMAD revealed three dominant peaks, each with a MW ~600 Daltons and distinct from cyclosporine and rapamycin. When we added QMAD to human mixed lymphocyte cultures, we observed dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation and IFN? production, by naïve and memory alloreactive T cells, and observed an increased frequency of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells. To address whether QMAD induces regulatory T cells we added QMAD to anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated naïve CD4 T cells and observed a dose-dependent upregulation of Foxp3 associated with new suppressive capacity. Mechanistically, QMAD did not induce T cell IL-10 or TGF? but blocked T cell AKT phosphorylation, a key signaling nexus required for T cell proliferation and expansion, that simultaneously prevents Foxp3 transcription. Our findings provide novel insight into the antiinflammatory effects of one traditional Chinese herb, and support the need for continued isolation, characterization and testing of QMAD-derived components as immune suppressants for transplant rejection. PMID:23433080

  15. Environmental factors and seed abundance influence seedling emergence of a perennial forest herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Annette; Barsch, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    Seedlings are an important, but vulnerable stage in the life cycle of plants. The identification of factors affecting their recruitment is therefore fundamental for understanding basic plant population processes as well as plant distribution and abundance. In this study, we used a combined experimental and observational approach to examine how microsite quality and quantity as well as seed supply affect different processes of seedling establishment, using the perennial forest herb Phyteuma spicatum (Campanulaceae) as model species. This species reproduces exclusively by seed, and seedling emergence, growth and survival are therefore critical stages in its life cycle. Seedlings were frequent in microsites with bare soil and overall high light intensities, and were less common in sites with deep litter layers as well as dense and low vegetation. Seed addition, via experimental sowings or via the natural seed rain, consistently enhanced seedling emergence. Seed density effects, however, were variable among years; seedling emergence rates decreased at high seed densities in one of two seed cohorts. Seedling emergence time, size and survival were largely not affected by microhabitat type or seed density. In summary, our findings suggest that environmental factors and seed abundance determine recruitment success of P. spicatum and that effects on early processes of seedling establishment (emergence) are stronger than effects on late processes of establishment (growth and survival). Our work thereby contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying recruitment patterns of this species and other perennial herbs.

  16. Thyroid Storm Caused by a Chinese Herb Contaminated with Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Maude; Vandenberghe, Hilde; Thompson, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 70 Final Diagnosis: Thyroid storm Symptoms: Atrial fibrillation • confusion • hyperthermia • tachycardia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Intubation • cardioversion Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Adverse events of drug therapy Background: We report a case of thyroid storm caused by consuming a Chinese herb contaminated with thyroid hormones. Case Report: A 70-year-old man presented to an emergency department after 2 days of nausea, vomiting, and weakness. Three days previously, he had started taking Cordyceps powder and “Flower Man Sang Hung” as recommended by his Chinese physician. Following admission, the patient deteriorated and was eventually diagnosed with thyroid storm complicated by rapid atrial fibrillation requiring cardioversion, intubation, and intensive care admission. The analysis of the Chinese herb “Flower Man Sang Hung” was positive for levothyroxine. The patient was extubated 11 days after admission and discharged to a rehabilitation centre after 17 days of hospitalization. The Chinese medicine physician was informed of the events. Conclusions: Herbal products can be the source of illness, medication interactions, and contamination. Awareness should be raised among Chinese medicine physicians, allopathic physicians, and their patients. Clinicians should also have a low threshold of suspicion to seek laboratory analysis of suspect substances when the cause of the clinical presentation is unclear. PMID:25644333

  17. Identification and evaluation of agents isolated from traditionally used herbs against Ophiophagus hannah venom.

    PubMed

    Salama, R; Sattayasai, J; Gande, A K; Sattayasai, N; Davis, M; Lattmann, E

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was firstly to identify active molecules in herbs, that are traditionally used for the treatment of snake bite, such as Curcuma antinaia, Curcuma contravenenum, Andrographis paniculata, and Tanacetum parthenium; secondly to test similar structurally related molecules and finally to prepare and evaluate an efficient formulation against Ophiophagus hannah venom intoxification. Three labdane based compounds, including labdane dialdehyde, labdane lactone, and labdane trialdehyde and two lactones including 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and parthenolide were isolated by column chromatography and characterised. Using the isolated rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, the antagonistic effect of crude extracts, isolated compounds and prepared formulations were measured in vitro on the inhibition of the neuromuscular transmission. Inhibition on muscle contraction, produced by the 5 ?g/mL venom, was reversed by test agents in organ bath preparations. A labdane trialdehyde, isolated from C. contravenenum, was identified as the best antagonising agent in the low micromolar range. Tests on formulations of the most potent C. contravenenum extract showed, that the suppository with witepsol H15 was an effective medicine against O. hannah venom. This study elucidated the active compounds, accounting for the antivenin activity of traditionally used herbs and suggested the most suitable formulation, which may help to develop potent medicines for the treatment of snake bite in the future. PMID:22460424

  18. Who invented the dichotomous key? Richard Waller's watercolors of the herbs of Britain.

    PubMed

    Griffing, Lawrence R

    2011-12-01

    On 27 March 1689, Richard Waller, Fellow and Secretary of the Royal Society presented his "Tables of the English Herbs reduced to such an order, as to find the name of them by their external figures and shapes" to his assembled colleagues at a meeting of the Royal Society. These tables were developed for the novice by being color images, composed in pencil and watercolor, of selected plants and their distinguishing characteristics. The botanical watercolors for the tables are now a Turning-the-Pages document online on the website of the Royal Society. However, for the past 320 years, the scientific context for the creation of these outstanding botanical watercolors has remained obscure. These tables were developed by Waller as an image-based dichotomous key, pre-dating by almost 100 years the text-based dichotomous keys in the first edition of Flora Française (1778) by Jean Baptiste Lamarck, who is generally given priority for the development of the dichotomous key. How these large folio images were arranged to illustrate a dichotomous key is unknown, but an arrangement based on Waller's description is illustrated here as leaf-ordering for the separate hierarchical clusters (tables). Although only 24 species of watercolored dicot herbs out of a total of 65 in the set of watercolors (the others being monocots) are used in these tables, they are a "proof of concept", serving as models upon which a method is based, that of using a key composed of dichotomous choices for aiding identification. PMID:22074776

  19. Enhanced chromatographic fingerprinting of herb materials by multi-wavelength selection and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Lucio-Gutiérrez, J Ricardo; Coello, J; Maspoch, S

    2012-01-13

    A strategy for multi-wavelength chromatographic fingerprinting of herbal materials, using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV-Vis diode array detector is presented. Valeriana officinalis was selected to show the proposed methodology since it is a widely used commercially available herbal drug, and because misfit with other valerian species is a current issue. The enhanced fingerprints were constructed by compiling into a single data vector the chromatograms from four wavelengths (226, 254, 280 and 326 nm), at which characteristic chemical constituents of studied herbs presented maximum absorbance. Chromatographic data pretreatment included baseline correction, normalization and correlation optimized warping. A simplex optimization was performed to retrieve the optimal values of the parameters used in the warping. General success rates of a classification above 90% were achieved by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The sensitivity and specificity of constructed models were above 94%. Tests on laboratory-made mixtures showed that it is possible to detect adulterations or counterfeits with 5% foreign herbal material, even if it is from the Valerianaceae family. The results suggest that the proposed enhanced fingerprinting approach can be used to authenticate herb materials with complex chromatographic profiles. PMID:22123110

  20. Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

    2012-03-01

    The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

  1. The co-use of conventional drugs and herbs among patients in Norwegian general practice: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Different patient groups are known to use herbal remedies and conventional drugs concomitantly (co-use). This poses a potential risk of herb-drug interaction through altering the drug’s pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Little is known about co-use among patients in general practice. The primary aim of this study was to compare patients in general practice that co-use herbal remedies and conventional drugs with those who do not. The secondary aim was to register the herb-drug combinations with potential clinical relevant interactions among the co-users. Method A questionnaire based cross-sectional study conducted in the autumn 2011 in a general practice office with four general practitioners (GPs) and one intern in Western Norway. Adults >18 years who came for an office visit were invited. The questionnaire asked about demographics, herbal use, conventional drug use and communication about herbal use. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare co-users to the other patients. Results Of the 381 patients who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of herbal use was 44%, with bilberry (41%), green tea (31%), garlic (27%), Aloe vera (26%) and echinacea (18%) as the most frequently used. Among those using conventional drugs regularly, 108 (45%) co-used herbs. Close to 40% of patients on anticoagulants co-used herbs, with garlic and bilberry as the most frequent herbs. Compared to all other patients, co-users had significantly (p?herbs to treat an illness (adjOR 4.2), use two or more herbs (polyherbacy, adjOR 12.1) and having experienced adverse effects of herbal use (adjOR 37.5). Co-use was also associated with use of analgesics or dermatological drugs (adjOR 5.1 and 7.9 respectively). Three out of four patients did not discuss herbal use with any health care professional. Conclusion A sizable proportion of the GP patients co-used herbs with conventional drugs, also combinations with reported interaction potential or additive effects like anticoagulants and garlic. The low disclosure of herbal use to their GP, polyherbacy and the risk of interactions in vulnerable groups like elderly and chronically ill patients, warrant increased awareness among GPs. PMID:24171723

  2. -The influence of carbon -nutrient balance on herb and woody plant abundance -217 Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 217-226, 2006

    E-print Network

    Peet, Robert K.

    - The influence of carbon - nutrient balance on herb and woody plant abundance - 217 Journal structural carbon - nutrient balance hypothesis parallel to Bryant et al.'s defensive chem- istry hypothesis or water. We test the derivative predic- tions that in temperate deciduous forests (1) herb cover

  3. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Polyphenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activities of Cooked and In Vitro Digested Culinary Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P.; Jones, Lucy; Opara, Elizabeth I.

    2012-01-01

    There is little research on how cooking and digestion affect the anti-inflammatory activity of culinary herbs. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate this activity following cooking and in vitro digestion of the common culinary herbs, rosemary, sage, and thyme, and the relationship between their anti-inflammatory activity, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity. The anti-inflammatory activity of uncooked (U), cooked (C), cooked and in vitro digested (C&D), and standardised (STD, 30?mg/mL) culinary herbs was assessed by measuring their effect on interleukin 8 (IL-8) release from stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and Caco-2 cells. The trolox equivalent capacity (TEAC) and estimated total phenolic content of the herbs were also determined. There was a significant decrease in IL-8 release from PBLs stimulated with H2O2 incubated with (U), (C), (C&D), and (STD) herbs and from Caco-2 cells stimulated with TNF? incubated with (C&D) and (STD) herbs. PBLs pre-incubated with (C&D) herbs prior to stimulation (H2O2 or TNF?) caused a significant inhibition in IL-8 release. The significant correlations between TEAC and estimated phenolic content and the anti-inflammatory activity suggest a possible contributory role of polyphenols to the anti-inflammatory activity of the culinary herbs investigated. PMID:22685620

  4. Quality of reporting of two-group parallel randomized controlled clinical trials of multi-herb formulae: A survey of reports indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunqing Zhong; Wei Zhou; Hongli Jiang; Tao Fan; Xiang Diao; Hongmei Yang; Jie Min; Gang Wang; Juanjuan Fu; Bing Mao

    IntroductionAn increasing number of trials of multi-herb formula interventions are being published in relatively high-ranked medical journals indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of reporting of two-group parallel randomized controlled clinical trials (indexed in SCIE) of multi-herb formulae.

  5. Influence of straw mulching on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency, moisture conservation and herb and essential oil yield in Japanese mint ( Mentha arvensis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Patra; Muni Ram; D. V. Singh

    1993-01-01

    In a field study, the influence of organic mulches viz. paddy straw and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) distillation waste on herb and essential oil yield and fertilizer N use efficiency in Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.) were examined for two years. Herb yield (dry weight) increased by 17 and 31% with paddy straw and citronella distillation waste, respectively over the

  6. Influence of different dates of planting on growth, herb, oil yield and quality of essential oil of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) in the NorthIndian Plain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh K. Chauhan; Mohammed Anwar; Sukhmal Chand; Dharani D. Patra

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years (2007–2008 and 2008–2009) to study the effect of different dates of planting for three menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) cultivars (Saksham, Kushal and Kosi; developed by Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India) on herb yield, oil yield and oil quality. All the cultivars produced higher herb and oil yields when

  7. Influence of different dates of planting on growth, herb, oil yield and quality of essential oil of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) in the North Indian Plain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh K. Chauhan; Mohammed Anwar; Sukhmal Chand; Dharani D. Patra

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years (2007–2008 and 2008–2009) to study the effect of different dates of planting for three menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) cultivars (Saksham, Kushal and Kosi; developed by Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India) on herb yield, oil yield and oil quality. All the cultivars produced higher herb and oil yields when

  8. Trend and Pattern of Herb and Supplement Use in the United States: Results from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi-Chuan; Tsai, Meng-Ting; Huang, Wan-Ting; Kennedy, Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background. In 1990s, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including use of herbs and supplements, gained popularity in the United States. However, more recent surveys suggest that demand for herbs and supplements has stabilized. Objective. This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and changes in herb and supplement use among the US adults, using the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). Methods. Weighted population estimates were derived from three complementary and alternative medicine supplements to the NHIS. Prevalence rates for herb and supplement use were compared, using Wald chi-square tests to measure changes between years. Results. An estimated 40.6 million US adults reported herb and supplement use in 2012. However, the rate of herb and supplement use dropped from 18.9% in 2002 to 17.9% in 2007 and 2012 (P < 0.05). This decline in use was more pronounced among women, racial or ethnic minorities, and adults with low incomes. Conclusion. Herb and supplements use remains common in the USA, but adult use rates are on the decline. It is still important for health care providers to ask patients about herb and supplement use. PMID:25574184

  9. Effects of Anti-diarrhoeal Herbs on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Meat Quality in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = 54.10±1.20 kg, average age = 54±3 d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can improve growth performance, and prevent diarrhea incidence in pigs, it can also increase LMA in finishing pigs. PMID:25049522

  10. The Effect of Irradiation and Heat Treatment on Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Culinary Herbs and Spices — A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Polovka; Milan Suhaj

    2010-01-01

    Besides the positive effects, ?-irradiation and heat treatment of foods usually lead to changes in their structure or composition, thus influencing their quality. In view of the fact that herbs and spices are important source of antioxidants in a human diet, any kind of treatment can have an impact on their antioxidant status, as well. In this contribution, we review

  11. Alpha amylase inhibition and roasting time of local vegetables and herbs prepared for diabetes risk reduction chili paste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vareerat Jaiboon; Jaruntorn Boonyanupahap; Sajee Suwansri; Puntarika Ratanatraiwong; Chanida Hansawasdi

    Consumption behaviour of carbohydrate and sucrose rich food is one of main causes of non- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (diabetes type II). This results in an increase in the number of diabetes patients in Thailand in recent years. Potent inhibitors of mammalian alpha-amylase found in some vegetables and herbs have been known as effective antidiabetic treatment for diabetes. Therefore, this

  12. College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension Herbs make a great addition to a garden, but they can

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    leaves for cooking, and continual leaf production after the outdoor growing season has ended. If you sunlight include mint (Mentha spp.), bay (Laurus nobilis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and thyme to dry out. Certain herbs such as bay (Laurus nobilis), marjoram and oregano (Origanum spp.), sage

  13. Differential Responses to Simulated Precipitation Exhibited by a Typical Shrub and a Herb Coexisted in Hunshandak Sandy Land

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NIU Shu-Li; PENG Yu; JIANG Gao-Ming; LI Yong-Geng; GAO Lei-Ming; LIU Mei-Zhen; CUI Hong-Xia; DING Li

    To assess the ecophysiological responses and adaptive strategies to rainfall exhibited by different plant functional types, we compared gas exchange, leaf water potential (?leaf) and PS? photo- chemical efficiency (Fv\\/Fm) between Hedysarum fruticosum Pall. (shrub) and Salsola collina Y. L. Chang (herb) under a series of simulated rainfalls. The experiment was conducted in Hunshandak Sandy Land, North China. The values

  14. Sexual reproduction, clonal diversity and genetic differentiation in patchily distributed populations of the temperate forest herb Paris quadrifolia (Trilliaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Jacquemyn; Rein Brys; Olivier Honnay; Martin Hermy; Isabel Roldán-Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Clonal plant species have been shown to adopt different strategies to persist in heterogeneous environments by changing relative investments in sexual reproduction and clonal propagation. As a result, clonal diversity and genetic variation may be different along environmental gradients. We examined the regional and local population structure of the clonal rhizomatous forest herb Paris quadrifolia in a complex of forest

  15. Distribution of herbs and shrubs in relation to landform and canopy cover in riparian forests of coastal Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Pabst; Thomas A. Spies

    1998-01-01

    In this study we characterized the distribution of herb and shrub species relative to landform and forest canopy attributes of streamside forests in the moist, conifer-dominated mountains of coastal Oregon. Species cover and environmental data were collected along transects at 94 sites. Species with relatively similar distributions were classified into 10 species groups to identify major patterns in the vegetation.

  16. CO2 and water vapour exchange in four alpine herbs at two altitudes and under varying light and temperature conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Rawat; A. N. Purohit

    1991-01-01

    CO2 and water vapour exchange rates of four alpine herbs namely: Rheum emodi, R. moorcroftianum, Megacarpaea polyandra and Rumex nepalensis were studied under field conditions at 3600 m (natural habitat) and 550 m altitudes. The effect of light and temperature on CO2 and water vapour exchange was studied in the plants grown at lower altitude. In R. moorcroftianum and R.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFN?-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100??g/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100??g/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFN?-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFN?-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100??g/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100??g/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFN?-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

  19. Use of a common laboratory glassware detergent improves recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis from lettuce, herbs and raspberries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Shields; Michelle Minjung Lee; Helen R. Murphy

    The success of any protocol designed to detect parasitic protozoa on produce must begin with an efficient initial wash step. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto herbs, lettuces and raspberries, eluted with one of four wash solutions and the recovered number of oocysts determined via fluorescent microscopy. Recovery rates for fluorescein thiosemicarbazide labeled C. parvum oocysts seeded

  20. Traditional Chinese Herb Combined with Surgery versus Surgery for Varicocele Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dun, Rong-Liang; Yao, Min; Yang, Long; Cui, Xue-Jun; Mao, Jian-Min; Peng, Yu; Qi, Guang-Chong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery for male varicocele infertility compared to surgery. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) data of traditional Chinese herbs combined with surgery for male varicocele fertility versus surgery were collected by searching the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Chinese databases. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Handbook. Study outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data. Results. Seventeen of 72 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria. The methodological qualities of the RCTs were low. Compared with the surgery group, the traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery group had superiority in pregnancy rate at 3-month (RR = 1.76, and P = 0.008), 6-month (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005), and 2-year (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005) follow-ups. No RCT was found to describe the side effects. Conclusion. On considering the low methodological quality of RCTs, there was no enough evidence on traditional Chinese herb with surgery for male varicocele infertility, and more high-quality RCTs of large sample sizes are required. PMID:25705240

  1. Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joseph Schroeder, Ellen Flannery-Schroeder (Conneticut College, University of Rhode Island; )

    1999-11-30

    This article describes a laboratory exercise used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. The Indian herb, gymnema sylvestre, is used in this experiment to impair the ability of tasting sugar. As a result the impairment alters the perception of sweetness, which leaves a profound and lasting impression on students and gives them a better comprehension of gustation.

  2. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Mei Shao; Wen Xu; Hui Dai; Pengfei Tu; Zhongjun Li; Xiao-Ming Gao

    2004-01-01

    The immunopotentiating effect of the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a medicinal herb, has been associated with its polysaccharide fractions (Astragalus polysaccharides, APS). We herein demonstrate that APS activates mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in terms of proliferation or cytokine production. Fluorescence-labeled APS (fl-APS) was able to selectively stain murine B cells, macrophages and a also human

  3. Effect of Microwave Oven and Warm-Air Drying on the Microflora and Volatile Oil Profile of Culinary Herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Deans; Katerina P. Svoboda; Mary C. Bartlett

    1991-01-01

    A number of culinary herb species Allium schoenoprasum L., Anethum graveolens L., Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm., Artemisia dracunculus L., Coriandrum sativum L., Levisticum officinale Koch. Mentha spicata L., Origanum majorana L., Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A. W. Hill, Salvia officinalis L., Satureja hortensis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. were dried by warm-air and microwave ovens. The microbiological quality of

  4. Traditional Chinese Herb Combined with Surgery versus Surgery for Varicocele Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Rong-liang; Yao, Min; Cui, Xue-jun; Mao, Jian-min; Peng, Yu; Qi, Guang-chong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery for male varicocele infertility compared to surgery. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) data of traditional Chinese herbs combined with surgery for male varicocele fertility versus surgery were collected by searching the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Chinese databases. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Handbook. Study outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data. Results. Seventeen of 72 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria. The methodological qualities of the RCTs were low. Compared with the surgery group, the traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery group had superiority in pregnancy rate at 3-month (RR = 1.76, and P = 0.008), 6-month (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005), and 2-year (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005) follow-ups. No RCT was found to describe the side effects. Conclusion. On considering the low methodological quality of RCTs, there was no enough evidence on traditional Chinese herb with surgery for male varicocele infertility, and more high-quality RCTs of large sample sizes are required. PMID:25705240

  5. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ?9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (-3.2 ?g/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (-0.065 ?g/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation. PMID:25856221

  6. New Insights into the Chemical and Biochemical Basis of the “Yang-Invigorating” Action of Chinese Yang-Tonic Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hoi Shan; Leung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Wing Man; Ko, Kam Ming

    2014-01-01

    In the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, many Yang-tonic herbs have been used for retarding the decline in bodily function and delaying the onset of age-related diseases. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that Yang-invigorating herbs/formulations protect against oxidative injury in various organs and also extend the median lifespan in mice. This lifespan extension was associated with an upregulation of cellular antioxidant status including that of mitochondria whose functional capacity is also increased by “Yang-invigorating” herbs/formulations. In this paper, we propose that triterpenes and phytosterols, which are ubiquitously found in Yang-tonic herbs, may be the chemical entities responsible for enhancing mitochondrial functional and antioxidant capacity and thus the “Yang-invigorating” action. The biochemical mechanism underlying this “Yang-invigorating” action may involve a sustained production of low levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) secondary to an increased activity of the electron transport chain, with the possible involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling. The increase in mitochondrial functional capacity can retard the decline in bodily function during aging, whereas the mitochondrial ROS production is instrumental in eliciting a glutathione antioxidant response via redox-sensitive signaling pathways, which can delay the onset of age-related diseases. PMID:25610483

  7. Herb-drug interaction of 50 Chinese herbal medicines on CYP3A4 activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pao, Li-Heng; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu; Fan, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chang-Ching; Liu, Liang-Chun; Huang, Pei-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on the enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 and the possible metabolism-based herb-drug interactions in human liver microsomes and in rats. Fifty single-herbal preparations were screened for the activity of CYP3A4 using human liver microsomes for an in vitro probe reaction study. The enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 was estimated by determing the 6?-hydroxytestosterone metabolized from testosterone performed on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Huang Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Geprgi), Mu Dan Pi (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.), Ji Shiee Terng (Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.) and Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus [Fisch] Bge) have been demonstrated to have remarkable inhibiting effects on the metabolism of CYP3A4, whereas Xi Yi Hua (Magnolia biondii Pamp.) exhibited a moderate inhibition. These five single herbs were further investigated in an animal study using midazolam. Mu Dan Pi, Ji Shiee Terng and Huang Qi were observed to have greatly increased in the C(max) and AUC of midazolam. This study provides evidence of possible herb-drug interactions involved with certain single herbs. PMID:22298448

  8. Microsatellite primers in the weedy annual herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae) and four closely related species1

    PubMed Central

    Agudo, Alicia; Picó, F. Xavier; Álvarez, Inés

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. • Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian populations of A. clavatus. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 1–8 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified in A. homogamos, A. monanthos, A. radiatus, and A. valentinus. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these markers in A. clavatus for population genetic and hybridization studies as well as their applicability across the genus. PMID:25202498

  9. Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijun

    2013-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828

  10. Antidiabetic activities of chalcones isolated from a Japanese Herb, Angelica keiskei.

    PubMed

    Enoki, Tatsuji; Ohnogi, Hiromu; Nagamine, Kinuko; Kudo, Yoko; Sugiyama, Katsumi; Tanabe, Masashige; Kobayashi, Eiji; Sagawa, Hiroaki; Kato, Ikunoshin

    2007-07-25

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin action. We have explored the edible ingredients from folk medicines in Japan that contain substances complementing insulin action, such as the induction of adipocyte differentiation and the enhancement of glucose uptake. We eventually found that the ethanol extract from a Japanese herb "Ashitaba", Angelica keiskei, contained two major chalcones of 4-hydroxyderricin (4-HD) and xanthoangelol that showed strong insulin-like activities via a pathway independent of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation. The 4-HD especially showed the preventive effects on the progression of diabetes in genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. PMID:17583349

  11. Effects of Chinese herb, Huang Chin (Scutellaria baicalensis George) on thermoregulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, M T; Liu, G G; Wu, W L; Chern, Y F

    1980-02-01

    Intragastric administration of a Chinese herb, Huang Chin extract (Scutellaria baicalensis George), produced a dose-dependent fall in rectal temperature in conscious rats in a room the temperature of which was 22 degrees C or below. The hypothermia in response to Huang Chin application was brought about solely by cutaneous vasodilatation (as estimated by an increase in cutaneous temperatures). There were no changes in either metabolic heat production or respiratory evaporative heat loss. However, in the heat (29 degrees C), Huang Chin administration produced no changes in rectal temperature or other thermoregulatory responses. The data indicate that Huang Chin extract produces peripheral vasodilatation which leads to a hypothermia in conscious rats. PMID:7401409

  12. Investigation on bioavailability of some essential and toxic elements in medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Razi?, Slavica; Dogo, Svetlana; Slavkovi?, Latinka

    2008-07-01

    Trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (Cynara scolymus, Matricaria chamomilla, Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium, and Inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. Based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium are discussed. By calculating the bioconcentration factors and their deviation from the recommended values, elevated concentrations, were explained in terms of contamination and pollution. The concentrations measured in both plants and soil samples were below maximum allowable concentration ranges considered for the European Union. PMID:18408895

  13. Antihyperglycemic activity of herb extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang Hwa; Zhou, Song; Ding, Guo Xun; Kim, Ji Hye; Hong, Myung Hee; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Gyung Jun; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the effects of herb extracts, Rhus verniciflua, Agrimonia pilosa, Sophora japonica, and Paeonia suffruticosa, on the lowering of blood glucose levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 4 weeks, oral administration of Rhus verniciflua extract (50 mg/kg) exhibited a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (P<0.05). Blood TBARS concentrations, the products of glucose oxidation in blood, were also lowered by Rhus verniciflua extract supplementation. In addition, Sophora japonica and Paeonia suffruticosa extracts significantly reduced TBARS levels versus diabetic controls. Serum concentrations of liver-function marker enzymes, GOT and GPT, were also restored by Rhus verniciflua (50 mg/kg) supplementation in diabetic rats. PMID:17031059

  14. Antiviral activities of medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaolan; Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; But, Paul P H; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2004-09-01

    The aqueous extracts from 21 medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China were screened for antiviral activities against human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using a cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Three extracts from Agrimonia pilosa, Pithecellobium clypearia and Punica granatum, respectively, showed anti-HSV-1 activity, which was possibly contributed by the polyphenolic compounds in the herbal extracts. Six of the extracts, from Blumea laciniata, Elephantopus scaber, Laggera pterodonta, Mussaenda pubescens, Schefflera octophylla and Scutellaria indica, respectively, exhibited anti-RSV activity with 50% inhibition (IC50) concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 32 microg/mL, and selective indices (SI) ranging from 11.2 to 40. In addition to polyphenolic compounds, other constituents present in these extracts may also contribute to their anti-RSV activity. PMID:15478204

  15. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in chromatographic analysis of essential oils in herbs.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina

    2010-05-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125

  16. Development of Antarctic herb tundra vegetation near Arctowski station, King George Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeretska, I. A.; Parnikoza, I. Yu.; Mustafa, O.; Tyschenko, O. V.; Korsun, S. G.; Convey, P.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the development of the Antarctic herb tundra vegetation formation in relation to the history of deglaciation across a range of habitats near H. Arctowski Research Station (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). Across the three identified environmental zones (coastal, intermediate, periglacial), we quantified the total vegetation cover, cover of the two indigenous flowering plants and bryophytes, age structure and reproductive features of the two flowering plants, and species diversity of mosses and liverworts. Analysis of these data supported the recognition of the three environmental zones; however, there were few indications of systematic differences in biological features of the two higher plants across the three zones, generally supporting the view that these, and the grass Deschampsia antarctica in particular, are effective primary colonists of recently deglaciated ground in this region.

  17. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

  18. Artificial selection shifts flowering phenology and other correlated traits in an autotetraploid herb.

    PubMed

    Burgess, K S; Etterson, J R; Galloway, L F

    2007-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that plants are responding to anthropogenic climate change with shifts in flowering phenologies. We conducted a three-generation artificial selection experiment on flowering time in Campanulastrum americanum, an autotetraploid herb, to determine the potential for adaptive evolution of this trait as well as possible costs associated with enhanced or delayed flowering. Divergent selection for earlier and later flowering resulted in a 25-day difference in flowering time. Experiment-wide heritability was 0.31 and 0.23 for the initiation of flowering in early and late lines, respectively. Selection for earlier flowering resulted in significant correlated responses in other traits including smaller size, fewer branches, smaller floral displays, longer fruit maturation times, fewer seeds per fruit and slower seed germination. Results suggest that although flowering time shows the potential to adapt to a changing climate, phenological shifts may be associated with reduced plant fitness possibly hindering evolutionary change. PMID:17687248

  19. A UK retail survey of aflatoxins in herbs and spices and their fate during cooking.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, S; Castle, L

    1996-01-01

    A survey of aflatoxins in herbs and spices has been carried out and cooking experiments conducted to assess the stability of aflatoxin in spice sauces. Of 157 retail samples which included curry powders, pepper, cayenne pepper, chilli, paprika, ginger, cinnamon and coriander, nearly 95% of samples contained below 10 micrograms/kg total aflatoxins and only nine samples had higher levels. The highest concentration in a retail sample was 48 micrograms/kg in a chilli powder. In addition to retail sampling, 14 consignments of whole chilli and chilli powder were sampled at the port of entry. Only two samples, both chilli powder, were above 10 micrograms/kg; containing 35 and 51 micrograms/kg total aflatoxins. Cooking experiments showed that aflatoxin levels in spiced sauces are not reduced by domestic cooking with either microwave or conventional gas oven heating. PMID:8647302

  20. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet. PMID:20096093

  1. Trait variations along a regenerative chronosequence in the herb layer of submediterranean forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catorci, Andrea; Vitanzi, Alessandra; Tardella, Federico Maria; Hršak, Vladimir

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the functional shifts of the herb layer in the submediterranean Ostrya carpinifolia coppiced forests (central Italy) along a coppicing rotation cycle. More specifically, the following questions were addressed: i) is there a pattern in functional trait composition of the herb layer along a regeneration chronosequence?; ii) which traits states differentiate each regeneration stage?; iii) are patterns of trait state variation related to the change of the environmental conditions? Species cover percentage was recorded in 54 plots (20 m × 20 m) with homogeneous ecological conditions. Relevés, ordered on the basis of the time since the last coppicing event and grouped into three age classes, were analysed with regard to trait variation, based on species absolute and relative abundance. Differences in light, temperature, soil moisture, and nutrients bioindicator values between consecutive regeneration stages were tested using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) revealed statistically significant separation between young and intermediate-aged stands with regard to most traits. Indicator species analysis (ISA) highlighted indicator trait states, which were filtered, along the chronosequence, by changes in environmental conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that light intensity had the greatest effect on traits states variation from the first to the second regeneration stage, while variation from the second to the third age classes was affected by temperature. Young stands were differentiated by short cycle species with acquisitive strategies that only propagated by sexual reproduction, with light seeds, summer green and overwintering green leaves, and a long flowering duration. Intermediate-aged and mature stands were characterized by traits associated with early leaf and flower production, high persistence in time, and showing retentive strategies aimed at resource storage (e.g., geophytes, spring green leaves, rhizomes, and mesomorphic/hygromorphic leaves).

  2. Evidence of natural occurrence of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in herbs and grass

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Bjorn; de Jong, Jacob; Nielen, Michel; Tserendorj, Enkhtuya; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchas; Cannavan, Andrew; Elliott, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) and many other countries. However, products of animal origin originating from Asian countries entering the European market are still found noncompliant (containing CAP) on a regular basis, even when there is no history of chloramphenicol use in these countries. A possible explanation for the continued detection of these residues is the natural occurrence of CAP in plant material which is used as animal feed, with the consequent transfer of the substance to the animal tissues. Approximately 110 samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. In 26 samples, the presence of CAP was confirmed using the criteria for banned substances defined by the EU. Among other plant materials, samples of the Artemisia family retrieved from Mongolia and from Utah, USA, and a therapeutic herb mixture obtained from local stores in the Netherlands proved to contain CAP at levels ranging from 0.1 to 450 µg/kg. These findings may have a major impact in relation to international trade and safety to the consumer. The results of this study demonstrate that noncompliant findings in animal-derived food products may in part be due to the natural occurrence of chloramphenicol in plant material. This has implications for the application of current EU, USA, and other legislation and the interpretation of analytical results with respect to the consideration of CAP as a xenobiotic veterinary drug residue and the regulatory actions taken upon its detection in food. PMID:20431869

  3. Hepatocytes are protected by herb Phyllanthus niruri protein isolate against thioacetamide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Mrinal K; Sil, Parames C

    2007-10-01

    The herb, Phyllanthus niruri has been known to possess protective activity against various drugs and toxins induced hepatic disorders. Present study was conducted to evaluate the role of the protein isolate of the herb against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cytotoxicity in mice hepatocytes. In vitro cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) leakage were measured as the indicators of cell damage. In addition, measurement of the level of non-protein thiol, glutathione (GSH); activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the extent of lipid peroxidation were carried out to evaluate the prooxidant-antioxidant status of the cell. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed to determine the radical scavenging activity of the protein isolate. Results showed that the administration of the protein isolate prior to TAA exposure significantly reduced the release of LDH and ALT leakage and enhanced the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes. Besides, the protein isolate appeared to prevent the alterations in GSH levels and activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes related to prooxidant-antioxidant status of hepatocytes. It also reduced the TAA-induced lipid peroxidation significantly as demonstrated by the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) production. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed that the protein isolate possessed radical scavenging activity. Combining, the data suggest that the protein isolate could protect hepatocytes from TAA-induced cellular injury probably by its antioxidative and radical scavenging properties. PMID:17913477

  4. An Overview of the Evidence and Mechanisms of Herb–Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Fasinu, Pius S.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Despite the lack of sufficient information on the safety of herbal products, their use as alternative and/or complementary medicine is globally popular. There is also an increasing interest in medicinal herbs as precursor for pharmacological actives. Of serious concern is the concurrent consumption of herbal products and conventional drugs. Herb–drug interaction (HDI) is the single most important clinical consequence of this practice. Using a structured assessment procedure, the evidence of HDI presents with varying degree of clinical significance. While the potential for HDI for a number of herbal products is inferred from non-human studies, certain HDIs are well established through human studies and documented case reports. Various mechanisms of pharmacokinetic HDI have been identified and include the alteration in the gastrointestinal functions with consequent effects on drug absorption; induction and inhibition of metabolic enzymes and transport proteins; and alteration of renal excretion of drugs and their metabolites. Due to the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of phytochemicals, pharmacodynamic HDIs are also known to occur. The effects could be synergistic, additive, and/or antagonistic. Poor reporting on the part of patients and the inability to promptly identify HDI by health providers are identified as major factors limiting the extensive compilation of clinically relevant HDIs. A general overview and the significance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic HDI are provided, detailing basic mechanism, and nature of evidence available. An increased level of awareness of HDI is necessary among health professionals and drug discovery scientists. With the increasing number of plant-sourced pharmacological actives, the potential for HDI should always be assessed in the non-clinical safety assessment phase of drug development process. More clinically relevant research is also required in this area as current information on HDI is insufficient for clinical applications. PMID:22557968

  5. Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs

    PubMed Central

    Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15–60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as “ecological clock” for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

  6. A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2014-07-01

    Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. PMID:24518346

  7. NCCAM's 5 Most Searched-For Herbs of 2012: What the Science Says about Evening Primrose Oil, St. John's Wort, Fenugreek,...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Most Searched-For Herbs of 2012 : What the Science Says January 2013 The following are the top ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  8. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is a molecular vascular target for the Chinese herb Danshen in hypertension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Kim (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery)

    2006-12-15

    Danshen, a Chinese herb, reduces hypertension in Oriental medicine. We hypothesized that Danshen acts partially through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis using tanshinone IIA, an active ingredient of Danshen, and the two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension model in hamsters. Oral tanshinone (50 µg/100 g body wt) reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 161.2 ± 6.9 to 130.0 ± 7.8 mmHg (mean ± SE; P < 0.05) in hypertensive hamsters. MAP in sham-operated hamsters was 114.3 ± 9.2 mmHg. Topical tanshinone at 1 µg/ml and 5 µg/ml increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.00 to 1.25 ± 0.08 and 1.57 ± 0.11, respectively, and increased periarteriolar nitric oxide concentration from 87.1 ± 11.3 to 146.9 ± 23.1 nM (P < 0.05) at 5 µg/ml in hamster cheek pouch. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine inhibited tanshinone-induced vasodilation. Hypertension reduced eNOS protein relative to sham-operated control. Tanshinone prevented the hypertension-induced reduction of eNOS and increased eNOS expression to levels higher than sham-operated control in hamster cheek pouch. Topical tanshinone increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.0 to 1.47 ± 0.08 in the cremaster muscle of control mice and to 1.12 ± 0.13 in cremasters of eNOS knockout mice. In ECV-304 cells transfected with eNOS-green fluorescent protein, tanshinone increased eNOS protein expression 1.35 ± 0.05- and 1.85 ± 0.07-fold above control after 5-min and 1-h application, respectively. Tanshinone also increased eNOS phosphorylation 1.19 ± 0.07- and 1.72 ± 0.20-fold relative to control after 5-min and 1-h application. Our data provide a basis to understand the action of a Chinese herb used in alternative medicine. We conclude that eNOS stimulation is one mechanism by which tanshinone induces vasodilation and reduces blood pressure.

  9. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24716112

  10. Occurrence of Emodin, Chrysophanol and Physcion in Vegetables, Herbs and Liquors. Genotoxicity and Anti-genotoxicity of the Anthraquinones and of the Whole Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O Mueller; M Schmitt; W Dekant; H Stopper; J Schlatter; P Schreier; W. K Lutz

    1999-01-01

    1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinones, present in laxatives, fungi imperfecti, Chinese herbs and possibly vegetables, are in debate as human carcinogens. We screened a variety of vegetables (cabbage lettuce, beans, peas), some herbs and herbal-flavoured liquors for their content of the ‘free’ anthraquinones emodin, chrysophanol and physcion. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, reversed-phase HPLC (RP-LC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and RP-LC-MS were used. The

  11. Chinese herbs ( Astragalus membranaceus and Lonicera japonica) and boron enhance the non-specific immune response of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    László Ardó; Guojun Yin; Pao Xu; László Váradi; Gábor Szigeti; Zsigmond Jeney; Galina Jeney

    2008-01-01

    The effect of two Chinese medicinal herbs (Astragalus membranaceus and Lonicera japonica) and boron on non-specific immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was investigated. Five diet variations in addition to a control diet (without herbs or boron) were used. These contained 0,1% Astragalus (with and without 0,05% boron), 0,1% Lonicera (with or without 0,05% boron) and a mixture of

  12. Genetic diversity of the endangered Chinese endemic herb Saruma henryi Oliv. (Aristolochiaceae) and its implications for conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Hua Zhou; Zeng-Qiang Qian; Shan Li; Zhi-Gang Guo; Zhao-Hui Huang; Zhan-Lin Liu; Gui-Fang Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Saruma henryi Oliv., the only representative of the monotypic genus Saruma Oliv. (Aristolochiaceae), is an endangered perennial herb endemic to China. It is a phylogenetically, ecologically, and medicinally\\u000a important species. In the present study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic\\u000a diversity and differentiation of 14 populations. A total of 16 selected primers yielded 175 bright

  13. Conservation of long-lived perennial forest herbs in an urban context: Primula elatior as study case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabienne Van Rossum

    2008-01-01

    Urban forests are generally fragmented in small isolated remnants, embedded in an inhospitable human-used matrix, and incur\\u000a strong anthropogenic pressures (recreational activities, artificialization, pollution and eutrophication). These lead to particularly\\u000a high constraints even for common forest herbs, whose genetic response may depend on life-history traits and population demographic\\u000a status. This study investigated genetic variation and structure for 20 allozyme loci

  14. Anti-Acne Effects of Oriental Herb Extracts: A Novel Screening Method to Select Anti-Acne Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Nam; S. Kim; Y. Sim; I. Chang

    2003-01-01

    The acne-therapeutic effects of Oriental herb extracts were investigated in terms of antichemotactic effect on polymorphonuclear leucocytes, antilipogenic actions, antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and resistance induction potency in the bacteria. The ethanol extract (0.01%) of Angelica dahurica markedly suppressed neutrophil chemotaxis, comparable to the effect of erythromycin (0.01%), whereas a strong antilipogenic effect was obtained with rhizoma coptidis (Coptis

  15. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    PubMed

    Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2014-07-01

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 ?g of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 ?g of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC50=16, 29, and 59 ?M, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 ?M). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC50=0.43±0.07 ?M), hispidulin (IC50=0.49±0.06 ?M), and naringenin (IC50=2.5±0.29 ?M). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management. PMID:24881464

  16. Chinese herbs and herbal extracts for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and potential therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Wei; Wang, Yan-Qin; Wei, Li-Chun; Shi, Mei; Chan, Ying-Shing

    2007-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating degenerative disease resulting from massive degenerative loss of dopamine neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. The most classic therapy for PD is levodopa administration, but the efficacy of levodopa treatment declines as the disease progresses. The neuroprotective strategies to rescue nigral dopamine neurons from progressive death are currently being explored, and among them, the Chinese herbs and herbal extracts have shown potential clinical benefit in attenuating the progression of PD in human beings. Growing studies have indicated that a range of Chinese herbs or herbal extracts such as green tea polyphenols or catechins, panax ginseng and ginsenoside, ginkgo biloba and EGb 761, polygonum, triptolide from tripterygium wilfordii hook, polysaccharides from the flowers of nerium indicum, oil from ganoderma lucidum spores, huperzine and stepholidine are able to attenuate degeneration of dopamine neurons and sympotoms caused by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro and in vivo conditions. In addition, accumulating data have suggested that Chinese herbs or herbal extracts may promote neuronal survival and neurite growth, and facilitate functional recovery of brain injures by invoking distinct mechanisms that are related to their neuroprotective roles as the antioxidants, dopamine transporter inhibitor, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, free radical scavengers, chelators of harmful metal ions, modulating cell survival genes and signaling, anti-apoptosis activity, and even improving brain blood circulation. New pharmaceutical strategies against PD will hopefully be discovered by understanding the various active entities and valuable combinations that contribute to the biological effects of Chinese herbs and herbal extracts. PMID:17691984

  17. Roots, shoots and reproduction: sexual dimorphism in size and costs of reproductive allocation in an annual herb

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Mark S; Pannell, John R

    2008-01-01

    Females tend to be smaller than males in woody dioecious plant species, but they tend to be larger in herbs. The smaller size of females in woody species has been attributed to higher reproductive costs, yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided for their larger size in herbs. Because herbs have higher nitrogen concentrations in their tissues than woody plants, and because pollen is particularly rich in nitrogen, we predicted that male growth would be more compromised by reproduction than female growth. To test this hypothesis, we conducted three experiments on the annual dioecious herb Mercurialis annua. First, we compared the timing of reproduction between males and females and found that males started flowering earlier than females; early flowering is expected to compromise growth more than later flowering. Second, we compared plants allowed to flower with those prevented from flowering by experimental debudding and found that males incurred a higher reproductive cost than females in terms of both biomass and, particularly, nitrogen. Third, we grew plants under varying levels of nitrogen availability and found that although sexual size dimorphism was unaffected by nitrogen, females, but not males, decreased their relative allocation to both roots and reproduction under high nitrogen availability. We propose that males deal with the high cost of pollen production in terms of nitrogen by allocating biomass to nitrogen-harvesting roots, whereas females pay for carbon-rich seeds and fruits by investing in photosynthetic organs. Sexual dimorphism would thus seem to be the outcome of allocation to above- versus below-ground sinks that supply resources (carbon versus nitrogen) limiting the female and male reproduction differentially. PMID:18682371

  18. Effect of two Chinese herbs ( Astragalus radix and Scutellaria radix) on non-specific immune response of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojun Yin; Galina Jeney; Timea Racz; Pao Xu; Xie Jun; Zsigmond Jeney

    2006-01-01

    The effect of two Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Scutellaria radix) on non-specific immune response of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated. Three-month-old tilapia with an average initial weight of 62.8±5.40 g were fed diets containing four doses of Astragalus radix (0; 0.1; 0.5 and 1.0%) and four doses of Scutellaria radix (0; 0.1; 0.5 and 1.0%) for 4 weeks. Respiratory

  19. Antifibrotic effect of the Chinese herbs, Astragalus mongholicus and Angelica sinensis, in a rat model of chronic puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiyan Wang; Jingzi Li; Ling Yu; Yani Zhao; Wei Ding

    2004-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome has long been treated in China with two herbs, Astragalus mongholicus and Angelica sinensis, which may have antifibrotic effects. Methods: Rats with chronic puromycin-induced nephrosis were treated with Astragalus and Angelica 3 mL\\/d (n=7) or enalapril 10 mg\\/kg\\/d (n=7). Normal control rats (n=7) received saline rather than puromycin, and an untreated control group (n=7) received puromycin but no

  20. Leptokurtic pollen-flow, non-leptokurtic gene-flow in a wind-pollinated herb, Plantago lanceolata L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Tonsor

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to simultaneously measure pollen dispersal distance and actual pollen-mediated gene-flow distance in a wind-pollinated herb, Plantago lanceolata. The pollen dispersal distribution, measured as pollen deposition in a wind tunnel, is leptokurtic, as expected from previous studies of wind-pollinated plants. Gene-flow, measured as seeds produced on rows of male-sterile inflorescences in the wind tunnel, is

  1. The anti-in£ammatory natural product parthenolide from the medicinal herb Feverfew directly binds to and inhibits IUB kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin H. B. Kwok; Brian Koh; MacKevin I. Ndubuisi; Mikael Elofsson; Craig M. Crews

    2001-01-01

    Background: Biologically active natural products continue to be useful in the exploration and control of intracellular signaling processes. For example, the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide from the anti-inflammatory medicinal herb Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) appears to inhibit the pro-inflammatory signaling pathway. Parthenolide's direct molecular target, however, remains unknown. We set out to identify the molecular mechanisms of parthenolide's anti-inflammatory activity. Results: A

  2. Tolerance of a perennial herb, Pimpinella saxifraga , to simulated flower herbivory and grazing: immediate repair of injury or postponed reproduction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Huhta; P. Rautio; K. Hellström; M. Saari; J. Tuomi

    Perennial, polycarpic herbs can respond to herbivory either by (1) regrowth in the same season in order to compensate for\\u000a lost reproductive structures or by (2) postponing reproduction until the following growing season. We tested these response\\u000a patterns with the perennial umbellifer Pimpinella saxifraga by simulating flower herbivory and shoot grazing both in the field and in a common garden

  3. Tolerance of a perennial herb, Pimpinella saxifraga , to simulated flower herbivory and grazing: immediate repair of injury or postponed reproduction?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Huhta; P. Rautio; K. Hellström; M. Saari; J. Tuomi

    2009-01-01

    Perennial, polycarpic herbs can respond to herbivory either by (1) regrowth in the same season in order to compensate for\\u000a lost reproductive structures or by (2) postponing reproduction until the following growing season. We tested these response\\u000a patterns with the perennial umbellifer Pimpinella saxifraga by simulating flower herbivory and shoot grazing both in the field and in a common garden

  4. A comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 inhibition by partially purified aqueous extracts of chinese medicinal herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Collins; T. B. Ng; W. P. Fong; C. C. Wan; H. W. Yeung

    1997-01-01

    A multiple screening approach to detect compounds inhibitory to various aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) life-cycle has been applied to aqueous extracts of 19 herbs traditionally used in Chinese medicine as anti-viral agents. The extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 in a series of in vitro assays. The extracts were tested for inhibition

  5. Characterisation of Bhringaraj and Guduchi herbs by ICP-MS Analysis, Optical absorption and EPR spectroscopic methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lakshmi Reddy; Adeel Ahmad; G. Siva Reddy; P. Sambasiva Rao; B. Jagannatha Reddy; R. L. Frost

    Bhringaraj and Guduchi herb of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India are dried and powdered. ICP-MS analysis of samples indicates that copper is present in both the samples. An EPR study of guduchi sample also confirms the presence of Fe(III) whereas eclipta alba confirms the presence of Fe(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II) Optical absorption spectrum of guduchi indicates that Cu(II) is

  6. Characterisation of bhringaraj and guduchi herb by ICP-MS analysis, optical absorption, infrared and EPR spectroscopic methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Lakshmi Reddy; N. C. G. Reddy; Adeel Ahmad; G. Siva Reddy; P. Sambasiva Rao; B. Jagannatha Reddy; R. L. Frost

    2008-01-01

    Leaves of bhringaraj and guduchi herb of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India, are dried and powdered. ICP-MS analysis of samples indicates that copper is present in both the samples. An EPR study of guduchi sample also confirms the presence of Fe(III) whereas Eclipta alba confirms the presence of Fe(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum of guduchi indicates that

  7. Effects of Medicinal herb Extracts and their Components on Steatogenic Hepatotoxicity in Sk-hep1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, You-Jin; Yoon, Yujin; Choi, Ho-Sung; Park, Sora; Oh, Sehee; Jeong, Se-Mi; Suh, Hyo-Ryung; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicines are widely used in many countries for the treatment of many diseases. Although the use of herb extracts as alternative medicine is growing, their toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of water and ethanol extracts of 18 herbs on the hepatic lipid metabolism and steatogenic hepatotoxicity. Ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa induced lipid accumulation in Sk-hep1 human hepatoma cells as determined by Nile red staining. These extracts increased the luciferase activity of sterol regulatory element (SRE) and decreased that of peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), indicating the possibilities of enhanced fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation. To identify the components responsible for the fat accumulation, we tested 50 chemicals isolated from the nine herbs. Apigenin, luteolin, pectolinarin and lupeol from Cirsium japonicum, 8-methoxypsoralen and umbelliferone from Foeniculum vulgare and pomonic acid and jiocerebroside from Rehmanniae glutinosa significantly increased the accumulation of lipid droplets. These results suggest that ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa can cause fatty liver disease by decreasing ?-oxidation of fatty acid and increasing lipogenesis. PMID:24278574

  8. Effects of Medicinal herb Extracts and their Components on Steatogenic Hepatotoxicity in Sk-hep1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You-Jin; Yoon, Yujin; Choi, Ho-Sung; Park, Sora; Oh, Sehee; Jeong, Se-Mi; Suh, Hyo-Ryung

    2011-01-01

    Herbal medicines are widely used in many countries for the treatment of many diseases. Although the use of herb extracts as alternative medicine is growing, their toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of water and ethanol extracts of 18 herbs on the hepatic lipid metabolism and steatogenic hepatotoxicity. Ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa induced lipid accumulation in Sk-hep1 human hepatoma cells as determined by Nile red staining. These extracts increased the luciferase activity of sterol regulatory element (SRE) and decreased that of peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), indicating the possibilities of enhanced fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation. To identify the components responsible for the fat accumulation, we tested 50 chemicals isolated from the nine herbs. Apigenin, luteolin, pectolinarin and lupeol from Cirsium japonicum, 8-methoxypsoralen and umbelliferone from Foeniculum vulgare and pomonic acid and jiocerebroside from Rehmanniae glutinosa significantly increased the accumulation of lipid droplets. These results suggest that ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa can cause fatty liver disease by decreasing ?-oxidation of fatty acid and increasing lipogenesis. PMID:24278574

  9. Genetic diversity of the Chinese traditional herb Blumea balsamifera (Asteraceae) based on AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y X; Wang, W Q; Zhang, Y B; Yuan, Y; Yu, J B; Zhu, M; Chen, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    Blumea balsamifera is a commercially important medicinal herb in China and other parts of Asia. It is used to produce borneol. This plant grows in the wild, but resources have diminished greatly in recent years. We examined the genetic diversity of this species to help develop conservation strategies; 35 plants from five provinces were analyzed using AFLPs. Eight AFLP primer combinations generated 1367 fragments, giving a mean of 172 fragments per primer combination. Polymorphism in the germplasm analysis was found for 1360 (99.48%) of the fragments, of which 264 (19.27%) fragments were unique (accession specific) and 423 (25.33%) of the fragments were rare (present in less than 10% of the accessions). The polymorphic fragments were used to group the accessions in a UPGMA phenogram. Most grouping was geographical. In general, accessions coming from Guizhou and Guangxi showed higher diversities as these accessions were scattered in different groups. The genetic distance estimated by Jaccard similarity coefficient index showed low variability among genotypes (coefficient value ranged from 0.60 to 0.95). More attention should be given to the study and conservation of the biodiversity of this economically important genus. PMID:24782086

  10. Effects of fire on the demography of the endangered, geophytic herb Silene spaldingii (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Lesica, P

    1999-07-01

    Understanding the effects of disturbances such as fire on plant demography helps elucidate the mechanisms that cause changes in community composition. I studied the effects of spring and fall fires on Silene spaldingii, an endangered perennial herb of grasslands in northwest Montana. Individual S. spaldingii plants were mapped, and size and flowering were recorded for 1 yr prior and 5 yr subsequent to the burn treatments. Enhanced seedling recruitment (70-410%) and a 22% increase in population size were the principal effects of fire on S. spaldingii, and fall burn plots had lower recruitment than spring burn plots. These effects were apparent for 2-3 yr following the treatments. Fire had no detectable effect on the survival of adults or recruits of S. spaldingii. Silene spaldingii exhibits prolonged dormancy in which plants do not produce aboveground vegetation for one to several consecutive years. Results suggest that fire has a positive effect on the population dynamics of S. spaldingii by removing litter and creating safe sites for recruitment. Prescribed fire should be an important tool for managing populations of this rare plant. PMID:10406723

  11. A Chinese herb formula decreases the monocarboxylate transporter-mediated absorption of valproic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Ping; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Kao, Long-Jung; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2013-05-15

    Huang-Qin-Tang (HQT), a Chinese medicine prescription containing Scutellariae Radix (SR), Paeoniae Radix (PR), Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR) and JuJubae Fructus (JF), was used for the treatments of cold with symptoms of abdominalgia and diarrhea. Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of coadministration of HQT on the pharmacokinetics of VPA, a probe drug for monocarboxylate transporter (MCT). Rats were administered VPA alone (200.0 mg/kg) and coadministered HQT (8.0 g/kg) at 0.5h before VPA and 1.5h after VPA in crossover designs. In addition, the chronic effect of HQT was also evaluated by coadministration of the 7th dose at 0.5h before VPA. The serum concentration of VPA was determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The results showed that coadministration of HQT at 0.5h before VPA significantly decreased the AUC(0-t) and Cmax by 62% and 77%, respectively, whereas coadministration of HQT at 1.5h after VPA exerted no significant influence. When the 7th dose of HQT was given at 0.5h before VPA, the AUC(0-t) and Cmax of VPA were markedly decreased by 65% and 82%, respectively. Mechanism study revealed that the MCT-mediated uptake of fluorescein was inhibited by HQT and each component herbs. In conclusion, the MCT-mediated absorption of VPA was significantly decreased by concomitant administration of HQT. PMID:23462213

  12. Development of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints for distinguishing Chinese Angelica from related umbelliferae herbs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guang-Hua; Chan, Kelvin; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Leung, Kelvin; Chan, Chi-Leung; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen

    2005-05-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint of Chinese Angelica (CA) was developed basing on the consistent chromatograms of 40 CA samples (Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels). The unique properties of this HPLC fingerprints were validated by analyzing 13 related herbs including 4 Japanese Angelicae Root samples (JA, A. acutiloba Kitagawa and A. acutiloba Kitagawa var. sugiyame Hikino), 6 Szechwan Lovage Rhizome samples (SL, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.) and 3 Cnidium Rhizome samples (CR, Cnidium officinale Makino). Both correlation coefficients of similarity in chromatograms and relative peak areas of characteristic compounds were calculated for quantitative expression of the HPLC fingerprints. The amount of senkyunolide A in CA was less than 30-fold of that in SL and CR samples, which was used as a chemical marker to distinguish them. JA was easily distinguished from CA, SL and CR based on either chromatographic patterns or the amount of coniferyl ferulate. No obvious difference between SL and CR chromatograms except the relative amount of some compounds, suggesting that SL and CR might have very close relationship in terms of chemotaxonomy. Ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide were unequivocally determined whilst senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A, butylphthalide, E-ligustilide, E-butylidenephthalide, Z-butylidenephthalide and levistolide A were tentatively identified in chromatograms based on their atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS data and the comparison of their UV spectra with those published in literatures. PMID:15909545

  13. Indirect Genetic Effects from Competition in the Clonal Herb Sedum album (Crassulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in indirect genetic effects, i.e. influences on the phenotype that depend on the genotype of other conspecific individuals; however, the empirical evidence for such effects is still limited, especially in wild plant species. The present study of the clonal herb Sedum album assessed direct and indirect genetic effects on performance-related traits in a 4-year experiment with clonally replicated genotypes, grown in pairs and differing in anthocyanin pigmentation to allow separation of individuals during data collection. In agreement with the existence of indirect genetic effects, the experimentally-paired plants not only expressed their own genotype but were also affected by the genotype of their pair mate. The effect of neighbour genotype explained up to one-fourth of the variation in performance and most likely resulted from competition, imposed by the close physical contact between paired individuals and the limiting conditions used in the garden environment. Indirect genetic effects from competition have the potential to enhance the efficacy of group-level selection relative to individual selection, given the nutrient-poor and spatially-confined substrate available to plants of S. album in the natural habitat. PMID:25170872

  14. Echinacea: a Miracle Herb against Aging and Cancer? Evidence In vivo in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Echinacea has been viewed as an immunoenhancing herb since it became commercially available several years ago. Indeed, its medicinal significance is responsible for billions of dollars in worldwide sales annually. Unfortunately, most of the ‘evidence’ for the purported medicinal efficacy of Echinacea has been anecdotal and, moreover, to this day, there is no formal proof on how to achieve the best results—whether it should be consumed daily throughout life as a prophylactic; consumed by either young or old; or consumed after diseases, such as cancer, have taken hold. Our work over the past 5 years has led to conclusive answers to some of these questions, at least in mice. Our results have shown that daily consumption of Echinacea is indeed prophylactic, extends the life span of aging mice, significantly abates leukemia and extends the life span of leukemic mice. Given that humans are 97% genetically common with mice and that virtually all our basic physiology is identical, it is neither unjustified to extrapolate these observations to humans nor would it be an arduous task to perform many of these studies in humans, thus establishing viable scientific evidence replacing the anecdotal. PMID:16136209

  15. Studies on genetic divergence among Indian varieties of a spice herb, Coriandrum sativum.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Kakani, R K; Meena, R S; Pancholy, Anjly; Pathak, Rakesh; Raturi, Aparna

    2012-07-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice herb that belongs to umbel family Apiaceae with diversified uses. We investigated the extent of variability among 22 Indian varieties of coriander using phenotypic and genetic markers. Multilocus genotyping by nine RAPD primers detected an average of intraspecific variations amounting to 66.18% polymorphism in banding patterns. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a greater proportion of total genetic variation exists within population (98%) rather than among populations (2%). Higher values of Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon Information Index (i) and genetic distance analysis validate wider genetic diversity among Indian coriander varieties. Besides total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) length variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions/deletions (INDELS) were detected at seven sites in ITS-1 region. Multiple sequence alignment of 12 sequenced varieties revealed cent per cent identities of 5.8S gene region (162 bp) that validates its conserved nature. Multiple sequence alignment of ITS-1 region may be of phylogenetic significance in distinguishing and cataloguing of coriander germplasm. The representative sequences of each subgroup and all distinct varieties of RAPD clusters have been submitted to NCBI database and assigned Gen Accession numbers HQ 377194-377205. The measures of relative genetic distances among the varieties of coriander did not completely correlate the geographical places of their development. Eventually, the knowledge of their genetic relationships and DNA bar coding will be of significance. PMID:23360008

  16. Epigenetic differentiation persists after male gametogenesis in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations. PMID:23936245

  17. The detection of antibacterial actions of whole herb tinctures using luminescent Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Watt, Kathryn; Christofi, Nick; Young, Rodney

    2007-12-01

    Two whole cell Escherichia coli luminescent biosensors were used to determine the antibacterial actions of 16 herbal tinctures. These bioassays can detect genotoxic (strain DPD2794) and general oxidative stress (DE135) events when challenged with antibacterial substances. Many of the herbal tinctures were active against these Gram-negative bacteria, affecting their metabolism without, in some cases, arresting cell growth or causing cell death. Antibacterial activity ranged from undetectable for Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Apium graveolens to highly effective against both E. coli strains in the case of Rosmarinus officinalis. Some of the results were unexpected. Althaea officinalis affected microbial metabolism in spite of the lack of literature precedent, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum did not appear to be antimicrobial, as claimed in some literature. It is concluded that studies using luminescent bacterial biosensors can provide important new insights into the potency and modes of the lethal and sub-lethal antibacterial action of whole herbs, and thereby provide crucial evidence for efficacy demanded by modern science and medicine. PMID:17661335

  18. Epigenetic Differentiation Persists after Male Gametogenesis in Natural Populations of the Perennial Herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ?75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations. PMID:23936245

  19. Critique of medicinal conspicuousness of Parsley(Petroselinum crispum): a culinary herb of Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

    2014-01-01

    WHO estimates, around 80% of the especially developing world is indigent on complementary and alternative medicines which are prodigiously derived from herbal material. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an important culinary herb originated from the Mediterranean region. It possesses small and dark seeds with volatile oil content. Petroselinum crispum is now planted throughout the world due to its usage in food industry, perfume manufacturing, soaps, and creams. Its main constituents subsume coumarins, furanocoumarins (bergapten, imperatori), ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, apiole, various terpenoic compounds, phenyl propanoids, phathalides, and tocopherol. Due to these constituents, it has been annunciated to possess a number of possible medicinal emblematics including, antimicrobial, antianemic, menorrhagic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic, antihypertensive, diuretic effects, hypoglycaemic, hypouricemic, anti oxidative and estrogenic activities. In Morocco, Parsley is mostly used as an elixir to treat arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of parsley, made it propitious in food systems. Its ELI17 gene has been corroborated as a particularly fast-responding gene. There is a requisite for extensive research to avail the maximal benefits of this significant medicinal plant. The aim of this review paper is to divulge the chemical constituents of parsley that are explicitly related to substantial medicinal facets. PMID:24374449

  20. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese medicinal herbs: a review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benny K H; Vanitha, J

    2004-06-01

    The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals to support the immune system or to fight infections is based on centuries-old tradition. We review reports on seven Chinese herbs, (Aloe vera Mill. (Aloaceae), Angelica species (Umbelliferae), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (Leguminosae), Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. (Ganodermataceae), Panax ginseng C.A Mey. (Araliaceae), Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) with emphasis to their immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. While some of these herbaceous plants have a direct inhibitory effect on microbial organisms, we observe that each plant has at least one compound that selectively modulates cells of the immune system. The successful derivation of pure bioactive compounds from Ganoderma lucidum, ginseng and Zingiber officinale supports the traditional practice of using these plants to stimulate the immune system. As many modern drugs are often patterned after phytochemicals, studying the influence of each compound on immune cells as well as microbes can provide useful insights to the development of potentially useful new pharmacological agents. PMID:15180575

  1. Screening for impact of popular herbs improving mental abilities on the transcriptional level of brain transporters.

    PubMed

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska, Beata; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-06-01

    There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1). Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital) and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin) substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB. PMID:24914722

  2. Life-history variation in contrasting habitats: flowering decisions in a clonal perennial herb (Veratrum album).

    PubMed

    Hesse, Elze; Rees, Mark; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2008-11-01

    Quantifying intraspecific demographic variation provides a powerful tool for exploring the diversity and evolution of life histories. We investigate how habitat-specific demographic variation and the production of multiple offspring types affect the population dynamics and evolution of delayed reproduction in a clonal perennial herb with monocarpic ramets (white hellebore). In this species, flowering ramets produce both seeds and asexual offspring. Data on ramet demography are used to parameterize integral projection models, which allow the effects of habitat-specific demographic variation and reproductive mode on population dynamics to be quantified. We then use the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) approach to predict the flowering strategy-the relationship between flowering probability and size. This approach is extended to allow offspring types to have different demographies and density-dependent responses. Our results demonstrate that the evolutionarily stable flowering strategies differ substantially among habitats and are in excellent agreement with the observed strategies. Reproductive mode, however, has little effect on the ESSs. Using analytical approximations, we show that flowering decisions are predominantly determined by the asymptotic size of individuals rather than variation in survival or size-fecundity relationships. We conclude that habitat is an important aspect of the selective environment and a significant factor in predicting the ESSs. PMID:18817459

  3. Sexual dimorphism in intra- and interspecific competitive ability of the dioecious herb Mercurialis annua.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vilas, J; Turner, A; Pannell, J R

    2011-01-01

    Males and females of dioecious plant species often show different responses to competition with individuals of the same or opposite gender, but almost no data are available on the outcome of competition with members of other species. Here, we show that male and female individuals of the wind-pollinated herb Mercurialis annua are sexually dimorphic in both their intraspecific and interspecific competitive abilities. In a controlled experiment, we found that both sexes of M. annua were negatively affected by interspecific competition, but the sensitivity of males and females depended on the identity of their competitor species, with females tending to suppress the aboveground growth of competitor species more than males. Further, we found that intrasexual and intersexual competition affected the aboveground growth of males but not that of females: only males showed a significant reduction in growth when growing with conspecific competitors (male or female). We discuss our results with reference to related studies that suggest that males and females of M. annua have different resource requirements for reproduction, which in turn affect their competitive abilities. PMID:21186695

  4. Seed longevity and fire: germination responses of an exotic perennial herb in NW Patagonian grasslands (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Franzese, J; Ghermandi, L

    2011-11-01

    Fire affects grassland composition by selectively influencing recruitment. Some exotic species can increase their abundance as a consequence of fire-stimulated seed germination, but response may depend on seed age. Rumex acetosella L. (Polygonaceae, sheep's sorrel) is a cosmopolitan herb that has invaded NW Patagonia's grasslands. This species forms persistent soil seed banks and increases after disturbances, particularly fire. We studied how fire and seed longevity influence R. acetosella germination. In 2008, we conducted laboratory experiments where we exposed different-aged seeds (up to 19 years old) to heat, smoke, charcoal, ash and control treatments. Total percentage germination and mean germination time depended on both seed age and fire treatment. Germination of younger seeds decreased with increasing temperature. There was no general pattern in germination responses of different-aged seeds to smoke, charcoal and ash. While smoke improved the germination of fresh seeds, charcoal decreased germination. Germination of untreated seeds was negatively correlated with seed age, and mean germination time increased with seed age. In most treatments, fresh seeds had lower germination than 1-5-year-old seeds, indicating an after-ripening requirement. Smoke stimulates R. acetosella germination, causing successful recruitment during post-fire conditions. Fresh seeds are particularly responsive to fire factors, possibly because they have not experienced physical degradation and are more receptive to environmental stimuli. Knowing the colonisation potential from the soil seed bank of this species during post-fire conditions will allow us to predict their impact on native communities. PMID:21973326

  5. Effects of the extract of a Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii hook f on rat pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Wang, Huijun; Zhao, Ziqin; Zhang, Yihu; Huang, Guangzhao

    2005-01-01

    In China, the ethylacetate extract of the herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f (TWEE), containing the major active ingredient triptolide, is often used with favorable effect on rheumatoid arthritis patients, in alternation with the use of prednisone. The mechanism of this therapeutic effect, however, has not been completely delineated. In this study, we studied how TWEE and prednisone affect the pituitary and adrenal glands in rats. Thirty normal male Sprague-Dawley rats (ten per group) were randomly assigned to receive: (1) TWEE (25 mg/kg, twice a day), (2) prednisone (2 mg/kg, twice a day), or (3) vehicle (control) (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 1 ml, twice a day), orally for 30 days. Pituitary and trunk blood were collected on day 31. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) expression in the pituitary gland was assessed morphologically by immunohistochemical techniques. Plasma ACTH concentrations and serum corticosterone concentrations were quantitatively measured by radioimmunoassay. We found that TWEE significantly increased plasma ACTH concentration and serum corticosterone concentration and dramatically increased the number of ACTH-positive cells in the pituitary. Our findings indicate that TWEE can promote the synthesis and secretion of ACTH cells--in the pars distalis of the rat pituitary gland and the production of corticosterone in the zone fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. Our results indicate that TWEE has a cortical hormone-like function and can promote adrenal cortex function by activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:16355451

  6. Fine-scale genetic differentiation of a temperate herb: relevance of local environments and demographic change.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Kudoh, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The genetic structure of a plant species is shaped by environmental adaptation and demographic factors, but their relative contributions are still unknown. To examine the environment- or geography-related differentiation, we quantified genetic variation among 41 populations of a temperate herb, Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera (Brassicaceae). We analysed 19 microsatellite loci, which showed a significant population differentiation and a moderate within-population genetic diversity (global Gst = 0.42 and Hs = 0.19). Our structure analysis and phylogenetic network did not detect more than two genetic groups across the Japanese mainland but found fine-scale genetic differentiations and admixed patterns around the central area. Across the Japanese mainland, we found significant evidence for isolation-by-distance but not for isolation-by-environments. However, at least within the central area, the magnitude of genetic differentiation tended to increase with microhabitat dissimilarity under light conditions and water availability. Furthermore, most populations have been estimated to experience a recent decline in the effective population size, indicating a possibility of bottleneck effects on the pattern of genetic variation. These findings highlight a potential influence of the microhabitat conditions and demographic changes on the local-scale genetic differentiation among natural plant populations. PMID:25387749

  7. Relationship between total phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and antiglycation abilities of common culinary herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Ramkissoon, Jugjeet S; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Ahmed, Nessar; Subratty, Anwar H

    2012-12-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antiglycation properties of crude ethanolic extracts of 10 common culinary herbs and spices from Mauritius were investigated in vitro. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. Allium sativum had the highest TPC (3.1 mg GAE/mL), whereas Allium cepa L. showed the highest radical scavenging capacity (72%) and Zingiber officinale had the most potent ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP; 2.99 mg AAE/mL). In contrast, Thymus vulgaris and Petroselinum crispum had the most potent antiglycation activity with IC(50) values of 21.8 and 200 mg/mL, respectively. There was no significant correlation between TPC (r=0.001), FRAP (r=0.161), and the antiglycation activity (r=0.034) for the extracts studied. Therefore, the results showed that antiglycation properties of plant-derived extracts cannot always be attributed to their phenolic content or antioxidant potential. PMID:23134460

  8. Local environment and density-dependent feedbacks determine population growth in a forest herb.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Johan P; Ostergård, Hannah; Ehrlén, Johan

    2014-12-01

    Linking spatial variation in environmental factors to variation in demographic rates is essential for a mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations. However, we still know relatively little about such links, partly because feedbacks via intraspecific density make them difficult to observe in natural populations. We conducted a detailed field study and investigated simultaneous effects of environmental factors and the intraspecific density of individuals on the demography of the herb Lathyrus vernus. In regression models of vital rates we identified effects associated with spring shade on survival and growth, while density was negatively correlated with these vital rates. Density was also negatively correlated with average individual size in the study plots, which is consistent with self-thinning. In addition, average plant sizes were larger than predicted by density in plots that were less shaded by the tree canopy, indicating an environmentally determined carrying capacity. A size-structured integral projection model based on the vital rate regressions revealed that the identified effects of shade and density were strong enough to produce differences in stable population sizes similar to those observed in the field. The results illustrate how the local environment can determine dynamics of populations and that intraspecific density may have to be more carefully considered in studies of plant demography and population viability analyses of threatened species. We conclude that demographic approaches incorporating information about both density and key environmental factors are powerful tools for understanding the processes that interact to determine population dynamics and abundances. PMID:25224800

  9. Amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb Euphorbia hirta

    PubMed Central

    Suganya, Subramanian; Sophia, Dominic; Raj, Chinthamony Arul; Rathi, Muthaiyan Ahalliya; Thirumoorthi, Lakshmanan; Meenakshi, Periyasamy; Kumar, Dugganaboyana Guru; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniyapan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Euphorbia hirta (L.) (Euphorbiaceae) is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of E. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The nephroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of E. hirta (400 mg/kg body weight) was studied in nitrobenzene-induced albino rats (1000 mg/kg body weight). The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols and vitamin C in the kidney tissues were determined. Histopathologic investigation was performed in the kidney tissue samples. Results: Nitrobenzene administration significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced the lipid peroxidation and significantly (P < 0.05) depleted the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, total thiols and vitamin C. Treatment with the ethanol extract of E. hirta significantly normalized the antioxidant levels. The nephroprotective activity was also supported by histopathologic studies of kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results indicate that the ethanol extract of E. hirta ameliorates renal dysfunction and could be used as an effective protector against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:22022170

  10. Chemistry and bioactivity of Flos Magnoliae, a Chinese herb for rhinitis and sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Li, C G; Zhou, S F; Pang, E C K; Story, D F; Xue, C C L

    2008-01-01

    Flos Magnoliae (FM, Chinese name: Xin-yi) is one of the most commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. It has a long history of clinical use for managing rhinitis, sinusitis and headache. More than 20 different FM species have been used clinically, which makes species identification and evaluation of pharmacological effects of individual chemical ingredients difficult. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge on FM phytochemistry and its bioactivity activities. The bioactive compounds in FM include both lipid and water-soluble components. More than 90% of the essential components of FM species are terpenoids, including monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Lignans and neolignans including tetrahydrofurofuran, tetrahydrofuran and aryltetralin are also present in FM species. A small number of water-soluble compounds have been isolated from Magnolia flower buds, including a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid magnoflorine, an ester ethyl-E-p-hydroxyl-cinnamate and a flavonoid biondnoid. A wide range of pharmacological actions of FM have been reported, including anti-allergy, anti-inflammation and anti-microbial activity. The structure-activity relationship analysis revealed the influence of methylation at position 5 on the 3,7-dioxabicyclo-(3,3,0)-octane backbone of six lignans in antagonistic activities against platelet-activating factor. In addition, the trans stereoisomer fargesin had a much lower bioactivity than the cis stereoisomer demethoxyaschantin. Recent studies have been directed towards the isolation of other bioactive compounds. Further studies on FM may help to develop new anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drugs. PMID:18673228

  11. Large-scale adaptive differentiation in the alpine perennial herb Arabis alpina.

    PubMed

    Toräng, Per; Wunder, Jörg; Obeso, José Ramón; Herzog, Michel; Coupland, George; Ågren, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Information about the incidence and magnitude of local adaptation can help to predict the response of natural populations to a changing environment, and should be of particular interest in arctic and alpine environments where the effects of climate change are expected to be severe. To quantify adaptive differentiation in the arctic-alpine perennial herb Arabis alpina, we conducted reciprocal transplant experiments for 3 yr between Spanish and Scandinavian populations. At the sites of one Spanish and one Scandinavian population, we planted seedlings representing two Spanish and four Scandinavian populations, and recorded survival, flowering propensity and fecundity. The experiment was replicated in two subsequent years. The results demonstrate strong adaptive differentiation between A. alpina populations from the two regions. At the field site in Spain, survival and fruit production of Spanish populations were higher than those of Scandinavian populations, while the opposite was true at the site in Scandinavia, and these differences were consistent across years. By comparison, fitness varied little among populations from the same region. The results suggest that the magnitude and geographical scale of local adaptation need to be considered in predictions of the effects of global change on the dynamics of arctic and alpine plant populations. PMID:25422098

  12. Advances in Neuroprotective Ingredients of Medicinal Herbs by Using Cellular and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Kang, Seong Mook; Song, Soo-Yeol; Lee, Kippeum; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder, which is neuropathologically identified by age-dependent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Development of symptomatic treatments has been partly successful for PD research, but there remain a number of inadequacies in therapeutic strategies for the disease. The pathogenesis of PD remains intricate, and the present anti-PD treatments appears to be clinically insufficient. Comprehensive research on discovery of novel drug candidates has demonstrated that natural products, such as medicinal herbs, plant extracts, and their secondary metabolites, have great potential as therapeutics with neuroprotective activity in PD. Recent preclinical studies suggest that a number of herbal medicines and their bioactive ingredients can be developed into optimum pharmaceuticals for treating PD. In many countries, traditional herbal medicines are used to prevent or treat neurodegenerative disorders, and some have been developed as nutraceuticals or functional foods. Here we focus on recent advances of the evidence-linked neuroprotective activity of bioactive ingredients of herbal origin in cellular and animal models of PD research. PMID:24073012

  13. Chemoprevention and inhibition of P-glycoprotein in cancer cells by Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Engi, Helga; Hohmann, Judit; Gang, Geng; Pusztai, Rozália; Rédei, Dóra; Kovács, Orsolya; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnár, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Many of the herbal extracts used in the Chinese clinical medical routine inhibit the growth of tumor cells. In the present work, extracts of 12 selected herbs were prepared with methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water, and the effects of these on the multidrug resistance (MDR) and P-glycoprotein of mouse lymphoma cells transfected with the human mdr1 gene and on a human lung alveolar epithelial cell line were investigated. The extracts were tested for antiproliferative effects, and the reversal of MDR in mouse lymphoma cells. The possible chemopreventive effect of the chloroform extracts was studied on the expression of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early (IE) antigen in human lung cancer cells (A549). The antimicrobial effects of the extracts were tested on some representative micro-organisms. Certain of the chloroform extracts of the plant materials were the most effective compounds on the reversal of MDR. Two of the chloroform extracts enhanced the antiproliferative effect of doxorubicin on MDR mouse lymphoma cells. The selected extracts did not show any antibacterial effect with the agar diffusion method. Certain chloroform extracts decreased the intermediate IE antigen expression of CMV in A459 cells. PMID:18690658

  14. Strong inbreeding depression in two Scandinavian populations of the self-incompatible perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Mousset, Mathilde; Hagenblad, Jenny; Hansson, Bengt; Agren, Jon

    2013-10-01

    Inbreeding depression is a key factor influencing mating system evolution in plants, but current understanding of its relationship with selfing rate is limited by a sampling bias with few estimates for self-incompatible species. We quantified inbreeding depression (?) over two growing seasons in two populations of the self-incompatible perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea in Scandinavia. Inbreeding depression was strong and of similar magnitude in both populations. Inbreeding depression for overall fitness across two seasons (the product of number of seeds, offspring viability, and offspring biomass) was 81% and 78% in the two populations. Chlorophyll deficiency accounted for 81% of seedling mortality in the selfing treatment, and was not observed among offspring resulting from outcrossing. The strong reduction in both early viability and late quantitative traits suggests that inbreeding depression is due to deleterious alleles of both large and small effect, and that both populations experience strong selection against the loss of self-incompatibility. A review of available estimates suggested that inbreeding depression tends to be stronger in self-incompatible than in self-compatible highly outcrossing species, implying that undersampling of self-incompatible taxa may bias estimates of the relationship between mating system and inbreeding depression. PMID:24094340

  15. Data mining and frequency analysis for licorice as a "Two-Face" herb in Chinese Formulae based on Chinese Formulae Database.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhao, Jinlong; Fan, Xinsheng; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping

    2014-09-25

    Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae. Licorice is described as 'National Venerable Master' in Chinese medicine and plays paradoxical roles, i.e. detoxification/strengthen efficacy and inducing/enhancing toxicity. Therefore, licorice was called "Two-Face" herb in this paper. The aim of this study is to discuss the paradoxical roles and the perspective usage of this "Two-Face" herb using data mining and frequency analysis. More than 96,000 prescriptions from Chinese Formulae Database were selected. The frequency and the prescription patterns were analyzed using Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. The result showed that licorice (Radix glycyrrhizae) was the most frequently used herb in Chinese Formulae Database, other frequently used herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui), Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), etc. Toxic herbs such as Radix aconiti lateralis praeparata (Fu zi), Rhizoma pinelliae (Ban xia) and Cinnabaris (Zhu sha) are top 3 herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), Poria (Fu ling), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui) are top 3 nontoxic herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Moreover, Licorice was seldom used with sargassum (Hai Zao), Herba Cirsii Japonici (Da Ji), Euphorbia kansui (Gan Sui) and Flos genkwa (Yuan Hua), which proved the description of contradictory effect of Radix glycyrrhizae and these herbs as recorded in Chinese medicine theory. This study showed the principle pattern of Chinese herbal drugs used in combination with licorice or not. The principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful and instructive for scientific usage of licorice in clinic application. Further pharmacological and chemical researches are needed to evaluate the efficacy and the combination pattern of these Chinese herbs. The mechanism of the combination pattern of these prescriptions should also be investigated whether additive, synergistic or antagonistic effect exist using in vitro or in vivo models. PMID:25172790

  16. A comparison among root soil-conservation effects for nine herbs at the cold region highway in north-eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    High soil-conservation herbs are very important for slope vegetation restoration of a highway in serious sandstorm regions. In this study, nine common herbs in northeast China were selected and compared to study soil-conservation effects by using an undisturbed-soil trough scouring method for soil anti-scourability enhancement and hydrostatic collapse method for soil anti-erodibility. Further, principal components analysis was used to identify significant root features that affected soil erosion resistance. Results indicated that different herbs had distinct enhancement effects on soil erosion resistance. Soil anti-scourability enhancement index decreased with increases of soil depth, slope gradient and rainfall amount. Relationship between soil anti-erodibility enhancement index ( S) and immersion time ( t) is a cubic spline in each different herb type ( R 2 ? 0.88). Herb root features such as micro-aggregates, organic matter, net leaf weight, thick root length, fine root length and biomass contributed a leading role in soil erosion resistance enhancement effect, and all their common factor variances were more than 0.81. Descending order of soil erosion resistance enhancement effect in soil anti-scourability for nine herbs is Poa pratensis, Medicago sativa, Viola philippica, Rudbeckia hirta, Clematis heracleifolia, Kalimeris indica, Cosmos bipinnata, Hemerocallis fulva and Sedum elatinoides, while the sequence of soil anti-erodibility is M. sativa, S. elatinoides, P. pratensis, R. hirta, H. fulva, V. philippica, C. heracleifolia, C. bipinnata and K. indica. Therefore, we concluded that P. pratensis and M. sativa were the most suitable herbs for resisting soil erosion and recommended to be widely planted for road vegetation recovery in this region.

  17. Population Dynamics of Diploid and Hexaploid Populations of a Perennial Herb

    PubMed Central

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the recent enormous increase in the number of studies on polyploid species, no studies to date have explored the population dynamics of these taxa. It is thus not known whether the commonly reported differences in single life-history traits between taxa of different ploidy levels result in differences in population dynamics. Methods This study explores differences in single life-history traits and in the complete life cycle between populations of different ploidy levels and compares these differences with differences observed between different habitat types and years. Diploid and hexaploid populations of a perennial herb, Aster amellus, are used as the study system. Transition matrix models were used to describe the dynamics of the populations, and population growth rates, elasticity values and life-table response experiments were used to compare the dynamics between populations and years. Key Results The results indicate that between-year variation in population dynamics is much larger than variation between different ploidy levels and different habitat conditions. Significant differences exist, however, in the structure of the transition matrices, indicating that the dynamics of the different ploidy levels are different. Strong differences in probability of extinction of local populations were also found, with hexaploid populations having higher probability than diploid populations, indicating strong potential differences in persistence of these populations. Conclusions This is the first study on complete population dynamics of plants of different ploidy levels. This knowledge will help to understand the ability of new ploidy levels to spread into new areas and persist there, and the interactions of different ploidy levels in secondary contact zones. This knowledge will also contribute to understanding of interactions of different ploidy levels with other plant species or other interacting organisms such as pollinators or herbivores. PMID:17881342

  18. Comparative phylogeography of eight herbs and lianas (Marantaceae) in central African rainforests.

    PubMed

    Ley, Alexandra C; Dauby, Gilles; Köhler, Julia; Wypior, Catherina; Röser, Martin; Hardy, Olivier J

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation history in tropical Africa is still to date hardly known and the drivers of population differentiation and speciation processes are little documented. It has often been postulated that population fragmentations following climate changes have played a key role in shaping the geographic distribution patterns of genetic diversity and in driving speciation. Here we analyzed phylogeographic patterns (chloroplast-DNA sequences) within and between eight (sister) species of widespread rainforest herbs and lianas from four genera of Marantaceae (Halopegia, Haumania, Marantochloa, Megaphrynium), searching for concordant patterns across species and concordance with the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis. Using 1146 plastid DNA sequences sampled across African tropical lowland rainforest, particularly in the Lower Guinean (LG) phytogeographic region, we analyzed intra- and interspecific patterns of genetic diversity, endemism and distinctiveness. Intraspecific patterns of haplotype diversity were concordant among most species as well as with the species-level diversity pattern of Marantaceae. Highest values were found in the hilly areas of Cameroon and Gabon. However, the spatial distribution of endemic haplotypes, an indicator for refuge areas in general, was not congruent across species. Each proposed refuge exhibited high values of endemism for one or a few species indicating their potential role as area of retraction for the respective species only. Thus, evolutionary histories seem to be diverse across species. In fact, areas of high diversity might have been both refuge and/or crossing zone of recolonization routes i.e., secondary contact zone. We hypothesize that retraction of species into one or the other refuge happened by chance depending on the species' distribution range at the time of climate deterioration. The idiosyncratic patterns found in Marantaceae species are similar to those found among tropical tree species, especially in southern LG. PMID:25477901

  19. Mating system in Mexican populations of the annual herb Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Marín, M; Solís-Montero, L; Souto Vilaros, D; Lee, M Y Q

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally, annual colonising species are expected to have high rates of self-fertilisation, although recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that cross-fertilisation can be selected for under heterogeneous pollination environments. Solanum rostratum is a self-compatible annual herb that colonises disturbed habitats. Despite the lack of physiological mechanisms to prevent self-fertilisation, pollen transfer between individuals is expected to be favoured because of its complex floral morphology. In previous studies of S. rostratum it has been shown that anther dimorphism within flowers results in precise pollen placement on the pollinator's body, and the presence of mirror-image floral morphs within plants promotes outcrossing in experimental arrays. However, the mating system of natural populations of S. rostratum has never been assessed, and thus whether it is predominantly selfing or outcrossing remains unknown. We hypothesise that floral and inflorescence morphology of S. rostratum should facilitate cross-fertilisation, making it a predominantly outcrossing despite its lack of a self-incompatibility system. To test this hypothesis, we estimated outcrossing rates by genotyping 700 individuals at 13 microsatellite loci, sampled from four populations across a 690-km transect in the species' native range. We found that populations had mean outcrossing rates of 0.70 ± 0.03, with multiple sires contributing to paternity of each progeny array (average effective number of sires = 8.97 ± 0.57). This indicates that natural populations S. rostratum have relatively high levels of outcrossing, probably facilitated by its floral and inflorescence morphology. We speculate that partial selfing in this species may be an unavoidable consequence of displaying multiple flowers at the same time (geitonogamy), as well as the result of self-pollen transfer by illegitimate visitors. PMID:23294438

  20. Habitat specialization through germination cueing: a comparative study of herbs from forests and open habitats

    PubMed Central

    ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen Pieter; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently accompanied by specialization in their regeneration niche; and (2) species are thereby adapted to utilize different windows of opportunity in time (season) and space (habitat). Methods Seed germination response to temperature, light and stratification was tested for 17 congeneric pairs, each consisting of one forest species and one open-habitat species. A factorial design was used with temperature levels and diurnal temperature variation (10 °C constant, 15–5 °C fluctuating, 20 °C constant, 25–15 °C fluctuating), and two light levels (light and darkness) and a cold stratification treatment. The congeneric species pair design took phylogenetic dependence into account. Key Results Species from open habitats germinated better at high temperatures, whereas forest species performed equally well at low and high temperatures. Forest species tended to germinate only after a period of cold stratification that could break dormancy, while species from open habitats generally germinated without cold stratification. The empirically derived germination strategies correspond quite well with establishment opportunities for forest and open-habitat plant species in nature. Conclusions Annual changes in temperature and light regime in temperate forest delimit windows of opportunity for germination and establishment. Germination strategies of forest plants are adaptations to utilize such narrow windows in time. Conversely, lack of fit between germination ecology and environment may explain why species of open habitats generally fail to establish in forests. Germination strategy should be considered an important mechanism for habitat specialization in temperate herbs to forest habitats. The findings strongly suggest that phases in the plant life cycle other than the established phase should be considered important in adaptive specialization. PMID:23186835

  1. Predator satiation and recruitment in a mast fruiting monocarpic forest herb

    PubMed Central

    Tsvuura, Zivanai; Griffiths, Megan E.; Gunton, Richard M.; Lawes, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Cross-pollination and satiation of seed predators are often invoked to explain synchronous mast reproduction in long-lived plants. However, explanations for the synchronous death of parent plants are elusive. The roles of synchronous seeding and post-reproductive mortality were investigated in a perennial monocarpic herb (Isoglossa woodii) in coastal dune forest in South Africa. Methods Pre-dispersal seed predation and seed production were assessed by measuring fruit and seed set of inflorescences sprayed with insecticide or water and with no spray treatments. Seed predation was measured at different densities of I. woodii plants by monitoring removal rates of seed from the forest floor. The influence of adult plants on establishment of I. woodii seedlings was assessed by monitoring growth and survivorship of seedlings in caged and uncaged 1 × 1 m plots in understorey gaps and thickets. Key Results Fruit and seed set were similar between spray treatments. An I. woodii stem produced 767·8 ± 160·8 seeds (mean ± s.e.) on dune crests and 1359·0 ± 234·4 seeds on the foredune. Seed rain was greater on the foredune than in other topographic locations. Seed predation rates were 32 and 54 % on dune crests and in dune slacks, respectively, and decreased with seed abundance, number of inflorescences per stem and plant height. Seedling recruitment was greater beneath synchronously dying adult plants than in natural understorey gaps (no I. woodii). However, seedling growth rate beneath I. woodii mid-way through its life-cycle was less than in gaps, although survivorship was similar. Conclusions The selective advantage of masting in I. woodii derives from satiation of both pre- and post-dispersal seed predators. In addition, post-seeding mortality of adult plants facilitates seedling establishment. Satiation of seed predators and the benefits of seedling establishment are strong drivers of the evolution of synchronous monocarpy in I. woodii. PMID:21242197

  2. Leaf damage decreases fitness and constrains phenotypic plasticity to drought of a perennial herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Quezada, Iván M.; Suárez, Lorena H.

    2009-09-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are increasingly prone to drought stress. Herbivory might limit plant functional responses to water shortage. This may occur as a result of plant resource depletion or due to the fact that leaf damage and drought may elicit opposite phenotypic responses. We evaluated the impact of herbivory on plant fitness in the field, and the effects of leaf damage on phenotypic plasticity to reduced soil moisture in a greenhouse. The study species was Convolvulus demissus, a perennial herb endemic to central Chile, which has a Mediterranean-type climate. Controlled herbivory by chrysomelid beetles (natural herbivores) in the field had a negative impact on plant fitness, estimated as number of fruits. Whereas reduced soil moisture alone did not affect seedling survival, damaged seedlings (simulated herbivory) had greater mortality when growing under water shortage. The hypothesis that herbivory would constrain phenotypic plasticity was supported by significant statistical interactions between leaf damage and soil moisture, followed by inspections of reaction norms. This was verified both overall (all phenotypic traits taken together, MANOVA) and in four of the six traits evaluated (ANOVAs). When plants were damaged, the reaction norms in response to low soil moisture of water use efficiency, root:shoot ratio and xylem water potential showed reduced slopes. While undamaged plants increased root biomass in response to low moisture, the opposite trend was found for damaged plants. The simultaneous occurrence of herbivory and drought events might curtail recruitment in plant populations of central Chile and other Mediterranean-type ecosystems due to the inability of damaged seedlings to show functional responses to low soil moisture. This finding is of ecological significance in view of current and projected trends of increased aridity in these ecosystems.

  3. Epigenetic variation predicts regional and local intraspecific functional diversity in a perennial herb.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Mónica; Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2014-10-01

    The ecological significance of epigenetic variation has been generally inferred from studies on model plants under artificial conditions, but the importance of epigenetic differences between individuals as a source of intraspecific diversity in natural plant populations remains essentially unknown. This study investigates the relationship between epigenetic variation and functional plant diversity by conducting epigenetic (methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms, MSAP) and genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphisms, AFLP) marker-trait association analyses for 20 whole-plant, leaf and regenerative functional traits in a large sample of wild-growing plants of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus from ten sampling sites in south-eastern Spain. Plants differed widely in functional characteristics, and exhibited greater epigenetic than genetic diversity, as shown by per cent polymorphism of MSAP fragments (92%) or markers (69%) greatly exceeding that for AFLP ones (41%). After controlling for genetic structuring and possible cryptic relatedness, every functional trait considered exhibited a significant association with at least one AFLP or MSAP marker. A total of 27 MSAP (13.0% of total) and 12 AFLP (4.4%) markers were involved in significant associations, which explained on average 8.2% and 8.0% of trait variance, respectively. Individual MSAP markers were more likely to be associated with functional traits than AFLP markers. Between-site differences in multivariate functional diversity were directly related to variation in multilocus epigenetic diversity after multilocus genetic diversity was statistically accounted for. Results suggest that epigenetic variation can be an important source of intraspecific functional diversity in H. foetidus, possibly endowing this species with the capacity to exploit a broad range of ecological conditions despite its modest genetic diversity. PMID:25208110

  4. Extreme intraplant variation in nectar sugar composition in an insect-pollinated perennial herb.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Carlos M; Pérez, Ricardo; Alonso, Conchita

    2006-04-01

    Variation in nectar chemistry among plants, flowers, or individual nectaries of a given species has been only rarely explored, yet it is an essential aspect to our understanding of how pollinator-mediated selection might act on nectar traits. This paper describes variation in nectar sugar composition in a population of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae) and dissects it into components due to variation among plants, flowers of the same plant, and nectaries of the same flower. The proportions of sucrose, glucose, and fructose in single-nectary nectar samples collected at two times in the flowering season were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sugar composition varied extensively among nectaries, and nearly all combinations of individual sugars were recorded. Population-wide variance was mainly accounted for by variation among flowers of the same plant (56% of total), nectaries of the same flower (30%), and only minimally by differences among plants (14%). In absolute terms, intraplant variation was similar to or greater than that ordinarily reported in interspecific comparisons. Results suggest that the prevailing notion of intraspecific constancy in nectar sugar composition may be unwarranted for some species and that more elaborate nectar sampling designs are required to detect and appropriately account for extensive within-plant variance. Within-plant variation in nectar sugar composition will limit the ability of pollinators to exert selection on nectar chemistry in H. foetidus and may be advantageous to plants by reducing the number of flowers visited per foraging bout by variance-sensitive, risk-averse pollinators. PMID:21646218

  5. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823?mg/100g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270?mg/100g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102?mg/100g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65?mg/100g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

  6. Inbreeding effects on fitness traits in the heterocarpic herb Leontodon autumnalis L. (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picó, F. X.; Koubek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Heterocarpic plants are characterized by the production of distinct types of fruits that usually differ in their ecological behavior. In the Asteraceae, differences are mainly found between peripheral non-dispersal and central dispersal achenes (single-seeded fruits). Inbreeding depression is considered as an evolutionary force as it may reduce several fitness traits, and in the case of heterocarpic plants, it could influence fitness traits (e.g., seed set, germination rate, growth rate) of each fruit morph, which may have important ecological and evolutionary consequences. In particular, differential effects on fitness traits and dispersal of selfed and outcrossed progeny can strongly determine the viability of extant populations and the potential to colonize new habitats. We conducted a hand-pollination experiment in greenhouse conditions to test whether inbreeding affects the fitness of achene morphs in the heterocarpic herb Leontodon autumnalis (Asteraceae). Results show that achene morphs significantly differ in their ecological behavior, peripheral achenes germinating more and faster than central achenes. The significant interaction between pollination treatment and achene morph for germination probability might indicate a link between dormancy and mating system in L. autumnalis: germination was higher for outcrossed achenes in central achenes whereas the opposite pattern was exhibited by peripheral achenes. Selfing dramatically reduced seed set, probably as a consequence of strong self-incompatibility mechanisms rather than inbreeding effects. Inbreeding depression significantly affected late life-cycle traits, such as growth rate and biomass at flowering. Overall, results suggest that inbreeding depression seems to be an important selective force maintaining outcrossing in L. autumnalis.

  7. Herb medicine Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in bile duct ligation rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzung-Yan; Chang, Hen-Hong; Chen, Jenn-Han; Hsueh, Ming-Lung; Kuo, Jong-Jen

    2007-01-19

    The accumulation of hydrophilic bile acids in the liver is considered to play a pivotal role in the induction of hepatic injury. Yin-Chen-Hao-Tang (YCHT) decoction is an aqueous extract from three different herbs: Artemisia capillaries Thunb (Compositae), Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae), Rheum officinale Baill (Polygonaceae), which has been recognized as a hepatoprotective agent for various types of liver diseases. Therefore, we used an experimental of biliary atresia model to test that YCHT plays a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic damage with fibrosis was produced by common bile duct ligation (BDL) for 27 days in experimental cholestasis animal model. After surgery, YCHT (250 and 500mg/kg BW) oral administration once a day continued for 27 days. BDL caused a prominent liver collagen deposition that was supported by the increased alpha-SMA protein and mRNA expression of procollagen I. YCHT significantly decreased hepatic alpha-SMA protein levels and decreased in hydroxyproline and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels of BDL rats. On the other hand, the normalizing effect of YCHT (250mg/kg) on the TGF-beta1mRNA expression was independent on the dose of YCHT, 500mg/kg was not effectively changed the quantitative composition of mRNA levels. The study shows that hepatic hydroxyproline accumulation caused by hydrophilic bile acids accompanied by elevated hepatic lipid peroxidation, and hepatic collagen levels can be decreased in the presence of YCHT. In conclusion, long-term administration of YCHT in rats ameliorated the hydropholic bile acids induced hepatic injury that probably related to a reduced oxidant stress and degree of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:16989967

  8. Induction of Nrf2 and metallothionein as a common mechanism of hepatoprotective medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qin; Zhang, Dan; Tao, Na; Zhu, Qiong-Ni; Jin, Tao; Shi, Jing-Shan; Liu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Many Chinese medicines have the potential to be hepatoprotective and therefore can be used to treat acute and chronic liver diseases. The challenge is to identify the molecular target for their protective mechanism. This study investigated the induction of nuclear factor-erythroid 2(NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant genes and metallothionein as a common mechanism of hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicines such as Piper puberulum. Mice were pretreated with Piper puberulum extract (PPE, 500 mg/kg, po) or vehicles for seven days, followed by intoxication with CCl 4 (25 ?l/kg, ip for 16 h), D-galactosamine (800 mg/kg, ip for 8 h), or acetaminophen (400 mg/kg, ip for 8 h). Hepatotoprotection was evaluated by serum enzyme activities and histopathology. To determine the mechanism of protection, mice were given PPE (250-1000 mg/kg, po for seven days) and livers were collected to quantify the expression of Nrf2-targeted genes and metallothionein. Nrf2-null mice were also used to determine the role of Nrf2 in PPE-mediated hepatoprotection.PPE pretreatment protected against the hepatotoxicity produced by CCl 4, D-galactosamine, and acetaminophen, as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities and ameliorated liver lesions. PPE treatment increased the expression of hepatic Nrf2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (Nqo1), heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), glutamate-cysteine ligases (Gclc), and metallothionein (MT), at both transcripts and protein levels. PPE protected wild-type mice from CCl 4 and acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, but not Nrf2-null mice, fortifying the Nrf2-dependent protection. In conclusion, induction of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathways and metallothionein appears to be a common mechanism for hepatoprotective herbs such as PPE. PMID:24467545

  9. In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 ?g/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 ?g/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced herbs: balm of gilead bud, frankincense and myrrh gum. PMID:18844256

  10. Comparative phylogeography of eight herbs and lianas (Marantaceae) in central African rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Alexandra C.; Dauby, Gilles; Köhler, Julia; Wypior, Catherina; Röser, Martin; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation history in tropical Africa is still to date hardly known and the drivers of population differentiation and speciation processes are little documented. It has often been postulated that population fragmentations following climate changes have played a key role in shaping the geographic distribution patterns of genetic diversity and in driving speciation. Here we analyzed phylogeographic patterns (chloroplast-DNA sequences) within and between eight (sister) species of widespread rainforest herbs and lianas from four genera of Marantaceae (Halopegia, Haumania, Marantochloa, Megaphrynium), searching for concordant patterns across species and concordance with the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis. Using 1146 plastid DNA sequences sampled across African tropical lowland rainforest, particularly in the Lower Guinean (LG) phytogeographic region, we analyzed intra- and interspecific patterns of genetic diversity, endemism and distinctiveness. Intraspecific patterns of haplotype diversity were concordant among most species as well as with the species-level diversity pattern of Marantaceae. Highest values were found in the hilly areas of Cameroon and Gabon. However, the spatial distribution of endemic haplotypes, an indicator for refuge areas in general, was not congruent across species. Each proposed refuge exhibited high values of endemism for one or a few species indicating their potential role as area of retraction for the respective species only. Thus, evolutionary histories seem to be diverse across species. In fact, areas of high diversity might have been both refuge and/or crossing zone of recolonization routes i.e., secondary contact zone. We hypothesize that retraction of species into one or the other refuge happened by chance depending on the species' distribution range at the time of climate deterioration. The idiosyncratic patterns found in Marantaceae species are similar to those found among tropical tree species, especially in southern LG. PMID:25477901

  11. Key Plant Structural and Allocation Traits Depend on Relative Age in the Perennial Herb Pimpinella saxifraga

    PubMed Central

    NIINEMETS, ÜLO

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Perennial plant formations always include a mixture of various-aged individuals of community-creating species, but the physiological and competitive potentials of plants of differing age and the importance on whole community functioning are still not entirely known. The current study tested the hypothesis that ontogenetically old plants have limited biomass investments in leaves and enhanced foliage support costs. • Methods Leaf structure, size and biomass allocation were studied in the perennial herb Pimpinella saxifraga during plant ontogeny from seedling to senile phases to determine age-dependent controls on key plant structural traits. The average duration of the full ontogenetic cycle is approx. 5–10 years in this species. Plants were sampled from shaded and open habitats. • Key Results Leaflet dry mass per unit area (MA) increased, and the fraction of plant biomass in leaflets (FL) decreased with increasing age, leading to a 5- to 11-fold decrease in leaf area ratio (LAR = FL/MA) between seedlings and senescent plants. In contrast, the fraction of below-ground biomass increased with increasing age. Leaflet size and number per leaf increased with increasing age. This was not associated with enhanced support cost in older plants as age-dependent changes in leaf shape and increased foliage packing along the rachis compensated for an overall increase in leaf size. Age-dependent trends were the same in habitats with various irradiance, but the LAR of plants of varying age was approx. 1·5-fold larger in the shade due to lower MA and larger FL. • Conclusions As plant light interception per unit total plant mass scales with LAR, these data demonstrate major age-dependent differences in plant light-harvesting efficiency that are further modified by site light availability. These ontogenetic changes reduce the differences among co-existing species in perennial communities, and therefore need consideration in our understanding of how herbaceous communities function. PMID:15965271

  12. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-04-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  13. Rare earth elements in forest-floor herbs as related to soil conditions and mineral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Germund; Olsson, Tommy

    2005-08-01

    Mixtures of rare earth elements (REEs) in fertilizers are widely used in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition. REE concentrations in wild-growing plants, especially herbs, are little known. This study describes differences in the concentrations and proportions of REEs in eight forest-floor herbaceous plants and relates these differences to soil and mineral nutrient conditions. REEs studied were yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and lutetium (Lu). Leaf concentrations of sum REEs differed more than one order of magnitude between species, being highest in Anemone nemorosa (10.1 nmol/g dry mass) and lowest in Convallaria majalis (0.66 nmol/g) from the same site. Leaf concentrations of all REEs correlated positively (p < 0.001), as did sum REE with calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr) concentrations (p < 0.001). A negative relationship (r = -0.83, (p < 0.001) was measured between phosphorus (P) concentrations and sum REE concentrations in leaves. However, the proportions of the single REEs in the REE sum differed among species. In A. nemorosa, 57% of the molar REE sum was taken by Y + La, and only 21% by Ce. The other extreme was Maianthemum bifolium, with 37% La + Y and 41% Ce. These two species had 2.7-3.0% of the REE sum as heavier lanthanides, compared to 4.1-5.2% in the six other species. No clear relationship between soil properties or REE contents and leaf REE concentrations was detected. For La, however, an overrepresentation in leaves prevailed throughout all species compared to soils, whereas particularly Nd, Sm, and Tb had a lower proportion in the leaves of all species than in their soils. Possible uptake mechanisms of REEs in plants are discussed. PMID:16116249

  14. Water-extractable magnesium, manganese and copper in leaves and herbs of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Konieczy?ski, Pawe?; Weso?owski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes. PMID:22574504

  15. Pollen limitation and inbreeding depression in an 'old rare' bumblebee-pollinated grassland herb.

    PubMed

    Becker, T; Voss, N; Durka, W

    2011-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation and reduction of population size have been found to negatively affect plant reproduction in 'new rare' species that were formerly common. This has been attributed primarily to effects of increased inbreeding but also to pollen limitation. In contrast, little is known about the reproduction of 'old rare' species that are naturally restricted to small and isolated habitats and thus may have developed strategies to cope with long-term isolation and small population size. Here we study the effects of pollen source and quantity on reproduction of the 'old rare' bumblebee-pollinated herb, Astragalus exscapus. In two populations of this species, we tested for pollen autodeposition, inbreeding depression and outbreeding depression. Caged plants were left unpollinated or were pollinated with pollen from the same plant, from the same population or from a distant population (50 km). Additionally, we tested for pollen limitation by pollen supplementation in four populations of different size and density. In the absence of pollinators, plants did not produce seed whereas self-pollinated plants did. This indicates a self-compatible breeding system dependent on insect pollination. Both self-pollination and, in one of the two populations, cross-pollination with pollen from plants from the distant population resulted in a lower number of seeds per flower than cross-pollination with pollen from plants from the resident population, indicating inbreeding and outbreeding depression. Pollen addition enhanced fruit set and number of seeds per flower in three of the four populations, indicating pollen limitation. The degree of pollen limitation was lowest in the smallest but densest population. Our results suggest that, similar to 'new rare' plant species, also 'old rare' species may be at risk of inbreeding depression and pollen limitation. PMID:21972799

  16. The Chinese herbs Scutellaria baicalensis and Fritillaria cirrhosa target NF?B to inhibit proliferation of ovarian and endometrial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kavandi, Leyla; Lee, Laura R; Bokhari, Amber A; Pirog, John E; Jiang, Yongping; Ahmad, Kashif A; Syed, Viqar

    2015-05-01

    The herbs Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) and Fritillaria cirrhosa (FC) are widely used in Chinese medicine to treat several aliments and as an adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. No information is available regarding the two herbs' influence on ovarian and endometrial cancer. To fill this data gap we compared cell growth responses to SB and FC in ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines. Dose-dependent cell growth inhibition was observed following higher doses in all cell lines while lower doses stimulated growth in only endometrial cell lines. Higher doses of SB and FC significantly decreased cell growth on soft agar and decreased the invasive potential of cancer cells. Treatment of cells with both herbs resulted in activation of caspase-3, G0 /G1 phase cell cycle arrest, downregulation of cyclins D1 and D3 and induction of p27. Both herbs decreased NF?B DNA binding, reduced expression of phosphorylated I?B?, abrogated NF?B activation, and downregulated NF?B-regulated metastasis-promoting proteins in cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of NF?B attenuated SB- and FC-induced cell growth inhibition. These results suggest that inhibition of NF?B activation may be an important mechanism for growth suppression by SB and FC. Data indicate that these herbs may represent a new source of agents for NF?B inhibition in cancer therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24249479

  17. Identifying roles of “Jun-Chen-Zuo-Shi” component herbs of QiShenYiQi formula in treating acute myocardial ischemia by network pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of “Jun-Chen-Zuo-Shi” (also known as “sovereign-minister-assistant-courier”) component herbs of Chinese medicine is not fully understood. This study aims to test the “Jun-Chen-Zuo-Shi” rule with the QiShenYiQi formula (QSYQ) on treating acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) by a network pharmacology approach. Methods An Acute Myocardial Ischemia (AMI) specific Organism Disturbed Network (AMI-ODN), was constructed by integrating data of disease-associated genes, protein-protein interaction and microarray experiments. A network-based index, Network Recovery Index for Organism Disturbed Network (NRI-ODN), was developed to measure the therapeutic efficacy of QSYQ and its ingredients, i.e., the ability to recover disturbed AMI network model back to normal state. Results The whole formula of QSYQ got a NRI-ODN score of 864.48, which outperformed all individual herbs. Additionally, the primary component herbs, Radix Astragalus membranaceus and Radix Salvia miltiorrrhiza showed NRI-DON score of 680.27 and 734.31 respectively, which meant a better performance to recover disturbed AMI network than the supplementary component herbs, Panax notoginseng and Dalbergia sissoo did (545.76 and 584.88, respectively). Conclusion AMI-ODN model and NRI-ODN identified the possible roles of “Jun-Chen-Zuo-Shi” component herbs of QSYQ in treating AMI at molecular network and pathway level. PMID:25342960

  18. Transfer of Herb-Resistance Plasmid From Escherichia coli to Staphylococcus aureus Residing in the Human Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yan Qing; Xin, Bing; Zhu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plasmid transfer among bacteria provides a means for dissemination of resistance. Plasmid Analysis has made it possible to track plasmids that induce resistance in bacterial population. Objectives: To screen the presence of herb-resistance plasmid in Escherichia coli strains and determine the transferability of this resistance plasmid directly from E. coli to the Gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The donor strain E. coli CP9 and recipient strain S. aureus RN450RF were isolated from UTI patients. E. coli CP9 was highly resistant to herbal concoction. Isolates of S. aureus RN450RF were fully susceptible. Total plasmid DNA was prepared and transferred into E. coli DH5?. Transconjugants were selected on agar plates containing serial dilutions of herbal concoction. Resistance plasmid was transferred to susceptible S. aureus RN450RFin triple replicas. The mating experiments were repeated twice. Results: The identified 45 kb herb-resistance plasmid could be transferred from E. coli CP9 isolates to E. coli DH5?. As a consequence E. coli DH5? transconjugant MIC increased from 0.0125 g/mL to 0.25 g/mL. The plasmid was easily transferred from E. coli CP9 strain to S. aureus RN450RF with a mean transfer rate of 1×10-2 transconjugants/recipient. The E. coli donor and the S. aureus RN450RF transconjugant contained a plasmid of the same size, which was absent in the recipient before mating. Susceptibility testing showed that the S. aureus RN450RF transconjugant was resistant to herbal concoction. Conclusions: E. coli herb-resistance plasmid can replicate and be expressed in S. aureus. PMID:25147679

  19. Characterisation of bhringaraj and guduchi herb by ICP-MS analysis, optical absorption, infrared and EPR spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Lakshmi; Fayazuddin, Md; Reddy, N C G; Ahmad, Adeel; Reddy, G Siva; Rao, P Sambasiva; Reddy, B Jagannatha; Frost, R L

    2008-11-01

    Leaves of bhringaraj and guduchi herb of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India, are dried and powdered. ICP-MS analysis of samples indicates that copper is present in both the samples. An EPR study of guduchi sample also confirms the presence of Fe(III) whereas Eclipta alba confirms the presence of Fe(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum of guduchi indicates that Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. NIR and IR results are due to carbonate fundamentals. PMID:18280774

  20. Characterisation of bhringaraj and guduchi herb by ICP-MS analysis, optical absorption, infrared and EPR spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Lakshmi; Fayazuddin, Md.; Reddy, N. C. G.; Ahmad, Adeel; Reddy, G. Siva; Rao, P. Sambasiva; Reddy, B. Jagannatha; Frost, R. L.

    2008-11-01

    Leaves of bhringaraj and guduchi herb of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India, are dried and powdered. ICP-MS analysis of samples indicates that copper is present in both the samples. An EPR study of guduchi sample also confirms the presence of Fe(III) whereas Eclipta alba confirms the presence of Fe(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum of guduchi indicates that Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. NIR and IR results are due to carbonate fundamentals.

  1. [Toxic liver disease due to drugs, herbs and dietary supplements: diagnostic approaches].

    PubMed

    Teschke, R; Schwarzenböck, A; Hennermann, K-H

    2007-02-01

    Toxic liver diseases caused by drugs, herbs and dietary supplements are often recognized late because their hepatotoxic potency is considered to be minimal or non-existent and specific laboratory parameters to definitively establish the diagnosis are lacking. As gold standard for the diagnosis, a positive (unintentional) re-exposure test is considered which is seldom available. A system for evaluation is therefore necessary which takes into account various parameters and defines the grades of causality. By means of a qualitative pre-test with a few questions a screening may be possible as to whether the causality is not probable or not evaluable. Subsequently, a quantitative assessment of the degree of the causality with a main test should be done; this corresponds to the slightly modified and well validated score of the CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). The evaluation is achieved using various criteria such as latency period, time between the end of the therapy and begin of the reaction, course of values for the enzyme activities of the liver after cessation of the therapy, risk factors such as age, alcohol consumption and comedication, exclusion of diseases of other organs including chronic liver disease, previous information about hepatotoxicity of the alleged substance and possible results of an unwanted re-exposure. The various answers to these questions are quantitatively assessed, the resulting scores added, and finally an assignment to one of the grades of causality is made. If, on the basis of the main test, there are still doubts about the correct diagnosis, a further test is required to consider the differential diagnosis of additional diseases and chronic liver diseases of other causes. This stepwise approach is essential since ad-hoc decisions regarding causality are not without problems, and other diseases as causes for increased liver values are easily overlooked and not treated adequately in time. By means of this procedure an improvement in the drug safety can be expected, which is fruitful for the patient and helpful to the physician in charge, the health institutions and the drug companies. PMID:17304407

  2. Effect of Red Clover on CYP Expression: An Investigation of Herb-Drug Interaction at Molecular Level

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anubhuti; Singh, S. P.; Raju, K. S. R.; Wahajuddin; Gayen, J. R

    2014-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulator are the most common therapy for women going through menopause. These therapies though popular fail to relieve withdrawal symptoms such as hot flashes, fatigue, leg cramps and nausea. This scenario necessitates to herbal preparations as alternative which may lead to simultaneous intake of herbal preparations, containing flavonoids, as well as Selective estrogen receptor modulator hence creating a phenomenon of herb drug interaction. Here we investigate the effect of red clover on steady state mRNA levels of rat cytochrome P 450 enzymes. Further, red clover's effect on cytochrome P 450's expression has been investigated when co-administered with tamoxifen and raloxifene. Exposure to red clover resulted in significant down regulation of all the cytochrome P 450 isoform mRNA except cytochrome P 450 2C13 and cytochrome P 450 3A2. When red clover is given in combination with tamoxifen or raloxifene altered level of cytochrome P 450 enzyme mRNA is observed. Present results suggest that herbal medical preparations such red clover has potential for herb drug interaction. PMID:25035541

  3. How do sink and source activities influence the reproduction and vegetative growth of spring ephemeral herbs under different light conditions?

    PubMed

    Sunmonu, Ninuola; Kudo, Gaku

    2014-07-01

    Spring ephemeral herbs inhabiting deciduous forests commonly complete reproduction and vegetative growth before canopy closure in early summer. Effects of shading by early canopy closure on reproductive output and vegetative growth, however, may vary depending on the seasonal allocation patterns of photosynthetic products between current reproduction and storage for future growth in each species. To clarify the effects of sink-source balance on seed production and bulb growth in a spring ephemeral herb, Gagea lutea, we performed a bract removal treatment (source reduction) and a floral-bud removal treatment (sink reduction) under canopy and open conditions. Leaf carbon fixations did not differ between the forest and open sites and among treatments. Bract carbon fixations were also similar between sites but tended to decrease when floral buds were removed. Seed production was higher under open condition but decreased by the bract-removal treatment under both light conditions. In contrast, bulb growth was independent of light conditions and the bract-removal treatment but increased greatly by the bud-removal treatment. Therefore, leaves and bracts acted as specialized source organs for vegetative and reproductive functions, respectively, but photosynthetic products by bracts were flexibly used for bulb growth when plants failed to set fruits. Extension of bright period was advantageous for seed production (i.e., source limited) but not for vegetative growth (i.e., sink limited) in this species. PMID:24879401

  4. Identification and determination of Aconitum alkaloids in Aconitum herbs and Xiaohuoluo pill using UPLC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ping; Han, Han; Wang, Rui; Yang, Li

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) method to examine the chemical differences between Aconitum herbs and processed products has been developed and validated. Combined with chemometrics analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis, diester-diterpenoid and monoester-type alkaloids, especially the five alkaloids which contributed to the chemical distinction between Aconitum herbs and processed products, namely mesaconitine (MA), aconitine (AC), hypaconitine (HA), benzoylmesaconitine (BMA), and benzoylhypaconitine (BHA), were picked out. Further, the five alkaloids and benzoylaconitine (BAC) have been simultaneously determined in the Xiaohuoluo pill. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a C?? column and peaks were detected by mass spectrometry in positive ion mode and selected ion recording (SIR) mode. In quantitative analysis, the six alkaloids showed good regression, (r) > 0.9984, within the test ranges. The lower limit quantifications (LLOQs) for MA, AC, HA, BMA, BAC, and BHA were 1.41, 1.20, 1.92, 4.28, 1.99 and 2.02 ng·mL?¹, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 99.7% to 101.7%. The validated method was applied successfully in the analysis of the six alkaloids from different samples, in which significant variations were revealed. Results indicated that the developed assay can be used as an appropriate quality control assay for Xiaohuoluo pill and other herbal preparations containing Aconitum roots. PMID:22926305

  5. Effect of Red Clover on CYP Expression: An Investigation of Herb-Drug Interaction at Molecular Level.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Anubhuti; Singh, S P; Raju, K S R; Wahajuddin; Gayen, J R

    2014-05-01

    Hormone replacement therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulator are the most common therapy for women going through menopause. These therapies though popular fail to relieve withdrawal symptoms such as hot flashes, fatigue, leg cramps and nausea. This scenario necessitates to herbal preparations as alternative which may lead to simultaneous intake of herbal preparations, containing flavonoids, as well as Selective estrogen receptor modulator hence creating a phenomenon of herb drug interaction. Here we investigate the effect of red clover on steady state mRNA levels of rat cytochrome P 450 enzymes. Further, red clover's effect on cytochrome P 450's expression has been investigated when co-administered with tamoxifen and raloxifene. Exposure to red clover resulted in significant down regulation of all the cytochrome P 450 isoform mRNA except cytochrome P 450 2C13 and cytochrome P 450 3A2. When red clover is given in combination with tamoxifen or raloxifene altered level of cytochrome P 450 enzyme mRNA is observed. Present results suggest that herbal medical preparations such red clover has potential for herb drug interaction. PMID:25035541

  6. Investigating herb-drug interactions: the effect of Citrus aurantium fruit extract on the pharmacokinetics of amiodarone in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Falcão, Amílcar

    2013-10-01

    Citrus aurantium extract has been largely used in weight loss and sports performance dietary supplements. However, the safety of C. aurantium-containing products has been questioned mainly due to the association of its use with adverse events in the cardiovascular system. Therefore, this work aimed to assess the potential for herb-drug interactions among a standardized C. aurantium extract (GMP certificate) and amiodarone (narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study, rats were simultaneously co-administered with a single-dose of C. aurantium (164 mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.); in a second study, rats were pre-treated during 14 days with C. aurantium (164 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and received amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Overall, after analysis of the pharmacokinetic data, it deserves to be highlighted the significant increase of the peak plasma concentration of amiodarone in rats pre-treated with C. aurantium extract, while the extent of systemic exposure was comparable between both groups. This paper reports, for the first time, data on the potential of herb-drug interaction between C. aurantium extract and amiodarone. However, specific clinical trials should be performed to confirm these results in humans. PMID:23886819

  7. Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Lourenço, Nulita; Falcão, Amílcar

    2012-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is used in weight-loss programs as a constituent of medicinal/dietary supplements. This study aimed to assess a potential herb-drug interaction among a standardized (certified) Paullinia cupana extract and amiodarone (narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study rats were simultaneously coadministered with a single dose of Paullinia cupana (821?mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50?mg/kg, p.o.), and in a second study rats were pretreated during 14 days with Paullinia cupana (821?mg/kg/day, p.o.) receiving amiodarone (50?mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Blood samples were collected at several time points after amiodarone dosing, and several tissues were harvested at the end of the experiments (24?h after dose). Plasma and tissue concentrations of amiodarone and its major metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) were measured and analysed. A significant reduction in the peak plasma concentration (73.2%) and in the extent of systemic exposure (57.8%) to amiodarone was found in rats simultaneously treated with Paullinia cupana and amiodarone; a decrease in tissue concentrations was also observed. This paper reports for the first time an herb-drug interaction between Paullinia cupana extract and amiodarone, which determined a great decrease on amiodarone bioavailability in rats. PMID:23304200

  8. Polysaccharides of St. John's Wort Herb Stimulate NHDF Proliferation and NEHK Differentiation via Influence on Extracellular Structures and Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Abakuks, S.; Deters, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    St. John's Wort herb extracts often contain undesirable or volitional polysaccharides. As polysaccharides exhibit structure-dependent biological functions in the present study water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from herb material, fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into four main polysaccharide fractions (denominated as Hp1, Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4) and characterized by HPAEC-PAD, CE, IR and GC-MS. Biological activity on human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts was assessed by investigation of their effect on proliferation, metabolism, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and differentiation. The underlying mechanisms were investigated in gene expression studies. Polysaccharide fraction Hp1 was mainly composed of ?-D-glucose. Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4 contained pectic structures and arabinogalactan proteins varying in composition and quantity. Polysaccharides of Hp1 induced the keratinocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the epidermal growth factor and insulin receptor. While the collagen secretion of fibroblasts was stimulated by each polysaccharide fraction only Hp1 stimulated the synthesis. The fibroblast proliferation was reduced by Hp1 and increased by Hp4. This effect was related to the influence on genes that referred to oxidative stress, metabolism, transcription processes and extracellular proteins. In conclusion polysaccharides have been shown as biologically active ingredients of aqueous St. John's Wort extracts with a relation between their structural characteristics and function. PMID:22848211

  9. Evaluation of Chinese-Herbal-Medicine-Induced Herb-Drug Interactions: Focusing on Organic Anion Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chang-Ching; Fan, Hsien-Yuan; Kuo, Chien-Wen; Pao, Li-Heng

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) is increasing exponentially. Many patients utilize CHMs concomitantly with prescription drugs in great frequency. Herb-drug interaction has hence become an important focus of study. Transporter-mediated herb-drug interactions have the potential to seriously influence drug efficacy and toxicity. Since organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) is crucial in renal active secretion and drug-drug interactions, the possibility of modulation of OAT1-mediated drug transport should be seriously concerned. Sixty-three clinically used CHMs were evaluated in the study. An hOAT1-overexpressing cell line was used for the in vitro CHMs screening, and the effective candidates were administered to Wistar rats to access renal hemodynamics. The regulation of OAT1 mRNA expression was also examined for further evidence of CHMs affecting OAT1-mediated transport. Among all the 63?CHMs, formulae Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan (GZ) and Chia Wei Hsiao Yao San (CW) exhibited significant inhibitions on hOAT1-mediated [3H]-PAH uptake in vitro and PAH clearance and net secretion in vivo. Moreover, GZ showed concentration-dependent manners both in vitro and in vivo, and the decrease of rOAT1 mRNA expression indicated that GZ not only inhibited function of OAT1 but also suppressed expression of OAT1. PMID:22988478

  10. Immunoaffinity column cleanup with liquid chromatography using post-column bromination for aflatoxins in medicinal herbs and plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuehui; Liu, Huiling; Chen, Jianmin

    2005-01-01

    A new and accurate method to quantitate aflatoxins in medicinal herbs is developed. This method consists of extraction of the sample with MeOH-H2O (70:30) followed by clean-up of the extracts with immunoaffinity columns and, finally, high-performance liquid chromatographic determination with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 are determined as their bromine derivatives, produced in an online post-column derivatization system. The overall average recoveries for three different medicinal herbs spiked at levels of 1.3 and 2.6 ng/g of total aflatoxins range from 93% to 97%. The detection limit is 0.15 ng/g for both G2 and B2 and 0.20 ng/g for both G1 and B1, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1 and a precision (within-laboratory relative standard deviation) ranging from 0.8% to 1.4%. The use of immunoaffinity columns provides excellent clean-up of these particular extracts, which are generally difficult to analyze. The method is applied successfully to 96 samples of natural drugs. PMID:15808006

  11. Possible mechanism underlying the effect of Heshouwuyin, a tonifying kidney herb, on sperm quality in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herb mixtures are used as alternatives to hormone therapy in China for the treatment of partial androgen deficiency in aging men. However, the compositions of these herb mixtures are complex and their mechanisms are often unknown. This study investigates the effect of Heshouwuyin, a Chinese herbal compound for invigorating the kidney, on the control of testosterone secretion and sperm function. Methods Aged Wistar rats were administered with Heshouwuyin. A Shouwu pill group and young group were used as controls. Results Morphology, chemiluminescence, fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and western blot showed that the epididymal sperm of naturally aged rats had intact plasma membranes. They also had abnormal mitochondrial function and DNA integrity, a significant decline in serum testosterone levels, and significant pathological changes in the structure of testicular tissues. Heshouwuyin significantly improved sperm function and serum testosterone levels, and improved testicular morphology. Moreover, the curative efficacy of Heshouwuyin after 60 days was better than that of Heshouwuyin after 30 days and the Shouwu pill group. Conclusion Heshouwuyin exerts an important role in controlling testosterone secretion and sperm function. PMID:25034094

  12. Herb induced liver injury presumably caused by black cohosh: a survey of initially purported cases and herbal quality specifications.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Wolff, Albrecht; Hennermann, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) is a particular challenge that also applies to purported cases presumably caused by black cohosh (BC), an herb commonly used to treat menopausal symptoms. We analyzed and reviewed all published case reports and spontaneous reports of initially alleged BC hepatotoxicity regarding quality of case details and causality assessments. Shortcomings of data quality were more evident in spontaneous reports of regulatory agencies compared to published case reports, but assessments with the scale of CIOMS (Council for the International Organizations of Sciences) or its updated version revealed lack of causality for BC in all cases. The applied causality methods are structured, quantitative, and liver specific with clear preference over an ad hoc causality method or the liver unspecific Naranjo scale. Reviewing the case data and the reports dealing with quality specifications of herbal BC products, there is general lack of analysis with respect to authentication of BC in the BC products used by the patients. However, in one single regulatory study, there was a problem of BC authentication in the analysed BC products, and other reports addressed the question of impurities and adulterants in a few BC products. It is concluded that the use of BC may not exert an overt hepatotoxicity risk, but quality problems in a few BC products were evident that require additional regulatory quality specifications. PMID:21677326

  13. Chronic Cold-Water-Induced Hypothermia Impairs Memory Retrieval and Nepeta menthoides as a Traditional "Hot" Herb Reverses the Impairment.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian-Attar, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) describes a kind of dementia with similar signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It explains the pathology of dementia with cold intemperament of the brain, which means that the brain is colder than its healthy form. ITM strategy for treatment of dementia is to heat the brain up by medical "hot" herbs. Nepeta menthoides (NM) is one of these "hot" herbs. To evaluate the veracity of ITM concept about dementia and its treatment, we first try to examine if coldness of brain can make memory impairment. If so, can NM reverse memory impairment? Rats in cold-water-induced hypothermic (CWH) groups were immersed up to the neck in 3.5 °C water, for 5 min during 14 consecutive days. As a control, rats were forced to swim in warm water at the same conditions. To eliminate the impact of forced swimming stress, a group of intact rats was also added. After last swimming in day 14, some groups received drug (100 or 500 mg/ Kg aqueous extract of NM) or vehicle via i.p. injection. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze, and tau hyperphosphorylation was measured by western blotting. The results showed that CWH impairs learning and memory and induces tau hyperphosphorylation. 100 mg/Kg of NM reversed memory impairment as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. ITM theory about the relationship between brain hypothermia and dementia is in accordance with our findings. PMID:24711845

  14. Chronic Cold-Water-Induced Hypothermia Impairs Memory Retrieval and Nepeta menthoides as a Traditional “Hot” Herb Reverses the Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian-Attar, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) describes a kind of dementia with similar signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It explains the pathology of dementia with cold intemperament of the brain, which means that the brain is colder than its healthy form. ITM strategy for treatment of dementia is to heat the brain up by medical “hot” herbs. Nepeta menthoides (NM) is one of these “hot” herbs. To evaluate the veracity of ITM concept about dementia and its treatment, we first try to examine if coldness of brain can make memory impairment. If so, can NM reverse memory impairment? Rats in cold-water-induced hypothermic (CWH) groups were immersed up to the neck in 3.5 °C water, for 5 min during 14 consecutive days. As a control, rats were forced to swim in warm water at the same conditions. To eliminate the impact of forced swimming stress, a group of intact rats was also added. After last swimming in day 14, some groups received drug (100 or 500 mg/ Kg aqueous extract of NM) or vehicle via i.p. injection. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze, and tau hyperphosphorylation was measured by western blotting. The results showed that CWH impairs learning and memory and induces tau hyperphosphorylation. 100 mg/Kg of NM reversed memory impairment as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. ITM theory about the relationship between brain hypothermia and dementia is in accordance with our findings. PMID:24711845

  15. Drug and herb induced liver injury: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale for causality assessment

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Causality assessment of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI) is hampered by the lack of a standardized approach to be used by attending physicians and at various subsequent evaluating levels. The aim of this review was to analyze the suitability of the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale as a standard tool for causality assessment in DILI and HILI cases. PubMed database was searched for the following terms: drug induced liver injury; herb induced liver injury; DILI causality assessment; and HILI causality assessment. The strength of the CIOMS lies in its potential as a standardized scale for DILI and HILI causality assessment. Other advantages include its liver specificity and its validation for hepatotoxicity with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity, based on cases with a positive reexposure test. This scale allows prospective collection of all relevant data required for a valid causality assessment. It does not require expert knowledge in hepatotoxicity and its results may subsequently be refined. Weaknesses of the CIOMS scale include the limited exclusion of alternative causes and qualitatively graded risk factors. In conclusion, CIOMS appears to be suitable as a standard scale for attending physicians, regulatory agencies, expert panels and other scientists to provide a standardized, reproducible causality assessment in suspected DILI and HILI cases, applicable primarily at all assessing levels involved. PMID:24653791

  16. Immune restoration and/or augmentation of local graft versus host reaction by traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Hersh, E M; Talpaz, M; Lee, S L; Wong, W; Loo, T L; Mavligit, G M

    1983-07-01

    The in vitro restorative effect of aqueous extracts from two traditional Chinese medicinal herbs were studied in 19 cancer patients and in 15 normal healthy donors. Using the local graft versus host (GVH) reaction as a test assay for T-cell function, the extract from astragalus membranaceus (10 microgram/ml) induced a restored reaction in nine of ten patients with an increase in local GVH reaction from 18.2 plus/minus 15.8 mm3 to 112.9 plus/minus 94.2 mm3 (P less than 0.01). The extract from ligustrum lucidum, likewise effected an immune restoration in nine of 13 cancer patients with an increase in local GVH reaction from 32.3 plus/minus 36.1 mm3 to 118 plus/minus 104.9 mm3 (P less than 0.01). This degree of immune restoration appears to be complete as it equals the local GVH reaction observed among untreated mononuclear cells from normal healthy donors (82.8 plus/minus 41.1 mm3, P greater than 0.1). These results suggest that both extracts of the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs contain potent immune stimulants which may provide the rational basis for their therapeutic use as biological response modifiers. PMID:6336578

  17. Synthesis of potential radioprotective components from Chinese herb drug Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , umbelliferae)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.

    1993-01-01

    The ethanolic extracts of some Chinese traditional herb drugs, reported by Hong-Fu Wang et al. in China, could inhibit platelet aggregation as well as protect against radiation damage in mice, rat and rabbits. The inhibitory effects of the extracts of five Chinese drugs on the rate of platelet aggregation were observed in both in vitro and in vivo tests, averaging 23--53% in vitro and 46--69% in vivo. Antiradiation tests on mice vs. 7.5--8.0 Gy of [gamma]-radiation, using the herb drug extracts as protective agents, showed increasing survival rates by 8--50%. Based on Hong-Fu Wang's report, a search for the active constituents of these herb drugs in inhibiting platelet aggregation and protecting animals against radiation damage was started. In this research program, a Chinese traditional drug, Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.) was chosen. Three types of chemicals present in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, appeared promising for testing: 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole, 4-hydroxyl-3-butylidenephthalide and 5-hydroxyl-3-butylidenephthalide, and 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxycinnamyl 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxycinnamate. A total of 56 compounds of these derivatives has been synthesized and 30 were synthesized for the first time. The structure elucidation of these compounds was based on IR, [sup 1]H NMR and elemental analysis. From this research program, a very mild dehydrogenation method was developed. It was by using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone in acetonitrile at ice bath temperature to dehydrogenate 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole into 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole. This project showed for the first time that harmanoid alkaloids have the activity of inhibition of plate aggregation by 4 to 23 times that of aspirin. These results aid in establishing a relation between radiation protection in animals and prevention of platelet hyperaggregation.

  18. An in vivo Investigation on the Wound-Healing Effect of Two Medicinal Herbs Using an Animal Model with Foot Ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Lau; D. S. Sahota; C. H. Lau; C. M. Chan; F. C. Lam; Y. Y. Ho; K. P. Fung; C. B. S. Lau; P. C. Leung

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: Over 190 million people in the world suffer from diabetes mellitus. Diabetics are 25 times more likely to have a leg amputated because of unhealing foot ulcers. Herbal medicine has been used in China to salvage the ulcerated limb. With the aim to study the efficacy of two commonly used herbs for ulcer healing, namely Radix Astragali and Radix

  19. A Model Simulating the Genesis of Banded Vegetation Patterns in Niger Author(s): J. M. Thiery, J.-M. D'Herbes and C. Valentin

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    A Model Simulating the Genesis of Banded Vegetation Patterns in Niger Author(s): J. M. Thiery, J,497-507 A modelsimulatingthegenesisofbandedvegetation patternsinNiger J. M. THIERY, J.-M. D'HERBES* and C. VALENTIN* CEA/DPVE, Centrede Cadarache,13108Saint-Paul-lez-Durance,Franceand*ORSTOM, B.P. 11416, Niamey,Niger Summary 1 Two

  20. Geographical Differentiation of the Floristic Composition and Structure of the Herb Layer of Forest Permanent Plots in East Germany, Poland, and Belarus 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Roo-Zielinska; Jerzy Solon

    The influences of a geographical location on floristic composition, horizontal structure, and biomass of the herb layer in pine and mixed pine forest communities along climatic and pollution gradients in East Germany, Poland, and Belarus were determined. Phytosociological records were collected in permanent plots in May 1995. Each record covered an area of 400 m 2 . The floristic composition

  1. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Da Chuanxiong Formula: A Famous Herb Pair Composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Gastrodiae Rhizoma for Headache

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jinming; Feng, Yi; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Chronic headache such as migraine and nervous headache has become one of the most common locations of pain and one of the most difficult diseases to recover due to its numerous causes and inconvenience to keep acesodyne administration for a long time. However, there are a series of treatment theories and herbal formulas for this disease in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in which Da Chuanxiong formula (DCXF), a herb pair composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR), Chuanxiong in Chinese, and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR) called as Tianma in China, is a greatly classic representative. This formula has been used for headaches via dispelling wind pathogen and dissipating blood stasis for many years in TCM. In recent years, the efficiency and representativeness of DCXF have garnered many researchers' attention. To reveal the compatibility mechanism and develop innovative Chinese herb, herein ethnopharmacological relevance, chemical characters, and pharmacological actions of DCXF are detailed. It is expected to give a comprehensive interpretation of DCXF, namely, Chuanxiong Tianma herb pair (CTHP), to inherit the essence of herb pair and innovate drug delivery system of this prescription. PMID:24066012

  2. Content of toxic and essential metals in medicinal herbs growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Baceva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajce

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare Ba, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sr, Pb, and Zn content in medicinal herbs Urtica dioica L., Taraxacum officinale, and Matricaria recutita growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of the Republic of Macedonia. The metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the unpolluted area of Mt. Plackovica the metal content in Taraxacum officinale was in the descending order: Fe>Sr>Zn>Ba>Cr, while Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection. In the polluted area of Veles, the order was as follows: Fe>Zn>Sr>Pb>Ba>Cd>Cr. Our results suggest that quality assurance and monitoring of toxic metals is needed for plants intended for human use and consumption. Medicinal plants should be picked in areas free of any contamination sources. PMID:20860970

  3. Medicinal herb extract and a single-compound drug confer similar complex pharmacogenomic activities in mcf-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning-Sun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Chen, Chih-Huai; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

    2004-01-01

    Metabolite profiling and DNA microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles were employed to characterize the bioactivities of the herbal extract of Anoectochilus formosanus (AF), a popular folk medicine with anticancer activity, in MCF-7 cancer cells. The pharmacogenomic activities of this plant extract as a crude phytocompound mixture were compared to those conferred by the single-compound drug, plumbagin. A similar level of complexity in transcriptional regulation at the genomic level was observed for both AF extract- and plumbagin-treated MCF-7 cells, as revealed by the number of up- or downregulated genes as well as by the specific but distinct patterns found in the gene-clustering analysis. This finding offers evidence to support the search for fractionated medicinal herb extracts or phytocompound mixtures, in addition to single-compound drugs, as defined therapeutic agents. PMID:15067226

  4. Effect of Cadmium on Growth, Bacoside A, and Bacopaside I of Bacopa monnieri (L.), a Memory Enhancing Herb

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Poonam; Khatoon, Sayyada; Tandon, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) is an important medicinal plant mainly known as a memory enhancing herb. It is important to see the effect of metal pollution on its active constituents. In this context, efforts have been made to observe the effect of Cd on the triterpenoid saponins bacoside A and bacopaside I in this plant. The influence of the metal on growth parameters like protein, chlorophyll content, and biomass has also been observed. It is interesting to note that the bacoside A and bacopaside I gradually increased by the Cd treatment up to 10??M and then decreased at higher concentrations, that is, 50 and 100??M, but the concentration of these components was more in all the treated plants as compared to control. On the contrary, protein, chlorophyll content, and biomass decreased with the increase in metal concentration and exposure duration due to metal toxicity. PMID:24672380

  5. Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: observations with three preparations from different geographic sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Cheng, H; Li, Y; Meng, L; Zhao, G; Mai, K

    1995-10-01

    It has been suggested that herbs of the Phyllanthus family may have antiviral activity. We therefore tested the effects of three different Phyllanthus extracts on the serologic status of 123 patients with chronic hepatitis B. Eleven patients received an extract of Phyllanthus amarus (L) provided by S.P. Thyagarajan, Madras, India. Forty-two patients received Phyllanthus niruri (L), gathered from Hainan Province in China, and 35 patients received an extract of Phyllanthus urinaria (L), which had been gathered in Henan Province. Thirty-five control patients received no herbal therapy. The patients receiving Phyllanthus urinaria (L) were both more likely to lose detectable hepatitis B e-antigen from their serum and more likely to seroconvert hepatitis B e-antibody status from negative to positive than were patients given either of the other two preparations. No patient changed status with respect to hepatitis B s-antigen. PMID:7561442

  6. Solvent-free microwave extraction : an innovative tool for rapid extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, Marie E; Chemat, Farid; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple apparatus is described for extracting essential oils from aromatic plant material by atmospheric solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) without the addition of any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds were performed by a single stage. The product solutions of volatile compounds were directly analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oils fiom aromatic herbs (basil, crispate mint, thyme) and spices (ajowan, cumin, star anise) extracted by SFME for 30 minutes and I hour, were similar to those obtained by conventional hydro-distillation (HD)for (respectively) 4 and 8 hours. Substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes hydrocarbons are present in the essential oils of the aromatic plants extracted by SFME in comparison with HD. Solvent-free microwave extraction is clearly advantageous to conventional distillation in terms of rapidity, efficiency, cleanliness, substantial saving of energy, and is environmentally friendly. PMID:16480156

  7. [Effects of six kinds of Chinese herb extracts on the activities of rat liver microsomes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Bi, Yun-Feng; Zhu, Hong-Bin; Xing, Jun-Peng; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Feng-Rui

    2013-07-01

    Effects of six kinds of Chinese herb extracts, including Folium Crataegi extract, Herba Epimedii extract, Folium Acanthopanacis Senticosi extract, Trifolium pratense L. extract, Folium Ginkgo extract and Radix Puerariae extract, on the activities of CYP450 isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP2D, CYP3A) in rat hepatic microsomals were studied by using a UPLC-MS/MS (MRM) and cocktail probe substrates method. The results showed that effects of six kinds of Chinese herb extracts on each CYP450 isozyme activity were inhibitory. The IC50 of Folium Crataegi extract for the inhibition of rat microsomal CYP2D activity was only for 4.04 microg x mL(-1), which showed the highest inhibition; Trifolium pratense L. extract had strong inhibitory action to CYP2D, the IC50 value was 5.73 microg x mL(-1); Folium Crataegi extract also had strong inhibitory action on CYP2E1, the IC50 value was 10.91 microg x mL(-1). Furthermore, the IC50 of Folium Ginkgo extract for the inhibition of rat microsomal CYP3A, 2D, 2E1 activities were 45.12, 35.45 and 22.41 microg x mL(-1), respectively, and the IC50 of Folium Acanthopanacis Senticosi extract on the inhibition of rat microsomal CYP2E1 activity was 32.89 microg x mL(-1). In addition, mechanism of inhibition experimental results showed that the inhibiting abilities of Folium Crataegi extract and Radix Puerariae extract on each CYP450 isozyme increased with the increasing of the preincubation time, therefore, the inhibitory effects were a mechanism-based inhibition. PMID:24133981

  8. Effect of oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreno, S R F; Silva, A L C; Diré, G; Honeycut, H; Carvalho, J J; Nascimento, A L; Pereira, M; Rocha, E K; Oliveira-Timóteo, M; Arnobio, A; Olej, B; Bernardo-Filho, M; Caldas, L Q A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g), were treated (1 mL) with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5) or 0.9% NaCl solution (control, N = 5) for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL) was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05) alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i) from 0.57 +/- 0.008 to 0.39 +/- 0.06 %ATI/organ (P < 0.05) and from 0.57 +/- 0.17 to 0.39 +/- 0.14 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) was observed in the heart, ii) from 0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g in the pancreas, and iii) from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient. PMID:17224999

  9. Effects of a Chinese medical herbs complex on cellular immunity and toxicity-related conditions of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, S R; Chiu, H F; Chen, S L; Tsai, J H; Lee, M Y; Lee, H S; Shen, Y C; Yan, Y Y; Shane, G T; Wang, C-K

    2012-03-01

    Rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens, Geraniaceae) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, and promotes wound healing. Similarly, Ganoderma tsugae (Ganodermataceae), Codonopsis pilosula (Campanulaceae) and Angelica sinensis (Apiaceae) are traditional Chinese herbs associated with immunomodulatory functions. In the present study, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine whether the Chinese medicinal herb complex, RG-CMH, which represents a mixture of rose geranium and extracts of G. tsugae, C. pilosula and A. sinensis, can improve the immune cell count of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to prevent leucopenia and immune impairment that usually occurs during cancer therapy. A total of fifty-eight breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled. Immune cell levels in patient serum were determined before, and following, 6 weeks of cancer treatment for patients receiving either an RG-CMH or a placebo. Administration of RG-CMH was associated with a significant reduction in levels of leucocytes from 31·5 % for the placebo group to 13·4 % for the RG-CMH group. Similarly, levels of neutrophils significantly decreased from 35·6 % for the placebo group to 11·0 % for the RG-CMH group. RG-CMH intervention was also associated with a decrease in levels of T cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells compared with the placebo group. However, these differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. In conclusion, administration of RG-CMH to patients receiving chemotherapy/radiotherapy may have the capacity to delay, or ease, the reduction in levels of leucocytes and neutrophils that are experienced by patients during cancer treatment. PMID:21864416

  10. Ten-year growth response of young Douglas-fir to variable density varnishleaf ceanothus and herb competition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monleon, V.J.; Newton, M.; Hooper, C.; Tappeiner, J. C., II

    1999-01-01

    The effect of different densities of varnishleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus var. laevigatus) and herbaceous vegetation control on stem diameter, height, and volume of plantation Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) seedlings was examined during the 10 yr following planting. Initial densities of ceanothus ranged between 0 and 15,000 seedlings/ha and were obtained by interplanting ceanothus germinants or chemical thinning after clearcutting and broadcast-burning. Herbaceous vegetation control was achieved by a single application of glyphosate following planting, with shrub seedlings covered. Ceanothus density in the range of 0 to 6,750 plants/ha did not have an effect on Douglas-fir diameter, height, or volume at age 10; however, Douglas-fir growth was significantly decreased when ceanothus densities reached 15,000 plants/ha. Ten years after planting, Douglas-fir volume in the treatments with 6,750 ceanothus/ha or less was 1.7 times greater than that in the 15,000 ceanothus/ha treatment. On the other hand, removal of herbaceous vegetation after planting significantly increased tree diameter, height, and volume, regardless of ceanothus density. Even 10 yr after the application of the treatment, trees without early herb competition grew faster and had mean dbh, height, and volume that were 1.02 cm, 0.55 m, and 12.98 dm3/tree greater respectively than those with herbs. Thus, a treatment at plantation establishment to control herbaceous vegetation and to reduce ceanothus density to less than 7,000 plants/ha will ensure an increase in growth and stocking for at least 10 yr.

  11. The protective effects of the traditional Chinese herbs against renal damage induced by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Binwu; He, Dalin; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Xingfa; Nan, Xunyi

    2011-04-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-induced renal damage can occur as a result of multiple mechanisms. We have reported previously that Astragalus membranaceus, Salvia miltiorrhiza, a decoction of six drugs containing rhizoma Rehmanniae preparata and supplements of a few traditional Chinese medicinal herbs for invigorating the kidney and excreting calculus, have a protective effect on renal injury induced by high-energy shock waves (HESW) in rabbits. In this clinical study we further investigate the protective effects of these traditional Chinese herbs against renal damage induced by ESWL. Sixty consenting patients with renal calculus who underwent ESWL treatment were included and randomly assigned to the medication group or control group. Post-ESWL plasma nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), malondialdehyde (MDA), and serum tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) increased significantly in the controls (P < 0.05), while in the medication group, slightly but not significantly elevated levels of plasma ET-1, NO, and serum TNF-? were found. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased gradually in the controls, reaching a trough 72 h after ESWL (P < 0.05), while in the treated group it was unchanged, and remained at a level higher versus the controls (P < 0.05). Plasma NO peaked twice by 72 h and at 1 week in the controls (P < 0.05). Urinary enzymes and ?(2)-microglobulin increased significantly and peaked by 24 h and immediately after ESWL (P < 0.05). These values were greater in the controls, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that the preparations of traditional Chinese medicines for invigorating the kidney and excreting calculus can reduce renal tubular damage induced by ESWL, and can shorten the recovery time of renal tubules in human subjects. PMID:20607528

  12. Natural occurrence of fumonisins and ochratoxin A in some herbs and spices commercialized in Poland analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Bocianowski, Jan; Goli?ski, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Unsanitary conditions during harvesting, drying, packing and storage stages in production and processing of spices and herbs could introduce mycotoxin contamination. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and fumonisins in popular spices and herbs was studied, using liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, ergosterol as a factor indicating fungal development was also analysed. A total of 79 different samples commercialized in Poland were randomly purchased from popular markets were tested for mycotoxins. The frequency of samples with fumonisins was lower (31%) than ochratoxin A (49%). Free from mycotoxins were samples of bay leaf and white mustard. ERG content - in spice samples with high concentration level of mycotoxins - was also significantly higher than in samples with little to no mycotoxins. PMID:24010625

  13. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  14. A Panel of Serum MicroRNAs as Specific Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Compound and Herb-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Wen Su; Xi Chen; Zhen-Zhou Jiang; Tao Wang; Cheng Wang; Yun Zhang; Jing Wen; Mei Xue; Dan Zhu; Yue Zhang; Yi-Jing Su; Tong-Yue Xing; Chen-Yu Zhang; Lu-Yong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundDrug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been a public, economic and pharmaceutical issue for many years. Enormous effort has been made for discovering and developing novel biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring both clinical and preclinical DILI at an early stage, though progress has been relatively slow. Additionally, herb-induced liver injury is an emerging cause of liver disease because herbal medicines are

  15. Negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation low-energy collision activation mass spectrometry for the characterisation of flavonoids in extracts of fresh herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulla Justesen

    2000-01-01

    The flavonoid composition of commonly eaten fresh herbs such as dill, oregano and parsley was analysed by combined LC, MS and low-energy collision induced dissociation (CID) MS–MS. Negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) MS and MS–MS were used to provide molecular mass information and product-ion spectra of the glycosyl compounds. The most prominent fragment was found to arise from the

  16. Orthogonal array design for antidepressant compatibility of polysaccharides from Banxia-Houpu decoction, a traditional Chinese herb prescription in the mouse models of depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Tao Yi; Li Zhang; An-Wei Ding; Qun Xu; Qin Zhu; Ling-Dong Kong

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated antidepressant-like interaction of five herb polysaccharide fractions from Banxia-Houpu decoction,\\u000a composed of rhizome pinelliae (PRP), magnolia bark (PMB), poria (PPO), ginger rhizome (PGR) and folium perillae (PFP) by a\\u000a L16(25) orthogonal array design with a two-factor interaction in the tail suspension and forced swimming and tests (TST, FST) in\\u000a mice. Serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) levels

  17. Interaction frequency and per-interaction effects as predictors of total effects in plant–pollinator mutualisms: a case study with the self-incompatible herb Linaria lilacina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso M. Sánchez-Lafuente; Miguel A. Rodríguez-Gironés; Raquel Parra

    It is widely recognized that pollinators vary in their effectiveness in pollination mutualisms, due both to differences in\\u000a flower–pollinator morphological fit as well as pollinator behaviour. However, pollination webs typically treat all interactions\\u000a as equal, and we contend that this method may provide misleading results. Using empirical and theoretical data, we present\\u000a the case study of a self-incompatible herb in

  18. Prediction of changes in the occurrence of forest herbs in hedgerow networks along a climate gradient in north-western Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Wehling; Martin Diekmann

    2010-01-01

    Many herbaceous forest plant species are endangered and suffer from habitat loss and fragmentation, especially in agricultural\\u000a landscapes. Hedgerow networks represent a forested habitat that may serve as a refuge for forest herbs, even though also hedges\\u000a have recently been strongly reduced in number and size. It is yet disputed to which extent hedgerows offer a suitable environment\\u000a for forest

  19. Antiasthmatic effects of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Clerodendron trichotomum leaves and Rumex gmelini herbes in conscious guinea-pigs challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji Yun Lee; Jung Gun Lee; Sang Soo Sim; Wan-Kyunn Whang; Chang Jong Kim

    2011-01-01

    Clerodendron trichotomum leaves and Rumex aquatica herbs are used as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, but their active ingredients are not known until now. We isolated caffeic acid and phenylpropanoid glycosides, 1-O-caffeoyl glycoside and acteoside [?-(3?,4?-dihydroxyphenyl) ethyl-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?3)-?-d-(4-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside] from their ethylacetate fractions, respectively, and evaluated their anti-asthmatic effects on the aerosolized ovalbumin (OA) challenge in the OA-sensitized

  20. Clinical and molecular evaluation of warming and tonic herb treatment for sibling patients of a typical kidney-yang deficiency family.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ling; Wang, Miqu; Wang, J G; Wu, Bin; Hui, Kam M

    2006-01-01

    It is essential to explore the molecular therapeutic effect of warm and tonic herb treatment for individuals with typical kidney-yang deficiency. In this report, we have identified members of a family with a history of suffering from cold and kidney-yang deficiency syndromes. First, we have employed the accumulated scores of the 40-items clinical scoring indicators for kidney-yang deficiency and cold syndromes to clinically assess the presence or absence of the deficiency for 15 family members. We then proceeded to compare the gene expression profiles of RNA isolated from blood samples, prior to and post-herbal treatment, of a sibling (brother and younger sister) that are suffering from the deficiency using cDNA microarrays with 18816 genes. Following treatments with the warming and tonic herb, the accumulated clinical scores obtained from the 40-items clinical scoring indicators were compared to those obtained pre-treatment. It was observed that the accumulated clinical scores were reduced by 1/3 for the brother and 2/3 for his younger sister following the treatments. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the level of gene expression for a total of 33 genes at pre-treatment was modulated after treatments with the warming and tonic herb and correlated well with the clinical improvements of their syndromes. These results suggest that the combination of gene profiling and the accumulated clinical scores obtained from the 40-items clinical scoring indicators may provide an accurate clinical assessment and a way to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of the warming and tonic herb treatment. PMID:16710888

  1. Comparative Composition of Whole Herb, Flowers, Leaves and Stem Oils of Cornmint (Mentha arvensis L.f. piperascens Malinvaud ex Holmes)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhaskaruni R. Rajeswara Rao; Pran N. Kaul; Gopal R. Mallavarapu; Srinivasaiyer Ramesh

    2000-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from flowering whole herb, flowers, leaves and stem of cornmint cv. ‘Shivalik’ grown on black soil in semi-arid tropical climate, were compared. Cornmint grew to a height of 75–120 cm and produced 4.5–54 kg biomass\\/m. Flowers, leaves and stems contributed 31–3%, 37.4% and 31.3% to biomass yield and produced essential oil yields of

  2. Preparative isolation and purification of hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the Chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. by high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renmin Liu; Aifeng Li; Ailing Sun

    2004-01-01

    A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for preparative separation and purification of five hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the Chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. was developed by using pH-gradient elution. The purities of rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion and cinnamic acid were all over 98%, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The structures of them were identified

  3. Preparative isolation and purification of hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renmin; Li, Aifeng; Sun, Ailing

    2004-10-15

    A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for preparative separation and purification of five hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the Chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. was developed by using pH-gradient elution. The purities of rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion and cinnamic acid were all over 98%, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The structures of them were identified by 1H NMR. PMID:15527141

  4. Influence of the antibacterial herbs, Solanum trilobatum , Andrographis paniculata and Psoralea corylifolia on the survival, growth and bacterial load of Penaeus monodon post larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Citarasu; K. Venkatramalingam; M. Micheal Babu; R. Raja Jeya Sekar; M. Petermarian

    2003-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of antibiotics and chemicals in shrimp hatcheries has led to biomagnification and that in turn could\\u000a lead to rejection of a whole consignment. The application of the bioencapsulation technique as a tool for curative treatment\\u000a in shrimp larvae was investigated. Herbs having antibacterial properties such as Solanum trilobatum, Andrographis paniculata and Psoralea corylifolia (methanolic extracts) were bioencapsulated

  5. EFFECTS OF SIX ANTI-INFLAMMATORY CHINESE HERBS ON LPS\\/IFN-?-INDUCED NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN RAW264.7 MACROPHAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Fei Chiou; Cheng-Jen Chou; Han-Chieh Ko; Chieh-Fu Chen

    The present study was designed to evaluate whether the six Chinese herbs (Davallia divaricata, Dd; Nothapodytes foetida, Nf; Orobanche caerulescens, Oc; Spiranthes sinensis, Ss; Taxillus liquidambaricolus, Tl; Viscum alniformosanae, Va) commonly used as anti-inflammatory drugs in traditional Chinese medicine, influence the induction of nitric oxide (NO), a mediator involved in inflammation. RAW264.7 cell was used as target cell and activated

  6. Biological invasion of a refuge habitat: Anthriscus caucalis (Apiaceae) decreases diversity, evenness, and survival of native herbs in the Chilean matorral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio A. Castro; Ernesto Badano; Daniela Guzman; Lohengrin Cavieres

    2010-01-01

    In central Chile, the bur beak chervil (Anthriscus caucalis M. Bieb.; Apiaceae) is an annual naturalized herb introduced from Europe at least 120 years ago. Anthriscus is distributed in vegetation formations such as sclerophyllous shrublands (locally known as “matorral”) and spiny savannas\\u000a of Acacia caven (locally known as “espinal”). In matorral formations, Anthriscus grows at the edge of native woody fragments.

  7. The effects of selected hot and cold temperament herbs based on Iranian traditional medicine on some metabolic parameters in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Parvinroo, Shirin; Zahediasl, Saleh; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Naghibi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of diets containing some hot and cold temperament herb seeds according to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) on some metabolic parameters in acute (24 h) and sub-acute (7 day) experiments that were performed on rats. For each experiment, effects of diets containing 10% herb seeds in category of hot (anise, fennel, ajowan) and cold (cucumber, watermelon, pumpkin) temperaments were analyzed on body weight gain, food intake, water consumption, urine output, serum glucose (SG) and insulin levels of rats. In the acute experiment, anise or fennel fed groups showed a significant decrease in food intake and there were not any changes in other parameters. The hot temperament groups in comparison with the cold temperament ones showed a significant decrease in food intake and a significant increase in SG level. In the sub-acute experiment, anise and fennel fed groups had a significant decrease in body weight gain on the 4thday. On the 7th day, the anise fed group experienced a significant decrease in body weight gain and a significant increase in SG levels. The groups that were fed hot temperament diets compared to the ones that consumed cold temperament diets showed a significant decrease in body weight gain and food intake rates and a considerable increase in SG levels. Considering the findings of this study, one can conclude that it is possible that hot temperament herbs such as anise and fennel be useful for humans for certain conditions such as weight control. PMID:24711844

  8. The Four-Herb Chinese Medicine ANBP Enhances Wound Healing and Inhibits Scar Formation via Bidirectional Regulation of Transformation Growth Factor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Hao-Jie; Han, Qing-Wang; Chen, Li; Dong, Liang; Liu, Jie-Jie; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Ma, Ying-Zhi; Han, Wei-Dong; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The four-herb Chinese medicine ANBP is a pulverized mixture of four herbs including Agrimonia Eupatoria (A), Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn (N), Boswellia Carteri (B) and Pollen Typhae Angustifoliae (P). The combination of the four herbs was first described in Chinese canonical medicine about 2000 years ago for treatment of various trauma disorders, such as hemostasis, antiinflammatory, analgesia, and wound healing, etc. However, the precise mechanisms of ANBP are still unclear. In our study, using rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models of full-thickness skin defect, we showed that local ANBP treatment not only significantly enhanced wound healing by relieving inflammation, increasing formation of granulation tissue and accelerating re-epithelialization, but also reduced scar formation by decreasing collagen production, protuberant height and volume of scars, and increasing collagen maturity. We demonstrated that these effects of ANBP are associated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-mediated signalling pathways through Smad-dependent pathways. ANBP treatment significantly increased expression of TGF-?1 and Smad2/3 mRNA at the early stage of wound healing, and led to markedly decrease expression of TGF-?1 and Smad2/3 compared with the control group after 14 days post-wounding. Taken together, our results defined a bidirectional regulation role of ANBP for TGF-?1/Smad pathway in promoting wound healing and alleviating scar formation, which may be an effective therapy for human wounds at the earliest stage. PMID:25489732

  9. The four-herb Chinese medicine ANBP enhances wound healing and inhibits scar formation via bidirectional regulation of transformation growth factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qian; He, Wen-Jun; Hao, Hao-Jie; Han, Qing-Wang; Chen, Li; Dong, Liang; Liu, Jie-Jie; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Ma, Ying-Zhi; Han, Wei-Dong; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The four-herb Chinese medicine ANBP is a pulverized mixture of four herbs including Agrimonia Eupatoria (A), Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn (N), Boswellia Carteri (B) and Pollen Typhae Angustifoliae (P). The combination of the four herbs was first described in Chinese canonical medicine about 2000 years ago for treatment of various trauma disorders, such as hemostasis, antiinflammatory, analgesia, and wound healing, etc. However, the precise mechanisms of ANBP are still unclear. In our study, using rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models of full-thickness skin defect, we showed that local ANBP treatment not only significantly enhanced wound healing by relieving inflammation, increasing formation of granulation tissue and accelerating re-epithelialization, but also reduced scar formation by decreasing collagen production, protuberant height and volume of scars, and increasing collagen maturity. We demonstrated that these effects of ANBP are associated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-mediated signalling pathways through Smad-dependent pathways. ANBP treatment significantly increased expression of TGF-?1 and Smad2/3 mRNA at the early stage of wound healing, and led to markedly decrease expression of TGF-?1 and Smad2/3 compared with the control group after 14 days post-wounding. Taken together, our results defined a bidirectional regulation role of ANBP for TGF-?1/Smad pathway in promoting wound healing and alleviating scar formation, which may be an effective therapy for human wounds at the earliest stage. PMID:25489732

  10. Concurrent quantification and comparative pharmacokinetic analysis of bioactive compounds in the Herba Ephedrae-Semen Armeniacae Amarum herb pair.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuai; Chen, Feilong; Xing, Xuefeng; Ren, Mengyue; Ma, Qinhai; Xie, Ying; Tang, Qingfa; Luo, Jiabo

    2015-05-10

    The Mahuang-Xingren herb-pair (MX), the combination of Herba Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Semen Armeniacae Amarum (Xingren in Chinese), is a classical combination used in traditional Chinese Medicine to treat asthma and bronchitis. A simple and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to simultaneously quantify and compare the pharmacokinetics of 5 ephedra alkaloids and epimers of amygdalin and prunasin in rat plasma after oral administration of Mahuang, Xingren, and MX aqueous extracts. Samples were pretreated by a single-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile, and diphenhydramine hydrochloride and puerarin were used as internal standards. Pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated using DAS 3.2.2 (Mathematical Pharmacology Professional Committee of China, Shanghai, China). The validated method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, selectivity, and process efficiency for the bioanalysis of 8 compounds, including 3 pairs of epimers. MX administration improved the bioavailability of amygdalin and prunasin. Furthermore, MX facilitated intake of lower doses of ephedra alkaloids and increased elimination rates in comparison with Mahuang alone. These results illustrate the rationale behind the preferred use of the combination of Mahuang and Xingren. To our knowledge, this is the first report of stereo-selective metabolism of amygdalin. Further, the metabolic mechanism underlying this phenomenon merits future research attention. PMID:25766850

  11. An efficient in vitro regeneration of Ceropegia noorjahaniae: an endemic and critically endangered medicinal herb of the Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Chavan, J J; Nalawade, A S; Gaikwad, N B; Gurav, R V; Dixit, G B; Yadav, S R

    2014-07-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for the rapid in vitro multiplication of an endemic and critically endangered medicinal herb, Ceropegia noorjahaniae Ans., via enhanced axillary bud proliferation from nodal explants. The effects of phytohormones [6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kin) thidiazuron (TDZ), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)] on in vitro regeneration were investigated. The highest number of shoots (18.3?±?1.3), maximum shoot length (10.1?±?0.8 cm) and the highest response of shoot induction (95 %) were recorded on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP. Rooting was best achieved on half-strength MS medium augmented with IBA (1.0 mg/l). Half-strength MS medium supplemented with BAP (4 mg/l) and sucrose (5 %, w/v) produced an average of 5.6 flower buds per microshoots with highest (90 %) flower bud induction response. The plantlets regenerated in vitro with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully established in pots containing sterile sand and coco peat (1:1) and grown in a greenhouse with 85 % survival rate. The regenerated plants did not show any detectable morphological variation. The developed method can be successfully employed for large-scale multiplication and conservation of C. noorjahaniae. PMID:25049469

  12. Control of reed canarygrass promotes wetland herb and tree seedling establishment in an upper Mississippi River Floodplain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomsen, Meredith; Brownell, Kurt; Groshek, Matthew; Kirsch, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) is recognized as a problematic invader of North American marshes, decreasing biodiversity and persisting in the face of control efforts. Less is known about its ecology or management in forested wetlands, providing an opportunity to apply information about factors critical to an invader's control in one wetland type to another. In a potted plant experiment and in the field, we documented strong competitive effects of reed canarygrass on the establishment and early growth of tree seedlings. In the field, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel restoration strategy, combining site scarification with late fall applications of pre-emergent herbicides. Treatments delayed reed canarygrass emergence the following spring, creating a window of opportunity for the early growth of native plants in the absence of competition from the grass. They also allowed for follow-up herbicide treatments during the growing season. We documented greater establishment of wetland herbs and tree seedlings in treated areas. Data from small exclosures suggest, however, that deer browsing can limit tree seedling height growth in floodplain restorations. Slower tree growth will delay canopy closure, potentially allowing reed canarygrass re-invasion. Thus, it may be necessary to protect tree seedlings from herbivory to assure forest regeneration.

  13. Responses to drought stress among sex morphs of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae), a subdioecious perennial herb native to the East Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Lijuan; Wang, Zhengkun; Zhu, Wanlong; Meng, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that dioecious plants occur more frequently in dry and nutrient-poor habitats, suggesting that abiotic stress factors could contribute to evolution of dioecy from hermaphrodite. Therefore, experimental investigations on the responses of subdioecious species, a special sexual system comprising male, female, and hermaphrodite plants, to abiotic stress factors could quantify the contribution of selective pressure on the evolution of dioecy. In this study, we evaluated the physiological responses of different sex morphs of Oxyria sinensis Hemsley, a perennial herb native to the East Himalayas, to drought stress. Male, female, and hermaphrodite plants of O. sinensis were subjected to low, moderate, and high drought stress conditions in a glasshouse. Generally, with increasing water stress, the values of most measured variables slightly decreased, whereas water-use efficiency slightly increased. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in most of the measured parameters among the sex morphs under each drought stress treatment, indicating that O. sinensis might be well-adapted to drought stress conditions as its typical habitat is the dry and hot habitats of xerothermic river valleys. However, nitrogen-use efficiency was significantly higher in male and female plants than in hermaphrodite plants under high drought stress conditions, suggesting that that nitrogen-use efficiency under conditions of drought stress might have contributed to the evolution of dioecy from the hermaphrodite to some degree. PMID:25505531

  14. Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in short-lived monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species

    PubMed Central

    Malíková, Lenka; Šmilauer, Petr; Klimešová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Adventitious sprouting from the hypocotyle and roots in monocarpic herbs has been confirmed in previous experimental studies as a means to avoid bud limitation after severe injury in annual and biennial plants. Data regarding the role of adventitious sprouting in natural populations, however, were lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations and how it is affected by plant size, plant injury, plant cover and environmental characteristics. Methods Data were sampled from 14 037 individual plants from 389 populations belonging to 22 annual and biennial species. Growth parameters were measured in individual plants, species composition and plant cover in communities were evaluated, and environmental characteristics were estimated using Ellenberg indicator values. Key Results It was confirmed that adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations of all but five species examined. Adventitious sprouting was positively affected by plant size and plant injury. Environmental factors including availability of soil nitrogen were not shown to affect adventitious sprouting. Annual and biennial plants did not differ in sprouting, but upright annuals had a lower number of and longer adventitious shoots than prostrate annuals. Conclusions Adventitious bud formation is used to overcome meristem limitation when stem parts are lost due to injury, and thus resprouting in short-lived monocarps should not be overlooked. PMID:20356953

  15. Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion and the miRNAs Related to Crohn's Disease: A Study Based on Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kai; Zhang, Dan; Hong, Jue; Zhang, Cuihong; Feng, Xiaoming; Huang, Yan; Liu, Jie; Wu, Lingxiang; Wu, Huangan; Ma, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a major subtype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Herb-partitioned moxibustion (HPM) has been proven to be effective in treating CD by a large amount of clinical and experimental researches. MiRNAs (microRNAs) are increasingly recognized as important posttranscriptional regulators of inflammatory genes. In this study, we established experimental CD rat models and investigated the miRNAs associated with the onset of experimental CD; then, we further identified CD-related miRNAs that were regulated by HPM and explored the relationship between CD and the potential target genes of involved miRNAs. We found that miR-147 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in colons of experimental CD rats and may be closely associated with the onset of experimental CD. HPM may extenuate inflammatory responses in colons and ameliorate colonic damages in CD via upregulating the expression of miR-147 and miR-205 and then further downregulating the expression of inflammation-related mRNAs, negatively regulating inflammatory signal pathways, and reducing the production of downstream inflammatory cytokines.

  16. Extension of lifespan and protection against oxidative stress by an antioxidant herb mixture complex (KPG-7) in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Takahito; Kato, Seiji; Kato, Yuichi; Hosoki, Ayaka; Zhang-Akiyama, Qiu-Mei

    2013-09-01

    Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species within cells results in oxidative stress. Furthermore, accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been shown to reduce cell longevity. Many dietary supplements are believed to have anti-aging effects. The herb mixture KPG-7 contains several components with antioxidant activity. We aim to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of KPG-7 and to establish whether KPG-7 has an anti-aging effect. We examined whether dietary supplementation with KPG-7 could provide protection against oxidative stress, extend lifespan, and delay aging in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We found that KPG-7 extended lifespan and delayed aging in adult C. elegans. The expression of oxidation resistance 1 protein was induced by juglone and this effect was significantly suppressed in KPG-7-treated. In addition, the amount of oxidized protein was significantly lower in KPG-7-treated worms than untreated worms. Furthermore, locomotive activity was increased in C. elegans at 3 days of age following the treatment with KPG-7. On the other hand, the level of cellular ATP was lower at 3 days of age in worms treated with KPG-7 than in untreated worms. KPG-7 increases lifespan and delays aging in C. elegans, well corresponding to its activity to protect against oxidative stress. PMID:24062604

  17. Extension of lifespan and protection against oxidative stress by an antioxidant herb mixture complex (KPG-7) in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Takahito; Kato, Seiji; Kato, Yuichi; Hosoki, Ayaka; Zhang-Akiyama, Qiu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species within cells results in oxidative stress. Furthermore, accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been shown to reduce cell longevity. Many dietary supplements are believed to have anti-aging effects. The herb mixture KPG-7 contains several components with antioxidant activity. We aim to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of KPG-7 and to establish whether KPG-7 has an anti-aging effect. We examined whether dietary supplementation with KPG-7 could provide protection against oxidative stress, extend lifespan, and delay aging in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We found that KPG-7 extended lifespan and delayed aging in adult C. elegans. The expression of oxidation resistance 1 protein was induced by juglone and this effect was significantly suppressed in KPG-7-treated. In addition, the amount of oxidized protein was significantly lower in KPG-7-treated worms than untreated worms. Furthermore, locomotive activity was increased in C. elegans at 3 days of age following the treatment with KPG-7. On the other hand, the level of cellular ATP was lower at 3 days of age in worms treated with KPG-7 than in untreated worms. KPG-7 increases lifespan and delays aging in C. elegans, well corresponding to its activity to protect against oxidative stress. PMID:24062604

  18. Nain-e Havandi Andrographis paniculata present yesterday, absent today: a plenary review on underutilized herb of Iran's pharmaceutical plants.

    PubMed

    Valdiani, Alireza; Kadir, Mihdzar Abdul; Tan, Soon Guan; Talei, Daryush; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Nikzad, Sonia

    2012-05-01

    Nain-e Havandi (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) (AP) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the family Acanthacea. Only a few species of Andrographis genus out of 28 are medicinally concerned of which AP is the most important. Knowledge about the arrival of AP to Iran is extremely lacking but most probably it has been imported from India. However, evidence implies the familiarity of Iran's folkloric medicine with this plant, but it has been disappeared from contemporary medicine for unknown reasons. Presence of active ingredients from diterpenoids group such as andrographolide, neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide has given incredible unique medicinal properties to the plant. Traditionally, Nain-e Havandi has been used in the role of a non-farm plant as a remedy for skin problems, flu, respiratory disease, and snakebite in East and Southeast Asia for centuries. Recently, it has been utilized as a treatment for HIV, hepatitis, diabetes, cancer and kidney disorders. Intensive cultivation of the herb started only in the past decade in countries such as China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, West Indies, Mauritius and to some extent, in Malaysia. Availability of different ecological zones in Iran complies with reestablishment of AP in tropical and temperate regions of the country. This is killing two birds with one stone, supporting the conservational and economic aspects. PMID:22198549

  19. Validated HPLC method for the standardization of Phyllanthus niruri (herb and commercial extracts) using corilagin as a phytochemical marker.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Renata; de L Batista, Andrea N; Teles, Helder L; Silva, Geraldo H; Bomfim, Giovani C C; Burgos, Rosilene C R; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; da Silva Bolzani, Vanderlan; Silva, Dulce Helena S; Pelícia, Clícia R; Guimarães, Fabiana M; Heimberg, Maria Célia H

    2009-06-01

    Phyllanthus niruri L., commonly known in Brazil as 'quebra-pedra', has long been used in the treatment of diverse diseases and especially urolithiasis. The therapeutic effects of P. niruri are attributed to various compounds present in the plant, including the hydrolysable tannin corilagin. In the present study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-/PAD) profiles of leaves and commercial extracts of P. niruri were examined and three compounds, found to be present in all of the samples studied, were isolated by open column chromatography over C18)silica gel followed by preparative HPLC. These compounds were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance as corilagin, rutin and ethyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate. Corilagin, which has been proposed as a phytochemical marker for P. niruri, was employed as an external standard in the development and validation of a rapid and efficient qualitative and quantitative HPLC assay for the analyte. The method may be applied in the standardization of herbs and phytomedicines commercialized in Brazil as quebra-pedra. PMID:19277954

  20. PXR-Mediated Upregulation of CYP3A Expression by Herb Compound Praeruptorin C from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Li, Yu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Tao; Bi, Hui-Chang

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that Praeruptorin C effectively transactivated the mRNA, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via the CAR-mediated pathway, but whether and how PC could affect the expression and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via PXR pathway remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of PC on the CYP3A gene expression was investigated in mice primary hepatocytes after knockdown of PXR by transient transfection of PXR siRNA, and the gene expression, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the LS174T cells with PXR overexpression were determined by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and LC-MS/MS-based CYP3A4 substrate assay, respectively. We found that the level of CYP3a11 gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes was significantly increased by praeruptorin C, but such an induction was suppressed after knockdown of pregnane X receptor by its siRNA. In PXR-overexpressed LS174T cells, PC significantly enhanced CYP3A4 mRNA, protein expression, and functional activity through PXR-mediated pathway; conversely, no such increase was found in the untransfected cells. These findings suggest that PC can significantly upregulate CYP3A level via the PXR-mediated pathway, and this should be taken into consideration to predict any potential herb-drug interactions between PC, Qianhu, and the other coadministered drugs. PMID:24379885

  1. Seed size variation and its effect on germination and seedling performance in the clonal herb Convallaria majalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Ove

    1999-02-01

    Variation in seed size is common both within and among plant species. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight, and its implications for some components of fitness in the clonal herb Convallaria majalis. This species produces berries containing 4.1 seeds on average. The average seed weight was 16.5 mg, with a coefficient of variation of 32.7%. Seed packaging in fruits was on average 12.5%, and showed a slight tendency to increase with fruit weight. A trade-off was found between seed weight and seed number both within fruits and within ramets. The probability and timing of germination was not influenced by seed size. A field experiment and indirect evidence suggested that post-dispersal seed predation was not related to seed size. Increasing seed weight conferred an advantage to developing seedlings. This advantage was enhanced if a seedling was growing in the close vicinity of a seedling of another species. It is suggested that seed size variation in C. majalis primarily is the result of resource variation during fruit development. A conflict between parents and offspring may however contribute to increase seed size variation.

  2. Acute and Chronic Administrations of Rheum palmatum Reduced the Bioavailability of Phenytoin in Rats: A New Herb-Drug Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Ying-Chang; Juang, Shin-Hun; Chui, Wai Keung; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2012-01-01

    The rhizome of Rheum palmatum (RP) is a commonly used herb in clinical Chinese medicine. Phenytoin (PHT) is an antiepileptic with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the acute and chronic effects of RP on the pharmacokinetics of PHT in rat. Rats were orally administered with PHT (200?mg/kg) with and without RP decoction (single dose and seven doses of 2?g/kg) in a crossover design. The serum concentrations of PHT, PHT glucuronide (PHT-G), 4-hydroxyphenytoin (HPPH), and HPPH glucuronide (HPPH-G) were determined by HPLC method. Cell line models were used to identify the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that coadministration of single dose or multiple doses of RP significantly decreased the Cmax and AUC0-t as well as the K10 of PHT, PHT-G, HPPH, and HPPH-G. Cell line studies revealed that RP significantly induced the P-gp-mediated efflux of PHT and inhibited the MRP-2-medicated transport of PHT and HPPH. In conclusion, acute and chronic coadministrations of RP markedly decreased the oral bioavailability of PHT via activation of P-gp, although the MRP-2-mediated excretion of PHT was inhibited. It is recommended that caution should be exercised during concurrent use of RP and PHT. PMID:22829856

  3. Evaluation of repellency of some Chinese medicinal herbs essential oils against Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Li, Jin Lu; Xu, Shuai; Zhao, Na Na; Zhou, Ligang; Cheng, Jun; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-02-01

    The screening for repellency against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), from 14 Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the essential oils of Curcuma longa L., Epimedium pubescens Maximouwicz, Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kostermans, Nardostachys chinensis Battandier, Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieber et Zuccarini, and Z. officinale Roscoe exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila and T. castaneum. A total of 35 components of the essential oil of E. pubescens were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Beta-Eudesmol (14.89%), alpha-pinene (13.38%), borneol (9.56%), (R)-carvone (7.89%), and menthol (7.45%) were the main components of the essential oil of E. pubescens. From the essential oil of E. pubescens, four monoterpenoids and one sesquiterpenoid were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified alpha-pinene, borneol, menthol, carvone, and beta-eudesmol. (R) -carvone, menthol, borneol, and beta-eudesmol were strongly repellent against L. bostrychophila at concentration of 8.5 nl/cm2 after 2 h exposure whereas alpha-pinene exhibited moderate repellency. (R)-carvone exhibited stronger repellency against the booklouse than the positive control, N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). Moreover, (R)-carvone also possessed stronger repellency against T. castaneum than DEET. The other four constituents, menthol, borneol, and beta-eudesmol also showed repellency against the red flour beetles but weaker than DEET at lower concentrations. PMID:23448068

  4. A Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) promotes hindlimb ischemia-induced neovascularization and wound healing of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tam, Jacqueline Chor-Wing; Ko, Chun-Hay; Lau, Kit-Man; To, Ming-Ho; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Chan, Yuet-Wa; Siu, Wing-Sum; Etienne-Selloum, Nelly; Lau, Ching-Po; Chan, Wai-Yee; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is closely associated with peripheral vascular disease. Enhancement of tissue oxidative stress, reduction of nitric oxide (NO) and angiogenic growth factors, and abnormal matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity are pathophysiological factors in post-ischemic neovascularization and diabetic wound healing. Our previous study demonstrated that the Chinese 2-herb formula, NF3, showed significant wound healing effects on diabetic foot ulcer rats. A novel rat diabetic foot ulcer with hindlimb ischemia model was established in order to strengthen our claims on the diabetic wound healing and post-ischemic neovascularization effects of NF3. Our results demonstrate that NF3 can significantly reduce the wound area of the diabetic foot ulcer rat with hindlimb ischemia by 21.6% (p<0.05) compared with the control group. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that NF3 could boost circulating EPC levels for local wound vessel incorporation. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that NF3 could significantly augment blood vessel density, VEGF and eNOS expression, and attenuate tissue oxidative stress of ischemic muscles (p<0.001). NF3 significantly stimulated MMP activity involved in angiogenesis. Our study shows, for the first time, the beneficial effects of NF3 in wound healing and post-ischemic neovascularization in diabetes. PMID:24731763

  5. Chinese Herb Astragalus membranaceus Enhances Recovery of Hemorrhagic Stroke: Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Lee, Han-Chung; Chang, Ju-Hsin; Chen, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Tsai-Chung; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Cho, Der-Yang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2012-01-01

    We tested the effect of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) on acute hemorrhagic stroke. Seventy-eight patients were randomly assigned to Group A (3 g of AM three times/day for 14 days); or Group B (3 g of placebo herb). A total of 68 patients (Group A 36, Group B 32) completed the trial. The increase of functional independence measure scale score between baseline and week 4 was 24.53 ± 23.40, and between baseline and week 12 was 34.69 ± 28.89, in the Group A was greater than 11.97 ± 11.48 and 23.94 ± 14.8 in the Group B (both P?0.05). The increase of Glasgow outcome scale score between baseline and week 12 was 0.75 ± 0.77 in the Group A was greater than 0.41 ± 0.50 in the Group B (P < 0.05). The results are preliminary and need a larger study to assess the efficacy of AM after stroke. PMID:22474516

  6. Mutualists and antagonists drive among-population variation in selection and evolution of floral display in a perennial herb

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Jon; Hellström, Frida; Toräng, Per; Ehrlén, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in the direction of selection drives the evolution of adaptive differentiation. However, few experimental studies have examined the relative importance of different environmental factors for variation in selection and evolutionary trajectories in natural populations. Here, we combine 8 y of observational data and field experiments to assess the relative importance of mutualistic and antagonistic interactions for spatial variation in selection and short-term evolution of a genetically based floral display dimorphism in the short-lived perennial herb Primula farinosa. Natural populations of this species include two floral morphs: long-scaped plants that present their flowers well above the ground and short-scaped plants with flowers positioned close to the ground. The direction and magnitude of selection on scape morph varied among populations, and so did the frequency of the short morph (median 19%, range 0–100%; n = 69 populations). A field experiment replicated at four sites demonstrated that variation in the strength of interactions with grazers and pollinators were responsible for among-population differences in relative fitness of the two morphs. Selection exerted by grazers favored the short-scaped morph, whereas pollinator-mediated selection favored the long-scaped morph. Moreover, variation in selection among natural populations was associated with differences in morph frequency change, and the experimental removal of grazers at nine sites significantly reduced the frequency of the short-scaped morph over 8 y. The results demonstrate that spatial variation in intensity of grazing and pollination produces a selection mosaic, and that changes in biotic interactions can trigger rapid genetic changes in natural plant populations. PMID:24145439

  7. Increased carbon dioxide concentration improves the antioxidative properties of the Malaysian herb kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    A randomized complete randomized design (RCBD) 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate and distinguish the relationships among production of secondary metabolites (total phenolics, TP; total flavonoids, TF), gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), soluble carbohydrate and antioxidant activities of the Malaysian medicinal herb Labisia pumila Blume under three levels of CO? enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol mol?¹) for 15 weeks. It was found that the treatment effects were solely contributed by interaction of CO? levels and secondary metabolites distribution in plant parts, GSH, GSHH and antioxidant activities (peroxyl radicals (ROO), superoxide radicals (O?), hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The records of secondary metabolites, glutahione, oxidized gluthathione and antioxidant activities in a descending manner came from the leaf enriched with 1,200 µmol/mol CO? > leaf 800 µmol/mol CO? > leaf 400 µmol/mol CO? > stem 1,200 µmol/mol CO? > stem 800 µmol/mol CO? > stem 400 µmol/mol CO? > root 1,200 µmol/mol CO? > root 800 µmol/mol CO? > root 400 µmol/mol CO?. Correlation analyses revealed strong significant positive coefficients of antioxidant activities with total phenolics, flavonoids, GSH and GSHH indicating that an increase in antioxidative activity of L. pumila under elevated CO? might be up-regulated by the increase in production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, GSH, GSHH and soluble sugar. This study implied that the medicinal potential of herbal plant such as L. pumila can be enhanced under elevated CO?, which had simultaneously improved the antioxidative activity that indicated by the high oxygen radical absorbance activity against ROO, O?, H?O?, and OH radicals. PMID:21775936

  8. Phylogeography of a Tertiary relict plant, Meconopsis cambrica (Papaveraceae), implies the existence of northern refugia for a temperate herb.

    PubMed

    Valtueña, Francisco J; Preston, Chris D; Kadereit, Joachim W

    2012-03-01

    The perennial herb Meconopsis cambrica, a western European endemic, is the only European species of the otherwise Himalayan genus Meconopsis and has been interpreted as a Tertiary relict species. Using rbcL and ITS sequence variation, we date the split between M. cambrica and its sister clade Papaver s.str. to the Middle to Upper Miocene (12.8?Myr, 6.4-19.2?Myr HPD). Within M. cambrica, cpDNA sequence variation reveals the existence of two groups of populations with a comparable level of genetic variation: a northern group from Great Britain, the Massif Central, the western Pyrenees and the Iberian System, and a southern group from the central and eastern Pyrenees. Populations from the Cantabrian Mountains were placed in both groups. Based on ITS sequence variation, the divergence between these two groups can be dated to 1.5?Myr (0.4-2.8?Myr HPD), and the age of the British populations is estimated as 0.37?Myr (0.0-0.9?Myr HPD). Amplified fragment length polymorphism results confirm the distinctive nature of the populations from Britain, the Massif Central and the central and eastern Pyrenees. These patterns of latitudinal variation of M. cambrica differ from patterns of longitudinal differentiation found in many other temperate species and imply glacial survival of the northern populations in northerly refugia. The primary differentiation into northern and southern cpDNA groups dates to near the onset of the Quaternary and suggests that an ancient phylogeographic pattern has survived through several glacial periods. Our data provide evidence that the species has persisted for a long period with a highly fragmented and probably very localized distribution. PMID:22320448

  9. Intraspecific competition and light effect on reproduction of Ligularia virgaurea, an invasive native alpine grassland clonal herb

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tian-peng; Zhang, Ge-fei; Zhao, Zhi-gang; Du, Guo-zhen; He, Gui-yong

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between sexual reproduction and clonal growth in clonal plants often shows up at the ramet level. However, only a few studies focus on the relationship at the genet level, which could finally account for evolution. The sexual reproduction and clonal growth of Ligularia virgaurea, a perennial herb widely distributed in the alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China, were studied under different competition intensities and light conditions at the genet level through a potted experiment. The results showed that: (1) sexual reproduction did not depend on density or light, and increasing clonal growth with decreasing density and increasing light intensity indicated that intraspecific competition and light intensity may affect the clonal life history of L. virgaurea; (2) both sexual reproduction and clonal growth show a positive linear relationship with genet size under different densities and light conditions; (3) a threshold size is required for sexual reproduction and no evidence of a threshold size for clonal growth under different densities and light conditions; (4) light level affected the allocation of total biomass to clonal and sexual structures, with less allocation to clonal structures and more allocation to sexual structures in full sunlight than in shade; (5) light determined the onset of sexual reproduction, and the genets in the shade required a smaller threshold size for sexual reproduction to occur than the plants in full sunlight; and (6) no evidence was found of trade-offs between clonal growth and sexual reproduction under different densities and light conditions at the genet level, and the positive correlation between two reproductive modes indicated that these are two integrated processes. Clonal growth in this species may be viewed as a growth strategy that tends to maximize genet fitness. PMID:24683463

  10. Adaptive survival mechanisms and growth limitations of small-stature herb species across a plant diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Dassler, A; Roscher, C; Temperton, V M; Schumacher, J; Schulze, E-D

    2008-09-01

    Several biodiversity experiments have shown positive effects of species richness on aboveground biomass production, but highly variable responses of individual species. The well-known fact that the competitive ability of plant species depends on size differences among species, raises the question of effects of community species richness on small-stature subordinate species. We used experimental grasslands differing in species richness (1-60 species) and functional group richness (one to four functional groups) to study biodiversity effects on biomass production and ecophysiological traits of five small-stature herbs (Bellis perennis, Plantago media, Glechoma hederacea, Ranunculus repens and Veronica chamaedrys). We found that ecophysiological adaptations, known as typical shade-tolerance strategies, played an important role with increasing species richness and in relation to a decrease in transmitted light. Specific leaf area and leaf area ratio increased, while area-based leaf nitrogen decreased with increasing community species richness. Community species richness did not affect daily leaf carbohydrate turnover of V. chamaedrys and P. media indicating that these species maintained efficiency of photosynthesis even in low-light environments. This suggests an important possible mechanism of complementarity in such grasslands, whereby smaller species contribute to a better overall efficiency of light use. Nevertheless, these species rarely contributed a large proportion to community biomass production or achieved higher yields in mixtures than expected from monocultures. It seems likely that the allocation to aboveground plant organs to optimise carbon assimilation limited the investment in belowground organs to acquire nutrients and thus hindered these species from increasing their performance in multi-species mixtures. PMID:18761496

  11. Differences in fine-scale spatial genetic structure across the distribution range of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Geographical ranges of plants and their pollinators do not always entirely overlap and it has been suggested that the absence of specialized pollinators at range margins may induce changes in mating systems. Because a species’ mating system is known to have a considerable effect on within-population pollen movement, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) can be expected to differ between populations located at different parts of their geographical range. To test this prediction, we compared the fine-scale SGS between two core and two disjunct populations of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. Because in disjunct populations of this species the heteromorphic self-incompatibility system showed relaxation in the long-styled morph, but not in the short-styled morph, we also hypothesized that the extent of fine-scale SGS and clustering differed between morphs. Results Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed a significant decrease in genetic relatedness with spatial distance for both core and disjunct populations with the weakest SGS found in one of the core populations (Sp?=?0.0014). No evidence of stronger SGS in the long-styled morph was found in the center of the range whereas one disjunct population showed a significantly (P?=?0.029) higher SGS in the long-styled morph (SpL?=?0.0070) than in the short-styled morph (SpS?=?0.0044). Conclusions Consistent with previous analyses on distylous plant species, we found weak, but significant spatial genetic structure. However, the extent of SGS varied substantially between populations within regions, suggesting that population characteristics other than mating system (e.g. local pollinator assemblages, population history) may be as important in determining variation in SGS. PMID:24134743

  12. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 ?g/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50) at 8/16 ?g/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA. PMID:22942699

  13. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of a Chinese 2-herb formula (Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix) on mature endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tam, Jacqueline Chor Wing; Ko, Chun Hay; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Hua; Lau, Ching Po; Chan, Wai Yee; Leung, Ping Chung; Fung, Kwok Pui; Zhang, Jin Fang; Lau, Clara Bik San

    2014-09-01

    Endothelial cells are crucially involved in wound healing angiogenesis, restoring blood flow to wound tissues. Our previous study demonstrated that the Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) possesses significant wound healing effect in diabetic foot ulcer rats with promising in vitro proangiogenic effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Here, we present the comparative global proteome analysis of NF3-treated HUVEC in static or scratch conditions, screening the comprehensive molecular targets in governing the proangiogenic response in wound healing. Our results suggest plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, specifically down-regulated in static condition and Annexin A1 and Annexin A2, up-regulated in scratch condition, as principal proteins responsible for the proangiogenesis in wound healing. We also identified a panel of cytoskeleton regulatory proteins in static and scratch condition, mediating the migratory behavior of NF3-treated HUVEC. The key proteins in static state include myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9, SPAST, tropomyosin (TPM)2, and Vimentin while that in scratch state contained prelamin-A/C, TPM1, TPM2, and Vimentin. In addition, NF3 was shown to regulate transcription and translation, cell-cell interaction, and ROS defense in HUVEC. Proliferation and migration assays further confirmed the identified principal proteins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and Annexin A2 which are responsible for NF3-induced proangiogenesis of HUVEC in wound healing. This is the first study on the global proteome expression of NF3-treated HUVEC with the identification of the differences at the molecular level, between static and scratch conditions involved in wound healing angiogenesis. PMID:25044676

  14. Effect of Indigenous Herbs on Growth, Blood Metabolites and Carcass Characteristics in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Nam, I. S.; Lee, S. S.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, W. Y.; Kwon, E. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, M. J.; Oh, Y. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of indigenous herbal supplements on growth, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. In a 6 month feeding trial, thirty Hanwoo steers (647±32 kg) were allotted to one of 5 treatment groups, control (basal diet contained lasalocid), licorice, clove, turmeric and silymarin, with six steers per pen. All groups received ad libitum concentrate and 1 kg rice straw/animal/d throughout the feeding trial. Blood samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and the end of the experiment and the steers were slaughtered at the end. Blood glucose, triglyceride, total protein, and albumin concentrations were higher in the turmeric treatment compared with other treatments. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were highest (p<0.003 and p = 0.071, respectively) in steers treated with silymarin. Alanine aminotransferase activity was lower (p<0.06) for licorice and silymarin compared with the control group. There were no alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltransferase activities as a consequence of herb treatments (p = 0.203 and 0.135, respectively). Final body weight, body weight gain, average dairy gain and dry matter intake were not significantly different among treatments. Yield grade, marbling score and quality grade were higher for silymarin group than those of the control group (p<0.05). Therefore, the results suggest that silymarin can be used an effective dietary supplement as an alternative to antibiotic feed additive and a productivity enhancer, providing safe and more consumer acceptable alternative to synthetic compounds during the late fattening period of steers. PMID:25049742

  15. A Panel of Serum MicroRNAs as Specific Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Compound- and Herb-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Wang, Tao; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Yun; Wen, Jing; Xue, Mei; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Yue; Su, Yi-Jing; Xing, Tong-Yue; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Lu-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been a public, economic and pharmaceutical issue for many years. Enormous effort has been made for discovering and developing novel biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring both clinical and preclinical DILI at an early stage, though progress has been relatively slow. Additionally, herb-induced liver injury is an emerging cause of liver disease because herbal medicines are increasingly being used worldwide. Recently, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have shown potential to serve as novel, minimally invasive biomarkers to diagnose and monitor human cancers and other diseases at early stages. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to identify candidate miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for DILI, miRNA expression profiles of serum and liver tissue from two parallel liver injury Sprague-Dawley rat models induced by a compound (acetaminophen, APAP) or an herb (Dioscorea bulbifera, DB) were screened in this study. The initial screens were performed on serum using a MicroRNA TaqMan low-density qPCR array and on liver tissue using a miRCURY LNA hybridization array and were followed by a TaqMan probe-based quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay to validate comparison with serum biochemical parameters and histopathological examination. Two sets of dysregulated miRNA candidates in serum and liver tissue were selected in the screening phase. After qRT-PCR validation, a panel of compound- and herb- related serum miRNAs was identified. Conclusions/Significance We have demonstrated that this panel of serum miRNAs provides potential biomarkers for diagnosis of DILI with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22624025

  16. P-glycoprotein- and organic anion-transporting polypeptide-mediated transport of periplocin may lead to drug–herb/drug–drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sheng; Deng, Fengchun; Xing, Haiyan; Wen, He; Shi, Xiaoyan; Martey, Orleans Nii; Koomson, Emmanuel; He, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Periplocin, an active and toxic component of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Periploca sepium Bge, is a cardiac glycoside compound that has been implicated in various clinical accidents. This study investigated the role of transporters in the intestinal absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin, as well as the possible metabolic mechanism of periplocin in liver S9. In a bidirectional transport assay using Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and MDCK multidrug-resistance protein (MRP)-1 cell monolayers, both in situ intestinal and liver-perfusion models were used to evaluate the role of efflux and uptake transporters on the absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin. In addition, in vitro metabolism of periplocin was investigated by incubating with human/rat liver S9 homogenate fractions to evaluate its metabolic mechanisms in liver metabolic enzymes. The results showed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was involved in the intestinal absorption of periplocin, whereas MRP2 and breast cancer-resistance protein were not. The efflux function of P-gp may be partly responsible for the low permeability and bioavailability of periplocin. Moreover, both inhibitors of P-gp and organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) increased periplocin biliary excretion. No obvious indications of metabolism were observed in the in vitro incubation system, which suggests that periplocin did not interact with the hepatic drug metabolic enzymes. The results of this study showed that the efflux and uptake transporters P-gp and OATPs were involved in the absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin, which may partially account for its low permeability and bioavailability. As a toxic compound, potential drug–herb/herb–herb interactions based on OATPs and P-gp should be taken into account when using P. sepium Bge in the clinic. PMID:24872678

  17. Metabolite profiling and pharmacokinetics of herbal compounds following oral administration of a cardiovascular multi-herb medicine (Qishen yiqi pills) in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufeng; Shi, Peiying; Yao, Hong; Shao, Qing; Fan, Xiaohui

    2012-06-01

    Qishen yiqi pills (QY pills) are a type of standardized cardiovascular herbal medicine, which contain four component herbs, i.e., Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi), Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), Panax notoginseng (Sanqi), and Dalbergia odorifera (Jiangxiang). After oral administration of QY pills, the in vivo exposure types of each component herb in rats were first uncovered and identified according to a target-directed strategy based on hyphenated chromatography techniques. The dominated metabolites in urine, blood and bile were originated from flavonoids of Huangqi and monomer phenolic acids of Danshen; no metabolites but parent drugs of Sanqi ginsenosides, namely ginsenosides Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1, notoginsenoside R1 and gypenoside XVII, were detected in rat urine and blood, and the 20(S)-protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides (NR1, GRe, GRg1) could also be excreted to bile; the high liposolubility of volatile oils from Jiangxiang restricted them to small intestine, liver and adipose tissues. The identification of metabolites in bio-samples was achieved by exact mass measurement and detailed fragmentation pathway analyses. In specific conditions, not only the types of phase II metabolism but also their conjugation positions could be determined by our established cleavage pathways, which lead to discriminate the phase II metabolites of protocatechualdehyde for the first time. Based on the metabolite study in rats, the 4 main compounds (tanshinol, astragaloside IV, GRb1 and GRg1) in QY pills were selected as pharmacokinetic markers. The PK results showed that their maximal concentrations in blood were obtained within one hour, much shorter than the reported values in single herbs. The rat exposure was proximately linear under the studied dosages from 1 to 6 g/kg. PMID:22292791

  18. CO2 and water vapour exchange in four alpine herbs at two altitudes and under varying light and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Rawat, A S; Purohit, A N

    1991-06-01

    CO2 and water vapour exchange rates of four alpine herbs namely: Rheum emodi, R. moorcroftianum, Megacarpaea polyandra and Rumex nepalensis were studied under field conditions at 3600 m (natural habitat) and 550 m altitudes. The effect of light and temperature on CO2 and water vapour exchange was studied in the plants grown at lower altitude. In R. moorcroftianum and R. nepalensis, the average photosynthesis rates were found to be about three times higher at 550 m as compared to that under their natural habitat. However, in M. polyandra, the CO2 exchange rates were two times higher at 3600 m than at 550 m but in R. emodi, there were virtually no differences at the two altitudes. These results indicate the variations in the CO2 exchange rates are species specific. The change in growth altitude does not affect this process uniformly.The transpiration rates in R. emodi and M. polyandra were found to be very high at 3600 m compared to 550 m and are attributed to overall higher stomatal conductance in plants of these species, grown at higher altitude. The mid-day closure of stomata and therefore, restriction of transpirational losses of water were observed in all the species at 550 m altitude. In addition to the effect of temperature and relative humidity, the data also indicate some endogenous rhythmic control of stomatal conductance.The temperature optima for photosynthesis was close to 30°C in M. polyandra and around 20°C in the rest of the three species. High temperature and high light intensity, as well as low temperature and high light intensity, adversely affect the net rate of photosynthesis in these species.Both light compensation point and dark respiration rate increased with increasing temperature.The effect of light was more prominent on photosynthesis than the effect of temperature, however, on transpiration the effect of temperature was more prominent than the effect of light intensity.No definite trends were found in stomatal conductance with respect to light and temperature. Generally, the stomatal conductance was highest at 20°C.The study reveals that all these species can easily be cultivated at relatively lower altitudes. However, proper agronomical methodology will need to be developed for better yields. PMID:24414969

  19. Herbs, Vitamins, and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the temperate and subarctic regions of Asia. Cesium Chloride Cesium chloride is the salt form of the element cesium. ... amino acids, and trace minerals such as selenium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and copper. Peppermint Peppermint is a ...

  20. Roasted Herb Potatoes Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Nutrition Assistance Program ­ SNAP. The Supple- mental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help you buy nutritious foods for a better diet by the Expanded Food Nutrition Education Program, USDA, NIFA. VCEP-5NP2013 #12;