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Galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor marketed as a hydrobromide salt (Razadyne®, Reminyl®) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is obtained from Amaryllidaceae plants, especially those belonging to the genera Leucojum, Narcissus, Lycoris and Ungernia. The growing demand for galanthamine has prompted searches for new sources of this compound, as well as other bioactive alkaloids for the treatment of AD. In this paper we report the isolation of the new alkaloid 11?-hydroxygalanthamine, an epimer of the previously isolated alkaloid habranthine, which was identified using NMR techniques. It has been shown that 11?-hydroxygalanthamine has an important in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Additionally, Hippeastrum papilio yielded substantial quantities of galanthamine. PMID:21852767
de Andrade, Jean Paulo; Berkov, Strahil; Viladomat, Francesc; Codina, Carles; Zuanazzi, José Angelo S; Bastida, Jaume
In mosaic-diseased plants ofHippeastrum hybridum two viruses were found. One virus with a normal length of 706 nm caused local lesions onHyoscyamus niger test plants and mosaic symptoms in the leaves ofH. hybridum. This virus was identified with theHippeastrum mosaic virus (HMV) (*\\/*?*\\/*?E\\/E?S\\/*) and had a dilution end point between 10?3 and 10?4, a thermal inactivation point between 55–60°C and
Introduces the plant Amaryllis, which is the common name for the Hippeastrum species. Describes how to grow and bloom Amaryllis in soil using hydroponics. Introduces experiments investigating the anatomy of the bulb, growing and elongation rates, the flower, and foliage. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)
|Introduces the plant Amaryllis, which is the common name for the Hippeastrum species. Describes how to grow and bloom Amaryllis in soil using hydroponics. Introduces experiments investigating the anatomy of the bulb, growing and elongation rates, the flower, and foliage. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)|
Samenvatting Bladeren vanHyoscyamus niger planten vertoonden chlorotische lokale lesies 7 dagen na inoculatie met sap van mozaïekziekeHippeastrum-planten. Met sap vanHippeastrum-planten zonder mozaïeksymptomen werd geen reactie verkregen. In dooppreparaten gemaakt van chlorotische lesies inHyoscyamus-bladeren en van bladeren vanHippeastrum planten met mozaïeksymptomen werden draadvormige virusdeeltjes van 648–772 nm aangetroffen. Het virus kon met sap geperst uit geïnoculeerdeHyoscyamus-planten weer op gezondeHippeastrum-planten worden overgebracht.
Hippeastrum Herbert, amaryllis, has yielded popular large-flowered hybrids over a 200-year breeding history, with the Netherlands and South Africa currently dominating the market. The USDA breeding program is now almost ten years old, built upon a ten-year previous history at the University of Flori...
A new tospovirus, HCRV 2007-ZDH, was isolated from a Hippeastrum sp. plant displaying necrotic and chlorotic ringspot symptoms in Yunnan province. This virus isolate was characterized based on particle morphology and RNA sequences analyses. Quasi-spherical, enveloped particles measuring about 70-100 nm, typical of tospoviruses, were observed in sap and cells of the infected plants. Transmission studies by inoculating this isolate mechanically to Hippeastrum sp. confirmed that 2007-ZDH is the causal agent of the chlorotic ringspot disease of Hippeastrum sp. The complete sequence of S RNA of 2007-ZDH was 2,744 nucleotides in length, sharing 74.4 % nucleotide identity with Tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV) isolate tomato (AY686718). The S RNA encoded a non-structural protein (NSs) (444 aa, 50.4 kDa) and the nucleocapsid (N) protein (273 aa, 30.1 kDa).The deduced NSs protein shared amino acid identities of 78.6, 76.3, and 74.9 % with that of TYRV, IYSV, and PolRSV, respectively. The deduced N protein shared amino acid identities of 86.1, 84.7, and 70.0 % with that of PolRSV, TYRV, and IYSV, respectively. These results suggest that the chlorotic ringspot virus belongs to a new tospovirus species, for which the name Hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) is proposed. PMID:23306942
Dong, J H; Yin, Y Y; Fang, Q; McBeath, J H; Zhang, Z K
Complete genome sequences were obtained from two isolates of the carlavirus nerine latent virus from hippeastrum and narcissus plants, two isolates of the potyvirus hippeastrum mosaic virus from a hippeastrum plant, and one isolate each of the potyviruses narcissus degeneration virus, narcissus yellow stripe virus and Vallota speciosa virus from narcissus plants. Proposals are made to clarify the current confusion surrounding the naming of some of these viruses. PMID:22569885
The subcellular distribution of soluble protease in anthesis-stage, anthocyanin-containing Hippeastrum cv. Dutch Red Hybrid petal protoplasts has been reevaluated and that of Triticum aestivum L. var. Red Coat leaf protoplasts determined using /sup 125/I-fibrin as a protease substrate and improved methods for protoplast and vacuole volume estimation. Results indicate that about 20% of the Hippeastrum petal-soluble protease and about 90% of the wheat leaf-soluble protease can be assigned to the vacuole. Protoplast isolation enzyme labeled with /sup 125/I has been used to assess the efficiency of removing isolation enzyme from protoplasts by repeated washing and by separation of protoplasts from debris using density centrifugation. Results of these studies suggest that protoplasts prepared by both methods retain low levels of isolation enzyme. However, when protoplasts prepared by either method were lysed with washing medium lacking osmoticum, little isolation enzyme contaminated the lysates.
|The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each…
Plant lectins have received a lot of attention because of their insecticidal properties. When orally administered in artificial diet or in transgenic plants, lectins provoke a wide range of detrimental effects, including alteration of the digestive enzyme machinery, fecundity drop, reduced feeding, changes in oviposition behavior, growth and development inhibition and mortality. Although many studies reported the entomotoxicity of lectins, only a few of them investigated the mode of action by which lectins exert toxicity. In the present paper we have studied for the first time the insecticidal potential of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) (HHA) bulbs against the larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). Bioassays on neonate larvae showed that this mannose-specific lectin affected larval growth, causing a development retardation and larval weight decrease. Using primary cell cultures from S. littoralis midguts and confocal microscopy we have elucidated FITC-HHA binding and internalization mechanisms. We found that HHA did not exert a toxic effect on S. littoralis midgut cells, but HHA interaction with the brush border of midgut cells interfered with normal nutrient absorption in the S. littoralis midgut, thereby affecting normal larval growth in vivo. This study thus confirms the potential of mannose-specific lectins as pest control agents and sheds light on the mechanism underlying lectin entomotoxicity. PMID:22677323
Caccia, Silvia; Van Damme, Els J M; De Vos, Winnok H; Smagghe, Guy
... June 22, 2008) You may access the Medicinal Herb Garden images via the following lists: Index by ... the University of Washington in Seattle, the Medicinal Herb Garden is a resource for herbalists, medics, and ...
Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.
HerbMed is "an interactive, electronic herbal database" that provides scientific and general information on the biochemical action of herbs. A project of the Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc., HerbMed includes a searchable interface, as well as a manual option for browsing the HerbMed database by plant Genus. From Achillea (Yarrow) to Ziziphus (Jujube), the HerbMed database provides detailed information on each herb's biochemical action, the mechanism of action, and warnings for human health. Of special interest to researchers will be the hyperlinks to abstracts in PubMed (reviewed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report), providing published evidence of the scientific information contained in this database. For researchers and educators alike, HerbMed promises to be a useful resource.
Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research. PMID:22117784
... Treatment & Care > Medication > Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines Listen Today, more and ... adapted from The American Diabetes Association Guide to Herbs & Nutritional Supplements , written by Laura Shane-McWhorter, PharmD, ...
Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin,
|This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…
This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…
Text Version... bacteria, yeasts, and mold) capable of growth under the ... damage from animals and/or fecal contamination is ... fresh culinary herbs or feces, clean and ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation
Herbs, Vitamins, and Minerals Aloe The aloe plant, a member of the lily family, is a common household plant originally from Africa. Arnica ... Central and South America. Calcium Calcium is a mineral that is vital for a number of bodily ...
|Notes that the challenge for caregivers in developing intergenerational programs is to engage both groups with the materials and with each other while taking into consideration each group's needs and interests. Offers tips for planning any intergenerational activity. Explains how to plan activities using herbs, presents instructions for three…
Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed. PMID:23748541
Plants that contain high amounts of polyphenolic compounds are potential candidates for natural antioxidant sources. Studies are on going in the search for new sources of antioxidants. Not much data are available on the antioxidant capacity of tropical herbs. With this in mind, 19 commonly consumed Malaysian herbs were analyzed for their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. A majority of these plants have never been studied before with regards to their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. The shoots of Anacardium occidentale, the shoots and fruits of Barringtonia racemosa, Pithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa had high polyphenolic contents (> 150 microg gallic acid equivalents/mg dried plant) and antioxidant activities when measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (>1.2 mM) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays (>2.4 mM). A strong correlation was observed between the two antioxidant assays (FRAP vs TEAC) implying that the plants could both scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidants. There was also a strong correlation between the antioxidant activities and polyphenolic content suggesting the observed antioxidant activities were contributed mainly by the polyphenolics in the plants. PMID:20420325
In the last twenty years a considerable body of information has accumulated on the chemical constituents of Chinese herbs and their therapeutic potential. Our evaluation/systematic review [1, 2] of well-designed, randomized double blind controlled trials on Chinese herbal medicines beneficial for the improvement of cognitive function revealed a range of either single herbs or herbal mixtures that provided neuroprotective benefits. Oxidative stress may directly initiate neurodegeneration and herbal antioxidant neuroprotection is considered as a preventative and therapeutic approach. We encountered Acoris gramineus rhizome (AGR), Panax ginseng, Polygala tenuifolia and Poria cocos as the four most frequently used herbs as single/herbal mixtures that were associated with positive cognitive enhancing outcomes. This review focuses on the evidence of their medicinal effects attributed to those constituents present in relatively high concentration. PMID:22303969
Text Version... November 9, 2005 Richard Slayton Greatest Herbs on Earth 11620 Deodar Way Reno, NV 89506 ... Page 2 – Greatest Herbs on Earth Warning Letter ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation
Berry fruits and herbs are good sources of natural antioxidants. In addition to usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, extracts of berries and herbs are also rich in anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Berry fruits and herbs have shown a remarkably high scavenging activity toward ch...
Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were studied by determining the peroxide values of linoleic\\u000a acid during storage at 50C. Among the herb extracts tested, 44 species showed strong antioxidant activities on the oxidation\\u000a of linoleic acid. The antioxidative effects of these 44 selected herb extracts were studied further in a methyl linoleate\\u000a system during storage for
The prevalence of herbal medicine use among American adults is well documented. Because of the possible herb–drug interactions, health care providers need to be aware of herb and supplement use by their patients. This descriptive pilot study (N = 35) was designed to explore the demographics, beliefs, concurrent pharmaceutical use with herbs and supplements and their primary sources of information,
Rapidly progressive renal fibrosis after a slimming regimen including Chinese herbs containing aristolochic acid (AA) has been identified as Chinese-herb nephropathy (CHN). We reported urothelial atypia in three patients with CHN, with the subsequent development in one patient of overt transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Therefore, it was decided to remove the native kidneys, as well as the ureters, in all
Jean-Pierre Cosyns; Michel Jadoul; Jean-Paul Squifflet; François-Xavier Wese; Charles van Ypersele de Strihou
Historically, herbs and foods have been used as galactogogues by breastfeeding women to maintain and increase milk supply. Commonly used herbs and foods used as galactogogues are reviewed. Doses, other uses for taking herbals by breastfeeding mothers, and cautions to observe when using these galactogogues are discussed. This information can be used by health care professionals as general guidelines to
Herb-herb combinations have been used in Chinese medicine practice for thousands of years, yet scientific evidence of their therapeutic benefits is lacking. With increasing interest in shifting from the one-drug-one-target paradigm to combination therapy or polypharmacy to achieve therapeutic benefits for a number of diseases, there is momentum to explore new knowledge by tapping the past empirical experiences of herb-herb combinations. This review presents an overview of the traditional concept and practice of herb-herb combination in Chinese medicine, and highlights the available scientific and clinical evidence to support the combined use of herbs. It is hoped that such information would provide a lead for developing new approaches for future therapeutic advancement and pharmaceutical product development. Very likely modern technologies combined with innovative research for the quality control of herbal products, identification of active components and understanding of the molecular mechanism, followed by well-designed animal and clinical studies would pave the way in advancing the wealth of empirical knowledge from herb-herb combination to new therapeutic modalities. PMID:23644978
Che, Chun-Tao; Wang, Zhi Jun; Chow, Moses Sing Sum; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei
In a randomised single blind trial the Chinese herbs Shuang Huang Lian were evaluated for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis. Children with acute bronchiolitis and serological evidence of recent respiratory syncytial virus infection were studied in a tertiary hospital in Harbin, China. The 96 children were randomised into three treatment groups: herbs, herbs with antibiotics, and antibiotics alone. The herbs were prepared by the medical school pharmacy and administered daily by intravenous infusion for seven days. The main outcomes, assessed blindly, were symptomatic improvement in cough, fever, wheezing, chest signs, and duration of stay in hospital. The mean duration of symptoms from the start of treatment was 6.2 (confidence interval 5.6 to 6.9) days in the two groups treated with herbs compared with 8.6 (confidence interval 7.5 to 9.8) days in the group treated with antibiotics alone. The mean reductions in duration of clinical manifestations for treatment with antibiotics alone compared with herbs were: from 3.1 to 1.5 days for fever, 9.1 to 6.1 days for cough, 6.5 to 4.1 days for wheezing, and 7.2 to 4.9 days for chest crackles. No adverse effect of Shuang Huang Lian herbal treatment was detected. In conclusion, this study confirms Chinese experience with Shuang Huang Lian that it is safe and effective, and warrants further study.
Kong, X T; Fang, H T; Jiang, G Q; Zhai, S Z; O'Connell, D L; Brewster, D R
In a randomised single blind trial the Chinese herbs Shuang Huang Lian were evaluated for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis. Children with acute bronchiolitis and serological evidence of recent respiratory syncytial virus infection were studied in a tertiary hospital in Harbin, China. The 96 children were randomised into three treatment groups: herbs, herbs with antibiotics, and antibiotics alone. The herbs were prepared by the medical school pharmacy and administered daily by intravenous infusion for seven days. The main outcomes, assessed blindly, were symptomatic improvement in cough, fever, wheezing, chest signs, and duration of stay in hospital. The mean duration of symptoms from the start of treatment was 6.2 (confidence interval 5.6 to 6.9) days in the two groups treated with herbs compared with 8.6 (confidence interval 7.5 to 9.8) days in the group treated with antibiotics alone. The mean reductions in duration of clinical manifestations for treatment with antibiotics alone compared with herbs were: from 3.1 to 1.5 days for fever, 9.1 to 6.1 days for cough, 6.5 to 4.1 days for wheezing, and 7.2 to 4.9 days for chest crackles. No adverse effect of Shuang Huang Lian herbal treatment was detected. In conclusion, this study confirms Chinese experience with Shuang Huang Lian that it is safe and effective, and warrants further study. PMID:8503668
Kong, X T; Fang, H T; Jiang, G Q; Zhai, S Z; O'Connell, D L; Brewster, D R
A standardized mixture of Chinese herbs has recently been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for chronic atopic eczema in placebo controlled trials in the UK. Aqueous decoctions of this formulated mixture (PSE 222), the placebo mixture, and their component herbs were examined for antioxidant activity to determine whether antioxidant activity could account for the anti-eczema activity. Two measures of
Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries. Research interest has focused on various herbs that possess hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, antitumor, or immune-stimulating properties that may be useful adjuncts in helping reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. In different herbs, a wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, sulfides, polyphenolics, carotenoids, coumarins, saponins, plant sterols, curcumins, and phthalides have been identified. Several of these phytochemicals either inhibit nitrosation or the formation of DNA adducts or stimulate the activity of protective enzymes such as the Phase II enzyme glutathione transferase (EC 22.214.171.124). Research has centered around the biochemical activity of the Allium sp. and the Labiatae, Umbelliferae, and Zingiberaceae families, as well as flaxseed, licorice root, and green tea. Many of these herbs contain potent antioxidant compounds that provide significant protection against chronic diseases. These compounds may protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation, inhibit cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes, inhibit lipid peroxidation, or have antiviral or antitumor activity. The volatile essential oils of commonly used culinary herbs, spices, and herbal teas inhibit mevalonate synthesis and thereby suppress cholesterol synthesis and tumor growth. PMID:10479221
The science of geo-authentic herbs is a characteristic discipline of traditional Chinese medicine established during thousands of years of clinical practices. It has a long history under the guidance of profound theories of traditional Chinese medicine. The words of "geo-authentic product" were derived from an administrative division unit in the ancient times, which layed stress on the good quality of products in particular regions. In ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine, the words of "geo-authentic product" were first found in Concise Herbal Foundation Compilation of the Ming dynasty, and the words of "geo-authentic herbs" were first discovered in Peony Pavilion of the late Ming dynasty. After all, clinical effect is the fundamental evaluation standard of geo-authentic herbs. PMID:23944088
... approved labels included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies ... their effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions. All herbs and supplements Prescription and over-the-counter medication ...
Pakistan has a variety of herbs and medicinal plant resources, due to its varied ecological conditions. Large number of physicians of south Asia (locally called Hakeems and Tib-e-Unani or Ayurvedic medicines) use herbs, plant parts and extracts for treating human diseases. Source of medicinal plants are hilly areas, deserts and coastal zones of the country. Major supply of medicinal herbs
Salik Nawaz Khan; Tariq Riaz; Abdul Hannan; Irum Mukhtar
large and increasing number of patients use medicinal herbs or seek the advice of their physician regarding their use. More than one third of Americans use herbs for health purposes, yet patients (and physicians) often lack accurate information about the safety and efficacy of herbal remedies. Burgeoning interest in medicinal herbs has increased scientific scrutiny of their therapeutic potential and
MaryAnn O'Hara; David Kiefer; Kim Farrell; Kathi Kemper
The HerbInfo list is open, unmoderated, and intended to be an all-purpose list to discuss herbs. Due to the general nature of the list, all subjects related to herbs and their uses are considered to be on topic, regardless of their level of knowledge or expertise.
The aim of this literature review was to pool data on heavy metal accumula- tion in herbs, spices and medicinal plants in Europe. A comparative study performed by MTT Agrifood Research Finland in 1990 showed that lead concentration in Finnish herbs was clearly lower that in herbs produced in other parts in Europe. Cadmium concentrations did not differ much between
Culantro (Eryngium foetidum L., Apiaceae) is a biennial herb indigenous to continental Tropical America and the West Indies. Although widely used in dishes throughout the Caribbean, Latin America, and the Far East, culantro is relatively unknown in the United States and many other parts of the world and is often mis-taken and misnamed for its close relative cilantro or coriander
Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and\\/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis
We determined whether nine common herbs (basil, chili, cilantro, dill, garlic, ginger, lemongrass, oregano, and parsley) and one herb mixture (Italian Herbs) retain the antioxidant capacity (AC) and content of phenolics and characteristic marker compounds during processing to dry and paste forms. Oregano exhibited the highest AC among the herbs tested in dry and fresh forms. Compared with fresh herbs, the AC in dry form was decreased in garlic, chili, dill, oregano and parsley and paste form of oregano and basil. With the exception of dried garlic and lemongrass in fresh and paste form, all herbs in dry, paste, and fresh form contained significant AC. The AC was correlated significantly to the total phenolic content in both dry and fresh form. However, there was no significant correlation between the AC and the concentration of chemical marker compounds. In summary, processed herbs contribute significant amounts of AC to the diet. PMID:21118053
Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P; Lee, Ru-Po; Wang, Piwen; Bowerman, Susan; Heber, David
Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation), Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana) and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to). The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes.
Residue occurrence is discussed with use of 14 herbicides (Alachlor, Chloridazone, Chlorpropham, Chloroxuron, Chlorthal-methyl, Desmetryne, Lenacil, Linuron, Methabenzthiazuron, Monolinuron, Na-propamide, Pendimethalin, Phenmedipham and Terbutryne) on 6 herbs (borage, dill, garden-chervil, garden cress, anise and sorrel) in the light of residue analyses (from field trials over two seasons with analyses carried out in two laboratories). The methods are outlined; limits of the determinations and recoveries are given. PMID:7445754
\\u000a For millennia, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners have treated cancer with Chinese medicinal herbs (CMHs), which\\u000a continue to be used in combination with conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy in contemporary oncologic care in Asia.\\u000a Recent advances in biochemistry and immunology have allowed discovery of the biologically active components of CMH and the\\u000a mechanisms of their anti-cancer activities. This chapter provides an
Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. PMID:12112294
Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young
Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have been synthesized as a result of knowledge gained from studies of mechanisms of actions of chemicals first isolated from medicinal herbs. Thus, medicinal herbs have played a major role in the development of modern medicine and continue to be widely used in their original form. Whereas it is generally agreed that most medicinal herbs are safe under the conditions used, some are toxic and should be avoided even though they are readily available, and others have significant adverse side effects when misused. Also, little has been done to investigate potential adverse effects that may be associated with extended or high-dose use of medicinal herbs. Thus, concern has been expressed that the lack of quality control used in the preparation of medicinal herbs, plus their unregulated sale and uninformed use, pose potential adverse health effects for consumers. There is also concern regarding potential herb/herb or herb/drug interactions and possible untoward health effects of medicinal herbs in sensitive subpopulations such as the young and the elderly and certain genetically predisposed individuals. In this paper, we discuss these concerns at some length and make recommendations for additional research and education discussed in the recent International Workshop to Evaluate Research Needs on the Use and Safety of Medicinal Herbs.
Ripened cheese varieties containing herbs are traditional in Turkey and have been manufactured for more than 200 years in\\u000a the east and southeast of the country. They are manufactured from raw milk, semi-hard in texture and salty in taste and have\\u000a the aroma of garlic or thyme due to added herbs. Twenty-five types of herb, including Allium, Thymus, Silene and
Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many compounds in common use not only have a significant effect on the body but may also interact with pharmaceuticals and also with other alternative products. Concurrent use of herbs with drugs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs leading to herb-drug interactions. Currently, there is very little information published on herb-herb or herb-drug interactions as compared to the use of herbs which is progressively growing across the world. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs. The article reviews the recent literature on the adverse effects of herbal remedies including the most widely sold herbal medicinal products, like liquorice, garlic, ginger, green tea, and turmeric, etc., and reinforce the safety aspect of herbal products, which are considered to be relatively safe by common people. PMID:22747079
Objective. Previous studies have noted the role of race\\/ethnicity in use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in particular have been found to use herbs more frequently, although the patterns of use among this population have not been described. The goal of this study was to characterize the rates and patterns of herb use among
Miho J. Tanaka; Brian M. Gryzlak; M. Bridget Zimmerman; Nicole L. Nisly; Robert B. Wallace
Chinese herbs nephropathy: A clue to Balkan endemic nephropathy? Rapidly progressive interstitial renal fibrosis has recently been reported in young women who have been on a slimming regimen including Chinese herbs. We examined four nephroureterectomies performed in three patients prior to or at the time of transplantation to determine the nature and topography of the kidney and urinary tract lesions
Jean-Pierre Cosyns; Michel Jadoul; Jean-Paul Squifflet; Jean-François de Plaen; Dusan Ferluga; Charles Van Ypersele de Strihou
The distribution of many woodland herbs extends 1000-2000 km in a north- south direction, yet the majority of these species grow clonally, have little recruitment by seed, and possess no obvious mechanism for long-distance seed dispersal. Although aware that woodland herbs disperse poorly, ecologists have tacitly assumed that, given long periods of time, even small dispersal distances would allow woodland
Herbs just like any other biological product are susceptible to rotting and degradation which can render the product unsuitable for consumption, or at least make them visually unappealing for consumers. Fresh and dried herbs are widely used as flavouring agents in many different food products on account of their powerful aromatic odour. The introduction of a microwave drying technique could
K. KATHIRVEL; Yvan GARIEPY; Valerie ORSAT; G. S. V. RAGHAVAN
The aim of this article is to investigate in a very simple way the trap characteristics of the irradiated oregano herb. The preparation of the polymineral dust obtained from the herb is described and then, through a fading experiment, the characteristics of the trapping levels responsible of the thermoluminescent emission are discussed.
Twenty-seven aromatic herbs, 28 spices and 48 herbal infusions and med plants were analysed for estimation of aflatoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) and a fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected, from 2000 to 2005, from markets, shops and bonded warehouse in Emilia Romagna Region, Italy. Of the 103 samples analysed only 7
B. Romagnoli; V. Menna; N. Gruppioni; C. Bergamini
Hyper- and dyslipidemia are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the primary cause of death in industrialized countries. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)? activation is involved in various mechanisms that improve the lipid profile. We tested various plant extracts and their compounds to determine whether they stimulated PPAR? activity in vitro. Out of 34 tested plant extracts, nine exhibited low to moderate PPAR? transactivation, including caraway, chili pepper, nutmeg, licorice, black and white pepper, paprika, coriander, saffron, and stevia tea. The active components of black pepper and chili pepper, piperine, and capsaicin exerted the highest transactivational activities with EC?? values of 84 µM and 49 µM, respectively. The chalcones, including 2-hydroxychalcone, 2'-hydroxychalcone, 4-hydroxychalcone, and 4-methoxychalcone, moderately transactivated PPAR?. Resveratrol and apigenin only slightly transactivated PPAR?. These results suggest that a diet rich in fruit, herbs, and spices provides a number of PPAR? agonists that might contribute to an improved lipid profile. PMID:20957597
We assessed the contribution of culinary and medicinal herbs to the total intake of dietary antioxi- dants. Our results demonstrate that there is more than a 1000-fold difference among antioxidant concentrations of various herbs. Of the dried culinary herbs tested, oregano, sage, peppermint, garden thyme, lemon balm, clove, allspice and cinnamon as well as the Chinese medicinal herbs Cinnamomi cortex
Steinar Dragland; Haruki Senoo; Kenjiro Wake; Kari Holte; Rune Blomhoff
Chinese herbal medicine are the main means to prevent and treat diseases in traditional Chinese medicine, thus the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs decides the clinical efficacy. Though the producing areas of genuine medical herbs had been recorded in the Qing and Han Dynasties, genuine medical herbs had not been finally established and thrived until the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Their development in more than 1 000 years was affected by many factors. Thepractice examination and theoretical direction of TCM were the theoretical basis for the generation of genuine medical herbs, while the differences in the ecological environment and herbal germplasm indicated their essential causes. The social development in the Ming and Qing Dynasties was also an intangible impetus driving force that could not be neglected. PMID:23668031
The antioxidative and superoxide- and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities and pro-oxidant effect of twelve selected medicinal herbs were studied. The aqueous extracts of Coptis chinensis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Prunella vulgaris and Senecio scandens exhibited the highest potency in inhibiting rat erythrocyte hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in rat kidney and brain homogenates. The aforementioned four herbs also demonstrated strong superoxide- and hydroxyl radical-scavenging
The concomitant use of conventional and herbal medicines can lead to clinically relevant herb–drug interactions. Clinical risk management offers a systematic approach to minimize the untoward consequences of these interactions by paying attention to: (i) risk identification and assessment; (ii) development and execution of risk reduction strategies; and (iii) evaluation of risk reduction strategies. This paper reviews which steps should be explored or taken in these domains to improve the clinical risk management of adverse herb–drug interactions.
Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences.
Salvianolic acid B (SAB), tanshinone IIA (TS), ginsenoside Rb? (Rb?), ginsenoside Rg? (Rg?) and notoginsenoside R? (R?) are major active ingredients of Fufang Danshen preparation (FDP) for its protective effects on myocardial ischemia. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of marker compounds after oral administration of single herb extract and different combinations of constitutional herbs in FDP, and explored potential herb-herb interactions among the ingredients in the multi-herb medicine. The pharmacokinetics study on the target compounds in rat plasma was performed using an optimal ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) coupled with protein precipitation method. There were no statistically significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of SAB, TS, Rb?, Rg? and R? between single Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (S. miltiorrhiza) or Radix Panax notoginsen (P. notoginseng) extract and combination treatment. While, in comparison with oral administration of P. notoginseng extract alone, the pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), AUC(0-72 h), AUC(0-?), Cl, V), particularly for Rb? and Rg?, were significantly different after oral administration P. notoginseng extract with addition of borneol (p<0.05). The AUC(0-72 h) values of Rb? and Rg? were significantly increased 1.3-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively, after P. Notoginsen extract co-administered with borneol. The results showed that herb-herb interactions may be accounting for the different pharmacokinetic behaviors of active constituents administered in compound prescriptions versus in single-herb extracts, however, which were not significant in most cases. PMID:22579600
The root extracts of a Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has been used as internal medicine to improve liver and kidney functions for centuries. The antimutagenic property of this drug was evaluated with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay in this study. The Trad-MCN bioassay is a well-established test for chromosome damage induced by physical or chemical agents in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequency. Inflorescences of the Tradescantia plant cuttings were first exposed to 35 R soft X-rays (80 Kv, 5 ma, 1 mm Al filter, dose rate around 50 R/min) and followed by drug treatments at 1%, 3% and 6% concentrations of the aqueous solution for a total of 24 hr recovery period. The positive (X-rays), negative (nutrient solution) and drug control (3% drug solution) groups were maintained in each of the three series of repeated experiments. Flower buds of the treated and control groups were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 ratio) for preparation of slides to score MCN frequencies in the early tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells. The mean MCN frequencies (MCN/100 tetrads + SD) of the positive control (X-irradiated) was 26.67 + 9.62; the negative control was 2.92 + 1.90; the drug control was 2.06 + 1.50 and the 35 R X-ray/6% drug treated was 18.75 + 6.54. A 30% reduction of chromosome damage was observed. Antimutagenic effects were relatively lower at lower concentrations. This antimutagenic effect could be the results of the meiotic inhibition, DNA repair or radical elimination from the X-irradiation plant cells.
Hongen Zhang; Te-Hsiu Ma; Byeong-Seon Jeong; Chang-Deok Won [Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong (China)
With the aid of the ELISA system this schema represented a laboratory approach to the recognition of anti-HBsAg capability of herbs by using 300 herbal extracts. Altogether 10 herbs (3.0%) were identified as effective. When forming a multiplex plan by employing 10 average P/N ratios as exemplified by 5 varying doses of herb (0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.5, 5.0 mg/100 microliters), 2 varying concentrations of HBsAg (10.92, 14.26 P/N ratio), and 3 varying contact time periods (immediate, 1h, 2h) for the comprehensive appraisal of herb efficacy index, these 10 effective herbs were listed in the following order: Prunella vulgaris (1.00), Litchi chinensis (1.26), Gossypium herbaceum (1.45), Cudrania cochinochinensis (1.56), Caesalpinia sappan (1.73), Oldenlandia tenelliflora (1.77), Cautis parthenocissus (1.99), Evodia rutaecarpa (2.01), Portulaca grandiflora (2.44), and Anemone hupehensis (2.83). PMID:2268945
Eighteen herbs used in the treatment of infectious diseases in traditional Chinese medicine were evaluated for in vitro activity against ten microbial pathogens. Lyophilized teas were tested by the agar dilution technique at 100-1600 micrograms/ml. Eleven of the preparations were active against at least one microorganism and six of these were active against at least three of the test isolates. Huangqin (Scutellaria sp.) and Huanglian (Coptis sp.) were each active against five of the isolates. Huangqin inhibited Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris at 200 micrograms/ml. Huangqin alone showed strong activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis (less than or equal to 100 micrograms/ml) and Candida albicans (200 micrograms/ml). The antimicrobial activity of various teas, prepared with equal weights of herbs, could be compared against a particular pathogen by considering both the percentage of water-soluble material in the herbs and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the filtered, lyophilized decoctions. PMID:3724208
A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for analyzing sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in six vegetable and two Chinese herb samples. A gradient program and mobile phases using methanol and 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid containing 20 mM ammonium acetate allowed sufficient retention and separation of the glucosinolates in the sample extracts. Quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion electrospray ionization was used to analyze the fractions collected from the HPLC elution to confirm the identification of the glucosinolates. The levels of sinigrin and gluconasturtiin in the vegetables and Chinese herbs were determined by using an external calibration method. Concentrations of gluconasturtiin in the Chinese herbs were more than 15 times higher than those of sinigrin. Detection limits were 18 nmol g(-1) for sinigrin and 4 nmol g(-1) for gluconasturtiin when 50 g of fresh vegetable was analyzed. PMID:14647944
Herbal medicines are often used in combination with conventional drugs, and this may give rise to the potential of harmful herb-drug interactions. This paper updates our knowledge on clinical herb-drug interactions with an emphasis of the mechanistic and clinical consideration. In silico, in vitro, animal and human studies are often used to predict and/or identify drug interactions with herbal remedies. To date, a number of clinically important herb-drug interactions have been reported, but many of them are from case reports and limited clinical observations. Common herbal medicines that interact with drugs include St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), ginger (Zingiber officinale), ginseng (Panax ginseng), and garlic (Allium sativum). For example, St John's wort significantly reduced the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and blood concentrations of cyclosporine, midazolam, tacrolimus, amitriptyline, digoxin, indinavir, warfarin, phenprocoumon and theophylline. The common drugs that interact with herbal medicines include warfarin, midazolam, digoxin, amitriptyline, indinavir, cyclosporine, tacrolimus and irinotecan. Herbal medicines may interact with drugs at the intestine, liver, kidneys, and targets of action. Importantly, many of these drugs have very narrow therapeutic indices. Most of them are substrates for cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The underlying mechanisms for most reported herb-drug interactions are not fully understood, and pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanisms are implicated in many of these interactions. In particular, enzyme induction and inhibition may play an important role in the occurrence of some herbdrug interactions. Because herb-drug interactions can significantly affect circulating levels of drug and, hence, alter the clinical outcome, the identification of herb-drug interactions has important implications. PMID:22292789
Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) relies on remedies of natural origin, its use is not always safe as it can have not only beneficial but also deleterious effects. Psoriatic patients, disappointed by conventional treatment and unaware of the potential side effects of TCM preparations, are increasingly reaching for non-traditional therapeutic methods. This review presents brief characteristics of selected Chinese herbs self-prescribed by psoriatic patients. It is important that dermatologists should be able to recognize any potential hazards connected with current or previous taking of these herbs by their patients. PMID:21744317
|Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…
The ecological literature on eastern forest-floor herbs and data collected in the southern Appalachians in Tennessee and North Carolina suggest five possible ecological mechanisms for reducing or limiting alpha diversity of vernal herbs in logged stands, three of which may also account for the slow recovery of some herbaceous species: (1) logging reduces populations of rarer herbs; (2) populations of
Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of
For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw
Paula M. Koseki; Anna Lúcia C. H. Villavicencio; Mônica S. Brito; Ligia C. Nahme; Kátia I. Sebastião; Paulo R. Rela; Ligia B. Almeida-Muradian; Jorge Mancini-Filho; Paulo C. D. Freitas
For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total /?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke (Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.
Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastia~o, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.
Studies on plant mineral concentrations provided evidence of differences in mineral composition in plants species and their role in mineral supply to ruminants. We determined temporal differences in macro- and micromineral concentrations of grasses, legumes and herbs grown in a multi-species grassla...
Text Version... Amazing Herbs Black Seed “[T]raditionally used for a variety of ... these drugs are not in compliance with the law. ... This letter is not intended to be an all ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation
In St. Petersburg, Russia, two seemingly conflicting health doctrines, western medicine and alternative medicine, play significant roles in residents' health culture. I define alternative medicine as all health practices that use such natural products as herbs, natural honey, water, seeds, berries, and even animal products, and as such unobtrusive body therapies as acupuncture, massage, yoga, or animal therapies. I define
Arsenic, cadmium and lead were determined for quality control monitoring purposes of Bulgarian herbs and their infusions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Twelve samples of yarrow (Achillea millefolium), 18 of chamomile (Flores Chamomillae), 8 of bearberry leaves (Folia uvae ursi), 24 of peppermint (Mentha piperitae folium), 10 of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa), 14 of oregano
The ability of the biennial herb, Pastinaca sativa L. (wild parsnip), to respond to and compensate for destruction of primary umbel seeds by the larvae of Depressaria pastinacella (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) was analyzed by comparing umbel and seed production of damaged and undamaged plants collected from five populations. Plants with a basal stem diameter smaller than 8 mm suffer a reduction
We present the case of a young woman who suffered from right cervical lymphadenopathy with associated malaise for 8 weeks. The sonography showed multiple, enlarged lymph nodes in the cervical, submaxillary, and subclavicular chains on the right side. The biopsy of a right cervical lymph node disclosed necrosis, histiocytic accumulation, infiltration with lymphocytes and immunoblasts, and cellular debris, demonstrating histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (HNL). Although the patient had received treatment with dexamethasone for 5 weeks and antibiotic drugs for 6 weeks, the lymphadenopathy and the associated malaise had not improved. For fear of the side-effects caused by dexamethasone and the antibiotic drugs, the patient and her parents asked for treatment with Chinese herbs instead of dexamethasone and antibiotics. With the patient's and her parents' consent, the dose of dexamethasone was tapered according to its specifications and Chinese herbs were applied to treat her disease. After 6 weeks of orally administered Chinese herbs both the lymphadenopathy and the associated malaise disappeared. Follow-up by phone 6 months later showed no abnormality. Chinese medicinal herbs, as a natural treatment, can be used as an alternative in treating HNL. PMID:19142044
Dietary supplement use has increased exponentially in recent years despite the lack of regulatory oversight and in the face of growing safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the public health implications and safety concerns associated with dietary supplement use, especially by cancer patients. Botanical research is actively pursued at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Integrative Medicine department. Work of the MSKCC Center for the Study of Botanical Immunomodulators is described, and guidelines for cancer patients’ use of dietary supplements outlined. Herbs and other botanicals are complex, physiologically active agents, but little is known about most of the popular, widely available dietary supplements. Herb-drug interactions, a major concern, are exacerbated in the cancer setting. Biologically active agents may interfere with chemotherapy and other prescription medications. They may exert anti-coagulant activity at rather inconvenient times such as during surgery, and create other serious problems. Research on the bioavailability, effective dosage, safety and benefits of these complex agents is sorely needed. Oncology professionals and other healthcare providers should educate themselves and their patients about these issues. Probably the largest, continuously-updated free information resource is MSKCC’s AboutHerbs website (www.mskcc.org/AboutHerbs).
Background\\/purposeVarious treatment regimens have been attempted to improve oral lichen planus (OLP) lesions; however, a complete cure has not been found. The most commonly employed and useful agents for treating OLP are topical corticosteroids. The aim of this study was to determine if the use of prednisolone plus traditional medicinal herbs could improve OLP symptoms, reduce recurrent severity, and prolong
In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.
In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476
Aims The aim of this systematic review was to assess the published clinical evidence on interactions between herbal and conventional drugs. Methods Four electronic databases were searched for case reports, case series or clinical trials of such interactions. The data were extracted and validated using a scoring system for interaction probability. Results One hundred and eight cases of suspected interactions were found. 68.5% were classified as ‘unable to be evaluated’, 13% as ‘well-documented’ and 18.5% as ‘possible’ interactions. Warfarin was the most common drug (18 cases) and St John's wort the most common herb (54 cases) involved. Conclusion Herb–drug interactions undoubtedly do occur and may put individuals at risk. However our present knowledge is incomplete and more research is urgently needed.
Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linné) herbs can be dried at about 50°C reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean–Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12%
The authors describe the neurological presentation and CT\\/MRI findings in 4 patients exposed to overdoses of decoctions of two different Chinese herbs. Case 1, a 15-year-old boy, ingested herba serissae along with the safe-dosage Salvia miltiorrhiza for treating a left renal stone. Sophora subprostrata root (SSR) was primarily used for treating three other diseases: viral B hepatitis in case 2,
The antioxidant action of medicinal herbs used in Ghana for treating various ailments was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Five plants, Desmodium adscendens, Indigofera arrecta, Trema occidentalis, Caparis erythrocarpus, and Thonningia sanguinea were tested for their free radical scavenging action by their interaction with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of these five plants, only Thonningia sanguinea was found to scavenge the DPPH
Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374
Traditional herbal medicine is driven by the use of plants or parts of plants, which have undergone minimal processing in order to treat disease and improve health. The article: "Traditional Immunosuppression--Lei Gong Teng in Modern Medicine", published in this issue of "Harefuah", raises the importance of integrating herbal medicine within the existing medical system. However, there are various limitations on integrating herbology in official frameworks, such as bureaucratic and legislative restrictions concerning the safety and efficacy of the herbs. This allows the marketing of many plants without a prescription requirement or professional advice. Another limitation relates to therapists, some of whom have not undergone proper training and may recommend the improper use of plants, resulting in a problematic combination with drugs in some cases. Regulation is necessary in order to better serve both the public and doctors. Regulation will define who is allowed to work with herbs and this will create a secure integration of herbs into the formal medical world. PMID:23957086
The ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition activity of 92 Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) herbs, which are permitted to be used as food ingredients, were evaluated using the high throughput assay developed in our laboratory. Among these herbs, twenty-seven of them possessed significant ?-amylase inhibition activities ranging from 2.4 to 349.2 ?mol AE/g (AE = acarbose equivalent) with inhibition concentrations at 50% inhibition (IC??) from 16.0 to 2342.2 ?g/mL, respectively. In addition, they showed ?-glucosidase inhibition activities ranging from 0.5 to 31.6 ?molAE/g (IC?? from 49.0 to 3385.5 ?g/mL). The extracts of Rhizoma fagopyri dibotryis (J?nqiáomài), Rosa rugosa (Méigu?hu?), Caulis polygoni multiflori (Sh?uw?téng), Fructus amomi (Sh?rén), Rhizoma alpiniae officinarum (G?oliángji?ng), Folium ginkgo (Yínxìngyè) and Cortex cinnamomi (Ròuguì) showed the better inhibitory activities against both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. Our results illustrated that these food grade herbs are potent natural hypoglycemic agents and can be used as active ingredients for low glycemic index food production or TCM herbal formulations for controlling hyperglycemia. PMID:23895156
Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs. PMID:23766719
Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs.
The aqueous and methanol extracts of twenty herbs traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for anti-HIV-1 integrase activity in a non-radioactive ELISA-based HIV-1 integrase assay. The screening was performed at an herb extract concentration of 50 ?g\\/ml. It was found that most of the aqueous and methanol herb extracts could elicit strong inhibition of HIV-1 integrase activity. The inhibition
T. K. Au; T. L. Lam; T. B. Ng; W. P. Fong; D. C. C. Wan
OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS:The databases of the Cochrane Collaboration, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and BIOSIS were searched combined with manual searches of five Chinese and one Japanese journals. We included randomized trials comparing medicinal herbs with placebo, no intervention, nonspecific treatment, other herbs, or interferon
Jianping Liu; Eric Manheimer; Kiichiro Tsutani; Christian Gluud
We investigated the antihypoxic effect of herb mixture from the Altai in an experiment with rats. This mixture of herbs contains bioflavonoids. Also, it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, angioprotective and antiplatelet properties. The animals received decoction of herbs into the stomach through a tube. Courses lasted 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. Resistance to acute hypobaric hypoxia evaluated by time of animal life in modeling rise to a height of 11,500 meters above sea level. In result, a significant antihypoxic effect was observed in rats treated with decoction of herbs for 21 days. Shorter courses of treatment were not effective. PMID:24000712
Kulikov, V P; Chupikova, I A; Sanarov, E M; Voloboy, N L
Currently, no bioassay is available for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs, which are well known for their lethal cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. In this study, we established a bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Test sample and standard solutions were administered to rats by intravenous infusion to determine their minimum lethal doses (MLD). Toxic potency was calculated by comparing the MLD. The experimental conditions of the method were optimized and standardized to ensure the precision and reliability of the bioassay. The application of the standardized bioassay was then tested by analyzing 18 samples of Aconitum herbs. Additionally, three major toxic alkaloids (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) in Aconitum herbs were analyzed using a liquid chromatographic method, which is the current method of choice for evaluating the toxicity of Aconitum herbs. We found that for all Aconitum herbs, the total toxicity of the extract was greater than the toxicity of the three alkaloids. Therefore, these three alkaloids failed to account for the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. Compared with individual chemical analysis methods, the chief advantage of the bioassay is that it characterizes the total toxicity of Aconitum herbs. An incorrect toxicity evaluation caused by quantitative analysis of the three alkaloids might be effectively avoided by performing this bioassay. This study revealed that the bioassay is a powerful method for the safety assessment of Aconitum herbs. PMID:22118852
We report the case of a 2-year-old child who suffered an acute phytophotodermatitis with systemic upset after contact with the herb Ruta Graveolens (common rue, Herb of Grace). We review the literature detailing the mechanism of the phytophotodermatitis and the mainstream and alternative medicinal uses of the herb. Clinicians treating burns should consider phytophotodermatitis in their differential diagnosis of any partial-thickness burn injury. Furthermore, the hazards of growing this widespread herb in gardens where children play should be well publicized. PMID:17667834
Nine known compounds: trans-cinnamic acid, catechin, syringin, epicatechin, symplocoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside 7-O-glucoside, isovitexin 2-O-rhamnoside, herbacetin 7-O-glucoside, and pollenitin B and a new flavonoid glycoside, characterized as herbacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside (1) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence, were isolated from a traditional crude drug, "Ephedra herb extract". Compound 1 had no effects on HGF-induced motility, whereas herbacetin, which is an aglycone of 1, significantly inhibited it. PMID:23666001
Herbs and dietary supplements enjoy widespread use in the treatment of epilepsy although supportive data yielding efficacy and safety are lacking. Ten specific products, American hellebore, betony, blue cohosh, kava, mistletoe, mugwort, pipsissiwa, skullcap, valerian, and melatonin, have either multiple-cited recommendations for use in epilepsy or a rationale for antiepileptic action and are discussed in detail. These items paradoxically often have a proconvulsant effect in addition to potentially serious adverse effects. Herb-drug interactions also occur at the level of the P450 hepatic enzyme system of drug catabolism and the P-glycoprotein transport system regulating the entry of exogenous compounds into the vasculature or blood-brain barrier. Thus, significant pharmacokinetic interactions may occur, in addition to pharmacodynamic interactions and proconvulsant effects of alternative medications themselves. Patients should be inquired as to the nature of any alternative medicine products they are using, with the view that these products may be reasonable if traditional antiepileptic drug therapy is continued, potential adverse effects of the alternative agents are monitored, and the alternative and traditional agents do not conflict. PMID:22062945
The herb, Phyllanthus niruri has been known to possess protective activity against various drugs and toxins induced hepatic disorders. Present study was conducted to evaluate the role of the protein isolate of the herb against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cytotoxicity in mice hepatocytes. In vitro cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) leakage were measured as the indicators of
The in vitro antibacterial activities of a total of 46 extracts from dietary spices and medicinal herbs were investigated by agar-well diffusion method against five foodborne bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Their total phenolic contents were also evaluated. Many herb and spice extracts contained high levels of phenolics and exhibited antibacterial activity against
Bin Shan; Yi-Zhong Cai; John D. Brooks; Harold Corke
The antibacterial activities of water, ethanol and hexane extracts of five Australian herbs (Backhousia citriodora, Anetholea anisata, Eucalyptus staigerana, Eu. olida and Prostanthera incisa) against seven food-related bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Enteritidis, Sal. Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus) were determined by the microtitre broth microdilution assay. The water extracts of all the herbs displayed no
Stéphanie Dupont; Nola Caffin; Bhesh Bhandari; Gary A. Dykes
Summary 1 The recovery of forest vegetation following abandonment of agriculture was followed by surveying forest herbs in central New York State at 25 sites where postagricultural forest occurred directly adjacent to old-woods (forest that has never been ploughed). 2 The abundance, richness and diversity of 50 forest herbs were on average lower in postagricultural forests than in old-woods. 3
Rhine Singleton; Sana Gardescu; P. L. Marks; Monica A. Geber
Summary Tarhana herb (Echinophora sibthorpiana) (TH) is used as a spice in tarhana. It has a pleasant flavour and stimulates some microorganisms. In this study, the fermentation ac- tivity of tarhana was investigated by monitoring the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast populations when TH was used as additive. It can be said that tarhana herb (Echinophora sibthorpiana) prevented the
Nurcan Deghirmencioghlu; Duygu Göçmen; Ayhan Daghdelen; Fatih Daghdelen
The postharvest behaviour of the food flavouring herb ‘shado beni’ (Eryngium foetidum L.) also known as ‘bhandhanya’ during storage at 3, 10, 17 and 28 °C (ambient), with and without unsealed packaging was investigated. Unpackaged shado beni rapidly transpired and wilted with a concomitant decrease in freshness and loss of odour. Weight loss of such herbs ranged from 85% under
Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...
Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5-10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5-25% by a dose of 10 kGy.
Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological effectiveness of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. The physiological effectiveness including antioxidant and anticomplement function, nitrite scavenging and electron donating ability of Korean medicinal herbs by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy did not differ from that of the nonirradiated control.
Byun, M.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Kim, K.-S.; Chung, C.-K.
Effects of gamma irradiation on hygienic quality and extraction yields in twenty-one kinds of Korean medicinal herbs were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 5–10 kGy inactivated contaminating microorganisms. The total extraction yield in fifteen kinds of the investigated medicinal herbs increased by 5–25% by a dose of 10 kGy.
This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146
Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G
This work presents design and optimization of a cylindrical photovoltaic dryer with dual packed beds thermal energy storage for drying medical herb. The dryer is provided with electrical heater where the electrical energy is generated by using photovoltaic system. The electrical heater is designed and sized to realize continuous drying (day and night) to minimize the drying time. Two packed beds are used to fix the drying temperature in dryer during day and night. The main packed bed thermal energy storage is charged during the sunlight hours directly, to realize continued drying after sunset. An efficient PV dryer is devised to work under forced air created by air blower and heated by the electrical coils.
Abdel-Rehim, Z.S.; Fahmy, F.H. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)
Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.
Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))
Phytochemical studies of the the herb Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate (Melastomataceae) have been carried out. The compounds were separated by repeated D101 macroporous adsorption resin column combined with Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and silica gel chromatgrophy. The structures were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis, and by comparison of their spectral data with those reported. Eight flavonoid compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extract was identified as isorhamnetin (1), quercetin (2), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-(6"-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamnetin-3-O-(2"-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), quercetin-3-O-(6"-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), and quercetin- 3-O-(6"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8). All of the compounds were separated from the genus of Sarcopyramis for the first time. PMID:19385178
People in the Indian region often apply shankhapushpi and vishnukranti, two Sanskrit-based common names, to Evolvulus alsinoides. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal American species transported into the area. The period of introduction is uncertain, but probably took place in the 1500s or 1600s. Examination of relationships of Evolvulus alsinoides, geographic distribution, its names in Asia, medical uses, and chemical and laboratory analysis indicates that the alien plant was adopted, given an ancient Indian name, and incorporated into some Old World pharmacopoeias. The herb apparently was included in medicines because it not only reminded people of certain aspects of their gods and goddesses, but also because the chemicals it contained were useful against some maladies. PMID:18384986
This Web site from the Integrative Medicine Service of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) provides oncologists and other healthcare professionals with objective information on medicinal herbs and other botanicals. Users may search for a particular plant name or browse the entire catalog by letter of the alphabet. Searches yield a clinical summary for each plant, a description of purported uses, information on adverse effects and drug interactions, and so on. The site also includes a News and Alerts section, a FAQs page (mostly about possible risks and complications), and evaluations of alternative or unproved cancer therapies. The general reader should also find this regularly updated Web site helpful, but MSKCC cautions against substituting the site "for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem."
Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically. PMID:22521793
The use of medicinal herbs has been a common practice in Asia but their genotoxic properties are little known. In the present study, genotoxic effects of three antidiarrheal herbs, guava leaf, mangosteen peel and pomegranate peel, were examined using established human cell lines, Raji and P3HR-1. Cells were treated with boiled-water extract of the herbs at various concentrations for 24 and 48 hours in vitro. Cell growth and viability were dose dependently reduced. No apparent chromosomal aberrations were induced by the treatment. Administration of pomegranate extract induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation. This genotoxicity test system is simple and convenient for the primary screening. PMID:8629131
Fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Turkey such as chamomile (Matricaria chammomile L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), linden (Tilia vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioical), rosehip (Fr.Rosa caninae), sage (Salvia officinalis) and senna tea (Cassia anqustifolia). Microwave digestion procedure was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in the medicinal herbs and their infusions were determined by FAAS and ICP-AES. The accuracy and precision were verified against a GBW 07605 Poplar leaves and Tea certified reference material. The mineral and trace element content of medicinal herbs and their infusions showed a wide variability. However, distribution of the elements in the infusions is not high and it is nil especially for Cd, Co, Cr and Pb. PMID:15907975
Ayurveda holds a special position amongst the various traditional systems of medicine. Vajikaran is a speciality in Ayurvedic\\u000a system of medicine in India dealing with herbs possessing rejuvenative and revitalizing properties for improving sexual dynamics.\\u000a In the present study, the effect of five vajikaran herbs on pendiculatory activity and in-vitro sperm count was assessed.\\u000a The lyophilized aqueous extracts of Asparagus
Different herbs are commonly used in Africa during traditional practices connected to female genital modifications (FGMo)\\u000a — expansive (genital stretching) and reductive forms (infibulation). The herbal component is an integral part of ritual genital\\u000a stretching, often carried out in the grassy ground. Usually, these herbs act as lubricants and\\/or anesthetics to help labial\\u000a manipulation. In the reductive forms of FGMo
Pia Grassivaro Gallo; Miriam Manganoni; Franco Viviani
HerbMed® is an interactive, electronic herbal database providing hyperlinked access to the scientific data underlying the use of herbs for health. Hyperlinks and dynamic links are made to PubMed and other electronic resources, providing evidence-based information for healthcare professionals, pharmacists, researchers and healthcare consumers. The features of this resource are discussed from the perspective of ethnobotanists and field biologists, and
Herb layer richness and composition of four forest types and three different management treatments were investigated in 16\\u000a deciduous forest stands of northern Germany. Specifically, we compared the species richness and composition occurring in mature\\u000a forest stands that were single-tree and group selection harvested to those in unmanaged reference stands. Mean species richness\\u000a of all herb layer species increased significantly
The effectiveness and tolerability of the topicalSymphytum product Traumaplant® (Harras Pharma Curarina, München, Germany) (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous-ethanolic pressed\\u000a concentrate of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb [Symphytum uplandicum Nyman], corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream) in the treatment of patients with myalgia (n=104) were tested\\u000a against a 1% reference product (corresponding
Miroslav Kucera; Milos Barna; Ondrej Horácek; Jan Kálal; Alexander Kucera; Marie Hladíkova
Extracts of 40 species of Chinese medicinal herb from 32 different botanical families were screened for contact, fumigant and feeding-deterrent activities against the two stored-grain insects Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum. Thirty Chinese medicinal herbs exhibited insecticidal or feeding-deterrent activities against the two species of insects. Extracts of Artemisia argyi, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Evodia rutaecarpa, Litsea cubeba, Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis,
Spices and herbs are natural products or their blends that must be free of extraneous matter content. Conventional production\\u000a of these products implicates a number of hygienic problems so spices and herbs may be exposed to a wide range of microbial\\u000a contamination during pre- and post-harvest and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, we have analyzed the
Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120?days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ?-carotene?-?linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820
Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore herbal medicine. In particular, many Chinese herbs have demonstrated some interesting therapeutic properties. The following databases were searched from their inception: MEDLINE (PUBMED), ALT HEALTH WATCH (EBSCO), CINAH and Cochrane Central. Only single Chinese herbs are included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and performed quality assessment. The quality assessment of a clinical trial is based on the Jadad criteria. Seven Chinese herbs and six randomized controlled clinical trials were identified under the predefined criteria. Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A (Lycopodium serratum) and Ginseng have been assessed for their clinical efficacy with limited favorable evidence. No serious adverse events were reported. Chinese herbs show promise in the treatment of AD in terms of their cognitive benefits and more importantly, their mechanisms of action that deal with the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease. However, the current evidence in support of their use is inconclusive or inadequate. Future research should place emphasis on herbs that can treat the root of the disease.
As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.
Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee
Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the ?g/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. PMID:22868119
Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Po?owniak, M; Kozik, V
OBJECTIVE: To explore natural herbs to maintain the bactericidal activity of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). METHODS: Eighteen extracts of Chinese herbs were prepared complying with the standard protocol. Each of the solutions was then mixed with 1% H(2)O(2). The mixtures were handled with two approaches: autoclaved daily for one, two or three times; stored at room temperature from one through five years. Then the bactericidal activity were evaluated by assaying the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, ATCC25923) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, ATCC12421) bacteria. RESULTS: While mixed with 1% H(2)O(2), 10 out of 18 kinds of assessed Chinese herbs displayed MBC values at 1:12800 or higher after three times of autoclaving, and 8 of them preserved such level of MBC value after stored at room temperature for three years. Some Chinese herbs, i.e. R. Scutellariae, R. Coptidis, R. Bupleuri, H. Epimedii, C. Phelledendri and F. Chrysanthemi, can significantly maintain the bactericidal activity of diluted H(2)O(2). CONCLUSIONS: Certain Chinese herbs can effectively stabilize the bactericidal activity of H(2)O(2) undergoing autoclave or long-term storage. This paper reported a brandnew pharmaceutical function of Chinese herbs and provided experimental data for the potential enhancement of H(2)O(2) usage while its stability level is promoted. PMID:23212571
Extracts from a group of destagnative herbs, 764-1, and the effective chemical, 764-3, were tested by an in vitro experiment using a HeLa-S3 cell line. Under aerobic conditions, the shoulder of the cell survival curve diminished or disappeared according to the different doses of 764-1 used, but no change in slope was observed. In nitrogen, when the dose of 764-1 increased to 20 mg/ml (ID20), besides the disappearance of the shoulder, the slope of the curve also showed changes at lower doses (4-8 Gy); up to 10-25 Gy the curve became more flattened. 764-3 showed almost a similar effect by mainly affecting the shoulder of the survival curve. At low drug doses a SER as high as 1.87 might be obtained under hypoxic condition. At the same time 764-1 was used in testing the effect on radiation lung damage. It was found that 764-1 could markedly inhibit the change of alveolar surfactant at 1 and 3 weeks after radiation. A wide field of investigation is thus spread out in front of us on radiosensitization and protection. Further studies on 764-3 are carried out.
This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen. PMID:22331454
Vaquero, Consolación; Rodríguez-Torres, Alfonso; Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa
Arsenic, cadmium and lead were determined for quality control monitoring purposes of Bulgarian herbs and their infusions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Twelve samples of yarrow (Achillea millefolium), 18 of chamomile (Flores Chamomillae), 8 of bearberry leaves (Folia uvae ursi), 24 of peppermint (Mentha piperitae folium), 10 of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa), 14 of oregano (Origanum vulgare) and 12 of thyme (Thymus serpyllum) were analyzed. The studied toxic elements were present in the medicinal plants (12-225 microg/kg As, 15-268 microg/kg Cd, 0.2-8.6 mg/kg Pb). Arsenic was found in all herbal infusions at levels up to 0.4 microg/l. Cadmium was present in infusions of chamomile, hibiscus, peppermint and thyme at levels up to 0.7 microg/l. Lead was detected only in hibiscus infusions (2-3 microg/l). It was established that the major part of arsenic and lead in herbal infusions existed in biomacromolecular fraction. Cadmium appears to be present mainly in cationic form at pH 1 (stomach acidity), but at pH 7.6 (intestine acidity) there is a non-cationic fraction as well. PMID:18614270
Background Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results The content of investigated 11 fatty acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid, obviously varied among three species, suggesting each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis according to the absolute and relative contents of fatty acids, showed that 30 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to the species. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides reliable platform to classify these three Panax species, which is helpful for ensuring their safety and efficacy.
Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537
This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955
Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing macrophage function. In this study we demonstrated in vitro suppression of macrophage chemiluminescent oxidative burst associated with viable cells and cell-free extracts of two urological neoplasms--murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) and murine bladder tumor (MBT). Suppression was reversed by extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs, Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL). Murine macrophage cell line J774 was incubated with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extract for 18 hours at 37C and 5% CO2. Chemiluminescent oxidative burst as an indicator of macrophage function was triggered by adding zymosan A suspension containing luminol and assayed in an automated luminometer. Photon emission over time was counted and the results were expressed as integrated photon emission. Significant dose-related depression of oxidative burst occurred with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extracts. Depression was partially or completely reversed by the presence of 50-100 micrograms./ml. of either the AM or the LL extract. AM and LL have previously been shown to modulate immune response. Data from this study suggest that they may also exert their antitumor activity via abolition of tumor-associated macrophage suppression. PMID:1856958
A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is a collection of several herbs. TCM formulae have been used to treat various diseases for several thousand years. However, wide usage of TCM formulae has results in rapid decline of some rare herbs. So it is urgent to find common available replacements for those rare herbs with the similar effects. In addition, a formula can be simplified by reducing herbs with unchanged effects. Based on this consideration, we propose a method, called “formula pair,” to replace the rare herbs and simplify TCM formulae. We show its reasonableness from a perspective of pathway enrichment analysis. Both the replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of formulae provide new approaches for a new formula discovery. We demonstrate our approach by replacing a rare herb “Forsythia suspensa” in the formula “the seventh of Sang Ju Yin plus/minus herbs (SSJY)” with a common herb “Thunberg Fritillary Bulb” and simplifying two formulae, “the fifth of Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang plus/minus herbs (FDHJST)” and “Fang Feng Tang” (FFT) to a new formula “Fang Feng Du Huo Tang” (FFDHT).
Introduction: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. Objective: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage) modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed (ad libitum) on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v)] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW) induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Results: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation.
Vattem, DA; Lester, CE; DeLeon, RC; Jamison, BY; Maitin, V
Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM.
Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro.Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of
Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4%) reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6%) obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1%) obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%), and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments.
Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and\\/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular\\/mitochondrial
Many kinds of Chinese herb had been confirmed to have the character of anti-tumor, clinical reports about anti-tumor effects of Chinese herb had also been found in recent years, but most of the reports were focused on the clinical treatment of effectiveness for Chinese herb, on the other hand, review about Chinese herbal related with molecules on cancer-cell-apoptosis was seldom,
Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumors while Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL) are often used as an adjunct in cancer therapy. In this study, we determined the effects of aqueous extracts of these four herbs on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced mutagenesis using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as the bacterial tester strain and rat liver 9000 x g supernatant as the activation system. The effects of these herbs on [3H]AFB1 binding to calf-thymus DNA were assessed. Organosoluble and water-soluble metabolites of AFB1 were extracted and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mutagenesis assays revealed that all of these herbs produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of histidine-independent revertant (His+) colonies induced by AFB1. At a concentration of 1.5 mg/plate, SB and OD in combination exhibited an additive effect. The trend of inhibition of these four herbs on AFB1-induced mutagenesis was: SB greater than LL greater than AM. LL, OD and SB significantly inhibited AFB1 binding to DNA, reduced AFB1-DNA adduct formation, and also significantly decreased the formation of organosoluble metabolites of AFB1. Our data suggest that these Chinese medicinal herbs possess cancer chemopreventive properties. PMID:1377337
This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s.
In the article are shown the results of development of methods for identification of originality of aqueous extract s obtained from herbs with medical properties ingressed in multicomponent phyto preparations. During provided research were developed different methods of evaluation of identity of herbal aqueous extracts with poorly known structure in complex tablets. These methods could be introduced in practice for reliable evaluation of qualitative composition of multicomponent phyto preparations, containing aqueous extract s of herbs studded in this work. Monitoring of qualitative composition of phyto preparations during production and in the phase of marketing will promote further rise of efficacy and safety of remedy. We demonstrate the results of the work aimed to develop the methods for identification of originality of aqueous extracts obtained from herbs with medical properties ingressed in multicomponent phyto preparations. PMID:23676492
An LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the identification of three species of herb used as the traditional Chinese medicine Langdu, namely Stellera chamaejasme L., Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata and E. fischeriana Steud. As these herbs contain different mixtures of marker compounds, they could be unambiguously differentiated from each other by comparing their respective characteristic segmental multiple reaction monitoring profiles. The profiles indicated that S. chamaejasme contained daphnetin, skimmetine, stellerin, chamaechromone and neochamaejasmin, E. fischeriana contained ebracteolata compound B, ingenol, jolkinolide B and fischeriana A, whilst E. ebracteolata contained ebracteolata compounds B and C along with ingenol. These results were confirmed from the respective MS/MS spectra. The method has been successfully applied to differentiate these herbs from the related species Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott and E. kansui Liou. PMID:12597254
Su, Xiao-Li; Lin, Rui-Chao; Wong, Siu-Kay; Tsui, Shu-Ki; Kwan, Sik-Yiu
Issues concerning the past and future development of medicinal herbs from Chinese medicine (CM) are addressed in this paper. In the Western world, medicinal herbs are becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. In contrast to their regulated status in China and other countries, herbal medicines are regarded as dietary supplements in the US. Accordingly, research must continue worldwide to identify and improve the efficacy of the active principals of herbs both singly and in combination -- from active ingredients, active fractions, and active herbal formulations. While Western medicine currently employs pure, single compounds, either natural or synthetic, CM has long used multiple combinations of compounds in the form of processed natural products, primarily medicinal herbs, to treat and relieve the symptoms of many different human diseases. CM may have fewer and less severe side effects than single pure drugs, making CM especially attractive to the consumer. In effect, CM's focus on combination therapy does serve both ancient and modern theories. However, research using modern analytical and chemical techniques is needed to ensure efficacy and safety, to provide qualitative and quantitative analyses for dietary supplements, and to develop new, effective and safe world-class drugs. Drug design is an iterative process. Bioactivity-directed fractionation and isolation identify active natural compounds from single herbs or formulations. These lead structures can be chemically modified and improved through knowledge of structure--activity relationship, mechanism of action, drug metabolism, molecular modelling and combinatorial chemistry studies. Finally, efficacy and toxicity determination as well as clinical trials can contribute to the generation of new drugs from CM. To continue the legacy of CM, as well as the worldwide uses of other medicinal herbs, continued investigation of active formulations, bioactive fractions, and isolated compounds is critical to drug development in the 21st century. PMID:11276300
In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.
An HPLC-DAD fingerprinting profile of Rhizoma Et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati was established basing on the consistent chromatographic features of 24 authentic herb samples. The major types of chemical constituents, stilbenes and anthraquinones, were analyzed and included in the fingerprint. Eight common peaks of Polygonum Cuspidatum were identified by using HPLC-MS. The developed fingerprint was applied to differentiate Rhizoma Et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati from Radix Polygoni Multiflori and Radix Et Rhizoma Rhei. Although the three herbs belong to the family of Polygonaceae, the results indicated that these could be differentiated by using the established method. PMID:16880665
Ether extracts of 1693 Chinese medicinal herbs and plants from 268 families were studied for the induction of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) early antigen (EA) expression in the Raji cell line. Fifty-two from 18 families were found to have inducing activity. Twenty-five and seven of them were from Euphorbiaceae and Thymelaeaeeae, respectively. Some of them, such as Croton tiglium, Euphorbia kansui, Daphne genkwa, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Wikstroemia indica, Prunus mandshurica Koehne and Achyranthes bidentata are commonly used drugs. The significance of these herbs in the activation of EBV in vivo and their relation to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma were discussed. PMID:8024719
Zeng, Y; Zhong, J M; Ye, S Q; Ni, Z Y; Miao, X Q; Mo, Y K; Li, Z L
The Italian National Institute of Health in 2005-2006 performed an analytical survey of import on dried spices and herbs, including herbs used in food supplements, to investigate the entry in Italy of irradiated, and not correctly labelled, raw materials. In this survey, 52 samples, including nine herbal extracts, were collected. The method of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) was applied to all samples and only samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL were analysed by using the thermo-luminescence (TL) method. Out of the 12 samples screened positive or intermediate with PSL, the TL method confirmed irradiation of five samples (10% of the total assayed samples). One out of these five samples was a herbal supplement whereas three were herbal extracts that are known to be used as ingredients of herbal supplements, and another one was a spice.
It has been reported that curdione is a major component in Chinese traditional herb ezhu. But no curdione was found in the herb ezhu collected from Guangdong province, instead a furan sesquiterpene was isolated. Its structure and configuration were determined by the analysis of IR, UV, MS, NMR and circular dichroism. PMID:1781896
In this study we compared the antimicrobial activities of extracts from four under-utilized spices and herbs including goraka (Garcinia quaesita), galangal (Alpinia galanga), lemon iron bark (Eucalyptus staigerana) and mountain pepper (Tasmannia lanceolata) to the three common spices and herbs pepper (Piper nigrum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and oregano (Oreganum vulgare). Different extraction solvents were used (water, ethanol and hexane) and
Nimsha S. Weerakkody; Nola Caffin; Mark S. Turner; Gary A. Dykes
Neuropathic pain arising from peripheral nerve injury is a clinical disorder characterized by a combination of spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and tactile pain (allodynia), and remains a significant clinical problem since it is often poorly relieved by conventional analgesics. To seek an analgesic compound(s) in Chinese herbs, we examined the effect of seven Chinese herbs that are routinely prescribed for pain
Shinichi Tatsumi; Tamaki Mabuchi; Tetsuya Abe; Li Xu; Toshiaki Minami; Seiji Ito
The effects of methanol extracts of 80 herbs on hair growth were investigated, using normal C3H/He mice from which telogen hair on the back had been removed. Eighteen of the extracts apparently promoted hair regrowth on the mice. As one of active principles in Polyporus umbellatus F., 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde was isolated by column chromatography on Amberlite XAD-2, Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel. PMID:8004697
Inaoka, Y; Shakuya, A; Fukazawa, H; Ishida, H; Nukaya, H; Tsuji, K; Kuroda, H; Okada, M; Fukushima, M; Kosuge, T
Multi-herb prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often include special herb-pairs for mutual enhancement, assistance, and restraint. These TCM herb-pairs have been assembled and interpreted based on traditionally defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs) without knowledge of mechanism of their assumed synergy. While these mechanisms are yet to be determined, properties of TCM herb-pairs can be investigated to determine if they exhibit
Choong Yong Ung; Hu Li; Zhi Wei Cao; Yi Xue Li; Yu Zong Chen
Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority (about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority (more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers (more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/ Rubus schizostylus, Schisandra chinensis Baillon/ Schizandra chinensis and Terminalia chebula Retzius/ Terminalia chebula. Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them. PMID:20126599
Ko, Seong-Hee; Choi, Seong-Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Yoo, Sangho; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Chung, Myung-Hee
Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority (about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority (more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers (more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/ Rubus schizostylus, Schisandra chinensis Baillon/ Schizandra chinensis and Terminalia chebula Retzius/ Terminalia chebula. Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them.
Ko, Seong-Hee; Choi, Seong-Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Yoo, Sangho
Medicinal plants and culinary herbs are horticultural crops with socio- economic significance in the Caribbean. People of the Caribbean maintain the tradition of making 'bush (herb) tea' as part of their daily activity. 'Bush tea' is made with a variety of herbs that are combined for their culinary and medicinal properties. A project was initiated to study the role of
M. C. Palada; J. M. Mitchell; B. N. Becker; P. K. R. Nair
Natural phenolic compounds play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. Phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants include phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, quinones, and others. Various bioactivities of phenolic compounds are responsible for their chemopreventive properties (e.g., antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, or antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory effects) and also contribute to their inducing apoptosis by arresting
Medicinal herbs used in indigenous medicines in crude forms for the management of diabetes mellitus, contain both the organic and inorganic constituents. It is known that certain inorganic mineral elements (potassium, zinc, calcium, traces of chromium, etc.) play an important role in the maintenance of normal glucose-tolerance and in the release of insulin from ? cells of islets of Langerhans.
The chemical composition and the membrane stabilizing activity of the decoctions of the dry Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae) calyx (Sobo in a Nigerian language), Theobroma cacao Linn. (N.O. Sterculiaceae) root (cocoa) and the dry stalk of white and red cultivars of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poaceae) were determined. These herbs are often used locally for the management of anemia. Ash
O. S. Falade; I. O. Otemuyiwa; A. Oladipo; O. O. Oyedapo; B. A. Akinpelu; S. R. A. Adewusi
In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds,
A rapid, specific and sensitive multiresidue method based on dispersive solid phase extraction sample preparation and gas chromatography with the mass spectrometric detection for the analysis of 234 pesticides in Korean herbs (Acanthopanax senticosus, Morus alba L., Hovenia dulcis) has been developed. Method recoveries were found to be between 62 and 119% with relative standard deviation lower than 21% for
Thanh Dong Nguyen; Kyung Jun Lee; Myoung Hee Lee; Gae Ho Lee
Colonisation is often a critical stage in the life history of plants, and recruitment success is expected to have a strong impact on plant frequencies especially among herbs. Several plant traits (seed size, plant height, leaf dry weight and specific leaf area) are suggested to be functionally important in early life stages, and the impact of such traits is expected
This paper presents a review of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. Much of the work was carried out under European community grants under the COPERNICUS programme and in a COST D10 network. Some aspects of classical and non-conventional extraction procedures are also presented and briefly discussed.
Field studies were conducted to determine the production potential of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica) medicinal herbs at two sites in New Mexico. Las Cruces, N.M. is at an elevation of 1,186 m and h...
Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24141244
Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Lee, Jong Seok; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan
Detailed demographic studies of herbaceuos plants in afro-tropicalsavannas are extremely rare in published literature. I studied phenology andpopulation dynamics of a perennial herb, Lapeirousiarivularis Wanntorp, at a savanna site in Zambia over a 4-yearperiod, from 1997 to 2001, using enumeration techniques in permanent andtemporary quadrants. The age of the plants was accurately determined frompersistent annual sheaths that accumulate around the
The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting
Yuri N Clement; Arlene F Williams; Derick Aranda; Ronald Chase; Nadya Watson; Rochelle Mohammed; Odia Stubbs; Deneil Williamson
Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. (Compositae) is a medicinal herb used in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Paraguay for its choleret- ic, antispasmodic and hepatoprotective properties. The presence of the flavonoid quercetin and its derivatives, and of different phenolic acids such as caffeic, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids in the aerial parts of this plant has led us to study the antioxidant activity
Papers published in the last two years concerning quantitative analysis of medicinal herbs were searched from Scopus database and viewed to critically discuss reliability of spike recovery for evaluating the accuracy of analytical methods for medicinal herbs without testing extraction efficiencies of analytes. This issue was raised regarding different strategies of analytical method development, i.e., with or without testing extraction efficiencies, employed in these papers, and experimentally verified on an example of determining three major bioactive components aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin of rhubarb by high performance liquid chromatography. The simple experiment was particularly designed to compare the difference between the recoveries of spiked analytes and the extraction efficiencies of native analytes in the sample with the same extraction durations. The results showed that the overall extraction efficiencies of three native analytes with extraction duration of 3, 5, 10 and 20 min was unacceptable from about 73% to 94%, whereas the spike recovery values with the same extraction durations found to be acceptable from nearly 97% to 103%, indicating that spike recovery may not always reflect the true value of the analytical accuracy, and that the spike recovery may be unreliable for accuracy evaluation of analytical methods for medicinal herbs when the extraction efficiencies of analytes were not properly tested. Extraction efficiencies of analytes should always be tested in method development, so that spike recovery can really represent the accuracy of analytical methods for medicinal herbs. PMID:22264848
Chinese medicated diet is an everyday practice in China. In this study, 16 commonly used soup making tonic Chinese medicinal herbs were selected for antioxidative capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of these herbal extracts were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. It confirmed that drinking tonic soups could supplement total antioxidants intake. Amongst the tested herbal extracts, extracts of Canarium album Raeusch., Flos caryophylli and Fructus amomi were found to have the highest antioxidative activities in both DPPH and FRAP assays. Their antioxidative activities were comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. Thus, these herbs are safe and inexpensive sources of natural antioxidants. A significant relationship between the antioxidative effects and total phenolic contents were found, indicating phenolic compounds are the major contributor of antioxidative capacities of these herbs. In addition, a strong correlation between DPPH assay and FRAP assay implied that antioxidants in these herbs were capable of scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidants. PMID:18815744
Fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Turkey such as chamomile (Matricaria chammomile L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), linden (Tilia vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioical), rosehip (Fr.Rosa caninae), sage (Salvia officinalis) and senna tea (Cassia anqustifolia).
The antimicrobial potentialities of 25 spices and herbs extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) were qualitatively examined against eight bacterial strains, mostly food borne including pathogens. By using paper disc diffusion technique, zones of growth inhibition were measured as indicators of antimicrobial activity. Among the screened plants, basil, cardamom, cinnamon, clove, lemon grass, mustard, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme extracts exhibited notable
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle\\/behavior factors in young adults in the US. METHODS: Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins\\/minerals) use among young adults in the United States using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: In our sample of
Paula Gardiner; Kathi J Kemper; Anna Legedza; Russell S Phillips
Echinacea has been viewed as an immunoenhancing herb since it became commercially available several years ago. Indeed, its medicinal significance is responsible for billions of dollars in worldwide sales annually. Unfortunately, most of the 'evidence' for the purported medicinal efficacy of Echinacea has been anecdotal and, moreover, to this day, there is no formal proof on how to achieve the
Fragmentation is a major cause of biodiversity loss. The relationship between fragmentation and biodiversity might be non-linear, due to the presence of ecological thresholds; however, the application of the threshold concept on the conservation of herb biodiversity has received limited attention. We assessed the relationship between a pool of woodland indicators and features of forest fragments (area, isolation, shape), and
Patrizia Digiovinazzo; Gentile Francesco Ficetola; Luciana Bottoni; Carlo Andreis; Emilio Padoa-Schioppa
More powerful database approaches are needed to support biologists in the efficient use of complex, large scale, and rapidly changing systems biology data. We are engaged in research to advance database strategies for capturing, managing, computing, and searching biological concepts in ways that are presently not possible. The Heuristic Entity Relationship Building Environment (HERBE) project is developing mechanisms to automate
Eric G. Stephan; George Chin Jr.; Kyle R. Klicker; Abigail L. Corrigan; Heidi J. Sofia
The two most fundamental levels of biodiversity, species diversity and ge- netic diversity, are seldom studied simultaneously despite a strikingly similar set of pro- cesses that underlie patterns at the two levels. Agricultural land use drastically reduces populations of forest herbs in the north-temperate zone, so that bottlenecks or founder events in forests on abandoned agricultural land (i.e., secondary forests)
Ionophorous antibiotics have been popularly used in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. Tissue residue of these antibiotics may be found in poultry, we have sought safe alternative anticoccidial herbal materials for the control of avian coccidiosis. Efficacy of extracts from 15 different herbs, including Bupleurum chinese DC, Sophora flavescens Aiton, and Artemisia annua Linne was tested against Eimeria tenella. One-day-old
It has been shown in clonal perennial herbs that shoot natality decreases, and shoot mortality increases, in stands of increasing density. In a two-year garden experiment, we have tested Hutchings' (1979) hypothesis that these responses are the result of physiological integration, i.e. the exchange of resources and growth substances between shoots of a single clone. Dense monocultures of two rhizomatous
The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent
Obesity and the related disorders, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia have reached epidemic proportions world-wide. The influence of 70 plants, herbs and spices on peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)? activation or antagonism, a drug target for metabolic syndrome, was investigated. Approximately 50 different plant extracts bound PPAR? in competitive ligand binding assay, including pomegranate, apple, clove, cinnamon, thyme, green coffee, bilberry and
The native riparian herbs such as Leonotis nepetaefolia (L.) R. Br., Cassia tora L., Ageratum conyzoides L., Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Sida acuta burm f., dominant on the bank of River Damodar in Eastern Jharia Area, Dhanbad (India), were selected to assess experimentally\\u000a their quantitative role in conserving the soil and reducing water runoff and nutrient (N and P) losses.
There is growing evidence that genetic and ecological factors interact in determining population persistence. The demographic effects of inbreeding depression can largely depend on the ecological milieu. We used demographic data of the perennial herb Succisa pratensis from six populations in grazed and ungrazed sites with different soil moisture. We built an individual-based model assessing the demographic consequences of inbreeding
F. Xavier Picó; Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio; Mikael Mildén; Johan Ehrlén; Ian Pfingsten
Most herbs and functional foods have not been scientifically tested; this is especially true for the horse. This paper reviews some of the literature pertinent to herbal supplementation in horses and other species. Common supplements like Echinacea, garlic, ginger, ginseng, and yucca are not regulated, and few studies have investigated safe, efficacious doses. Ginseng has been found to exert an
BACKGROUND: Little is known about clinicians' use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS), how their personal HDS use changes with time and training, and how changes in their personal use affect their confidence or communication with patients about HDS. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of clinicians before and after an on-line curriculum about HDS in winter-spring, 2005. RESULTS:
Registration in Europe of several artemisinin drugs for the treatment of malaria can soon be expected. Artemisinin is isolated from the herb Artemisia annua, in use in China more than 2000 years as a herbal tea against fever. Artemisinin drugs are being used extensively in South-East Asia and increasingly in Africa. Active derivatives have been synthesized – artemether, arteether and
Michiel A van Agtmael; Teunis A Eggelte; Chris J van Boxtel
We test whether physiological integration enhances the short-term fitness of the clonal herb Hydrocotyle peduncularis (Apiaceae, R. Brown ex A. Richards) subjected to spatial variation in water availability. Our measures of fitness and costs and benefits are based on the relative growth rate of fragmented genets. Physiological integration over a gradient in soil moisture resulted in a highly significant net
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating peppermint are exposed during processing of this herb to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. The exposure to bioaerosols during processing of chamomile is lower; nevertheless, peak values create a respiratory risk for exposed farmers. PMID:16457486
Skórska, Czes?awa; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek
This Local Authorities Co-ordinators of Regulatory Services/Health Protection Agency study was prompted by the increasing concern regarding the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat salad vegetable products, particularly fresh herbs. During May to October 2007, 3760 ready-to-eat fresh herbs, of different varieties, were sampled across the UK to assess their microbiological safety in relation to salmonella contamination and levels of Escherichia coli. Sixty (1.6%) herb samples were found to be of unsatisfactory quality according to Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria of foodstuffs, i.e. contaminated with Salmonella spp. and/or containing E. coli at >10(3) cfu/g. When criteria in the PHLS Microbiological Guidelines for some ready-to-eat foods (2000) were used, 117 (3.9%) of herb samples were of unsatisfactory quality due to the presence of salmonella and/or E. coli at > or = 10(2) cfu/g. Eighteen (0.5%) samples of six different herb types were contaminated with Salmonella spp.: identified as serotypes Senftenberg (8), Agona (2), Anatum (1), Durban (1), Javiana (1), Mgulani (1), Montevideo (1), Unnamed (I 16:g, t: z42) (1), Virchow (1) and mixed Newport & Virchow (1). In each case the retailer and the UK Food Standards Agency were immediately informed and remedial action taken. Samples contaminated with S. Senftenberg were specifically associated with basil grown in Israel. Thirty-two human cases of S. Senftenberg infection were subsequently identified throughout England and Wales and a further 19 in Scotland, Denmark, The Netherlands and the USA. The strain of S. Senftenberg identified from the basil and that from cases had an indistinguishable molecular profile, suggesting a likely connection between consumption of basil and human infection. The presence of Salmonella spp. is unacceptable in ready-to-foods such as fresh herbs. This study highlights the necessity of applying good agricultural and hygiene practices pre-, during and post-harvest, at processing, retail and use. These practices help to prevent cross-contamination and/or bacterial growth occurring in these products. Best practice is to store and display such products at, or below, 8 degrees C as this inhibits bacterial growth. PMID:19237218
Elviss, N C; Little, C L; Hucklesby, L; Sagoo, S; Surman-Lee, S; de Pinna, E; Threlfall, E J
Fundamental to herbal medicine quality is the use of 'authentic' medicinal herb species. Species, however, 'represent more or less arbitrary and subjective man-made units'. Against this background, we discuss, with illustrative examples, the importance of defining species boundaries by accommodating both the fixed (shared) diagnostic and varying (within-species) traits in medicinal herb populations. We emphasize the role of taxonomy, floristic information and genomic profiling in authenticating medicinal herb species, in addition to the need to include within species phytochemical profile variations while developing herbal extract identification protocols. We outline the application of species-specific genomic and phytochemical markers, chemoprofiling and chemometrics as additional tools to develop qualifying herbal extract references. We list the diagnostic traits available subsequent to each step during the medicinal herb extract manufacturing process and delineate limits to qualification of extract references. PMID:22580015
Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Hennell, James R; Sucher, Nikolaus J
Two new proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin (1) and epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2) in addition to the known compound epigallocatechin-(4beta-->6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (3), were isolated from the air-dried herb of Cistus salvifolius. The chemical structures were determined on the basis of 1D-and 2D-NMR-spectra (HSQC, HMBC) of their peracetylated derivatives, MALDI-TOF-mass spectra, and by acid-catalysed degradation with phloroglucinol. The isolated compounds 1-3 and the water extract of C. salvifolius herb were tested for their inhibitory activities against COX-1 and COX-2. Compound 2 showed the strongest inhibitory effect on COX-2 followed by compound 3, compound 1 and the water extract, while compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate in vitro inhibition against COX-1. PMID:21699087
A 4-mo-old Chinese infant developed necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene from a small skin infection on his buttock that was treated with topical herbs. Sequential cultures revealed a number of organisms: Enterococcus species, sensitive to ampicillin, were isolated throughout the course, and coagulasenegative staphylococci replaced gram-negative rods during the later phase of the illness. The infant required prolonged intravenous antibiotic treatment and underwent multiple surgical procedures for debridement and reconstruction. This report serves to alert the public of the importance of avoiding application of unknown topical herbs in children with skin disease. A seemingly small wound, if inappropriately treated, may result in extensive tissue destruction and require extensive surgery. PMID:17901041
Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Hon, Kam-Iun Ellis; Leung, Erica; Burd, David Andrew; Leung, Alexander K C
Abstracts Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The effects include inhibiting the activation of microglia, decreasing levels of adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1, attenuating expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?, reducing inducible nitric oxide synthase and reactive oxygen species, and regulating transcription factors such as nuclear factor-?B.
The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Pb elements in thirty medicinal herb samples widely consumed in Kayseri, Turkey were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The samples were digested with concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in a microwave system. The decreasing sequence of the mean metal levels in medicinal herbs is as follows: Fe>Sr>Mn>Zn>Rb>Cu>Ni>Cr>Co>Pb. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the data matrix to evaluate analytical results. It was found that four principal components account for 80.6% of the total variance in the data. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, GBW07605 Tea Certified Reference Material was analysed. PMID:23442717
The in vitro antibacterial activities of a total of 46 extracts from dietary spices and medicinal herbs were investigated by agar-well diffusion method against five foodborne bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Their total phenolic contents were also evaluated. Many herb and spice extracts contained high levels of phenolics and exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the tested extracts than Gram-negative ones. S. aureus was the most sensitive, while E. coli was the most resistant. There were highly positive relationships (R(2)=0.73-0.93) between antibacterial activities and phenolic content of the tested extracts against each bacterium. This suggested that the antibacterial activity of the tested extracts was closely associated with their phenolic constituents. PMID:17449125
Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold
In this study, antimicrobial activities of the four different extracts (in methanol, ethanol, n?hexane and water) of some herbs including Allium vineale, Chaerophyllum macropodum, and Prangos ferulacea were investigated against Listeria monocytogenes serovars 1\\/2b, 4b, and 4ab. For many centuries, these herbs were used in food production in Turkey. While water extracts of all the plants did not show any
Emrullah Sagun; Hisamettin Durmaz; Zekai Tarakci; Osman Sagdic
This paper reports an investigation and study on the Zhuang nationality medicinal crops available on the traditional herbs market in Jingxi county of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. There are 380 species belonging to 129 families and 322 genus, among which notably Embelia parviflora, Malus doumeri, Panax notoginseng, Polygala fallax, etc. This study may serve as a reference for exploitation and utilization of the Zhuang nationality medicinal herbs resources. PMID:1524671
In vitro fermentabilities of two mushrooms (Lentinus edodes - LenS; Tremella fuciformis ? TreS), an herb (Astragalus membranaceus ? AstS), and their polysaccha- ride fractions (LenE, TreE, and AstE) were investigated using microflora from chicken ceca. Polysaccharides were extracted using the hot water method. The mushrooms had lower polysaccharide yields (8 to 10%) than the herb (31%). Fermentation kinetics were
F. C. Guo; B. A. Williams; R. P. Kwakkel; M. W. A. Verstegen
An efficient in vitro plant regeneration protocol for Swertia chirata Buch.-Ham. ex Wall (Gentianaceae), a critically endangered Himalayan medicinal herb, was developed using shoot tip explants\\u000a derived from in vitro grown seedlings. Media with 2% sucrose and various types of hormones markedly influenced in vitro propagation\\u000a of S. chirata. An in vitro shootlet production system using Murashige and Skoog (MS)
Interactions between herbal medicines and conventional drugs have recently been reported; the most significant herb with such drug interactions is Saint John’s wort, an inducer of cytochrome P450 3A3\\/4, an enzyme responsible for clearance of many clinically important drugs from the body. Foods (especially grapefruit) and habits or lifestyle factors such as smoking or alcohol consumption may also alter the
The use of immunostimulants as an alternative to the drugs, chemicals and antibiotics currently being used to control fish\\u000a diseases in fish culture is attracting the attention of many researchers. In this context, many have focused on the use of\\u000a medicinal plant products as potential therapeutic measures for modulating the immune response and, specifically, on the use\\u000a of herbs to
Summary The sedative-hypnotic medications, including benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepines, are the most common treatments for insomnia.\\u000a However, concerns regarding patterns of inappropriate use, dependence and adverse effects have led to caution in prescribing\\u000a those sedative-hypnotic medications. On the other hand, a traditional Chinese herb remedy, suanzaorentang, has been efficiently\\u000a and widely used in clinic for insomnia relief without severe side effects in
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Lupinus albus, L. (Lupinus termis), family L. leguminosae, Cymbopogon proximus, (Halfa barr), family Gramineae, and Zygophyllum coccineum L. (Kammun quaramany), family L. Zygophyllacae on biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A dose of 1.5 ml of aqueous suspension of each herb\\/100 g body weight (equivalent to 75 mg\\/100 g
Hamdy A Mansour; Al-Sayeda A Newairy; M. I Yousef; S. A Sheweita
The use of herbal remedies is a tradition held in many cultures throughout the world, and women may use herbal remedies during lactation. Because of the limitations of the current literature, it is difficult to develop accurate information on the safety and efficacy of specific herbs used during breastfeeding. It is critical that more research is conducted in this area, including national prevalence studies and safety and efficacy studies. PMID:23908361
Budzynska, Katarzyna; Gardner, Zoë E; Low Dog, Tieraona; Gardiner, Paula
This study examines the potential impact on 21st century climate change on north- nemoral forest herb ranges at three spatial\\u000a scales (Europe as whole, Northern\\/Southern Europe, separately, and the small north-nemoral region Denmark) and for two contrasting\\u000a geographic regions (Northern and Southern Europe), and evaluates which species traits (climatic niche parameters, range location)\\u000a would be most important for the range
A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of fever and arthralgia. His clinical course and marked ciliary\\u000a hyperemia led us to suspect tubulointestinal nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome, which was confirmed ophthalmologically\\u000a and by renal biopsy. Results of a drug-induced lymphocyte-stimulating test were positive for the Chinese herb “Goreisan.”\\u000a This is the first case in which the use
A 4-mo-old Chinese infant developed necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene from a small skin infection on his buttock that was\\u000a treated with topical herbs. Sequential cultures revealed a number of organisms:Enterococcus species, sensitive to ampicillin, were isolated throughout the course, and coagulasenegative staphylococci replaced gram-negative\\u000a rods during the later phase of the illness. The infant required prolonged intravenous antibiotic treatment and
Kam-Iun Ellis Hon; Erica Leung; David Andrew Burd; Alexander K. C. Leung
Two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (3-11), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-O-beta-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-FABMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:19401919
The use of the anxiolytic herb kava has caused toxic liver injury in Western countries and economic problems in South Pacific Islands due to tthe regulatory ban on kava. This analysis shows poor quality of kava raw material as a cause for its toxicity and suggests preventative measures by going back to the traditional use of kava for the sake of the patients and the South Pacific economy. PMID:21284704
Teschke, Rolf; Sarris, Jerome; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes
Treating diabetes mellitus (DM) with Chinese medicine (CM) has had a few thousands years of history. Past Chinese medical\\u000a texts had already recorded numerous medicinal herbs as well as recipes for treating DM and accumulated much clinical experience.\\u000a In the following article, the prevention of DM using CM in the past 5 years is retrospectively studied, and mainly focuses\\u000a on
The antioxidant properties of Thonningianin A (Th A), an ellagitannin, isolated from the methanolic extract of the African medicinal herb, Thonningia sanguinea were studied using the NADPH and Fe2+\\/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO), electron spin resonance spectrometer and the deoxyribose assay. Th A at 10?M inhibited both the NADPH and Fe2+\\/ascorbate-induced LPO in rat liver microsomes by 60% without inhibitory effects
The seasonal pattern of growth and matter production of Pyrola incarnata, an evergreen herb on the forest floor in subalpine deciduous forests, was analyzed to understand the ecological significance\\u000a of evergreenness in a subalpine climate with a short growing season and low temperature. Net production was highest under\\u000a favorable light conditions in spring after the disappearance of snow cover, and
The differential ability of forest herbs to colonize secondary forests on former agricultural land is generally attributed to different rates of dispersal. After propagule arrival, however, establishing individuals still have to cope with abiotic soil legacies from former agricultural land use. We focused on the plastic responses of forest herbs to increased phosphorus availability, as phosphorus is commonly found to be persistently bioavailable in post-agricultural forest soils. In a pot experiment performed under field conditions, we applied three P levels to four forest herbs with contrasting colonization capacities: Anemone nemorosa, Primula elatior, Circaea lutetiana and Geum urbanum. To test interactions with light availability, half of the replicas were covered with shade cloths. After two growing seasons, we measured aboveground P uptake as well as vegetative and regenerative performance. We hypothesized that fast-colonizing species respond the most opportunistically to increased P availability, and that a low light availability can mask the effects of P on performance. All species showed a significant increase in P uptake in the aboveground biomass. The addition of P had a positive effect on the vegetative performances of two of the species, although this was unrelated to their colonization capacities. The regenerative performance was affected by light availability (not by P addition) and was related to the species' phenology. Forest herbs can obviously benefit from the increased availability of P in post-agricultural forests, but not all species respond in the same way. Such differential patterns of plasticity may be important in community dynamics, as they affect the interactions among species. PMID:20300776
Baeten, Lander; Vanhellemont, Margot; De Frenne, Pieter; De Schrijver, An; Hermy, Martin; Verheyen, Kris
Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of the traditional Chinese herb danggui in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Our aim was to examine whether it might similarly be used to treat glioblastoma multiforme. Methods: The lipid-soluble active ingredients of danggui were extracted with acetone (AS-AC) or chlorophenol (AS-CH) and their antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects were studiedin vitro on
Cortex Moutan is one important traditional Chinese herb used in many traditional prescriptions. Paeonol (PN) and paeoniflorin\\u000a (PF) are two active components contained in Cortex Moutan. In the present work, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography\\u000a (MEKC) was applied to the determination of these active components in Cortex Moutan, and the analytical results were compared\\u000a with that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography
Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method.
Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ.
In his classic study in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon, USA), one of the most botanically rich forested regions in North America, R. H. Whittaker (1960) foreshadowed many modern ideas on the multivariate control of local species richness along environmental gradients related to productivity. Using a structural equation model to analyze his data, which were never previously statistically analyzed, we demonstrate that Whittaker was remarkably accurate in concluding that local herb richness in these late-seral forests is explained to a large extent by three major abiotic gradients (soils, topography, and elevation), and in turn, by the effects of these gradients on tree densities and the numbers of individual herbs. However, while Whittaker also clearly appreciated the significance of large-scale evolutionary and biogeographic influences on community composition, he did not fully articulate the more recent concept that variation in the species richness of local communities could be explained in part by variation in the sizes of regional species pools. Our model of his data is among the first to use estimates of regional species pool size to explain variation in local community richness along productivity-related gradients. We find that regional pool size, combined with a modest number of other interacting abiotic and biotic factors, explains most of the variation in local herb richness in the Siskiyou biodiversity hotspot.
Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.
Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951-2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500-1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500-2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects. PMID:20974978
Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I; Grace, James B
Phytotherapy (herbal medicine) have a long-standing history in Egypt. Current study investigated the antimicrobial potentialities of twenty five herbs and spices which are widely used in folk medicine by Egyptian housewives to treat gastrointestinal disorders against seven bacterial strains, mostly food borne including pathogens. They were tested by using paper disc diffusion technique as qualitative assay and agar dilution method for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of herbs extracts. Among screened plants, basil, cardamom, cinnamon, clove, lemon grass, mustard, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme extracts exhibited notable antimicrobial activities against most of the tested strains. Cinnamon extract was the most inhibitor followed by clove, whereas extracts of chamomile, rose of Jericho, safflower and turmeric showed weak antibacterial activities against most of the tested strains. The most sensitive strain to plant extracts was B. subtilis and the most resistant strain was Ps. fluorescens. Conclusion and Recommendations: herbs and spices extracts -used in Egyptian folk medicine for treating many gastrointestinal disorders - could be successfully applied as natural antimicrobials for elimination of food borne bacteria and pathogens growth. PMID:19712651
The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage. PMID:19139984
Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K
Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method. PMID:22207851
In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:15681161
As an alternative to modern western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is receiving increasingly attention worldwide. Great efforts have been paid to TCM's modernization, which tries to bridge the gap between TCM and modern western medicine. As TCM and modern western medicine share a common aspect at molecular level that the compound(s) perturb human's dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological condition, the relationship between compounds (in herb, refer to ingredients) and their targets (proteins) should be the key factor to connect TCM and modern medicine. Accordingly, we construct this Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID, http://www.megabionet.org/tcmid/), which records TCM-related information collected from different resources and through text-mining method. To enlarge the scope of the TCMID, the data have been linked to common drug and disease databases, including Drugbank, OMIM and PubChem. Currently, our TCMID contains ?47 000 prescriptions, 8159 herbs, 25 210 compounds, 6828 drugs, 3791 diseases and 17 521 related targets, which is the largest data set for related field. Our web-based software displays a network for integrative relationships between herbs and their treated diseases, the active ingredients and their targets, which will facilitate the study of combination therapy and understanding of the underlying mechanisms for TCM at molecular level. PMID:23203875
How to apply rapid and effective method to research medicinal herbs, the representative of complicated mixture system, is the current study focus for analysts. The functions of non-processed and processed medicinal herbs are greatly different, so controlling the processing procedure is highly important for guarantee of the curative effect. Almost, the conventional criteria of processing are based on personal sensory experience. There is no scientific and impersonal benchmark. In this article, we take Rehmannia for example, conducting a systematic study on the process of braising Rehmannia with yellow wine by using the multi-steps infrared (IR) macro-fingerprint method. The method combines three steps: conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative spectroscopy, and two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation spectroscopy. Based on the changes in different types of IR spectra during the process, we can infer the optimal end-point of processing Rehmannia and the main transformations during the process. The result provides a scientific explanation to the traditional sensory experience based recipe: the end-point product is "dark as night and sweet as malt sugar". In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method, which is rapid and reasonable, can play an important role in controlling the processing of medicinal herbs.
A group of 150 people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs were examined. The examined group consisted of 47 thyme farmers, 32 chamomile farmers, 31 sage farmers and 40 workers of herbs processing industry. As a reference group, 50 urban dwellers, not exposed to any kind of organic dust, were examined. Skin prick tests and precipitin tests were conducted with, respectively, 4 and 11 microbial antigens associated with organic dust. Both skin and precipitin tests were also conducted with herbal extracts of chamomile and sage. Precipitin tests were carried out with sera not concentrated and sera 3-fold concentrated. Tests for inhibition of leukocyte migration (MIF) were also conducted with 4 microbial antigens. People occupationally exposed to dust from herbs showed a higher frequency of positive skin reactions to microbial antigens compared to the reference group. The results of precipitin test also revealed greater reactivity to the environmental microbial antigens in the examined group, compared to the reference group. The highest frequency of positive results was noted with the antigen of Pantoea agglomerans (30.6 % with sera not concentrated and 48.3 % with sera 3-fold concentrated) - the difference compared to the reference group (12.0 %) was highly significant (p < 0.01). The frequencies of positive results of MIF test in the examined group were high with all antigens tested: Arthrobacter globiformis (12.6 %), Pantoea agglomerans (11.1 %), Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (17.0 %), Aspergillus fumigatus (13.3 %), and, compared to the reference group with no positive result for any antigen, all the differences were significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the frequency of positive allergological reactions to airborne microorganisms was high in people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs and suggests a potential role of microbial allergens in the pathogenesis of work-related health disorders among herb workers. The risk of sensitization seems to be greatest among thyme farmers, who showed the highest positive response. The results confirmed the particular allergenic importance of Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans. PMID:15236509
Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czes?awa; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Dutkiewicz, Jacek
Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the 80% methanolic extract as well as the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (BuOH) fractions of the wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp; Piperitum)) and cultivated fennel (F. vulgare var. azoricum). In addition, quantification of the total phenolic content in the 80% methanol extract of fennel wild and cultivated herbs is measured. Materials and Methods: An amount of 400 g of air dried powdered herb of wild and cultivated fennel were sonicated with aqueous methanol (80%), successively extracted with Hexane, EtOAc, and n-BuOH. The EtOAc and n-BuOH were subjected to repeated column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The antioxidant effect was determined in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Hepatoprotective activity was carried out using a Wistar male rat (250–300 g). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined as chlorogenic acid and rutin equivalents, respectively. Results: Two phenolic compounds, i.e., 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside and 3?,8?-binaringenin were isolated from the fennel wild herb, their structures were elucidated by spectral methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and UV. The EtOAc and BuOH fractions of wild fennel were found to exhibit a radical scavenging activity higher than those of cultivated fennel. An in vitro method of rat hepatocytes monolayer culture was used for the investigation of hepatotoxic effects of the 80% methanol extract on the wild and cultivated fennel, which were >1000 and 1000 ?g/mL, respectively. As well as, their hepatoprotective effect against the toxic effect of paracetamol (25 mM) was exerted at 12.5 ?g/mL concentration. Conclusions: Fennel (F. Vulgare) is a widespread plant species commonly used as a spice and flavoring. The results obtained in this study indicated that the fennel (F. vulgare) herb is a potential source of natural antioxidant. Two phenolic compounds, i.e. 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside (A) and 3?,8?-binaringenin (B) were isolated from the fennel wild herb for the first time.
Ghanem, Mona T. M.; Radwan, Hany M. A.; Mahdy, El-Sayed M.; Elkholy, Yehya M.; Hassanein, Heba D.; Shahat, Abdelaaty A.
Summary In a controlled, double-blind, randomized multicentre study, the efficacy and safety of the topical comfrey product Traumaplant(10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous ethanolic pressed juice of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb [SymphytumuplandicumNyman], corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream; n = 104) was tested against a 1% product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in
Miroslav Ku?era; Miloš Barna; Ond?ej Horá?ek; Jaroslava Kováriková; Alexander Ku?era
The effectiveness and tolerability of the topical Symphytum product Traumaplant (Harras Pharma Curarina, München, Germany) (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous-ethanolic pressed concentrate of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb [Symphytum uplandicum Nyman], corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream) in the treatment of patients with myalgia (n=104) were tested against a 1% reference product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in 100 g of cream; n=111). The primary efficacy parameter in this double-blind, reference- controlled, randomized, multicenter study of 215 patients with pain in the lower and upper back was pain in motion, assessed with the aid of a visual analogue scale. Secondary efficacy parameters included pain at rest, pain on palpation, and functional impairment. With high concentrations of the treatment product, amelioration of pain on active motion (P<5 x 10 -9 ), pain at rest (P<.001), and pain on palpation (P=5 x 10 -5 ) was significantly more pronounced than that attained with the reference product and was clinically highly relevant. A number needed to treat of 3.2 was calculated from the study results. Global efficacy was significantly better (P=1 x 10 -8 ) and onset of effects was faster (P=4 x 10 -7 ) with the high-concentration product. Tolerability of the highly concentrated study product was good to excellent in all patients. Study results confirm the known anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of topical (Symphytum cream. As a new finding, applicability in certain forms of back pain can be concluded. PMID:16510384
In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid-solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validated sample preparation procedures were compared. Under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 70-119 % for MSPD for most pesticides and 70-118 % for LSE, but with several exceptions. Precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were ?16 % for MSPD and <18 % for LSE. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99254 for both methods. LODs (limits of detection) and LOQs (limits of quantification) for MSPD were within the ranges of 0.003-0.03 and 0.005-0.04 mg/kg, respectively. The data demonstrate that the MSPD method was successfully used for the analysis of 163 pesticides in the following herbs: chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), linden (Tilia), lungwort (Pulmonaria L.), melissa (Melissa L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This paper indicates the potential of MSPD for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues. This method was therefore validated at three spiking levels (the first ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg, the second from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg and the third from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/kg) and applied to real samples (n = 15). MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs. PMID:23670401
Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089
We evaluated the herb-drug interaction potential of Galgeun-tang (GGT) extracts, mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition/induction. Further, the effects of fermentation on the CYP-mediated herb-drug interaction potential of GGT extracts were determined. As measured by LC-ESI/MS/MS, GGT extracts (0-300?g/mL) showed no inhibitory activity toward eight CYP isoforms (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) in pooled human liver microsomes, suggesting that GGT may have low potential for herb-drug interactions mediated by CYP inhibition. Hepatic CYP expression and activity in rats treated with GGT extracts twice per day for 1week was examined. Among the tested CYP isoforms (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B1, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1), CYP1B1 and 4A1 were increased by GGT extracts. Hepatic activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase, and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase, but not midazolam hydroxylase were also elevated. These results raise the possibility that GGT extracts may increase the toxicity of environmental toxicants through the elevating CYP-dependent metabolic activation. Interestingly, the increases in CYP1B1 and CYP4A1 levels, and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase, and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase activities were attenuated by fermentation of GGT extract using Lactobacillus plantarum KFRI 402, but not 144. Further studies are needed to identify the CYP regulatory component(s) from GGT and determination its metabolism. PMID:23104244
Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Kang, Wonku; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Park, Song-Kyu; Oh, Soo Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum
Medicinal plants are an essential part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), an ancient complex therapy considered today as one of the most complete complementary medicine system. Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) listings included in Chinese Materia Medica cover more than 1500 plants and a great number of composite preparations. Recently, several TCM herbs have been included into European Pharmacopoeia and many more are on the waiting list. The efficiency of TCM is based on the reinforcing of an organism's natural healing power and the ability to restore the energy homoeostasis. A likely mechanism of at least some of the activities is interacting with redox balance and prevention of oxidative stress. During the past two decades, hundreds of crude herbs, extracts, and isolated compounds have been screened for their antioxidant properties in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, some of traditional Chinese herbs can be regarded as source of very efficient antioxidant compounds, and this activity could explain some of their therapeutic and preventive usefulness. In this review, we outline the recent achievements in the worldwide quest for more efficient antioxidants, with Chinese medicinal and food plants in the central point. Various classes of antioxidant compounds will be mentioned, such as polyphenols or terpenoids that can act either as direct reactive oxygen species scavengers, transition metal reducers and chelators, or as chain breaking antioxidants. Some methodological considerations will be also discussed, with emphasis on the potential importance of the results obtained with antioxidant assays for human health and disease prevention. In this context, several examples of selected, most promising Chinese medicinal plants will be also presented in more detail. PMID:23210784
Matkowski, A; Jamio?kowska-Kozlowska, W; Nawrot, I
A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 ?g kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens. PMID:22271101
In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN.
Schroder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777
Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas
The fates of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on selected fresh culinary herbs were evaluated at a refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C). Fresh herbs, including cilantro, oregano, basil, chive, parsley, and rosemary, were inoculated with six-strain mixtures of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, and the microbial populations were monitored at 1, 5, 11, 16, 19, and 24 days. For both pathogens, a significant decrease in the population (P < 0.0001) occurred within the first 5 days of storage (< 0.8 log). Both pathogens remained the highest on cilantro and the lowest on rosemary (P < 0.0001). Storage time had a significant effect on the survival of E. coli O157:H7; populations declined as storage time progressed. Although storage of cilantro, basil, and chive was terminated after 19 days because of deteriorated quality, significant numbers of both pathogens were recovered from the remaining fresh herbs after 24 days of storage. The results showed that both bacteria were extremely persistent on all test herbs under the test conditions. The results also reinforce the concept that, once contaminated, bacterial pathogens can persist on fresh herbs throughout a normal distribution time. PMID:16924931
This paper describes use of BIOPAK software with a library of equations that predict fuel size classes for shrubs and herbs in the Pacific Northwest. Fuel size classes can be estimated in three ways. When appropiate plant measurements are available, fuel classes can be estimated directly for species (or those of similar form) that have equations in the library. When appropriate plant measurements are not available fuel classes can be estimated in a two-step method provided in the software can be used to develop new equations that estimate fuels from plot-level estimates of species cover and possibly other measure.
A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the quantitative determination of seven components of Snow Lotus Herb (Saussurea tridactyla Sch.-Bip.ex Hook.f.): umbelliferonglucoside, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, rutin, apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-beta-D-rutinoside, and luteolin. Samples are analyzed by means of a reverse-phase column (Diamonsil C(18)) using methanol and water under gradient conditions as the mobile phase for 60 min. This method offers selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, and ruggedness, as well as efficiency and ease. PMID:12841951
We examined chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) atpB–rbcL intergenic spacer sequences variation within Sagittaria potamogetifolia, an endangered and endemic marsh herb in China. Sequence data were obtained from 54 individuals in six extant populations of the species. Sequences appeared to evolve neutral (Tajima's criterion D=?1.59826, 0.1>P>0.05 and Fu and Li's tests D*=?1.44484, P>0.1; F*=?1.83446, P>0.1). Eleven haplotypes were identified in S. potamogetifolia.
Bo Tan; Kang Liu; Xiao-Li Yue; Fan Liu; Jin-Ming Chen; Qing-Feng Wang
The paper deals with the estimation of maximum above-ground herb-layer biomass in selected forest communities of the Malé\\u000a Karpaty Mts., (Lesser Carpathians) SW. Slovakia. Use was made of a combined method of indirect sampling and phytocenological\\u000a relevés, and the following values were ascertained: 41 kg\\/ha in theLuzulo-Fagetum (276 kg\\/ha if mosses included), 691 kg\\/ha in theCarici pilosae-Carpinetum, 364 kg\\/ha in
Text Version... of animals in the field • Downed fences • Animal tracks in production block • Animal feces, blood, animal carcasses or urine in production block ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation
Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein) from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals in chicken meat. Graphical abstract
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed. PMID:22595519
The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522
Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming
Many phylogeographic studies of various tree species have been conducted to elucidate the locations of refugia and the colonization patterns during the Pleistocene. However, only a few large-scale phylogeographic studies have been conducted on herbaceous plants, especially scarce on herbs that are adapted to disturbance. Artemisia indica is a fast-growing perennial herb found in open habitats. To examine the basic information on the genetic structure of this species, we investigated the chloroplast DNA variation within and among populations across Japan. We detected 26 haplotypes in 604 individuals from 28 Japanese populations. The haplotype A1 had wide geographic distribution, and its close relatives were locally present. Some putative ancestral lineages were found mainly in the Kyushu region. This may be because several lineages migrated from the Eurasian continent to the northern coast in Kyushu via the Korean peninsula during the Pleistocene, and the A1 haplotype expanded northward, whereas others remained in southern areas. Phylogenetic distant haplotypes were present mainly in the Kanto region. Because the geographic distribution pattern of these haplotypes in this region is believed to be unnatural, these haplotypes may be derived from commercial sources for re-vegetation during the last few decades. PMID:24023252
Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries. PMID:23122119
Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
Curcuma herbs have a vasodilator effect. The effects of C. longa, which induces only endothelium-independent vasodilatation, and C. zedoaria, which induces both endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilatation, were studied on vasomotion and hemorheology in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Spontaneously hypertensive eight-week-old male rats were assigned to five groups. For 12 weeks, the control group received standard chow. The 3%CL (C. longa) group received standard chow containing 3% (wt/wt) C. longa. The 1%CZ and 3%CZ (C. zedoaria) groups received standard chow containing 1% and 3% (wt/wt) C. zedoaria, respectively. The captoril group received standard chow and 100 mg/kg/day of captoril in drinking water. Blood pressure, vasomotion, hemorheology, etc. were examined. Systolic blood pressure of the 3%CZ and captoril groups decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations of the 3%CZ and captoril groups were increased to a greater degree, significantly, than the control group. When testing xanthine oxidase-induced contraction, the 3%CZ group was significantly decreased as compared to the control group. Low shear stress of whole blood viscosity showed the 3%CL and 3%CZ groups to be decreased significantly compared to the control group. Thus, Curcuma herbs have hypotensive and protective effect on the endothelium in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Especially, C. zedoaria is more effective than C. longa, and its mechanism is thought to be related to a radical scavenging effect and improvement of hemorheology. PMID:16047562
According to the multiple pharmacological functions of Chinese herbs for treating burns, the authors selected some traditional herbs to cure the burning wound, which had not only the function of improving the local microcirculation of the burned surface and their bactericidal action, but also the function of changing the bacterial growth milieu action. Coptis chinensis 40%, Herba Taraxaci 40%, Fructus Mume 10% and Salvia miltiorrhizae 10% were boiled, infiltrated and disinfected. The mixture thus made was called as Burn II, which were applied on the burned surface daily, 97.1% of 103 patients were cured. Through the experiment of 60 rabbits burned by irons, which were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 in each group) and each 2 groups infected respectively with Bacillus pyocyaneus, Bacillus Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus, took one of each infected group as control group. After 14 days, the infected burned surfaces which were applied with Burn II daily. The results showed that the effect of Burn II was not only significant, but also its usage was not highly restricted by the medical condition. PMID:1821339
Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C. nutans. In this study, the extracellular activity of C. nutans extracts against HSV-2 infected on HEp-2 cells was investigated in terms of its molecular aspects. HSV-2 was treated with the extracts and adsorped into the HEp-2 cells. After infection, HSV-2 DNA quantities in the infected cells were assessed and compared by the quantitative dot blot hybridisation technique. The results showed that treating the viruses with either less or more highly purified extracts before infection resulted in great reductions of viral infectivity. Further investigation was performed by Western blot analysis to determine the activities of the extracts on the viral proteins. At least eight viral proteins of the infected cell proteins (ICP) and some structural proteins, including 146, 125, 78, 69, 55, 44, 40 and 20 KDa proteins, were depleted and reduced gradually with higher and lower concentrated herb extracts, respectively. These suggest that the C. nutans extracts highly inactivated or inhibited HSV-2 before infection. PMID:20140802
Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as “irradiated”) for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.
In this study, metabolite profiling of five medicinal Panax herbs including Panax ginseng (Chinese ginseng), Panax notoginseng (Sanchi), Panax japonicus (Rhizoma Panacis Majoris), Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng), and P. ginseng (Korean ginseng) were performed using ultra-performance LC-quadrupole TOF MS (UPLC-QTOFMS) and multivariate statistical analysis technique. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the analytical data showed that the five Panax herbs could be separated into five different groups of phytochemicals. The chemical markers such as ginsenoside Rf, 20(S)-pseudoginsenoside F11, malonyl gisenoside Rb1, and gisenoside Rb2 accountable for such variations were identified through the loadings plot of PCA, and were identified tentatively by the accurate mass of TOFMS and partially verified by the available reference standards. Results from this study indicate that the proposed method is reliable for the rapid analysis of a group of metabolites present in herbal medicines and other natural products and applicable in the differentiation of complex samples that share similar chemical ingredients. PMID:18338405
Evidence of rapid seismic-induced subsidence at Humboldt Bay, California, is produced by analyses of annual growth rings of relict Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] roots and entombed herbaceous plants. These results add to previously reported evidence that an earthquake caused subsidence ˜300 yr ago at Mad River slough, California. Both types of remains are rooted in buried soils that stood at or above the high-tide level until the area subsided at least 0.5 m into the intertidal zone. Burial by intertidal muds took place quickly enough to preserve the herbs in the growth position. Analysis of the annual growth rings of the tree roots shows that all died within four growing seasons, but the time of root death varies even among roots of the same tree. With no central nervous system, tree cells do not die simultaneously throughout the organism. The 0.5 to 1.5 m of subsidence, as evidenced by stratigraphy and sedimentology, was not enough to kill all the trees even in one season. Although such gradual death could be due to rapid aseismic subsidence, the tree deaths and preserved herbs are much better explained by sudden coseismic subsidence.
On 27 March 1689, Richard Waller, Fellow and Secretary of the Royal Society presented his "Tables of the English Herbs reduced to such an order, as to find the name of them by their external figures and shapes" to his assembled colleagues at a meeting of the Royal Society. These tables were developed for the novice by being color images, composed in pencil and watercolor, of selected plants and their distinguishing characteristics. The botanical watercolors for the tables are now a Turning-the-Pages document online on the website of the Royal Society. However, for the past 320 years, the scientific context for the creation of these outstanding botanical watercolors has remained obscure. These tables were developed by Waller as an image-based dichotomous key, pre-dating by almost 100 years the text-based dichotomous keys in the first edition of Flora Française (1778) by Jean Baptiste Lamarck, who is generally given priority for the development of the dichotomous key. How these large folio images were arranged to illustrate a dichotomous key is unknown, but an arrangement based on Waller's description is illustrated here as leaf-ordering for the separate hierarchical clusters (tables). Although only 24 species of watercolored dicot herbs out of a total of 65 in the set of watercolors (the others being monocots) are used in these tables, they are a "proof of concept", serving as models upon which a method is based, that of using a key composed of dichotomous choices for aiding identification. PMID:22074776
The nutrient concentration in seeds determines many aspects of potential success of the sexual reproductive phase of plants, including the seed predation probability, efficiency of seed dispersal and seedling performance. Despite considerable research interest in latitudinal gradients of foliar nutrients, a similar gradient for seeds remains unexplored. We investigated a potential latitudinal gradient in seed nutrient concentrations within the widespread European understorey forest herb Anemone nemorosa L. We sampled seeds of A. nemorosa in 15 populations along a 1900-km long latitudinal gradient at three to seven seed collection dates post-anthesis and investigated the relative effects of growing degree-hours >5 °C, soil characteristics and latitude on seed nutrient concentrations. Seed nitrogen, nitrogen:phosphorus ratio and calcium concentration decreased towards northern latitudes, while carbon:nitrogen ratios increased. When taking differences in growing degree-hours and measured soil characteristics into account and only considering the most mature seeds, the latitudinal decline remained particularly significant for seed nitrogen concentration. We argue that the decline in seed nitrogen concentration can be attributed to northward decreasing seed provisioning due to lower soil nitrogen availability or greater investment in clonal reproduction. This pattern may have large implications for the reproductive performance of this forest herb as the degree of seed provisioning ultimately co-determines seedling survival and reproductive success. PMID:21489100
De Frenne, P; Kolb, A; Graae, B J; Decocq, G; Baltora, S; De Schrijver, A; Brunet, J; Chabrerie, O; Cousins, S A O; Dhondt, R; Diekmann, M; Gruwez, R; Heinken, T; Hermy, M; Liira, J; Saguez, R; Shevtsova, A; Baskin, C C; Verheyen, K
1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the
Effects of forest management and soil acidity on herb layer vegetation were studied after 10 years on 190 permanent plots in south Swedish beech (Fagus sylvatica) and oak (Quercus robur) forests. Species richness generally increased with management intensity, mainly due to establishment of ruderal species from the seed bank. Species richness of the typical forest flora was unaffected by management.
The present study was conducted to evaluate whether the aqueous extract of the herb, Phyl- lanthus niruri (PN) can effectively cure liver from nimesulide (NIM) induced oxidative stress in vivo. In our experiments, we have seen that administration of PN through intraperitoneal route is more effective in hepato-protection than oral administration. PN (100 mg\\/kg body weight) was, therefore, administered intraperitoneally
Mrinal K. Sarkar; Kasturi Sarkar; Rajesh Bhattacharjee; Mary Chatterjee; Parames C. Sil
Clonal plant species have been shown to adopt different strategies to persist in heterogeneous environments by changing relative investments in sexual reproduction and clonal propagation. As a result, clonal diversity and genetic variation may be different along environmental gradients. We examined the regional and local population structure of the clonal rhizomatous forest herb Paris quadrifolia in a complex of forest
Hans Jacquemyn; Rein Brys; Olivier Honnay; Martin Hermy; Isabel Roldán-Ruiz
Summary 1 Alliaria petiolata, a European biennial herb, is an important pest in temperate North American deciduous forests. Habitat resource structure has probably been important for invasion and proliferation of this species. 2 Alliaria was grown in an experimental garden at two densities (equivalent to 17 and 170 plants m?2), three nutrient levels (no, low, or high nutrient addition) and
Grass or herb intercropping with trees is widely practiced as an orchard-floor management strategy, but nutrient competition from grass species can inhibit the growth of intercropped fruit trees. Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus versiforme can alleviate such competition and thus promote the growth of intercropped fruit trees by increasing soil
It has been reported recently that the immunosuppressant FK506 produced neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether tripchlorolide, an immunosuppressive extract of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, could exert similar neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects similar to those of FK506. It was found that tripchlorolide promoted axonal elongation and protected dopaminergic neurons
A preparation of extracts from the root of the Chinese medicinal herbTripterygium wilfordii Hook was administered orally at a dose of 1 mg\\/kg body weight per day to 13 children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Eight children, including 4 who were steroid resistant, went into remission which was maintained in 4 for up to 3 years after withdrawal of treatment. In
The immunopotentiating effect of the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a medicinal herb, has been associated with its polysaccharide fractions (Astragalus polysaccharides, APS). We herein demonstrate that APS activates mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in terms of proliferation or cytokine production. Fluorescence-labeled APS (fl-APS) was able to selectively stain murine B cells, macrophages and a also human
Soil crusts of rosemary scrubs in south-central Florida were examined for effects on seed germination of four herbs that are killed by fire and must recruit from seed: Eryngium cuneifolium (Apiaceae), Hypericum cumulicola (Hypericaceae), Polygonella basiramia (Polygonaceae), and Paronychia chartacea ssp. chartacea (Caryophyllaceae). Biological soil crusts in these sites are dominated by algae, cyanobacteria, fungi, and bacteria. Because crusts can
The success of any protocol designed to detect parasitic protozoa on produce must begin with an efficient initial wash step. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto herbs, lettuces and raspberries, eluted with one of four wash solutions and the recovered number of oocysts determined via fluorescent microscopy. Recovery rates for fluorescein thiosemicarbazide labeled C. parvum oocysts seeded
Joan M. Shields; Michelle Minjung Lee; Helen R. Murphy
In this study we characterized the distribution of herb and shrub species relative to landform and forest canopy attributes of streamside forests in the moist, conifer-dominated mountains of coastal Oregon. Species cover and environmental data were collected along transects at 94 sites. Species with relatively similar distributions were classified into 10 species groups to identify major patterns in the vegetation.
An in vivo experiment was conducted to study the potential prebiotic effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharide extracts, Lentinus edodes extract (LenE), Tremella fuciformis extract, and Astragalus membra- naceus Radix extract, on chicken growth and the cecal microbial ecosystem, as compared with the antibiotic Apramycin (APR). This investigation was carried out in terms of a dose-response study. The chickens were
F. C. Guo; B. A. Williams; R. P. Kwakkel; H. S. Li; X. P. Li; J. Y. Luo; W. K. Li; M. W. A. Verstegen
Summary 1 A framework that summarizes the direct and indirect effects of past land use on forest herb recolonization is proposed, and used to analyse the colonization patterns of forest understorey herbaceous species in a 360-ha mixed forest, grassland and arable land- scape in the Dijle river valley (central Belgium). 2 Fine-scale distribution maps were constructed for 14 species. The
Kris Verheyen; Glenn R. Guntenspergen; Bernard Biesbrouck; Martin Hermy
Many kinds of Chinese herb had been confirmed to have the character of anti-tumor, clinical reports about anti-tumor effects of Chinese herb had also been found in recent years, but most of the reports were focused on the clinical treatment of effectiveness for Chinese herb, on the other hand, review about Chinese herbal related with molecules on cancer-cell-apoptosis was seldom, many scientists could not believe such kinds of clinical describes about anti-tumor effects for Chinese herb, because these describes were lack of molecular biology evidence. Kanglaite(KLT) injection is an anti-tumor new drug which extracts from Chinese medicine-coix seed with modern advanced pharmaceutical technology, it is also a new biphase extended-spectrum anticancer medicine, the food and drug administration(FDA) of United States also approved a phase II trial of KLT to test its efficacy in treating non-small-cell lung cancer. Some studies show it could inhibit some anti-apoptotic gene and activate some pro-apoptotic gene, its injection solution is one of the new anticancer medicine that can significantly inhibit a various kinds of tumor cells, so it has become the core of research that how to further explore KLT injection to promote tumor cell apoptosis by impacting on related genes. In this review, the relationship between KLT and some tumor cell apoptosis molecules had been discussed and reviewed generally. PMID:18718024
Many kinds of Chinese herb had been confirmed to have the character of anti-tumor, clinical reports about anti-tumor effects of Chinese herb had also been found in recent years, but most of the reports were focused on the clinical treatment of effectiveness for Chinese herb, on the other hand, review about Chinese herbal related with molecules on cancer-cell-apoptosis was seldom, many scientists could not believe such kinds of clinical describes about anti-tumor effects for Chinese herb, because these describes were lack of molecular biology evidence. Kanglaite(KLT) injection is an anti-tumor new drug which extracts from Chinese medicine-coix seed with modern advanced pharmaceutical technology, it is also a new biphase extended-spectrum anticancer medicine, the food and drug administration(FDA) of United States also approved a phase II trial of KLT to test its efficacy in treating non-small-cell lung cancer. Some studies show it could inhibit some anti-apoptotic gene and activate some pro-apoptotic gene, its injection solution is one of the new anticancer medicine that can significantly inhibit a various kinds of tumor cells, so it has become the core of research that how to further explore KLT injection to promote tumor cell apoptosis by impacting on related genes. In this review, the relationship between KLT and some tumor cell apoptosis molecules had been discussed and reviewed generally.
Without adding any volatile organic solvents, aqueous solutions of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were used as 'green' mobile phases to determine octopamine, synephrine and tyramine by liquid chromatography. The problems of the adrenergic amines separation, such as band tailing, low retention and low resolution were solved successfully by using RTIL. The effect of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tertafluoroborate ([EMIM][BF4]) was the best in the six investigated RTILs. The concentration of [EMIM][BF4], mobile phase pH and column temperature, which influenced the chromatographic behaviors of the analytes, were investigated in detail. The change of retention factors caused by pH shift was obviously suppressed by [EMIM][BF4]. The sensitivity, accuracy and repeatability of this method were found to be satisfactory. The contents of adrenergic amines in several Citrus herbs and extracts, such as Fructus aurantii immaturus, were simultaneously determined by this 'green' chromatographic method. PMID:16781718
The aqueous extracts from 21 medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China were screened for antiviral activities against human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using a cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Three extracts from Agrimonia pilosa, Pithecellobium clypearia and Punica granatum, respectively, showed anti-HSV-1 activity, which was possibly contributed by the polyphenolic compounds in the herbal extracts. Six of the extracts, from Blumea laciniata, Elephantopus scaber, Laggera pterodonta, Mussaenda pubescens, Schefflera octophylla and Scutellaria indica, respectively, exhibited anti-RSV activity with 50% inhibition (IC50) concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 32 microg/mL, and selective indices (SI) ranging from 11.2 to 40. In addition to polyphenolic compounds, other constituents present in these extracts may also contribute to their anti-RSV activity. PMID:15478204
Li, Yaolan; Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; But, Paul P H; Ooi, Vincent E C
The effect of thermal disturbance and site characteristics on the distribution of herbs was studied in portions of a 3020 ha wetland in the southeastern U.S. Data were collected from four sites with different disturbance histories. Rank correlations between DCA ordination scores and site characteristics indicate that species composition differences among sites were associated with disturbance. Within site differences are related to water depth and substrate type. For all sites along the disturbance gradient, species richness is greatest on consolidated muck. Fewest species occur on loose muck at the most disturbed site (x-bar=1.9), whereas at the other two disturbed sites, logs support fewest species (x-bar=4.1 and 4.2). After 18 yrs of revegetation at a fourth site, vegetation patterns are moderately correlated with water depth (r=0.52). The authors' results fit such mechanistic concepts as the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and the subsidy-stress gradient.
Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. (Asteraceae) is an economically important Chinese medicinal herb. In this study, 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from A. macrocephala using the compound microsatellite marker technique. Levels of polymorphism within the 15 markers were assessed using 83 individuals from two wild and two cultivated populations in China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 20, with an average of 9.9 alleles. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.083 to 1.000 and from 0.097 to 0.938, respectively. These markers will be valuable for germplasm classification and identification, as well as for assessing the genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure among wild and cultivated populations of A. macrocephala.
Trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (Cynara scolymus, Matricaria chamomilla, Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium, and Inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. Based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium are discussed. By calculating the bioconcentration factors and their deviation from the recommended values, elevated concentrations, were explained in terms of contamination and pollution. The concentrations measured in both plants and soil samples were below maximum allowable concentration ranges considered for the European Union. PMID:18408895
Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125
The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907
Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D
Skin hyperpigmentation disorders as a result of abnormal melanin production induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are both a clinical and a cosmetic problem. This melanin production is mediated by tyrosinase whose expression is positively regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). We recently found that expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inhibits melanin production. In this study, we searched for HSP70 inducers from Chinese herbs and selected an ethanol extract of Eupatorium lindleyanum (E. lindleyanum). Not only melanin production but also the activity and expression of tyrosinase were significantly suppressed in cells treated with E. lindleyanum extract as well as in HSP70-overexpressing cells. The expression of MITF was clearly suppressed in cells treated with E. lindleyanum extract but not in HSP70-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that E. lindleyanum extract suppresses the expression of tyrosinase and melanin production through both HSP70-dependent and HSP70-independent mechanisms. PMID:20163455
A survey of aflatoxins in herbs and spices has been carried out and cooking experiments conducted to assess the stability of aflatoxin in spice sauces. Of 157 retail samples which included curry powders, pepper, cayenne pepper, chilli, paprika, ginger, cinnamon and coriander, nearly 95% of samples contained below 10 micrograms/kg total aflatoxins and only nine samples had higher levels. The highest concentration in a retail sample was 48 micrograms/kg in a chilli powder. In addition to retail sampling, 14 consignments of whole chilli and chilli powder were sampled at the port of entry. Only two samples, both chilli powder, were above 10 micrograms/kg; containing 35 and 51 micrograms/kg total aflatoxins. Cooking experiments showed that aflatoxin levels in spiced sauces are not reduced by domestic cooking with either microwave or conventional gas oven heating. PMID:8647302
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed.
The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) are known to possess anti-oxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention.
Petiwala, Sakina M.; Puthenveetil, Angela G.; Johnson, Jeremy J.
This study investigated the antibacterial efficiency of five spice and herb extracts (cinnamon stick, oregano, clove, pomegranate peel, and grape seed) against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica in cheese at room temperature (~ 23°C). The lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) of cheese was periodically tested by oxidative analyses. The results showed that all five plant extracts were effective against three foodborne pathogens in cheese. Treatments with these extracts increased the stability of cheese against lipid oxidation. Clove showed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The reduction of foodborne pathogen numbers and the inhibition of lipid oxidation in cheese indicated that the extracts of these plants (especially clove) have potential as natural food preservatives. PMID:21142945
Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a very commonly encountered urogynaecological entity in developing countries such as India. The most common cause of VVF in developing counties is secondary to obstructive labour. We report a very unusual case of VVF in a young woman that developed due to insertion of an unknown vaginal herb for treatment of primary infertility. Cystoscopy showed a single trigonal fistula measuring 3×2 cm just near the bladder neck. Vaginoscopy revealed cicatrised less capacious vagina and unhealthy vaginal mucosa. She was treated with transvaginal VVF repair using Martius flap interposition which leaked on 10th postoperative day. She underwent re-evaluation and another transvaginal fistula repair for small trigonal residual fistula after 3 months. She is doing well during the follow-up of 2 years. She attained sexual activity after 3 months of surgical repair but could not conceive. PMID:24092608
The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) are known to possess anti-oxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23531917
Petiwala, Sakina M; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Johnson, Jeremy J
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of organisms to express different phenotypes under different environmental conditions. It may buffer individuals both against short-term environmental fluctuations and long-term effects of global change. A plastic behaviour in response to changes in the environment may be especially important in species with low migration rates and colonization capacities, such as in many forest plants in present-day fragmented landscapes. We compared the phenotypic trait variation (used as a proxy for the amount of phenotypic plasticity) of five forest herbs (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Circaea lutetiana, Impatiens noli-tangere, Sanicula europaea and Stachys sylvatica) between two regions in Germany that differ in their overall environmental conditions (Bremen in the northwest, Freiburg in the southwest; 5 species × 2 regions × 8-15 populations × 25-50 individuals). In addition, we measured light intensity and important soil parameters (soil pH, moisture, K, P and N) in all populations. We found consistent differences in trait variability between the two regions in several species. In Brachypodium and Stachys both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in Freiburg. Similarly, reproductive traits of Impatiens and Sanicula appeared to be more variable in Freiburg, while in both species at least one of the vegetative traits was more variable in Bremen. Mean local environmental conditions also affected trait variation; in most of the species both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in sites with higher nutrient contents and higher light availability. Across all traits and both regions, seed or fruit production was most variable. In summary, at least some of the studied forest herbs appear to respond strongly to large-scale environmental differences, showing a higher trait variability in the more southern region. Given the assumption that phenotypic trait variation is positively associated with phenotypic plasticity, we conclude that these populations may more easily respond to changes in the environment.
Lemke, Isgard Holle; Kolb, Annette; Diekmann, Martin Reemt
Despite the lack of sufficient information on the safety of herbal products, their use as alternative and/or complementary medicine is globally popular. There is also an increasing interest in medicinal herbs as precursor for pharmacological actives. Of serious concern is the concurrent consumption of herbal products and conventional drugs. Herb–drug interaction (HDI) is the single most important clinical consequence of this practice. Using a structured assessment procedure, the evidence of HDI presents with varying degree of clinical significance. While the potential for HDI for a number of herbal products is inferred from non-human studies, certain HDIs are well established through human studies and documented case reports. Various mechanisms of pharmacokinetic HDI have been identified and include the alteration in the gastrointestinal functions with consequent effects on drug absorption; induction and inhibition of metabolic enzymes and transport proteins; and alteration of renal excretion of drugs and their metabolites. Due to the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of phytochemicals, pharmacodynamic HDIs are also known to occur. The effects could be synergistic, additive, and/or antagonistic. Poor reporting on the part of patients and the inability to promptly identify HDI by health providers are identified as major factors limiting the extensive compilation of clinically relevant HDIs. A general overview and the significance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic HDI are provided, detailing basic mechanism, and nature of evidence available. An increased level of awareness of HDI is necessary among health professionals and drug discovery scientists. With the increasing number of plant-sourced pharmacological actives, the potential for HDI should always be assessed in the non-clinical safety assessment phase of drug development process. More clinically relevant research is also required in this area as current information on HDI is insufficient for clinical applications.
Fasinu, Pius S.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd
Decoctions of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Family Malvaceae) are very popular for the preparation of homemade refreshing drinks and are also used medicinally for a variety of ailments. Particularly remarkable are the various scientific reports supporting diuretic and antihypertensive potentials. It is therefore not unusual for patients who are on orthodox antihypertensive medications to use medicinal H. sabdariffa drinks concomitantly without regard to the possibility of herb-drug interactions. This possibility necessitated this study in which the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), a commonly prescribed diuretic drug, were examined. The effects of concomitant administration of HSE on urine volume, urine pH, and urinary concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride ions, as well as on the pharmacokinetic parameters of HCT, were determined in experimental rats and rabbits. Co-administration of HSE with HCT caused a significant increase in the volume of urine excreted and resulted in a decrease in the pH of urine and the concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride ions. Co-administration of HSE (20-40?mg/kg) with HCT (10?mg/kg) increased and prolonged the plasma concentration, the mean area under the concentration-time curve, and the volume of distribution of HCT achieved over the 24-hour sampling period. The plasma clearance and the elimination rate constant of HCT decreased with increasing dose of HSE co-administered with the HCT. The results of this study reveal a possible herb-drug interaction involving HCT and HSE, used as an ingredient in medicinal or refreshing drinks in many countries. PMID:21480802
Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae r...
C. Schuettler G. Gebhardt A. Stock N. Helle K. W. Boegl
Our purpose is to bring attention to the antiepileptic properties of the Chinese herb tian ma and its constituents, as well as to suggest the potential for the development of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) related to this herb. All available literature regarding the chemistry, pharmacology, animal data, and clinical use of tian ma and its constituents are reviewed, showing that tian ma, its constituents, and its symbiotic fungus Armillaria mellea have antiepileptic properties in in vitro and in vivo models. One clinical study reportedly demonstrated the AED effects of a component of tian ma, vanillin. Thus, tian ma, its constituent vanillin, and its symbiotic fungus armillaria hold promise as cost-effective and less toxic alternatives to standard AEDs. In addition, similar chemical compounds may be developed as AEDs. PMID:16461011
Ojemann, Linda Moretti; Nelson, Wendel L; Shin, Donella S; Rowe, Ann Ojemann; Buchanan, Robert A
The effect of two Chinese medicinal herbs (Astragalus membranaceus and Lonicera japonica) and boron on non-specific immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was investigated. Five diet variations in addition to a control diet (without herbs or boron) were used. These contained 0,1% Astragalus (with and without 0,05% boron), 0,1% Lonicera (with or without 0,05% boron) and a mixture of
László Ardó; Guojun Yin; Pao Xu; László Váradi; Gábor Szigeti; Zsigmond Jeney; Galina Jeney
1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinones, present in laxatives, fungi imperfecti, Chinese herbs and possibly vegetables, are in debate as human carcinogens. We screened a variety of vegetables (cabbage lettuce, beans, peas), some herbs and herbal-flavoured liquors for their content of the ‘free’ anthraquinones emodin, chrysophanol and physcion. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, reversed-phase HPLC (RP-LC), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and RP-LC-MS were used. The
S. O Mueller; M Schmitt; W Dekant; H Stopper; J Schlatter; P Schreier; W. K Lutz
1.?The effect of the dietary inclusion of 5 culinary herbs or their essential oils on the growth, digestibility and intestinal microflora status in female broiler chicks was assessed. From 7 to 28?d of age, either a basal control diet without supplement was given or one of 10 others, consisting of the basal diet with either 10?g\\/kg herb (thyme, oregano, marjoram,
D. E. Cross; R. M. McDevitt; K. Hillman; T. Acamovic
Habitat productivity and vegetation biomass are important factors affecting species diversity and ecosystem function, but\\u000a factors determining productivity are still insufficiently known, especially in the forest herb layer. These factors are difficult\\u000a to identify because different methods often yield different results. We sampled the herb layer biomass and assessed soil nutrients,\\u000a moisture and light availability in 100 m2 plots in Czech
Irena Axmanová; David Zelený; Ching-Feng Li; Milan Chytrý
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-induced renal damage can occur as a result of multiple mechanisms. We have reported\\u000a previously that Astragalus membranaceus, Salvia miltiorrhiza, a decoction of six drugs containing rhizoma Rehmanniae preparata\\u000a and supplements of a few traditional Chinese medicinal herbs for invigorating the kidney and excreting calculus, have a protective\\u000a effect on renal injury induced by high-energy shock
Binwu Sheng; Dalin He; Jun Zhao; Xingfa Chen; Xunyi Nan
A multiple screening approach to detect compounds inhibitory to various aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) life-cycle has been applied to aqueous extracts of 19 herbs traditionally used in Chinese medicine as anti-viral agents. The extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 in a series of in vitro assays. The extracts were tested for inhibition
R. A. Collins; T. B. Ng; W. P. Fong; C. C. Wan; H. W. Yeung
The costs and benefits, measured in terms of dry weight, of physiological integration between clonal ramets, were analysed in two experiments conducted on the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. Firstly, integration between consecutively-produced ramets was examined in an experiment in which stolons grew from one set of growing conditions (either unshaded or shaded and either nutrient-rich or nutrient-poor) into conditions in
Understanding the effect of disturbance and interspecific interactions on population dynamics and availability of suitable\\u000a habitats for colonization and growth is critical for conservation and management of endangered species. Hypericum cumulicola is a narrowly endemic, small perennial herb virtually restricted to open areas of well-drained white sand in Florida rosemary\\u000a scrub, a naturally patchy community that burns about every 20–80
Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio; Marina Morales-Hernández
Density-independent and density-dependent processes affect plant mortality. Although less well understood, age-specific mortality can also play an important role in plant mortality. The goal of this study was to analyse sev- eral factors accounting for mortality in the Mediterranean short-lived peren- nial herb Lobularia maritima. We followed three cohorts of plants (from emergence to death) during 4 years in field
The regeneration niche is commonly partitioned along a gradient from shade-tolerant to shade-intolerant species to explain\\u000a plant community assembly in forests. We examined the shade tolerance of tree seedlings in a subtropical coastal forest to\\u000a determine whether the ecological filtering effect of a dominant, synchronously monocarpic herb (Isoglossa woodii) selects for species at either end of the light response continuum
Zivanai Tsvuura; Megan E. Griffiths; Richard M. Gunton; Peter J. Franks; Michael J. Lawes
A comparative study of the traditional use of oregano-like herbs in the Mediterranean region provides convincing evidence\\u000a that the hyssop of the Bible is the carvacrol chemotype of the plantMajorana syriaca. The ancient tradition of ritual use of this plant gave rise to two cultures of condiments: za’atar in the Middle East and\\u000a oregano in Europe.\\u000a \\u000a The flavor of the
Females tend to be smaller than males in woody dioecious plant species, but they tend to be larger in herbs. The smaller size of females in woody species has been attributed to higher reproductive costs, yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided for their larger size in herbs. Because herbs have higher nitrogen concentrations in their tissues than woody plants, and because pollen is particularly rich in nitrogen, we predicted that male growth would be more compromised by reproduction than female growth. To test this hypothesis, we conducted three experiments on the annual dioecious herb Mercurialis annua. First, we compared the timing of reproduction between males and females and found that males started flowering earlier than females; early flowering is expected to compromise growth more than later flowering. Second, we compared plants allowed to flower with those prevented from flowering by experimental debudding and found that males incurred a higher reproductive cost than females in terms of both biomass and, particularly, nitrogen. Third, we grew plants under varying levels of nitrogen availability and found that although sexual size dimorphism was unaffected by nitrogen, females, but not males, decreased their relative allocation to both roots and reproduction under high nitrogen availability. We propose that males deal with the high cost of pollen production in terms of nitrogen by allocating biomass to nitrogen-harvesting roots, whereas females pay for carbon-rich seeds and fruits by investing in photosynthetic organs. Sexual dimorphism would thus seem to be the outcome of allocation to above- versus below-ground sinks that supply resources (carbon versus nitrogen) limiting the female and male reproduction differentially.
A solar dryer for drying herbs and spices using hot air from roof-integrated solar collectors was developed. The dryer is a bin type with a rectangular perforated floor. The bin has a dimension of 1.0m×2.0m×0.7m. Hot air is supplied to the dryer from fiberglass-covered solar collectors, which also function as the roof of a farmhouse. The total area of the
A total of 225 male broiler chicks (Cobb strain) of day-old age were procured for the study. The chicks were randomly divided into 15 groups consisting of 15 chicks in each group. Group 1 was maintained as basal diet control and group 2 on chlorpyrifos (CPS) at 100 ppm in feed throughout 6 wk as iron toxic control without any treatment. Groups 3-15 were maintained on CPS at 100 ppm in feed for the 4 wk (28 days) of study and thereafter administered with different herbs and their combinations for remaining 2 wk. The blood samples were drawn from wing vein on 28th day and 42nd day from the birds in each group for the estimation of lipid and protein profiles. The birds were sacrificed at the end of 6th week and liver tissues were collected for histological examination. The concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin and globulins and the A/G ratio were increased significantly (P<;0.05) in toxic groups (2–15), while high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly (P<;0.05) decreased at the end of 4th week. However, following supplementation of herbs and herbal combinations, the values of lipid and protein profile in groups 3–15 revived toward normal at the end of 6th week. Histopathology of liver in CPS toxic control (group 2) revealed areas of degeneration, while groups 3–15 that were treated with herbs and their combinations exhibited these changes in a milder form, indicating regenerative alterations. The study revealed that chorpyrifos-induced changes in lipid and protein profile were improved by supplementation of certain herbs.
Bharathi, P.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Reddy, A. Rajasekher; Alpharaj, M.
BackgroundPentaHerbs formula (PHF) containing Cortex Moutan, root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. (Ranunculaceae), Cortex Phellodendri, bark of Phellodendron chinensis Schneid. (Rutaceae), Flos Lonicerae, flower of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Capri-foliaceae), Herba Menthae, aerial part of Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (Labiatae) and Rhizoma Atractylodis, rhizome of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. (Compositae) at the ratio of 2:2:2:1:2 was useful in the management of eczema.
Ben Chung Lap Chan; Kam Lun Ellis Hon; Ping Chung Leung; Sze Wing Sam; Kwok Pui Fung; Mavis Yuk Ha Lee; Hang Yung Alaster Lau
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180- 220 g), were treated (1 mL) with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg\\/mL, N =
S. R. F. Moreno; A. L. C. Silva; G. Diré; H. Honeycut; J. J. Carvalho; A. L. Nascimento; M. Pereira; E. K. Rocha; M. Oliveira-Timóteo; A. Arnobio; B. Olej; M. Bernardo-Filho; L. Q. A. Caldas
A selective pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer method was developed for simultaneous determination of 52 pesticide residues in medicine and food dual-purpose herbs. The developed extraction method integrated extraction and cleanup processes for sample preparation. The sorbents, 5 g Florisil and 100 mg graphitized carbon black, were placed inside the extraction cell to remove matrix interferences. Optimized conditions of selective pressurized liquid extraction were ethyl acetate as extraction solvent, 120°C of extraction temperature, 6 min of static extraction time, 50% of flush volume extracted for two cycles. An ultra inert capillary GC-MS HP-5 UI column (20 m × 0.18 mm id, 0.18 ?m) and column backflush system were used for the analysis. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for the quantitative analysis with electron ionization mode. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.995) within the test ranges. The average recoveries of most pesticides were from 81 to 118%. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of pesticide residues in four herbs. The results indicate that selective pressurized liquid extraction and GC-MS/MS is a sensitive and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multiple pesticide residues in herbs. PMID:22753325
The method was established study the influence of different herbal combination with Radix Aconiti in the traditional medical formulae on content of the aconite alkaloids, for elucidating the scientific basis of reducing the toxicity of aconite in traditional Chinese medical formulation. The samples for ESI-MS study were prepared by decocting a mixture of Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata ( RALP) with Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata (RGP) , Radix Paeoniae Alba ( RPA) , Rhizoma Zingiberis (RZ) or Radix Et Rhizoma Rhei ( RERR) , separately, and extracting the residue of the above mentioned mixtures after decocting. The diester-diterpenoid alkaloids (DDAs) was lower in the herb couples of RALP-RGP, RALP-RPA, RALP-RZ and RALP-RERR, and lipo-alkaloids was increased in the herb couples of RALP-RGP, RALP-RPA and RALP-RZ. The reason of reducing toxic effect principle is that the components of RGP, RPA and RZ have ester-exchange reactions with DDAs in RALP to produce lipo-alkaloids of low toxicity in the decocting process of the herb couples. The combination of RALP-RERR can reduce the content of DDAs in decoction and residue due to the formation of water insoluble alkaloid compound. PMID:17518052
Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim is one of the herbs used to treat erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction in Western Medicine. This study evaluates the herbal-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The rat plasma was sampled from each anesthetized rat after pretreatment with 3-days Epimedium sagittatum extract (1/2 g/kg/day) and intravenous injection with sildenafil (10/30 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of sildenafil (10 mg/kg) was significantly decreased in groups that received a high dose of Epimedium sagittatum extract. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that there was significant herb-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil at low and high daily doses, suggesting co-administration use of Epimedium sagittatum extract and sildenafil in clinical practice should be prevented due to possible herb-drug interactions. PMID:23792897
Hsueh, Thomas Y; Wu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Chiu, Allen W; Lin, Chi-Hung; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). During recent epidemics of HFMD in China, medicinal herbals and preparations containing herbal extracts have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy with relative safety profiles. There have been no microbiological studies to validate their usefulness for HFMD. We selected 12 commonly used herbs for HFMD from government recommended guidelines as well as published reports and tested for their antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory activity. A water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) inhibited EV71 infection significantly and was marginally active against CVA16 infection. The IC50 (concentration to have 50% inhibitory effect) values of HCT against a Fuyang strain and a BrCr strain of EV71 were determined at 8.9??g/mL and 20.6??g/mL, respectively. Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (MHB) water extract was active against CVA16, with an IC50 value of 70.3??g/mL. The extract did not exhibit activity against EV71 infection. Although the majority of the extracts showed no activity against viral infection, several extracts demonstrated activity in blocking proinflammatory response by viral infection. This study therefore validates the effectiveness of Chinese herbs for HFMD since some formulations containing the correct combination of the herbs can block viral replication as well as proinflammatory response of HFMD.
The abundance of exotic plants is thought to be limited by competition with resident species (including plants and generalist herbivores). In contrast, observations in semiarid Chile suggest that a native generalist rodent, the degu (Octodon degus), may be facilitating the expansion of exotic annual plants. We tested this hypothesis with a 20-year data set from a World Biosphere Reserve in mediterranean Chile. In this semiarid environment, rainfall varies annually and dramatically influences cover by both native and exotic annual plants; degu population density affects the composition and cover of exotic and native annual plants. In low-rainfall years, cover of both native and exotic herbs is extremely low. Higher levels of precipitation result in proportional increases in cover of all annual plants (exotic and native species), leading in turn to increases in degu population densities, at which point they impact native herbs in proportion to their greater cover, indirectly favoring the expansion of exotic plants. We propose that bottom-up control of consumers at our site results in top-down indirect facilitation of invasive annual herbs, and that this pattern may be general to other semiarid ecosystems. PMID:21618907
Madrigal, Jaime; Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L; Gutierrez, Julio R; Squeo, Francisco A
The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the primary taste sensations, students experience and appreciate how the primary tastes are combined to produce overall taste. In addition, the exercises outlined here expand upon previously published demonstrations employing Gymnema sylvestre to include illustrations of the different sensory transduction mechanisms associated with each of the four or five primary taste modalities. Students compare their qualitative primary taste experiences to salt, sugar, aspartame, chocolate, and sweet-sour candy prior to and following exposure to Gymnema sylvestre. The herb's impairment of sweet sensation is profound and dramatically alters the perception of sweetness in sugar, chocolate, and candy without altering the perception of the other primary tastes. The exercise has an indelible effect on students because the herb's intense effect compels students to rely on their unique personal experiences to highlight the principles of gustatory sensation. PMID:23493970
"Functional dyspepsia" represents a clinical condition of pain and/or persistent or recurrent discomfort that concerns a large portion of the healthy population. It has already been shown that some herbs (Melissa Officinalis, Cynara scolymus) can have favorable effects on digestion. The principal aim of this study is to determine whether the ingestion of "Gran Soleil" dessert, with or without herbs, after meals can be beneficial to health in subjects suffering from functional dyspepsia. For this purpose, thirty subjects with functional dyspepsia were enrolled and were asked to consume "Gran Soleil" with or without herbs; these subjects reported the course of their symptoms on VAS scale, during the basal period and after the ingestion "Gran Soleil" with and without herbs. It has been shown that the ingestion of "Gran Soleil" without herbs can induce a reduction both in the number of events connected to a dyspeptic syndrome and in their intensity; moreover the assumption of "Gran Soleil" with the addition of herbs helped to intensify this effect. PMID:20385075
A persistent need exists for effective treatment agents for mycobacterial infections. This research investigated the effectiveness of the Hypericum perforatum herb (commonly known as St John's wort; SJW) in its growth inhibition of mycobacteria. A SJW extract was effective at inhibiting five nonpathogenic Mycobacterium isolates and Bacillus subtilis, but not Escherichia coli. Quantitative studies of concentration sensitivity to the SJW extract were performed with minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) ranging from 0.33 to 2.66?mg extract/mL. The SJW compounds hyperforin (Hfn), hypericin (Hpn), and pseudohypericin (Phn) were quantified in the extract using HPLC. The SJW extract solution of 133?mg extract/mL used in this study contained 2.3?mg Hfn/mL, 0.8?mg Hpn/mL, and 2.1?mg Phn/mL. Purified Hfn, Hpn, and Phn were tested for inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium JLS (M. JLS) at similar concentrations used in the crude extract. While Hfn was inhibitory at 46?µg/mL, none of the purified SJW constituents were bactericidal at concentrations corresponding to SJW treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of SJW-treated M. JLS cells showed changes in cell surface morphology. PMID:22294548
Mortensen, Trent; Shen, Shujie; Shen, Fenann; Walsh, Marie K; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D
The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals to support the immune system or to fight infections is based on centuries-old tradition. We review reports on seven Chinese herbs, (Aloe vera Mill. (Aloaceae), Angelica species (Umbelliferae), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (Leguminosae), Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. (Ganodermataceae), Panax ginseng C.A Mey. (Araliaceae), Scutellaria species (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) with emphasis to their immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. While some of these herbaceous plants have a direct inhibitory effect on microbial organisms, we observe that each plant has at least one compound that selectively modulates cells of the immune system. The successful derivation of pure bioactive compounds from Ganoderma lucidum, ginseng and Zingiber officinale supports the traditional practice of using these plants to stimulate the immune system. As many modern drugs are often patterned after phytochemicals, studying the influence of each compound on immune cells as well as microbes can provide useful insights to the development of potentially useful new pharmacological agents. PMID:15180575
The use of spices and herbs, their essential oils or their active compounds as means of control of pathogens constitutes an alternative to chemical additives In the present study the antibacterial activities of cloves, thyme, oregano, rosemary and basil on Shigella have been established. Although in a model system in agar media addition of 1% basil could contribute to the 'hurdle' principle and delay outgrowth of Shigella sp. this was not confirmed in real food conditions: the presence of 1% basil did not affect growth of Shigella in potato puree at 22 degrees C or survival at 7 degrees C in spaghetti sauce. Thyme and essential oils and thymol and carvacrol showed inhibition of Shigella sp. in the agar well diffusion method (MIC 0.1-1.0%) and they have potential to be used as a desinfectant in the washing water e.g. in the process line of minimal processed vegetables. However, more studies combining sensoric properties with microbial analysis are needed to investigated the possible use of these compounds. PMID:15954648
Eucalyptus bridgesiana, Cymbopogon martinii, Thymus vulgaris, Lindernia anagallis, and Pelargonium fragrans are five species of herbs used in Asia. Their essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 36 components were detected. The results of our study indicated that, except for the essential oil of P. fragrans, all of the essential oils demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms. The C. martinii essential oil, which is rich in geraniol, was the most effective antimicrobial additive. All of the essential oils demonstrated antioxidant activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, the T. vulgaris essential oil, which possesses plentiful thymol, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. For P. acnes-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the essential oils of P. aeruginosa, C. martinii, and T. vulgaris reduced the TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-8 secretion levels of THP-1 cells. PMID:21979069
Fallopia multiflora, locally known as Heshouwu, is one of the most important and widely used Chinese medicinal herbs. However, there is still considerable confusion concerning its different provenances. DNA barcoding is a recent aid to taxonomic identification and uses a short standardized DNA region to discriminate plant species. We assessed the applicability of 4 candidate DNA barcodes (matK, rbcL, psbA-trnH, and ITS2) to identify populations of F. multiflora. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt involving the plant kingdom to apply DNA barcoding at a level lower than species. Four DNA loci (matK, rbcL, psbA-trnH, and ITS2) of 105 samples, including the wild F. multiflora distributed in 17 provinces of China and 4 cultivated F. multiflora lines, were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The 4 loci were evaluated by PCR amplification for sequence quality, extent of genetic divergence, DNA barcoding gap, and the ability to discriminate between populations by BLAST1 and Nearest Distance. We found that psbA-trnH was the best barcode, with significant inter-population variability and best potential for identifying F. multiflora. The combination of loci gave better performance for distinguishing populations than a single locus. We recommend using matK + rbcL + psbA-trnH + ITS2 or psbA-trnH alone for this species. This research demonstrates the utility of DNA barcoding for geoherbalism identifications. PMID:24089097
Sun, X Q; Bai, M M; Yao, H; Guo, J L; Li, M M; Hang, Y Y
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice herb that belongs to umbel family Apiaceae with diversified uses. We investigated the extent of variability among 22 Indian varieties of coriander using phenotypic and genetic markers. Multilocus genotyping by nine RAPD primers detected an average of intraspecific variations amounting to 66.18% polymorphism in banding patterns. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a greater proportion of total genetic variation exists within population (98%) rather than among populations (2%). Higher values of Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon Information Index (i) and genetic distance analysis validate wider genetic diversity among Indian coriander varieties. Besides total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) length variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions/deletions (INDELS) were detected at seven sites in ITS-1 region. Multiple sequence alignment of 12 sequenced varieties revealed cent per cent identities of 5.8S gene region (162 bp) that validates its conserved nature. Multiple sequence alignment of ITS-1 region may be of phylogenetic significance in distinguishing and cataloguing of coriander germplasm. The representative sequences of each subgroup and all distinct varieties of RAPD clusters have been submitted to NCBI database and assigned Gen Accession numbers HQ 377194-377205. The measures of relative genetic distances among the varieties of coriander did not completely correlate the geographical places of their development. Eventually, the knowledge of their genetic relationships and DNA bar coding will be of significance. PMID:23360008
Singh, S K; Kakani, R K; Meena, R S; Pancholy, Anjly; Pathak, Rakesh; Raturi, Aparna
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out on the territory of the highest mountain in Central Serbia, Kopaonik, which is characterized by great plant diversity. In total, 83 wild species from 41 families and 96 preparations for use in human therapy were recorded. Among those wild plants which are most commonly used for medicinal purposes, Hypericum perforatum L., Urtica dioica L., Achillea millefolium L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Sambucus nigra L., and Thymus serpyllum L. were particularly highly recommended by the majority of informants as being 'beneficial for all ailments'. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were for treating gastrointestinal ailments (50%), skin injuries and problems (25.6%), followed by respiratory, urinary-genital and cardiovascular problems (20.5%, 20.5%, 19.2%, respectively). Plants with unusual phytotherapeutic uses are Galium verum L. (sedative properties) and Eupatorium cannabinum L. (influenza-like illnesses), while plants with interesting but lesser-known properties include Daphne laureola L. (rheumatism and skin ailments) and Ficaria verna Huds. (tubers for treating haemorrhoids). In addition, 10 wild species used in veterinary medicine, as well as 25 herbs used for human nourishment were noted. PMID:17145148
Inbreeding depression is a key factor influencing mating system evolution in plants, but current understanding of its relationship with selfing rate is limited by a sampling bias with few estimates for self-incompatible species. We quantified inbreeding depression (?) over two growing seasons in two populations of the self-incompatible perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea in Scandinavia. Inbreeding depression was strong and of similar magnitude in both populations. Inbreeding depression for overall fitness across two seasons (the product of number of seeds, offspring viability, and offspring biomass) was 81% and 78% in the two populations. Chlorophyll deficiency accounted for 81% of seedling mortality in the selfing treatment, and was not observed among offspring resulting from outcrossing. The strong reduction in both early viability and late quantitative traits suggests that inbreeding depression is due to deleterious alleles of both large and small effect, and that both populations experience strong selection against the loss of self-incompatibility. A review of available estimates suggested that inbreeding depression tends to be stronger in self-incompatible than in self-compatible highly outcrossing species, implying that undersampling of self-incompatible taxa may bias estimates of the relationship between mating system and inbreeding depression. PMID:24094340
Sletvold, Nina; Mousset, Mathilde; Hagenblad, Jenny; Hansson, Bengt; Agren, Jon
Population context should influence pollination success and selection on floral display in animal-pollinated plants because attraction of pollinators depends not only on the characteristics of individual plants, but also on the attractiveness of co-occurring conspecifics. The insect-pollinated herb Primula farinosa is polymorphic for inflorescence height. Natural populations may include both long-scaped plants, which present their flowers well above the soil surface, and short-scaped plants, with their flowers positioned close to the ground. We experimentally tested whether seed production in short-scaped P. farinosa varied with local morph frequency and surrounding vegetation height. In tall vegetation, short-scaped plants in polymorphic populations produced more fruit and tended to produce more seeds than short-scaped plants did in monomorphic populations. In low vegetation, population composition did not significantly affect fruit and seed output of short-scaped plants. The results suggest that long-scaped plants facilitate short-scaped plants in terms of pollinator attraction and that the facilitation effect is contingent on the height of the surrounding vegetation. The documented facilitation should contribute to the maintenance of the scape length polymorphism in ungrazed areas where litter accumulates and vegetation grows tall. PMID:16937650
Recent advances in stochastic demography provide tools to examine the importance of random and periodic variation in vital rates for population dynamics. In this study, we explore with simulations the effect of disturbance regime on population dynamics and viability. We collected 7 years of demographic data in three populations of the perennial herb Primula farinosa, and used these data to examine how variation in vital rates affected population viability parameters (stochastic growth rate, lambda(S)), and how vital rates were related to weather conditions. Elasticity analysis indicated that the stochastic growth rate was very sensitive to changes in regeneration, quantified as the production, survival, and germination of seeds. In one of the study years, all seedlings and mature plants in the demography plots died. This extinction coincided with the driest summer during the study period. Simulations suggested that a future increase in the frequency of high-mortality years due to climate change would result in reduced population growth rate, and an increased importance of survival in the seed bank for population viability. The results illustrate how the limited demographic data typically available for many natural systems can be used in simulation models to assess how environmental change will affect population viability. PMID:20072788
Thiacloprid is a new insecticide of the chloronicotinyl family. To assess its risk after application, residual characteristics of thiacloprid in marjoram, thyme, and camomile and in soil were studied under field conditions. The active ingredient was extracted from the plant material using a mixture of acetone-water. After filtration, the extract was concentrated to the aqueous phase, diluted with water, and portioned against ethyl acetate on a matrix solid phase dispersion column. Thiacloprid was extracted from soil using a mixture of methanol-water, filtered, and reextracted (clean up) with dichloromethane. The residues were quantified using HPLC-MS-MS. The methods were validated by recovery experiments. Thiacloprid residues in marjoram, thyme, and camomile and in soil persisted beyond 10, 14, 14, and 21 d but no residues were detected after 14, 21, 21, and 28 d, respectively. The data obtained in this study indicated that the biexponential model is more suitable than the first-order function to describe the decline of thiacloprid in fresh marjoram, fresh thyme, and dried camomile flowers with half-life (t1/2) of 1.1, 0.7, and 1.2 d, respectively. However, both the first-order function and biexponential model were found to be applicable for dissipation of thiacloprid in soil with almost the same t1/2 values of 3.5 and 3.6 d. The results indicated that thiacloprid dissipates rapidly and does not accumulate in the tested herbs and in soil. PMID:17915730
Artemisia annua is a Chinese antimalarial herb that has been used for more than 2000 years. The maternal and foetal safety of the ethanolic leaf extract of therapeutically active Artemisia annua (EAA), with previously determined artemisinin yield of 1.098% was evaluated in Wistar rats. Twenty pregnant rats, divided into four study groups of saline treated (control), and test groups administered orally with 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weights of EAA, respectively, from gestation days (GD) 8 to 19. Following overnight fast, animals were sacrificed on GD 20, and maternal blood was collected to evaluate biochemical and haematological markers. Foetuses were carefully removed, weighed, and observed for any possible malformation. Biochemical and haematological studies revealed that EAA did not result in maternal hepatotoxicity, haematotoxicity, and hyperlipidemia. While litter size significantly decreased (p?0.05) at 100 mg/kg EAA, maternal estrogen levels decreased in all the EAA-treated groups. Non-viable (21%) and malformed (31%) foetuses were observed at the 300 mg/kg dose of EAA, which implies that although consumption of the leaf extract may not predispose users to hepatotoxicity, haematotoxicity, and hyperlipidemia, it should be taken with caution during pregnancy due to possible risk of embryotoxicity at concentrations higher than the therapeutic dose. PMID:22736625
Abolaji, Amos O; Eteng, Mbeh U; Ebong, Patrick E; Brisibe, Ebiamadon Andi; Dar, Ahsana; Kabir, Nurul; Choudhary, M Iqbal
Ocimum sanctum (OS) is a traditionally used medicinal herb, which shows anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, radio-protective and free radical scavenging properties. So far no detailed studies have been reported on its effects on human cancers. Thus, we analyzed its effects on human breast cancer utilizing in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Aqueous extracts were prepared from the mature leaves of Ocimum sanctum cultivated devoid of pesticides. Tumor progression and angiogenesis related processes like chemotaxis, proliferation, apoptosis, 3-dimensional growth and morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth were studied in the presence or absence of the extract and in some experiments a comparison was made with purified commercially available eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid. Aqueous OS leaf extract inhibits proliferation, migration, anchorage independent growth, three dimensional growth and morphogenesis, and induction of COX-2 protein in breast cancer cells. A comparative analysis with eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid showed that the inhibitory effects on chemotaxis and three dimensional morphogenesis of breast cancer cells were specific to OS extract. In addition, OS extracts also reduced tumor size and neoangiogenesis in a MCF10 DCIS.com xenograft model of human DCIS. This is the first detailed report showing that OS leaf extract may be of value as a breast cancer preventive and therapeutic agent and might be considered as additional additive in the arsenal of components aiming at combating breast cancer progression and metastasis.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder, which is neuropathologically identified by age-dependent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Development of symptomatic treatments has been partly successful for PD research, but there remain a number of inadequacies in therapeutic strategies for the disease. The pathogenesis of PD remains intricate, and the present anti-PD treatments appears to be clinically insufficient. Comprehensive research on discovery of novel drug candidates has demonstrated that natural products, such as medicinal herbs, plant extracts, and their secondary metabolites, have great potential as therapeutics with neuroprotective activity in PD. Recent preclinical studies suggest that a number of herbal medicines and their bioactive ingredients can be developed into optimum pharmaceuticals for treating PD. In many countries, traditional herbal medicines are used to prevent or treat neurodegenerative disorders, and some have been developed as nutraceuticals or functional foods. Here we focus on recent advances of the evidence-linked neuroprotective activity of bioactive ingredients of herbal origin in cellular and animal models of PD research.
Liver regeneration not only plays a functional role in directing the restoration of liver mass after resection or injury, but also may have participated in effective therapy of liver cirrhosis. Additionally, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) appears to be a factor of great importance in liver regeneration and attenuated progression of experimental liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to use Radix Polygoni Multiflori (POMU) extract, a Chinese herb traditionally used for liver-protective therapy, as a reagent for the evaluation of its potential medicinal use in liver cirrhosis. We used in vitro coculture system to show that POMU could promote the expression of HGF by hepatic nonparenchymal cells, consequently the proliferation of primary liver cells and phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells using fluorescein-labeled Escherichia coli as the target, and inhibit the proliferation of stellate cells. Using dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis animal, POMU even at 20 mg/(kg day) dosage, was illustrated to reverse the pathogenic progression of the disease, decrease the hydroxyproline content and increases the expression of HGF messenger RNA in liver tissue. The survival rate was significantly increased in the POMU-treated animal. In conclusion, our study showed the promise of POMU in the medicinal use for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. PMID:17881167
Many of the herbal extracts used in the Chinese clinical medical routine inhibit the growth of tumor cells. In the present work, extracts of 12 selected herbs were prepared with methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water, and the effects of these on the multidrug resistance (MDR) and P-glycoprotein of mouse lymphoma cells transfected with the human mdr1 gene and on a human lung alveolar epithelial cell line were investigated. The extracts were tested for antiproliferative effects, and the reversal of MDR in mouse lymphoma cells. The possible chemopreventive effect of the chloroform extracts was studied on the expression of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early (IE) antigen in human lung cancer cells (A549). The antimicrobial effects of the extracts were tested on some representative micro-organisms. Certain of the chloroform extracts of the plant materials were the most effective compounds on the reversal of MDR. Two of the chloroform extracts enhanced the antiproliferative effect of doxorubicin on MDR mouse lymphoma cells. The selected extracts did not show any antibacterial effect with the agar diffusion method. Certain chloroform extracts decreased the intermediate IE antigen expression of CMV in A459 cells. PMID:18690658
Crosses between plants from different populations may result in heterosis or outbreeding depression. However, despite its importance for conservation, little is known about the spatial scale over which these effects may arise. To investigate the consequences of between-population crosses at two distinct spatial scales, we conducted reciprocal crosses between four populations from two regions in the rare perennial herb Aster amellus. We assessed seed set and offspring fitness in a common garden experiment. Overall, between-population crosses within regions (10 km) resulted in 8% lower seed set than within-population crosses, while between-region crosses (70 km) resulted in 17% higher seed set than within-population crosses. Moreover, offspring from between-population crosses produced 18% more flower heads than offspring from within-population crosses. We conclude that hybridisation between A. amellus plants from different populations did not lead to immediate outbreeding depression and, thus, could represent a valid conservation option to increase genetic diversity. Moreover, our results suggest that the distance between populations affects the outputs of between-population crosses and therefore needs to be taken into account when promoting gene flow between populations. PMID:19796360
Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ?75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations.
Herrera, Carlos M.; Medrano, Monica; Bazaga, Pilar
Background Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle/behavior factors in young adults in the US. Methods Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins/minerals) use among young adults in the United States using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results In our sample of 18 to 30 year olds (n = 6666), 26% were current smokers, 24% were moderate/heavy drinkers, 43% had high physical activity, and 54% and 76% use prescription and over the counter (OTC) medications respectively. Non-vitamin, non-mineral HDS was used by 17% of the overall sample in the last 12 months. In the multivariable analysis, the lifestyle and behavioral factors associated with HDS use include: current smoking (odds ratio 1.41 95% CI [1.16–1.72]); being a former smoker (1.50 [1.15–1.95]); moderate/heavy alcohol use (2.02 [1.53–2.65]); high physical activity levels (2.45 [1.98–3.03]); and prescription medication use (1.51 [1.26–1.81]). Among HDS users, only 24% discussed their use with a health care professional. Conclusion Nearly one in five young adults report using non-vitamin/non-mineral HDS.
Gardiner, Paula; Kemper, Kathi J; Legedza, Anna; Phillips, Russell S
Although a multitude of pharmaceutical agents are available for the treatment of mood disorders, anxiety and insomnia, many patients have difficulty tolerating the side effects, do not respond adequately, or eventually lose their response. Many therapeutic herbs and nutrients have far fewer side effects and may provide an alternative treatment or can be used to enhance the effect of prescription medications. In the article, the authors review the quality of the evidence supporting the clinical effects of a number of commonly used types of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) for mood disorders, anxiety, and insomnia. They review data on the use of St. John's Wort, S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM-e), B vitamins, inositol, omega-3 fatty acids, and choline for mood disorders; data on the use of kava and other herbal agents and fish extract for anxiety and insomnia; and data on valerian and melatonin for insomnia. The authors also discuss the use of CAM to treat migraines, which may be comorbid with mood and anxiety disorders, and obesity, which can occur as a side effect of psychotropic medications. They consider the data on feverfew and butterbur for migraines and on chromium picolinate and the combination of ephedrine and caffeine for obesity. The authors also review issues related to comorbid medical illness, side effects, drug interactions, dosage, and brand selection. PMID:15990509
Background: Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice) on human salivary amylase activity and to compare it with other dentifrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of age 18-35 years were randomly selected and divided equally into 4 groups. Group 1 subjects were assigned to use Test Dentifrice (with S. calva root extract), while Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 subjects were assigned to use Herbal Dentifrice (Arodent™), Synthetic Dentifrice (Colgate®), and Control Dentifrice respectively. Salivary amylase activity was determined by Bernfeld method in each group, before and after using the given dentifrices. Results: Maximum inhibition of salivary amylase activity was found in the group using test dentifrice as compared to others. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations.
Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations. PMID:23936245
Advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antiglycation properties of crude ethanolic extracts of 10 common culinary herbs and spices from Mauritius were investigated in vitro. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. Allium sativum had the highest TPC (3.1 mg GAE/mL), whereas Allium cepa L. showed the highest radical scavenging capacity (72%) and Zingiber officinale had the most potent ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP; 2.99 mg AAE/mL). In contrast, Thymus vulgaris and Petroselinum crispum had the most potent antiglycation activity with IC(50) values of 21.8 and 200 mg/mL, respectively. There was no significant correlation between TPC (r=0.001), FRAP (r=0.161), and the antiglycation activity (r=0.034) for the extracts studied. Therefore, the results showed that antiglycation properties of plant-derived extracts cannot always be attributed to their phenolic content or antioxidant potential. PMID:23134460
To assess the beneficial and adverse effects of orally therapies of Chinese herb formulae (CHF) for erectile dysfunction (ED), four electronic databases were searched until 23 June 2012. Randomised clinical trials testing CHF or combined with Western medicine therapy (WMT) against placebo, another different CHF and WMT were included. Study selection, data extraction, assessing of bias risk and data analysis were conducted according to the Cochrane handbook. Twenty-one randomised controlled clinical trials (involving 2253 patients) were included, and the bias risks were not low. Funnel plots of comparing CHF to another CHF on the clinical comprehensive effectiveness were asymmetrical. The compositions of CHF used were greatly complex. The analyses showed that some CHF or combined with WMT had significant effects on cure rate, total clinical effective rates, IIEF-5 scores, erectile quality scores, erection angles of penis and recovery times of erection compared with the controls. Eight trials reported mild adverse drug reactions, mostly involving gastrointestinal symptoms. It was concluded that some therapies of CHF may be more effective than the controls for treatment of ED. However, because of the generally not low risks of bias, CHF are not recommended for ED. Further research that demonstrates their mechanisms of action and meaningful efficacies must be carried out by rigorously designed, randomised controlled trials. PMID:23421655
Botanical photochemoprotectives are used because they act on various stages to prevent skin cancer and photoaging. The aim of this study was to prepare herbal creams from various photochemoprotective herbs and to perform efficacy studies on them by using physicochemical, microbiological, safety, psychometric, biophysical, and sun protection factor measurements. Herbal creams were prepared by incorporating hydroalcoholic extracts of Curcuma caesia (rhizome), Areca catechu (seeds), Centella asiatica (leaves) Cinnamon zeylanicum (dried bark), and Tamarindus indica (fruit pulp) in varied concentrations (1-5% w/w) in a base cream. The efficacy of all formulations was checked out for four weeks on 60 normal subjects on the volar forearm for evaluation of biophysical properties, and for psychometric evaluations (fragrance, lathery feel, softness, irritation, stickiness, smoothness, and aftereffect on the skin) and safety measurements. In the biophysical characterization, a cutometer for viscoelasticity, a mexameter for melanin content, a corneometer for hydration, and a sebumeter for sebum determination were used. All the cream formulations with 1% and 3% w/w extracts showed positive results and passed physicochemical, microbiological, and safety tests. The SPF values increased as the concentration of extract was increased up to a limit in the formulations. The SPF values were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in formulations with 3% herbal extract than with 1% herbal extract. Increased skin hydration, sebum levels, viscoelasticity, and decreased melanin values were obtained. The Cinnamon, Centella, and Tamarindus formulations were found more effective as photoprotectives than the Areca and Curcuma formulations. PMID:22591563
In this work, a new flow injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of Pb 2+ in Chinese medicinal herbs was developed. In the buffer solution of borax-NaOH (pH 10.5), Pb 2+ reacted with 2-[(5-bromo-2-pyridyl)-azo]-5-(diethyl-amino)phenol (5-Br-PADAP) to form a complex. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was enhanced in the presence of polyethyleneglycol-800 (PG-800). The main factors affecting the determination were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range and detection limit is 0.0-0.3 ?g/mL and 1.5 ng/mL (correlation coefficient r = 0.9996), respectively. The linear regression equation is A = -0.005 + 0.60 c (?g/mL). The sample throughout is 10 h -1. Foreign substrates effects were also investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of lead in reference material, goldthread and lepidium seed.
Gong, Aiqin; Zhu, Xiashi; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yaqin
The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as “carbohydrate-like” type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.
Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes. PMID:22574504
Habitat fragmentation and reduction of population size have been found to negatively affect plant reproduction in 'new rare' species that were formerly common. This has been attributed primarily to effects of increased inbreeding but also to pollen limitation. In contrast, little is known about the reproduction of 'old rare' species that are naturally restricted to small and isolated habitats and thus may have developed strategies to cope with long-term isolation and small population size. Here we study the effects of pollen source and quantity on reproduction of the 'old rare' bumblebee-pollinated herb, Astragalus exscapus. In two populations of this species, we tested for pollen autodeposition, inbreeding depression and outbreeding depression. Caged plants were left unpollinated or were pollinated with pollen from the same plant, from the same population or from a distant population (50 km). Additionally, we tested for pollen limitation by pollen supplementation in four populations of different size and density. In the absence of pollinators, plants did not produce seed whereas self-pollinated plants did. This indicates a self-compatible breeding system dependent on insect pollination. Both self-pollination and, in one of the two populations, cross-pollination with pollen from plants from the distant population resulted in a lower number of seeds per flower than cross-pollination with pollen from plants from the resident population, indicating inbreeding and outbreeding depression. Pollen addition enhanced fruit set and number of seeds per flower in three of the four populations, indicating pollen limitation. The degree of pollen limitation was lowest in the smallest but densest population. Our results suggest that, similar to 'new rare' plant species, also 'old rare' species may be at risk of inbreeding depression and pollen limitation. PMID:21972799
Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of herbal medicines, such as Radix Dipsaci (RDD), Pyrola Herb (PHD), and Cynomorium songaricum decoction (CSD), on osteoporotic rats induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Methods OVX or sham operations were performed on 69 virgin Wistar rats that were divided into six groups: sham (sham, n?=?12), OVX control group (OVX, n?=?12), and OVX rats with treatments (diethylstilbestrol, E2, n?=?12; RDD, n?=?11, PHD, n?=?11, and CSD, n?=?11). Non-surgical rats served as normal control (NC, n?=?12). The treatments began four weeks after surgery and lasted for 12?weeks. Bone mass and bone turnover were analyzed by histomorphometry. Levels of protein expression and mRNA of OPG and RANKL in osteoblasts (OB) and bone marrow stromal cells (bMSC) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Compared to NC and sham rats, trabecular bone formation was significantly reduced in OVX rats, but restored in E2-treated rats. Treatment with either RDD or PHD enhanced trabecular bone formation remarkably. No significant change of bone formation was observed in CSD-treated rats. OPG expression of protein and mRNA was reduced significantly in OB and bMSC of OVX control rats. RANKL expression of protein and mRNA was increased significantly in OB and bMSC of OVX control rats. These effects were substantially reversed (increased in OPG and decreased in RANKL) by treatment with E2, RDD, or PHD in OB and bMSC of OVX rats. No significant changes in either OPG or RANKL expression were observed in OB and bMSC of OVX rats treated with CSD. Conclusions Our study showed that RDD and PHD increased bone formation by stimulating overexpression of OPG and downregulation of RANKL in OB and bMSC. This suggests that RDD and PHD may be used as alternative therapeutic agents for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Background and Aims Despite the recent enormous increase in the number of studies on polyploid species, no studies to date have explored the population dynamics of these taxa. It is thus not known whether the commonly reported differences in single life-history traits between taxa of different ploidy levels result in differences in population dynamics. Methods This study explores differences in single life-history traits and in the complete life cycle between populations of different ploidy levels and compares these differences with differences observed between different habitat types and years. Diploid and hexaploid populations of a perennial herb, Aster amellus, are used as the study system. Transition matrix models were used to describe the dynamics of the populations, and population growth rates, elasticity values and life-table response experiments were used to compare the dynamics between populations and years. Key Results The results indicate that between-year variation in population dynamics is much larger than variation between different ploidy levels and different habitat conditions. Significant differences exist, however, in the structure of the transition matrices, indicating that the dynamics of the different ploidy levels are different. Strong differences in probability of extinction of local populations were also found, with hexaploid populations having higher probability than diploid populations, indicating strong potential differences in persistence of these populations. Conclusions This is the first study on complete population dynamics of plants of different ploidy levels. This knowledge will help to understand the ability of new ploidy levels to spread into new areas and persist there, and the interactions of different ploidy levels in secondary contact zones. This knowledge will also contribute to understanding of interactions of different ploidy levels with other plant species or other interacting organisms such as pollinators or herbivores.
Plant communities are often composed of species belonging to different functional groups, but relatively few studies to date have explicitly linked their spatial structure to the outcome of the interaction among them. We investigated if mortality of seeder species during their establishment after fire is influenced by the proximity of the resprouter herb Brachypodium retusum. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean shrubland (00°39? W; 38°43? N), 40 km northwest of Alicante (Spain) with Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus, Helianthemum marifolium, and Ononis fruticosa as dominant obligate seeder species and a herbaceous layer is dominated by the resprouter B. retusum. We followed the fate of mapped seedlings and the biomass of B. retusum one, two, three and nine years after an experimental fire. We used point pattern analyses to evaluate the spatial pattern of mortality of seeder species at these years in relation to the biomass of B. retusum. We hypothesize that B. retusum may initially have a positive impact on seeder survival. We implemented this hypothesis as a point process model that maintains the overall number of dead seeder plants, but seeder survival varied proportionally to the biomass of B. retusum in its neighborhood. We then contrasted this hypothesis with a previous analysis based on a random mortality hypothesis. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that proximity of B. retusum reduced the mortality of seeder plants at their establishment phase (i.e., 2 yrs after fire). However, we found no evidence that B. retusum influenced seeder mortality when plants grow to maturity. We also found that, under the more stressful conditions (fire + erosion scenario), B. retusum had a lower impact on the performance of seeder species. Our results suggest that B. retusum may reduce negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeder plants during the first years after fire.
Raventós, José; Wiegand, Thorsten; Maestre, Fernando T.; de Luis, Martín
Background and Aims Cross-pollination and satiation of seed predators are often invoked to explain synchronous mast reproduction in long-lived plants. However, explanations for the synchronous death of parent plants are elusive. The roles of synchronous seeding and post-reproductive mortality were investigated in a perennial monocarpic herb (Isoglossa woodii) in coastal dune forest in South Africa. Methods Pre-dispersal seed predation and seed production were assessed by measuring fruit and seed set of inflorescences sprayed with insecticide or water and with no spray treatments. Seed predation was measured at different densities of I. woodii plants by monitoring removal rates of seed from the forest floor. The influence of adult plants on establishment of I. woodii seedlings was assessed by monitoring growth and survivorship of seedlings in caged and uncaged 1 × 1 m plots in understorey gaps and thickets. Key Results Fruit and seed set were similar between spray treatments. An I. woodii stem produced 767·8 ± 160·8 seeds (mean ± s.e.) on dune crests and 1359·0 ± 234·4 seeds on the foredune. Seed rain was greater on the foredune than in other topographic locations. Seed predation rates were 32 and 54 % on dune crests and in dune slacks, respectively, and decreased with seed abundance, number of inflorescences per stem and plant height. Seedling recruitment was greater beneath synchronously dying adult plants than in natural understorey gaps (no I. woodii). However, seedling growth rate beneath I. woodii mid-way through its life-cycle was less than in gaps, although survivorship was similar. Conclusions The selective advantage of masting in I. woodii derives from satiation of both pre- and post-dispersal seed predators. In addition, post-seeding mortality of adult plants facilitates seedling establishment. Satiation of seed predators and the benefits of seedling establishment are strong drivers of the evolution of synchronous monocarpy in I. woodii.
Tsvuura, Zivanai; Griffiths, Megan E.; Gunton, Richard M.; Lawes, Michael J.
Traditionally, annual colonising species are expected to have high rates of self-fertilisation, although recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that cross-fertilisation can be selected for under heterogeneous pollination environments. Solanum rostratum is a self-compatible annual herb that colonises disturbed habitats. Despite the lack of physiological mechanisms to prevent self-fertilisation, pollen transfer between individuals is expected to be favoured because of its complex floral morphology. In previous studies of S. rostratum it has been shown that anther dimorphism within flowers results in precise pollen placement on the pollinator's body, and the presence of mirror-image floral morphs within plants promotes outcrossing in experimental arrays. However, the mating system of natural populations of S. rostratum has never been assessed, and thus whether it is predominantly selfing or outcrossing remains unknown. We hypothesise that floral and inflorescence morphology of S. rostratum should facilitate cross-fertilisation, making it a predominantly outcrossing despite its lack of a self-incompatibility system. To test this hypothesis, we estimated outcrossing rates by genotyping 700 individuals at 13 microsatellite loci, sampled from four populations across a 690-km transect in the species' native range. We found that populations had mean outcrossing rates of 0.70 ± 0.03, with multiple sires contributing to paternity of each progeny array (average effective number of sires = 8.97 ± 0.57). This indicates that natural populations S. rostratum have relatively high levels of outcrossing, probably facilitated by its floral and inflorescence morphology. We speculate that partial selfing in this species may be an unavoidable consequence of displaying multiple flowers at the same time (geitonogamy), as well as the result of self-pollen transfer by illegitimate visitors. PMID:23294438
Vallejo-Marín, M; Solís-Montero, L; Souto Vilaros, D; Lee, M Y Q
Background and Aims Models assessing the prospects of plant species at the landscape level often focus primarily on the relationship between species dynamics and landscape structure. However, the short-term prospects of species with slow responses to landscape changes depend on the factors affecting local population dynamics. In this study it is hypothesized that large herbivores may be a major factor affecting the short-term prospects of slow-responding species in the European landscape, because large herbivores have increased in number in this region in recent decades and can strongly influence local population dynamics. Methods The impact of browsing by large herbivores was simulated on the landscape-level dynamics of the dry grassland perennial polycarpic herb Scorzonera hispanica. A dynamic, spatially explicit model was used that incorporated information on the location of patches suitable for S. hispanica, local population dynamics (matrices including the impact of large herbivores), initial population sizes and dispersal rate of the species. Simulations were performed relating to the prospects of S. hispanica over the next 30 years under different rates of herbivory (browsing intensity) and varying frequencies of population destruction (e.g. by human activity). Key Results Although a high rate of herbivory was detected in most populations of S. hispanica, current landscape-level dynamics of S. hispanica were approximately in equilibrium. A decline or increase of over 20 % in the herbivory rate promoted rapid expansion or decline of S. hispanica, respectively. This effect was much stronger in the presence of population destruction. Conclusions Browsing by large herbivores can have a dramatic effect on the landscape dynamics of plant species. Changes in the density of large herbivores and the probability of population destruction should be incorporated into models predicting species abundance and distribution.
Ionophorous antibiotics have been popularly used in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. Tissue residue of these antibiotics may be found in poultry, we have sought safe alternative anticoccidial herbal materials for the control of avian coccidiosis. Efficacy of extracts from 15 different herbs, including Bupleurum chinese DC, Sophora flavescens Aiton, and Artemisia annua Linne was tested against Eimeria tenella. One-day-old broiler chicks were infected with a USDA reference book of E. tenella, and administered various herbal extracts. Survival rates, lesion scores, body weight gains, bloody diarrhea, and oocysts excretions were investigated at the first and the second week after infection. Bloody diarrhea in the S. flavescens and Sinomenium acutum treated groups was milder than that of the other infected groups. Survival rates in the groups treated with Ulmus macrocarpa (100%), Pulsatilla koreana, Torilis japonica, Artemisia asiatica and S. flavescens (90%) were higher than that of the infected control group (70%). Lesion scores in the groups treated with U. macrocarpa (1.40+/-1.14) or Pulsatilla koreana (1.60+/-1.82) were significantly lower than those of the infected control group (3.00+/-1.10). During the first week after infection, the weight gains in the groups treated with Quisqualis indica (232.9+/-43.5 g), S. flavescens (214.4+/-46.1 g) and S. acutum (211.3+/-29.4 g) were significantly higher than the infected control group (172.4+/-17.6 g). In conclusion, the data of the survival rates, bloody diarrhea symptoms, lesion scores, body weight gains and oocyst excretions indicate that the extract of S. flavescens was the most effective. P. koreana, S. acutum, U. macrocarpa and Q. indica were also effective. Further research on the above herbal materials will be carried out by the authors by chemical analysis of the extracts. PMID:11267752
Changes in land use have been shown to have profound effects on forest plant community structure and diversity. Dispersal limitation has been invoked as a major factor hampering colonization of forest plant species, while seed-sowing experiments and performance observations have provided some evidence for recruitment limitation determining forest plant distribution in post-agricultural forests. However, most of these studies were relatively short-term, and very few studies have investigated long-term growth rates of populations occurring in recent and ancient forests. In this study, matrix models using demographic data collected for four consecutive years were used to study the effect of forest age on population dynamics of the temperate forest herb Primula elatior. A life table response experiment (LTRE) and elasticity analysis were used to analyze the effect of forest age on population growth rate (lambda) and to decompose the effect of forest age on lambda into contributions from each matrix element. Population growth increased logarithmically with increasing forest age. Bootstrap analyses showed that populations located in very recent forests (< 50-years-old) had growth rates that were significantly < 1, whereas populations located in forests > 150-years-old had growth rates that were significantly > 1. Summed elasticities for individual growth significantly decreased with increasing forest age, whereas summed elasticities for survival and fertility significantly increased with increasing forest age. The LTRE analysis showed that the increase in lambda with increasing forest age was mainly due to increased seedling and juvenile growth and increased juvenile and adult survival. Our results indicate that past agricultural land use has long-lasting effects on the demography of forest herbs and may provide an additional mechanistic explanation for the poor colonization capacity of many forest herbs in post-agricultural forests. PMID:19137953
Prunella vulgaris (PV), a commonly used Chinese herb, also known as Self-heal, has a wide range of reported medicinal activities. By screening multiple herbs using the endometrial cancer cell line, ECC-1, and an alkaline phosphatase detection assay, we found that PV displayed significant antiestrogenic activity. We investigated the possible usefulness of antiestrogenic activity using both in vitro and in vivo models of endometrial function. Using the well-differentiated, hormone-responsive endometrial cell line, ECC-1, PV extract, at concentrations that were not toxic to the cells, significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and cell proliferation in response to estrogen in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of CYR61, an estrogen-induced protein, was blocked in ECC-1 cells by both the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 and PV extract. Interestingly, PV extract did not appear to directly inhibit estrogen signaling. Rather, we found that its activities were probably related to an ability to function as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist in ECC-1 cells. In support of this hypothesis, we noted that PV induced CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AHR repressor expression in a dose-dependent manner--responses that were blocked by small interfering RNA treatment to reduce AHR and specific AHR antagonists. Ovariectomized immunodeficient RAG-2/gamma(c) knockout mice implanted with human endometrial xenografts developed implants only when treated with estrogen. Mice treated with estrogen and PV tea in their drinking water had fewer and smaller xenograft implants compared with their estrogen-treated counterparts that drank only water (P < 0.05). Analysis of the resulting implants by immunohistochemistry demonstrated persistent estrogen receptor (ER), but reduced proliferation and CYR61 expression. Mouse uterine tissue weight in PV-treated mice was not different from controls, and cycle fecundity of intact C57 female mice was unaffected by PV tea treatment. PV, or Self-heal, exhibits significant antiestrogenic properties, both in vitro and in vivo. This activity is likely due to the ability of PV-activated AHR to interfere with estrogen. This herb may be useful as an adjunct for the treatment of estrogen-dependent processes like endometriosis and breast and uterine cancers. Full characterization of this herb will likely provide new insights into the crosstalk between AHR and ESR1, with potential for therapeutic applications in women. PMID:18923163
Collins, Nancy H; Lessey, Elizabeth C; DuSell, Carolyn D; McDonnell, Donald P; Fowler, Lindsay; Palomino, Wilder A; Illera, Maria J; Yu, Xianzhong; Mo, Bilan; Houwing, Angela M; Lessey, Bruce A
In Part 2 of this review, a critical examination of the pertinent scientific literature is undertaken in order to assess the interaction risk that popular dietary supplements may pose when taken concomitantly with conventional medications. Botanicals most likely to produce clinically important herb-drug interactions are those whose phytochemicals act as mechanism-based inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzyme activity (e.g., Hydrastis canadensis, Piper nigrum, Schisandra chinensis) or function as ligands for orphan nuclear receptors (e.g., Hypericum perforatum). In addition, several external factors unrelated to phytochemical pharmacology can augment the drug interaction potential of botanical supplements. PMID:22565299
A procedure was developed for plant regeneration of Hybanthus enneaspermus, a rare ethnobotanical herb from the Deccan peninsula in India, through seed-derived callus. Seeds demonstrated a high induction\\u000a frequency (69.4±2.8%) and a high yield (364.4±2.5 mg) of light-yellow friable callus on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium\\u000a containing 2.6 ?m NAA and 2.2 ?m BA within 4 weeks of incubation. After
E. Prakash; P. S. Sha Valli Khan; P. Sairam Reddy; K. R. Rao
A qualitative and quantitative analysis method was established to improve quality assessment standards for Rhizoma Polygoni Bistortae (Polygonum bistorta L.) and differentiate commercial bistorta rhizome from closely related herbs by TLC and HPLC-DAD fingerprinting. Three compounds including phenolic acid and flavane were identified by comparison with standard compounds and quantified simultaneously by HPLC-DAD simultaneously. A comprehensive validation of the method that included sensitivity, linearity, repeatability and recovery was conducted. Paris polyphylla SM., a herb often mixed with Polygonum bistorta L. in China due to their same popular name "Caoheche" in history, was successfully distinguished by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprinting of the petroleum-soluble fraction. Polygonum paleaceum WALL., another herb often mixed with Polygonum bistorta L. due to their similar external appearances, was distinguished by HPLC fingerprinting. PMID:18175979
Liu, Xiao-Qiu; Du, Li-Li; Li, Wei-Wei; Guan, Hong-Feng; Liu, Fang
Fifty-seven Thai herbs and spices were examined for their retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity. All herbs and spices were extracted with hot-water and methanol. Reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity of the extracts was determined by using Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus reverse transcriptase (M-MuLV-RT) reacted with 3H-dTTP and radioactivity measured with a scintillation counter. Eighty-one per cent (46/57) of hot-water extracts and 54% (31/57) of methanol extracts showed inhibitory activities. At a concentration of 125 micrograms/ml, 13% (6/46) of hot-water extracts, namely Eugenia caryophyllus Bullock et Harrison, Phyllanthus urinaria Linn., Terminalia belerica Roxb., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Psidium guajava Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn., had a relative inhibitory ratio (IR) over 50%. They showed ratios of 100%, 91%, 75%, 74%, 61% and 60%, respectively. For methanol extracts, only 10% (3/31) had IR values over 50%. They were T. belerica, E. caryophyllus and N. nucifera which exhibited IR values of 83%, 54% and 54%, respectively. PMID:7524165
Suthienkul, O; Miyazaki, O; Chulasiri, M; Kositanont, U; Oishi, K
Dried herbal samples consisting of root, rhizome, cortex, fruit, peel, flower, spike, ramulus, folium, and whole plant of 20 different medicinal herbs were investigated using pulsed photostimulated luminescence (PPSL), thermoluminescence (TL), and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to identify gamma-ray irradiation treatment. Samples were irradiated at 0-50 kGy using a 60Co irradiator. PPSL measurement was applied as a rapid screening method. Control samples of 19 different herbs had photon counts less than the lower threshold value (700 counts 60 s(-1)). The photon counts of non-irradiated clematidis radix and irradiated evodia and gardenia fruits were between the lower and upper threshold values (700-5,000 counts 60 s(-1)). TL ratios, i.e., integrated areas of the first glow (TL1)/the second glow (TL2), were found to be less than 0.1 in all non-irradiated samples and higher than 0.1 in irradiated ones providing definite proof of radiation treatment. ESR spectroscopy was applied as an alternative rapid method. In most of the irradiated samples, mainly radiation-induced cellulosic, sugar, and relatively complicated carbohydrate radical ESR signals were detected. No radiation-specific ESR signal, except one intense singlet, was observed for irradiated scrophularia and scutellaria root and artemisiae argyi folium. PMID:19529925
Pal, Sukdeb; Kim, Byeong Keun; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Min Jung; Ki, Hyeon A; Lee, Kyeong-Hee; Kang, Woo Suk; Kang, In Ho; Kang, Shin Jung; Song, Joon Myong
Citrus aurantium extract has been largely used in weight loss and sports performance dietary supplements. However, the safety of C. aurantium-containing products has been questioned mainly due to the association of its use with adverse events in the cardiovascular system. Therefore, this work aimed to assess the potential for herb-drug interactions among a standardized C. aurantium extract (GMP certificate) and amiodarone (narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study, rats were simultaneously co-administered with a single-dose of C. aurantium (164 mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.); in a second study, rats were pre-treated during 14 days with C. aurantium (164 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and received amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Overall, after analysis of the pharmacokinetic data, it deserves to be highlighted the significant increase of the peak plasma concentration of amiodarone in rats pre-treated with C. aurantium extract, while the extent of systemic exposure was comparable between both groups. This paper reports, for the first time, data on the potential of herb-drug interaction between C. aurantium extract and amiodarone. However, specific clinical trials should be performed to confirm these results in humans. PMID:23886819
Although the Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum has been used as a remedy for cancers for hundred years, the active compounds and molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity have not been explored. Recently a new derivative of stilbene compound, isorhapontigenin (ISO), was isolated from this Chinese herb. In the present study, we examined the potential of ISO in anti-cancer activity and the mechanisms involved in human cancer cell lines. We found that ISO exhibited significant inhibitory effects on human bladder cancer cell growth that was accompanied by marked apoptotic induction as well as down-regulation of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Further studies have shown that ISO down-regulation of XIAP protein expression was only observed in endogenous XIAP, but not in constitutionally exogenously expressed XIAP in the same cells, excluding the possibility of ISO regulating XIAP expression at the level of protein degradation. We also identified that ISO down-regulated XIAP gene transcription via inhibition of Sp1 transactivation. There was no significant effect of ISO on apoptosis and colony formation of cells transfected with exogenous HA-tagged XIAP. Collectively, current studies, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, identify ISO as a major active compound for the anti-cancer activity of G. cleistostachyum by down-regulation of XIAP expression and induction of apoptosis through specific targeting of a SP1 pathway, and cast new light on the treatment of the cancer patients with XIAP overexpression.
We have evaluated the herb-drug interaction potential of Ssang-hwa-tang (SHT) mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition/induction. Further, the effects of fermentation on the CYP-mediated herb-drug interaction potential were determined. SHT showed inhibitory activity toward CYP1A2, but not 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 in human liver microsomes. The results of the enzyme kinetic study suggested that the SHT-induced CYP1A2 inhibition is mixed reversible inhibition. The hepatic CYP expression and activity in rats treated with SHT were examined. The expression/activity of CYP2E1 increased as a result of SHT extract treatment (P<0.005 or P<0.001, respectively), which raises the possibility that SHT may increase the toxicity of environmental toxicants through the elevation of CYP2E1-mediated metabolic activation. SHT fermentation using Lactobacillus fermentum or Lactobacillus gasseri resulted in attenuation of the SHT-induced CYP1A2 inhibition, but not CYP2E1 induction, suggesting that changes in the chemical composition of SHT through fermentation can affect the inhibition of CYP1A2 activity. PMID:23122083
Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Kang, Wonku; Kwon, Kwang-il; Oh, Soo Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum
The ethanolic extracts of some Chinese traditional herb drugs, reported by Hong-Fu Wang et al. in China, could inhibit platelet aggregation as well as protect against radiation damage in mice, rat and rabbits. The inhibitory effects of the extracts of five Chinese drugs on the rate of platelet aggregation were observed in both in vitro and in vivo tests, averaging 23--53% in vitro and 46--69% in vivo. Antiradiation tests on mice vs. 7.5--8.0 Gy of [gamma]-radiation, using the herb drug extracts as protective agents, showed increasing survival rates by 8--50%. Based on Hong-Fu Wang's report, a search for the active constituents of these herb drugs in inhibiting platelet aggregation and protecting animals against radiation damage was started. In this research program, a Chinese traditional drug, Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.) was chosen. Three types of chemicals present in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, appeared promising for testing: 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole, 4-hydroxyl-3-butylidenephthalide and 5-hydroxyl-3-butylidenephthalide, and 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxycinnamyl 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxycinnamate. A total of 56 compounds of these derivatives has been synthesized and 30 were synthesized for the first time. The structure elucidation of these compounds was based on IR, [sup 1]H NMR and elemental analysis. From this research program, a very mild dehydrogenation method was developed. It was by using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone in acetonitrile at ice bath temperature to dehydrogenate 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole into 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole. This project showed for the first time that harmanoid alkaloids have the activity of inhibition of plate aggregation by 4 to 23 times that of aspirin. These results aid in establishing a relation between radiation protection in animals and prevention of platelet hyperaggregation.
Chronic headache such as migraine and nervous headache has become one of the most common locations of pain and one of the most difficult diseases to recover due to its numerous causes and inconvenience to keep acesodyne administration for a long time. However, there are a series of treatment theories and herbal formulas for this disease in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in which Da Chuanxiong formula (DCXF), a herb pair composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR), Chuanxiong in Chinese, and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR) called as Tianma in China, is a greatly classic representative. This formula has been used for headaches via dispelling wind pathogen and dissipating blood stasis for many years in TCM. In recent years, the efficiency and representativeness of DCXF have garnered many researchers' attention. To reveal the compatibility mechanism and develop innovative Chinese herb, herein ethnopharmacological relevance, chemical characters, and pharmacological actions of DCXF are detailed. It is expected to give a comprehensive interpretation of DCXF, namely, Chuanxiong Tianma herb pair (CTHP), to inherit the essence of herb pair and innovate drug delivery system of this prescription.
Objective: To screen and evaluate the active constituents of Chinese medicinal herbs as potent inhibitors of Cdc25 phosphatase. Methods: The affinity chromatography purified glutashione-S-transferase/Cdc25A phosphatase fusion protein and Cdc2/cyclin B from the extracts of starfish M phase oocytes are used as the cell cycle-specific targets for screening the antimitotic constituents. We tested 9 extracts isolated from the Chinese medicinal herbs and vegetables including the agents currently used in cancer treatment by measuring the inhibition of Cdc25A phosphatase and Cdc2 kinase activity. The antitumor activity of the extracts was also evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and flow cytometry. Results: Cdc25A inhibitory activity and antitumor activity are detected in the extracts isolated from three Chinese medicinal herbs Agrimona pilosa; Herba solani lyrati; Galla chinesis. Conclusion: We found three extracts isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs have potential inhibitory activity of Cdc25 phosphatase using a highly specific mechanism-based screen assay for antimitotic drug discovery.
Spices, like vegetables, fruit, and medicinal herbs, are known to possess a variety of antioxidant effects and other biological activities. Phenolic compounds in these plant materials are closely associated with their antioxidant activity, which is mainly due to their redox properties and their capacity to block the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). More recently, their ability to interfere with
Selection harvesting, by mimicking natural disturbance regimes of eastern deciduous hardwood forests, has been applied as a sustainable management practice that combines wood production with biodiversity conservation. However, the effects of this technique on understory herbs are unclear, particularly for spring ephemerals which have been suggested as sensitive to disturbance. Here, we experimentally assess the immediate effects of single-tree and
Karla J. Falk; Dawn M. Burke; Ken A. Elliott; Stephen B. Holmes
This study was conducted to compare the effect of some additives on the performance of Pekin meat ducks. Three types of feed additives, Chinese herbs, probiotics and prebiotics, were supplemented separately to meat duck diets and compared with an antibiotic treatment group as well as with a group of non-supplemented birds. For a seven-week feeding trial, a total of 300
Quantitative analysis of miroestrol (1) and kwakhurin (3) by HPLC, leading to standardisation of commercially available Thai miracle herb 'Kwao Keur' which has been identified with Pueraria mirifica, was established using independent solvent systems. The simple isolation procedure of highly estrogenic miroestrol (1) and deoxymiroestrol (2) from P. mirifica was also proposed. PMID:22708703
One of the most important issues in women's health concerns the risks and benefits of estrogen replacement therapy. Con- tinual uncertainty and lack of consensus regarding estrogen replacement therapy has driven many women to seek alter- native sources of estrogen, including herbal remedies. We adapted a recombinant cell bioassay to measure estrogen bio- activity in herbs. We studied, in vitro,
KAREN OERTER KLEIN; MONA JANFAZA; JEFFREY A. WONG; R. JEFFREY CHANG
This study sought to determine the main components (saccharides and phenolic acids) in crude extract of the Chinese herb Tanshen by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonant mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) in negative-ion mode. Eleven compounds were identified as phenolic acids by exact mass measurement and further confirmed by sustained off-resonance irradiation (SORI) CID data. In addition, monosaccharides and oligosaccharides (n = 2-5) and a serial of corresponding anionic adducts of saccharide were observed without adding any anions additionally to the extract solution, and the anionic components were unambiguously identified as H2O, HCl, HCOOH, HNO3, C3H6O2, H2SO4 and C5H7NO3 according to the exact mass measurement results. Furthermore, the saccharide types in Tanshen extract were identified as raffitrinose, saccharose, glucose, galactose and fructose with HPLC by comparing standards. PMID:18698556
The aim of this study was to determine and compare Ba, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sr, Pb, and Zn content in medicinal herbs Urtica dioica L., Taraxacum officinale, and Matricaria recutita growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of the Republic of Macedonia. The metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the unpolluted area of Mt. Plackovica the metal content in Taraxacum officinale was in the descending order: Fe>Sr>Zn>Ba>Cr, while Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection. In the polluted area of Veles, the order was as follows: Fe>Zn>Sr>Pb>Ba>Cd>Cr. Our results suggest that quality assurance and monitoring of toxic metals is needed for plants intended for human use and consumption. Medicinal plants should be picked in areas free of any contamination sources. PMID:20860970
Effects of six kinds of Chinese herb extracts, including Folium Crataegi extract, Herba Epimedii extract, Folium Acanthopanacis Senticosi extract, Trifolium pratense L. extract, Folium Ginkgo extract and Radix Puerariae extract, on the activities of CYP450 isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP2D, CYP3A) in rat hepatic microsomals were studied by using a UPLC-MS/MS (MRM) and cocktail probe substrates method. The results showed that effects of six kinds of Chinese herb extracts on each CYP450 isozyme activity were inhibitory. The IC50 of Folium Crataegi extract for the inhibition of rat microsomal CYP2D activity was only for 4.04 microg x mL(-1), which showed the highest inhibition; Trifolium pratense L. extract had strong inhibitory action to CYP2D, the IC50 value was 5.73 microg x mL(-1); Folium Crataegi extract also had strong inhibitory action on CYP2E1, the IC50 value was 10.91 microg x mL(-1). Furthermore, the IC50 of Folium Ginkgo extract for the inhibition of rat microsomal CYP3A, 2D, 2E1 activities were 45.12, 35.45 and 22.41 microg x mL(-1), respectively, and the IC50 of Folium Acanthopanacis Senticosi extract on the inhibition of rat microsomal CYP2E1 activity was 32.89 microg x mL(-1). In addition, mechanism of inhibition experimental results showed that the inhibiting abilities of Folium Crataegi extract and Radix Puerariae extract on each CYP450 isozyme increased with the increasing of the preincubation time, therefore, the inhibitory effects were a mechanism-based inhibition. PMID:24133981
The effect of different densities of varnishleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus var. laevigatus) and herbaceous vegetation control on stem diameter, height, and volume of plantation Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) seedlings was examined during the 10 yr following planting. Initial densities of ceanothus ranged between 0 and 15,000 seedlings/ha and were obtained by interplanting ceanothus germinants or chemical thinning after clearcutting and broadcast-burning. Herbaceous vegetation control was achieved by a single application of glyphosate following planting, with shrub seedlings covered. Ceanothus density in the range of 0 to 6,750 plants/ha did not have an effect on Douglas-fir diameter, height, or volume at age 10; however, Douglas-fir growth was significantly decreased when ceanothus densities reached 15,000 plants/ha. Ten years after planting, Douglas-fir volume in the treatments with 6,750 ceanothus/ha or less was 1.7 times greater than that in the 15,000 ceanothus/ha treatment. On the other hand, removal of herbaceous vegetation after planting significantly increased tree diameter, height, and volume, regardless of ceanothus density. Even 10 yr after the application of the treatment, trees without early herb competition grew faster and had mean dbh, height, and volume that were 1.02 cm, 0.55 m, and 12.98 dm3/tree greater respectively than those with herbs. Thus, a treatment at plantation establishment to control herbaceous vegetation and to reduce ceanothus density to less than 7,000 plants/ha will ensure an increase in growth and stocking for at least 10 yr.
Monleon, V. J.; Newton, M.; Hooper, C.; Tappeiner, II, J. C.
In flowering plants, pollen dispersal is often the major contributing component to gene flow, hence a key parameter in conservation genetics and population biology. A cost-effective method to assess pollen dispersal consists of monitoring the dispersal of fluorescent dyes used as pollen analogues. However, few comparisons between dye dispersal and realized pollen dispersal have been performed to validate the method. We investigated pollen dispersal in two small populations of the insect-pollinated herb Primula elatior from urban forest fragments using direct (paternity analyses based on microsatellite DNA markers) and indirect (fluorescent dyes) methods. We compared these methods using two approaches, testing for the difference between the distance distributions of observed dispersal events and estimating parameters of a dispersal model, and related these results to dye dispersal patterns in three large populations. Dye and realized (based on paternity inference) pollen dispersal showed exponential decay distributions, with 74.2-94.8% of the depositions occurring at <50 m and a few longer distance dispersal events (up to 151 m). No significant difference in curve shape was found between dye and realized pollen dispersal distributions. The best-fitting parameters characterizing the dye dispersal model were consistent with those obtained for realized pollen dispersal. Hence, the fluorescent dye method may be considered as reliable to infer realized pollen dispersal for forest herbs such as P. elatior. However, our simulations reveal that large sample sizes are needed to detect moderate differences between dye and realized pollen dispersal patterns because the estimation of dispersal parameters suffers low precision. PMID:20703887
Van Rossum, Fabienne; Stiers, Iris; Van Geert, Anja; Triest, Ludwig; Hardy, Olivier J
Complications of diabetes impose major public health burdens worldwide. The positive effect of a Radix Astragali-based herbal preparation on healing diabetic foot ulcers in patients has been reported. Formula 1 is also referred as the 'Herbal drink to strengthen muscle and control swelling'. This formula contains six Chinese medical herbs, including Radix Astragali, Radix Rehmanniae, Rhizoma Smilacis Chinensis, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Radix Polygoni Multiflori Preparata, and Radix Stephania Tetrandrae. Three of these herbs (Radix Astragali, Radix Rehmanniae, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) are commonly used in different anti-diabetic formulae of Chinese medicine. The objective of the current study is to use an interdisciplinary approach to test the hypothesis that Formula 1 and its components influence tissue and systemic glucose homeostasis. In vitro and in vivo models have been established including: (1) glucose absorption into intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV); (2) gluconeogenesis by H4IIE hepatoma cells; (3) glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Hs68 skin fibroblasts; (4) normalization of glycaemic control in a diabetic rat model. The results of in vitro studies indicated that all herbal extracts can modify cellular glucose homeostasis. Since Formula 1 and Rhizoma Smilacis Chinensis extracts demonstrated potent effects on modifying glucose homeostasis in multiple tissues in vitro, they were further studied for their anti-diabetic activities in vivo using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model. The results showed that Formula 1 and Rhizoma Smilacis Chinensis extracts did not significantly improve oral glucose tolerance or basal glycaemia in diabetic rats. In conclusion, the anti-diabetic foot ulcer Formula 1 contains ingredients active in modifying tissue glucose homeostasis in vitro but these biological activities could not be associated with improved glycaemic control of diabetes in vivo. PMID:16891069
Chan, C M; Chan, Y W; Lau, C H; Lau, T W; Lau, K M; Lam, F C; Che, C T; Leung, P C; Fung, K P; Lau, C B S; Ho, Y Y
Background Herb-drug interactions are an important issue in drug safety and clinical practice. The aim of this epidemiological study was to characterize associations of clinical outcomes with concomitant herbal and antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. Methods and Findings In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 1795 patients with schizophrenia who were randomly selected from 17 psychiatric hospitals in China were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Association analyses were conducted to examine correlates between Chinese medicine (CM) use and demographic, clinical variables, antipsychotic medication mode, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of concomitant CM and antipsychotic treatment was 36.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 34.2%–38.6%]. Patients using concomitant CM had a significantly greater chance of improved outcomes than non-CM use (61.1% vs. 34.3%, OR?=?3.44, 95% CI 2.80–4.24). However, a small but significant number of patients treated concomitantly with CM had a greater risk of developing worse outcomes (7.2% vs. 4.4%, OR?=?2.06, 95% CI 2.06–4.83). Significant predictors for concomitant CM treatment-associated outcomes were residence in urban areas, paranoid psychosis, and exceeding 3 months of CM use. Herbal medicine regimens containing Radix Bupleuri, Fructus Gardenia, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Rehmanniae, Akebia Caulis, and Semen Plantaginis in concomitant use with quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzepine were associated with nearly 60% of the risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusions Concomitant herbal and antipsychotic treatment could produce either beneficial or adverse clinical effects in schizophrenic population. Potential herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions need to be further evaluated.
The hepatotoxicity of some Chinese herbs has been a cause for concern in recent years. However, some herbs, such as rhubarb, have been documented as having both therapeutic and toxic effects on the liver, leading to the complex problem of distinguishing the benefits from the risks of using this herb. To comparatively analyze the dose-response relationship between rhubarb and hepatic health, we administrated total rhubarb extract(RE) to normal and carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-treated rats for 12 weeks at 4 dosage levels(2.00, 5.40, 14.69 and 40.00 g·kg?1, measured as the quantity of crude material), followed by biochemical and histopathological tests of the rats' livers. A composite pattern was extracted by factor analysis, using all the biochemical indices as variables, into a visual representation of two mathematically obtained factors, which could be interpreted as the fibrosis factor and the cellular injury factor, according to the values of the variable loadings. The curative effect of administering the two lowest dosages of RE to CCl4-treated rats was mainly expressed as a decrease in the extent of cellular injury. The hepatoprotective mechanism of RE might be related to its antioxidant effect, the antagonism of the free radical damage to hepatocytes caused by CCl4. By contrast, the RE-induced liver damage was mainly expressed as a significant increase in the amount of fibrosis in both normal rats at all dosage levels and CCl4-treated rats at the two highest dosage levels. Therefore, the hepatotoxic potential of RE could be attributable to the liver cell fibrosis induced by high doses of the herb. This study illustrates the bidirectional potential of rhubarb and demonstrates the feasibility of using factor analysis to study the dose-response relationships between herbal medicines and hepatotoxicity or the healing effects of these herbs by extracting the underlying interrelationships among a number of functional bio-indices in a holistic manner.
A powdered sample of Phyllanthus amarus herb of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India, is used in the present study. ICP-MS analysis indicates that copper is present in higher concentration when compared to other elements. Although the Pb is toxic, it is within the permissible limit. The evaluated soil and herb physico-chemical parameters indicate that the sample is acidic in nature in comparison with the soil. An EPR study on powdered sample confirms the presence of Fe(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum indicates that Fe(III) impurity is present in octahedral structure whereas Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. MIR results are due to carbonate fundamentals.
Reddy, S. Lakshmi; Reddy, N. C. Gangi; Reddy, R. Rama Subba; Reddy, G. Siva; Rao, P. Sambasiva; Reddy, B. Jagannatha; Frost, R. L.
Er-Xian Decoction (EXD), Epimedium herbs (herbs of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, EBH), and icariin (ICA) have been proven to have estrogen-like and antiosteoporotic activity and are used for the treatment of osteoporosis, menopausal syndrome, and age-associated diseases. The present study found that EXD, EBH, and ICA treatments, emulating estrogen, significantly contributed to bone density and architecture in OVX rats and that EXD is similar to estrogen and exerts a concomitant effect on bone formation and bone resorption at the tissue level, while EBH and ICA produced bone-protective effects mainly by inhibiting bone resorption. Nevertheless, EXD, EBH, and ICA treatments manifested a fewer adverse effects on the uterus, mammary gland, and vagina compared to estrogen administrations. Among the EXD, EBH, and ICA, EXD was found to have superior efficacy and safety profile. PMID:23227099
Unsanitary conditions during harvesting, drying, packing and storage stages in production and processing of spices and herbs could introduce mycotoxin contamination. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and fumonisins in popular spices and herbs was studied, using liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, ergosterol as a factor indicating fungal development was also analysed. A total of 79 different samples commercialized in Poland were randomly purchased from popular markets were tested for mycotoxins. The frequency of samples with fumonisins was lower (31%) than ochratoxin A (49%). Free from mycotoxins were samples of bay leaf and white mustard. ERG content - in spice samples with high concentration level of mycotoxins - was also significantly higher than in samples with little to no mycotoxins. PMID:24010625
Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Bocianowski, Jan; Goli?ski, Piotr
Er-Xian Decoction (EXD), Epimedium herbs (herbs of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, EBH), and icariin (ICA) have been proven to have estrogen-like and antiosteoporotic activity and are used for the treatment of osteoporosis, menopausal syndrome, and age-associated diseases. The present study found that EXD, EBH, and ICA treatments, emulating estrogen, significantly contributed to bone density and architecture in OVX rats and that EXD is similar to estrogen and exerts a concomitant effect on bone formation and bone resorption at the tissue level, while EBH and ICA produced bone-protective effects mainly by inhibiting bone resorption. Nevertheless, EXD, EBH, and ICA treatments manifested a fewer adverse effects on the uterus, mammary gland, and vagina compared to estrogen administrations. Among the EXD, EBH, and ICA, EXD was found to have superior efficacy and safety profile.
The Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI–FT-ICR-MS) using sustained off-resonance irradiation (SORI)\\/collision-induced dissociation (CID) method at high mass resolution has been first applied to investigate the characteristic fragment ions of four protoberberine alkaloids in medicine herbs. The ESI–FT–ICR SORI-CID experiment results demonstrate that the unambiguous elemental composition of fragment ions can be obtained at high mass
Wei Wu; Fengrui Song; Cunyu Yan; Zhiqiang Liu; Shuying Liu
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-nitrosamines (NNA) are mainly activated by cytochrome P450s, and their associated enzyme activities such as aryl hydrocarbon (benzo(a)pyrene) hydroxylase (AHH), N-nitrosdimethylamine N-demethylase I (NDMA-dI), NADPH-cytochrome C reductase, and detoxified by glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH). The present study shows the influence of Cymbopogonproximus (Halfa barr), Zygophyllumcoccineum L. (Kammun quaramany), Lupinusalbus (Termis) as herbs capable
S. A. Sheweita; A. A. Newairy; H. A. Mansour; M. I. Yousef
Chinese herbs nephropathy is characterized by an extensive interstitial fibrosis and by a rapid evolution to end-stage renal failure. We thus decided to try steroid therapy (prednisolone 1 mg\\/kg for 1 month, tapered off 0.1 mg\\/kg every 2 weeks) in cases with moderate renal failure and evidence of deterioration in renal function. Our steroid group (SG) consisted of 12 female
Jean-Louis Vanherweghem; Daniel Abramowicz; Christian Tielemans; Michel Depierreux
Changes in plant biomass allocation in response to varying resource availabilities may result from ontogenetic drift caused\\u000a by allometric growth (i.e., apparent plasticity), a true adjustment of ontogenetic trajectories (true plasticity) or both\\u000a (complex plasticity). Given that the root allocation of annual species usually decreases during the growth, the developmentally\\u000a explicit model predicts that annual herbs will exhibit true plasticity
It is widely recognized that pollinators vary in their effectiveness in pollination mutualisms, due both to differences in\\u000a flower–pollinator morphological fit as well as pollinator behaviour. However, pollination webs typically treat all interactions\\u000a as equal, and we contend that this method may provide misleading results. Using empirical and theoretical data, we present\\u000a the case study of a self-incompatible herb in
Alfonso M. Sánchez-Lafuente; Miguel A. Rodríguez-Gironés; Raquel Parra
To understand the clinical efficacy of traditional anti-rheumatic herbal medicines on acute and severe arthritis or immune diseases, four herbal formulas and one herb were tested in vitro to determine their effects on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 2 (IL2). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects were incubated with different concentrations of four herbal formulas including Shaur Yau Gan
We investigated the effect of a mixed herb—enriched diet obtained from pomegranate Punica granatum, Dalmatian chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, and mastic-leaved prickly-ash Zanthoxylum schinifolium on innate immune mechanisms (e.g., phagocytosis activity, respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity, and disease resistance) of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus against the scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi. All experimental groups were challenged with P. dicentrarchi (1
Bacopa monnieri (L.), a highly endangered miracle medicinal herb with global interest, is one of the popular ancient Indian ayurvedic plants.\\u000a With ever increasing demand for Bacopa based formulations in pharmaceutical industries, there is a need to preserve the stocks\\u000a of the plant through biotechnological approaches. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting approach was applied\\u000a to analyze the genetic stability
The flavonoid composition of commonly eaten fresh herbs such as dill, oregano and parsley was analysed by combined LC, MS and low-energy collision induced dissociation (CID) MS–MS. Negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) MS and MS–MS were used to provide molecular mass information and product-ion spectra of the glycosyl compounds. The most prominent fragment was found to arise from the
1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed on wheat-soybean meal diets from 0-42 d of age. These chicks were given either the basal diet (control), or the basal diet with one of rosemary, garlic or yarrow herbs, mimosa, cranberry or grapeseed CT's, or thyme EO supplements (8 treatments in total). Body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) were measured. 3. The garlic supplement tended to improve growth rate over the first 7 d, while mimosa CT and thyme EO supplements reduced weight gains. The mimosa supplement in diets significantly reduced FC to d 21. Meanwhile, the addition of a cranberry supplement reduced the digestibility of DM, OM and N, compared with the controls. Dietary thyme EO, yarrow, rosemary and garlic supplements modified caecal isovaleric and isobutyric acid proportions (presented as 'Other VFA'; p < 0.05). Dietary herb significantly affected the intensity of meat flavour, and the potential of observing both garlic and abnormal flavours. There were large differences between the consumption of red and white meat samples, while meat temperature affected several flavour attributes. 4. Broiler performance and digestibility for birds given dietary garlic and grapeseed CT supplements were similar to the controls, and these supplements appear suitable for dietary inclusion. Careful choices are necessary when selecting dietary plant extract supplements for broilers, but beneficial effects can be observed. PMID:21491246
Two spice and herb extract combinations from galangal (Alpinia galanga), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and lemon iron bark (Eucalyptus staigerana) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and naturally present spoilage microflora on cooked ready-to-eat shrimp stored for 16 days at 4 or 8 °C. A combination of galangal, rosemary, and lemon iron bark significantly reduced (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria at 4 °C on day 12 by 1.6 and 1.59 log CFU/g, respectively. By day 16, levels of these bacteria were equivalent to those of controls. The shrimp treated with this spice and herb extract combination had significantly lower (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation from day 4 to day 16. Similarly, a combination of galangal and rosemary extract significantly reduced (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria at 8 °C on day 8 by 2.82 and 2.61 log CFU/g, respectively. By days 12 and 16, levels of these bacteria were equivalent to those of controls. The shrimp treated with this spice and herb combination had significantly lower (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation on days 4 and 16. None of the spice and herb extract combinations had an effect on levels of L. monocytogenes or S. aureus or changed the color or pH of the shrimp during storage. The results of this study indicate that combinations of galangal, rosemary, and lemon iron bark extracts can be used to control the growth of spoilage microflora on ready-to-eat shrimp. PMID:21740714
Weerakkody, Nimsha S; Caffin, Nola; Dykes, Gary A; Turner, Mark S
Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive organism, is responsible for numerous infections ranging in severity from skin and soft tissue infections to endocarditis and septic arthritis. Further, Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) caused by enterotoxigenic staphylococci is one of the main food-borne diseases. In this study, several single-seed origin clonal lines of herbs from Lamiaceae family were screened for antimicrobial applications against S.
Y.-I. Kwon; E. Apostolidis; R. G. Labbe; K. Shetty
A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method for preparative separation and purification of five hydroxyanthraquinones and cinnamic acid from the Chinese medicinal herb Rheum officinale Baill. was developed by using pH-gradient elution. The purities of rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, physcion and cinnamic acid were all over 98%, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The structures of them were identified
BackgroundDrug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been a public, economic and pharmaceutical issue for many years. Enormous effort has been made for discovering and developing novel biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring both clinical and preclinical DILI at an early stage, though progress has been relatively slow. Additionally, herb-induced liver injury is an emerging cause of liver disease because herbal medicines are
Yu-Wen Su; Xi Chen; Zhen-Zhou Jiang; Tao Wang; Cheng Wang; Yun Zhang; Jing Wen; Mei Xue; Dan Zhu; Yue Zhang; Yi-Jing Su; Tong-Yue Xing; Chen-Yu Zhang; Lu-Yong Zhang
The aim of this study was to establish the applicability of natural water-ethanol extracts of herbs and spices in increasing the oxidative stability of plant oils and in the production of novel food. Different concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, and 700 ppm) of spice extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (100 ppm) were added to the studied oils. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts was determined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The study showed that the extracts significantly increased the oxidative stability of the examined oils when compared to one of the strongest synthetic antioxidants--BHA. The applied simple production technology and addition of herb and spice extracts to plant oils enabled enhancement of their oxidative stability. The extracts are an alternative to the oils aromatized with an addition of fresh herbs, spices, and vegetables because it did not generate additional flavors thus enabling the maintenance of the characteristic ones. Moreover, it will increase the intake of natural substances in human diet, which are known to possess anticarcinogenic properties. PMID:22900972
Koz?owska, Mariola; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Zawada, Katarzyna; Z?bkowski, Tomasz
In a controlled, double blind, randomized multicentre study, the efficacy and safety of the topical comfrey product Traumaplant (10% active ingredient of a 2.5:1 aqueous ethanolic pressed juice of freshly harvested, cultivated comfrey herb (Symphytum x uplandicum NYMAN), corresponding to 25 g of fresh herb per 100 g of cream; n = 104) was tested against a 1% product (corresponding to 2.5 g of fresh comfrey herb in 100 g of cream; n = 99) in 203 patients with acute ankle distortion. With the high concentration, decrease of the scores for pain on active motion, pain at rest and functional impairment was highly significant and clinically relevant on days T3-4 as well as T7 (p < 0.001). Amelioration of swellings as compared to reference was also significant on day 3-4 (p < 0.01). Efficacy was judged good to excellent in 85.6% of cases with verum and in 65.7% of cases with reference on day 3-4. Overall tolerability was excellent. PMID:15638067
Kucera, Miroslav; Barna, Milos; Horácek, Ondrej; Kováriková, Jaroslava; Kucera, Alexander
The metal contents of traditional Chinese medicine, Sophora tonkinensis and Flemingiae philippinensis, grown in Guangxi province of China were determined by ICP-AES methods. The two herbs were digested by applying acid bomb digestion procedure. Considering RF power, nebulized gas flow rate, auxiliary gas flow rate and pump rate, the instrument was optimized. The instrument operating conditions, analytical lines and detection limits of elements determined as well as the contents of elements in these two herbs were reported. The results show that Sophora tonkinensis contains microelements Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cr and macroelements Ca, Mg, Na and K; Flemingiae philippinensis contains microelements Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mn and Cr and macroelements Ca, Mg, Na and K. However, the two traditional Chinese medicines do not contain toxic elements Sn, Pb and Cd. The precision was found to be less than 5% in terms of relative standard deviation mostly. The results indicate that the concentration ratio of zinc to copper in Sophora tonkinensis is 6.4, while the ratio in Flemingiae philippinensis is 5.7. The content of zinc is higher than copper in both two herbs, which agrees with the phenomenon that the zinc content higher than that of copper exists in other antitumor traditional Chinese medicine. All these will afford an apocalypse for understanding the pharmacological mechanism of these anitumor traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:19950677
Mao, Li; Tan, Ming-xiong; Chen, Zhen-feng; Liang, Hong
In order to research the target of superior efficacy and lesser side effects, combination of herbal materials has been applied to phytotherapy for thousands of years in China and some other countries. Zuojin Wan (ZJW), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula, is used in treating gastric diseases in China. It is composed of two herbs, Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) and Fructus Evodiae (FE) in the ratio of 6: 1(w/w). In the present study, we examined the effects of ZJW, RC, FE and active components isolated from these herbs on catecholamine (CA) secretion and intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. Extracts of ZJW and RC and berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, components of RC, all inhibited CA secretion and rise in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by acetylcholine (ACh), veratridine (Ver) and/or 56 mM K(+). On the other hand, extract of FE, evodiamine and rutaecarpine, components of FE, stimulated CA secretion and rise in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by ACh. Furthermore, different proportions of RC and FE caused different responses in CA secretion. The present findings suggest that two herbs in ZJW have opposite effects, i.e., inhibitory effect of RC and stimulatory effect of FE, on CA secretion induced by acetylcholine in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. PMID:20153155
Three Callicarpa species, namely Callicarpa nudiflora Hook. et Arn., Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. and Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun. are astringency and hemostasis herbs in the traditional Chinese medical systems. Despite their wide use in Chinese medicine, no report on system comparison on their chemical constituents is available so far. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and electrospray ionization trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-Trap MS) technique was used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the three Callicarpa herbs. Phenylpropanoid glycosides, flavonoids and organic acids were identified by comparing with reference standards or according to their MS/MS fragmentation behaviors. A total of 33 compounds were identified identified or tentatively identified, and 23 of them were reported from these herbs for the first time. Phenylpropanoid glycosides were featured in the three species with their types and contents presenting significant differences. Furthermore, quantitative analysis was conducted by determining four marker phenylpropanoid glycosides (forsythoside B (14), acteoside (15), poliumoside (19), isoacteoside (21)) and two flavonoids (luteolin (30), apigenin (32)). Three flavonoid glucuronides (luteolin-diglucuronide-glucuronide (5), luteolin-diglucuronide (12), apigenin-7-O-?-glucuronide (24)) were semi-quantified according to their corresponding aglycones. The total contents of the nine major compounds in the three species varied significantly from 8.92 to 40.89 mg/g. PMID:23277156
Natural abundance is shaped by the abiotic requirements and biotic interactions that shape a species' niche, yet these influences are rarely decoupled. Moreover, most plant mortality occurs during early life stages, making seed recruitment critical in structuring plant populations. We find that natural abundance of two woodland herbs, Hexastylis arifolia and Hepatica nobilis, peaks at intermediate resource levels, a pattern probably formed by concurrent abiotic and biotic interactions. To determine how this abundance patterning reflects intrinsic physiological optima and extrinsic biotic interactions, we translocate adults and seeds to novel locations across experimentally extended abiotic gradients. These experiments indicate that the plant distributions probably reflect biotic interactions as much as physiological requirements, and that adult abundance provides a poor indication of the underlying niche requirements. The positive response exhibited by adult transplants in the wettest conditions is offset by increased fungal attack on buried seeds consistent with peak natural abundance where soil moisture is intermediate. This contraction of niche space is best described by Connell's model—species are limited by physiological tolerances where resources are low and biotic interactions where resources are high.
Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species within cells results in oxidative stress. Furthermore, accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been shown to reduce cell longevity. Many dietary supplements are believed to have anti-aging effects. The herb mixture KPG-7 contains several components with antioxidant activity. We aim to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of KPG-7 and to establish whether KPG-7 has an anti-aging effect. We examined whether dietary supplementation with KPG-7 could provide protection against oxidative stress, extend lifespan, and delay aging in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We found that KPG-7 extended lifespan and delayed aging in adult C. elegans. The expression of oxidation resistance 1 protein was induced by juglone and this effect was significantly suppressed in KPG-7-treated. In addition, the amount of oxidized protein was significantly lower in KPG-7-treated worms than untreated worms. Furthermore, locomotive activity was increased in C. elegans at 3 days of age following the treatment with KPG-7. On the other hand, the level of cellular ATP was lower at 3 days of age in worms treated with KPG-7 than in untreated worms. KPG-7 increases lifespan and delays aging in C. elegans, well corresponding to its activity to protect against oxidative stress. PMID:24062604
Background and Aims Adventitious sprouting from the hypocotyle and roots in monocarpic herbs has been confirmed in previous experimental studies as a means to avoid bud limitation after severe injury in annual and biennial plants. Data regarding the role of adventitious sprouting in natural populations, however, were lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations and how it is affected by plant size, plant injury, plant cover and environmental characteristics. Methods Data were sampled from 14 037 individual plants from 389 populations belonging to 22 annual and biennial species. Growth parameters were measured in individual plants, species composition and plant cover in communities were evaluated, and environmental characteristics were estimated using Ellenberg indicator values. Key Results It was confirmed that adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations of all but five species examined. Adventitious sprouting was positively affected by plant size and plant injury. Environmental factors including availability of soil nitrogen were not shown to affect adventitious sprouting. Annual and biennial plants did not differ in sprouting, but upright annuals had a lower number of and longer adventitious shoots than prostrate annuals. Conclusions Adventitious bud formation is used to overcome meristem limitation when stem parts are lost due to injury, and thus resprouting in short-lived monocarps should not be overlooked.
A novel technique for rapid quantitative analyses of elements on herb medicine and food powder has successfully been developed. In this technique, the powder samples were plugged in a small hole (2 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth) and covered by a metal mesh. The Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser (1500 mJ, 200 ns) was focused on the powder sample surfaces passing through the metal mesh at atmospheric pressure of nitrogen surrounding gas. It is hypothesized that the small hole functions to confine the powder particles and suppresses the blowing-off, while the metal mesh works as the source of electrons to initiate the strong gas breakdown plasma. The confined powder particles are subsequently ablated by the laser irradiation and the ablated particles move into the strong gas breakdown plasma region to be atomized and excited. Using this method, a quantitative analysis of the milk powder sample containing different concentrations of Ca was successfully demonstrated, resulting in a good linear calibration curve with high precision.
We studied Cnidoscolus stimulosus and Ipomoea pandurata, two common herbs of the Fall Line Sandhills to assess their potential as ecosystem level stress indicators. We focused on plants because they are among the most persistent organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. We used developmental instability as an indicator of plant population stress. Developmental instability is usually measured as deviations from symmetry, in traits that normally develop symmetrically. Thus, symmetry represents an idealized a priori phenotype. Stress presumably causes perturbations during development that may exceed the capacity of the organism to buffer or correct, resulting in developmental instability, and hence deviations from this ideal. Soil disturbance imposed by different land use patterns at Fort Benning, Georgia provided a gradient of soil disturbance. In 2000-2002 we collected plants from nine different sites representing three levels of disturbance. In addition, in 2002 we collected microhabitat data in 1 m quadrats surrounding each plant whose developmental stability we also assessed. The developmental instability of both species was influenced by land use patterns, whether or not the sites had been previously burned, and microhabitat variables. Developmental instability increased with soil disturbance, burning in the prior year, and as the percentage of bare ground increased around the target individual. To some extent, favorable microhabitat conditions reduced developmental instability in sites with medium and high soil disturbance, whereas unfavorable conditions at low soil disturbance sites increased developmental instability. As an indicator of community level stress, developmental instability is best used in conjunction with other indices of environmental quality. ?? Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Freeman, D. C.; Brown, M. L.; Duda, J. J.; Graraham, J. H.; Emlen, J. M.; Krzysik, A. J.; Balbach, H.; Kovacic, D. A.; Zak, J. C.
There is a paucity of data on the occurrence of hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal plants, and there are no data on the hepatotoxic properties of herbal medicines that are used in the traditional pharmacopoiea of Sri Lanka and other Asian and African countries. In view of the extensive consumption of these herbs and the occurrence of chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular cancer in this and other countries of South Asia, we have screened fifty medicinal plants for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and have obtained positive results with three species, namely Crotalaria verrucosa L., Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Br., and Cassia auriculata L. Feeding trials in rats with materials from these three species produced liver lesions--disruption of the centrilobular veins, congestion or haemorrhage in the centrilobular sinusoids, centrilobular or focal hepatocellular necrosis--and histopathology in the lungs and kidneys which were compatible with the action of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The presence of alkaloids in C. auriculata has not been previously reported nor has the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in H. antidysenterica. It is suggested that the consumption of herbal medicines that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids could contribute to the high incidence of chronic liver disease including primary hepatocellular cancer in Asian and African countries. PMID:7311596
Arseculeratne, S N; Gunatilaka, A A; Panabokke, R G
Thirty-six different extracts of six herbs and aromatic plants (fennel, common melilot, milfoil, lavandin cv. Super, spike lavender, and tarragon) were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity by the DPPH*, NBT/hypoxanthine superoxide, and *OH/luminol chemiluminescence methods, and for their antioxidant activity by the beta-carotene blenching test. The total phenolic content was also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The plant material included cultivated plants and their wastes after being distilled for essential oils. Both remarkably high phenolic content and radical scavenging activities were found for the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions among the different plant extracts. In general, the distilled plant material was found to exhibit a higher phenolic content as well as antioxidant and radical scavenging activities than the nondistilled material. Ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts, and even some crude extract, of both distilled and nondistilled plants exhibited activities comparable to those of commercial extracts/compounds, thus making it possible to consider some of them as a potential source of antioxidants of natural origin. PMID:12405792
Variation in seed size is common both within and among plant species. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight, and its implications for some components of fitness in the clonal herb Convallaria majalis. This species produces berries containing 4.1 seeds on average. The average seed weight was 16.5 mg, with a coefficient of variation of 32.7%. Seed packaging in fruits was on average 12.5%, and showed a slight tendency to increase with fruit weight. A trade-off was found between seed weight and seed number both within fruits and within ramets. The probability and timing of germination was not influenced by seed size. A field experiment and indirect evidence suggested that post-dispersal seed predation was not related to seed size. Increasing seed weight conferred an advantage to developing seedlings. This advantage was enhanced if a seedling was growing in the close vicinity of a seedling of another species. It is suggested that seed size variation in C. majalis primarily is the result of resource variation during fruit development. A conflict between parents and offspring may however contribute to increase seed size variation.
Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species within cells results in oxidative stress. Furthermore, accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been shown to reduce cell longevity. Many dietary supplements are believed to have anti-aging effects. The herb mixture KPG-7 contains several components with antioxidant activity. We aim to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of KPG-7 and to establish whether KPG-7 has an anti-aging effect. We examined whether dietary supplementation with KPG-7 could provide protection against oxidative stress, extend lifespan, and delay aging in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We found that KPG-7 extended lifespan and delayed aging in adult C. elegans. The expression of oxidation resistance 1 protein was induced by juglone and this effect was significantly suppressed in KPG-7-treated. In addition, the amount of oxidized protein was significantly lower in KPG-7-treated worms than untreated worms. Furthermore, locomotive activity was increased in C. elegans at 3 days of age following the treatment with KPG-7. On the other hand, the level of cellular ATP was lower at 3 days of age in worms treated with KPG-7 than in untreated worms. KPG-7 increases lifespan and delays aging in C. elegans, well corresponding to its activity to protect against oxidative stress.
For the determination of rosmarinic acid (RA) directly in pulverized plant material, a method is developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) without any physicochemical pretreatment of samples. The RA content of 11 samples of eight different Lamiaceae herbs, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), varied between 86 ± 1 mg/g (in lemon balm) and 12.0 ± 0.8 mg/g (in hyssop) of dried plant material. The 11 samples and 50 other additional samples, which were prepared by mixing initial samples with KBr, were measured using DRIFTS. The second derivative of the spectral region 1344-806 cm(-1) was used and the corresponding data were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The correlation between infrared spectral analysis and HPLC measurements shows that the DRIFTS method is sufficiently accurate, simple, and rapid. The RA content of the 11 Lamiaceae samples determined by DRIFTS ranged from 81 ± 4 mg/g (in lemon balm) to 12 ± 3 mg/g (in hyssop) of dried plant material. PMID:23496773
Background Diabetic nephropathy is an emergent issue in China with increase in patients with type II diabetes. There are several successful Chinese herbal products for the treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy in China. However, the mechanisms mediating the biological activity of these products are still unclear. Podocalyxin is a sialoprotein critical to maintaining integrity of filtration function of glomerulus. Methods By employing streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and a Chinese herb formulation (Yishen capsule), we examined the regulation of podocalyxin expression in the kidney by Yishen capsule through immunofluorescent staining and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results After injection of STZ, there were significant increase in both blood glucose and urinary protein. Serum creatinine and BUN were also increased in rats with injection of STZ. Moreover, expression of podocalyxin in the glomerulus was gradually reduced after injection of STZ. There was also a loss of podocyte foot processes in the glomerular basement membrane. However, Yishen capsule or benazepril was able to restore the expression of podocalyxin and podocyte foot processes in the kidney. Although Yishen capsule could reduce urinary protein level, it has little effect on blood glucose level in the rats injected with STZ. Conclusions Yishen capsule could attenuate the loss of podocalyxin in the glomerulus of rats injected with STZ.
Natural abundance is shaped by the abiotic requirements and biotic interactions that shape a species' niche, yet these influences are rarely decoupled. Moreover, most plant mortality occurs during early life stages, making seed recruitment critical in structuring plant populations. We find that natural abundance of two woodland herbs, Hexastylis arifolia and Hepatica nobilis, peaks at intermediate resource levels, a pattern probably formed by concurrent abiotic and biotic interactions. To determine how this abundance patterning reflects intrinsic physiological optima and extrinsic biotic interactions, we translocate adults and seeds to novel locations across experimentally extended abiotic gradients. These experiments indicate that the plant distributions probably reflect biotic interactions as much as physiological requirements, and that adult abundance provides a poor indication of the underlying niche requirements. The positive response exhibited by adult transplants in the wettest conditions is offset by increased fungal attack on buried seeds consistent with peak natural abundance where soil moisture is intermediate. This contraction of niche space is best described by Connell's model--species are limited by physiological tolerances where resources are low and biotic interactions where resources are high. PMID:20961900
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) supplementation composed of Panax ginseng, Dioscoreaceae opposite, Atractylodes macrocephala, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujube and Platycodon grandiflorum, on the performance, intestinal tract morphology and immune activity in weanling pigs. Two hundred and forty weaned pigs were assigned randomly to four dietary groups including the negative control (basal diet), 0.1% CMH, 0.3% CMH and 0.114% antibiotic (Chlortetracycline calcium Complex, Sulfathiazole and Procaine Penicillin G) supplementation groups for a 28-day feeding trial. Results indicated that both CMH supplementation groups had a better gain and feed/gain than control group (CT) during the first 2 weeks of the experimental period. The 0.3% CMH had a significant decrease in the diarrhoea score in first 10 days of experimental period when compared with other groups. The CMH supplementation groups had a higher villous height, increased lactobacilli counts in digesta of ileum and decreased coliform counts in colon compared with CT. The immune activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), including the respiratory burst and Salmonella-killing ability, were significantly enhanced in CMH supplementation groups at day 7 of experiment period. The CMH and antibiotic supplementations increased the nutrient digestibility such as dietary dry matter, crude protein and gross energy in weanling pigs. In conclusion, the dietary CMH supplementation improved intestinal morphology and immune activities of PMNs, thus giving rise to nutrient digestibility and reduce diarrhoea frequency in weanling pigs. PMID:21535231
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases and key regulators for many physiological and pathological functions. The MMP inhibitors have been shown to modulate diseases such as cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. In this paper we tracked the MMP inhibitory activities of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Korean Monkshood Root. The purified active ingredient was identified by the elemental analysis, infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray diffraction as aluminum ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate. This inorganic compound showed inhibitory activities toward a number of MMP family members. In particular, it has a strong inhibitory effect toward MMP-2 and MMP-9, with IC50 values of 0.54 and 0.50 ?M, respectively. Further analysis suggested that the MMP inhibitory activity is mainly due to Al(3+). Cell viability assays using human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells showed aluminum ammonium sulfate had minimal cyto-toxicity with a concentration up to 500 ?M. However, within 50 ?M, it exhibited significant inhibition of cell invasion. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of inorganic form of the MMP inhibitor with strong inhibitory activity. Our results for the first time showed that aluminum ammonium sulfate is an inorganic form of MMP inhibitor with high potency, and can be used to interfere with MMP related cellular processes. PMID:22395535
This paper reported the measurement of maximal expiratory flow-volume curve (MEFV) for 66 cases of asthmatics in the convalescent stage. Among which the data of FEV, PEF, V75, V50, V25 in 35 cases (53.03% of the total) gave different abnormal as compared with healthy persons. It showed that in the convalescent stage, most of the asthmatics still possessed obstruction of airways and chiefly of small airways. 35 cases of asthmatics in the convalescent stage was given the Chinese herbal decoction of chiefly invigorating Kidney (Viscum coloratum 15g, Psoralea corylifolia 15g, Eucommia ulmoides 15g, Lycium chinense 9g, Tussilago farfara 15g, Artemisia capillaris 9g, and Pogostemon cablin 9g as daily dosage) for treatment of 10 weeks and measuring MEFV curves to observe their changes before and after treatment. The results showed that different parameters of MEFV was improved in some extent which suggested that the airway obstruction of asthmatics in the convalescent stage was reversible. In discussion, the authors indicated that the prompt treatment for asthmatics in the convalescent stage was conductive early to prevent emphysema and confirmed that the treatment with Chinese herbs of chiefly invigorating Kidney deserved to be propagated. PMID:2611953
Oleanolic Acid (OA) is a nature product extracted from Chinese Herb Medicine which is traditionally used as treatment of diabetes and ischemic heart diseases. Mounting evidence showed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has cardioprotective effect against ischemic injury and the forkhead transcription factor 3 (FOXO3) was recently identified as a downstream target of AMPK. We hypothesize that OA may protect against ischemic dysfunction of cardiomyocytes via activation of AMPK signaling pathway. Male C57BL/6 mice which were subjected to in vivo regional cardiac ischemia stimulated AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation, as well as phosphorylation of downstream FOXO3 (Ser413) and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). The natural product, OA, significantly stimulated cardiac AMPK activation in cardiomyocyes in time- and dose-dependent manners. The mechanism of AMPK activation by OA may be due to the loss mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) as shown by JC-1 fluorescence assay. Intriguingly, OA as an AMPK activator also triggered FOXO3 (Ser413) phosphorylation in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, OA treatment can protect cardiomyocytes from contractile dysfunction induced by hypoxia. Taken together, the results indicated that both ischemia and OA stimulated cardiac AMPK phosphorylation, as well downstream FOXO3 phosphorylation. The cardioprotective effect of OA maybe associated with activation of AMPK signaling pathways.
The screening for repellency against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), from 14 Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the essential oils of Curcuma longa L., Epimedium pubescens Maximouwicz, Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kostermans, Nardostachys chinensis Battandier, Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieber et Zuccarini, and Z. officinale Roscoe exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila and T. castaneum. A total of 35 components of the essential oil of E. pubescens were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Beta-Eudesmol (14.89%), alpha-pinene (13.38%), borneol (9.56%), (R)-carvone (7.89%), and menthol (7.45%) were the main components of the essential oil of E. pubescens. From the essential oil of E. pubescens, four monoterpenoids and one sesquiterpenoid were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified alpha-pinene, borneol, menthol, carvone, and beta-eudesmol. (R) -carvone, menthol, borneol, and beta-eudesmol were strongly repellent against L. bostrychophila at concentration of 8.5 nl/cm2 after 2 h exposure whereas alpha-pinene exhibited moderate repellency. (R)-carvone exhibited stronger repellency against the booklouse than the positive control, N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). Moreover, (R)-carvone also possessed stronger repellency against T. castaneum than DEET. The other four constituents, menthol, borneol, and beta-eudesmol also showed repellency against the red flour beetles but weaker than DEET at lower concentrations. PMID:23448068
Liang, Yan; Li, Jin Lu; Xu, Shuai; Zhao, Na Na; Zhou, Ligang; Cheng, Jun; Liu, Zhi Long
An alkali-extracted low-molecular glucuronoxylan and two water-extractable polysaccharide complexes isolated from various parts of Rudbeckia fulgida were tested for antitussive activity on mechanically induced cough in nonanaesthetized cats. Glucuronoxylan consisted of a (1-->4)-linked beta-D-xylopyranosyl backbone with about 18% of 4-0-methyl-D-glucuronic acid attached to 0-2 of the chain xylose residues. The polysaccharide complexes differed from each the other regarding the in qualitative and quantitative composition of the sugar components. It was found that peroral administration of all the compounds led to a significant suppression of the cough reflex without negative influence on expectoration. Glucuronoxylan and the complex from the aerial parts of the herb exhibited much higher antitussive activity than the complex from the roots which did not contain any uronic acid component. Their activity (48.2% and 46.5%, respectively) highly surpassed the activity of the complex from the roots (23.5%) as well as that of the peripherally acting drugs dropropizine (28.3%) and prenoxdiazine (24.7%). PMID:10683875
Individual pharmacokinetic differences for herb-drug interaction have been associated with genetic variations of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene. A high level expression of MDR protein increases cellular efflux and might decrease drug sensitivity. This study investigated the drug efflux activity difference of human MDR1 triallelic variant 2677G/T/A (rs2032582), as a nonsynonymous 893Ala/Ser/Thr, using Xenopus laevis oocytes and MDR1 overexpressing LLC-PK1 cells. Two MDR1 variants (2667T/893Ser and 2667A/893Thr) were generated using human MDR1 cDNA (2677G/893Ala). No significant difference in the expression of MDR1 893Ala/Ser/Thr was found in X. laevis oocytes. However, the MDR1 2667A/893Thr variant interestingly showed a significant decrease of efflux activity for both digoxin and daunorubicin compared with those of 893Ala and 893Ser variants. In further investigation assessing the inhibitory effects of three herbal extracts on MDR1, 893Ala and 893Ser showed significant decreases of efflux activities in treatments with P. cocos (p = 0.005 for 893Ser) and D. dasycarpus (p = 0.0009 for 893Ala; p = 0.002 for 893Ser) in X. laevis oocytes. The results in this study suggest that herbal medicines could interact with other drugs and change the therapeutic effects depending on the genetic polymorphisms of individuals. PMID:21287651
Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Soon Re; Song, Im-Sook; Shin, Ho-Jung; Kim, Han-Seop; Lee, Jung-Ha; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Shin, Yong-Cheol
Although boreal forests are biomes which are characterized by periodical forest wildfires, very little is known about adaptations to fire in forest herbs. We investigated whether a putatively fire-dependent herbaceous species - Pulsatilla patens - demonstrated adaptive responses to environmental cues that reflect differences in pre-fire and post-fire environments (the presence of ericoid litter and charcoal, and light levels). For comparison, we included in the experiment a close congeneric species that is less bound to forest ecosystems ( Pulsatilla pratensis) and a morphologically similar mesic grassland species from the same family ( Ranunculus polyanthemos), as examples of species for which adaptations to fire should be of lower value, or of no value at all, respectively. The addition of ericoid litter to the soil generally enhanced plant growth, suggesting that its negative effect on plant germination and growth is not as widespread as previously thought. In both Pulsatilla species charcoal without forest litter retarded plant growth, but in combination with ericoid litter the negative effect disappeared or was even replaced by a slightly positive effect. Such an interactive effect was absent in the grassland species R. polyanthemos. The response of Pulsatilla species to different post-fire signals may be explained by adaptive down-regulation of growth after high-intensity fire - small plant size can be advantageous in sparse and well illuminated field-layer vegetation - and intense growth in the more competitive situation following weak fire. An additional experiment demonstrated that the effects of fire-related treatments were not mediated by differential AM infection.
Kalamees, Rein; Püssa, Kersti; Tamm, Sirli; Zobel, Kristjan
Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 ?g/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50) at 8/16 ?g/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.
Herbivores can have strong deleterious effects on plant growth, reproduction, and even survival. Because these effects might be strongly interrelated, the direct consumptive effects of herbivores and a variety of indirect effects are difficult to untangle. Reductions in growth, for example, may strongly impact the flowering behaviour of plant species in the current season, but at the same time incur costs to survival, growth and reproduction in the next growing season(s). To get better insights in the effects of herbivory on the flowering behaviour of the long-lived polycarpic grassland herb Primula veris L., flowering patterns were monitored over ten consecutive years under two treatments (grazing and control mowing regimes). We tested the hypothesis that the size at flowering was affected by the presence of herbivores, and whether this translated into costs to future reproduction and survival. Overall, grazed plants were significantly smaller than control plants, and the size at which plants flowered was also significantly smaller when herbivores were present. The transition probability of flowering and of surviving into the next year was significantly smaller for all plants in the current year if they had been grazed than if they had been mown, indicating that herbivory incurred costs to both flowering and survival. Grazed plants also needed longer to start flowering, had fewer flowers and flowered less frequently, causing a significantly lower proportion of flowering adults in the population. These results suggest that the observed regression in plant size due to herbivory does not allow plants to capture enough resources to guarantee regular flowering in the longer run. PMID:21120670
Brys, Rein; Shefferson, Richard P; Jacquemyn, Hans
Recorded in Da he wai ke (The External Medicine of Da He) in the Ming dynasty without a corresponding disease title in contemporary scholarly concepts of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Chiding disease was described as an acute symptomatic disease with inevitable serious conditions of convulsion-like or mania-like behavior, and as a refractory ailment. It was also considered as an alias of Hongsiding (namely the acute lymphangitis) in few ancient books. Matixiang, a Chinese herb for treatment of Chiding, was regarded as a nonsuch drug by Da he wai ke, and was considered as a take-then-cure drug by Chuang yang jing yan quan shu (Compendium for Experience in Sores Diseases). The present studies about Chiding and Matixiang show that: (1) the name of Chiding was first seen in Zhong zang jing (Master Hua's Classic of the Viscera) ; (2) Chiding was rarely mentioned in medical literature of the Song, Yuan and Qing Dynasty, but mostly seen in the Ming Dynasty; (3) Xinding and Huoyanding were found as synonyms of Chiding ; (4) the distinction between Chiding and Hongsiding (flaming sore) was revealed by comparison analysis of their etiology, affected part(s), symptoms, prognosis and syndromic pictures; (5) Chiding on the tongue is the same as "Tongue Ding" or "Sublingual Ding" in contemporary TCM and as "Sublingual Space Infection" in Western Medicine. Moreover, Chiding on the hands, feet or other skin parts could be classified as "Hands/Feet Ding" in contemporary TCM and as "Furuncle" (i.e., Acute Suppurative Folliculitis and Perifolliculitis or cellulites of the tongue) in Western Medicine; (6) Matixiang is probably deduced as Asarum forbesii Maxim., A. ichangense C. Y. Cheng et C. S. Yang, family Aristolochiaceae, or Valeriana jatamansi Jones., family Valerianaceae. PMID:23363849
Background and Aims Fragmentation of natural habitats can negatively impact plant populations by leading to reduced genetic variation and increased genetic distance as populations become geographically and genetically isolated from one another. To test whether such detrimental effects occur within an urban landscape, the genetic structure of six populations of the perennial herb Viola pubescens was characterized in the metropolitan area of Greater Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio, USA. Methods Using three inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, 51 loci amplified across all urban populations. For reference, four previously examined agricultural populations in central/northern Ohio and a geographically distant population in Michigan were also included in the analysis. Key Results Urban populations retained high levels of genetic variation (percentage of polymorphic loci, Pp = 80·7 %) with similar genetic distances among populations and an absence of unique alleles. Geographic and genetic distances were correlated with one another, and all populations grouped according to region. Individuals from urban populations clustered together and away from individuals from agricultural populations and from the Michigan population in a principle coordinates analysis. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the genetic variability was partitioned within populations (69·1 %) and among groups (22·2 %) of southwestern Ohio, central/northern Ohio and Michigan groups. Mean Fst was 0·308, indicating substantial population differentiation. Conclusions It is concluded that urban fragmentation does not appear to impede gene flow in V. pubescens in southwestern Ohio. These results are consistent with life history traits of this species and the possibility of high insect abundance in urban habitats due to diverse floral resources and nesting sites. Combined with the cleistogamous breeding system of this species, pollinator availability in the urban matrix may buffer populations against detrimental effects of habitat fragmentation, at least in larger forest fragments. Consequently, it may be inappropriate to generalize about genetic effects of fragmentation across landscapes or even across plant species with different pollination systems.
The current study aims to investigate the effect of chitosan derivatives on the intestinal absorption and bioavailabilities of forsythoside A (FTA) and Chlorogenic acid (CHA), the major active components in Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae herb couple. Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics properties of the two compounds have been characterized in vitro, in situ as well as in rats. Based on the identified biopharmaceutics characteristics of the two compounds, the effect of chitosan derivatives as an absorption enhancer on the intestinal absorption and pharmacokinetics of FTA and CHA in pure compound form as well as extract form were investigated in vitro, in situ and in vivo. Both FTA and CHA demonstrated very limited intestinal permeabilities, leading to oral bioavailabilities being only 0.50% and 0.13% in rats, respectively. Results from both in vitro, in situ as well as in vivo studies consistently indicated that Chito-oligosaccharide (COS) at dosage of 25 mg/kg could enhance intestinal permeabilities significantly as well as the in vivo bioavailabilities of both FTA and CHA than CMCs in Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations, and was safe for gastrointestine from morphological observation. Besides, treatment with Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations with COS at the dosage of 25 mg/kg prevented MDCK damage after influenza virus propagation, which was significantly better than control. The current findings not only identified the usefulness of COS for the improved delivery of Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae preparations but also demonstrated the importance of biopharmaceutical characterization in the dosage form development of traditional Chinese medicine.
The aqueous and methanol extracts of thirty-one herbs traditionally used as anti-fever remedies in China were screened for their in vitro inhibition on human immunodeficiency virus type-1 protease (HIV-1 PR). The activity of recombinant HIV-1 protease was determined by sequence-specific cleavage at the Tyr-Pro bond of the fluorogenic substrate (Arg-Glu(EDANS)-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr-Pro-Ile-Val-Gln-Lys(DABCYL)-Arg) or by HPLC anaylsis of the cleavage products after incubation
T. L. Lam; M. L. Lam; T. K. Au; D. T. M. Ip; T. B. Ng; W. P. Fong; D. C. C. Wan
Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene were amplified from 23 plant- and herbarium specimens belonging to eight Plantago species (P. asiatica, P. depressa, P. major, P. erosa, P. hostifolia, P. camtschatica, P. virginica and P. lanceolata). Sequence comparison indicated that these Plantago species could be identified based on the sequence type of the ITS locus. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions amplified from the crude drug Plantago Herb obtained in the markets indicated that all the drugs from Japan were derived from P. asiatica whereas the samples obtained in China were originated from various Plantago species including P. asiatica, P. depressa, P. major and P. erosa. PMID:17603165