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1

Hippeastrum Is Hardly a Humdrum Classroom Plant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the plant Amaryllis, which is the common name for the Hippeastrum species. Describes how to grow and bloom Amaryllis in soil using hydroponics. Introduces experiments investigating the anatomy of the bulb, growing and elongation rates, the flower, and foliage. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

Hershey, David R.

2002-01-01

2

Crinine-type alkaloids from Hippeastrum aulicum and H. calyptratum.  

PubMed

An ongoing search for alkaloids in the Amaryllidaceae species using GC-MS resulted in the identification of two crinine-type alkaloids, aulicine (1) and 3-O-methyl-epimacowine, (2) from the indigenous Brazilian species Hippeastrum aulicum and Hippeastrum calyptratum, respectively. In addition, two alkaloids, 11-oxohaemanthamine (3) and 7-methoxy-O-methyllycorenine (4) were both isolated from H. aulicum. Furthermore, we provide here complete NMR spectroscopic data for the homolycorine analogues nerinine (5) and albomaculine (6). The absolute stereochemistry of the 5,10b-ethano bridge in the crinine variants was determined by circular dichroism and X-ray crystallographic analysis, thus presenting the first direct evidence for the presence of crinine-type alkaloids in the genus Hippeastrum. PMID:24768284

de Andrade, Jean Paulo; Guo, Ying; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Calvet, Teresa; Dutilh, Jullie; Viladomat, Francesc; Codina, Carles; Nair, Jerald J; Zuanazzi, Jose A Silveira; Bastida, Jaume

2014-07-01

3

Vacuole/Extravacuole Distribution of Soluble Protease in Hippeastrum Petal and Triticum Leaf Protoplasts 1  

PubMed Central

The subcellular distribution of soluble protease in anthesis-stage, anthocyanin-containing Hippeastrum cv. Dutch Red Hybrid petal protoplasts has been reevaluated and that of Triticum aestivum L. var. Red Coat leaf protoplasts determined using 125I-fibrin as a protease substrate and improved methods for protoplast and vacuole volume estimation. Results indicate that about 20% of the Hippeastrum petal-soluble protease and about 90% of the wheat leaf-soluble protease can be assigned to the vacuole. Protoplast isolation enzyme labeled with 125I has been used to assess the efficiency of removing isolation enzyme from protoplasts by repeated washing and by separation of protoplasts from debris using density centrifugation. Results of these studies suggest that protoplasts prepared by both methods retain low levels of isolation enzyme. However, when protoplasts prepared by either method were lysed with washing medium lacking osmoticum, little isolation enzyme contaminated the lysates. PMID:16662055

Wagner, George J.; Mulready, Peter; Cutt, John

1981-01-01

4

Capillary zone electrophoresis method development for the analysis of Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin samples.  

PubMed

A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed aiming the analysis of Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin (HHA) samples. HHA is presently being tested as a vaginal microbicide to prevent HIV transmission. It acts by direct binding to mannose residues that are abundantly present on the HIV gp120 envelope and so interrupts the virus entry process. The final CZE method employs 50mM sodium tetraborate (pH 9.9) as background electrolyte. In this condition, a cluster of about 30 isoform peaks is obtained, with very repeatable patterns. RSDs in the order of 0.2% for the migration time and detection sensitivity in the order of 70microgml(-1) were achieved. PMID:19147415

Carvalho, Alexandre Zatkovskis; Dupas, Tine; Brouwers, Joachim; Hoogmartens, Jos; Augustijns, Patrick; Van Schepdael, Ann

2009-02-15

5

The Herb Garden Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

6

Mechanism of entomotoxicity of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.  

PubMed

Plant lectins have received a lot of attention because of their insecticidal properties. When orally administered in artificial diet or in transgenic plants, lectins provoke a wide range of detrimental effects, including alteration of the digestive enzyme machinery, fecundity drop, reduced feeding, changes in oviposition behavior, growth and development inhibition and mortality. Although many studies reported the entomotoxicity of lectins, only a few of them investigated the mode of action by which lectins exert toxicity. In the present paper we have studied for the first time the insecticidal potential of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) (HHA) bulbs against the larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). Bioassays on neonate larvae showed that this mannose-specific lectin affected larval growth, causing a development retardation and larval weight decrease. Using primary cell cultures from S. littoralis midguts and confocal microscopy we have elucidated FITC-HHA binding and internalization mechanisms. We found that HHA did not exert a toxic effect on S. littoralis midgut cells, but HHA interaction with the brush border of midgut cells interfered with normal nutrient absorption in the S. littoralis midgut, thereby affecting normal larval growth in vivo. This study thus confirms the potential of mannose-specific lectins as pest control agents and sheds light on the mechanism underlying lectin entomotoxicity. PMID:22677323

Caccia, Silvia; Van Damme, Els J M; De Vos, Winnok H; Smagghe, Guy

2012-09-01

7

Culinary herbFAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.

1997-01-01

8

Herbs in dentistry.  

PubMed

Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research. PMID:22117784

Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan

2011-12-01

9

Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

Hatch, Duane

10

Herbs, Vitamins, and Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

... family, is a common household plant originally from Africa. Arnica Arnica is a perennial herb that grows ... shrub that grows in the tropical areas of Africa, Brazil, and Madagascar. Black Cohosh Black cohosh is ...

11

Herb Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Herb Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 pound potatoes 1/2 cup radishes 3 tablespoons plain yogurt, non/4 teaspoon dried thyme 1/4 teaspoon onion powder 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder Directions 1. Scrub potatoes, reduce heat and simmer 20 minutes or until potatoes are done. Drain. Add to medium bowl. 4. Wash radishes

Liskiewicz, Maciej

12

Herbed Tomato Casserole Ingredients  

E-print Network

Herbed Tomato Casserole Ingredients: Non stick cooking spray 1 small onion, finely chopped 28 ounces low sodium tomatoes, canned, diced 1 1/4 cups low sodium stuffing mix, finely crushed 1 1 tomatoes and pour into a mixing bowl. 4. Add 1 cup stuffing mix, sugar, oregano, rosemary to bowl. Mix well

Liskiewicz, Maciej

13

Herbs in exercise and sports  

PubMed Central

The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size. PMID:22738233

2012-01-01

14

Herbs and atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely accepted that atherosclerosis is a complex multicellular process involving oxidation of cholesterol and the\\u000a intracellular accumulation of oxidized cholesterol. This accumulation causes a cascade of inflammatory processes, resulting\\u000a in an unstable atherosclerotic plaque that ultimately bursts, causing myocardial infarction. Botanical dietary supplements\\u000a (herbs) can ameliorate this process and prevent cardiovascular disease at many steps in the

David Heber

2001-01-01

15

Hepatoprotective Herbs, Avicenna Viewpoint  

PubMed Central

Background: Liver injury or dysfunction is considered as a serious health problem. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders are expensive and cause further damage. Hence, hepatoprotective effects of some herbal drugs have been investigated, and one of the methods to choose herbs in order to study their biological effects is to search in ancient medical texts. Avicenna who is known as the prince of physicians had collected and classified Greek, Persian and Islamic medicine in the best possible way in the book of Canon in Arabic. Objectives: Avicenna’s book of The Canon of Medicine was reviewed to find the hepatoprotective herbs. Patients and Methods: Three different versions of the Canon were prepared and utilized. To find scientific names of plants we took advantage of three botany references. All of the herbs were investigated on the basis of scientific data from hepatoprotective effects point of view. The searched term was “hepatoprotective” without narrowing and limiting. The searched databases included Cochrane library, Web of science, SID, Irandoc and IranMedex. Results: 18 plants were found. 85% of the presented species, genus or families of plants were reported to have hepatoprotective properties and in the remaining 15% there were no reports of hepatoprotective effect. Flowers and fruits were the most used part of the plants. Most of the plants had simultaneous protective effects on multiple organs but the protective effect on the liver was mostly accompanied by protective effect on the stomach (83%). The average temperament of these herbs is "hot" in the 2nd phase of the 2nd grade, and "dry" in the 3rd phase of the 2nd grade. Hepatoprotective herbs mostly prescribed as a part of hepatoprotective compound drugs formula or other formula for liver diseases are Crocus sativus, Pistacia lentiscus, and Cinnamomum spp. Conclusions: Maybe there is common mechanism for protecting both liver and stomach. Aquilaria agallocha, Aquilaria malaccensis, and Ruscus aculeatus whose hepatoprotective effects have not yet been reported are considered as good candidates for future investigations. Given that Crocus sativus, and Cinnamomum spp are used as flavors in most countries, they will be introduced for more investigation in order to produce hepatoprotective drugs. PMID:24719702

Shamsi-Baghbanan, Hamid; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Minaei, Bagher

2014-01-01

16

HERB-DRUG INTERACTIONS: WHAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current information on herb-drug interactions is compelling. Avoiding potential or negative interac- tions is essential to patient safety, and understanding which herb-drug combinations work synergistically may improve clinical outcomes. Botanical medicines account for approximately 22% of all complementary and alter- native medicine (CAM) therapies. 1 A 1997 survey found that up to 70% of all Americans take herbal products,

John Neustadt

17

Herb Production--Is It for You?  

E-print Network

is staggering. We use herbs for cooking, food supplements, medicines, cosmetics, soaps and shampoos opportunities. Unlike many crops, no single region or organization dominates the market. For small farmers herbs

O'Laughlin, Jay

18

ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF BERRY CROPS AND HERBS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Berry fruits and herbs are good sources of natural antioxidants. In addition to usual nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, extracts of berries and herbs are also rich in anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Berry fruits and herbs have shown a remarkably high scavenging activity toward ch...

19

Science Nation: HERB the Robot Butler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers at Intel Labs located on the campus of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh are figuring out a way to take the drudgery out of house work. They are creating a robot butler named HERB that doesn't mind doing the mundane. HERB stands for Home Exploring Robotic Butler. The idea is to create a robot that can walk into a home, assess the layout and move about on its own. To do that, HERB is being designed to be smart and resourceful. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), researchers are programming HERB to think on its own.

20

Medicinal Herb REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING  

E-print Network

2011. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Chinese Medicinal Herb Garden of the UC Botanical Garden is supportedChinese Medicinal Herb Garden The REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Gamble. Eastland Press: Seattle, WA 2003. The Chinese Medicinal Herbal Farm: A Cultivator's Guide

Doudna, Jennifer A.

21

Medicinal herbs: Drugs or dietary supplements?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of evaluating medicinal herbs is complex, and there is a need to carefully define a research strategy that addresses a solution to safe and efficacious herbal products. Notwithstanding the immense value of distilling the pharmacological activity of an herb into a chemical suitable for drug development, another approach is to develop a standardized herbal extract that yields consistent

Joseph Chang

2000-01-01

22

Plated Dinner Classic Caesar Salad, with herb  

E-print Network

dressing Southern Spinach Salad, hardboiled eggs, mushrooms, and herb croutons, with honey-mustard dressing-Crusted Honey Mustard Salmon, seared fresh salmon coated with honey-mustard and Georgia pecans accompanied

Arnold, Jonathan

23

The antioxidant activity of Chinese herbs for eczema and of placebo herbs — I  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standardized mixture of Chinese herbs has recently been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for chronic atopic eczema in placebo controlled trials in the UK. Aqueous decoctions of this formulated mixture (PSE 222), the placebo mixture, and their component herbs were examined for antioxidant activity to determine whether antioxidant activity could account for the anti-eczema activity. Two measures of

Andrew J. Kirby; Richard J. Schmidt

1997-01-01

24

Rasayans and non-rasayans herbs: Future immunodrug – Targets  

PubMed Central

Ayurvedic therapeutics describes vast number of medicinal herbs used as “Vyadhirodhak Chamatav” that has enlightened the application of herbs used as corner stone in various diseases especially those modulating the immune system. Ayurveda literature comprises of rasayana and non-rasayana herbs. Materia Medica entirely enriched with enormous data of rasayana medicinal herbs acting as immunomodulators in existence. However, as such there is no specific review of literature available for non-Rasayana herbs that have immense potential as immunomodulators. This review article empowers data on non-rasayana medicinal herbs as promising future target for immunotherapy. PMID:24347916

Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas; Shanbhag, Pradnya Palekar

2013-01-01

25

Interaction of Herbs and Glibenclamide: A Review  

PubMed Central

Herbs and herbal products are considered to be safer and people mix it often with the oral hypoglycemic agent in diabetes therapy. But numerous reports say that every combination of herbs and drugs is not safe. Some combinations may be beneficial and some may be harmful also. So before taking any herbal remedies with oral hypoglycemic agent, patient should consult physician. In this paper we are summarizing the reports available on the interaction of herbal remedies to one of the oral hypoglycemic agents (glibenclamide) and categorizing the effect of the combination is beneficial and harmful. PMID:22844612

Rai, Amita; Eapen, Cicy; Prasanth, V. G.

2012-01-01

26

College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension Herb and Spice History  

E-print Network

College of Agricultural Sciences · Cooperative Extension Herb and Spice History Herb and Spice Definitions Before learning about the history of herbs and spices, it is necessary to define these terms. In Pennsylvania, we live in a temperate climate characterized by summers and winters of similar length. Spices

Guiltinan, Mark

27

Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

. Carefully stir in bell peppers and onions. 6. Cover and chill until ready to serve. Equipment: Cutting boardItalian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters

Liskiewicz, Maciej

28

Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices.  

PubMed

Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases resulting from lipid peroxidation. Our studies on spices and herbs have given us over a hundred compounds, known and new, having high antioxidant activity. From the Labiatae family, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare and O. majorana gave 26 active comopounds. Over 40 antioxidative compounds from Zingiber officinale, 26 compounds from Curcuma domestica = C. longa, C. xanthorrhiza and Z. cassumunar were determined, these belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. From the family Myrtaceae, 25 compounds from the berries of Pimenta dioica were determined and 3 carbazoles were isolated from Murraya koenigii. Structure-activity relationships of some of the isolated compounds were also discussed. PMID:11237173

Nakatani, N

2000-01-01

29

Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation), Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana) and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to). The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes. PMID:19523223

Hui, Hongxiang; Tang, George; Go, Vay Liang W

2009-01-01

30

Medicinal herbs: NTP extracts the facts.  

PubMed Central

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has announced that it will design and initiate studies to identify and characterize possible adverse health effects that may be associated with prolonged use or higher doses of some of the most popular medicinal herbs, including Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea angustifolia, and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). The NTP studies a large variety of substances to which the population may be exposed in the environment, occupationally, in the food supply, or elsewhere. PMID:10585909

1999-01-01

31

Systematic Review of Breastfeeding and Herbs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives Despite popular and historical use, there has been little modern research conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of herb use during breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the clinical literature on herbal medicine and lactation. Methods The databases PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HealthSTAR, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Reprotox were systematically searched for human trials from 1970 until 2010. Reference lists from relevant articles were hand-searched. Results Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Clinical studies were divided into three categories: survey studies (n=11), safety studies (n=8), and efficacy studies (n=13). Six studies were randomized controlled trials. The most common herbs studied were St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) (n=3), garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract (n=2), and senna (Cassia senna L.) (n=2). Studies were very heterogeneous with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Overall, poor methodological quality predominated among the studies. Conclusions Our review concludes that further research is needed to assess the prevalence, efficacy, and safety of commonly used herbs during breastfeeding. PMID:22686865

Budzynska, Katarzyna; Gardner, Zoë E.; Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Low Dog, Tieraona

2012-01-01

32

Thermoluminscence of irradiated herbs and spices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several types of herbs and spices from the local market were irradiated with different doses of ? radiations. Doses varied from a few kilograys to 10 kilograys. Thermoluminescence of the irradiated samples and their controls was investigated. For the same type of herb or spice glow curves of different magnitudes, corresponding somewhat to the doses given, were obtained from the irradiated samples. Most control samples gave little or insignificant glow. Glow curves from different herbs and spices irradiated with the same doses were not similar in the strength of the glow signal given. Samples of the black pepper obtained from different packages sometimes give glow curves of very different intensities. Samples from irradiated black pepper were found to show little fading of their glow curves even at 9 months postirradiation. All irradiations were done under the same experimental conditions and at a dose rate of approximately 1 kGy h-1. The glow curves were obtained using a heating rate of about 9°C s-1 and a constant nitrogen flow rate.

Mamoon, A.; Abdul-Fattah, A. A.; Abulfaraj, W. H.

1994-07-01

33

Cheeses of Turkey: 3. Varieties containing herbs or spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ripened cheese varieties containing herbs are traditional in Turkey and have been manufactured for more than 200 years in\\u000a the east and southeast of the country. They are manufactured from raw milk, semi-hard in texture and salty in taste and have\\u000a the aroma of garlic or thyme due to added herbs. Twenty-five types of herb, including Allium, Thymus, Silene and

Ali A. Hayaloglu

2008-01-01

34

[Ancient clinical application of herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus].  

PubMed

In order to further improve the curative effect of the herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus, we collected a wide range of literature on herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus and then systematically arranged them to analyze and summarize the technology and operating methods of herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus. We also briefly discussed issues on application of medicine, locust tree skin and ginger, the method of kneading dough for medical uses, and the appropriate size of moxa cone and its using frequency in order to form clear concepts and standardized operations to provide theories and operational basis for the clinical application of modern herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus. PMID:25509757

Yu, Bao-luo; Han, Yuan-yuan; Ma, Yu-xia; Gao, Shu-zhong

2014-09-01

35

ECOLOGY OF THE ENDANGERED HERB SCUTELLARIA  

E-print Network

Summary: Scutellaria novae-zelandiae is a small herb restricted to the Nelson! Marlborough region. Aspects of its ecology were studied to assist in the management of wild populations. An absolute estimate of abundance is not possible as individual Scutellaria plants are indistinguishable and it grows in small patches up to 20 m2. There are probably between 50 and 100 such patches in podocarp-beech forest below 200 m a.s.1. on freely drained alluvium and colluvium. The vigour of Scutellaria patches as estimated from changes in shoot frequency and seed production varies widely depending on site conditions. It cannot tolerate competition from ferns, herbs, weeds, and shrub growth which occurs once the ground surface stabilises. Patches of Scutellaria have a marked seasonal variation in mean height, reaching a peak of approximately 12-15 cm during flowering (November-December), and then declining. Fresh Scutellaria seeds take several weeks to germinate and many enter the soil seed bank. Seedlings rarely appeared in bare ground plots at the field sites, but many emerged rapidly from topsoil samples placed in a glasshouse, along with abundant seedlings of vigorous adventive weeds. Scutellaria patches expand mainly by vegetative means. Scutellaria has been reduced in abundance by grazing at some sites, yet at others it has probably benefitted from grazing through the removal of competition from other plants, including adventive weeds. The implications of the results for the conservation of Scutellaria are mentioned.

P. A. Williams

36

Antioxidative Activities of Water Extracts of Some Malaysian Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted on selected local herbs such as ulam raja (Cosmos caudatus), kesum (Polygonum minus), selom (Oenanthe javanica), pegaga (Centella asiatica) and curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) to investigate their antioxidative activities. The water extracts of the herbs were analysed for total phenolic content, reducing antioxidant power, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test was also accried

Bandar Baru Nilai

37

Herbs commonly used by women: An evidence-based review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the evidence of herbs commonly used by women.Data Sources: Articles were located by searching Mediline, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and the Combined Health Information Database and by hand searching the reference list of recent systematice reviews. The databases were searched in January 2000 and October 2000 by using the Latin and common name of each herb.Methods

Bonne J. Tesch

2002-01-01

38

Analysis of trace elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs.  

PubMed

The bioactive elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed. These elements in their appropriate dosage range are considered to be beneficial to health. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were applied to determine the concentrations of various elements. Twenty-two Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs, resourced from the traditional high therapeutic quality areas or provinces were selected. Bioactive analysis focused on Lanthanum (La), Strontium (Sr), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se), especially in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and its associate disorders. The higher elemental concentration herbs, La in: Rhizoma Gastrodiae Elatae, Fructus Crataegi and Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae. Sr in: Radix Puerariae and Folium Ginkgo Biloba. Zn in: Flos Carthami Tinctorii and Fructus Crataegi. Se in: Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Portulaca Oleracea. The results mainly showed that Chinese herbs which are also therapeutic foods may be used as nutritional supplements for preventing and treating elemental deficiency, e.g., hyperlipidemia. More attention in this regard should be paid to herbs that contain La and are traditionally used for regulating cardiovascular disorders. The knowledge of the effects and concentrations of bioactive elements in foods and herbs could guide the selection of Chinese herbs in clinical practice in conjunction with traditional Chinese medicine theories. Further studies should also be considered in relation to Sr, Zn and blood regulating herbs, which could prove to be beneficial. PMID:19655402

Xu, Hong; Xu, Hou-En

2009-01-01

39

Micropropagation of Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb.  

PubMed

For conservation and genetic transformation, a successful in vitro micropropagation protocol for Ajuga bracteosa, a medicinal herb has been established for the first time. MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 mg/L) and BA (5 mg/L) induced 100 % shoot regeneration with an average of 41.4 shoots of 8.4 cm per culture. Excised in vitro shoots when transferred to MS + IBA (0.5 mg/L) produced 20 roots/shoot of 20.2 cm average length in 100 % cultures. Of the three explants, leaf, petiole and root, leaf displayed quickest response followed by petiole while root was the slowest. Hardening of plantlets was achieved with 82 % survival. The hardened plants were maintained in pots with garden soil under controlled (Temp. 25?±?2 °C) conditions. RAPD exhibited genetic fidelity with 100 % monomorphism in regenerants. PMID:24431498

Kaul, Shivanee; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, P S

2013-04-01

40

PA02.08. Role of herbs in psychosomatic disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Stress is taking toll of the health of the people in this present competitive and challenging world. Ayurvedic acharayas have realized the role of mind on the body thousands of years ago. While mentioning the etiology of almost every disease our acharyas have mentioned the psychological factors like bhaya, shoka, kroda etc along with the physiological causes. It shows the effect of mind in causation of a disease. These psychological factors like bhaya, shoka etc when become excessive and uncontrollable they lead to manasika rogas. These manasika rogas are called as psychosomatic disorders. In Ayurveda a number of herbs have been mentioned as medhya rasayanas. The herbs like brahmi, mandookaparni, shankapuspi, aswagandha, yestimadhu, guduchi etc, have been mentioned at various contexts which work in different ways to help restore the health in psychosomatic disorders. Hence the present topic the “ROLE OF HERBS IN PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS” was taken up to study the mode of action of herbs mentioned in manasika rogas. Method: The drugs mentioned by the brihatrayees under the treatment of manasika rogas like unmada and apasmara are enumerated and later the properties of most frequently mentioned herbs are studied. Result: The herbs like Brahmi, Shankapuspi act by their nootropic activity and the herbs like Lashuna, Vaca etc act by their high antioxidant property. Conclusion: The drugs by our acharyas act by their rasa, guna virya and vipaka help in the elimination of aggravated dosas their by helps the body to regain the homeostasis of tridoshas.

Ramgopal, KVRSS

2013-01-01

41

Lead concentrations of herbs used in Van Herby cheese.  

PubMed

Van Herby Cheese is a traditional milk product including local herb species in eastern Turkey. This special milk product was previously produced only for the local market, but industrial scale production and marketing have recently started in the region. However, some quality characteristics such as microbial flora and heavy metal concentrations of this novel product need to be investigated. In this study, lead concentrations of 28 different herbs mostly used in Van Herby Cheese were analyzed by AAS. The highest lead concentration of 1.69 mg kg(-1) of the analyzed herbs was found in Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia. PMID:22164786

Tuncturk, Murat; Tuncturk, Ruveyde; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Ertus, Mehmet M; Ozgokce, Fevzi

2011-10-01

42

Several Culinary and Medicinal Herbs Are Important Sources of Dietary Antioxidants1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the contribution of culinary and medicinal herbs to the total intake of dietary antioxi- dants. Our results demonstrate that there is more than a 1000-fold difference among antioxidant concentrations of various herbs. Of the dried culinary herbs tested, oregano, sage, peppermint, garden thyme, lemon balm, clove, allspice and cinnamon as well as the Chinese medicinal herbs Cinnamomi cortex

Steinar Dragland; Haruki Senoo; Kenjiro Wake; Kari Holte; Rune Blomhoff

43

Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice  

PubMed Central

Anethum graveolens L. (dill) has been used in ayurvedic medicines since ancient times and it is a popular herb widely used as a spice and also yields essential oil. It is an aromatic and annual herb of apiaceae family. The Ayurvedic uses of dill seeds are carminative, stomachic and diuretic. There are various volatile components of dill seeds and herb; carvone being the predominant odorant of dill seed and ?-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, myristicin are the most important odorants of dill herb. Other compounds isolated from seeds are coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and steroids. The main purpose of this review is to understand the significance of Anethum graveolens in ayurvedic medicines and non-medicinal purposes and emphasis can also be given to the enhancement of secondary metabolites of this medicinal plant. PMID:22228959

Jana, S.; Shekhawat, G. S.

2010-01-01

44

Cancer Doctors Don't Discuss Herbs, Supplements with Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... With Patients Many physicians cite a lack of knowledge as a primary reason, survey finds (*this news ... reason why they skip that conversation. "Lack of knowledge about herbs and supplements, and awareness of that ...

45

E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. E. Coli Germs Found on Farmers Market Herbs Nearly ... Preidt Friday, December 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages E. Coli Infections Food Safety FRIDAY, Dec. 19, 2014 ( ...

46

Herbs and hazards: risk of aristolochic Acid nephropathy in iran.  

PubMed

Herbs are usually considered as inherently harmless products. Nonetheless, various renal injuries have been reported in association with several herbs. The best-known herb-induced chronic kidney disease is aristolochic acid nephropathy. Aristolochic acid is found in Chinese slim herbs. Balkan endemic nephropathy is nowadays considered as an aristolochic acid nephropathy. Plants of Aristolochiaceae (also known as birthwort, dutchman's pipe, and somersworth) is named zaravand or chopoghak in Persian and it grows in different mountainous and rural areas of Iran. The fruit and the steam of the Aristolochiacae are named zaravand gerd (nokhod alvand) and zaravand dearaz, respectively, and have different usage in Iranian teadirional such as treatment of headache, back pain, and anxiety. Some patients with end-stage renal disease and bilateral small kidneys have a history of exposure to some herbal remedies. We need to consider the possibility of environmental toxins and even Aristolochia nephrotoxicity as a potential danger in Iran. PMID:25599730

Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Khodaie, Laleh; Nasri, Hamid; Jouyban, Abolghasem

2015-01-01

47

Antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities of selected medicinal herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative and superoxide- and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities and pro-oxidant effect of twelve selected medicinal herbs were studied. The aqueous extracts of Coptis chinensis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Prunella vulgaris and Senecio scandens exhibited the highest potency in inhibiting rat erythrocyte hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in rat kidney and brain homogenates. The aforementioned four herbs also demonstrated strong superoxide- and hydroxyl radical-scavenging

F. Liu; T. B. Ng

2000-01-01

48

Transient complete atrioventricular block associated with herb intake.  

PubMed

We report a case of transient complete atrioventricular block in a 38-year-old man, after intake of a mixture of herbs, intended to aid cigarette smoking cessation. Since all other causes of conduction disturbances were excluded, a side-effect of the herbal remedy was identified as the most likely diagnosis. Given that most patients are unaware of the potential risks of the intake of various herbs, we would urge that their usage be regulated. PMID:15878559

Kolettis, Theofilos M; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Novas, Ioannis; Sideris, Dimitrios A

2005-05-01

49

Antiviral Chinese medicinal herbs against respiratory syncytial virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four medicinal herbs were tested for antiviral activities against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by means of the cytopathologic effect (CPE) assay. Twenty-seven of the 44 medicinal herbs showed potent or moderate antiviral activities against RSV with 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) ranging from 6.3 to 52.1 ?g\\/ml, and with selectivity index (SI) ranging from 2.0 to 32.1. Further purification of the

Shuang-Cheng Ma; Jiang Du; Paul Pui-Hay But; Xue-Long Deng; Yong-Wen Zhang; Vincent Eng-Choon Ooi; Hong-Xi Xu; Spencer Hon-Sun Lee; Song Fong Lee

2002-01-01

50

The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences. PMID:18499033

Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

2009-01-01

51

Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.  

PubMed

Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3.2-946.0 mg/m3 (median 18.1 mg/m3), exceeding at 13 out of 14 sampling sites the Polish OEL value of 4 mg/m3. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin ranged within 0.2-2681.0 microg/m3 (median 16.0 microg/m3), exceeding at all sampling sites the suggested OEL value of 0.1 microg/m3. In conclusion, the workers of herb processing plants could be exposed to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. PMID:11748878

Dutkiewicz, J; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

2001-01-01

52

Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.  

PubMed

Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

2013-01-01

53

Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability.  

PubMed

Spices and herbs are extensively used in indigenous diets in tropical regions where prevalence of iron deficiency is still high. They are rich in polyphenolic compounds that are expected to inhibit iron absorption by forming iron complexes in the intestine, making dietary iron less available for absorption. The effects of six spices and herbs (chili pepper, garlic, 'Pak kyheng' (Thai leafy vegetable), shallot, tamarind, turmeric) and one mixture of spices (curry paste) on iron availability were determined by measuring the percentage dialyzable iron after addition of spices and herbs to a rice meal after simulated digestion. All tested spices and herbs contained from 0.5 to 33 mg polyphenol per meal and were potent inhibitors of iron availability (20-90%), reducing iron availability in a dose-dependent manner--with the exception of tamarind, which at 11 mg polyphenol per meal enhanced iron availability. Our findings demonstrate that culinary spices and herbs can play an important role in iron nutrition. PMID:18651292

Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Zeder, Christophe; Siriprapa, Pudsadee; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri

2009-01-01

54

Time to Talk: What You Should Know about 5 Popular Herbs (Evening Primrose Oil, St. John's Wort, Fenugreek, Echinacea, ....  

MedlinePLUS

... Should Know About 5 Popular Herbs Herbal or botanical supplements are widely marketed and readily available, often ... were looking for information on specific herbs and botanicals. The top five searched-for herbs of 2012 ...

55

[Establishment of comprehensive fingerprint database of traditional Chinese herbs].  

PubMed

Quality control of traditional Chinese herbs by fingerprint is being paid close attention in these years. A database software has been designed and built to store these fingerprints and other relevant information. The use of this database is very simple and convenient for ordinary analysts who have no experience on professional database software. This software could be used under many kinds of operation systems such as Windows 95, 98, 2000 and Windows NT 4.0, 5.0. By now, nearly 30 fingerprints and their relevant information of ten kinds of traditional Chinese herbs have been input into this database, and the number of fingerprints in this base will be continuously increased in the future. This database is helpful for the analysis and quality control of traditional Chinese herbs. PMID:12541628

Wang, Long-xing; Xiao, Hong-bin; Liang, Xin-miao

2002-01-01

56

Molecular mechanism of herbs in human lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

Herbs have been considered natural and valuable sources for anticancer drug discovery. Herbal medicine has been prescribed in many countries over centuries for treating various diseases including infectious and malignant diseases. Nowadays, many of the drugs that have been used for treatment of malignant diseases are derived from natural products such as Taxol, a natural product isolated initially from Pacific Yew (Taxus brevifolia). This review article describes research on molecular mechanisms, especially cytotoxic effect of natural products from plant sources, primarily preclinical studies, involving human lung cancer cells in vitro for providing more knowledge and issues for potential drug development from medicinal herbs in the future. PMID:16471127

Kummalue, Tanawan

2005-11-01

57

Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

2006-01-01

58

Detection of Herb-Symptom Associations from Traditional Chinese Medicine Clinical Data  

PubMed Central

Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an individualized medicine by observing the symptoms and signs (symptoms in brief) of patients. We aim to extract the meaningful herb-symptom relationships from large scale TCM clinical data. Methods. To investigate the correlations between symptoms and herbs held for patients, we use four clinical data sets collected from TCM outpatient clinical settings and calculate the similarities between patient pairs in terms of the herb constituents of their prescriptions and their manifesting symptoms by cosine measure. To address the large-scale multiple testing problems for the detection of herb-symptom associations and the dependence between herbs involving similar efficacies, we propose a network-based correlation analysis (NetCorrA) method to detect the herb-symptom associations. Results. The results show that there are strong positive correlations between symptom similarity and herb similarity, which indicates that herb-symptom correspondence is a clinical principle adhered to by most TCM physicians. Furthermore, the NetCorrA method obtains meaningful herb-symptom associations and performs better than the chi-square correlation method by filtering the false positive associations. Conclusions. Symptoms play significant roles for the prescriptions of herb treatment. The herb-symptom correspondence principle indicates that clinical phenotypic targets (i.e., symptoms) of herbs exist and would be valuable for further investigations. PMID:25650023

Li, Yu-Bing; Zhou, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Run-Shun; Wang, Ying-Hui; Peng, Yonghong; Hu, Jing-Qing; Xie, Qi; Xue, Yan-Xing; Xu, Li-Li; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Bao-Yan

2015-01-01

59

A Mobile App and an API for Essential and Useful Thai Herbs Search  

E-print Network

A Mobile App and an API for Essential and Useful Thai Herbs Search Pamin Rangsikunpum, Warit@kku.ac.th, krunapon@kku.ac.th Abstract--Herbs are plants used for flavoring, food, and medicine. It is important by developing an application called "Thai Herb Search" in the form of a web application, an Application

Runapongsa, Kanda

60

Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total ?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

2002-03-01

61

Determination of Heavy Metal Contents in Samples of Medicinal Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Mo were determined in 27 samples of medicinal herbs taken from various places in Bielsko Biata and the neighbouring area. Samples were digested by the wet method in a microwave oven. Flame AAS and differential pulse polarography (anodic and stripping voltammetry) were used for determination of these metals. Oriental tobacco (CTA-ATL-1) as

I. Baranowska; K. Srogi; A. W?ochowicz; K. Szczepanik

62

Flavonoid aglycones and phytosterols from the Erigeron acris L. herb.  

PubMed

Four flavonoid aglycones (apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin) were isolated from methanolic extract from the herb of Erigemn acris L. (Asteraceae). In this extract five phytosterols (campesterol, chondrillasterol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol(5alpha,3alpha), stigmasterol and spinasterone) were also identified. PMID:17203871

Nazaruk, Jolanta

2006-01-01

63

Herbs commonly used by women: An evidence-based review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the evidence of herbs commonly used by women. Data Sources: Articles were located by searching Medline, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and the Combined Health Information Database and by hand searching the reference lists of recent systematic reviews. The databases were searched in January 2000 and October 2000 by using the Latin and common name of each

Bonnie J. Tesch

2003-01-01

64

Insecticidal control of some pests of culinary herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insecticidal control of meadow spittle bug, Philaenus spumarius (L.), infestations on French tarragon. (Artemisia dracunculus (L.)), and of the‘banded sage hopper’, Eupteryx melissae Curtis, on sage (Salvia officinalis (L.)), are discussed, with special reference to the export of fresh herbs. The meadow spittle bug can be controlled by the application of fenvalerate or maldison in mid to late September

J. A. Wightman; D. N. J. Whitford

1984-01-01

65

Resources limit the fecundity of three woodland herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of supplemental hand pollination on fruit set, seed number, and seed weight were examined for 3 perennial, woodland herbs, Uvularia sessilifolia, Geranium maculatum, and Maianthemum canadense. We found no evidence for pollen limitation of any measure of fecundity. Low light probably limited fecundity in Geranium, while soil nitrogen limited the number of sseds\\/fruit in Maianthemum. For Geranium and Maianthemum

C. McCall; R. B. Primack

1987-01-01

66

Herb-drug interactions: challenges and opportunities for improved predictions.  

PubMed

Supported by a usage history that predates written records and the perception that "natural" ensures safety, herbal products have increasingly been incorporated into Western health care. Consumers often self-administer these products concomitantly with conventional medications without informing their health care provider(s). Such herb-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when the herbal product perturbs the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters. Despite increasing recognition of these types of herb-drug interactions, a standard system for interaction prediction and evaluation is nonexistent. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying herb-drug interactions remain an understudied area of pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of herbal product interaction liability is challenging due to variability in herbal product composition, uncertainty of the causative constituents, and often scant knowledge of causative constituent pharmacokinetics. These limitations are confounded further by the varying perspectives concerning herbal product regulation. Systematic evaluation of herbal product drug interaction liability, as is routine for new drugs under development, necessitates identifying individual constituents from herbal products and characterizing the interaction potential of such constituents. Integration of this information into in silico models that estimate the pharmacokinetics of individual constituents should facilitate prospective identification of herb-drug interactions. These concepts are highlighted with the exemplar herbal products milk thistle and resveratrol. Implementation of this methodology should help provide definitive information to both consumers and clinicians about the risk of adding herbal products to conventional pharmacotherapeutic regimens. PMID:24335390

Brantley, Scott J; Argikar, Aneesh A; Lin, Yvonne S; Nagar, Swati; Paine, Mary F

2014-03-01

67

Traditional and Commercial Herb Use in Health Self-Management among Rural Multiethnic Older Adults  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes the role of traditional and commercial herbs in older adults’ health self-management based on Leventhal’s Self-Regulatory Model conceptual framework. Sixty-two African American and white adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing the forms of herbs currently being used, sources of information about them, interpretations of health (acute symptoms or chronic conditions) that lead to their use, and the initiation and suspension of use. Traditional herbs are native to the region or have been traditionally cultivated; usually taken raw or boiled to produce tea; and used for treating mild symptoms. Commercial herbs are prepared as pills, extracts, or teas; they are purchased at local stores or ordered by catalog or internet; and used for health promotion, illness prevention or treatment of chronic conditions. Herbs are widely used among older adults; this analysis differentiates the types of herbs they use and their reasons for herbs use. PMID:24991081

Altizer, Kathryn; Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bell, Ronny A.; Sandberg, Joanne; Arcury, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

68

An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy.  

PubMed

Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and leaves are hairy, more over it has two types of stomata, anisocytic and paracytic. A herb, C. pluricaulis has emerged as a good source of the traditional medicine for the treatment of liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, and CNS disease. Pharmacological results have validated the use of this species in traditional medicine. All the parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. Expansion of research materials would provide more opportunities for the discovery of new bioactive principles from C. pluricaulis. PMID:25182446

Agarwa, Parul; Sharma, Bhawna; Fatima, Amreen; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

2014-03-01

69

Essential elements levels in herbs and their infusions  

E-print Network

Abstract. Health benefits have been attributed to tea consumption since the beginning of its history. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of some essential elements from seven herbs and their infusions. Four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and a macroelement (Mg) were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla), dandelion (Taraxum officinale), nettle (Urtica dioica), tea (Camelia sinesis) (Black and green), wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) and yarrow (Achilea millefolium) were used as material plants in this study. The highest values of essential elements were established in C sinesis (Black tea). Studied herbs and their infusions contain essential elements within the safe limits towards human beings.

Simona Dobrinas; Alina Daria Soceanu; Gabriela Stanciu; Simona Bratu

70

Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476

2011-01-01

71

Occurrence of enniatins and beauvericin in 60 Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

A total of 60 Chinese medicinal herbs were examined for contamination of the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) A, A1, B, B1 and beauvericin (BEA). The herbs under study are commonly used in China as both medicines and food. The dried samples of herbs were randomly collected from traditional Chinese medicine stores in Zhejiang province, China. Sample preparation was achieved by methanol extraction, followed by a simple membrane filtration step; no tedious clean-ups were involved. ENNs A, A1, B, B1 and BEA were analysed by the recently developed stable isotope dilution assays, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With limits of detection ranging between 0.8 and 1.2 µg kg(-1) for the analytes under study, 25% of all analysed samples were contaminated with at least one of the ENNs and BEA. BEA was the most frequently detected toxin with a 20% incidence in all samples. The percentages of ENN-positive samples were lower: each single ENN was detected in 6.7-11.7% of all samples. Considering the total amounts of the five mycotoxins in single samples, values between 2.5 and 751 µg kg(-1) were found. The mean total amount in positive samples was 126 µg kg(-1). Regarding ginger, the frequent occurrence of ENNs and BEA in dried ginger could be confirmed in samples from Germany. However, in fresh ginger root the toxins were not detectable. This is the first report on the presence of ENNs and BEA in Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24720681

Hu, Ling; Rychlik, Michael

2014-01-01

72

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation  

PubMed Central

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

Kora?, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

2011-01-01

73

Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.  

PubMed

Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and its secondary metabolites in food. The objective of the present study was to examine selected dried culinary herbs for the presence of S. chartarum chemotype S, to assess the potential risk of a contamination of foods with macrocyclic trichothecenes. In total, 50 Stachybotrys isolates from different types of culinary herbs (n?=?100) such as marjoram (Origanum majorana Linné (L.)), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja hortensis L.) were examined by MTT-cell culture test (effect-based bioassay), ELISA, and by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selected toxic and non-toxic isolates (n?=?15) were genetically characterized by PCR and sequencing. Five isolates (10 %) were highly toxic in the MTT-cell culture test, and the production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was proven by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. These five isolates were genetically confirmed as S. chartarum chemotype S. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a contamination of dried culinary herbs with toxigenic S. chartarum. PMID:25346283

Biermaier, Barbara; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

2014-10-28

74

Ecotoxicological responses of three ornamental herb species to cadmium.  

PubMed

Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant. PMID:23564584

Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mingzhu

2013-08-01

75

A brief study of toxic effects of some medicinal herbs on kidney  

PubMed Central

Increased use of complementary and alternative herbal medicines in the treatment of various diseases.Some herbal therapies may be causes of potential toxicity that may be renal toxicity caused by the ingestion of herbs. The goal of this study is the toxic and beneficial effects of medicinal herbs on renal health by which evidence for benefit or toxicity has been found. Included are nephrotoxicity from aristolochic acid and other components within herbs, herb-drug interactions, heavy metal toxicity in herbs and adulterants during careless preparation of herbal medicine, resulting in adverse renal effects and renal toxicity from contaminants within the extracts. The review aims to provide knowledge and guide to encourage future toxicity studies on the kidney by medicinal herbs. PMID:23326775

Asif, Mohammad

2012-01-01

76

Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics.  

PubMed

Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm), flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood). These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 40-1990 micromol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 micromol TE/g), Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 micromol TE/g), Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 micromol TE/g), Artemisia anomala herb (1400 micromol TE/g), Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 micromol TE/g) and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 micromol TE/g). Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action. PMID:18955214

Liao, Hui; Banbury, Linda K; Leach, David N

2008-12-01

77

A comparison of HIV1 integrase inhibition by aqueous and methanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous and methanol extracts of twenty herbs traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for anti-HIV-1 integrase activity in a non-radioactive ELISA-based HIV-1 integrase assay. The screening was performed at an herb extract concentration of 50 ?g\\/ml. It was found that most of the aqueous and methanol herb extracts could elicit strong inhibition of HIV-1 integrase activity. The inhibition

T. K. Au; T. L. Lam; T. B. Ng; W. P. Fong; D. C. C. Wan

2001-01-01

78

Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics  

PubMed Central

Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm), flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood). These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 40–1990 µmol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 µmol TE/g), Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 µmol TE/g), Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 µmol TE/g), Artemisia anomala herb (1400 µmol TE/g), Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 µmol TE/g) and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 µmol TE/g). Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action. PMID:18955214

Banbury, Linda K.; Leach, David N.

2008-01-01

79

Herb of grace: an unusual cause of phytophotodermatitis mimicking burn injury.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 2-year-old child who suffered an acute phytophotodermatitis with systemic upset after contact with the herb Ruta Graveolens (common rue, Herb of Grace). We review the literature detailing the mechanism of the phytophotodermatitis and the mainstream and alternative medicinal uses of the herb. Clinicians treating burns should consider phytophotodermatitis in their differential diagnosis of any partial-thickness burn injury. Furthermore, the hazards of growing this widespread herb in gardens where children play should be well publicized. PMID:17667834

Furniss, Dominic; Adams, Titus

2007-01-01

80

Effect of a variety of Chinese herbs and an herb-containing dentifrice on volatile sulfur compounds associated with halitosis: An in vitro analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro. Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of bacterial activity and VSC inhibition. Extracted substances from Chinese herbs were identified by VSC inhibition tests with a Halimeter and microbial sensitivity testing. The effectiveness on halitosis was compared between a dentifrice containing one of the effective Chinese herbs (ie, chrysanthemum flower [Chrysanthemum morifolium flos]), 4 commercially available antihalitosis dentifrices, and a positive control that received no treatment. Results: Ten volunteers provided saliva samples for VSC testing. Of the 40 herbs tested, 14 extracts had percent inhibition rates of VSCs >50%. Ten herbs showed greatest effect against all culturable microorganisms with bacterial inhibition >70%. There was a weak positive correlation between bacteriostasis and the anti-VSC activity of the herbs with a correlation coefficient of 0.2579 (Pearson). The mean (SD) values of the VSC testing were as follows: dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower, 55.91 (8.16) ppb; Crest Tea Refreshing Dentifrice®, 48.39 (7.48) ppb (P = NS); Cortex Phellodendri Dentifrice®, 139.90 (14.70) ppb (P < 0.01); Colgate Total Plus Whitening®, 120.94 (15.58) ppb (P < 0.01); Zhong Hua Chinese Herbs Dentifrice®, 136.96 (13.06) ppb (P < 0.01); and positive control, 312.38 (28.58) ppb (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Of 40 herbs tested, 14 Chinese herbs were found to be effective for VSC inhibition. A dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower reduced the formation of VSC in vitro, showing a significantly greater effect than the control group and 3 of 4 dentifrices already on the market. PMID:24683259

Li, Ming-yu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Zhu-ting

2010-01-01

81

Hepatitis induced by traditional Chinese herbs; possible toxic components.  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are widely available in the United Kingdom for the treatment of chronic skin disorders. Their benefits are considerable, but their use is completely unregulated. Two patients are described here who suffered an acute hepatitic illness related to taking traditional Chinese herbs. Both recovered fully. The mixtures that they took included two plant components also contained within the mixture taken by a previously reported patient who suffered fatal hepatic necrosis. These cases high-light the need for greater awareness of both the therapeutic and toxic potential of herbal remedies, as well as greater control of their use. PMID:7890220

Kane, J A; Kane, S P; Jain, S

1995-01-01

82

Carcinogenicity of some folk medicinal herbs in rats.  

PubMed

Twelve medicinal herbs were bioassayed to correlate a high incidence of esophageal carcinoma in natives of different places with their habitual consumption of these products. Outbred NIH Black rats were given 72 weekly sc injections of the total aqueous extracts of the plant materials. The tanninrich plant extracts from Areca catechu and Rhus copallina produced local tumors in 100 and 33%, respectively, of the experimental animals. Other materials included Diospyros virginiana and extracts from plants not rich in tannins. Diospyros and extracts of Sassafras albidum and Chenopodium ambrosiodes were tumorigenic in over 50% of the treated animals. PMID:625070

Kapadia, G J; Chung, E B; Ghosh, B; Shukla, Y N; Basak, S P; Morton, J F; Pradhan, S N

1978-03-01

83

Rue the herb: Ruta graveolens--associated phytophototoxicity.  

PubMed

We describe an unusual case of phytophototoxicity induced by an herbal plant, Ruta graveolens, from the Rutaceae family. This common herb, also called rue, can be found throughout rural settings in the United States. When psoralens from rue come in contact with human skin that is subsequently exposed to ultraviolet A light, an impressive photoirritant reaction can occur. This report both clarifies the distinguishing features of photoirritant reactions versus photoallergic reactions and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of phytophotodermatitis. R. graveolens can be associated with an impressive photoirritant reaction and should not be used as an insect repellent. PMID:17303046

Eickhorst, Kimberly; DeLeo, Vincent; Csaposs, Joan

2007-03-01

84

Herb–drug interactions: an overview of systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) is to evaluate critically the evidence regarding interactions between herbal medicinal products (HMPs) and synthetic drugs. METHODS Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant SRs. RESULTS Forty?six SRs of 46 different HMPs met our inclusion criteria. The vast majority of SRs were of poor methodological quality. The majority of these HMPs were not associated with severe herb–drug interactions. Serious herb–drug interactions were noted for Hypericum perforatum and Viscum album. The most severe interactions resulted in transplant rejection, delayed emergence from anaesthesia, cardiovascular collapse, renal and liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, bradycardia, hypovolaemic shock, inflammatory reactions with organ fibrosis and death. Moderately severe interactions were noted for Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, Piper methysticum, Serenoa repens and Camellia sinensis. The most commonly interacting drugs were antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. CONCLUSION The majority of the HMPs evaluated in SRs were not associated with drug interactions with serious consequences. However, the poor quality and the scarcity of the primary data prevent firm conclusions. PMID:22670731

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala; Ernst, Edzard

2013-01-01

85

Climate change - Bad news for montane forest herb layer species?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming presents a threat to plant species distributed at montane or alpine altitudes if the topography does not allow upward shifts in distribution ranges. Nevertheless, the species might also benefit from increasing temperatures and secondary effects on dominant species (e.g. bark beetle outbreaks or summer drought affecting the canopy species). As a consequence, disturbance frequency in montane forests might increase and light availability for herb layer species will increase. We addressed these interactions in a common garden experiment in Central Germany at different altitudes, representing cold and moist vs. warm and dry conditions. We investigated three montane species with different life forms, including a herb (Trientalis europaea), a grass (Calamagrostis villosa) and a dwarf shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) under three shading treatments (3%, 28% and 86% of full sunlight). We hypothesized that montane species are at a disadvantage in the lowland, with the dwarf shrub suffering more than the grass. Furthermore, we hypothesized an antagonistic interaction of increased temperature and increased light conditions. While T. europaea and V. myrtillus showed only slightly responses to low altitude conditions, C. villosa displayed a nearly fifteen fold increase in biomass production, despite higher observed herbivory levels in the lowland. We failed to show an antagonistic effect of increased temperature and increased light availability, as all study species suffered from deep shade conditions and grew best under full light conditions at both sites. In conclusion, both improved temperature and light conditions might be principally beneficial for the investigated boreal species, in particular for the grass species C. villosa.

Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

2013-07-01

86

Systems Biology of Meridians, Acupoints, and Chinese Herbs in Disease  

PubMed Central

Meridians, acupoints, and Chinese herbs are important components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). They have been used for disease treatment and prevention and as alternative and complementary therapies. Systems biology integrates omics data, such as transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolomics data, in order to obtain a more global and complete picture of biological activity. To further understand the existence and functions of the three components above, we reviewed relevant research in the systems biology literature and found many recent studies that indicate the value of acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Acupuncture is useful in pain moderation and relieves various symptoms arising from acute spinal cord injury and acute ischemic stroke. Moreover, Chinese herbal extracts have been linked to wound repair, the alleviation of postmenopausal osteoporosis severity, and anti-tumor effects, among others. Different acupoints, variations in treatment duration, and herbal extracts can be used to alleviate various symptoms and conditions and to regulate biological pathways by altering gene and protein expression. Our paper demonstrates how systems biology has helped to establish a platform for investigating the efficacy of TCM in treating different diseases and improving treatment strategies. PMID:23118787

Lin, Li-Ling; Wang, Ya-Hui; Lai, Chi-Yu; Chau, Chan-Lao; Su, Guan-Chin; Yang, Chun-Yi; Lou, Shu-Ying; Chen, Szu-Kai; Hsu, Kuan-Hao; Lai, Yen-Ling; Wu, Wei-Ming; Huang, Jian-Long; Liao, Chih-Hsin; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

2012-01-01

87

Original article Tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three Scots  

E-print Network

Original article Tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three Scots pine stands with different-eastern Germany, we measured tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three stands. Parameters of tree rate per needle area and tree canopy transpiration were least at the site dominated by the tall grass

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Natural compounds from traditional medicinal herbs in the treatment of cerebral ischemia\\/reperfusion injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more attention in the field of drug discovery has been focused on the neuroprotection of natural compounds from traditional medicinal herbs. Cerebral ischemia is a complex pathological process involving a series of mechanisms, and a framework for the development of neuroprotectants from traditional herb medicine is a promising treatment for cerebral ischemia. Natural compounds with the effects of

Peng-fei Wu; Zui Zhang; Fang Wang; Jian-guo Chen

2010-01-01

89

Life Histories and Demography of Shade-Tolerant Temperate Forest Herbs: A Paulette Bierzychudek  

E-print Network

forest. Most of the species that have been studied are deciduous perennials. These species generally have growth rates of temperate deciduous forest herbs, or on the temporal stability of their population sizesLife Histories and Demography of Shade-Tolerant Temperate Forest Herbs: A Review Paulette

Bierzychudek, Paulette

90

To what extent do forest herbs recover after clearcutting in beech forest?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the occurrence of 22 plant functional groups and the distribution patterns of 12 forest herbs in four clear-felled areas of different ages, and across ecotones between the forest and clearcuts in a 4383ha beech forest in central Belgium. The main goal was to improve our knowledge on the clearcut harvesting system and its possible influence on herb vegetation.

Sandrine Godefroid; Sonja Rucquoij; Nico Koedam

2005-01-01

91

Oil of Melissa officinalis L., as Affected by Storage and Herb Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of the fresh and dried herb Melissa officinalis L., grown in Egypt were subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 60 constituents separated, 21 were identified. The oil consisted mainly of geranial, neral, citronellal, caryophyllene oxide, ?-caryophyllene and geraniol. Drying the herb prior to distillation did not change the qualitative composition of the oil, but the relative amount

A. S. Shabby; S. El-Gengaihi; M. Khattab

1995-01-01

92

Effects of herbs and essential oils on in vitro batch culture ruminal fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...

93

Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using ?-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (?-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

2014-10-01

94

Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.  

PubMed

Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

2013-08-01

95

Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle  

PubMed Central

Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.

2013-01-01

96

College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension Herbs make a great addition to a garden, but they can  

E-print Network

, but they can also be grown indoors as year-round houseplants or just during the winter months to protect tender for growing herbs indoors Herbs, like many houseplants have certain requirements to grow indoors. However, unlike common houseplants, herbs need conditions to be just right for optimum growth, or their health

Guiltinan, Mark

97

Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents  

PubMed Central

Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. PMID:22988474

Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

2012-01-01

98

Development of antimicrobial cotton fabrics using herb loaded nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In the present work ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum were screened for their anti-microbial activity by using the agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was also measured. The methanol extracts O. sanctum proved to have the maximum antimicrobial effect were loaded inside the sodium alginate chitosan nanoparticles by cation induced controlled gelification method and finished on cotton fabric by pad dry cure method. The average particle size of the nanoparticles was calculated using dynamic light scattering technique. The antimicrobial activity of the fabrics was assessed by using the standard AATCC technique (AATCC 100). The quantitative tests proved that cotton fabrics finished with the methanol extract of O. sanctum loaded nanoparticles possessed remarkable antibacterial activities with excellent wash durability. The study revealed that the herb encapsulated nanoparticle could act as a biocontrol agent against bacteria in fabrics. PMID:23121954

Rajendran, R; Radhai, R; Kotresh, T M; Csiszar, Emilia

2013-01-16

99

Information Resource: About Herbs, Botanicals, and Other Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Integrative Medicine Service of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) provides oncologists and other healthcare professionals with objective information on medicinal herbs and other botanicals. Users may search for a particular plant name or browse the entire catalog by letter of the alphabet. Searches yield a clinical summary for each plant, a description of purported uses, information on adverse effects and drug interactions, and so on. The site also includes a News and Alerts section, a FAQs page (mostly about possible risks and complications), and evaluations of alternative or unproved cancer therapies. The general reader should also find this regularly updated Web site helpful, but MSKCC cautions against substituting the site "for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem."

100

Photovoltaic dryer with dual packed beds for drying medical herb  

SciTech Connect

This work presents design and optimization of a cylindrical photovoltaic dryer with dual packed beds thermal energy storage for drying medical herb. The dryer is provided with electrical heater where the electrical energy is generated by using photovoltaic system. The electrical heater is designed and sized to realize continuous drying (day and night) to minimize the drying time. Two packed beds are used to fix the drying temperature in dryer during day and night. The main packed bed thermal energy storage is charged during the sunlight hours directly, to realize continued drying after sunset. An efficient PV dryer is devised to work under forced air created by air blower and heated by the electrical coils.

Abdel-Rehim, Z.S.; Fahmy, F.H. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

1998-03-01

101

Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons  

PubMed Central

The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

Cohen, Marc Maurice

2014-01-01

102

Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.  

PubMed

The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

Cohen, Marc Maurice

2014-01-01

103

Effects of Five Ayurvedic Herbs on Locomotor Behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson's Disease Model.  

PubMed

Current conventional treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B.?monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25091506

Jansen, R L M; Brogan, B; Whitworth, A J; Okello, E J

2014-12-01

104

Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.  

PubMed

Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

2015-01-01

105

Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.  

PubMed

Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality. PMID:24364459

?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Pawe?; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Gra?yna; Zawi?lak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

2013-01-01

106

The Quantitative Ideas and Methods in Assessment of Four Properties of Chinese Medicinal Herbs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to summarize and reflect on the current status and problems of the research on the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. Hot, warm, cold, and cool are the four properties/natures of Chinese medicinal herbs. They are defined based on the interaction between the herbs with human body. How to quantitatively assess the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbs based on the theoretical system of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remains to be a challenge. Previous studies on the topic from several perspectives have been presented. Results and problems were discussed. New ideas based on the technology of biophoton radiation detection are proposed. With the development of biophoton detection technology, detection and characterization of human biophoton emission has led to its potential applications in TCM. The possibility of using the biophoton analysis system to study the interaction of Chinese medicinal herbs with human body and to quantitatively determine the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbal is entirely consistent with the holistic concept of TCM theory. The statistical entropy of electromagnetic radiations from the biological systems can characterize the four properties of Chinese medicinal herbs, and the spectrum can characterize the meridian tropism of it. Therefore, we hypothesize that by the use of biophoton analysis system, the four properties and meridian tropism of Chinese medicinal herbs can be quantitatively expressed. PMID:25395193

Fu, Jialei; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Xiaolei; Han, Jinxiang

2014-11-14

107

Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.  

PubMed

There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n?=?148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3?days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. PMID:24879887

Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

2014-10-01

108

Algicidal effects of four Chinese herb extracts on bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.  

PubMed

Extracts from four Chinese herbs, Phellodendri chinensis cortex, Artemisia annua L., Scutellaria baicalensis G. and Citrus reticulate peel were tested for their algicidal effects on Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The results showed that M. aeruginosa was more susceptible than C. pyrenoidosa. The growth of M. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) by the four herb extracts. Among the four herbs, P. chinensis cortex and S. baicalensis had the greatest inhibitory effects on M. aeruginosa, followed by C reticulate peel and A. annua. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of S. baicalensis, P chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel and A. annua were 0.87, 0.88, 5.27 and 1 1.16 gherb L-1, respectively. The growth of C. pyrenoidosa was moderately inhibited by the herb extracts individually. The EC5o concentrations for S. baicalensis, P. chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel andA. annua were 8.67, 11.67, 12.81 and 12.44 g herb L-1', respectively. Extract from S. baicalensis displayed stronger algicidal effects on C. pyrenoidosa than the other three herbs, although no lethal effect on C. pyrenoidosa was observed during the cultivation period. Compared with corresponding individual extract at the same dosage, the binary mixtures of the four herb extracts enhanced the algicidal effects on M. aeruginosa. The maximum inhibitory rates of all binary mixtures of the four herb extracts were all above 92% during the 10-day incubation. The results demonstrate that Chinese herbs, such as P. chinensis cortex or S. baicalensis and their combinations, could offer an effective alternative for mitigating outbreaks of harmful algal blooms in water bodies. PMID:24701910

Ye, Liangtao; Qian, Jiazhong; Jin, Song; Zuo, Shengpeng; Mei, Hui; Ma, Suming

2014-01-01

109

Study of genotoxic effects of antidiarrheal medicinal herbs on human cells in vitro.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal herbs has been a common practice in Asia but their genotoxic properties are little known. In the present study, genotoxic effects of three antidiarrheal herbs, guava leaf, mangosteen peel and pomegranate peel, were examined using established human cell lines, Raji and P3HR-1. Cells were treated with boiled-water extract of the herbs at various concentrations for 24 and 48 hours in vitro. Cell growth and viability were dose dependently reduced. No apparent chromosomal aberrations were induced by the treatment. Administration of pomegranate extract induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation. This genotoxicity test system is simple and convenient for the primary screening. PMID:8629131

Settheetham, W; Ishida, T

1995-01-01

110

Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic and diuretic effects of a commercially available Solidago gigantea Herb. extract.  

PubMed

The evaluation of a commercially available Solidago gigantea Herb. extract (Urol mono) revealed pronounced anti-inflammatory properties in the rat with respect to a reduction of the carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema. A direct comparison with diclofenac-Na (3 mg/kg b.w. p.o.) revealed that a high dose of Solidago gigantea Herb. extract possesses the same anti-inflammatory efficacy as diclofenac-Na. In addition, the Solidago gigantea Herb. extract exhibited moderate spasmolytic and diuretic properties. PMID:7710440

Leuschner, J

1995-02-01

111

Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra-) Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair  

PubMed Central

Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48?mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination.

Zheng, Fang-hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-ling; Xing, Xue-feng; Chen, Fei-long; Tan, Xiao-mei; Luo, Jia-bo

2015-01-01

112

In vitro and in vivo assessment of CYP2C9-mediated herb–herb interaction of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix  

PubMed Central

According to traditional Chinese medicine theories, Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix should not be used together in one prescription, because their interaction leads to an unexpected consequence. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to find out whether CYP2C9 was involved in this herb–herb interaction by using tolbutamide as a probe substrate in vivo and in vitro. Both Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix showed induction activity toward CYP2C9, while the combination of them showed a more potent induction activity toward CYP2C9 in vivo. In vitro study revealed only the combination of the herbs could induce the activity of CYP2C9. Thus, both in vivo and in vitro study indicated combination of Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix could induce the activity of CYP2C9 to a high level, which may result in decreased plasma levels of major active ingredients of these two herbs, as well as other herbs in the prescriptions. Further research also appears to be necessary to identify the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of the active ingredients in Glycyrrhizae Radix and Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix. PMID:25202272

Wang, Xinmin; Peng, Yunru; Jing, Xinyue; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Duan, Jin-ao

2014-01-01

113

Protection against Cancer with Medicinal Herbs via Activation of Tumor Suppressor  

PubMed Central

Cancer remains a major cause of death, although research is ongoing for the development of more effective drugs. Some herbs have shown potential in preventing the occurrence and/or progression of cancer and other chronic diseases. They are being screened comprehensively to explore the possibility of development of feasible anticancer drugs. However, more information is required about the response to and the molecular target for specific herbs. It seems that there is a relationship between some medicinal herbs and tumor suppressor molecules which protect a cell from cancer. In this paper, we summarize the progress of recent research on herbs, with a particular focus on its anticancer role and molecular mechanisms underlying the cancer prevention property, supporting design for further research in this field. PMID:23213333

Kitagishi, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Mayumi; Matsuda, Satoru

2012-01-01

114

Phenolic and triterpenoid antioxidants from Origanum majorana L. herb and extracts obtained with different solvents.  

PubMed

Antioxidant properties of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) herb and extracts obtained with ethanol, n-hexane, and supercritical CO2 extraction are presented. Individual antioxidants, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol, were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of different parameters (temperature and pressure) of high-pressure extraction on the yield of carnosol were studied. Furthermore, two marjoram herbs from Hungary and Egypt were compared measuring hydrogen-donating abilities with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl by spectrophotometric and the total scavenger capacities by chemiluminometric methods from the aqueous extracts of the herbs. The antioxidant activities of the solvent extracts were performed using the Rancimat method. The Egyptian herb and its extracts possessed better antioxidant activities than Hungarian ones. Applying supercritical CO2 extraction, the highest value of carnosol was obtained at 400 bar and 60 degrees C. PMID:15631502

Vági, E; Rapavi, E; Hadolin, M; Vásárhelyiné Perédi, K; Balázs, A; Blázovics, A; Simándi, B

2005-01-12

115

The potential of Sutherlandia frutescens for herb-drug interaction.  

PubMed

In Africa, Sutherlandia frutescens is a popular medicinal herb widely consumed by people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Concomitant use with antiretroviral drugs has generated concerns of herb-drug interaction (HDI). This study investigated the inhibitory effects of the crude extracts of S. frutescens on the major cytochrome P450 isozymes with the use of pooled human liver microsomes. Its effect on the metabolic clearance of midazolam using cryopreserved hepatocytes was also monitored. The potential of S. frutescens to inhibit human ATP-binding cassette transporters (P-gp and BCRP) and the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) activity was assessed using cell lines overexpressing the transporter proteins. S. frutescens showed inhibitory potency for CYP1A2 (IC(50) = 41.0 µg/ml), CYP2A6 (IC(50) = 160 µg/ml), CYP2B6 (IC(50) = 20.0 µg/ml), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 22.4 µg/ml), CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 23.0 µg/ml), CYP2C19 (IC(50) = 35.9 µg/ml), and CYP3A4/5 (IC(50) = 17.5 µg/ml [with midazolam1'-hydroxylation]; IC(50) = 28.3 µg/ml [with testosterone 6?-hydroxylation]). Time-dependent (irreversible) inhibition by S. frutescens was observed for CYP3A4/5 (K(I) = 296 µg/ml, k(inact) = 0.063 min(-1)) under the conditions of this study. S. frutescens also delays the production of midazolam metabolites in the hepatocytes, decreasing its clearance by 40%. Furthermore, S. frutescens inhibited P-gp (IC(50) = 324.8 µg/ml), OATP1B1 (IC(50) = 10.4 µg/ml), and OATP1B3 (IC(50) = 6.6 µg/ml). The result indicates the potential for HDI between S. frutescens and the substrates of the affected enzymes, if sufficient in vivo concentration of the extract is attained. PMID:23209194

Fasinu, Pius S; Gutmann, Heike; Schiller, Hilmar; James, Alexander-David; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd

2013-02-01

116

Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on cerebral ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

s  Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators,\\u000a reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article\\u000a reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral\\u000a ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The

Shan-Yu Su; Ching-Liang Hsieh

2011-01-01

117

Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.  

PubMed

Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-04-01

118

Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.  

PubMed

Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the ?g/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. PMID:22868119

Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Po?owniak, M; Kozik, V

2012-11-15

119

Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.  

PubMed

Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120?days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ?-carotene?-?linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-08-01

120

Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

2004-09-01

121

An Overview of Important Ethnomedicinal Herbs of Phyllanthus Species: Present Status and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius. PMID:24672382

Sarin, Bharti; Martín, Juan Pedro; Mohanty, Aparajita

2014-01-01

122

Potential herb-drug interaction in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases during integrated traditional and western medicine treatment.  

PubMed

The combination of herbs and drugs is one of the most important approaches in the prevention and treatment of diseases in the integrated traditional and Western medicine (ITWM). While most medical practices have proved that the combination of herbs and drugs led to a clinical efficacy that was often superior to merely using only one of them; results from some studies have triggered adverse reactions to such an approach. Since few herb-drug interaction studies were carried out during treatments combining herbs and drugs, it really restricts the development of treatment and treatment theory of the combination of herbs and drugs. Given that herb-drug interactions may occur through the main pathway of cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters; then to exhaustively study the role and impact of herbs in drug metabolism, as well as to establish a corresponding database, is of great significance for guiding the rational combination of herbs and drugs. When the herb-drug interaction information platform is implemented, we would get at ease a reasonable herb-drug prescription to achieve a better outcome, reduce dosage of some expensive drugs preserving the same efficacy, or even reduce some side effects of particular drugs; which might also promote the dynamic combination of Chinese and Western medicine, and accelerate the theory development of ITWM. PMID:25533650

Wang, Xiao-Long

2015-01-01

123

Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.  

PubMed

This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

2013-08-01

124

Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.  

PubMed

The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

2014-01-01

125

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

2009-01-01

126

Critical analysis of herbs acting on Mutravaha srotas  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda has given prime importance to Mutravaha srotas (urinary system) and Srotogata Vikaras (urinary disorders). Being a system responsible for homeostasis of fluids in the body it also detoxifies the body by eliminating certain waste products through urine. When diseased, people produce symptoms such as, increased or decreased urine production, painful maturition, formation of stones, and thereby obstructed micturition, increased frequency of micturition, and so on. There are many herbs with varied actions specifically aimed at mitigating urinary system disorders. Drugs such as Jambu, Amrasthi, and the like, reduce the increased flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutrasangrahaneeya, whereas, drugs like Ikshu, Kustha, and so on, increase the flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutravirechaneeya. There are drugs like Padma, Utpala, and so on, which impart normal color to the urine and are known as Mutravirajaneeya dravyas. Asmarighna dravyas break down the calculi and remove them through the urine. These dravyas, when used under proper direction, help in relieving the pain and apathy caused by the disease. PMID:22131705

Bhat, Savitha D.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2010-01-01

127

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

2009-09-01

128

Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri  

PubMed Central

Abstract This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms—anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

Borowski, Thomas

2013-01-01

129

Carotenoid Content of Commonly Consumed Herbs and Assessment of Their Bioaccessibility Using an In Vitro Digestion Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological\\u000a effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids\\u000a from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content\\u000a of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum

Trevor Daly; Marvin A. Jiwan; Nora M. O’Brien; S. Aisling Aherne

2010-01-01

130

Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4%) reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6%) obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1%) obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%), and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments. PMID:15713232

Clement, Yuri N; Williams, Arlene F; Aranda, Derick; Chase, Ronald; Watson, Nadya; Mohammed, Rochelle; Stubbs, Odia; Williamson, Deneil

2005-01-01

131

An innovative example of herb residues recycling by gasification in a fluidized bed.  

PubMed

A utilization way of herb residues is designed to convert herb residues to gas fuel in industrial-scale by a circulating fluidized bed gasifier in this paper. The product gas is used in the production of Chinese medicine, and the heat of the flue gas from the boiler can be used in herb residues drying to realize the energy recycling and no herb residues discharge. The gasification characteristics of herb residues in the circulating fluidized bed of 300 kg/h were investigated for about 200 h. The results indicated that the gas composition and tar yield were affected by biomass flow rate, equivalence ratio (ER), moisture content and char circulating. The lower heating value of product gas was 4-5 MJ/m(3) using herb residues as feedstock. When mean biomass flow rate was at 5.5 kg m(-2)s(-1) and ER at 0.35, the product gas reached a good condition with lower heating value of 4.89 MJ/m(3) and cold gas efficiency of 62.36%. When the moisture content changed from 12.5% to 18.7%, the concentrations of H2, CO and CO2 changed from 4.66% to 6.92%, 11.23% to 10.15%, and 16.55% to 17.82% respectively, and the tar content in gas decreased from 15.1g/m(3) to 14.4 g/m(3) when the moisture content increased from 12.5% to 15.4%. There are metal oxides in the ash of herb residues, especially CaO, MgO, K2O, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 which have obvious function on tar catalytic decomposition. The ash that attaches to the char particles can decrease the tar yield and improve the quality of gas after returning to the gasifier. PMID:23313058

Guo, Feiqiang; Dong, Yuping; Dong, Lei; Jing, Yuanzhuo

2013-04-01

132

The last large pelletron accelerator of the Herb era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the high voltage terminal and consequently the option of further stripping the ion species of the selected charge states at high energy dead section, and elaborate pulsing system in the pre-acceleration region consisting of a beam chopper, a travelling wave deflector, a light ion buncher (1-80 amu) and a heavy ion buncher (>80 amu). NSC was established as a heavy ion accelerator based inter university centre in 1985. It became operational in July 1991 to cater to the research requirements of a large user community which at present includes about fifty universities, twenty-eight colleges and a dozen other academic institutes and research laboratories. The number of users in Materials and allied sciences is about 500. Various important modifications have been made to improve the performance of the accelerator in the last seven years. These include replacement of the corona voltage grading system by a resistor based one, a pick-up loop to monitor charging system performance, conversion from basic double unit structure to singlet, installation of a spiral cavity based phase detector system with post-accelerator stripper after the analyzing magnet, and a high efficiency multi harmonic buncher. Installation of a turbo pump based stripper gas recirculation system in the terminal is also planned. A brief description of utilization of the machine will be given.

Chopra, S.; Narayanan, M. M.; Joshi, R.; Gargari, S.; Kanjilal, D.; Datta, S. K.; Mehta, G. K.

1999-04-01

133

The Importance of Sexual and Clonal Reproduction for Population Dynamics in the Understory Herb Calathea marantifolia (Marantaceae).  

E-print Network

??I addressed how light availability influences sexual and clonal offspring production, demographic performance and contribution to population dynamics by studying the Neotropical understory herb Calathea… (more)

Matlaga, David Packard

2008-01-01

134

Misuse of herbal remedies: the case of an outbreak of terminal renal failure in Belgium (Chinese herbs nephropathy)  

PubMed

At least 100 cases of extensive interstitial fibrosis of the kidneys were observed in Belgium in women who had followed a weight-loss regimen that included the use of Chinese herbs. The possible relation between the renal disease and these Chinese herbs was investigated. It was shown that the prescribed Chinese herb called Stephania tetrandra was, in fact, inadvertently replaced by another Chinese herb, namely Aristolochia fangchi in the powdered extracts delivered in Belgium and in France. The development of renal disease in about 100 patients exposed to the so-called Stephania tetrandra stresses the need for more stringent control of herbal medicine. PMID:9553830

Vanherweghem, L J

1998-01-01

135

A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

2013-11-01

136

Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned. PMID:24097370

Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

2013-10-01

137

A Review on the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs and Formulae with Hypolipidemic Effect  

PubMed Central

Hyperlipidemia, characterized by the abnormal blood lipid profiles, is one of the dominant factors of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For the low cost, effectiveness, and fewer side effects, the popularity of using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to handle hyperlipidemia is increasing and its role in health care has been recognized by the public at large. Despite the importance of TCM herbs and formulations, there is no comprehensive review summarizing their scientific findings on handling hyperlipidemia. This review summarizes the recent experimental and clinical results of nine representative single Chinese herbs and seven classic TCM formulae that could improve lipid profiles so as to help understand and compare their underlying mechanisms. Most of single herbs and formulae demonstrated the improvement of hyperlipidemic conditions with multiple and diverse mechanisms of actions similar to conventional Western drugs in spite of their mild side effects. Due to increasing popularity of TCM, more extensive, well-designed preclinical and clinical trials on the potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions as well as their mechanisms are warranted. Hyperlipidemic patients should be warned about the potential risks of herb-drug interactions, particularly those taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. PMID:25110708

Sham, Tung-Ting; Chan, Chi-On; Wang, You-Hua; Yang, Jian-Mei; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chan, Shun-Wan

2014-01-01

138

Retrospect and prospect of active principles from Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia  

PubMed Central

With an ageing population, dementia has become one of the world's primary health challenges. However, existing remedies offer limited benefits with certain side effects, which has prompted researchers to seek complementary and alternative therapies. China has long been known for abundant usage of various herbs. Some of these herbal decoctions are effective in stimulating blood circulation, supplementing vital energy and resisting aging, the lack of which are believed to underlie dementia. These herbs are regarded as new and promising sources of potential anti-dementia drugs. With the rapid evolution of life science and technology, numerous active components have been identified that are highly potent and multi-targeted with low toxicity, and therefore meet the requirements for dementia therapy. This review updates the research progress of Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia, focusing on their effective principles. PMID:20523337

Wang, Ying; Huang, Lu-qi; Tang, Xi-can; Zhang, Hai-yan

2010-01-01

139

Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Herbs with Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

The concurrent use of drugs and herbal products is becoming increasingly prevalent over the last decade. Several herbal products have been known to modulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which are recognized as representative drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter, respectively. Thus, a summary of knowledge on the modulation of CYP and P-gp by commonly used herbs can provide robust fundamentals for optimizing CYP and/or P-gp substrate drug-based therapy. Herein, we review ten popular medicinal and/or dietary herbs as perpetrators of CYP- and P-gp-mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The main focus is placed on previous works on the ability of herbal extracts and their phytochemicals to modulate the expression and function of CYP and P-gp in several in vitro and in vivo animal and human systems. PMID:25632290

Cho, Hyun-Jong

2015-01-01

140

Evaluation on the treatment of morphine addiction by acupuncture Chinese herbs and opioid peptides.  

PubMed

Experimental studies on the effects of acupuncture, combined Chinese herbs, and opioid peptides on morphine withdrawal symptoms were carried out in 119 addicted rats. Electroacupuncture was found to be the most effective method as it reduced the morphine withdrawal scores to -85%. The combined herbs, Qiang Huo, Gou Teng, Chuan Xion, Fu Zi and Yan Hu Suo suppressed the withdrawal scores of -68%. The opioid peptides, endorphin, enkephalin, and dynorphin, produced marked sedative effect and alleviated the withdrawal symptoms, reducing the scores from -28% to -74%. It is suggested that acupuncture and herbs, being non-opiate and having less side effect, might be used as alternative or supplementary treatment on morphine addiction. PMID:2870636

Yang, M M; Kwok, J S

1986-01-01

141

Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: From bench to bedside  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed. PMID:25339799

Wan, Ping; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuan; Bai, Ai-Ping

2014-01-01

142

Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: from bench to bedside.  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed. PMID:25339799

Wan, Ping; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuan; Bai, Ai-Ping

2014-10-21

143

Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.  

PubMed

Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study. PMID:24621269

Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

2014-06-01

144

Identification and characterisation of the chinese herb Langdu by LC-MS/MS analysis.  

PubMed

An LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the identification of three species of herb used as the traditional Chinese medicine Langdu, namely Stellera chamaejasme L., Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata and E. fischeriana Steud. As these herbs contain different mixtures of marker compounds, they could be unambiguously differentiated from each other by comparing their respective characteristic segmental multiple reaction monitoring profiles. The profiles indicated that S. chamaejasme contained daphnetin, skimmetine, stellerin, chamaechromone and neochamaejasmin, E. fischeriana contained ebracteolata compound B, ingenol, jolkinolide B and fischeriana A, whilst E. ebracteolata contained ebracteolata compounds B and C along with ingenol. These results were confirmed from the respective MS/MS spectra. The method has been successfully applied to differentiate these herbs from the related species Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott and E. kansui Liou. PMID:12597254

Su, Xiao-Li; Lin, Rui-Chao; Wong, Siu-Kay; Tsui, Shu-Ki; Kwan, Sik-Yiu

2003-01-01

145

Potent anti-microbial activity of traditional Chinese medicine herbs against Candida species.  

PubMed

Anti-candidial activities of eight traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) herbs were evaluated against six different Candida species. TCM preparations were screened for antifungal activity using a standard agar diffusion assay. Following identification of potential candidate herbs, their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using the standardised NCCLS M-27A broth microdilution assay. Among TCM herbs, Rhizoma Coptidis had potent antifungal activity against Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis, but not against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida parapsolosis. The MIC values of the Rhizoma Coptidis against C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis were 50, 50 and 100 microg ml(-1) respectively. We report here, for the first time, the potent antifungal activity of Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex phellodendri Chinesis on three different non-albicans Candida species, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis and hence their possible use as therapeutic agents. PMID:18076592

Seneviratne, C Jayampath; Wong, Ricky W K; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

2008-01-01

146

Influence of six medicinal herbs on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats.  

PubMed

Medicinal herbs have been effectively used for their anti-inflammatory activity, but their exact role has not yet been documented in scientific literature for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA). Since Sida cordifolia L., Piper longum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Ricinus communis L., Vitex negundo L. and Tribulus terrestris L. have been widely used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory activity, to evaluate anti-osteoarthritic activity of these herbs, we used a collagenase type II-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA) rat model. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II. Powders of herbs were given orally for 20 days as a suspension in water (270 mg/kg b. wt.). The effects of the treatment in the rats were monitored by physiological parameters like body weight, knee diameter, paw retraction, paw volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, radiography and histopathology of knee joint. Selected herbs have significantly prevented body weight loss and knee swelling compared to arthritic control (CIOA). All test groups, including indomethacin (standard drug, 3 mg/kg), significantly reduced paw volume compared to CIOA. GAG release in the serum was significantly lowered in herb treated groups compared to indomethacin. The anterior posterior radiographs of S. cordifolia and P. longum treated groups showed a protective effect against OA. Histopathology revealed protection in the structure of the articular cartilage and in chondrocyte pathology as well as reduced clefting. Treatment with herbs has shown chondroid matrix within normal limits. From the results, we observed that S. cordifolia and P. longum possess potent anti-osteoarthritic activity. PMID:24228609

Nirmal, Pallavi; Koppikar, Soumya; Bhondave, Prashant; Narkhede, Aarti; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Wagh, Narendrakumar; Kulkarni, Omkar; Harsulkar, Abhay; Jagtap, Suresh

2013-01-01

147

The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migda?, W.; K ?dzia, B.

2000-03-01

148

Detection of DNA Adducts Formed by Aristolochic Acid in Renal Tissue from Patients with Chinese Herbs Nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique type of rapidly progressive renal fibrosis, designated Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN), has been described in young Belgian women who had followed a slimming regimen including recently introduced Chinese herbs (Stephania tetrandra and Magnolia officinalis). Aristolochic acid (AA), a known nephrotoxin and carcinogen, was suspected as its causal factor. To substantiate this hypothesis, renal tissue from five pa tients

Heinz H. Schmeiser; Christian A. Bieter; Manfred Wiessler; Charles van Ypersele; Jean-Pierre Cosyns

149

Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs  

PubMed Central

Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging. PMID:17386115

Ko, Kam Ming; Leung, Hoi Yan

2007-01-01

150

Comparison of anti-oxidant activities of seventy herbs that have been used in Korean traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority (about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority (more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers (more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/ Rubus schizostylus, Schisandra chinensis Baillon/ Schizandra chinensis and Terminalia chebula Retzius/ Terminalia chebula. Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them. PMID:20126599

Ko, Seong-Hee; Choi, Seong-Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Yoo, Sangho

2008-01-01

151

Kitchen Garden Herbs The sensible practice of planting a garden close by the kitchen door for easy accessibility was brought to this country by the  

E-print Network

Dishes Thyme · Sage · Oregano · Rosemary · Tarragon · Lemon Thyme Herbs For Fish Dill · Parsley · Fennel · Basil · Chervil Herbs For Meat Dishes Rosemary · Bay · Oregano · Marjoram · Mint · Parsley · Sage in the garden. Other perennial herbs, such as rosemary and bay, are not hardy in New Hampshire. Grow

New Hampshire, University of

152

The Integration of Medicinal Plants and Culinary Herbs in Agroforestry Systems for the Caribbean: A Study in the U.S. Virgin Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants and culinary herbs are horticultural crops with socio- economic significance in the Caribbean. People of the Caribbean maintain the tradition of making 'bush (herb) tea' as part of their daily activity. 'Bush tea' is made with a variety of herbs that are combined for their culinary and medicinal properties. A project was initiated to study the role of

M. C. Palada; J. M. Mitchell; B. N. Becker; P. K. R. Nair

153

Isolation, identification and evaluation of natural antioxidants from aromatic herbs cultivated in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative spoilage of lipid-rich foods decreases their shelf-life and leads to undesirable chemical and physical changes. Nowadays natural antioxidants are generally preferred. The major part of industrially used antioxidants consists of radical scavengers, which inhibit the oxidative chain reaction by inactivating free radicals formed during peroxidation of lipids. Aromatic and medicinal herbs are rich sources of natural radical scavenging compounds.

A. Dapkevicius

2002-01-01

154

Heavy metals modify costs of reproduction and clonal growth in the stoloniferous herb Potentilla anserina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined costs of sexual reproduction and clonal propagation, and their consequences for resource allocation in the clonal stoloniferous herb, Potentilla anserina, a typical pioneer species in disturbed areas. We used heavy-metal treatment in soil to create unfavourable growing conditions, because costs of reproduction are more likely to be expressed when resources are limited. We also studied whether heavy metals

Sari Koivunen; Kari Saikkonen; Timo Vuorisalo; Pia Mutikainen

2004-01-01

155

Retrospect and prospect of active principles from Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an ageing population, dementia has become one of the world's primary health challenges. However, existing remedies offer limited benefits with certain side effects, which has prompted researchers to seek complementary and alternative therapies. China has long been known for abundant usage of various herbs. Some of these herbal decoctions are effective in stimulating blood circulation, supplementing vital energy and

Ying Wang; Lu-qi Huang; Xi-can Tang; Hai-yan Zhang

2010-01-01

156

Evaluating the consequences of habitat fragmentation: a case study in the common forest herb Trillium camschatcense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of habitat fragmentation on remnant plant populations have rarely been studied extensively using a single species. We have attempted to quantify the effects of forest fragmentation (primarily that of population size) on populations of Trillium camschatcense, a representative spring herb in the Tokachi plain of Hokkaido, Japan. In this region, intensive agricultural development over the past 100 years has

Hiroshi Tomimatsu; Masashi Ohara

2006-01-01

157

Flowering of understory herbs following thinning in the western Cascades, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinning of young forest stands encourages development of the understory layer by increasing the levels of light and belowground resources. High-intensity thinning, with associated ground disturbance and high light levels, can lead to dominance by early seral species or by a few species of shrubs, while low-intensity thinning may not increase resource levels enough to encourage forest herbs. Changes in

Briana C. Lindh

2008-01-01

158

Herb layer productivity under different light gaps in the forests of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A productivity estimation of tree, shrub and herb layer biomass was undertaken in Uttara Kannada, a Western Ghats district in Karnataka in differentially managed forests. In addition to biomass, light gap in these sample sites was also estimated to understand the relationship between the light interception pattern at different canopy layers and their productivity. The studies indicate that tree biomass

D. M. Bhat; K. S. Murali; N. H. Ravindranath

2005-01-01

159

Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

2014-01-01

160

Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

2002-01-01

161

[Study on HPLC-eLSD fingerprint of total steroid saponins in herbs of Dioscorea zingiberensis].  

PubMed

To establish a HPLC-ELSD fingerprint for total steroid saponins in herbs of Dioscorea zingiberensis. Welchrom C,8 (4. 6 mm x 250 mm,5 microm) chromatographic column was adopted and eluted with the mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-water (B) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The column temperature was room temperature. The ELSD conditions were as follows: the temperature of drift tube was 90.0 degreeC, the flow rate of carrier gas (N2) was 2. 8 L min-1, and the injection volume was 10 microL. After the detection of 10 batches of samples,the common mode of HPLC-ELSD fingerprint for total steroid saponins in herbs of D. zingiberensis was established for the first time,and 25 common peaks were determined. Among them, 10 peaks were identified by comparing with reference substances. The similarities of 10 batches of herbs were evaluated in the common mode. All of them were higher than 0. 80. This method is so accurate, reliable and highly repeatable that it can provide scientific basis for evaluating and controlling the quality of total steroid saponins in herbs of D. zingiberensis. PMID:24422399

Zhang, Xin-Xin; Liang, Jin-Ru; Zhao, Ye; Sun, Wen-Ji

2013-10-01

162

Effect of packaging materials and storage on major volatile compounds in three Australian native herbs.  

PubMed

Lemon myrtle, anise myrtle, and Tasmanian pepper leaf are commercial Australian native herbs with a high volatile or essential oil content. Packaging of the herbs in high- or low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) has proven to be ineffective in preventing a significant loss of volatile components on storage. This study investigates and compares the effectiveness of alternate high-barrier property packaging materials, namely, polyvinylidene chloride coated polyethylene terephthalate/casted polypropylene (PVDC coated PET/CPP) and polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/aluminum foil/linear low-density polyethylene (PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE), in prevention of volatile compound loss from the three native herbs stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. Concentrations of major volatiles were monitored using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. After 6 months of storage, the greatest loss of volatiles from lemon myrtle was observed in traditional LDPE packaging (87% loss) followed by storage in PVDC coated PET/CPP (58% loss) and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE (loss of 23%). The volatile loss from anise myrtle and Tasmanian pepper leaf stored in PVDC coated PET/CPP and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE packaging was <30%. This study clearly indicates the importance of selecting the correct packaging material to retain the quality of herbs with high volatile content. PMID:23682630

Chaliha, Mridusmita; Cusack, Andrew; Currie, Margaret; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Smyth, Heather

2013-06-19

163

Caesar Salad $5.5 Caesar salad, herb croutons, Parmesan cheese,  

E-print Network

with all natural beef, our special blend of spices and red Kidney beans White bean chicken chili Cup $4.5 Bowl $5.5 Creamy, hearty chili with white beans and savory spices AMERICAN GRILL Explorer Burger $8 1 in a special blend of herbs and spices. Thinly sliced and piled high on French bread topped with sweet peppers

Makovicky, Peter

164

Adaptive significance of nitrogen storage in Bistorta bistortoides , an alpine herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to examine the importance of nitrogen storage to seasonal aboveground growth in the alpine herb Bistorta bistortoides. Stored reserves accounted for 60% of the total nitrogen allocated to the shoot during the growing season. The stored nitrogen was equally partitioned between preformed buds of the shoot and the roots\\/rhizome. Reliance on stored N was similar in populations

Charles H. Jaeger; Russell K. Monson

1992-01-01

165

FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF ANTHOCYANINS IN HIGH-LIGHT WINTER LEAVES OF THE EVERGREEN HERB GALAX URCEOLATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High light leaves of the evergreen herb Galax urceolata exhibit a striking color change from green to red during winter months, caused by anthocyanin synthesis in outermost mesophyll cells. Here we investigate three possible functions of this color change. To test the hypothesis that anthocyanins fu...

166

Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C.

Thaveechai Vachirayonstien; Duanthanorm Promkhatkaew; Malee Bunjob; Asawachai Chueyprom; Pranee Chavalittumrong; Pathom Sawanpanyalert

2010-01-01

167

MALE-BIASED NECTAR PRODUCTION IN A PROTANDROUS HERB MATCHES PREDICTIONS OF SEXUAL SELECTION THEORY  

E-print Network

MALE-BIASED NECTAR PRODUCTION IN A PROTANDROUS HERB MATCHES PREDICTIONS OF SEXUAL SELECTION THEORY success. In such cases, sexual selection is often suggested as the cause of asymmetric benefits, yet sexual selection in plants--particularly plants with hermaphroditic flowers--is infrequently tested

Carlson, Jane E.

168

Herbs and dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Herbs and dietary supplements can have significant physiological effects. Garlic (Allium sativum) has shown beneficial lipid effects in a majority of trials; dried garlic preparations are superior to oil preparations. There is preliminary evidence that indicates that hawthorn (Crataegus species) may provide benefits in congestive heart failure. Coenzyme Q also may be of benefit in congestive heart failure. Although observational studies indicate a protective effect of dietary or supplemental vitamin E, controlled trails have not shown a beneficial effect on angina and have been mixed on whether supplementation decreases major cardiac events. Although several observational studies have noted that fish intake protects against cardiovascular disease, prospective studies are less impressive. Fish oil supplementation may have a mild beneficial effect on hypertension, but there is no effect on total cholesterol levels. Trials are inconsistent on whether fish oil reduces restenosis rates following coronary angioplasty. Carnitine appears to have beneficial effects on congestive heart failure and angina; there is also preliminary evidence that arginine may benefit patients with congestive heart failure or angina. Herbs and supplements have been associated with adverse effects and interactions; for example, garlic inhibits platelet aggregation and can cause significant anticoagulation, and the Chinese herb danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) appears to potentiate warfarin. Several herbs and supplements hold promise as adjuncts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for definitive research on the potential risks and benefits of these compounds, including appropriate dosages and formulations, and delineation of adverse events and interactions. (c)2000 by CHF, Inc. PMID:11834913

Fugh-Berman, A

2000-01-01

169

Fingerprint of Herb Product by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Product authentication, quality assurance, and identification of adulterants/contamination are major issues facing the dietary supplement industry. Scutellaria lateriflora is an herb widely used as a remedy for many ailments ranging from rabies to epilepsy. It could be easily contaminated by similar...

170

Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always

A. Alberti; U. Corda; P. Fuochi; E. Bortolin; A. Calicchia; S. Onori

2007-01-01

171

Use of Stinging Nettle as a Potential Organic Fertilizer for Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to compare the responses of 4 greenhouse grown herbs to the aqueous extracts and ground leaf material of stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L., as compared with 3 standard organic fertilizers and 1 inorganic fertilizer incorporated into the growth media. Stinging nettle leaf extract and organic fertilizer significantly increased the growth of French tarragon and purple coneflower. Ammonium

Thomas Li

1994-01-01

172

Antioxidative activities and the total phenolic contents of tonic Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Chinese medicated diet is an everyday practice in China. In this study, 16 commonly used soup making tonic Chinese medicinal herbs were selected for antioxidative capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of these herbal extracts were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. It confirmed that drinking tonic soups could supplement total antioxidants intake. Amongst the tested herbal extracts, extracts of Canarium album Raeusch., Flos caryophylli and Fructus amomi were found to have the highest antioxidative activities in both DPPH and FRAP assays. Their antioxidative activities were comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. Thus, these herbs are safe and inexpensive sources of natural antioxidants. A significant relationship between the antioxidative effects and total phenolic contents were found, indicating phenolic compounds are the major contributor of antioxidative capacities of these herbs. In addition, a strong correlation between DPPH assay and FRAP assay implied that antioxidants in these herbs were capable of scavenging free radicals and reducing oxidants. PMID:18815744

Guo, D-J; Cheng, H-L; Chan, S-W; Yu, P H-F

2008-10-01

173

Identification of irradiation treatment of aromatic herbs, spices and fruits by electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence signals induced by gamma irradiation in some herbs, spices and fruits were systematically studied in order to detect the treatment. Using European protocols the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques are compared in regard to time of storage after irradiation.

J. Raffi; N. D Yordanov; S Chabane; L Douifi; V Gancheva; S Ivanova

2000-01-01

174

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN POLLINATION OF A MONTANE HERB: A SEVEN-YEAR STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollination by animals is critical to sexual reproduction of most angiosperms. However, little is known about variation in pollination service to single plant species. We report results of a long-term study of Ipomopsis aggregata, a semelparous montane herb whose flowers are visited by hummingbird and insect pollinators as well as ''floral larce- nists.'' We censused flower visitors over seven summers

Mary V. Price; Nickolas M. Waser; Rebecca E. Irwin; Diane R. Campbell; Alison K. Brody

2005-01-01

175

Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as growth promoters in the farm animals has led to the recent EU-ban on the use of several antibiotics as growth

F. Guo

2003-01-01

176

Chinese herbs as modulators of human mesangial cell proliferation: preliminary studies.  

PubMed

In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as follows (in microg/ml): Selaginella tamariscina (MLS-032), 56.0 +/- 2.0; Ixeris chinensis (MLS-033), 62.7 +/- 1.7; Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (MLS-034), 25.0 +/- 1.5; Scutellaris rivularis (MLS-036), 39.6 +/- 1.1; Condonacanthus paucifiorus (MLS-042),63.6 +/- 2.6; Xanthium strumarium (MLS-043), 42.8 +/- 1.3; Daemonoropus margaritae (MLS-044), 56.1 +/- 1.9. These findings indicate that human mesangial cells were most sensitive to MLS-034 treatment. These herbs also decreased interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Moreover, TNF-alpha mRNA expression was inhibited by MLS-034. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved, because no cell deaths were observable. We hypothesize that the inhibitory mechanisms of these Chinese herbs may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in human mesangial cells. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure compounds from these Chinese herbs and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. PMID:9665376

Kuo, Y C; Sun, C M; Tsai, W J; Ou, J C; Chen, W P; Lin, C Y

1998-07-01

177

Antioxidant activity and anti-adipogenic effects of wild herbs mainly cultivated in Korea.  

PubMed

Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24141244

Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Lee, Jong Seok; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

2013-01-01

178

In vitro Antifungal Activity of Thai Herb and Spice Extracts against Food Spoilage Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The screening of Thai herbs and spices was carried out to investigate their in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. oryzaeand Penicilliumsp. by using agar well diffusion method. Of thirteen plants tested, crude ethanol extracts of three, namely Piper betel, Boesenbergia pandurata, Andrographis paniculata exhibited antifungal activity against all test microorganisms. Penicillium sp. was more resistant to the extracts

Penkhae Wanchaitanawong; Piyamat Chaungwanit; Ngamtip Poovarodom; Sunee Nitisinprasert

179

A novel and rapid method to screen for ?-lactamase inhibitors from extracts of herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on starch-iodine agar plate, a novel screening method that can be used to screen for ?-lactamase inhibitors from extracts of herbs is established. The extracts of 100 traditional Chinese medicines were screened for ?- lactamase inhibitors by this method. The inhibition rates of the Rheum palmatum L., Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., Hypericum japonicum Thunb., Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr., Oxalis

Yang Zaichang; Yang Xiaosheng; Niu Yule

180

Fire History of a Temperate Forest with an Endemic Fire-Dependent Herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dendroecological fire history study was conducted for The Nature Conser- vancy's Narrows Preserve on Peters Mountain, Virginia, where the predominant vegetation is oak (Quercus L.)-dominated forest containing some other hardwoods and pines (Pinus L.). The site encompasses all the known habitat of the endangered and endemic Peters Mountain mallow (Iliamna corei Sherff.), a perennial herb that requires fire for

Jennifer A. Hoss; Charles W. Lafon; Henri D. Grissino-Mayer; Serena R. Aldrich; Georgina G. DeWeese

2008-01-01

181

Natural Phenolic Compounds From Medicinal Herbs and Dietary Plants: Potential Use for Cancer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural phenolic compounds play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. Phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants include phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, quinones, and others. Various bioactivities of phenolic compounds are responsible for their chemopreventive properties (e.g., antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, or antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory effects) and also contribute to their inducing apoptosis by arresting

Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Yanbo Zhang

2009-01-01

182

Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies 1 CAN AN INVASIVE HERB AFFECT LYME DISEASE RISK?  

E-print Network

Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies 1 CAN AN INVASIVE HERB AFFECT LYME DISEASE RISK? EXAMINING 12545 USA Abstract. The density of blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) infected with the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) determines the Lyme disease risk in a given area. Thus understanding

Lovett, Gary M.

183

COMMON HERBS USED IN DIFFERENT SKIN DISORDERS AS DESCRIBED IN AYURVEDIC CLASSICS  

PubMed Central

Diseases of skin account for a great deal of misery, suffering, incapacity and economic loss, Including the genetic causes the diet, climate, sunlight mental factors and allergy etc. have been proved as aetiological factors beyond doubts. Natural herbs seem to be more promising in the field of dematology as already described in ancient Ayurvedic texts. PMID:22557091

Singh, O.R; Das, B.; Padhi, M.M.; Tewari, N.S.

2003-01-01

184

Inhibition of ??Glucosidase by Aqueous Extracts of Some Potent Antidiabetic Medicinal Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalant diseases of adults. Agents with ??glucosidase inhibitory activity have been useful as oral hypoglycemic drugs for the control of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2; noninsulin?dependent, diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Investigation of some medicinal herbs: Urtica dioica, Taraxacum officinale, Viscum album, and Myrtus communis with ??glucosidase inhibitor activity was conducted to identify a

Seçil Önal; Suna Timur; Burcu Okutucu; Figen Zihnio?lu

2005-01-01

185

[Allergenic mites found in raw material of herbs based on literature about the Pyroglyphidae (Acari: Acaridida)].  

PubMed

The occurrence of two pyroglyphid mites. Euroglyphus maynei (COOREMAN, 1950) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (TROUESSART, 1897) in the raw material of herbs is discussed and compared with the literature data. These mites are considered to be the cause of human atopic diseases. PMID:8755152

Solarz, K; Karnkowski, W

1996-01-01

186

Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating peppermint are exposed during processing of this herb to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. The exposure to bioaerosols during processing of chamomile is lower; nevertheless, peak values create a respiratory risk for exposed farmers. PMID:16457486

Skórska, Czes?awa; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2005-01-01

187

A Systematic Review of the Reporting of Adverse Events Associated With Medical Herb Use Among Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Information about the safety of herbal medicine often comes from case reports published in the medical literature, thus necessitating good quality reporting of these adverse events. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the comprehensiveness of reporting of published case reports of adverse events associated with herb use in the pediatric population. Methods: Electronic literature search included 7 databases and a manual search of retrieved articles from inception through 2010. We included published case reports and case series that reported an adverse event associated with exposure to an herbal product by children under the age of 18 years old. We used descriptive statistics. Based on the International Society of Epidemiology's “Guidelines for Submitting Adverse Events Reports for Publication,” we developed and assigned a guideline adherence score (0-17) to each case report. Results: Ninety-six unique journal papers were identified and represented 128 cases. Of the 128 cases, 37% occurred in children under 2 years old, 38% between the ages of 2 and 8 years old, and 23% between the ages of 9 and 18 years old. Twenty-nine percent of cases were the result of an intentional ingestion while 36% were from an unintentional ingestion. Fifty-two percent of cases documented the Latin binomial of the herb ingredients; 41% documented plant part. Thirty-two percent of the cases reported laboratory testing of the herb, 20% documented the manufacturer of the product, and 22% percent included an assessment of the potential concomitant therapies that could have been influential in the adverse events. Mean guideline adherence score was 12.5 (range 6-17). Conclusions: There is considerable need for improvement in reporting adverse events in children following herb use. Without better quality reporting, adverse event reports cannot be interpreted reliably and do not contribute in a meaningful way to guiding recommendations for medicinal herb use. PMID:24416663

Adams, Denise; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Nasser, Hafsa; Saper, Robert; White, Laura; Vohra, Sunita

2013-01-01

188

Effects of Five Ayurvedic Herbs on Locomotor Behaviour in a Drosophila melanogaster Parkinson’s Disease Model  

PubMed Central

Current conventional treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) are aimed at symptom management, as there is currently no known cure or treatment that can slow down its progression. Ayurveda, the ancient medical system of India, uses a combination of herbs to combat the disease. Herbs commonly used for this purpose are Zandopa (containing Mucuna pruriens), Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Sida cordifolia and Bacopa monnieri. In this study, these herbs were tested for their potential ability to improve climbing ability of a fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) PD model based on loss of function of phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Fruit flies were cultured on food containing individual herbs or herbal formulations, a combination of all five herbs, levodopa (positive control) or no treatment (negative control). Tests were performed in both PINK1 mutant flies and healthy wild-type (WT) flies. A significant improvement in climbing ability was observed in flies treated with B. monnieri compared with untreated PINK1 mutant flies. However, a significant decrease in climbing ability was observed in WT flies for the same herb. Centella asiatica also significantly decreased climbing ability in WT flies. No significant effects were observed with any of the other herbs in either PINK1 or WT flies compared with untreated flies. PMID:25091506

Jansen, R. L. M.; Brogan, B.; Whitworth, A. J.; Okello, E. J.

2015-01-01

189

Heavy metal uptake by two edible Amaranthus herbs grown on soils contaminated with lead, mercury, cadmium, and nickel.  

PubMed

The uptake of an element by a plant is primarily dependent on the plant species, its inherent controls, and the soil quality. Amaranthus hybridus (green herbs) and Amaranthus dubius (red herbs) were chosen to investigate their response and ability to accumulate and tolerate varying levels of elements in their roots and shoots. Red herbs and green herbs were grown in soil pots contaminated with three mixtures of Cd(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), and Hg(II). Plants in the control treatment were grown in the absence of the heavy metals mixture. The distribution of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Hg in the plants (in roots, stems, and leaves) was determined in two stages. Stage 1, after 5 weeks of plant growth and stage 2, full grown after 10 weeks of growth. In the red herbs the Cd concentration in the leaves at stage 2 was 150 ppm and was present in higher concentrations than Ni, Hg, and Pb. At the highest contamination level, in the green herbs plant, Hg was present in the highest concentration in the root, i.e., 336 ppm at stage 1, while the level in the leaves was 7.12 ppm. Both the green and red herbs species showed an affinity for Ni and Cd with moderate to high levels detected in the leaves, respectively. PMID:15825688

Chunilall, V; Kindness, A; Jonnalagadda, S B

2005-01-01

190

Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

191

Application of EPR Spectroscopy to Examination of the Effect of Sterilization Process on Free Radicals in Different Herbs.  

PubMed

Free radicals in the original and sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom were studied. An X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was the experimental technique. Effect of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on amplitudes, linewidths, and lineshape parameters of the EPR spectra was tested. Free radicals concentrations in the non- and sterilized herb samples were compared. The aim of this work was to determine properties and concentration of free radicals in steam sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom. It was pointed out that free radicals (~10(18)?spin/g) exist in both the original and sterilized herbs. Complex free radical system with oxygen and carbon paramagnetic centers characterizes the examined herbs. Homogeneously dipolar broadened EPR spectra were measured for all the tested herbs. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the examined samples. Practical usefulness of EPR method in food technology was discussed. PMID:23487576

Paw?owska-Góral, Katarzyna; Ramos, Pawe?; Pilawa, Barbara; Kurzeja, Ewa

2013-03-01

192

Developing optimal search strategies for finding information on herbs and other medicinal plants in MEDLINE.  

PubMed

The MEDLINE database is an important resource for locating up-to-date information on herbs and other botanical therapies. However, the evolving nature of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the complexity of herbal terminology can make it difficult to identify useful citations. This paper describes optimal search strategies for finding clinical information on herbs and medicinal plants in MEDLINE using the PubMed retrieval system. Searchers will benefit from an understanding of the structure of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and PubMed's advanced search capabilities. Details for using PubMed's MeSH Database, Clinical Queries, Clipboard, and limiting features to retrieve pertinent botanical research are described. Tables containing MeSH terms for medicinal plants and useful print and electronic resources are included. PMID:16131300

Saxton, Jane D; Owen, David J

2005-08-01

193

Mechanisms of action of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia and deterioration of cognitive function. Although several drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease delay its onset and slow its progression, still there is no drug with profound disease-modifying effects. Studies aiming the treatment of this neurodegenerative disorder explore various disease mechanisms. Since antiquity, medicinal herbs have been used in traditional medicine. Recent studies suggest that the neurobiological effects of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs may contribute to clinical benefits in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. This review focuses on five phytochemicals, berberine, curcumin, ginsenoside Rg1, puerarin, and silibinin, which have been mostly investigated to treat the development and progression of this neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:25210998

Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

2014-10-01

194

Interactions between herbs and conventional drugs: overview of the clinical data.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the clinical evidence of interactions between herbal and conventional medicines. Herbs involved in drug interactions--or that have been evaluated in pharmacokinetic trials--are discussed in this review. While many of the interactions reported are of limited clinical significance and many herbal products (e.g. black cohosh, saw palmetto, echinacea, hawthorn and valerian) seem to expose patients to minor risk under conventional pharmacotherapy, a few herbs, notably St. John's wort, may provoke adverse events sufficiently serious to endanger the patients' health. Healthcare professionals should remain vigilant for potential interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs, especially when drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are used. PMID:22236736

Izzo, Angelo A

2012-01-01

195

[Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

2013-09-01

196

Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)  

PubMed Central

This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 µl/cm2 which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 µl/cm2, 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity. PMID:16809961

Rim, In-Sook

2006-01-01

197

Chinese herbs ( Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) on immune response of carp was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing Astragalus (0.5%), Ganoderma (0.5%) and combination of two herbs (Astragalus 0.5% and Ganoderma 0.5%) for 5 weeks. Other groups of fish were vaccinated (i.p.) against Aeromonas hydrophila\\/Aeromonas salmonicida (Shering Plough, Essex, U.K.) at the beginning of the experiment

Guojun Yin; L. Ardó; K. D. Thompson; A. Adams; Z. Jeney; G. Jeney

2009-01-01

198

Chinese herbs nephropathy-associated slimming regimen induces tumours in the forestomach but no interstitial nephropathy in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN), a rapidly progressive interstitial fibrosis of the kidney, has been described in approximately\\u000a 100 young Belgian women who had followed a slimming regimen containing some Chinese herbs. In 4 patients multifocal transitional\\u000a cell carcinomas (TCC) were observed. Aristolochic acid (AA), suspected as the causal factor of CHN, is a well known carcinogen\\u000a but its ability to

Jean-Pierre Cosyns; Rose-Marie Goebbels; Vinciane Liberton; Heinz H. Schmeiser; Christian A. Bieler; Alfred M. Bernard

1998-01-01

199

BIOLOGY AND DAMAGE OF AN UNDESCRIBED WEEVIL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) ON AMARYLLIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The weevil subfamily Baridinae is comprised of several economically important species that cause damage to the roots and fruits of plants. In the early 1990’s, a baridine weevil was observed feeding on and occasionally killing amaryllis (Hippeastrum Herb) plants in Florida. A survey was conducted ...

200

Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis (?? Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis (?? Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae (??? J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa (?? Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium (??? Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis (??? B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis (???? Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix (??? Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata (??? Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata (??? Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba (??? Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

Muluye, Rekik A.; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N.

2014-01-01

201

Developing methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Chelidonium majus herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pure compound has been isolated and identified as coptisine on the basis of UV and NMR spectroscopy data using preparative\\u000a separation of the extract from greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) herbs by column chromatography over short columns of silica gel. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of the total\\u000a alkaloid contents in C. majus is performed using TLC analysis and spectrophotometry

E. S. Artamonova; V. A. Kurkin

2008-01-01

202

Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis ( B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis ( Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata ( Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

2014-04-01

203

Geographic variation and dispersal history in Fennoscandian populations of two forest herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Carex digitata and Melica nutans are forest understorey herbs with wide European distributions and their northern range margins in Fennoscandia. The species\\u000a have closely similar habitat requirements, occur in small populations in old forest stands on base-rich to neutral soils and\\u000a have restricted dispersal abilities at the present day. This study investigates the structure of allozyme variation (12 and\\u000a 8

T. Tyler; H. C. Prentice; B. Widén

2002-01-01

204

Chinese herbs as modulators of human mesangial cell proliferation: Preliminary studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1? and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory

Yuh-Chi Kuo; Chang-Ming Sun; Wei-Jern Tsai; Jun-Chin Ou; Wei-Perng Chen; Ching-Yuang Lin

1998-01-01

205

Inter-genomic relationships among three medicinal herbs: Cnidium officinale, Ligusticum chuanxiong and Angelica polymorpha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cnidium officinale, Ligusticum chuanxiong and Angelica polymorpha have long been used as Chinese medicinal herbs to treat the same conditions. To elucidate the inter-specific relationships\\u000a among these species, molecular and molecular cytogenetic analyses were conducted. Cytogenetically, C. officinale and A. polymorpha were found to be diploid with 2n=2x=22, but L. chuanxiong had a triploid chromosome number (2n=3x=33). FISH analysis revealed

Sang-Hoon Lee; Hae-Woon Choi; Jung-Sook Sung; Jae-Wook Bang

2010-01-01

206

Flavonoid wogonin from medicinal herb is neuroprotective by inhibiting inflammatory activation of microglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), a flavonoid originated from the root of a medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activities in various cell types including macrophages. In this work, we have found that wogonin is a potent neuroprotector from natural source. Wogonin inhibited inflammatory activation of cultured brain microglia by diminishing lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1?,

Heasuk Lee; Young Ok Kim; Hocheol Kim; Sun Yeou Kim; Hae Sook Noh; Sang Soo Kang; Gyeong Jae Cho; Wan Sung Choi; Kyoungho Suk

2003-01-01

207

Micropropagation of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum), a rare Indian medicinal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro clonal multiplication of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et. Fernand.), a rare Indian medicinal herb, has been achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 22.2 µM benzyladenine using young shoot bases as explants. Shoots multiplied at a rate of four-fold every 3 weeks. All shoots rooted when transferred to MS medium with 3\\/4-strength inorganic and organic

S. D. Purohit; Ashish Dave; Gotam Kukda

1994-01-01

208

Cytoprotective and pro-apoptotic activities of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich extracts.  

PubMed

Three commercially grown native herbs unique to Australia, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata R. Br., Winteracea; TPL), anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum Vickery, Craven & Biffen, Myrtaceae; AM) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora F. Muell, Myrtaceae; LM) as well as a reference sample bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae; BL) were examined for potential cytoprotective properties. All native herbs exhibited greater cellular antioxidant activity as measured by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay than bay leaf and reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by 25-50%. All herb extracts reduced the proliferation of colon (HT-29; IC(50)=0.75-1.39mg/ml), stomach (AGS; IC(50)=0.59-1.88mg/ml), bladder (BL13; IC(50)=0.56-1.12mg/ml) and liver (HepG2; IC(50)=0.38-1.36mg/ml) cancer cells. No significant reduction of cell viability of non-transformed colon (CCD-18Co; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) and mixed stomach and intestine (Hs 738.St/Int; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) cells was observed. Flow cytometry analysis and the results of the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay conducted with respectively, promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells suggest an increase in apoptosis following treatment with the herb extracts. The occurrence of apoptotic cells coincided with an increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. The results of the CBMNCyt assay suggested no direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells as a result of treatment with all extracts, applied at final concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml. PMID:23017386

Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Konczak, Izabela

2013-01-01

209

Yield Response of Herbs to Nitrogen and Potassium in Sand in Multiple Harvests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield potential of Italian parsley (Petroselinum crispum), Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) was evaluated in multiple harvests from 1993 to 1995. The herbs were grown using a full-bed polyethylene mulch-seepage irrigation system with three nitrogen and potassium rates. In the 1993–94 growth season, plant survival of sweet marjoram and thyme, but not Italian

A. A. Csizinszky

2000-01-01

210

Antimicrobial and biofilm effects of herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Of the twenty-two components of tea decoctions commonly used to treat infections, only Scutellaria, Taraxacum, Tussilago and Glycyrrhiza exhibited antimicrobial activity. The activity, when present, was organism specific, i.e., anti-Staphylococcus aureus, including anti-MRSA activity under aerobic and/or anaerobic conditions. However, with the exception of Scutellaria, sub-inhibitory concentrations of the herbs exhibited a pattern of inducing enhanced production of biofilm. PMID:24427955

Lau, Denny; Plotkin, Balbina J

2013-11-01

211

Chemical studies on the constituents of the chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia helioscopia L.  

PubMed

Euphoheliosnoid D (1), a new jatrophone-type diterpenoid, was isolated together with 22 known metabolites from the Chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia helioscopia L. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 14-23 were obtained from the species for the first time while compound 14, 2alpha-hydroxy helioscopinolide B, was isolated as a new natural product. PMID:16819227

Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei

2006-07-01

212

The influence of pollen addition and ramet isolation on current sexual reproduction in a clonal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense Desf.), a rhizomatous, perennial herb, was the subject of a 2-year field experiment that examined two factors potentially\\u000a affecting fruit and seed production: pollen addition and ramet isolation. Ramets were either open pollinated or overpollinated\\u000a by hand to supplement natural levels. Rhizomes of the ramets were either severed, to prevent resource supplementation from\\u000a the genet, or

Michael T. Ganger

1997-01-01

213

Alkaloids of the herb sedum acre L. Part I. Chromatographic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloid extracts from the herb Sedum acre L. (stonecrop) were analysed by the “moist buffered paper” technique in solvent systems of the type nonpolar or weakly polar solvent-aqueous buffer solution, which were found to be much more selective than one-phse systems or liquid-solid systems. In addition to six previously known Sedum alkaloids, three new alkaloids in the extract were demonstrated.

S. Bieganowska; A. Waksmundzki

1976-01-01

214

Antioxidative activities and the total phenolic contents of tonic Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Chinese medicated diet is an everyday practice in China. In this study, 16 commonly used soup making tonic Chinese medicinal\\u000a herbs were selected for antioxidative capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric\\u000a reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of these herbal extracts were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu\\u000a method. It confirmed that drinking tonic soups could

D.-J. Guo; H.-L. Cheng; S.-W. Chan; P. H.-F. Yu

2008-01-01

215

Bisindigotin, a TCDD antagonist from the Chinese medicinal herb Isatis indigotica.  

PubMed

A new indigoid derivative, bisindigotin (1), with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-antagonistic activity was isolated from the ethanol extract of the Chinese medicinal herb Isatis indigotica. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic methods. In the human HepG2 hepatoma cell model, 1 (50 nM to 2 microM) was found to dose-dependently inhibit TCDD-induced ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. PMID:15787451

Wei, Xiao Y; Leung, Chung Y; Wong, Chris K C; Shen, Xiao L; Wong, Ricky N S; Cai, Zong W; Mak, Nai K

2005-03-01

216

Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from fruits, herbs and spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation plays an important role in various diseases with high prevalence within populations such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and asthma. Here we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of various fruits, herbs and spices in a lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage model. These compounds acted by reduction of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, enhancement of anti-inflammatory IL-10 production, or reduction of

Monika Mueller; Stefanie Hobiger; Alois Jungbauer

2010-01-01

217

Chloroplast DNA variation in the European herb Silene dioica (red campion): postglacial migration and interspecific introgression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Many recent studies of intraspecific geographic variation in maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in European trees\\u000a have revealed haplotype distributions that can be interpreted in terms of scenarios of postglacial migration and range expansion.\\u000a However, there is still a lack of comparable information from widespread herb species. In the present study, we investigated\\u000a the geographic distribution of cpDNA variation in

Honor C. Prentice; J. U. Malm; L. Hathaway

2008-01-01

218

Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model.  

PubMed

Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063

Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling

2010-06-01

219

Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2014-08-01

220

The rs1142345 in TPMT Affects the Therapeutic Effect of Traditional Hypoglycemic Herbs in Prediabetes  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic interventions in prediabetes are important in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its chronic complications. However, little is known about the pharmacogenetic effect of traditional herbs on prediabetes treatment. A total of 194 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were treated with traditional hypoglycemic herbs (Tianqi Jiangtang) for 12 months in this study. DNA samples were genotyped for 184 mutations in 34 genes involved in drug metabolism or transportation. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that rs1142345 (A > G) in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene was significantly associated with the hypoglycemic effect of the drug (P = 0.001, FDR P = 0.043). The “G” allele frequencies of rs1142345 in the healthy (subjects reverted from IGT to normal glucose tolerance), maintenance (subjects still had IGT), and deterioration (subjects progressed from IGT to T2D) groups were 0.094, 0.214, and 0.542, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that rs1142345 was also significantly associated with the hypoglycemic effect of the drug between the healthy and maintenance groups (P = 0.027, OR = 4.828) and between the healthy and deterioration groups (P = 0.001, OR = 7.811). Therefore, rs1142345 was associated with the clinical effect of traditional hypoglycemic herbs. Results also suggested that TPMT was probably involved in the pharmacological mechanisms of T2D. PMID:23737827

Li, Xi; Lian, Feng-Mei; Guo, Dong; Fan, Lan; Tang, Jie; Peng, Jing-Bo; Deng, Hong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Xiao, Xin-Hua; Wang, Yan-Rong; Qu, Ke-Yi; Deng, Sheng; Zhong, Qi; Sha, Yi-Ling; Zhu, Yan; Bai, Yu-Jing; Chen, Xin-Yan; Zhou, Qiang; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Tong, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Wei

2013-01-01

221

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework for quantitative prediction of an herb-drug interaction.  

PubMed

Herb-drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb-drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb-drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions.CPT Pharmacometrics Syst. Pharmacol. (2014) 3, e107; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.69; advance online publication 26 March 2014. PMID:24670388

Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

2014-01-01

222

Anti-thrombic activity of Korean herbal medicine, Dae-Jo-Whan and its herbs.  

PubMed

The anti-thrombic properties of the Korean herbal medicine, Dae-Jo-Hwan (DJW), which is consisted of 11 herbs (indicated as concentrations) of Rehmanniae radix 24%, Hominis placenta 5%, Testudinis carapax 9%, Eucommiae cortex 9%, Asparagi radix 9%, Phellodendri cortex 9%, Achyranthis radix 7%, Liriopis tuber 7%, Angelicae sinensis radix 7%, Ginseng radix 6%, and Schizandrae fructus 3%, were investigated. The extracts of DJW and its 11 herbs, except G. radix, A. sinensis radix and S. Fructus, inhibited the endotoxin-induced hepatic venous thrombosis in high cholesterol diet-treated rats. Also the extract inhibited the endotoxin-induced decrease in blood platelets and fibrinogen, and endotoxin-induced increase in fibrin degradation products (FDP) on disseminated intravascular coagulation in normal rats. In in vitro experiments, the extract was shown to have inhibitory effect on collagen- and ADP-induced blood platelet aggregation, on thrombin-induced conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and on the activity of plasminogen or plasmin. In conclusion, the protection of extracts of Korean herbs on the ischemic infarction induced artificially might be related to their inhibitory effects on DIC, platelet coagulation and thrombic action. PMID:16226922

Chang, Gyu-Tae; Min, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jang-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, June-Ki; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

2005-10-01

223

Investigation of the Biosynthetic Potential of Endophytes in Traditional Chinese Anticancer Herbs  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a rich empirical knowledge of the use of plants for the treatment of disease. In addition, the microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are also of interest as the producers of the compounds responsible for the observed plant bioactivity. The present study has pioneered the use of genetic screening to assess the potential of endophytes to synthesize bioactive compounds, as indicated by the presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) genes. The total DNA extracts of 30 traditional Chinese herbs, were screened for functional genes involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. The four PCR screens were successful in targeting four bacterial PKS, six bacterial NRPS, ten fungal PKS and three fungal NRPS gene fragments. Analysis of the detected endophyte gene fragments afforded consideration of the possible bioactivity of the natural products produced by endophytes in medicinal herbs. This investigation describes a rapid method for the initial screening of medicinal herbs and has highlighted a subset of those plants that host endophytes with biosynthetic potential. These selected plants can be the focus of more comprehensive endophyte isolation and natural product studies. PMID:22629306

Miller, Kristin I.; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man Yuen; Neilan, Brett A.

2012-01-01

224

In vitro antioxidation activity and genoprotective effect of selected Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Some traditional Chinese medicinal seeds and fruits are well known for their antioxidant properties. This research aims to investigate whether Fructus Lycii, Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Semen Cuscutae protect DNA from oxidant challenge by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The standard comet assay was used to assess the genoprotective effect of these medicinal herbs. Blood was taken from three healthy adults, aged from 36 to 42. Lymphocytes were isolated and treated with different concentrations of aqueous herbal extracts, while controls were treated with phosphate buffered saline. The lymphocytes were stressed with 50 ?M H(2)O(2). Treated cells were embedded in agarose and layered on slides. These sandwiched lymphocytes were lysed and afterwards subjected to an electric field in an alkaline environment. Damaged DNA was pulled out from the nucleus towards the positive electrode as a comet tail; its density was related to the degree of DNA damage. Finally, the slides were stained with fluorescence dye and tails were visually scored for 100 cells. The experiment was repeated three times and DNA damage in treated cells was compared to the controls. There was no statistical difference in DNA damage among the herb treated cells and untreated cells in the comet assay. Our data demonstrated that the selected medicinal herbs did not show in vitro DNA protection in the comet assay against oxidant challenge. PMID:21721160

Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Shirley Ching Yee; Wong, Julia Wai Ming; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

2011-01-01

225

Catalytic Therapy of Cancer with Ascorbate and Extracts of Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Catalytic therapy (CT) is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo). In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer side effects. The present studies demonstrate that a combined use of ascorbate and herbal extracts results in ROS production and a significant decrease in the number of cancer cells after a single in vitro treatment. Treatment with ascorbate in conjunction with extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs stimulated apoptosis and disrupted the cell cycle. The number of cells accumulating in the sub-G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle was increased 2- to 7-fold, and cells in G2/M increased 1.5- to 20-fold, indicating that the treatment protocol was highly effective in suppressing DNA synthesis and potentially reflecting DNA damage in the tumor cells. In addition, 20–40% of the cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of completing treatment. Our results suggest that herbal extracts can function as CT catalysts in the treatment of cancer. PMID:18955293

Zhang, Jin Z.; Heck, Diane E.

2010-01-01

226

Radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of commonly used herbs and spices in Korea.  

PubMed

Herbs and spices not only variety and racy flavour to Korean foods, they also are the richest source for antioxidant power. The present study evaluates the radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from commonly used herbs and spices in Korea. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of bay extract were 39.5% and 22.1%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was in order of dill (50.0%) > bay (31.3%) > garlic (27.9%) > white pepper and black pepper (15.1-15.3%) > onion (10.1%) extracts. Bay extract had the highest total phenolic content (17.86 ?g CE/g). High correlation coefficients were found between the total phenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R = 0.9162). These results indicate that herbs and spices had high antioxidant activity that is partly due to the phenolic compounds and provide basic data for further development of processed food products. PMID:22149899

Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mira; Goo, Tae-Hwa; Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong-Uk; Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

2012-08-01

227

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Framework for Quantitative Prediction of an Herb–Drug Interaction  

PubMed Central

Herb–drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb–drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb–drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions. PMID:24670388

Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

2014-01-01

228

Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:15681161

Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Huang, Tung-Liang

2005-02-01

229

Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities  

PubMed Central

Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects. PMID:20974978

Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.; Grace, James B.

2010-01-01

230

Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-induced mediators of inflammation by Indian herbs.  

PubMed

Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic pathogen, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne by inducing certain inflammatory mediators. These mediators include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, ROS, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were used as the major criteria for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. To prove the anti-inflammatory effects of herbs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and monocytes were treated with culture supernatant of P. acnes in the presence or absence of herbs. It was found that Rubia cordifolia, Curcuma longa, Hemidesmus indicus, and Azadirachta indica caused a statistically significant suppression of ROS from PMNL. Sphaeranthus indicus caused a smaller, still significant suppression of ROS. Aloe vera had no effect on ROS production. In the case of proinflammatory cytokine-induced monocytes, maximum suppression was shown by Azadirachta indica and Sphaeranthus indicus, followed by Hemidesmus indicus, Rubia cordifolia, and Curcuma longa. Aloe vera showed insignificant inhibitory activity. Thus, these herbs shows anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the capacity of P. acnes-induced ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the two important inflammatory mediators in acne pathogenesis. PMID:12622461

Jain, A; Basal, E

2003-01-01

231

Immunologic reactivity to work-related airborne allergens in people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs.  

PubMed

A group of 150 people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs were examined. The examined group consisted of 47 thyme farmers, 32 chamomile farmers, 31 sage farmers and 40 workers of herbs processing industry. As a reference group, 50 urban dwellers, not exposed to any kind of organic dust, were examined. Skin prick tests and precipitin tests were conducted with, respectively, 4 and 11 microbial antigens associated with organic dust. Both skin and precipitin tests were also conducted with herbal extracts of chamomile and sage. Precipitin tests were carried out with sera not concentrated and sera 3-fold concentrated. Tests for inhibition of leukocyte migration (MIF) were also conducted with 4 microbial antigens. People occupationally exposed to dust from herbs showed a higher frequency of positive skin reactions to microbial antigens compared to the reference group. The results of precipitin test also revealed greater reactivity to the environmental microbial antigens in the examined group, compared to the reference group. The highest frequency of positive results was noted with the antigen of Pantoea agglomerans (30.6 % with sera not concentrated and 48.3 % with sera 3-fold concentrated) - the difference compared to the reference group (12.0 %) was highly significant (p < 0.01). The frequencies of positive results of MIF test in the examined group were high with all antigens tested: Arthrobacter globiformis (12.6 %), Pantoea agglomerans (11.1 %), Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (17.0 %), Aspergillus fumigatus (13.3 %), and, compared to the reference group with no positive result for any antigen, all the differences were significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the frequency of positive allergological reactions to airborne microorganisms was high in people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs and suggests a potential role of microbial allergens in the pathogenesis of work-related health disorders among herb workers. The risk of sensitization seems to be greatest among thyme farmers, who showed the highest positive response. The results confirmed the particular allergenic importance of Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans. PMID:15236509

Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czes?awa; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2004-01-01

232

Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria. Because these herbs are consumed without appropriate heating, transfer to human bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24607424

Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

2014-05-01

233

Determination of 16 insect growth regulators in edible Chinese traditional herbs by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 ?g kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens. PMID:22271101

Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia

2012-03-01

234

``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

2009-05-01

235

Inhibition of Nuclear Factor ?B Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

2010-01-01

236

Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

237

Can medical herbs stimulate regeneration or neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy?  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

238

The evaluation of a fast and simple pesticide multiresidue method in various herbs by gas chromatography.  

PubMed

In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid-solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validated sample preparation procedures were compared. Under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 70-119% for MSPD for most pesticides and 70-118% for LSE, but with several exceptions. Precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were ?16% for MSPD and <18% for LSE. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99254 for both methods. LODs (limits of detection) and LOQs (limits of quantification) for MSPD were within the ranges of 0.003-0.03 and 0.005-0.04 mg/kg, respectively. The data demonstrate that the MSPD method was successfully used for the analysis of 163 pesticides in the following herbs: chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), linden (Tilia), lungwort (Pulmonaria L.), melissa (Melissa L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This paper indicates the potential of MSPD for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues. This method was therefore validated at three spiking levels (the first ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg, the second from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg and the third from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/kg) and applied to real samples (n = 15). MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs. PMID:23670401

?ozowicka, Bo?ena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczy?ski, Piotr; Mici?ski, Jan

2014-01-01

239

The influence of herbs and spices on overall liking of reduced fat food.  

PubMed

Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n = 101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4 kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P < 0.0001; 6.29 RF vs. 6.98 RFS, P ? 0.0001). The RFS overall meal was liked as well as the FF condition. FF and RFS conditions were liked significantly more than RF conditions for each meal item. Liking of FF and RFS meatloaf and vegetables were not significantly different from one another. Pasta FF and RFS conditions were rated significantly differently from each other (7.33 FF vs. 6.61 RFS, P < 0.0001). Adding herbs and spices to reduced fat foods restored liking of the overall meal, meatloaf, and vegetables to that of FF conditions, and significantly improved the liking of RF pasta. Herbs and spices can be a useful tool to improve liking of foods consistent with national guidelines. PMID:24769295

Peters, John C; Polsky, Sarit; Stark, Rebecca; Zhaoxing, Pan; Hill, James O

2014-08-01

240

Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.  

PubMed

Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089

Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

2013-01-01

241

Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC  

E-print Network

Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

Eric B. Norman; Keenan Thomas; Pedro Guillaumon; Alan R. Smith

2014-06-10

242

An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.  

PubMed

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, anti steroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa. PMID:22409913

Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Dixit, Vinod K

2012-03-01

243

Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC  

E-print Network

Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

Norman, Eric B; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R

2014-01-01

244

Biochemical Characteristics of the Herb Mixture Prolipid as a Plant Food Supplement and Medicinal Remedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolipid a known mixture of herbs is used as a plasma lipid lowering medicine. No side effects were registered. However, the\\u000a bioactive substances of Prolipid were not investigated. Therefore in this investigation Prolipids bioactive compounds and\\u000a antioxidant activity were studied. The contents of polyphenols and flavonoids were 19.87?±?2.09 and 3.09?±?0.31 mg gallic\\u000a acid equivalent GAE\\/g DW and 2.09?±?0.24 and 0.57?±?0.05 mg catechin

Zenon Jastrz?bski; Zev Tashma; Elena Katrich; Shela Gorinstein

2007-01-01

245

Elucidation of Danzhixiaoyao Wan and Its Constituent Herbs on Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production  

PubMed Central

Danzhixiaoyao Wan (DW) is a common 10 herbs formulation in China for regulating several clinical conditions affecting women. This research tried to explain one of DW's functions, purging heat, using in vitro pharmacological analyses. The whole formulation and each single herb of DW were compared based on antioxidant activity with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and for their inhibitory effect (IE) on nitric oxide (NO) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages with the Griess assay. The results showed that DW as a whole formulation had both antioxidant activity and an IE on NO production, while the individual herb component of DW varied in their ORAC values and inhibition of NO production. The ORAC value of the whole DW was 450 ?mol TE g?1. The order of antioxidant (ORAC) activity of the single herbs was: Mentha haplocalyx (1352 ?mol TE g?1) > Glycyrrhiza uralensis (1184 ?mol TE g?1) > Gardenia jasminoides (1129 ?mol TE g?1) > Paeonia suffruticosa (465 ?mol TE g?1), with the contributions being additive rather than synergistic. The production of nitrite by stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages (unstimulated: 0.5 ± 0.1 ?M versus LPS: 38.9 ± 2.3 ?M) was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) by M. haplocalyx, G. jasminoides, Bupleurum chinense and Paeonia lactiflora. DW as a whole had an IE on NO production, but this was not significant. The single herb M. haplocalyx had the highest ORAC value and the highest IE on NO production, followed by G. jasminoides. Both of these herbs have the ‘purging heat’ property in the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and this property of the samples may be correlated with the antioxidant activity and IE on NO production. PMID:18227909

Banbury, Linda K.; Leach, David N.

2007-01-01

246

Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein) from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals in chicken meat. Graphical abstract PMID:22429523

2012-01-01

247

Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs.  

PubMed

The water phase antioxidant activity of extracts from 23 Bulgarian medicinal plants was studied in relation to their polyphenol content in comparison with mate, black tea, honeybush and rooibos foreign species. Antioxidant activity was measured by the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) cation radical decolorization assay, and the total polyphenol content was assayed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Five Bulgarian plant extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of mate, which is 21.7% of all Bulgarian herbs included in this study. These were Alchemilla vulgaris L. (4.79 +/- 0.14 mm), Sambucus ebulus L. (4.03 +/- 0.07 mm), Mentha spicata L. (3.90 +/- 0.03 mm), Fragaria vesca L. (3.74 +/- 0.06 mm), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (3.63 +/- 0.05 mm). Another eight Bulgarian medicinal plant extracts exhibited an intermediate antioxidant activity - lower than that of mate and higher than that of honeybush, which makes 34.8% of all Bulgarian herbs included in the study. More than half of the herbal extracts included in the present study exhibited antioxidant activity higher than or comparable to the reference foreign plants. A positive correlation (r = 0.92) between antioxidant activity and polyphenol content was found, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous plant extracts is due to a great extent to their polyphenols. PMID:16906640

Kiselova, Yoana; Ivanova, Diana; Chervenkov, Trifon; Gerova, Daniela; Galunska, Bistra; Yankova, Tatyana

2006-11-01

248

Comparative identification of irradiated herbs by the methods of electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non irradiated and ?-irradiated dry herbs savoury ( Savoury), wild thyme ( Thymus serpollorium) and marjoram ( Origanum) with absorbed dose of 8 kGy have been investigated by the methods of elecrtron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and thermoluminescence (TL). Non-irradiated herbs exhibit only one weak siglet EPR signal whereas in irradiated samples its intensity increase and in addition two satelite lines are recorded. This triplet EPR spectrum is attributed to cellulose free radical generated by irradiation. It has been found that upon keeping the samples under the normal stock conditions the life-time of the cellulose free radical in the examined samples is ˜60-80 days. Thus the conclusion has been made that the presence of the EPR signal of cellulose free radical is unambiguous indication that the sample under study has been irradiated but its absence can not be considered as the opposite evidence. In the case when EPR signal was absent the method of TL has been used to give the final decision about the previous radiation treatment of the sample.

Yordanov, N. D.; Gancheva, V.; Radicheva, M.; Hristova, B.; Guelev, M.; Penchev, O.

1998-12-01

249

Effect of ?-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was carried out to find the effect of ?-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of ?-irradiation on medicinal herb.

Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

2009-07-01

250

Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of the Traditional Chinese Herb, Phyllanthus amarus  

PubMed Central

The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 to response towards exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and the extract reduced bioluminescence in E. coli [pSB401] and E. coli [pSB1075]. In addition to this, methanolic extract of P. amarus significantly inhibited selected quorum sensing-regulated virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Increasing concentrations of the methanolic extracts of P. amarus reduced swarming motility, pyocyanin production and P. aeruginosa PA01 lecA?lux expression. Our data suggest that P. amarus could be useful for attenuating pathogens and hence, more local traditional herbs should be screened for its anti-quorum sensing properties as their active compounds may serve as promising anti-pathogenic drugs. PMID:24169540

Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

251

Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed. PMID:22595519

Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-08-10

252

Anti-quorum sensing activity of the traditional Chinese herb, Phyllanthus amarus.  

PubMed

The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 to response towards exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and the extract reduced bioluminescence in E. coli [pSB401] and E. coli [pSB1075]. In addition to this, methanolic extract of P. amarus significantly inhibited selected quorum sensing-regulated virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Increasing concentrations of the methanolic extracts of P. amarus reduced swarming motility, pyocyanin production and P. aeruginosa PA01 lecA::lux expression. Our data suggest that P. amarus could be useful for attenuating pathogens and hence, more local traditional herbs should be screened for its anti-quorum sensing properties as their active compounds may serve as promising anti-pathogenic drugs. PMID:24169540

Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

253

Thyroid storm caused by a chinese herb contaminated with thyroid hormones.  

PubMed

Background We report a case of thyroid storm caused by consuming a Chinese herb contaminated with thyroid hormones. Case Report A 70-year-old man presented to an emergency department after 2 days of nausea, vomiting, and weakness. Three days previously, he had started taking Cordyceps powder and "Flower Man Sang Hung" as recommended by his Chinese physician. Following admission, the patient deteriorated and was eventually diagnosed with thyroid storm complicated by rapid atrial fibrillation requiring cardioversion, intubation, and intensive care admission. The analysis of the Chinese herb "Flower Man Sang Hung" was positive for levothyroxine. The patient was extubated 11 days after admission and discharged to a rehabilitation centre after 17 days of hospitalization. The Chinese medicine physician was informed of the events. Conclusions Herbal products can be the source of illness, medication interactions, and contamination. Awareness should be raised among Chinese medicine physicians, allopathic physicians, and their patients. Clinicians should also have a low threshold of suspicion to seek laboratory analysis of suspect substances when the cause of the clinical presentation is unclear. PMID:25644333

St-Onge, Maude; Vandenberghe, Hilde; Thompson, Margaret

2015-01-01

254

Thyroid Storm Caused by a Chinese Herb Contaminated with Thyroid Hormones  

PubMed Central

Patient: Male, 70 Final Diagnosis: Thyroid storm Symptoms: Atrial fibrillation • confusion • hyperthermia • tachycardia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Intubation • cardioversion Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Adverse events of drug therapy Background: We report a case of thyroid storm caused by consuming a Chinese herb contaminated with thyroid hormones. Case Report: A 70-year-old man presented to an emergency department after 2 days of nausea, vomiting, and weakness. Three days previously, he had started taking Cordyceps powder and “Flower Man Sang Hung” as recommended by his Chinese physician. Following admission, the patient deteriorated and was eventually diagnosed with thyroid storm complicated by rapid atrial fibrillation requiring cardioversion, intubation, and intensive care admission. The analysis of the Chinese herb “Flower Man Sang Hung” was positive for levothyroxine. The patient was extubated 11 days after admission and discharged to a rehabilitation centre after 17 days of hospitalization. The Chinese medicine physician was informed of the events. Conclusions: Herbal products can be the source of illness, medication interactions, and contamination. Awareness should be raised among Chinese medicine physicians, allopathic physicians, and their patients. Clinicians should also have a low threshold of suspicion to seek laboratory analysis of suspect substances when the cause of the clinical presentation is unclear. PMID:25644333

St-Onge, Maude; Vandenberghe, Hilde; Thompson, Margaret

2015-01-01

255

Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as "irradiated") for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

Alberti, A.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.; Bortolin, E.; Calicchia, A.; Onori, S.

2007-08-01

256

An Investigation of the Relationship between the Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Polyphenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activities of Cooked and In Vitro Digested Culinary Herbs  

PubMed Central

There is little research on how cooking and digestion affect the anti-inflammatory activity of culinary herbs. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate this activity following cooking and in vitro digestion of the common culinary herbs, rosemary, sage, and thyme, and the relationship between their anti-inflammatory activity, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity. The anti-inflammatory activity of uncooked (U), cooked (C), cooked and in vitro digested (C&D), and standardised (STD, 30?mg/mL) culinary herbs was assessed by measuring their effect on interleukin 8 (IL-8) release from stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and Caco-2 cells. The trolox equivalent capacity (TEAC) and estimated total phenolic content of the herbs were also determined. There was a significant decrease in IL-8 release from PBLs stimulated with H2O2 incubated with (U), (C), (C&D), and (STD) herbs and from Caco-2 cells stimulated with TNF? incubated with (C&D) and (STD) herbs. PBLs pre-incubated with (C&D) herbs prior to stimulation (H2O2 or TNF?) caused a significant inhibition in IL-8 release. The significant correlations between TEAC and estimated phenolic content and the anti-inflammatory activity suggest a possible contributory role of polyphenols to the anti-inflammatory activity of the culinary herbs investigated. PMID:22685620

Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P.; Jones, Lucy; Opara, Elizabeth I.

2012-01-01

257

Trend and Pattern of Herb and Supplement Use in the United States: Results from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys  

PubMed Central

Background. In 1990s, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including use of herbs and supplements, gained popularity in the United States. However, more recent surveys suggest that demand for herbs and supplements has stabilized. Objective. This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and changes in herb and supplement use among the US adults, using the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). Methods. Weighted population estimates were derived from three complementary and alternative medicine supplements to the NHIS. Prevalence rates for herb and supplement use were compared, using Wald chi-square tests to measure changes between years. Results. An estimated 40.6 million US adults reported herb and supplement use in 2012. However, the rate of herb and supplement use dropped from 18.9% in 2002 to 17.9% in 2007 and 2012 (P < 0.05). This decline in use was more pronounced among women, racial or ethnic minorities, and adults with low incomes. Conclusion. Herb and supplements use remains common in the USA, but adult use rates are on the decline. It is still important for health care providers to ask patients about herb and supplement use. PMID:25574184

Wang, Chi-Chuan; Tsai, Meng-Ting; Huang, Wan-Ting; Kennedy, Jae

2014-01-01

258

-The influence of carbon -nutrient balance on herb and woody plant abundance -217 Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 217-226, 2006  

E-print Network

- The influence of carbon - nutrient balance on herb and woody plant abundance - 217 Journal structural carbon - nutrient balance hypothesis parallel to Bryant et al.'s defensive chem- istry hypothesis or water. We test the derivative predic- tions that in temperate deciduous forests (1) herb cover

Peet, Robert K.

259

An investigation of the relationship between the anti-inflammatory activity, polyphenolic content, and antioxidant activities of cooked and in vitro digested culinary herbs.  

PubMed

There is little research on how cooking and digestion affect the anti-inflammatory activity of culinary herbs. Thus, the aim of this paper was to investigate this activity following cooking and in vitro digestion of the common culinary herbs, rosemary, sage, and thyme, and the relationship between their anti-inflammatory activity, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity. The anti-inflammatory activity of uncooked (U), cooked (C), cooked and in vitro digested (C&D), and standardised (STD, 30?mg/mL) culinary herbs was assessed by measuring their effect on interleukin 8 (IL-8) release from stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and Caco-2 cells. The trolox equivalent capacity (TEAC) and estimated total phenolic content of the herbs were also determined. There was a significant decrease in IL-8 release from PBLs stimulated with H(2)O(2) incubated with (U), (C), (C&D), and (STD) herbs and from Caco-2 cells stimulated with TNF? incubated with (C&D) and (STD) herbs. PBLs pre-incubated with (C&D) herbs prior to stimulation (H(2)O(2) or TNF?) caused a significant inhibition in IL-8 release. The significant correlations between TEAC and estimated phenolic content and the anti-inflammatory activity suggest a possible contributory role of polyphenols to the anti-inflammatory activity of the culinary herbs investigated. PMID:22685620

Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P; Jones, Lucy; Opara, Elizabeth I

2012-01-01

260

Influence of different dates of planting on growth, herb, oil yield and quality of essential oil of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) in the NorthIndian Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted for two years (2007–2008 and 2008–2009) to study the effect of different dates of planting for three menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) cultivars (Saksham, Kushal and Kosi; developed by Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India) on herb yield, oil yield and oil quality. All the cultivars produced higher herb and oil yields when

Rajesh K. Chauhan; Mohammed Anwar; Sukhmal Chand; Dharani D. Patra

2011-01-01

261

Influence of different dates of planting on growth, herb, oil yield and quality of essential oil of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) in the North Indian Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted for two years (2007–2008 and 2008–2009) to study the effect of different dates of planting for three menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) cultivars (Saksham, Kushal and Kosi; developed by Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India) on herb yield, oil yield and oil quality. All the cultivars produced higher herb and oil yields when

Rajesh K. Chauhan; Mohammed Anwar; Sukhmal Chand; Dharani D. Patra

2012-01-01

262

Influence of straw mulching on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency, moisture conservation and herb and essential oil yield in Japanese mint ( Mentha arvensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field study, the influence of organic mulches viz. paddy straw and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) distillation waste on herb and essential oil yield and fertilizer N use efficiency in Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.) were examined for two years. Herb yield (dry weight) increased by 17 and 31% with paddy straw and citronella distillation waste, respectively over the

D. D. Patra; Muni Ram; D. V. Singh

1993-01-01

263

Responses of gas exchange to humidity in populations of three herbs from environments differing in atmospheric water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to humidity of net photosynthesis and leaf conductance of single attached leaves were examined in populations of herbs from wet soil sites in Beltsville, Maryland and Davis, California, USA. Plants were grown in controlled environments under three conditions which differed in the magnitude of the day-night temperature difference and in daytime air saturation deficit. No population differences in response

J. A. Bunce

1986-01-01

264

Population growth rate of a common understory herb decreases non-linearly across a gradient of deer herbivory  

E-print Network

populations of white-tailed deer (henceforth deer) throughout eastern North America (McCabe and McCabe, 1997 interactions Matrix model Tolerance A B S T R A C T Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianusPopulation growth rate of a common understory herb decreases non-linearly across a gradient of deer

265

A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunopotentiating effect of the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a medicinal herb, has been associated with its polysaccharide fractions (Astragalus polysaccharides, APS). We herein demonstrate that APS activates mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in terms of proliferation or cytokine production. Fluorescence-labeled APS (fl-APS) was able to selectively stain murine B cells, macrophages and a also human

Bao-Mei Shao; Wen Xu; Hui Dai; Pengfei Tu; Zhongjun Li; Xiao-Ming Gao

2004-01-01

266

Negative indirect effects of an avian insectivore on the fruit set of an insect-pollinated herb  

E-print Network

considerable taxonomic overlap, at the order and family level, between insects visiting sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) and those eaten by cliff swallows (Hirundo pyrrhonota). We found a significant negative of insect-pollinated plants. We studied the fruit set of a monocarpic herb, sweet clover (Melilotus

Wolf, Blair O.

267

Responses of the biennial forest herb Alliaria petiolata to variation in population density, nutrient addition and light availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Alliaria petiolata, a European biennial herb, is an important pest in temperate North American deciduous forests. Habitat resource structure has probably been important for invasion and proliferation of this species. 2 Alliaria was grown in an experimental garden at two densities (equivalent to 17 and 170 plants m?2), three nutrient levels (no, low, or high nutrient addition) and

J. Forrest Meekins; Brian C. McCarthy

2000-01-01

268

Constitutens of high altitude himalayan herbs part XV: A new norditerpenoid alkaloid from the roots of Aconitum balfourii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new norditerpenoid alkaloid 9-hydroxysenbushine A has been isolated from the roots of high altitude Himalayan herbAconitumbalfourii by means of vacuum liquid chromatography and centrally accelerated radial thin layer chromatographic techniques and identified by means of MS, H and C?NMR spectral methods.

K. S. Khetwal; Sunita Pande

2004-01-01

269

Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a laboratory exercise used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. The Indian herb, gymnema sylvestre, is used in this experiment to impair the ability of tasting sugar. As a result the impairment alters the perception of sweetness, which leaves a profound and lasting impression on students and gives them a better comprehension of gustation.

Joseph Schroeder, Ellen Flannery-Schroeder (Conneticut College, University of Rhode Island; )

1999-11-30

270

Effect of Microwave Oven and Warm-Air Drying on the Microflora and Volatile Oil Profile of Culinary Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of culinary herb species Allium schoenoprasum L., Anethum graveolens L., Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm., Artemisia dracunculus L., Coriandrum sativum L., Levisticum officinale Koch. Mentha spicata L., Origanum majorana L., Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A. W. Hill, Salvia officinalis L., Satureja hortensis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. were dried by warm-air and microwave ovens. The microbiological quality of

S. G. Deans; Katerina P. Svoboda; Mary C. Bartlett

1991-01-01

271

-SIMULATED EFFECTS OF HERB COMPETITION ON PLANTED QUERCUS FAGINEA -213 Applied Vegetation Science 6: 213-222, 2003  

E-print Network

(AC), below-ground competition (BGC), and total competition (TC). We assessed the perform- ance of Q) biomass production of herbs. The TC treatment re- duced water availability more than the BGC treatment, in agreement with the most pronounced water stress in seedlings under TC conditions. BGC and TC treatments

Espigares, Tíscar

272

Determination of Arsenic and Mercury in Chinese Medicinal Herbs by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry with Closed-Vessel Microwave Digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method was developed for the determination of trace arsenic and mercury in Chinese medicinal herbs. The samples were digested in closed?Teflon vessels in a microwave oven, and followed with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric measurements. The experimental conditions for the digestion were carefully optimized using an orthogonal design. The accuracy of the method was validated by recovery experiments,

Zhou Long; Juanjuan Xin; Xiandeng Hou

2004-01-01

273

New Insights into the Chemical and Biochemical Basis of the “Yang-Invigorating” Action of Chinese Yang-Tonic Herbs  

PubMed Central

In the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, many Yang-tonic herbs have been used for retarding the decline in bodily function and delaying the onset of age-related diseases. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that Yang-invigorating herbs/formulations protect against oxidative injury in various organs and also extend the median lifespan in mice. This lifespan extension was associated with an upregulation of cellular antioxidant status including that of mitochondria whose functional capacity is also increased by “Yang-invigorating” herbs/formulations. In this paper, we propose that triterpenes and phytosterols, which are ubiquitously found in Yang-tonic herbs, may be the chemical entities responsible for enhancing mitochondrial functional and antioxidant capacity and thus the “Yang-invigorating” action. The biochemical mechanism underlying this “Yang-invigorating” action may involve a sustained production of low levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) secondary to an increased activity of the electron transport chain, with the possible involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling. The increase in mitochondrial functional capacity can retard the decline in bodily function during aging, whereas the mitochondrial ROS production is instrumental in eliciting a glutathione antioxidant response via redox-sensitive signaling pathways, which can delay the onset of age-related diseases. PMID:25610483

Wong, Hoi Shan; Leung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Wing Man; Ko, Kam Ming

2014-01-01

274

Chinese herb related molecules of cancer-cell-apoptosis: a minireview of progress between Kanglaite injection and related genes  

PubMed Central

Many kinds of Chinese herb had been confirmed to have the character of anti-tumor, clinical reports about anti-tumor effects of Chinese herb had also been found in recent years, but most of the reports were focused on the clinical treatment of effectiveness for Chinese herb, on the other hand, review about Chinese herbal related with molecules on cancer-cell-apoptosis was seldom, many scientists could not believe such kinds of clinical describes about anti-tumor effects for Chinese herb, because these describes were lack of molecular biology evidence. Kanglaite(KLT) injection is an anti-tumor new drug which extracts from Chinese medicine-coix seed with modern advanced pharmaceutical technology, it is also a new biphase extended-spectrum anticancer medicine, the food and drug administration(FDA) of United States also approved a phase II trial of KLT to test its efficacy in treating non-small-cell lung cancer. Some studies show it could inhibit some anti-apoptotic gene and activate some pro-apoptotic gene, its injection solution is one of the new anticancer medicine that can significantly inhibit a various kinds of tumor cells, so it has become the core of research that how to further explore KLT injection to promote tumor cell apoptosis by impacting on related genes. In this review, the relationship between KLT and some tumor cell apoptosis molecules had been discussed and reviewed generally. PMID:18718024

Lu, Yun; Li, Chang-Sheng; Dong, Qian

2008-01-01

275

The Use of Herbs in Pastures: An Interview Survey Among BioDynamic and Organic Farmers with Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of knowledge about the effects of herbs in pastures and the frequency of their use by today's organic farmers has limited the development of new methods to improve animal health compatible with organic farming principles. Understanding farmers' agricultural practices is an early step in a participatory research process. With this in mind, we conducted a two-tiered, semi-structured survey of

Naja W. Smidt; Leon Brimer

2005-01-01

276

The Effect of Irradiation and Heat Treatment on Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Culinary Herbs and Spices — A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides the positive effects, ?-irradiation and heat treatment of foods usually lead to changes in their structure or composition, thus influencing their quality. In view of the fact that herbs and spices are important source of antioxidants in a human diet, any kind of treatment can have an impact on their antioxidant status, as well. In this contribution, we review

Martin Polovka; Milan Suhaj

2010-01-01

277

Microsatellite primers in the weedy annual herb Anacyclus clavatus (Asteraceae) and four closely related species1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellite primers were developed for the weedy herb Anacyclus clavatus to study the genetic structure of hybrid zones with closely related taxa in the western Mediterranean Basin, where different floral phenotypes are present. • Methods and Results: We obtained two microsatellite libraries using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing of cloned restriction fragments. A total of 13 polymorphic and 11 monomorphic loci were identified in three Iberian populations of A. clavatus. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 1–8 alleles per locus. Most primers also amplified in A. homogamos, A. monanthos, A. radiatus, and A. valentinus. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of these markers in A. clavatus for population genetic and hybridization studies as well as their applicability across the genus. PMID:25202498

Agudo, Alicia; Picó, F. Xavier; Álvarez, Inés

2013-01-01

278

Antihyperglycemic activity of herb extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of herb extracts, Rhus verniciflua, Agrimonia pilosa, Sophora japonica, and Paeonia suffruticosa, on the lowering of blood glucose levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 4 weeks, oral administration of Rhus verniciflua extract (50 mg/kg) exhibited a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (P<0.05). Blood TBARS concentrations, the products of glucose oxidation in blood, were also lowered by Rhus verniciflua extract supplementation. In addition, Sophora japonica and Paeonia suffruticosa extracts significantly reduced TBARS levels versus diabetic controls. Serum concentrations of liver-function marker enzymes, GOT and GPT, were also restored by Rhus verniciflua (50 mg/kg) supplementation in diabetic rats. PMID:17031059

Jung, Chang Hwa; Zhou, Song; Ding, Guo Xun; Kim, Ji Hye; Hong, Myung Hee; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Gyung Jun; Ko, Seong-Gyu

2006-10-01

279

Antiviral activities of medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts from 21 medicinal herbs traditionally used in southern mainland China were screened for antiviral activities against human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using a cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Three extracts from Agrimonia pilosa, Pithecellobium clypearia and Punica granatum, respectively, showed anti-HSV-1 activity, which was possibly contributed by the polyphenolic compounds in the herbal extracts. Six of the extracts, from Blumea laciniata, Elephantopus scaber, Laggera pterodonta, Mussaenda pubescens, Schefflera octophylla and Scutellaria indica, respectively, exhibited anti-RSV activity with 50% inhibition (IC50) concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 32 microg/mL, and selective indices (SI) ranging from 11.2 to 40. In addition to polyphenolic compounds, other constituents present in these extracts may also contribute to their anti-RSV activity. PMID:15478204

Li, Yaolan; Ooi, Linda S M; Wang, Hua; But, Paul P H; Ooi, Vincent E C

2004-09-01

280

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) in chromatographic analysis of essential oils in herbs.  

PubMed

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina

2010-05-01

281

Antidiabetic activities of chalcones isolated from a Japanese Herb, Angelica keiskei.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin action. We have explored the edible ingredients from folk medicines in Japan that contain substances complementing insulin action, such as the induction of adipocyte differentiation and the enhancement of glucose uptake. We eventually found that the ethanol extract from a Japanese herb "Ashitaba", Angelica keiskei, contained two major chalcones of 4-hydroxyderricin (4-HD) and xanthoangelol that showed strong insulin-like activities via a pathway independent of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation. The 4-HD especially showed the preventive effects on the progression of diabetes in genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. PMID:17583349

Enoki, Tatsuji; Ohnogi, Hiromu; Nagamine, Kinuko; Kudo, Yoko; Sugiyama, Katsumi; Tanabe, Masashige; Kobayashi, Eiji; Sagawa, Hiroaki; Kato, Ikunoshin

2007-07-25

282

A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of commonly used South asian herbs.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS. PMID:24716187

Waisundara, Viduranga; Yian Hoon, Lee

2013-10-01

283

Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828

Wang, Zhijun

2013-01-01

284

Antifungal activity and composition of essential oils of Conyza canadensis herbs and roots.  

PubMed

Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed), collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%), while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus) by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis. PMID:23049473

Veres, Katalin; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Lázár, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

2012-01-01

285

[Biological activity of metabolites of the herb Kalanchoe diagremontania (Hamet de la Bbathie) Jacobs et Perr].  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the hemolytic, antimicrobial, and phytoregulatory activity of various classes of lipids (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids (FFA), the glyceroglycolipids monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)), sterols, all of them were obtained from the medical herb Kalanchoe diagremontiana, and also pigments, phenolic compounds (FC), polysaccharides, and ethanol extract (EE) of the herbal. It was established that EE, FC, FFA, and sterols display pH-dependent membranothropic activity. FFA showed antimicrobial activity and stimulated growth of buckwheat stalk sprouts. K. diagremontiana glyceroglycolopids did not display expressed biological activity. Caroteniods displayed pH-independent membranothopic action and antibacterial activity. Chlorophylls displayed antimicrobial action, but did not influence erythrocytes and buckwheat sprouts. Polysaccharides acted against the microorganisms Safale S-04, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysperum and buckwheat sprouts. PMID:20143626

Anisimov, M M; Gerasimenko, N I; Cha?kina, E L; Serebriakov, Iu M

2009-01-01

286

A Comparative Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Commonly Used South Asian Herbs  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS. PMID:24716187

Waisundara, Viduranga; Yian Hoon, Lee

2013-01-01

287

Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots  

PubMed Central

Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed), collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%), while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus) by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis PMID:23049473

Veres, Katalin; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Lázár, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

2012-01-01

288

Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

2010-11-01

289

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the invasive herb Solidago altissima (Asteraceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed in the perennial herb Solidago altissima from populations within its introduced range in Japan to assess its population structure and to facilitate tracking of invasion expansion. • Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 16 microsatellite primer sets were developed for S. altissima. The primer sets were tested on 70 individuals sampled from three populations in Japan. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with five to 25 alleles per locus, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.46 to 0.92. • Conclusions: These results indicate the utility of primers in S. altissima for future research on a wide range of applications, including tracking of invasion dynamics and investigating population genetics of the species. PMID:25202531

Sakata, Yuzu; Kaneko, Shingo; Hayano, Azusa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Ohgushi, Takayuki; Isagi, Yuji

2013-01-01

290

A Systems Biology Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of Chinese Herbs for Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) involves a broad range of empirical testing and refinement and plays an important role in the health maintenance for people all over the world. However, due to the complexity of Chinese herbs, a full understanding of TCM’s action mechanisms is still unavailable despite plenty of successful applications of TCM in the treatment of various diseases, including especially cardiovascular diseases (CVD), one of the leading causes of death. Thus in the present work, by incorporating the chemical predictors, target predictors and network construction approaches, an integrated system of TCM has been constructed to systematically uncover the underlying action mechanisms of TCM. From three representative Chinese herbs, i.e., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang which have been widely used in CVD treatment, by combinational use of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening and network pharmacology techniques, we have generated 64 bioactive ingredients and identified 54 protein targets closely associated with CVD, of which 29 are common targets (52.7%) of the three herbs. The result provides new information on the efficiency of the Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD and also explains one of the basic theories of TCM, i.e., “multiple herbal drugs can treat one disease”. The predicted potential targets were then mapped to target-disease and target-signal pathway connections, which revealed the relationships of the active ingredients with their potential targets, diseases and signal systems. This means that for the first time, the action mechanism of these three important Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD is uncovered, by generating and identifying both their active ingredients and novel targets specifically related to CVD, which clarifies some of the common conceptions in TCM, and thus provides clues to modernize such specific herbal medicines. PMID:23202964

Li, Bohui; Xu, Xue; Wang, Xia; Yu, Hua; Li, Xiuxiu; Tao, Weiyang; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

2012-01-01

291

Gram-negative and gram-positive antibacterial properties of the whole plant extract of willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium).  

PubMed

The emergence of new pathogens and the increase in the number of multidrug-resistant strains in well-established pathogens during the past decade represent a growing public health concern globally. With the current lack of research and development of new antibiotics by large pharmaceutical companies due to poor financial returns, new alternatives need to be explored including natural herbal or plant-based extracts with reported antibacterial properties. Willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium) preparations have been used in traditional aboriginal and folk medicine preparations externally as an antiphlogistic to treat prostate and gastrointestinal disorders and as an antiseptic to treat infected wounds. The authors hypothesized that a whole plant extract of willow herb would exhibit antimicrobial properties on a variety of both Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in culture. The authors found that, in comparison to growth controls, willow herb extract significantly inhibited the growth of Micrococcus luteus (p < .01), Staphylococcus aureus (p < .05), Escherichia coli (p < .001), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p < .001). They also found that willow herb extract inhibited the growth of bacteria in culture more effectively than vancomycin (p < .05) or tetracycline (p < .004). These results provide preliminary support for the traditional folkloric claim that the plant willow herb possesses antibacterial properties against a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Given that whole plant extract was utilized for this study, further investigations are warranted to determine which specific part of the plant (i.e., leaves, stem, roots, and flowers) possess the antibacterial properties. PMID:21208973

Bartfay, Wally J; Bartfay, Emma; Johnson, Julia Green

2012-01-01

292

Arsenic accumulation and resistance mechanism in Panax notoginseng, a traditional rare medicinal herb.  

PubMed

Panax notoginseng, a traditional rare Chinese medicinal herb, was recently found to bring health risk to consumers, mainly because soil in its major plantation area was contaminated by arsenic (As). We investigated the effect of soil As pollution on the growth and As uptake of pot-cultured P. notoginseng, and the associated mechanisms of As stressed response. Results showed that, comparing with P. notoginseng growing in a low-As soil, the root, stem, and leaf biomasses of those growing in a high-As soil significantly reduced by 0.75, 0.09 and 0.21 g seedling(-1), respectively. Arsenic concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of the seedlings growing in high-As soil were 22, 15 and 3 times higher than those growing in low-As soil, respectively. Regardless of the soil As concentration, As existed in plants mainly as As(III), suggesting that the reduction of As(V) is a key step in As metabolism. Arsenic was distributed primarily in cell walls (51.7% for plants growing in the low-As soil, and 51.5% in the high-As soil), followed by cytoplasm supernatant, with cell organelles containing the least As. Compared with plants growing in the low-As soil, those in the high-As soil had increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities in their roots, stems, and leaves, which would be associate with improving the resistance of P. notoginseng to As stress. The results suggest that there exists some special mechanisms of As-tolerance in P. notoginseng and the study is of significance in developing measures to reduce As in the herb. PMID:22189375

Yan, X L; Lin, L Y; Liao, X Y; Zhang, W B

2012-03-01

293

Effects of dexfenfluramine on aristolochic acid nephrotoxicity in a rat model for Chinese-herb nephropathy.  

PubMed

Chinese-herb nephropathy (CHN) is a progressive renal interstitial fibrosis initially reported after concomitant intake of an anorexigen, (dex)fenfluramine, and a Chinese herb ( Aristolochia fangchi) containing nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acid (AA). We thus tested the possible enhancing effect of the active enantiomer dexfenfluramine (DXF) on AA nephrotoxicity in a rat model for CHN. Groups of 12 salt-depleted male Wistar rats received daily subcutaneous injections of 7 mg/kg body weight DXF (DXF group), 7 mg/kg body weight AA (AA group), a combination of the same doses of AA and DXF (AA+DXF group), or vehicle (control group) for up to 35 days. Six animals per group were killed on day 10 and the remaining six on day 35. Renal function was evaluated by determining serum creatinine and urinary leucine aminopeptidase activity. Histological evaluation of kidney samples was performed and tubulointerstitial injuries were semiquantified. The DXF group did not differ from controls for any parameter. Similarly elevated serum creatinine levels, decreased leucine aminopeptidase enzymuria, and renal lesions were observed in the AA and the AA+DXF groups after both 10 and 35 days. The formation of specific AA-DNA adducts in liver and renal tissue samples was assessed by the (32)P-postlabelling method. Specific AA-DNA adduct levels were significantly increased in kidney tissues from AA+DXF rats compared with AA rats. These functional and histological data suggest that DXF does not enhance AA nephrotoxicity in a rat model for CHN. Further investigations are needed to clarify the mechanism by which DXF may enhance AA-DNA adduct formation. PMID:12698237

Debelle, Frédéric; Nortier, Joëlle; Arlt, Volker M; De Prez, Eric; Vienne, Anne; Salmon, Isabelle; Phillips, David H; Deschodt-Lanckman, Monique; Vanherweghem, Jean-Louis

2003-04-01

294

Effects of Chinese herbs on salivary fluid secretion by isolated and perfused rat submandibular glands  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine whether Chinese herbs (CHs) relieve xerostomia (dry mouth) by increasing salivary secretion. METHODS: The submandibular glands of Wistar rats were surgically isolated and perfused arterially with buffered salt solution. After control perfusion, recording started 5 min prior to the start of stimulation. After fluid secretion was induced by 0.2 ?mol/L carbamylcholine (CCh) in the perfusate for 10 min, Chinese herb (CH) was added in the perfusion for 5 min. CCh was then overloaded at 0.2 ?mol/L in the perfusion for 20 min. The volume of salivary fluid secretion was recorded by a computer-controlled balance system. RESULTS: Saliva secretion formed an initial ephemeral peak at 30 s followed by a gradual increase to a sustained level. CH alone induced no or little saliva in all types of CH selected. During perfusion with CH, overloading of CCh promoted fluid secretion in 15 of 20 CHs. This promotion was classified into four patterns, which were eventually related to the categories of CH: Overall sustained phase was continuously raised (Yin-nourishing, fluid production-promoting and heat-clearing agents); The sustained secretion rose to reach a maximum then decreased (Qi-enhancing agent); Sustained secretion rose to reach the highest maximum and was then sustained with a slight decline (swelling-reducing, phlegm-resolving and pus-expelling agents); Stimulation of salivary secretion without any added stimulants. Addition of CCh raised the fluid secretion to reach the highest maximum then sharply decreased to a lower sustained level (blood activating agent). CONCLUSION: The present findings lead to the conclusion that various CHs have different promotional effects directly on the salivary gland. PMID:19701971

Murakami, Masataka; Wei, Mu-Xin; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Qian-De

2009-01-01

295

Trait variations along a regenerative chronosequence in the herb layer of submediterranean forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to assess the functional shifts of the herb layer in the submediterranean Ostrya carpinifolia coppiced forests (central Italy) along a coppicing rotation cycle. More specifically, the following questions were addressed: i) is there a pattern in functional trait composition of the herb layer along a regeneration chronosequence?; ii) which traits states differentiate each regeneration stage?; iii) are patterns of trait state variation related to the change of the environmental conditions? Species cover percentage was recorded in 54 plots (20 m × 20 m) with homogeneous ecological conditions. Relevés, ordered on the basis of the time since the last coppicing event and grouped into three age classes, were analysed with regard to trait variation, based on species absolute and relative abundance. Differences in light, temperature, soil moisture, and nutrients bioindicator values between consecutive regeneration stages were tested using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) revealed statistically significant separation between young and intermediate-aged stands with regard to most traits. Indicator species analysis (ISA) highlighted indicator trait states, which were filtered, along the chronosequence, by changes in environmental conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that light intensity had the greatest effect on traits states variation from the first to the second regeneration stage, while variation from the second to the third age classes was affected by temperature. Young stands were differentiated by short cycle species with acquisitive strategies that only propagated by sexual reproduction, with light seeds, summer green and overwintering green leaves, and a long flowering duration. Intermediate-aged and mature stands were characterized by traits associated with early leaf and flower production, high persistence in time, and showing retentive strategies aimed at resource storage (e.g., geophytes, spring green leaves, rhizomes, and mesomorphic/hygromorphic leaves).

Catorci, Andrea; Vitanzi, Alessandra; Tardella, Federico Maria; Hršak, Vladimir

2012-08-01

296

Putting the P in Ptilotus: a phosphorus-accumulating herb native to Australia  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Ptilotus polystachyus (green mulla mulla; ptilotus) is a short-lived perennial herb that occurs widely in Australia in arid and semi-arid regions with nutrient poor soils. As this species shows potential for domestication, its response to addition of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) was compared to a variety of the domesticated exotic perennial pasture herb Cichorium intybus (chicory), ‘Puna’. Methods Pots were filled with 3 kg of an extremely nutrient-deficient sterilized field soil that contained 3 mg kg?1 mineral N and 2 mg kg?1 bicarbonate-extractable P. The growth and P and N accumulation of ptilotus and chicory in response to seven rates of readily available phosphorus (0–300 mg P pot?1) and nitrogen (N) (0–270 mg N pot?1) was examined. Key Results Ptilotus grew extremely well under low P conditions: shoot dry weights were 23, 6 and 1·7 times greater than for chicory at the three lowest levels of P addition, 0, 15 and 30 mg P pot?1, respectively. Ptilotus could not downregulate P uptake. Concentrations of P in shoots approached 4 % of dry weight and cryo-scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis showed 35–196 mm of P in cell vacuoles in a range of tissues from young leaves. Ptilotus had a remarkable tolerance of high P concentrations in shoots. While chicory exhibited symptoms of P toxicity at the highest rate of P addition (300 mg P pot?1), no symptoms were present for ptilotus. The two species responded in a similar manner to addition of N. Conclusions In comparison to chicory, ptilotus demonstrated an impressive ability to grow well under conditions of low and high P availability. Further study of the mechanisms of P uptake and tolerance in ptilotus is warranted. PMID:19213796

Ryan, M. H.; Ehrenberg, S.; Bennett, R. G.; Tibbett, M.

2009-01-01

297

The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide  

PubMed Central

Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet. PMID:20096093

2010-01-01

298

Salmonella Typhimurium internalization is variable in leafy vegetables and fresh herbs.  

PubMed

Despite washing and decontamination, outbreaks linked to consumption of fresh or minimally-processed leafy greens have been increasingly reported in recent years. In order to assure the safety of produce it is necessary to gain knowledge regarding the exact routes of contamination. Leaf internalization through stomata was previously reported as a potential route of contamination, which renders food-borne pathogens protected from washing and disinfection by sanitizers. In the present study we have examined the incidence (percentage of microscopic fields harboring ? 1 GFP-tagged bacteria) of Salmonella Typhimurium on the surface and underneath the epidermis in detached leaves of seven vegetables and fresh herbs. The incidence of internalized Salmonella varied considerably among the different plants. The highest incidence was observed in iceberg lettuce (81 ± 16%) and arugula leaves (88 ± 16%), while romaine (16 ± 16%) and red-lettuce (20 ± 15%), showed significantly lower incidence (P < 0.05). Internalization incidence in fresh basil was 46 ± 12%, while parsley and tomato leaves demonstrated only marginal internalization (1.9 ± 3.3% and 0.56 ± 1.36%, respectively). Internalization of Salmonella in iceberg lettuce largely varied (0-100%) through a 2 year survey, with a higher incidence occurring mainly in the summer. These results imply that Salmonella internalization occurs in several leafy vegetables and fresh herbs, other than iceberg lettuce, yet the level of internalization largely varies among plants and within the same crop. Since internalized bacteria may evade disinfection, it is of great interest to identify plants which are more susceptible to bacterial internalization, as well as plant and environmental factors that affect internalization. PMID:21262550

Golberg, Dana; Kroupitski, Yulia; Belausov, Eduard; Pinto, Riky; Sela, Shlomo

2011-01-31

299

An Overview of the Evidence and Mechanisms of Herb–Drug Interactions  

PubMed Central

Despite the lack of sufficient information on the safety of herbal products, their use as alternative and/or complementary medicine is globally popular. There is also an increasing interest in medicinal herbs as precursor for pharmacological actives. Of serious concern is the concurrent consumption of herbal products and conventional drugs. Herb–drug interaction (HDI) is the single most important clinical consequence of this practice. Using a structured assessment procedure, the evidence of HDI presents with varying degree of clinical significance. While the potential for HDI for a number of herbal products is inferred from non-human studies, certain HDIs are well established through human studies and documented case reports. Various mechanisms of pharmacokinetic HDI have been identified and include the alteration in the gastrointestinal functions with consequent effects on drug absorption; induction and inhibition of metabolic enzymes and transport proteins; and alteration of renal excretion of drugs and their metabolites. Due to the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of phytochemicals, pharmacodynamic HDIs are also known to occur. The effects could be synergistic, additive, and/or antagonistic. Poor reporting on the part of patients and the inability to promptly identify HDI by health providers are identified as major factors limiting the extensive compilation of clinically relevant HDIs. A general overview and the significance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic HDI are provided, detailing basic mechanism, and nature of evidence available. An increased level of awareness of HDI is necessary among health professionals and drug discovery scientists. With the increasing number of plant-sourced pharmacological actives, the potential for HDI should always be assessed in the non-clinical safety assessment phase of drug development process. More clinically relevant research is also required in this area as current information on HDI is insufficient for clinical applications. PMID:22557968

Fasinu, Pius S.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

2012-01-01

300

Evidence of natural occurrence of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in herbs and grass  

PubMed Central

Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) and many other countries. However, products of animal origin originating from Asian countries entering the European market are still found noncompliant (containing CAP) on a regular basis, even when there is no history of chloramphenicol use in these countries. A possible explanation for the continued detection of these residues is the natural occurrence of CAP in plant material which is used as animal feed, with the consequent transfer of the substance to the animal tissues. Approximately 110 samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. In 26 samples, the presence of CAP was confirmed using the criteria for banned substances defined by the EU. Among other plant materials, samples of the Artemisia family retrieved from Mongolia and from Utah, USA, and a therapeutic herb mixture obtained from local stores in the Netherlands proved to contain CAP at levels ranging from 0.1 to 450 µg/kg. These findings may have a major impact in relation to international trade and safety to the consumer. The results of this study demonstrate that noncompliant findings in animal-derived food products may in part be due to the natural occurrence of chloramphenicol in plant material. This has implications for the application of current EU, USA, and other legislation and the interpretation of analytical results with respect to the consideration of CAP as a xenobiotic veterinary drug residue and the regulatory actions taken upon its detection in food. PMID:20431869

Berendsen, Bjorn; de Jong, Jacob; Nielen, Michel; Tserendorj, Enkhtuya; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchas; Cannavan, Andrew; Elliott, Christopher

2010-01-01

301

Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs  

PubMed Central

Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15–60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as “ecological clock” for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

2011-01-01

302

Characterization and classification of seven citrus herbs by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines.  

PubMed

Citrus herbs have been widely used in traditional medicine and cuisine in China and other countries since the ancient time. However, the authentication and quality control of Citrus herbs has always been a challenging task due to their similar morphological characteristics and the diversity of the multi-components existed in the complicated matrix. In the present investigation, we developed a novel strategy to characterize and classify seven Citrus herbs based on chromatographic analysis and chemometric methods. Firstly, the chemical constituents in seven Citrus herbs were globally characterized by liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Based on their retention time, UV spectra and MS fragmentation behavior, a total of 75 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized in these herbal medicines. Secondly, a segmental monitoring method based on LC-variable wavelength detection was developed for simultaneous quantification of ten marker compounds in these Citrus herbs. Thirdly, based on the contents of the ten analytes, genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines (GA-SVM) was employed to differentiate and classify the 64 samples covering these seven herbs. The obtained classifier showed good prediction performance and the overall prediction accuracy reached 96.88%. The proposed strategy is expected to provide new insight for authentication and quality control of traditional herbs. PMID:24656543

Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Liu, Ke; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping

2014-04-25

303

Radical scavenging activity of spring mountain herbs in the Shikoku mountain area and identification of antiradical constituents by simple HPLC detection and LC-MS methods.  

PubMed

The functionality of spring mountain herbs, which were collected in the Kajigamori mountain area of Shikoku area in Japan, was investigated in the course of our studies for utilizing local plant resources. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts from seventeen herbs was measured. Among these herbs, two extracts from Polystichym ovato-paleaceum (Japanese name: Tsuyanashiinode) and Sambucus racemosa subsp. sieboldiana (Japanese name: Niwatoko) showed potent DPPH radical scavenging activity. The material evidence for the potent activity of the extracts was studied by a combination of our developed method for detecting antiradical compounds, LC-MS/MS, and enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:22484936

Masuda, Toshiya; Inouchi, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Aya; Shingai, Yoshimi; Inai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Shoji

2012-01-01

304

Quantitation of chlorophylls and 22 of their colored degradation products in culinary aromatic herbs by HPLC-DAD-MS and correlation with color changes during the dehydration process.  

PubMed

Chlorophylls and their green and olive-brown derivatives were successfully separated from culinary herb extracts by HPLC with photodiode-array and mass spectrometry detection. The method involved a ternary gradient elution and reverse-phase separation conditions capable of resolving 24 different pigments (2 chlorophylls and 22 of their derivatives) of different polarities within 28 min. The method was applied to monitor color changes in 50 samples of culinary aromatic herbs subjected to five different drying treatments. Of the 24 pigments, 14 were key to understanding the differences between the primary degradation pathways of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in culinary herbs during drying processes. A color degradation ladder based on the total molar percentage of all the remaining green pigments was also proposed as a tool to measure the impact of drying treatments on aromatic herb visual aspects. PMID:24483726

Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefèvre, Stéphane; Lebuhotel, Julie

2014-02-26

305

A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.  

PubMed

Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. PMID:24518346

Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

2014-07-01

306

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is a molecular vascular target for the Chinese herb Danshen in hypertension  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Danshen, a Chinese herb, reduces hypertension in Oriental medicine. We hypothesized that Danshen acts partially through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis using tanshinone IIA, an active ingredient of Danshen, and the two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension model in hamsters. Oral tanshinone (50 µg/100 g body wt) reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 161.2 ± 6.9 to 130.0 ± 7.8 mmHg (mean ± SE; P < 0.05) in hypertensive hamsters. MAP in sham-operated hamsters was 114.3 ± 9.2 mmHg. Topical tanshinone at 1 µg/ml and 5 µg/ml increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.00 to 1.25 ± 0.08 and 1.57 ± 0.11, respectively, and increased periarteriolar nitric oxide concentration from 87.1 ± 11.3 to 146.9 ± 23.1 nM (P < 0.05) at 5 µg/ml in hamster cheek pouch. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine inhibited tanshinone-induced vasodilation. Hypertension reduced eNOS protein relative to sham-operated control. Tanshinone prevented the hypertension-induced reduction of eNOS and increased eNOS expression to levels higher than sham-operated control in hamster cheek pouch. Topical tanshinone increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.0 to 1.47 ± 0.08 in the cremaster muscle of control mice and to 1.12 ± 0.13 in cremasters of eNOS knockout mice. In ECV-304 cells transfected with eNOS-green fluorescent protein, tanshinone increased eNOS protein expression 1.35 ± 0.05- and 1.85 ± 0.07-fold above control after 5-min and 1-h application, respectively. Tanshinone also increased eNOS phosphorylation 1.19 ± 0.07- and 1.72 ± 0.20-fold relative to control after 5-min and 1-h application. Our data provide a basis to understand the action of a Chinese herb used in alternative medicine. We conclude that eNOS stimulation is one mechanism by which tanshinone induces vasodilation and reduces blood pressure.

David Kim (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery)

2006-12-15

307

Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24716112

Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2012-01-01

308

The ameliorating effects of cognition-enhancing Chinese herbs on scopolamine- and MK-801-induced amnesia in rats.  

PubMed

The study was to investigate the ameliorating effects of three Chinese herbs--Achyranthes bidentata (AB), Ophiopogon japonicus (OJ) and Cnidium monnieri (CM) on scopolamine (SCOP)- and MK-801-induced amnesia by using a passive avoidance task in rats. AB, OJ and CM at 0.1 and 0.3 g/kg prolonged the step-through latency (STL) of the retention trial. In addition, AB, OJ and CM reversed the STL shortened by MK-801, but only AB reversed the STL shortened by SCOP. In conclusion, these Chinese herbs possess cognition-enhancing activities and anti-amnestic effects, but the mechanism of the effect of AB was different from those of OJ and CM. PMID:14587877

Lin, Ying-Chih; Wu, Chi-Rei; Lin, Chun-Ju; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen

2003-01-01

309

Chinese herbs ( Astragalus membranaceus and Lonicera japonica) and boron enhance the non-specific immune response of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two Chinese medicinal herbs (Astragalus membranaceus and Lonicera japonica) and boron on non-specific immune response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was investigated. Five diet variations in addition to a control diet (without herbs or boron) were used. These contained 0,1% Astragalus (with and without 0,05% boron), 0,1% Lonicera (with or without 0,05% boron) and a mixture of

László Ardó; Guojun Yin; Pao Xu; László Váradi; Gábor Szigeti; Zsigmond Jeney; Galina Jeney

2008-01-01

310

The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The effect of the dietary inclusion of 5 culinary herbs or their essential oils on the growth, digestibility and intestinal microflora status in female broiler chicks was assessed. From 7 to 28?d of age, either a basal control diet without supplement was given or one of 10 others, consisting of the basal diet with either 10?g\\/kg herb (thyme, oregano, marjoram,

D. E. Cross; R. M. McDevitt; K. Hillman; T. Acamovic

2007-01-01

311

Presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter species in dried bush okra ( Corchorus olitorius) and African spider herb ( Cleome gynandra)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic mesophilic counts, prevalence of coliforms and antibiotic sensitivity of Klebsiella isolates were determined for bush okra (Corchorus olitorius) and African spider herb (Cleome gynandra). The aerobic mesophilic count was 1 × 104–8 × 108 CFU\\/g for both vegetables. Though bush okra harboured fewer micro-organisms, 24% of the African spider herb had counts > 108 CFU\\/g. Sporeformers were abundant. Coliform

S. F. Mpuchane; B. A. Gashe

1996-01-01

312

Antifibrotic effect of the Chinese herbs, Astragalus mongholicus and Angelica sinensis, in a rat model of chronic puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nephrotic syndrome has long been treated in China with two herbs, Astragalus mongholicus and Angelica sinensis, which may have antifibrotic effects. Methods: Rats with chronic puromycin-induced nephrosis were treated with Astragalus and Angelica 3 mL\\/d (n=7) or enalapril 10 mg\\/kg\\/d (n=7). Normal control rats (n=7) received saline rather than puromycin, and an untreated control group (n=7) received puromycin but no

Haiyan Wang; Jingzi Li; Ling Yu; Yani Zhao; Wei Ding

2004-01-01

313

Effect of two Chinese herbs ( Astragalus radix and Scutellaria radix) on non-specific immune response of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of two Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Scutellaria radix) on non-specific immune response of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated. Three-month-old tilapia with an average initial weight of 62.8±5.40 g were fed diets containing four doses of Astragalus radix (0; 0.1; 0.5 and 1.0%) and four doses of Scutellaria radix (0; 0.1; 0.5 and 1.0%) for 4 weeks. Respiratory

Guojun Yin; Galina Jeney; Timea Racz; Pao Xu; Xie Jun; Zsigmond Jeney

2006-01-01

314

Leptokurtic pollen-flow, non-leptokurtic gene-flow in a wind-pollinated herb, Plantago lanceolata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to simultaneously measure pollen dispersal distance and actual pollen-mediated gene-flow distance in a wind-pollinated herb, Plantago lanceolata. The pollen dispersal distribution, measured as pollen deposition in a wind tunnel, is leptokurtic, as expected from previous studies of wind-pollinated plants. Gene-flow, measured as seeds produced on rows of male-sterile inflorescences in the wind tunnel, is

Stephen J. Tonsor

1985-01-01

315

Chinese herbs and herbal extracts for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and potential therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating degenerative disease resulting from massive degenerative loss of dopamine neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. The most classic therapy for PD is levodopa administration, but the efficacy of levodopa treatment declines as the disease progresses. The neuroprotective strategies to rescue nigral dopamine neurons from progressive death are currently being explored, and among them, the Chinese herbs and herbal extracts have shown potential clinical benefit in attenuating the progression of PD in human beings. Growing studies have indicated that a range of Chinese herbs or herbal extracts such as green tea polyphenols or catechins, panax ginseng and ginsenoside, ginkgo biloba and EGb 761, polygonum, triptolide from tripterygium wilfordii hook, polysaccharides from the flowers of nerium indicum, oil from ganoderma lucidum spores, huperzine and stepholidine are able to attenuate degeneration of dopamine neurons and sympotoms caused by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro and in vivo conditions. In addition, accumulating data have suggested that Chinese herbs or herbal extracts may promote neuronal survival and neurite growth, and facilitate functional recovery of brain injures by invoking distinct mechanisms that are related to their neuroprotective roles as the antioxidants, dopamine transporter inhibitor, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, free radical scavengers, chelators of harmful metal ions, modulating cell survival genes and signaling, anti-apoptosis activity, and even improving brain blood circulation. New pharmaceutical strategies against PD will hopefully be discovered by understanding the various active entities and valuable combinations that contribute to the biological effects of Chinese herbs and herbal extracts. PMID:17691984

Chen, Liang-Wei; Wang, Yan-Qin; Wei, Li-Chun; Shi, Mei; Chan, Ying-Shing

2007-08-01

316

Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.  

PubMed

Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 ?g of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 ?g of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC50=16, 29, and 59 ?M, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 ?M). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC50=0.43±0.07 ?M), hispidulin (IC50=0.49±0.06 ?M), and naringenin (IC50=2.5±0.29 ?M). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management. PMID:24881464

Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

2014-07-01

317

Oil and Herb Yields of Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) in Relation to Nitrogen and Irrigation Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were designed to study the influence of irrigation at varying soil matric potentials or IW\\/CPE (Irrigation Water\\/Cumulative Pan Evaporation) ratios and N applications on the yield and N uptake by Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt). The results showed that irrigating the crop when soil matric potential reaches -60 kPa or RV\\/CPE ratio reaches 0.8 resulted in maximum herb

Munnu Singh; Govind D. Chandrasekhara; Eranki V. S. Prakasa Rao

1996-01-01

318

Roots, shoots and reproduction: sexual dimorphism in size and costs of reproductive allocation in an annual herb  

PubMed Central

Females tend to be smaller than males in woody dioecious plant species, but they tend to be larger in herbs. The smaller size of females in woody species has been attributed to higher reproductive costs, yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided for their larger size in herbs. Because herbs have higher nitrogen concentrations in their tissues than woody plants, and because pollen is particularly rich in nitrogen, we predicted that male growth would be more compromised by reproduction than female growth. To test this hypothesis, we conducted three experiments on the annual dioecious herb Mercurialis annua. First, we compared the timing of reproduction between males and females and found that males started flowering earlier than females; early flowering is expected to compromise growth more than later flowering. Second, we compared plants allowed to flower with those prevented from flowering by experimental debudding and found that males incurred a higher reproductive cost than females in terms of both biomass and, particularly, nitrogen. Third, we grew plants under varying levels of nitrogen availability and found that although sexual size dimorphism was unaffected by nitrogen, females, but not males, decreased their relative allocation to both roots and reproduction under high nitrogen availability. We propose that males deal with the high cost of pollen production in terms of nitrogen by allocating biomass to nitrogen-harvesting roots, whereas females pay for carbon-rich seeds and fruits by investing in photosynthetic organs. Sexual dimorphism would thus seem to be the outcome of allocation to above- versus below-ground sinks that supply resources (carbon versus nitrogen) limiting the female and male reproduction differentially. PMID:18682371

Harris, Mark S; Pannell, John R

2008-01-01

319

Effectiveness of a "cold dessert", with or without the addition of a mixture of digestive herbs, in subjects with "functional dyspepsia".  

PubMed

"Functional dyspepsia" represents a clinical condition of pain and/or persistent or recurrent discomfort that concerns a large portion of the healthy population. It has already been shown that some herbs (Melissa Officinalis, Cynara scolymus) can have favorable effects on digestion. The principal aim of this study is to determine whether the ingestion of "Gran Soleil" dessert, with or without herbs, after meals can be beneficial to health in subjects suffering from functional dyspepsia. For this purpose, thirty subjects with functional dyspepsia were enrolled and were asked to consume "Gran Soleil" with or without herbs; these subjects reported the course of their symptoms on VAS scale, during the basal period and after the ingestion "Gran Soleil" with and without herbs. It has been shown that the ingestion of "Gran Soleil" without herbs can induce a reduction both in the number of events connected to a dyspeptic syndrome and in their intensity; moreover the assumption of "Gran Soleil" with the addition of herbs helped to intensify this effect. PMID:20385075

Gasbarrini, G; Zaccone, V; Covino, M; Gallo, A

2010-01-01

320

Herb-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) maxim extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in rats.  

PubMed

Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim is one of the herbs used to treat erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction in Western Medicine. This study evaluates the herbal-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The rat plasma was sampled from each anesthetized rat after pretreatment with 3-days Epimedium sagittatum extract (1/2 g/kg/day) and intravenous injection with sildenafil (10/30 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of sildenafil (10 mg/kg) was significantly decreased in groups that received a high dose of Epimedium sagittatum extract. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that there was significant herb-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil at low and high daily doses, suggesting co-administration use of Epimedium sagittatum extract and sildenafil in clinical practice should be prevented due to possible herb-drug interactions. PMID:23792897

Hsueh, Thomas Y; Wu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Chiu, Allen W; Lin, Chi-Hung; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

321

Effects of Medicinal herb Extracts and their Components on Steatogenic Hepatotoxicity in Sk-hep1 Cells.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines are widely used in many countries for the treatment of many diseases. Although the use of herb extracts as alternative medicine is growing, their toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of water and ethanol extracts of 18 herbs on the hepatic lipid metabolism and steatogenic hepatotoxicity. Ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa induced lipid accumulation in Sk-hep1 human hepatoma cells as determined by Nile red staining. These extracts increased the luciferase activity of sterol regulatory element (SRE) and decreased that of peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), indicating the possibilities of enhanced fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation. To identify the components responsible for the fat accumulation, we tested 50 chemicals isolated from the nine herbs. Apigenin, luteolin, pectolinarin and lupeol from Cirsium japonicum, 8-methoxypsoralen and umbelliferone from Foeniculum vulgare and pomonic acid and jiocerebroside from Rehmanniae glutinosa significantly increased the accumulation of lipid droplets. These results suggest that ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa can cause fatty liver disease by decreasing ?-oxidation of fatty acid and increasing lipogenesis. PMID:24278574

Choi, You-Jin; Yoon, Yujin; Choi, Ho-Sung; Park, Sora; Oh, Sehee; Jeong, Se-Mi; Suh, Hyo-Ryung; Lee, Byung-Hoon

2011-12-01

322

A Laboratory Evaluation of Medicinal Herbs Used in China for the Treatment of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). During recent epidemics of HFMD in China, medicinal herbals and preparations containing herbal extracts have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy with relative safety profiles. There have been no microbiological studies to validate their usefulness for HFMD. We selected 12 commonly used herbs for HFMD from government recommended guidelines as well as published reports and tested for their antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory activity. A water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) inhibited EV71 infection significantly and was marginally active against CVA16 infection. The IC50 (concentration to have 50% inhibitory effect) values of HCT against a Fuyang strain and a BrCr strain of EV71 were determined at 8.9??g/mL and 20.6??g/mL, respectively. Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (MHB) water extract was active against CVA16, with an IC50 value of 70.3??g/mL. The extract did not exhibit activity against EV71 infection. Although the majority of the extracts showed no activity against viral infection, several extracts demonstrated activity in blocking proinflammatory response by viral infection. This study therefore validates the effectiveness of Chinese herbs for HFMD since some formulations containing the correct combination of the herbs can block viral replication as well as proinflammatory response of HFMD. PMID:23554831

Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chunyang; Xu, Lanfang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Guang; Tan, Ren Xiang; Li, Erguang; Jin, Yu

2013-01-01

323

Effects of Medicinal herb Extracts and their Components on Steatogenic Hepatotoxicity in Sk-hep1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicines are widely used in many countries for the treatment of many diseases. Although the use of herb extracts as alternative medicine is growing, their toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of water and ethanol extracts of 18 herbs on the hepatic lipid metabolism and steatogenic hepatotoxicity. Ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa induced lipid accumulation in Sk-hep1 human hepatoma cells as determined by Nile red staining. These extracts increased the luciferase activity of sterol regulatory element (SRE) and decreased that of peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), indicating the possibilities of enhanced fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation. To identify the components responsible for the fat accumulation, we tested 50 chemicals isolated from the nine herbs. Apigenin, luteolin, pectolinarin and lupeol from Cirsium japonicum, 8-methoxypsoralen and umbelliferone from Foeniculum vulgare and pomonic acid and jiocerebroside from Rehmanniae glutinosa significantly increased the accumulation of lipid droplets. These results suggest that ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa can cause fatty liver disease by decreasing ?-oxidation of fatty acid and increasing lipogenesis. PMID:24278574

Choi, You-Jin; Yoon, Yujin; Choi, Ho-Sung; Park, Sora; Oh, Sehee; Jeong, Se-Mi; Suh, Hyo-Ryung

2011-01-01

324

Seed longevity and fire: germination responses of an exotic perennial herb in NW Patagonian grasslands (Argentina).  

PubMed

Fire affects grassland composition by selectively influencing recruitment. Some exotic species can increase their abundance as a consequence of fire-stimulated seed germination, but response may depend on seed age. Rumex acetosella L. (Polygonaceae, sheep's sorrel) is a cosmopolitan herb that has invaded NW Patagonia's grasslands. This species forms persistent soil seed banks and increases after disturbances, particularly fire. We studied how fire and seed longevity influence R. acetosella germination. In 2008, we conducted laboratory experiments where we exposed different-aged seeds (up to 19 years old) to heat, smoke, charcoal, ash and control treatments. Total percentage germination and mean germination time depended on both seed age and fire treatment. Germination of younger seeds decreased with increasing temperature. There was no general pattern in germination responses of different-aged seeds to smoke, charcoal and ash. While smoke improved the germination of fresh seeds, charcoal decreased germination. Germination of untreated seeds was negatively correlated with seed age, and mean germination time increased with seed age. In most treatments, fresh seeds had lower germination than 1-5-year-old seeds, indicating an after-ripening requirement. Smoke stimulates R. acetosella germination, causing successful recruitment during post-fire conditions. Fresh seeds are particularly responsive to fire factors, possibly because they have not experienced physical degradation and are more receptive to environmental stimuli. Knowing the colonisation potential from the soil seed bank of this species during post-fire conditions will allow us to predict their impact on native communities. PMID:21973326

Franzese, J; Ghermandi, L

2011-11-01

325

A safety assessment of the antimalarial herb Artemisia annua during pregnancy in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Artemisia annua is a Chinese antimalarial herb that has been used for more than 2000 years. The maternal and foetal safety of the ethanolic leaf extract of therapeutically active Artemisia annua (EAA), with previously determined artemisinin yield of 1.098% was evaluated in Wistar rats. Twenty pregnant rats, divided into four study groups of saline treated (control), and test groups administered orally with 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weights of EAA, respectively, from gestation days (GD) 8 to 19. Following overnight fast, animals were sacrificed on GD 20, and maternal blood was collected to evaluate biochemical and haematological markers. Foetuses were carefully removed, weighed, and observed for any possible malformation. Biochemical and haematological studies revealed that EAA did not result in maternal hepatotoxicity, haematotoxicity, and hyperlipidemia. While litter size significantly decreased (p?

Abolaji, Amos O; Eteng, Mbeh U; Ebong, Patrick E; Brisibe, Ebiamadon Andi; Dar, Ahsana; Kabir, Nurul; Choudhary, M Iqbal

2013-05-01

326

Echinacea: a Miracle Herb against Aging and Cancer? Evidence In vivo in Mice  

PubMed Central

Echinacea has been viewed as an immunoenhancing herb since it became commercially available several years ago. Indeed, its medicinal significance is responsible for billions of dollars in worldwide sales annually. Unfortunately, most of the ‘evidence’ for the purported medicinal efficacy of Echinacea has been anecdotal and, moreover, to this day, there is no formal proof on how to achieve the best results—whether it should be consumed daily throughout life as a prophylactic; consumed by either young or old; or consumed after diseases, such as cancer, have taken hold. Our work over the past 5 years has led to conclusive answers to some of these questions, at least in mice. Our results have shown that daily consumption of Echinacea is indeed prophylactic, extends the life span of aging mice, significantly abates leukemia and extends the life span of leukemic mice. Given that humans are 97% genetically common with mice and that virtually all our basic physiology is identical, it is neither unjustified to extrapolate these observations to humans nor would it be an arduous task to perform many of these studies in humans, thus establishing viable scientific evidence replacing the anecdotal. PMID:16136209

2005-01-01

327

The determination of trace lead in Chinese medicinal herbs by flow injection analysis in polyethyleneglycol medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a new flow injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of Pb 2+ in Chinese medicinal herbs was developed. In the buffer solution of borax-NaOH (pH 10.5), Pb 2+ reacted with 2-[(5-bromo-2-pyridyl)-azo]-5-(diethyl-amino)phenol (5-Br-PADAP) to form a complex. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was enhanced in the presence of polyethyleneglycol-800 (PG-800). The main factors affecting the determination were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range and detection limit is 0.0-0.3 ?g/mL and 1.5 ng/mL (correlation coefficient r = 0.9996), respectively. The linear regression equation is A = -0.005 + 0.60 c (?g/mL). The sample throughout is 10 h -1. Foreign substrates effects were also investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of lead in reference material, goldthread and lepidium seed.

Gong, Aiqin; Zhu, Xiashi; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yaqin

2008-01-01

328

Large-scale adaptive differentiation in the alpine perennial herb Arabis alpina.  

PubMed

Information about the incidence and magnitude of local adaptation can help to predict the response of natural populations to a changing environment, and should be of particular interest in arctic and alpine environments where the effects of climate change are expected to be severe. To quantify adaptive differentiation in the arctic-alpine perennial herb Arabis alpina, we conducted reciprocal transplant experiments for 3 yr between Spanish and Scandinavian populations. At the sites of one Spanish and one Scandinavian population, we planted seedlings representing two Spanish and four Scandinavian populations, and recorded survival, flowering propensity and fecundity. The experiment was replicated in two subsequent years. The results demonstrate strong adaptive differentiation between A. alpina populations from the two regions. At the field site in Spain, survival and fruit production of Spanish populations were higher than those of Scandinavian populations, while the opposite was true at the site in Scandinavia, and these differences were consistent across years. By comparison, fitness varied little among populations from the same region. The results suggest that the magnitude and geographical scale of local adaptation need to be considered in predictions of the effects of global change on the dynamics of arctic and alpine plant populations. PMID:25422098

Toräng, Per; Wunder, Jörg; Obeso, José Ramón; Herzog, Michel; Coupland, George; Agren, Jon

2014-11-24

329

Epigenetic Differentiation Persists after Male Gametogenesis in Natural Populations of the Perennial Herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae)  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ?75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations. PMID:23936245

Herrera, Carlos M.; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

2013-01-01

330

Critique of medicinal conspicuousness of Parsley(Petroselinum crispum): a culinary herb of Mediterranean region.  

PubMed

WHO estimates, around 80% of the especially developing world is indigent on complementary and alternative medicines which are prodigiously derived from herbal material. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an important culinary herb originated from the Mediterranean region. It possesses small and dark seeds with volatile oil content. Petroselinum crispum is now planted throughout the world due to its usage in food industry, perfume manufacturing, soaps, and creams. Its main constituents subsume coumarins, furanocoumarins (bergapten, imperatori), ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, apiole, various terpenoic compounds, phenyl propanoids, phathalides, and tocopherol. Due to these constituents, it has been annunciated to possess a number of possible medicinal emblematics including, antimicrobial, antianemic, menorrhagic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic, antihypertensive, diuretic effects, hypoglycaemic, hypouricemic, anti oxidative and estrogenic activities. In Morocco, Parsley is mostly used as an elixir to treat arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of parsley, made it propitious in food systems. Its ELI17 gene has been corroborated as a particularly fast-responding gene. There is a requisite for extensive research to avail the maximal benefits of this significant medicinal plant. The aim of this review paper is to divulge the chemical constituents of parsley that are explicitly related to substantial medicinal facets. PMID:24374449

Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

2014-01-01

331

Yeasts in nectar enhance male fitness in a montane perennial herb.  

PubMed

Floral nectar of many plant species is prone to colonization by microbial organisms such as yeasts. Their presence and metabolism of nectar chemical components have the potential to modify a suite of floral traits important for pollinator attraction, including nectar quality and scent. However, studies on the direct and indirect effects of nectar-inhabiting microorganisms on pollinator behavior and plant reproductive success remain rare. To determine their potential to affect pollinator behavior and plant fitness, we experimentally manipulated the common nectar-inhabiting yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii in the nectar of Delphinium nuttallianum, a short-lived montane perennial herb. We detected positive, indirect, pollinator-mediated effects of yeasts on male plant fitness measured as pollen donation using powdered fluorescent dyes. However, we detected no direct or indirect effects on components of female fitness. Matching effects on male plant fitness, pollinators responded positively to the presence of yeasts, removing more nectar from flowers treated with M. reukaufii. Our results provide evidence of effects of nectar-inhabiting yeasts on male plant fitness and highlight the importance of microorganisms in mediating plant-pollinator interactions and subsequent plant fitness. PMID:25163113

Schaeffer, Robert N

2014-07-01

332

High genetic diversity in Sarracenia leucophylla(Sarraceniaceae), a carnivorous wetland herb.  

PubMed

Eighteen allozyme loci were used to examine genetic diversity in 10 natural populations of Sarracenia leucophylla Raf., a pitcher plant restricted to the southeastern United States. One ex situ population propagated for restoration in Georgia was also analyzed. S. leucophylla is an insect-pollinated, outcrossing perennial wetland herb that is threatened over much of its geographic range. Fifteen loci (83.3%) were polymorphic, with a mean number of alleles of 3.33. Compared to species having similar life-history traits and to previously analyzed Sarracenia species, S. leucophylla displayed unexpectedly high genetic diversity. For example, genetic diversity within the species (Hes) was 0.224 and mean population genetic diversity (Hep) was 0.183. Although small S. leucophylla populations maintained less genetic diversity than larger ones, these differences were not statistically significant. Nonetheless, this suggests that small populations may have lost rare alleles. Statistically significant genetic differentiation among populations was found (theta = 0.192, P < .01), although it was not atypical considering the species' life-history characteristics. A significant correlation (P < .01) between genetic and geographic distance was found, indicating an isolation-by-distance effect. However, the correlation coefficient for this relationship was low (r = 0.46), suggesting that factors other than gene flow play a prominent role in the geographic distribution of genetic diversity within the species. The ex situ population captured most of the allozyme variation found in its source population. PMID:15220390

Wang, Z-F; Hamrick, J L; Godt, M J W

2004-01-01

333

Indirect Genetic Effects from Competition in the Clonal Herb Sedum album (Crassulaceae)  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen increasing interest in indirect genetic effects, i.e. influences on the phenotype that depend on the genotype of other conspecific individuals; however, the empirical evidence for such effects is still limited, especially in wild plant species. The present study of the clonal herb Sedum album assessed direct and indirect genetic effects on performance-related traits in a 4-year experiment with clonally replicated genotypes, grown in pairs and differing in anthocyanin pigmentation to allow separation of individuals during data collection. In agreement with the existence of indirect genetic effects, the experimentally-paired plants not only expressed their own genotype but were also affected by the genotype of their pair mate. The effect of neighbour genotype explained up to one-fourth of the variation in performance and most likely resulted from competition, imposed by the close physical contact between paired individuals and the limiting conditions used in the garden environment. Indirect genetic effects from competition have the potential to enhance the efficacy of group-level selection relative to individual selection, given the nutrient-poor and spatially-confined substrate available to plants of S. album in the natural habitat. PMID:25170872

Andersson, Stefan

2014-01-01

334

Advances in Neuroprotective Ingredients of Medicinal Herbs by Using Cellular and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder, which is neuropathologically identified by age-dependent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Development of symptomatic treatments has been partly successful for PD research, but there remain a number of inadequacies in therapeutic strategies for the disease. The pathogenesis of PD remains intricate, and the present anti-PD treatments appears to be clinically insufficient. Comprehensive research on discovery of novel drug candidates has demonstrated that natural products, such as medicinal herbs, plant extracts, and their secondary metabolites, have great potential as therapeutics with neuroprotective activity in PD. Recent preclinical studies suggest that a number of herbal medicines and their bioactive ingredients can be developed into optimum pharmaceuticals for treating PD. In many countries, traditional herbal medicines are used to prevent or treat neurodegenerative disorders, and some have been developed as nutraceuticals or functional foods. Here we focus on recent advances of the evidence-linked neuroprotective activity of bioactive ingredients of herbal origin in cellular and animal models of PD research. PMID:24073012

More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Kang, Seong Mook; Song, Soo-Yeol; Lee, Kippeum; Choi, Dong-Kug

2013-01-01

335

[HPLC fingerprints of tibetan medicinal herb "songdi" (Saxifraga umbellulata var. pectinata)].  

PubMed

The research was carried out to establish HPLC fingerprints of Tibetan medicinal herb "Songdi" (Saxifraga umbellulata var. pectinata), and to provide reference for identification an quality control of it. It was performed on an Amethyst-C18-P (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with the mobile phase of methanol-0.4% formic acid in a linear gradient mode at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was 30 degrees C, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The software for chromatographic fingerprint was applied to analyse the pattern analysis, the common peaks and similarity. Cluster analysis was done based on the common peaks data of 33 samples from different plant species and sources by SPSS software. Ten common chromatographic peaks were identified by fingerprint, showing a low similarity in constituent and variety. Flavonoids and saponins were the principal components. The number and area of peaks were affected by the collection sources and method. The high similarity are showed by the samples derived from the same area with high accuracy and high purity. The method is so simple, exclusive, stable and high repeatable that it can provide reference for identification and quality assessment of "Songdi" (S. umbellulata var. pectinata). PMID:25276979

Fei, Yao; Zhong, Guo-Yue; Jiang, Wei

2014-07-01

336

The flowering pattern of the perennial herb Lobularia maritima: an unusual case in the Mediterranean basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In plant communities of the Mediterranean Basin most plant species reach their blooming peak in spring and have characteristically short flowering periods of two-three months. The perennial herb Lobularia maritima represents an exception to these characteristics, because it flowers for almost 10 months, and has its flowering peak in autumn. In this five-year study, we describe the flowering pattern of L. maritima at the population and community levels. Despite the unusually extended flowering period of L. maritima, the species showed characteristic low among-year variability in the length of the flowering period but large interannual variation in the distribution of flowers throughout the flowering period. The flowering pattern (unimodal or bimodal) of L. maritima individuals differed among the five years, suggesting that L. maritima plants are plastic enough to tailor their flowering to variable environmental conditions. We conclude that flowering phenology of L. maritima represents a very particular case in the plant community studied, and the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the phenology of this species is discussed.

Xavier Picó, F.; Retana, Javier

2001-08-01

337

Local environment and density-dependent feedbacks determine population growth in a forest herb.  

PubMed

Linking spatial variation in environmental factors to variation in demographic rates is essential for a mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations. However, we still know relatively little about such links, partly because feedbacks via intraspecific density make them difficult to observe in natural populations. We conducted a detailed field study and investigated simultaneous effects of environmental factors and the intraspecific density of individuals on the demography of the herb Lathyrus vernus. In regression models of vital rates we identified effects associated with spring shade on survival and growth, while density was negatively correlated with these vital rates. Density was also negatively correlated with average individual size in the study plots, which is consistent with self-thinning. In addition, average plant sizes were larger than predicted by density in plots that were less shaded by the tree canopy, indicating an environmentally determined carrying capacity. A size-structured integral projection model based on the vital rate regressions revealed that the identified effects of shade and density were strong enough to produce differences in stable population sizes similar to those observed in the field. The results illustrate how the local environment can determine dynamics of populations and that intraspecific density may have to be more carefully considered in studies of plant demography and population viability analyses of threatened species. We conclude that demographic approaches incorporating information about both density and key environmental factors are powerful tools for understanding the processes that interact to determine population dynamics and abundances. PMID:25224800

Dahlgren, Johan P; Ostergård, Hannah; Ehrlén, Johan

2014-12-01

338

Chemistry and bioactivity of Flos Magnoliae, a Chinese herb for rhinitis and sinusitis.  

PubMed

Flos Magnoliae (FM, Chinese name: Xin-yi) is one of the most commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. It has a long history of clinical use for managing rhinitis, sinusitis and headache. More than 20 different FM species have been used clinically, which makes species identification and evaluation of pharmacological effects of individual chemical ingredients difficult. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge on FM phytochemistry and its bioactivity activities. The bioactive compounds in FM include both lipid and water-soluble components. More than 90% of the essential components of FM species are terpenoids, including monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Lignans and neolignans including tetrahydrofurofuran, tetrahydrofuran and aryltetralin are also present in FM species. A small number of water-soluble compounds have been isolated from Magnolia flower buds, including a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid magnoflorine, an ester ethyl-E-p-hydroxyl-cinnamate and a flavonoid biondnoid. A wide range of pharmacological actions of FM have been reported, including anti-allergy, anti-inflammation and anti-microbial activity. The structure-activity relationship analysis revealed the influence of methylation at position 5 on the 3,7-dioxabicyclo-(3,3,0)-octane backbone of six lignans in antagonistic activities against platelet-activating factor. In addition, the trans stereoisomer fargesin had a much lower bioactivity than the cis stereoisomer demethoxyaschantin. Recent studies have been directed towards the isolation of other bioactive compounds. Further studies on FM may help to develop new anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drugs. PMID:18673228

Shen, Y; Li, C G; Zhou, S F; Pang, E C K; Story, D F; Xue, C C L

2008-01-01

339

Context-dependent resistance against butterfly herbivory in a polyploid herb.  

PubMed

Spatial variation in biotic interactions and natural selection are fundamental parts of natural systems, and can be driven by differences in both trait distributions and the local environmental context of the interaction. Most studies of plant-animal interactions have been performed only in natural settings, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of traits and context. To assess the relative importance of trait differences and environmental context for among-population variation in plant resistance to herbivory, we compared oviposition by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines on two ploidy types of the herb Cardamine pratensis under experimentally controlled conditions with oviposition in natural populations. Under controlled conditions, plants from octoploid populations were significantly more preferred than plants from tetraploid populations. This difference was largely mediated by differences in flower size. Among natural populations, there was no difference in oviposition rates between the two ploidy types. Our results suggest that differences in oviposition rates among populations of the two cytotypes in the field are caused mainly by differences in environmental context, and that the higher attractiveness of octoploids to herbivores observed under common environmental conditions is balanced by the fact that they occur in habitats which harbor lower densities of butterflies. This illustrates that spatial variation in biotic interactions is the net result of differences in trait distributions of the interacting organisms and differences in environmental context, and that variation in both traits and context are important in understanding species interactions. PMID:24493660

König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan

2014-04-01

340

Amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb Euphorbia hirta  

PubMed Central

Background: Euphorbia hirta (L.) (Euphorbiaceae) is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of E. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The nephroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of E. hirta (400 mg/kg body weight) was studied in nitrobenzene-induced albino rats (1000 mg/kg body weight). The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols and vitamin C in the kidney tissues were determined. Histopathologic investigation was performed in the kidney tissue samples. Results: Nitrobenzene administration significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced the lipid peroxidation and significantly (P < 0.05) depleted the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, total thiols and vitamin C. Treatment with the ethanol extract of E. hirta significantly normalized the antioxidant levels. The nephroprotective activity was also supported by histopathologic studies of kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results indicate that the ethanol extract of E. hirta ameliorates renal dysfunction and could be used as an effective protector against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:22022170

Suganya, Subramanian; Sophia, Dominic; Raj, Chinthamony Arul; Rathi, Muthaiyan Ahalliya; Thirumoorthi, Lakshmanan; Meenakshi, Periyasamy; Kumar, Dugganaboyana Guru; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniyapan

2011-01-01

341

Determination of breviflavone A and B in Epimedium herbs with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Two new types of minor flavonoids, breviflavone A and B, have been recently isolated and identified from Epimedium brevicornu in our previous research. Breviflavone B is a novel flavonoid with potent and specific estrogen receptor (ER) bioactivity. Its positional isomer, breviflavone A, is not ER active. Therefore, it is important to determine the two minor components, breviflavone A and B, in Epimedium herbs. In this report, a robust method for measurement of the two breviflavones in Epimedium ethanolic extracts has been developed by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry via selected-reaction monitoring (m/z 437-->m/z 367 for breviflavone A and m/z 437-->m/z 351 for breviflavone B) under negative electrospray ionization mode. This method has been successfully used to determine the two breviflavones in ethanolic herbal extracts of five major Epimedium species (E. brevicornu, E. koreanum, E. pubescens, E. sagittatum, and E. wushanese) from various sources. The contents of the two breviflavones range from 0.0181 to 0.1791% for breviflavone A and 0.0026 to 0.0252% for breviflavone B in the dried ethanolic extracts of those Epimedium herbal samples. PMID:19186021

Hong, Xin; Wang, Xiaochong; Yong, E L; Gong, Yinhan

2009-04-01

342

Pinelliae Rhizoma, a Toxic Chinese Herb, Can Significantly Inhibit CYP3A Activity in Rats.  

PubMed

Raw Pinelliae Rhizoma (RPR) is a representative toxic herb that is widely used for eliminating phlegm or treating cough and vomiting. Given its irritant toxicity, its processed products, including Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum (PRP) and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine (PRPZA), are more commonly applied and administered concomitantly with other chemical drugs, such as cough medications. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RPR, PRP, and PRPZA on CYP3A activity. Testosterone (Tes) and buspirone (BP) were used as specific probe substrates ex vivo and in vivo, respectively. CYP3A activity was determined by the metabolite formation ratios from the substrates. Ex vivo results show that the metabolite formation ratios from Tes significantly decreased, indicating that RPR, PRP, and PRPZA could inhibit CYP3A activity in rats. CYP3A protein and mRNA levels were determined to explore the underlying mechanism. These levels showed marked and consistent down-regulation with CYP3A activity. A significant decrease in metabolite formation ratios from BP was also found in PRPZA group in vivo, implying that PRPZA could inhibit CYP3A activity. Conclusively, co-administration of PR with other CYP3A-metabolizing drugs may cause drug-drug interactions. Clinical use of PR-related formulae should be monitored carefully to avoid adverse interactions. PMID:25574821

Wu, Jinjun; Cheng, Zaixing; He, Shugui; Shi, Jian; Liu, Shuqiang; Zhang, Guiyu; Zhu, Lijun; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhongqiu; Lin, Na; Lu, Linlin

2014-01-01

343

Data mining and frequency analysis for licorice as a "Two-Face" herb in Chinese Formulae based on Chinese Formulae Database.  

PubMed

Liquorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Leguminosae. Licorice is described as 'National Venerable Master' in Chinese medicine and plays paradoxical roles, i.e. detoxification/strengthen efficacy and inducing/enhancing toxicity. Therefore, licorice was called "Two-Face" herb in this paper. The aim of this study is to discuss the paradoxical roles and the perspective usage of this "Two-Face" herb using data mining and frequency analysis. More than 96,000 prescriptions from Chinese Formulae Database were selected. The frequency and the prescription patterns were analyzed using Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Data mining methods (frequent itemsets) were used to analyze the regular patterns and compatibility laws of the constituent herbs in the selected prescriptions. The result showed that licorice (Radix glycyrrhizae) was the most frequently used herb in Chinese Formulae Database, other frequently used herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui), Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), etc. Toxic herbs such as Radix aconiti lateralis praeparata (Fu zi), Rhizoma pinelliae (Ban xia) and Cinnabaris (Zhu sha) are top 3 herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Radix et rhizoma ginseng (Ren shen), Poria (Fu ling), Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang gui) are top 3 nontoxic herbs that most frequently used in combination with licorice. Moreover, Licorice was seldom used with sargassum (Hai Zao), Herba Cirsii Japonici (Da Ji), Euphorbia kansui (Gan Sui) and Flos genkwa (Yuan Hua), which proved the description of contradictory effect of Radix glycyrrhizae and these herbs as recorded in Chinese medicine theory. This study showed the principle pattern of Chinese herbal drugs used in combination with licorice or not. The principle patterns and special compatibility laws reported here could be useful and instructive for scientific usage of licorice in clinic application. Further pharmacological and chemical researches are needed to evaluate the efficacy and the combination pattern of these Chinese herbs. The mechanism of the combination pattern of these prescriptions should also be investigated whether additive, synergistic or antagonistic effect exist using in vitro or in vivo models. PMID:25172790

Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhao, Jinlong; Fan, Xinsheng; Duan, Jinao; Qian, Dawei; Tao, Weiwei; Tang, Yuping

2014-09-25

344

A comparison among root soil-conservation effects for nine herbs at the cold region highway in north-eastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High soil-conservation herbs are very important for slope vegetation restoration of a highway in serious sandstorm regions. In this study, nine common herbs in northeast China were selected and compared to study soil-conservation effects by using an undisturbed-soil trough scouring method for soil anti-scourability enhancement and hydrostatic collapse method for soil anti-erodibility. Further, principal components analysis was used to identify significant root features that affected soil erosion resistance. Results indicated that different herbs had distinct enhancement effects on soil erosion resistance. Soil anti-scourability enhancement index decreased with increases of soil depth, slope gradient and rainfall amount. Relationship between soil anti-erodibility enhancement index ( S) and immersion time ( t) is a cubic spline in each different herb type ( R 2 ? 0.88). Herb root features such as micro-aggregates, organic matter, net leaf weight, thick root length, fine root length and biomass contributed a leading role in soil erosion resistance enhancement effect, and all their common factor variances were more than 0.81. Descending order of soil erosion resistance enhancement effect in soil anti-scourability for nine herbs is Poa pratensis, Medicago sativa, Viola philippica, Rudbeckia hirta, Clematis heracleifolia, Kalimeris indica, Cosmos bipinnata, Hemerocallis fulva and Sedum elatinoides, while the sequence of soil anti-erodibility is M. sativa, S. elatinoides, P. pratensis, R. hirta, H. fulva, V. philippica, C. heracleifolia, C. bipinnata and K. indica. Therefore, we concluded that P. pratensis and M. sativa were the most suitable herbs for resisting soil erosion and recommended to be widely planted for road vegetation recovery in this region.

Xu, W.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.

2014-12-01

345

Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions  

PubMed Central

Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823?mg/100g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270?mg/100g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102?mg/100g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65?mg/100g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

2012-01-01

346

A resprouter herb reduces negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeders after fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant communities are often composed of species belonging to different functional groups, but relatively few studies to date have explicitly linked their spatial structure to the outcome of the interaction among them. We investigated if mortality of seeder species during their establishment after fire is influenced by the proximity of the resprouter herb Brachypodium retusum. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean shrubland (00°39' W; 38°43' N), 40 km northwest of Alicante (Spain) with Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus, Helianthemum marifolium, and Ononis fruticosa as dominant obligate seeder species and a herbaceous layer is dominated by the resprouter B. retusum. We followed the fate of mapped seedlings and the biomass of B. retusum one, two, three and nine years after an experimental fire. We used point pattern analyses to evaluate the spatial pattern of mortality of seeder species at these years in relation to the biomass of B. retusum. We hypothesize that B. retusum may initially have a positive impact on seeder survival. We implemented this hypothesis as a point process model that maintains the overall number of dead seeder plants, but seeder survival varied proportionally to the biomass of B. retusum in its neighborhood. We then contrasted this hypothesis with a previous analysis based on a random mortality hypothesis. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that proximity of B. retusum reduced the mortality of seeder plants at their establishment phase (i.e., 2 yrs after fire). However, we found no evidence that B. retusum influenced seeder mortality when plants grow to maturity. We also found that, under the more stressful conditions (fire + erosion scenario), B. retusum had a lower impact on the performance of seeder species. Our results suggest that B. retusum may reduce negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeder plants during the first years after fire.

Raventós, José; Wiegand, Thorsten; Maestre, Fernando T.; de Luis, Martín

2012-01-01

347

Chemical composition and fatty acid content of some spices and herbs under Saudi Arabia conditions.  

PubMed

Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 ?mg/100 g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 ?mg/100 g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 ?mg/100 g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 ?mg/100 g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

2012-01-01

348

Evaluation of clonal herbs of Lamiaceae species for management of diabetes and hypertension.  

PubMed

In the current study, we screened 7 clonal lines from single seed phenotypes of Lamiaceae family for the inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Water extracts of oregano had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity (93.7%), followed by chocolate mint (85.9%) and lemon balm (83.9%). Sage (78.4 %), and three different clonal lines of rosemary: rosemary LA (71.4%), rosemary 6 (68.4%) and rosemary K-2 (67.8%) also showed significant alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts was compared to selected specific phenolics detected in the extracts using HPLC. Catechin had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitiory activity (99.6 %) followed by caffeic acid (91.3 %), rosmarinic acid (85.1%) and resveratrol (71.1 %). Catechol (64.4%), protocatechuic acid (55.7%) and quercetin (36.9%) also exhibited significant alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Results suggested that alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the clonal extracts correlated to the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of the extracts. The clonal extracts of the herbs and standard phenolics tested in this study did not have any effect on the alpha-amylase activity. We also investigated the ability of the clonal extracts to inhibit rabbit lung angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). The water extracts of rosemary, rosemary LA had the highest ACE inhibitory activity (90.5%), followed by lemon balm (81.9%) and oregano (37.4 %). Lower levels of ACE inhibition were observed with ethanol extracts of oregano (18.5 %) and lemon balm (0.5 %). Among the standard phenolics only resveratrol (24.1 %), hydroxybenzoic acid (19.3 %) and coumaric acid (2.3 %) had ACE inhibitory activity. PMID:16500886

Kwon, Young-In I; Vattem, Dhiraj A; Shetty, Kalidas

2006-01-01

349

Water-extractable magnesium, manganese and copper in leaves and herbs of medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes. PMID:22574504

Konieczy?ski, Pawe?; Weso?owski, Marek

2012-01-01

350

An activator of calcium-dependent potassium channels isolated from a medicinal herb.  

PubMed

Large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (maxi-K) channels play an important role in regulating the tone of airway smooth muscle and the release of bronchoconstrictive substances from nerves in the lung. Crude extracts of Desmodium adscendens, a medicinal herb used in Ghana as a treatment for asthma, inhibit binding of monoiodotyrosine charybdotoxin (125I-ChTX) to receptor sites in bovine tracheal smooth muscle membranes that have been shown to be associated with maxi-K channels. Using this assay, three active components have been purified and identified by NMR and MS. Comparison with authentic samples revealed the three active components as the known triterpenoid glycosides dehydrosoyasaponin I (DHS-I), soyasaponin I, and soyasaponin III. The most potent of these compounds, DHS-I, is a partial inhibitor of 125I-ChTX binding (Ki = 120 nM, 62% maximum inhibition). Inhibition of 125I-ChTX binding is primarily due to a decrease in the observed maximum number of binding sites, with a smaller decrease in affinity. DHS-I increases the rate of toxin dissociation from its receptor, suggesting that modulation of ChTX binding occurs through an allosteric mechanism. DHS-I reversibly increases the open probability of maxi-K channels from bovine tracheal smooth muscle incorporated into planar lipid bilayers when applied to the intracellular, but not the extracellular, side of the membrane at concentrations as low as 10 nM. In contrast, DHS-I had no effect on several other types of potassium channels or membrane transporters. This natural product is the first example of a high-affinity activator of calcium-dependent potassium channels and is the most potent known potassium channel opener. PMID:7685635

McManus, O B; Harris, G H; Giangiacomo, K M; Feigenbaum, P; Reuben, J P; Addy, M E; Burka, J F; Kaczorowski, G J; Garcia, M L

1993-06-22

351

Mating system in Mexican populations of the annual herb Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae).  

PubMed

Traditionally, annual colonising species are expected to have high rates of self-fertilisation, although recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that cross-fertilisation can be selected for under heterogeneous pollination environments. Solanum rostratum is a self-compatible annual herb that colonises disturbed habitats. Despite the lack of physiological mechanisms to prevent self-fertilisation, pollen transfer between individuals is expected to be favoured because of its complex floral morphology. In previous studies of S. rostratum it has been shown that anther dimorphism within flowers results in precise pollen placement on the pollinator's body, and the presence of mirror-image floral morphs within plants promotes outcrossing in experimental arrays. However, the mating system of natural populations of S. rostratum has never been assessed, and thus whether it is predominantly selfing or outcrossing remains unknown. We hypothesise that floral and inflorescence morphology of S. rostratum should facilitate cross-fertilisation, making it a predominantly outcrossing despite its lack of a self-incompatibility system. To test this hypothesis, we estimated outcrossing rates by genotyping 700 individuals at 13 microsatellite loci, sampled from four populations across a 690-km transect in the species' native range. We found that populations had mean outcrossing rates of 0.70 ± 0.03, with multiple sires contributing to paternity of each progeny array (average effective number of sires = 8.97 ± 0.57). This indicates that natural populations S. rostratum have relatively high levels of outcrossing, probably facilitated by its floral and inflorescence morphology. We speculate that partial selfing in this species may be an unavoidable consequence of displaying multiple flowers at the same time (geitonogamy), as well as the result of self-pollen transfer by illegitimate visitors. PMID:23294438

Vallejo-Marín, M; Solís-Montero, L; Souto Vilaros, D; Lee, M Y Q

2013-11-01

352

EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

2009-04-01

353

In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. through somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Tuberous roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. which are a source of steroidal saponins, possess immunomodulatory, adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, diuretic, hemostatic and anti-tumour properties. Poor seed setting and germination and slow growth in conventional vegetative propagation are major constraints in the large-scale cultivation of this commercially important medicinal plant. In the present study, a procedure for in vitro propagation of this endangered herb through somatic embryogenesis has been established. Seeds of Chlorophytum borivilianum were germinated on MS medium supplemented with 57.74 ?M gibberellic acid and hypocotyl portion from germinated seedling was used as explant for callus induction. Moderate to good callus induction was observed on MS medium containing 1.16 ?M kinetin and 1.13-2.26 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Regular subculturing of callus on kinetin (1.16 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1.13 ?M) supplemented medium induced somatic embryogenesis. In modified MS medium, 1.79 mM NH4NO3 and 10.72 mM KNO3 was optimal for somatic embryogenesis. 7.38 ?M 2-isopentenyladenine supplemented to modified MS medium, showed best response for somatic embryogenesis while proline (0.76 mM) as an amino acid supplement gave better response than glutamine. 30% germination of mature somatic embryos was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 15.54 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine. Multiplication of C. borivilianum through somatic embryogenesis may offer a better approach compared to organogenesis for developing scale-up technology employing bioreactors for its mass propagation. PMID:23572975

Rizvi, Mohd Zahid; Kukreja, Arun Kumar; Bisht, Narendra Singh

2010-07-01

354

Key Plant Structural and Allocation Traits Depend on Relative Age in the Perennial Herb Pimpinella saxifraga  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Perennial plant formations always include a mixture of various-aged individuals of community-creating species, but the physiological and competitive potentials of plants of differing age and the importance on whole community functioning are still not entirely known. The current study tested the hypothesis that ontogenetically old plants have limited biomass investments in leaves and enhanced foliage support costs. • Methods Leaf structure, size and biomass allocation were studied in the perennial herb Pimpinella saxifraga during plant ontogeny from seedling to senile phases to determine age-dependent controls on key plant structural traits. The average duration of the full ontogenetic cycle is approx. 5–10 years in this species. Plants were sampled from shaded and open habitats. • Key Results Leaflet dry mass per unit area (MA) increased, and the fraction of plant biomass in leaflets (FL) decreased with increasing age, leading to a 5- to 11-fold decrease in leaf area ratio (LAR = FL/MA) between seedlings and senescent plants. In contrast, the fraction of below-ground biomass increased with increasing age. Leaflet size and number per leaf increased with increasing age. This was not associated with enhanced support cost in older plants as age-dependent changes in leaf shape and increased foliage packing along the rachis compensated for an overall increase in leaf size. Age-dependent trends were the same in habitats with various irradiance, but the LAR of plants of varying age was approx. 1·5-fold larger in the shade due to lower MA and larger FL. • Conclusions As plant light interception per unit total plant mass scales with LAR, these data demonstrate major age-dependent differences in plant light-harvesting efficiency that are further modified by site light availability. These ontogenetic changes reduce the differences among co-existing species in perennial communities, and therefore need consideration in our understanding of how herbaceous communities function. PMID:15965271

NIINEMETS, ÜLO

2005-01-01

355

The use of herbs in malaria treatment in parts of Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Persistence of malaria symptoms after treatment with over the counter available antimalarial drugs has resulted in a gradual loss of faith in orthodox drugs. There is thus an increased tendency towards the use of herbs in the treatment of malaria in Imo State, Nigeria. In this study we report activities of two herbalists in the treatment of malaria as well as the effectiveness of the herbal treatment. The study covered two areas namely, Umuneke Ugiri in Isiala Mbano Local Government Area (LGA) and Odummara Obi-Orodo in Mbaitoli LGA of Imo State, Nigeria. A participant-observation technique was used. Finger prick blood samples were collected from patients who visited the herbalists complaining of malaria, and blood smears were stained with Field's B stain. Blood smears were taken again one-week post-treatment. A total of 75 patients from Umuneke Ugiri and 265 patients from Odumara Obi-Orodo were involved in the study. All the 75 patients (100%) from Umuneke Ugiri and 163 (61.51%) patients from Odummara Obi-Orodo were positive for malaria parasites. Only 13 (17.3%) patients from Umuneke Ugiri and 149 (56.23%) from Odummara Obi-Orodo returned for the post-treatment blood parasite analysis. From Umuneke Ugiri 4 (31%) were still positive for malaria parasite while 9 (69%) were negative. All 149 patients from Odummara Obi-Orodo were negative. This indicates that the herbal treatment was effective. However, there is need for further studies into the efficacy of herbal concoctions, their effective life span, as well as possible toxic effects. PMID:18254512

Ukaga, C N; Nwoke, B E B; Onyeka, P I K; Anosike, J C; Udujih, O S; Udujih, O G; Obilor, R C; Nwachukwu, M I

2006-09-01

356

Population Dynamics of Diploid and Hexaploid Populations of a Perennial Herb  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Despite the recent enormous increase in the number of studies on polyploid species, no studies to date have explored the population dynamics of these taxa. It is thus not known whether the commonly reported differences in single life-history traits between taxa of different ploidy levels result in differences in population dynamics. Methods This study explores differences in single life-history traits and in the complete life cycle between populations of different ploidy levels and compares these differences with differences observed between different habitat types and years. Diploid and hexaploid populations of a perennial herb, Aster amellus, are used as the study system. Transition matrix models were used to describe the dynamics of the populations, and population growth rates, elasticity values and life-table response experiments were used to compare the dynamics between populations and years. Key Results The results indicate that between-year variation in population dynamics is much larger than variation between different ploidy levels and different habitat conditions. Significant differences exist, however, in the structure of the transition matrices, indicating that the dynamics of the different ploidy levels are different. Strong differences in probability of extinction of local populations were also found, with hexaploid populations having higher probability than diploid populations, indicating strong potential differences in persistence of these populations. Conclusions This is the first study on complete population dynamics of plants of different ploidy levels. This knowledge will help to understand the ability of new ploidy levels to spread into new areas and persist there, and the interactions of different ploidy levels in secondary contact zones. This knowledge will also contribute to understanding of interactions of different ploidy levels with other plant species or other interacting organisms such as pollinators or herbivores. PMID:17881342

Münzbergová, Zuzana

2007-01-01

357

Chinese herbs of Shenghe Powder reverse multidrug resistance of gastric carcinoma SGC-7901.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the reversal effect of Chinese herbs of Shenghe Powder on the multidrug resistance of the human SGC-7901 gastric carcinoma cell line and vincristine-resistant cell line (SGC-7901/vincristine) and the possible mechanism. SGC-7901 and SGC-7901/ vincristine were cultured in liquid medium RMPI 1640, with the addition of vincristine to the vincristine-resistant line. The reversal effect of Shenghe Powder (using verapamil as control) on the multidrug resistance of SGC-7901/vincristine cells was observed using the 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl) -2,5-diphenylterazolium bromide method. The expression rate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), and apoptosis ratio of SGC-7901 and SGC-7901/vincristine with added Shenghe Powder, verapamil, or verapamil plus Shenghe Powder was observed by flow cytometry. Shenghe Powder and verapamil decreased the multidrug resistance of SGC-7901/vincristine. The effect of Shenghe Powder (10 mg/L) was significantly higher than verapamil (P< .05). The intracellular concentration of vincristine was increased by Shenghe Powder and verapamil. The vincristine concentration of SGC-7901/vincristine treated with Shenghe Powder was significantly higher (P< .05). Shenghe Powder reduced the expression level of P-gp and Bcl-2 in SGC-7901/ vincristine and increased the apoptotic percentage of tumor cells; Shenghe Powder had the more significant effect on apoptosis (P< .05). In conclusion, Shenghe Powder increases the intracellular concentration of vincristine, consistent with the down-regulation of the expression of P-gp and Bcl-2. The reversal effect of Shenghe Powder was stronger than that of verapamil. PMID:18048888

Wang, Jianhua; Xia, Yuesheng; Wang, Huan; Hou, Zengxia

2007-12-01

358

In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced herbs: balm of gilead bud, frankincense and myrrh gum. PMID:18844256

Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

2009-03-01

359

Derivative multiple reaction monitoring and single herb calibration approach for multiple components quantification of traditional Chinese medicine analogous formulae.  

PubMed

In comparison with monotherapy in western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) advocates combinational therapy for treating diseases and TCM formula is a representative for this approach. Despite of extensive clinical applications of TCM formulae, knowledge about their pharmacological activities, mechanisms of action and cellular targets remains limited. A main contributing factor to these unanswered questions is unavailability of chemical compositions and their contents in the formulae. Several challenges hinder global qualitative and quantitative analysis of the formulae, including large quantities of constituents, potential physicochemical changes during decoction and lack of authentic standards. Herein we introduced an integrated strategy based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) systems to address such challenges. First, liquid chromatography-ion trap and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT/MS and LC-QTOF/MS) were utilized to characterize chemical profiling of the formulae. Meanwhile, MS(2) of IT/MS produced major parameters for derivative multiple reaction monitoring (DeMRM) on liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-TQ/MS), which offered rapid and direct transition design in the quantitative assay. Instead of authentic standards, serial dilutions of single herbs were employed in this study to construct calibration curves necessary for calculating relative concentrations of components. Xiao-Banxia decoction and its four analogous formulae were then taken to exemplify the feasibility of currently proposed methodology. Among the 160 qualitatively identified components, a total of 138 components were semi-quantified for these decoctions. Based on these results, we demonstrated that co-decoction of different herbs could result in concentration variations of components and this effect was more prominent when certain herbs were combined. Our results indicated that the present strategy would significantly contribute to chemical studies on TCM and its utilities could be extended to other research fields, such as metabolomics and comparative chemistry. PMID:25541090

Li, Zhenhao; Xiao, Shun; Ai, Ni; Luo, Kedi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

2015-01-01

360

Characterization of Antiestrogenic Activity of the Chinese Herb, Prunella vulgaris, Using In Vitro and In Vivo (Mouse Xenograft) Models1  

PubMed Central

Prunella vulgaris (PV), a commonly used Chinese herb, also known as Self-heal, has a wide range of reported medicinal activities. By screening multiple herbs using the endometrial cancer cell line, ECC-1, and an alkaline phosphatase detection assay, we found that PV displayed significant antiestrogenic activity. We investigated the possible usefulness of antiestrogenic activity using both in vitro and in vivo models of endometrial function. Using the well-differentiated, hormone-responsive endometrial cell line, ECC-1, PV extract, at concentrations that were not toxic to the cells, significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and cell proliferation in response to estrogen in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of CYR61, an estrogen-induced protein, was blocked in ECC-1 cells by both the antiestrogen ICI 182?780 and PV extract. Interestingly, PV extract did not appear to directly inhibit estrogen signaling. Rather, we found that its activities were probably related to an ability to function as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist in ECC-1 cells. In support of this hypothesis, we noted that PV induced CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AHR repressor expression in a dose-dependent manner—responses that were blocked by small interfering RNA treatment to reduce AHR and specific AHR antagonists. Ovariectomized immunodeficient RAG-2/gamma(c) knockout mice implanted with human endometrial xenografts developed implants only when treated with estrogen. Mice treated with estrogen and PV tea in their drinking water had fewer and smaller xenograft implants compared with their estrogen-treated counterparts that drank only water (P < 0.05). Analysis of the resulting implants by immunohistochemistry demonstrated persistent estrogen receptor (ER), but reduced proliferation and CYR61 expression. Mouse uterine tissue weight in PV-treated mice was not different from controls, and cycle fecundity of intact C57 female mice was unaffected by PV tea treatment. PV, or Self-heal, exhibits significant antiestrogenic properties, both in vitro and in vivo. This activity is likely due to the ability of PV-activated AHR to interfere with estrogen. This herb may be useful as an adjunct for the treatment of estrogen-dependent processes like endometriosis and breast and uterine cancers. Full characterization of this herb will likely provide new insights into the crosstalk between AHR and ESR1, with potential for therapeutic applications in women. PMID:18923163

Collins, Nancy H.; Lessey, Elizabeth C.; DuSell, Carolyn D.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Fowler, Lindsay; Palomino, Wilder A.; Illera, Maria J.; Yu, Xianzhong; Mo, Bilan; Houwing, Angela M.; Lessey, Bruce A.

2008-01-01

361

Characterization of antiestrogenic activity of the Chinese herb, prunella vulgaris, using in vitro and in vivo (Mouse Xenograft) models.  

PubMed

Prunella vulgaris (PV), a commonly used Chinese herb, also known as Self-heal, has a wide range of reported medicinal activities. By screening multiple herbs using the endometrial cancer cell line, ECC-1, and an alkaline phosphatase detection assay, we found that PV displayed significant antiestrogenic activity. We investigated the possible usefulness of antiestrogenic activity using both in vitro and in vivo models of endometrial function. Using the well-differentiated, hormone-responsive endometrial cell line, ECC-1, PV extract, at concentrations that were not toxic to the cells, significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and cell proliferation in response to estrogen in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of CYR61, an estrogen-induced protein, was blocked in ECC-1 cells by both the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 and PV extract. Interestingly, PV extract did not appear to directly inhibit estrogen signaling. Rather, we found that its activities were probably related to an ability to function as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist in ECC-1 cells. In support of this hypothesis, we noted that PV induced CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AHR repressor expression in a dose-dependent manner--responses that were blocked by small interfering RNA treatment to reduce AHR and specific AHR antagonists. Ovariectomized immunodeficient RAG-2/gamma(c) knockout mice implanted with human endometrial xenografts developed implants only when treated with estrogen. Mice treated with estrogen and PV tea in their drinking water had fewer and smaller xenograft implants compared with their estrogen-treated counterparts that drank only water (P < 0.05). Analysis of the resulting implants by immunohistochemistry demonstrated persistent estrogen receptor (ER), but reduced proliferation and CYR61 expression. Mouse uterine tissue weight in PV-treated mice was not different from controls, and cycle fecundity of intact C57 female mice was unaffected by PV tea treatment. PV, or Self-heal, exhibits significant antiestrogenic properties, both in vitro and in vivo. This activity is likely due to the ability of PV-activated AHR to interfere with estrogen. This herb may be useful as an adjunct for the treatment of estrogen-dependent processes like endometriosis and breast and uterine cancers. Full characterization of this herb will likely provide new insights into the crosstalk between AHR and ESR1, with potential for therapeutic applications in women. PMID:18923163

Collins, Nancy H; Lessey, Elizabeth C; DuSell, Carolyn D; McDonnell, Donald P; Fowler, Lindsay; Palomino, Wilder A; Illera, Maria J; Yu, Xianzhong; Mo, Bilan; Houwing, Angela M; Lessey, Bruce A

2009-02-01

362

Characterisation of bhringaraj and guduchi herb by ICP-MS analysis, optical absorption, infrared and EPR spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaves of bhringaraj and guduchi herb of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India, are dried and powdered. ICP-MS analysis of samples indicates that copper is present in both the samples. An EPR study of guduchi sample also confirms the presence of Fe(III) whereas Eclipta alba confirms the presence of Fe(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum of guduchi indicates that Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. NIR and IR results are due to carbonate fundamentals.

Reddy, S. Lakshmi; Fayazuddin, Md.; Reddy, N. C. G.; Ahmad, Adeel; Reddy, G. Siva; Rao, P. Sambasiva; Reddy, B. Jagannatha; Frost, R. L.

2008-11-01

363

Characterisation of bhringaraj and guduchi herb by ICP-MS analysis, optical absorption, infrared and EPR spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Leaves of bhringaraj and guduchi herb of Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh, India, are dried and powdered. ICP-MS analysis of samples indicates that copper is present in both the samples. An EPR study of guduchi sample also confirms the presence of Fe(III) whereas Eclipta alba confirms the presence of Fe(III), Mn(II) and Cu(II). Optical absorption spectrum of guduchi indicates that Cu(II) is present in rhombically distorted octahedral environment. NIR and IR results are due to carbonate fundamentals. PMID:18280774

Reddy, S Lakshmi; Fayazuddin, Md; Reddy, N C G; Ahmad, Adeel; Reddy, G Siva; Rao, P Sambasiva; Reddy, B Jagannatha; Frost, R L

2008-11-01

364

Analysis of herb-herb interaction when decocting together by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and fuzzy chemical identification strategy with poly-proportion design.  

PubMed

A novel and generally applicable approach was established for the herb-herb interaction analysis when decocting together by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometer and fuzzy chemical identification with poly-proportion design. A simple programme was originally developed for the rapid identification and classification of herbal constituents on the basis of the establishment of herbal constituent databases, recognition of the reference compound peaks, selection of the diagnostic ions or fragmentation pathways, classification of chemical groups and formation of group networks. In this study, the exact structures of the chemical constituents did not need to be determined, and only the constituents attributed to different groups were further considered for quantitative analysis. Such a novel approach was successfully applied to kansui-licorice interaction analysis when decocting together. A total of 26 constituents from kansui and 45 constituents from licorice were classified into different chemical groups, and they were further quantitatively analyzed on the basis of semi-symmetric proportion design. The results showed that kansui could significantly promote the concentration of most triterpenoid saponins, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (the constituents from licorice) in solution when co-decocting, and licorice could clearly promote the concentration of most diterpenes and triterpenes (the constituents from kansui) in solution, potentially explaining the incompatibility of kansui and licorice. Overall, the presently developed strategy should be useful for the interaction analysis for complex mixtures containing various complicated constituents, such as herbal, environmental, agricultural and biological samples. PMID:23726073

Shen, Juan; Mo, Xuan; Tang, Yuping; Zhang, Li; Pang, Hanqing; Qian, Yefei; Chen, Yanyan; Tao, Weiwei; Guo, Sheng; Shang, Erxin; Zhu, Shaoqing; Ding, Yunhe; Guo, Jianming; Liu, Pei; Su, Shulan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao

2013-07-01

365

[Determination of 14 mycotoxins in Chinese herbs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with immunoaffinity purification].  

PubMed

A method was developed for the determination of 14 mycotoxins, aflatoxins, T-2, HT-2, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, etc. in Chinese herbs by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and methanol in turn, and then purified by a high selective multi-functional immunoaffinity column. The column was washed by PBS (containing 0.1% Twain) and water, and then eluted by methanol. The eluate was dried under nitrogen, dissolved in methanol-10 mmol/L NH4Ac (40 : 60, v/v) solution. The mycotoxins were separated on a Waters Xterra C18 MS column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) and detected by MS/MS. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of the 14 mycotoxins were from 1.0 to 5.0 microg/kg. The average recoveries of the 14 mycotoxins spiked in Chinese herbs (Ginseng, Campanulaceae, Radix and Ophiopogonis) ranged from 71.9% to 99.7% at the three spiked levels of 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 microg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were between 4.8% and 15.8%. The method is rapid, sensitive and accurate, and suitable for the determination of the 14 mycotoxins in Chinese medicines. The quantification limits of aflatoxins can meet the domestic and foreign requirements. PMID:22032159

Ge, Baokun; Zhao, Kongxiang; Wang, Wei; Mi, Jiebo

2011-06-01

366

Drug and herb induced liver injury: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale for causality assessment  

PubMed Central

Causality assessment of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI) is hampered by the lack of a standardized approach to be used by attending physicians and at various subsequent evaluating levels. The aim of this review was to analyze the suitability of the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale as a standard tool for causality assessment in DILI and HILI cases. PubMed database was searched for the following terms: drug induced liver injury; herb induced liver injury; DILI causality assessment; and HILI causality assessment. The strength of the CIOMS lies in its potential as a standardized scale for DILI and HILI causality assessment. Other advantages include its liver specificity and its validation for hepatotoxicity with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity, based on cases with a positive reexposure test. This scale allows prospective collection of all relevant data required for a valid causality assessment. It does not require expert knowledge in hepatotoxicity and its results may subsequently be refined. Weaknesses of the CIOMS scale include the limited exclusion of alternative causes and qualitatively graded risk factors. In conclusion, CIOMS appears to be suitable as a standard scale for attending physicians, regulatory agencies, expert panels and other scientists to provide a standardized, reproducible causality assessment in suspected DILI and HILI cases, applicable primarily at all assessing levels involved. PMID:24653791

Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

2014-01-01

367

How do sink and source activities influence the reproduction and vegetative growth of spring ephemeral herbs under different light conditions?  

PubMed

Spring ephemeral herbs inhabiting deciduous forests commonly complete reproduction and vegetative growth before canopy closure in early summer. Effects of shading by early canopy closure on reproductive output and vegetative growth, however, may vary depending on the seasonal allocation patterns of photosynthetic products between current reproduction and storage for future growth in each species. To clarify the effects of sink-source balance on seed production and bulb growth in a spring ephemeral herb, Gagea lutea, we performed a bract removal treatment (source reduction) and a floral-bud removal treatment (sink reduction) under canopy and open conditions. Leaf carbon fixations did not differ between the forest and open sites and among treatments. Bract carbon fixations were also similar between sites but tended to decrease when floral buds were removed. Seed production was higher under open condition but decreased by the bract-removal treatment under both light conditions. In contrast, bulb growth was independent of light conditions and the bract-removal treatment but increased greatly by the bud-removal treatment. Therefore, leaves and bracts acted as specialized source organs for vegetative and reproductive functions, respectively, but photosynthetic products by bracts were flexibly used for bulb growth when plants failed to set fruits. Extension of bright period was advantageous for seed production (i.e., source limited) but not for vegetative growth (i.e., sink limited) in this species. PMID:24879401

Sunmonu, Ninuola; Kudo, Gaku

2014-07-01

368

Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats  

PubMed Central

Paullinia cupana is used in weight-loss programs as a constituent of medicinal/dietary supplements. This study aimed to assess a potential herb-drug interaction among a standardized (certified) Paullinia cupana extract and amiodarone (narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study rats were simultaneously coadministered with a single dose of Paullinia cupana (821?mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50?mg/kg, p.o.), and in a second study rats were pretreated during 14 days with Paullinia cupana (821?mg/kg/day, p.o.) receiving amiodarone (50?mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Blood samples were collected at several time points after amiodarone dosing, and several tissues were harvested at the end of the experiments (24?h after dose). Plasma and tissue concentrations of amiodarone and its major metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) were measured and analysed. A significant reduction in the peak plasma concentration (73.2%) and in the extent of systemic exposure (57.8%) to amiodarone was found in rats simultaneously treated with Paullinia cupana and amiodarone; a decrease in tissue concentrations was also observed. This paper reports for the first time an herb-drug interaction between Paullinia cupana extract and amiodarone, which determined a great decrease on amiodarone bioavailability in rats. PMID:23304200

Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Lourenço, Nulita; Falcão, Amílcar

2012-01-01

369

Identification and determination of Aconitum alkaloids in Aconitum herbs and Xiaohuoluo pill using UPLC-ESI-MS.  

PubMed

A rapid, specific, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) method to examine the chemical differences between Aconitum herbs and processed products has been developed and validated. Combined with chemometrics analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structural discriminate analysis, diester-diterpenoid and monoester-type alkaloids, especially the five alkaloids which contributed to the chemical distinction between Aconitum herbs and processed products, namely mesaconitine (MA), aconitine (AC), hypaconitine (HA), benzoylmesaconitine (BMA), and benzoylhypaconitine (BHA), were picked out. Further, the five alkaloids and benzoylaconitine (BAC) have been simultaneously determined in the Xiaohuoluo pill. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a C?? column and peaks were detected by mass spectrometry in positive ion mode and selected ion recording (SIR) mode. In quantitative analysis, the six alkaloids showed good regression, (r) > 0.9984, within the test ranges. The lower limit quantifications (LLOQs) for MA, AC, HA, BMA, BAC, and BHA were 1.41, 1.20, 1.92, 4.28, 1.99 and 2.02 ng·mL?¹, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 99.7% to 101.7%. The validated method was applied successfully in the analysis of the six alkaloids from different samples, in which significant variations were revealed. Results indicated that the developed assay can be used as an appropriate quality control assay for Xiaohuoluo pill and other herbal preparations containing Aconitum roots. PMID:22926305

Cui, Ping; Han, Han; Wang, Rui; Yang, Li

2012-01-01

370

Evaluation of Chinese-Herbal-Medicine-Induced Herb-Drug Interactions: Focusing on Organic Anion Transporter 1  

PubMed Central

The consumption of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) is increasing exponentially. Many patients utilize CHMs concomitantly with prescription drugs in great frequency. Herb-drug interaction has hence become an important focus of study. Transporter-mediated herb-drug interactions have the potential to seriously influence drug efficacy and toxicity. Since organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) is crucial in renal active secretion and drug-drug interactions, the possibility of modulation of OAT1-mediated drug transport should be seriously concerned. Sixty-three clinically used CHMs were evaluated in the study. An hOAT1-overexpressing cell line was used for the in vitro CHMs screening, and the effective candidates were administered to Wistar rats to access renal hemodynamics. The regulation of OAT1 mRNA expression was also examined for further evidence of CHMs affecting OAT1-mediated transport. Among all the 63?CHMs, formulae Gui Zhi Fu Ling Wan (GZ) and Chia Wei Hsiao Yao San (CW) exhibited significant inhibitions on hOAT1-mediated [3H]-PAH uptake in vitro and PAH clearance and net secretion in vivo. Moreover, GZ showed concentration-dependent manners both in vitro and in vivo, and the decrease of rOAT1 mRNA expression indicated that GZ not only inhibited function of OAT1 but also suppressed expression of OAT1. PMID:22988478

Lin, Chang-Ching; Fan, Hsien-Yuan; Kuo, Chien-Wen; Pao, Li-Heng

2012-01-01

371

Effect of Red Clover on CYP Expression: An Investigation of Herb-Drug Interaction at Molecular Level  

PubMed Central

Hormone replacement therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulator are the most common therapy for women going through menopause. These therapies though popular fail to relieve withdrawal symptoms such as hot flashes, fatigue, leg cramps and nausea. This scenario necessitates to herbal preparations as alternative which may lead to simultaneous intake of herbal preparations, containing flavonoids, as well as Selective estrogen receptor modulator hence creating a phenomenon of herb drug interaction. Here we investigate the effect of red clover on steady state mRNA levels of rat cytochrome P 450 enzymes. Further, red clover's effect on cytochrome P 450's expression has been investigated when co-administered with tamoxifen and raloxifene. Exposure to red clover resulted in significant down regulation of all the cytochrome P 450 isoform mRNA except cytochrome P 450 2C13 and cytochrome P 450 3A2. When red clover is given in combination with tamoxifen or raloxifene altered level of cytochrome P 450 enzyme mRNA is observed. Present results suggest that herbal medical preparations such red clover has potential for herb drug interaction. PMID:25035541

Tripathi, Anubhuti; Singh, S. P.; Raju, K. S. R.; Wahajuddin; Gayen, J. R

2014-01-01

372

Possible mechanism underlying the effect of Heshouwuyin, a tonifying kidney herb, on sperm quality in aging rats  

PubMed Central

Background Herb mixtures are used as alternatives to hormone therapy in China for the treatment of partial androgen deficiency in aging men. However, the compositions of these herb mixtures are complex and their mechanisms are often unknown. This study investigates the effect of Heshouwuyin, a Chinese herbal compound for invigorating the kidney, on the control of testosterone secretion and sperm function. Methods Aged Wistar rats were administered with Heshouwuyin. A Shouwu pill group and young group were used as controls. Results Morphology, chemiluminescence, fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and western blot showed that the epididymal sperm of naturally aged rats had intact plasma membranes. They also had abnormal mitochondrial function and DNA integrity, a significant decline in serum testosterone levels, and significant pathological changes in the structure of testicular tissues. Heshouwuyin significantly improved sperm function and serum testosterone levels, and improved testicular morphology. Moreover, the curative efficacy of Heshouwuyin after 60 days was better than that of Heshouwuyin after 30 days and the Shouwu pill group. Conclusion Heshouwuyin exerts an important role in controlling testosterone secretion and sperm function. PMID:25034094

2014-01-01

373

A multiresidue method for 20 pesticides in Radix paeoniae Alba of Chinese herb by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.  

PubMed

A rapid multiresidue method was developed for the determination of 20 pesticides in Radix paeoniae Alba of Chinese herb by ultrasonic wave extraction, silica gel column chromatography and gas chromatography (GC) with electron-capture detection (ECD) in this study, Mean recoveries of the method ranged from 74.45 to 115.14%. The validation of the proposed approach was verified on Isatis indigotica Fort, Pltycodon grandiflorum, Cotex mouta and Poria cocos of Chinese herbs; good recoveries were also obtained in the range of 72.51-113.47%, respectively. PMID:20431860

Qian, Gao; Rimao, Hua; Feng, Tang; Xiangwei, Wu; Xuede, Li; Haiqun, Cao; Yanhong, Shi; Jun, Tang

2010-06-01

374

Synthesis of potential radioprotective components from Chinese herb drug Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , umbelliferae)  

SciTech Connect

The ethanolic extracts of some Chinese traditional herb drugs, reported by Hong-Fu Wang et al. in China, could inhibit platelet aggregation as well as protect against radiation damage in mice, rat and rabbits. The inhibitory effects of the extracts of five Chinese drugs on the rate of platelet aggregation were observed in both in vitro and in vivo tests, averaging 23--53% in vitro and 46--69% in vivo. Antiradiation tests on mice vs. 7.5--8.0 Gy of [gamma]-radiation, using the herb drug extracts as protective agents, showed increasing survival rates by 8--50%. Based on Hong-Fu Wang's report, a search for the active constituents of these herb drugs in inhibiting platelet aggregation and protecting animals against radiation damage was started. In this research program, a Chinese traditional drug, Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.) was chosen. Three types of chemicals present in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, appeared promising for testing: 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole, 4-hydroxyl-3-butylidenephthalide and 5-hydroxyl-3-butylidenephthalide, and 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxycinnamyl 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxycinnamate. A total of 56 compounds of these derivatives has been synthesized and 30 were synthesized for the first time. The structure elucidation of these compounds was based on IR, [sup 1]H NMR and elemental analysis. From this research program, a very mild dehydrogenation method was developed. It was by using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone in acetonitrile at ice bath temperature to dehydrogenate 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole into 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole. This project showed for the first time that harmanoid alkaloids have the activity of inhibition of plate aggregation by 4 to 23 times that of aspirin. These results aid in establishing a relation between radiation protection in animals and prevention of platelet hyperaggregation.

Wang, X.

1993-01-01

375

Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Da Chuanxiong Formula: A Famous Herb Pair Composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Gastrodiae Rhizoma for Headache  

PubMed Central

Chronic headache such as migraine and nervous headache has become one of the most common locations of pain and one of the most difficult diseases to recover due to its numerous causes and inconvenience to keep acesodyne administration for a long time. However, there are a series of treatment theories and herbal formulas for this disease in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in which Da Chuanxiong formula (DCXF), a herb pair composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR), Chuanxiong in Chinese, and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR) called as Tianma in China, is a greatly classic representative. This formula has been used for headaches via dispelling wind pathogen and dissipating blood stasis for many years in TCM. In recent years, the efficiency and representativeness of DCXF have garnered many researchers' attention. To reveal the compatibility mechanism and develop innovative Chinese herb, herein ethnopharmacological relevance, chemical characters, and pharmacological actions of DCXF are detailed. It is expected to give a comprehensive interpretation of DCXF, namely, Chuanxiong Tianma herb pair (CTHP), to inherit the essence of herb pair and innovate drug delivery system of this prescription. PMID:24066012

Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jinming; Feng, Yi; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

2013-01-01

376

The effect of segregation of flowering time on fine-scale spatial genetic structure in an alpine-snowbed herb Primula cuneifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flowering phenology of alpine-snowbed plants varies widely depending on the time of snowmelt. This variation may cause spatial and temporal heterogeneity in pollen dispersal, which in turn may influence genetic structure. We used spatial autocorrelation analyses to evaluate relative effect of segregation in flowering time and physical distance on fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) of a snowbed herb Primula

A S Hirao; G Kudo

2008-01-01

377

The effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees extract and diterpenoids on the CYP450 isoforms' activities, a review of possible herb-drug interaction risks.  

PubMed

Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees is a popular medicinal plant and its components are used in various traditional product preparations. However, its herb-drug interactions risks remain unclear. This review specifically discusses the various published studies carried out to evaluate the effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees plant extracts and diterpenoids on the CYP450 metabolic enzyme and if the plant components pose a possible herb-drug interaction risk. Unfortunately, the current data are insufficient to indicate if the extracts or diterpenoids can be labeled as in vitro CYP1A2, CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 inhibitors. A complete CYP inhibition assay utilizing human liver microsomes and the derivation of relevant parameters to predict herb-drug interaction risks may be necessary for these isoforms. However, based on the current studies, none of the extracts and diterpenoids exhibited CYP450 induction activity in human hepatocytes or human-derived cell lines. It is crucial that a well-defined experimental design is needed to make a meaningful herb-drug interaction prediction. PMID:25156015

Tan, Mei Lan; Lim, Lin Ee

2014-08-26

378

Effects of the fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria against phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and on the growth of host plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria (FHL) was assayed for antifungal activities against Rosellinia necatrix, Helicobasidium mompa, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium graminicola and Pyricularia oryzae. FHL completely inhibited the growth of R. necatrix, H. mompa, P. graminicola and P. oryzae, and reduced the growth of F. oxysporum by 35%. When the seeds of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), Asparagus

Shinsuke Kuwaki; Iichiro Ohhira; Masumi Takahata; Atsuko Hirota; Yoshiyuki Murata; Mikiro Tada

2004-01-01

379

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger apparatus), are used for the extraction of essential oil from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and are compared. This preliminary laboratory study shows that essential oils extracted by SFME in 30min were quantitatively (yield and kinetics profile) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained using conventional hydro-distillation in 2h. Experiments performed in a 75L pilot microwave reactor prove the feasibility of SFME up scaling and potential industrial applications. PMID:24360439

Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

2014-05-01

380

Culinary Herbs and Spices: Their Bioactive Properties, the Contribution of Polyphenols and the Challenges in Deducing Their True Health Benefits  

PubMed Central

Herbs and spices have been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes for centuries. Over the last decade, research into their role as contributors of dietary polyphenols, known to possess a number of properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases, has increased. However, bearing in mind how these foods are consumed, normally in small quantities and in combination with other foods, it is unclear what their true benefit is from a health perspective. The aim of this review is to use the literature to discuss how preparative and digestive processes, bioavailability and interactions between foods may influence the bioactive properties of these foods, and whether or not polyphenols are responsible for these properties. Furthermore, this review aims to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed so as to determine the true benefits of these foods and the mechanisms of action that underpin their purported efficacy. PMID:25340982

Opara, Elizabeth I.; Chohan, Magali

2014-01-01

381

Culinary herbs and spices: their bioactive properties, the contribution of polyphenols and the challenges in deducing their true health benefits.  

PubMed

Herbs and spices have been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes for centuries. Over the last decade, research into their role as contributors of dietary polyphenols, known to possess a number of properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases, has increased. However, bearing in mind how these foods are consumed, normally in small quantities and in combination with other foods, it is unclear what their true benefit is from a health perspective. The aim of this review is to use the literature to discuss how preparative and digestive processes, bioavailability and interactions between foods may influence the bioactive properties of these foods, and whether or not polyphenols are responsible for these properties. Furthermore, this review aims to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed so as to determine the true benefits of these foods and the mechanisms of action that underpin their purported efficacy. PMID:25340982

Opara, Elizabeth I; Chohan, Magali

2014-01-01

382

Content of toxic and essential metals in medicinal herbs growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of Macedonia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine and compare Ba, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sr, Pb, and Zn content in medicinal herbs Urtica dioica L., Taraxacum officinale, and Matricaria recutita growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of the Republic of Macedonia. The metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the unpolluted area of Mt. Plackovica the metal content in Taraxacum officinale was in the descending order: Fe>Sr>Zn>Ba>Cr, while Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection. In the polluted area of Veles, the order was as follows: Fe>Zn>Sr>Pb>Ba>Cd>Cr. Our results suggest that quality assurance and monitoring of toxic metals is needed for plants intended for human use and consumption. Medicinal plants should be picked in areas free of any contamination sources. PMID:20860970

Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Baceva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajce

2010-09-01

383

Larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from commonly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of essential oils from commonly used medical and culinary herbs in Lebanon as an environmentally safe measure to control the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. The composition of essential oils extracted from parsley seeds and leaves, alpine thyme inflorescences, anis seeds, and coriander fruits were analyzed by GC-MS, and the major components of these oils were found to be thymol, sabinene, carvacrol, anethole, and linalool, respectively. Mosquito larvicidal assays were conducted to evaluate the LC(50) and LC(90) after 24 and 48h of the essential oils and their major constituents. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (LC(50): 15-156ppm) against Oc. caspius fourth instars, with the most potent oil being thyme inflorescence extract, followed by parsley seed oil, aniseed oil, and then coriander fruit oil. Toxicity of each oil major constituent was also estimated and compared to a reported larvicidal compound, eugenol. PMID:17368893

Knio, K M; Usta, J; Dagher, S; Zournajian, H; Kreydiyyeh, S

2008-03-01

384

Hepatotoxicity or hepatoprotection? Pattern recognition for the paradoxical effect of the Chinese herb Rheum palmatum L. in treating rat liver injury.  

PubMed

The hepatotoxicity of some Chinese herbs has been a cause for concern in recent years. However, some herbs, such as rhubarb, have been documented as having both therapeutic and toxic effects on the liver, leading to the complex problem of distinguishing the benefits from the risks of using this herb. To comparatively analyze the dose-response relationship between rhubarb and hepatic health, we administrated total rhubarb extract (RE) to normal and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-treated rats for 12 weeks at 4 dosage levels (2.00, 5.40, 14.69 and 40.00 g·kg(-1), measured as the quantity of crude material), followed by biochemical and histopathological tests of the rats' livers. A composite pattern was extracted by factor analysis, using all the biochemical indices as variables, into a visual representation of two mathematically obtained factors, which could be interpreted as the fibrosis factor and the cellular injury factor, according to the values of the variable loadings. The curative effect of administering the two lowest dosages of RE to CCl(4)-treated rats was mainly expressed as a decrease in the extent of cellular injury. The hepatoprotective mechanism of RE might be related to its antioxidant effect, the antagonism of the free radical damage to hepatocytes caused by CCl(4). By contrast, the RE-induced liver damage was mainly expressed as a significant increase in the amount of fibrosis in both normal rats at all dosage levels and CCl(4)-treated rats at the two highest dosage levels. Therefore, the hepatotoxic potential of RE could be attributable to the liver cell fibrosis induced by high doses of the herb. This study illustrates the bidirectional potential of rhubarb and demonstrates the feasibility of using factor analysis to study the dose-response relationships between herbal medicines and hepatotoxicity or the healing effects of these herbs by extracting the underlying interrelationships among a number of functional bio-indices in a holistic manner. PMID:21915343

Wang, Jia-bo; Zhao, Hai-ping; Zhao, Yan-ling; Jin, Cheng; Liu, Dao-jian; Kong, Wei-jun; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hong-juan; Xiao, Xiao-he

2011-01-01

385

Genetic diversity and distribution of Bradyrhizobium and Azorhizobium strains associated with the herb legume Zornia glochidiata sampled from across Senegal.  

PubMed

Herb legumes have great potential for rehabilitation of semi-arid degraded soils in Sahelian ecosystems as they establish mutualistic symbiosis with N(2)-fixing rhizobia. A phylogenetic analysis was performed for 78 root nodule bacteria associated with the common Sahelian herb legume Zornia glochidiata Reichb ex DC in Senegal. Based on ITS (rDNA16S-23S) and recA sequences, these strains were shown to belong to the two genera Bradyrhizobium and Azorhizobium. Strains of this latter, although frequent, formed small and ineffective nodules and suggested a parasitism rather than a symbiotic association. A potential negative effect of Azorhizobium on Zornia growth was tested for when inoculated alone or in association with a Bradyrhizobium strain. Bradyrhizobium isolates were distributed in four groups. Groups A and B were two sister clades in a larger monophyletic group also including Bradyrhizobium liaoningense, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Strains of cluster D fell in a sister clade of the photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. group, including ORS278, whereas group C appeared to be divergent from all known Bradyrhizobium clusters. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) clustering was congruent with ITS and recA phylogenies, but displayed much more variability. However, within the main Bradyrhizobium clades, no obvious relationship could be detected between clustering and geographical origin of the strains. Each sub-cluster included strains sampled from different locations. Conversely, Azorhizobium strains showed a tendency in the phylogeny to group together according to the site of sampling. The predominance of ineffective Azorhizobium strains in the nodules of Zornia roots, the large Bradyrhizobium genetic diversity and the geographical genetic diversity pattern are explored. PMID:19493641

Gueye, F; Moulin, L; Sylla, S; Ndoye, I; Béna, G

2009-09-01

386

Effect of oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g), were treated (1 mL) with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5) or 0.9% NaCl solution (control, N = 5) for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL) was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05) alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i) from 0.57 +/- 0.008 to 0.39 +/- 0.06 %ATI/organ (P < 0.05) and from 0.57 +/- 0.17 to 0.39 +/- 0.14 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) was observed in the heart, ii) from 0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g in the pancreas, and iii) from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient. PMID:17224999

Moreno, S R F; Silva, A L C; Diré, G; Honeycut, H; Carvalho, J J; Nascimento, A L; Pereira, M; Rocha, E K; Oliveira-Timóteo, M; Arnobio, A; Olej, B; Bernardo-Filho, M; Caldas, L Q A

2007-01-01

387

An Epidemiological Study of Concomitant Use of Chinese Medicine and Antipsychotics in Schizophrenic Patients: Implication for Herb-Drug Interaction  

PubMed Central

Background Herb-drug interactions are an important issue in drug safety and clinical practice. The aim of this epidemiological study was to characterize associations of clinical outcomes with concomitant herbal and antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. Methods and Findings In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 1795 patients with schizophrenia who were randomly selected from 17 psychiatric hospitals in China were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. Association analyses were conducted to examine correlates between Chinese medicine (CM) use and demographic, clinical variables, antipsychotic medication mode, and clinical outcomes. The prevalence of concomitant CM and antipsychotic treatment was 36.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 34.2%–38.6%]. Patients using concomitant CM had a significantly greater chance of improved outcomes than non-CM use (61.1% vs. 34.3%, OR?=?3.44, 95% CI 2.80–4.24). However, a small but significant number of patients treated concomitantly with CM had a greater risk of developing worse outcomes (7.2% vs. 4.4%, OR?=?2.06, 95% CI 2.06–4.83). Significant predictors for concomitant CM treatment-associated outcomes were residence in urban areas, paranoid psychosis, and exceeding 3 months of CM use. Herbal medicine regimens containing Radix Bupleuri, Fructus Gardenia, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Rehmanniae, Akebia Caulis, and Semen Plantaginis in concomitant use with quetiapine, clozapine, and olanzepine were associated with nearly 60% of the risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusions Concomitant herbal and antipsychotic treatment could produce either beneficial or adverse clinical effects in schizophrenic population. Potential herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions need to be further evaluated. PMID:21359185

Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Tan, Qing-Rong; Tong, Yao; Wang, Xue-Yi; Wang, Huai-Hai; Ho, Lai-Ming; Wong, Hei Kiu; Feng, Yi-Bin; Wang, Di; Ng, Roger; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Wong, Vivian Taam

2011-01-01

388

[Effects of six kinds of Chinese herb extracts on the activities of rat liver microsomes in vitro].  

PubMed

Effects of six kinds of Chinese herb extracts, including Folium Crataegi extract, Herba Epimedii extract, Folium Acanthopanacis Senticosi extract, Trifolium pratense L. extract, Folium Ginkgo extract and Radix Puerariae extract, on the activities of CYP450 isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C, CYP2E1, CYP2D, CYP3A) in rat hepatic microsomals were studied by using a UPLC-MS/MS (MRM) and cocktail probe substrates method. The results showed that effects of six kinds of Chinese herb extracts on each CYP450 isozyme activity were inhibitory. The IC50 of Folium Crataegi extract for the inhibition of rat microsomal CYP2D activity was only for 4.04 microg x mL(-1), which showed the highest inhibition; Trifolium pratense L. extract had strong inhibitory action to CYP2D, the IC50 value was 5.73 microg x mL(-1); Folium Crataegi extract also had strong inhibitory action on CYP2E1, the IC50 value was 10.91 microg x mL(-1). Furthermore, the IC50 of Folium Ginkgo extract for the inhibition of rat microsomal CYP3A, 2D, 2E1 activities were 45.12, 35.45 and 22.41 microg x mL(-1), respectively, and the IC50 of Folium Acanthopanacis Senticosi extract on the inhibition of rat microsomal CYP2E1 activity was 32.89 microg x mL(-1). In addition, mechanism of inhibition experimental results showed that the inhibiting abilities of Folium Crataegi extract and Radix Puerariae extract on each CYP450 isozyme increased with the increasing of the preincubation time, therefore, the inhibitory effects were a mechanism-based inhibition. PMID:24133981

Bi, Yun-Feng; Zhu, Hong-Bin; Xing, Jun-Peng; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Feng-Rui

2013-07-01

389

Use of a common laboratory glassware detergent improves recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis from lettuce, herbs and raspberries.  

PubMed

The success of any protocol designed to detect parasitic protozoa on produce must begin with an efficient initial wash step. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto herbs, lettuces and raspberries, eluted with one of four wash solutions and the recovered number of oocysts determined via fluorescent microscopy. Recovery rates for fluorescein thiosemicarbazide labeled C. parvum oocysts seeded onto spinach and raspberries and washed with de-ionized water were 38.4 ± 10.1% and 34.9 ± 6.2%, respectively. Two alternative wash solutions viz. 1M glycine, pH 5.5 and a detachment solution were tested also using labeled C. parvum seeded spinach and raspberries. No statistically significant difference was noted in the recovery rates. However, a wash solution containing 0.1% Alconox, a laboratory glassware detergent, resulted in a significant improvement in oocyst recovery. 72.6 ± 6.6% C. parvum oocysts were recovered from basil when washed with 0.1% Alconox compared to 47.9 ± 5.8% using detachment solution. Also, C. cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto lettuces, herbs and raspberries and the recovery using de-ionized water were compared to 0.1% Alconox wash: basil 17.5 ± 5.0% to 76.1 ± 14.0%, lollo rosso lettuce 38.3 ± 5.5% to 72.5 ± 8.1%, Tango leaf lettuce 45.9 ± 5.4% to 71.1 ± 7.8% and spring mix (mesclun) 39.8 ± 0.7% to 80.2 ± 11.3%, respectively. These results suggest that the use of Alconox in a wash solution significantly improves recovery resulting in the detection of these parasitic protozoa on high risk foods. PMID:22094179

Shields, Joan M; Lee, Michelle Minjung; Murphy, Helen R

2012-02-01

390

Quality consistency evaluation of Melissa officinalis L. commercial herbs by HPLC fingerprint and quantitation of selected phenolic acids.  

PubMed

To evaluate the quality consistency of commercial medicinal herbs, a simple and reliable HPLC method with UV-vis detector was developed, both for fingerprint analysis and quantitation of some pharmacologically active constituents (marker compounds). Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) was chosen for this study because it is widely used as an aromatic, culinary and medicine remedy. About fifty peaks were found in each chromatogram of a lemon balm extract, including twelve satisfactorily resolved characteristic peaks. A reference chromatographic fingerprint for the studied medicinal herb was calculated using Matlab 9.1 software as a result of analysing all the 19 lemon balm samples obtained from 12 Polish manufacturers. The similarity values and the results of principal component analysis revealed that all the samples were highly correlated with the reference fingerprint and could be accurately classified in relation to their quality consistency. Next, a quantitation of selected phenolic acids in the studied samples was performed. The results have shown that the levels of phenolic acids, i.e. gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, ferulic and rosmarinic were as follows (mg/g of dry weight): 0.001-0.067, 0.010-0.333, 0.007-0.553, 0.047-0.705, 0.006-1.589 and 0.158-48.608, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that rosmarinic acid occurs in M. officinalis at the highest level, whereas gallic acid in the lowest. A detailed inspection of these data has also revealed that reference chromatographic fingerprints combined with quantitation of pharmacologically active constituents of the plant could be used as an efficient strategy for monitoring of the lemon balm quality consistency. PMID:23770780

Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek

2013-09-01

391

The partitioning of water uptake between growth forms in a Neotropical savanna: do herbs exploit a third water source niche?  

PubMed

In addition to trees and grasses, the savannas of central Brazil are characterised by a diverse herbaceous dicot flora. Here we tested whether the coexistence of a highly diversified assemblage of species resulted in stratification or strong overlap in the use of soil water resources. We measured oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of stem water from herbs, grasses and trees growing side by side, as well as the isotopic composition of water in soil profile, groundwater and rainfall, and predawn (?(pd)) and midday (?(md)) leaf water potentials. We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate vertical partitioning of soil water by the three growth forms. Grasses relied on shallow soil water (5-50 cm) and were strongly anisohydric. ?(pd) and ?(md) decreased significantly from the wet to the dry season. Trees extracted water from deeper regions of the soil profile (60-120 cm) and were isohydric. ?(pd) and ?(md) did not change from the wet to the dry season. Herbs overlapped with grasses in patterns of water extraction in the dry season (between 10 and 40 cm), but they took up water at soil depths intermediate (70-100 cm) to those of trees and grasses during the wet season. They showed seasonal changes in ?(pd) but not in ?(md). We conclude that vertical partitioning of soil water may have contributed to coexistence of these three growth forms and resulted in a more complex pattern of soil water extraction than the two-compartment model of soil water uptake currently used to explain the structure and function of tropical savanna ecosystems. PMID:22672316

Rossatto, D R; da Silveira Lobo Sternberg, L; Franco, A C

2013-01-01

392

Active compounds in Chinese herbs and medicinal animal products which promote blood circulation via inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effect of cardiac glycosides for congestive heart failure lies in their reversible inhibition on Na+, K+-ATPase located in human myocardium. Several steroid-like compounds containing a core structure similar to cardiac glycosides have been found in many Chinese herbs and medicinal animal products conventionally used to promote blood circulation. They are putatively responsible for the therapeutic effect of those medicinal products via the same mechanism of inhibiting Na+, K+-ATPase. Inhibitory potency on Na+, K+-ATPase by ginsenosides, one of the identified steroid-like compounds, is significantly affected by sugar attachment that might cause steric hindrance of their binding to Na+, K+-ATPase. Ginsenosides with sugar moieties attached only to the C-3 position of the steroid-like structure, equivalent to the sugar position in cardiac glycosides, substantially inhibit Na+, K+-ATPase. However, their inhibitory potency is abolished when sugar moieties are linked to the C-6 or C-20 position of the steroid-like structure. In contrast, no appreciable contents of steroid-like compounds are found in danshen, a well-known Chinese herb traditionally regarded as an effective medicine promoting blood circulation. Instead, magnesium lithospermate B (MLB), the major soluble ingredient in danshen, is assumed to be responsible for the therapeutic effect by inhibiting Na+, K+-ATPase in a manner comparable to cardiac glycosides. Neuroprotective effects of cardiac glycosides, ginsenosides and MLB against ischemic stroke were accordingly observed in a cortical brain slice-based assay model. Whether the neuroprotection is also triggered by inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase remains to be investigated. Molecular modeling suggests that cardiac glycosides, ginsenosides and MLB presumably bind to the same extracellular pocket of the Na+, K+-ATPase alpha subunit. PMID:20438664

Tzen, Jason Tc; Chen, Ronald Jy; Chung, Tse-Yu; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Nan-Hei

2010-01-01

393

Ten-year growth response of young Douglas-fir to variable density varnishleaf ceanothus and herb competition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of different densities of varnishleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus var. laevigatus) and herbaceous vegetation control on stem diameter, height, and volume of plantation Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) seedlings was examined during the 10 yr following planting. Initial densities of ceanothus ranged between 0 and 15,000 seedlings/ha and were obtained by interplanting ceanothus germinants or chemical thinning after clearcutting and broadcast-burning. Herbaceous vegetation control was achieved by a single application of glyphosate following planting, with shrub seedlings covered. Ceanothus density in the range of 0 to 6,750 plants/ha did not have an effect on Douglas-fir diameter, height, or volume at age 10; however, Douglas-fir growth was significantly decreased when ceanothus densities reached 15,000 plants/ha. Ten years after planting, Douglas-fir volume in the treatments with 6,750 ceanothus/ha or less was 1.7 times greater than that in the 15,000 ceanothus/ha treatment. On the other hand, removal of herbaceous vegetation after planting significantly increased tree diameter, height, and volume, regardless of ceanothus density. Even 10 yr after the application of the treatment, trees without early herb competition grew faster and had mean dbh, height, and volume that were 1.02 cm, 0.55 m, and 12.98 dm3/tree greater respectively than those with herbs. Thus, a treatment at plantation establishment to control herbaceous vegetation and to reduce ceanothus density to less than 7,000 plants/ha will ensure an increase in growth and stocking for at least 10 yr.

Monleon, V.J.; Newton, M.; Hooper, C.; Tappeiner, J. C., II

1999-01-01

394

Comparative Effects of Er-Xian Decoction, Epimedium Herbs, and Icariin with Estrogen on Bone and Reproductive Tissue in Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

Er-Xian Decoction (EXD), Epimedium herbs (herbs of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, EBH), and icariin (ICA) have been proven to have estrogen-like and antiosteoporotic activity and are used for the treatment of osteoporosis, menopausal syndrome, and age-associated diseases. The present study found that EXD, EBH, and ICA treatments, emulating estrogen, significantly contributed to bone density and architecture in OVX rats and that EXD is similar to estrogen and exerts a concomitant effect on bone formation and bone resorption at the tissue level, while EBH and ICA produced bone-protective effects mainly by inhibiting bone resorption. Nevertheless, EXD, EBH, and ICA treatments manifested a fewer adverse effects on the uterus, mammary gland, and vagina compared to estrogen administrations. Among the EXD, EBH, and ICA, EXD was found to have superior efficacy and safety profile. PMID:23227099

Xue, Liming; Wang, Yin; Jiang, Yiping; Han, Ting; Nie, Yan; Zhao, Lu; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Qin, Luping

2012-01-01

395

Matrix solid-phase dispersion microextraction and determination of pesticide residues in medicinal herbs by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography method for the determination of residues of 6 pesticides in Isatis indigotica Fort and Paeonia lactiflora Pall is described. Optimizations of different parameters were performed. The method used 0.5 g herb sample, silica gel as the matrix solid-phase dispersion sorbent, and acetone as the eluting solvent. Recoveries at spiked concentrations between 0.1 and 5 mg/kg were between 80.63 and 110.12%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.43 to 17.67%. The limits of quantitation were 0.01 mg/kg for metalaxyl, triadimefon, and paclobutrazol and 0.05 mg/kg for vinclozolin, tebuconazole, and fenarimol. The method may be useful as a screening protocol for the determination of these pesticides in medicinal herb samples. PMID:16640299

Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde; Hua, Rimao; Cao, Haiqun

2006-01-01

396

A study of Semen Strychni-induced renal injury and herb-herb interaction of Radix Glycyrrhizae extract and/or Rhizoma Ligustici extract on the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine in rats.  

PubMed

Recently, the renal injury caused by Semen strychni and its major toxic constituents, strychnine and brucine, was reported in many clinical cases. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the renal injury induced by Semen Strychni and the protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici. The protective mechanisms were related to the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine. Serum and urine uric acid and creatinine were used as renal function markers to evaluate the condition of kidney, and renal injury was directly reflected by histopathological changes. Compared with rats in blank group and protective herb groups, rats in Semen Strychni high-dose group showed significant differences in the results of renal function markers, and various glomerular and tubular degenerations were found in the histopathological study. The decreased AUC (only strychnine) and Cmax, the increased Tmax by Radix Glycyrrhizae and the decreased T1/2 by Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici were found in model groups. Results indicated that high dose of Semen Strychni might induce renal injury. Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici might work together and have effects on the elimination of strychnine and brucine. The protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae might also be explained by the slow absorption of the alkaloids. PMID:24704041

Gu, Liqiang; Wang, Xiaofan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Ju, Ping; Zhang, Lunhui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Bingjie; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

2014-06-01

397

Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng)  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

398

[Development of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS combined with reference herb approach to rapidly screen commercial sulfur-fumigated ginseng].  

PubMed

An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) combined with reference herb method was developed to rapidly screen commercial sulfur-fumigated ginseng. Sufur-fumigated ginseng reference herb was prepared using genuine ginseng by conventional procedure. Then the reference sulfur-fumigated ginseng sample was analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS to identify characteristic marker components. 25-hydroxyl-Re sulfate with higher abundance was se- lected as marker compound from 8 characteristic components identified in sulfur-fumigated ginseng reference herb. The fragmentation of 25-hydroxyl-Re sulfate was extensively investigated, fragment ion m/z 879.44 with higher intensity was chosen as the characteristic ion of sulfur-fumigated ginseng. The response of ion m/z 879. 44 was improved by optimizing the MS conditions so that this ion could be used as the characteristic marker ion for screening purpose in ion extracting screening mode. The established approach was successfully applied to inspect 21 commercial ginseng samples collected from different cities in China It was found that the chemical profiles of 9 samples were similar to that of sulfur-fumigated ginseng reference herb, and the characteristic ion m/z 879. 44 of 25-hydroxyl-Re sulfate was also detected in these samples, suggesting that there were nearly 43% ginseng samples analyzed being sulfur-fumigated. This findng agreed well with the results of sulfur dioxide residues of these 21 commercial ginseng samples determined with the method documented in Chinese Pharmacopeia Compared with the method documented in Chinese Pharmacopeia, the proposed approach is more rapid and specific for screening sulfur-fumigated ginseng. SFDA of China should strengthen the enforcement to prohibit ginseng being sulfur-fumigated, so that ginseng and it preparations could be effectively and safely benefit to the health of human beings. PMID:25423813

Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jin-Di; Shen, Hong; Liu, Huan-Huan; Li, Song-Lin

2014-08-01

399

Comparative Composition of Whole Herb, Flowers, Leaves and Stem Oils of Cornmint (Mentha arvensis L.f. piperascens Malinvaud ex Holmes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from flowering whole herb, flowers, leaves and stem of cornmint cv. ‘Shivalik’ grown on black soil in semi-arid tropical climate, were compared. Cornmint grew to a height of 75–120 cm and produced 4.5–54 kg biomass\\/m. Flowers, leaves and stems contributed 31–3%, 37.4% and 31.3% to biomass yield and produced essential oil yields of

Bhaskaruni R. Rajeswara Rao; Pran N. Kaul; Gopal R. Mallavarapu; Srinivasaiyer Ramesh

2000-01-01

400

EFFECTS OF SIX ANTI-INFLAMMATORY CHINESE HERBS ON LPS\\/IFN-?-INDUCED NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN RAW264.7 MACROPHAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to evaluate whether the six Chinese herbs (Davallia divaricata, Dd; Nothapodytes foetida, Nf; Orobanche caerulescens, Oc; Spiranthes sinensis, Ss; Taxillus liquidambaricolus, Tl; Viscum alniformosanae, Va) commonly used as anti-inflammatory drugs in traditional Chinese medicine, influence the induction of nitric oxide (NO), a mediator involved in inflammation. RAW264.7 cell was used as target cell and activated

Wen-Fei Chiou; Cheng-Jen Chou; Han-Chieh Ko; Chieh-Fu Chen

401

A Multiresidue Method for 20 Pesticides in Radix paeoniae Alba of Chinese Herb by Gas Chromatography with Electron-capture Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid multiresidue method was developed for the determination of 20 pesticides in Radix paeoniae Alba of Chinese herb by ultrasonic wave extraction, silica gel column chromatography and gas chromatography (GC) with electron-capture\\u000a detection (ECD) in this study, Mean recoveries of the method ranged from 74.45 to 115.14%. The validation of the proposed\\u000a approach was verified on Isatis indigotica Fort,

Gao Qian; Hua Rimao; Tang Feng; Wu Xiangwei; Li Xuede; Cao Haiqun; Shi Yanhong; Tang Jun

2010-01-01

402

Simultaneous quantification of active components in the herbs and products of Si-Wu-Tang by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising Paeoniae, Angelicae, Chuanxiong and Rehmanniae, is one of the most popular Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulae for woman's health. Data mining from the available Chinese and English literatures indicated that the major bioactive components of SWT consist of paeoniflorin, paeonol, gallic acid, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, ligustrazine, butylphthalide, senkyunolide A and catalpol. Since content determination of the marker compounds is generally considered as an initial step for quality control of TCM product, a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method employing both positive and negative electrospray ionization was developed for the simultaneous determination of the nine identified compounds in the raw herbs and products of SWT. The LOQ of the developed assay method for the tested components was 10ng/ml for ligustrazine, 200ng/ml for catalpol, and 100ng/ml for the other seven compounds. The intra-day and inter-day variations of the current assay were within 17.5%. Paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, gallic acid, Z-ligustilide and senkyunolide A were found in all SWT products investigated. Variations in the contents of the studied compounds were observed among batches of raw herbs and SWT products. The currently developed method provides a sensitive and rapid quantification approach that can be useful in the quality control of raw herbs and products of SWT. PMID:19423264

Wang, Zhi-Jun; Wo, Siu-Kwan; Wang, Ling; Lau, Clara B S; Lee, Vincent H L; Chow, Moses S S; Zuo, Zhong

2009-09-01

403

The Four-Herb Chinese Medicine ANBP Enhances Wound Healing and Inhibits Scar Formation via Bidirectional Regulation of Transformation Growth Factor Pathway  

PubMed Central

The four-herb Chinese medicine ANBP is a pulverized mixture of four herbs including Agrimonia Eupatoria (A), Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn (N), Boswellia Carteri (B) and Pollen Typhae Angustifoliae (P). The combination of the four herbs was first described in Chinese canonical medicine about 2000 years ago for treatment of various trauma disorders, such as hemostasis, antiinflammatory, analgesia, and wound healing, etc. However, the precise mechanisms of ANBP are still unclear. In our study, using rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models of full-thickness skin defect, we showed that local ANBP treatment not only significantly enhanced wound healing by relieving inflammation, increasing formation of granulation tissue and accelerating re-epithelialization, but also reduced scar formation by decreasing collagen production, protuberant height and volume of scars, and increasing collagen maturity. We demonstrated that these effects of ANBP are associated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-mediated signalling pathways through Smad-dependent pathways. ANBP treatment significantly increased expression of TGF-?1 and Smad2/3 mRNA at the early stage of wound healing, and led to markedly decrease expression of TGF-?1 and Smad2/3 compared with the control group after 14 days post-wounding. Taken together, our results defined a bidirectional regulation role of ANBP for TGF-?1/Smad pathway in promoting wound healing and alleviating scar formation, which may be an effective therapy for human wounds at the earliest stage. PMID:25489732

Hao, Hao-Jie; Han, Qing-Wang; Chen, Li; Dong, Liang; Liu, Jie-Jie; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Ma, Ying-Zhi; Han, Wei-Dong; Fu, Xiao-Bing

2014-01-01

404

Herb-drug interaction prediction based on the high specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7.  

PubMed

Herb-drug interaction strongly limits the clinical application of herbs and drugs, and the inhibition of herbal components towards important drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as one of the most important reasons. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition potential of andrographolide derivatives towards one of the most important phase II DMEs UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Recombinant UGT isoforms (except UGT1A4)-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction and UGT1A4-catalyzed trifluoperazine (TFP) glucuronidation were employed to firstly screen the andrographolide derivatives' inhibition potential. High specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UGT2B7 was observed. The inhibition type and parameters (Ki) were determined for the compounds exhibiting strong inhibition capability towards UGT2B7, and human liver microsome (HLMs)-catalyzed zidovudine (AZT) glucuronidation probe reaction was used to furtherly confirm the inhibition behavior. In combination of inhibition parameters (Ki) and in vivo concentration of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, the potential in vivo inhibition magnitude was predicted. Additionally, both the in vitro inhibition data and computational modeling results provide important information for the modification of andrographolide derivatives as selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. Taken together, data obtained from the present study indicated the potential herb-drug interaction between Andrographis paniculata and the drugs mainly undergoing UGT2B7-catalyzed metabolic elimination, and the andrographolide derivatives as potential candidates for the selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. PMID:24631340

Ma, Hai-Ying; Sun, Dong-Xue; Cao, Yun-Feng; Ai, Chun-Zhi; Qu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Cui-Min; Jiang, Changtao; Dong, Pei-Pei; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Hong, Mo; Tanaka, Naoki; Gonzalez, Frank J; Ma, Xiao-Chi; Fang, Zhong-Ze

2014-05-15

405

[Determination of metal contents of two Chinese medicinal herbs, Flemingiae philippinensis and Sophora tonkinensis, grown in Guangxi by ICP-AES].  

PubMed

The metal contents of traditional Chinese medicine, Sophora tonkinensis and Flemingiae philippinensis, grown in Guangxi province of China were determined by ICP-AES methods. The two herbs were digested by applying acid bomb digestion procedure. Considering RF power, nebulized gas flow rate, auxiliary gas flow rate and pump rate, the instrument was optimized. The instrument operating conditions, analytical lines and detection limits of elements determined as well as the contents of elements in these two herbs were reported. The results show that Sophora tonkinensis contains microelements Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cr and macroelements Ca, Mg, Na and K; Flemingiae philippinensis contains microelements Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Mn and Cr and macroelements Ca, Mg, Na and K. However, the two traditional Chinese medicines do not contain toxic elements Sn, Pb and Cd. The precision was found to be less than 5% in terms of relative standard deviation mostly. The results indicate that the concentration ratio of zinc to copper in Sophora tonkinensis is 6.4, while the ratio in Flemingiae philippinensis is 5.7. The content of zinc is higher than copper in both two herbs, which agrees with the phenomenon that the zinc content higher than that of copper exists in other antitumor traditional Chinese medicine. All these will afford an apocalypse for understanding the pharmacological mechanism of these anitumor traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:19950677

Mao, Li; Tan, Ming-xiong; Chen, Zhen-feng; Liang, Hong

2009-09-01

406

The Four-Herb Chinese Medicine ANBP Enhances Wound Healing and Inhibits Scar Formation via Bidirectional Regulation of Transformation Growth Factor Pathway.  

PubMed

The four-herb Chinese medicine ANBP is a pulverized mixture of four herbs including Agrimonia Eupatoria (A), Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn (N), Boswellia Carteri (B) and Pollen Typhae Angustifoliae (P). The combination of the four herbs was first described in Chinese canonical medicine about 2000 years ago for treatment of various trauma disorders, such as hemostasis, antiinflammatory, analgesia, and wound healing, etc. However, the precise mechanisms of ANBP are still unclear. In our study, using rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models of full-thickness skin defect, we showed that local ANBP treatment not only significantly enhanced wound healing by relieving inflammation, increasing formation of granulation tissue and accelerating re-epithelialization, but also reduced scar formation by decreasing collagen production, protuberant height and volume of scars, and increasing collagen maturity. We demonstrated that these effects of ANBP are associated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-mediated signalling pathways through Smad-dependent pathways. ANBP treatment significantly increased expression of TGF-?1 and Smad2/3 mRNA at the early stage of wound healing, and led to markedly decrease expression of TGF-?1 and Smad2/3 compared with the control group after 14 days post-wounding. Taken together, our results defined a bidirectional regulation role of ANBP for TGF-?1/Smad pathway in promoting wound healing and alleviating scar formation, which may be an effective therapy for human wounds at the earliest stage. PMID:25489732

Hou, Qian; He, Wen-Jun; Hao, Hao-Jie; Han, Qing-Wang; Chen, Li; Dong, Liang; Liu, Jie-Jie; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Ma, Ying-Zhi; Han, Wei-Dong; Fu, Xiao-Bing

2014-01-01

407

The effects of selected hot and cold temperament herbs based on Iranian traditional medicine on some metabolic parameters in normal rats.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of diets containing some hot and cold temperament herb seeds according to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) on some metabolic parameters in acute (24 h) and sub-acute (7 day) experiments that were performed on rats. For each experiment, effects of diets containing 10% herb seeds in category of hot (anise, fennel, ajowan) and cold (cucumber, watermelon, pumpkin) temperaments were analyzed on body weight gain, food intake, water consumption, urine output, serum glucose (SG) and insulin levels of rats. In the acute experiment, anise or fennel fed groups showed a significant decrease in food intake and there were not any changes in other parameters. The hot temperament groups in comparison with the cold temperament ones showed a significant decrease in food intake and a significant increase in SG level. In the sub-acute experiment, anise and fennel fed groups had a significant decrease in body weight gain on the 4thday. On the 7th day, the anise fed group experienced a significant decrease in body weight gain and a significant increase in SG levels. The groups that were fed hot temperament diets compared to the ones that consumed cold temperament diets showed a significant decrease in body weight gain and food intake rates and a considerable increase in SG levels. Considering the findings of this study, one can conclude that it is possible that hot temperament herbs such as anise and fennel be useful for humans for certain conditions such as weight control. PMID:24711844

Parvinroo, Shirin; Zahediasl, Saleh; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Naghibi, Farzaneh

2014-01-01

408

Differential bud activation by a net positive root signal explains branching phenotype in prostrate clonal herbs: a model  

PubMed Central

Regulation of branching within perennial prostrate clonal herbs differs from the annual orthotropic species, Arabidopsis and pea, as the dominant signal transported from roots is a branching promoter, not an inhibitor. Trifolium repens, an exemplar of such prostrate species, was used to investigate the interaction between roots and branch development. This study tests whether or not current knowledge when synthesized into a predictive model is sufficient to simulate the branching pattern developing on the shoot distal to a basal root. The major concepts underpinning the model are: (i) bud outgrowth (activation) is stimulated in a dose-dependent manner by branching promoter signals from roots, (ii) the distribution of this net root stimulus (NRS) is uniform throughout the shoot system distal to the basal root but declines geometrically in intensity upon continued enlargement of this shoot system, and (iii) each bud has an outgrowth potential, equal to the activation level of the apical bud in which it forms, that moderates its response to NRS. The validity of these concepts was further tested by running simulations of the branching of a phylogenetically-distanced prostrate perennial monocotyledonous species, Tradescantia fluminensis. For both species the model reasonably accounted for the observed pattern of branching. The outgrowth potential of buds plays an important role in limiting the number of hierarchies of branching that can develop on a plant. In conclusion, for both species, the model accounted for the major factors involved in the correlative regulation of branching and is possibly also pertinent for all prostrate clonal species. PMID:24399176

Hay, M. J. M.

2014-01-01

409

Leaf fluctuating asymmetry, soil disturbance and plant stress: A multiple year comparison using two herbs, Ipomoea pandurata and Cnidoscolus stimulosus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied Cnidoscolus stimulosus and Ipomoea pandurata, two common herbs of the Fall Line Sandhills to assess their potential as ecosystem level stress indicators. We focused on plants because they are among the most persistent organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. We used developmental instability as an indicator of plant population stress. Developmental instability is usually measured as deviations from symmetry, in traits that normally develop symmetrically. Thus, symmetry represents an idealized a priori phenotype. Stress presumably causes perturbations during development that may exceed the capacity of the organism to buffer or correct, resulting in developmental instability, and hence deviations from this ideal. Soil disturbance imposed by different land use patterns at Fort Benning, Georgia provided a gradient of soil disturbance. In 2000-2002 we collected plants from nine different sites representing three levels of disturbance. In addition, in 2002 we collected microhabitat data in 1 m quadrats surrounding each plant whose developmental stability we also assessed. The developmental instability of both species was influenced by land use patterns, whether or not the sites had been previously burned, and microhabitat variables. Developmental instability increased with soil disturbance, burning in the prior year, and as the percentage of bare ground increased around the target individual. To some extent, favorable microhabitat conditions reduced developmental instability in sites with medium and high soil disturbance, whereas unfavorable conditions at low soil disturbance sites increased developmental instability. As an indicator of community level stress, developmental instability is best used in conjunction with other indices of environmental quality. ?? Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Freeman, D.C.; Brown, M.L.; Duda, J.J.; Graraham, J.H.; Emlen, J.M.; Krzysik, A.J.; Balbach, H.; Kovacic, D.A.; Zak, J.C.

2005-01-01

410

Antitussive activity of a glucuronoxylan from Rudbeckia fulgida compared to the potency of two polysaccharide complexes from the same herb.  

PubMed

An alkali-extracted low-molecular glucuronoxylan and two water-extractable polysaccharide complexes isolated from various parts of Rudbeckia fulgida were tested for antitussive activity on mechanically induced cough in nonanaesthetized cats. Glucuronoxylan consisted of a (1-->4)-linked beta-D-xylopyranosyl backbone with about 18% of 4-0-methyl-D-glucuronic acid attached to 0-2 of the chain xylose residues. The polysaccharide complexes differed from each the other regarding the in qualitative and quantitative composition of the sugar components. It was found that peroral administration of all the compounds led to a significant suppression of the cough reflex without negative influence on expectoration. Glucuronoxylan and the complex from the aerial parts of the herb exhibited much higher antitussive activity than the complex from the roots which did not contain any uronic acid component. Their activity (48.2% and 46.5%, respectively) highly surpassed the activity of the complex from the roots (23.5%) as well as that of the peripherally acting drugs dropropizine (28.3%) and prenoxdiazine (24.7%). PMID:10683875

Nosál'ová, G; Kardosová, A; Franová, S

2000-01-01

411

Nain-e Havandi Andrographis paniculata present yesterday, absent today: a plenary review on underutilized herb of Iran's pharmaceutical plants.  

PubMed

Nain-e Havandi (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) (AP) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the family Acanthacea. Only a few species of Andrographis genus out of 28 are medicinally concerned of which AP is the most important. Knowledge about the arrival of AP to Iran is extremely lacking but most probably it has been imported from India. However, evidence implies the familiarity of Iran's folkloric medicine with this plant, but it has been disappeared from contemporary medicine for unknown reasons. Presence of active ingredients from diterpenoids group such as andrographolide, neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide has given incredible unique medicinal properties to the plant. Traditionally, Nain-e Havandi has been used in the role of a non-farm plant as a remedy for skin problems, flu, respiratory disease, and snakebite in East and Southeast Asia for centuries. Recently, it has been utilized as a treatment for HIV, hepatitis, diabetes, cancer and kidney disorders. Intensive cultivation of the herb started only in the past decade in countries such as China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, West Indies, Mauritius and to some extent, in Malaysia. Availability of different ecological zones in Iran complies with reestablishment of AP in tropical and temperate regions of the country. This is killing two birds with one stone, supporting the conservational and economic aspects. PMID:22198549

Valdiani, Alireza; Kadir, Mihdzar Abdul; Tan, Soon Guan; Talei, Daryush; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Nikzad, Sonia

2012-05-01

412

Drugs and herbs given to prevent hepatotoxicity of tuberculosis therapy: systematic review of ingredients and evaluation studies  

PubMed Central

Background Drugs to protect the liver are frequently prescribed in some countries as part of treatment for tuberculosis. The biological rationale is not clear, they are expensive and may do harm. We conducted a systematic review to a) describe the ingredients of "liver protection drugs"; and b) compare the evidence base for the policy against international standards. Methods We searched international medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the specialised register of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group) and Chinese language databases (CNKI, VIP and WanFang) to April 2007. Our inclusion criteria were research papers that reported evaluating any liver protection drug or drugs for preventing liver damage in people taking anti-tuberculosis treatment. Two authors independently categorised and extracted data, and appraised the stated methods of evaluating their effectiveness. Results Eighty five research articles met our inclusion criteria, carried out in China (77), India (2), Russia (4), Ukraine (2). These articles evaluated 30 distinct types of liver protection compounds categorised as herbal preparations, manufactured herbal products, combinations of vitamins and other non-herbal substances and manufactured pharmaceutical preparations. Critical appraisal of these articles showed that all were small, poorly conducted studies, measuring intermediate outcomes. Four trials that were described as randomised controlled trials were small, had short follow up, and did not meet international standards. Conclusion There is no reliable evidence to support prescription of drugs or herbs to prevent liver damage in people on tuberculosis treatment. PMID:18939987

Liu, Qin; Garner, Paul; Wang, Yang; Huang, Binghua; Smith, Helen

2008-01-01

413

Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: Thonningia sanguinea on experimentally-induced liver injuries.  

PubMed

The antioxidant action of medicinal herbs used in Ghana for treating various ailments was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Five plants, Desmodium adscendens, Indigofera arrecta, Trema occidentalis, Caparis erythrocarpus, and Thonningia sanguinea were tested for their free radical scavenging action by their interaction with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of these five plants, only Thonningia sanguinea was found to scavenge the DPPH radical. Lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes induced by H2O2 was also inhibited by T. sanguinea. The hepatoprotective effect of T. sanguinea was studied on acute hepatitis induced in rats by a single dose of galactosamine (GalN, 400 mg/kg, IP) and in mice by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 25 microl/kg, IP). GalN induced hepatotoxicity in rats as evidenced by an increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase activities in serum was significantly inhibited when T. sanguinea extract (5 ml/kg, IP) was given to rats 12 hr and 1 hr before GalN treatment. The activity of liver microsomal GSH S-transferase, which is known to be activated by oxidative stress, was increased by the GaIN treatment and this increase was blocked by T. sanguinea pretreatment. Similarly, T. sanguinea pretreatment also inhibited CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. These data indicate that T. sanguinea is a potent antioxidant and can offer protection against GalN- or CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:10401991

Gyamfi, M A; Yonamine, M; Aniya, Y

1999-06-01

414

Control of reed canarygrass promotes wetland herb and tree seedling establishment in an upper Mississippi River Floodplain forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) is recognized as a problematic invader of North American marshes, decreasing biodiversity and persisting in the face of control efforts. Less is known about its ecology or management in forested wetlands, providing an opportunity to apply information about factors critical to an invader's control in one wetland type to another. In a potted plant experiment and in the field, we documented strong competitive effects of reed canarygrass on the establishment and early growth of tree seedlings. In the field, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel restoration strategy, combining site scarification with late fall applications of pre-emergent herbicides. Treatments delayed reed canarygrass emergence the following spring, creating a window of opportunity for the early growth of native plants in the absence of competition from the grass. They also allowed for follow-up herbicide treatments during the growing season. We documented greater establishment of wetland herbs and tree seedlings in treated areas. Data from small exclosures suggest, however, that deer browsing can limit tree seedling height growth in floodplain restorations. Slower tree growth will delay canopy closure, potentially allowing reed canarygrass re-invasion. Thus, it may be necessary to protect tree seedlings from herbivory to assure forest regeneration.

Thomsen, Meredith; Brownell, Kurt; Groshek, Matthew; Kirsch, Eileen

2012-01-01

415

Evaluation of repellency of some Chinese medicinal herbs essential oils against Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).  

PubMed

The screening for repellency against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), from 14 Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the essential oils of Curcuma longa L., Epimedium pubescens Maximouwicz, Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kostermans, Nardostachys chinensis Battandier, Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieber et Zuccarini, and Z. officinale Roscoe exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila and T. castaneum. A total of 35 components of the essential oil of E. pubescens were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Beta-Eudesmol (14.89%), alpha-pinene (13.38%), borneol (9.56%), (R)-carvone (7.89%), and menthol (7.45%) were the main components of the essential oil of E. pubescens. From the essential oil of E. pubescens, four monoterpenoids and one sesquiterpenoid were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified alpha-pinene, borneol, menthol, carvone, and beta-eudesmol. (R) -carvone, menthol, borneol, and beta-eudesmol were strongly repellent against L. bostrychophila at concentration of 8.5 nl/cm2 after 2 h exposure whereas alpha-pinene exhibited moderate repellency. (R)-carvone exhibited stronger repellency against the booklouse than the positive control, N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). Moreover, (R)-carvone also possessed stronger repellency against T. castaneum than DEET. The other four constituents, menthol, borneol, and beta-eudesmol also showed repellency against the red flour beetles but weaker than DEET at lower concentrations. PMID:23448068

Liang, Yan; Li, Jin Lu; Xu, Shuai; Zhao, Na Na; Zhou, Ligang; Cheng, Jun; Liu, Zhi Long

2013-02-01

416

Standard Guide for Irradiation of Dried Spices, Herbs, and Vegetable Seasonings to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide covers procedures for irradiation of dried spices, herbs, and vegetable seasonings for microbiological control. Generally, these items have moisture content of 4.5 to 12 % and are available in whole, ground, chopped, or other finely divided forms, or as blends. The blends may contain sodium chloride and minor amounts of dry food materials ordinarily used in such blends. 1.2 This guide covers absorbed doses ranging from 3 to 30 kiloGray (kGy). Note 1—U.S. regulations permit a maximum dose of 30 kGy. (See 21CFR 179.26 Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food.) 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2004-01-01

417

An efficient in vitro regeneration of Ceropegia noorjahaniae: an endemic and critically endangered medicinal herb of the Western Ghats.  

PubMed

An efficient protocol was developed for the rapid in vitro multiplication of an endemic and critically endangered medicinal herb, Ceropegia noorjahaniae Ans., via enhanced axillary bud proliferation from nodal explants. The effects of phytohormones [6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (Kin) thidiazuron (TDZ), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)] on in vitro regeneration were investigated. The highest number of shoots (18.3?±?1.3), maximum shoot length (10.1?±?0.8 cm) and the highest response of shoot induction (95 %) were recorded on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP. Rooting was best achieved on half-strength MS medium augmented with IBA (1.0 mg/l). Half-strength MS medium supplemented with BAP (4 mg/l) and sucrose (5 %, w/v) produced an average of 5.6 flower buds per microshoots with highest (90 %) flower bud induction response. The plantlets regenerated in vitro with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully established in pots containing sterile sand and coco peat (1:1) and grown in a greenhouse with 85 % survival rate. The regenerated plants did not show any detectable morphological variation. The developed method can be successfully employed for large-scale multiplication and conservation of C. noorjahaniae. PMID:25049469

Chavan, J J; Nalawade, A S; Gaikwad, N B; Gurav, R V; Dixit, G B; Yadav, S R

2014-07-01

418

Heshouwu decoction, a Chinese herb for tonifying kidney, ameliorates hypothalamic-pituitary- testicular axis secretion in aging rats?  

PubMed Central

An increasing amount of evidence demonstrates the anti-aging effect of Heshouwu in pill form. In this study, a subacute aging rat model was established by continuous intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and treated with Heshouwu decoction (a Chinese herb for tonifying the kidney, comprising Heshouwu pill, Herba Epimedii, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, and Poria). Heshouwu pill treated rats were the positive control group. Radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot assay showed hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone, hypothalamic substance P, and serum gonadotropin levels to be significantly increased in the model rats; the concentrations of hypothalamic ?-endorphin, and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and testosterone were significantly decreased. 17?- and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in testicular tissue was also decreased. Intragastric administration of Heshouwu decoction at high (9.6 g/mL/100 g), medium (4.8 g/mL/100 g), and low (2.4 g/mL/100 g) doses, Heshouwu decoction pretreatment at a medium dose (4.8 g/mL/100 g), and Heshouwu pill (2.06 g/mL/100 g) significantly reversed these changes. Heshouwu decoction pretreatment and high-dose Heshouwu decoction had the greatest anti-aging effects. These experimental findings indicate that Heshouwu decoction can improve hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis secretion in a subacute aging rat model, and prevent and delay gonadal axis aging, with an effect superior to that of Heshouwu pill.

Niu, Siyun; Kou, Suru; Zhou, Xiaochun; Ding, Liang

2012-01-01

419

Responses to drought stress among sex morphs of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae), a subdioecious perennial herb native to the East Himalayas  

PubMed Central

It is generally accepted that dioecious plants occur more frequently in dry and nutrient-poor habitats, suggesting that abiotic stress factors could contribute to evolution of dioecy from hermaphrodite. Therefore, experimental investigations on the responses of subdioecious species, a special sexual system comprising male, female, and hermaphrodite plants, to abiotic stress factors could quantify the contribution of selective pressure on the evolution of dioecy. In this study, we evaluated the physiological responses of different sex morphs of Oxyria sinensis Hemsley, a perennial herb native to the East Himalayas, to drought stress. Male, female, and hermaphrodite plants of O. sinensis were subjected to low, moderate, and high drought stress conditions in a glasshouse. Generally, with increasing water stress, the values of most measured variables slightly decreased, whereas water-use efficiency slightly increased. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in most of the measured parameters among the sex morphs under each drought stress treatment, indicating that O. sinensis might be well-adapted to drought stress conditions as its typical habitat is the dry and hot habitats of xerothermic river valleys. However, nitrogen-use efficiency was significantly higher in male and female plants than in hermaphrodite plants under high drought stress conditions, suggesting that that nitrogen-use efficiency under conditions of drought stress might have contributed to the evolution of dioecy from the hermaphrodite to some degree. PMID:25505531

Yang, Jie; Hu, Lijuan; Wang, Zhengkun; Zhu, Wanlong; Meng, Lihua

2014-01-01

420

Differential bud activation by a net positive root signal explains branching phenotype in prostrate clonal herbs: a model.  

PubMed

Regulation of branching within perennial prostrate clonal herbs differs from the annual orthotropic species, Arabidopsis and pea, as the dominant signal transported from roots is a branching promoter, not an inhibitor. Trifolium repens, an exemplar of such prostrate species, was used to investigate the interaction between roots and branch development. This study tests whether or not current knowledge when synthesized into a predictive model is sufficient to simulate the branching pattern developing on the shoot distal to a basal root. The major concepts underpinning the model are: (i) bud outgrowth (activation) is stimulated in a dose-dependent manner by branching promoter signals from roots, (ii) the distribution of this net root stimulus (NRS) is uniform throughout the shoot system distal to the basal root but declines geometrically in intensity upon continued enlargement of this shoot system, and (iii) each bud has an outgrowth potential, equal to the activation level of the apical bud in which it forms, that moderates its response to NRS. The validity of these concepts was further tested by running simulations of the branching of a phylogenetically-distanced prostrate perennial monocotyledonous species, Tradescantia fluminensis. For both species the model reasonably accounted for the observed pattern of branching. The outgrowth potential of buds plays an important role in limiting the number of hierarchies of branching that can develop on a plant. In conclusion, for both species, the model accounted for the major factors involved in the correlative regulation of branching and is possibly also pertinent for all prostrate clonal species. PMID:24399176

Thomas, R G; Li, F Y; Hay, M J M

2014-02-01

421

Reduction of vitrification in in vitro raised shoots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. & Fernand., a rare potent medicinal herb.  

PubMed

Reduction of vitrification in in vitro raised shoots derived from shoot bases and immature floral buds along with inflorescence axis used as explants of C. borivilianum, a rare medicinal herb is described. Shoot multiplication was obtained on MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.1 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) kinetin (Kin) + 0.1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) from shoot bases and inflorescence axis respectively. Best multiplication rates were obtained from both the explants on MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) BAP. Vitrification of shoots in cultures appeared during the multiplication stage. Culture bottles with aerated caps reduced the vitrification to 80%. Reduction of BAP concentration from 2 mg l(-1) to zero during subsequent subcultures also minimized vitrification. Use of 0.5-2 mg l(-1) Kin produced healthy shoots when compared to BAP. In vitro raised shoots rooted on Knop salts containing iron and vitamins of MS medium, 2 mg l(-1) IBA and 0.1% activated charcoal. About 80% plantlets survived upon soil transfer. Scanning electron microscopic and image analyzer studies reveal the morphological structural differences between the leaves of normal and vitrified plantlets. PMID:16784122

Sharma, Urvashi; Mohan, J S S

2006-06-01

422

Molecular authentication of the medicinal herb Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers.  

PubMed

Dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. Ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with Euphorbia dracunculoides. The genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified CTAB method. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA-ITS), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpoB and rpoC1) are regarded as potential genes for plant DNA barcoding. We amplified and sequenced these spacer sequences and confirmed the sequences with a BLAST search. Sequence alignment was performed using ClustalX to look for differences in the sequences. A DNA marker was developed based on rpoB and rpoC1 of the nrDNA-ITS for the identification of the adulterant E. dracunculoides in samples of R. graveolens that are sold in local herbal markets. Sequence-characterized amplified region markers of 289 and 264 bp for R. graveolens and 424 bp for E. dracunculoides were developed from dissimilar sequences of this nrDNA-ITS to speed up the authentication process. This marker successfully distinguished these species in extracted samples with as little as 5 ng DNA/?L extract. PMID:22095605

Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Tarroum, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Ali, M A

2011-01-01

423

Age-specific, density-dependent and environment-based mortality of a short-lived perennial herb.  

PubMed

Density-independent and density-dependent processes affect plant mortality. Although less well understood, age-specific mortality can also play an important role in plant mortality. The goal of this study was to analyse several factors accounting for mortality in the Mediterranean short-lived perennial herb Lobularia maritima. We followed three cohorts of plants (from emergence to death) during 4 years in field conditions. We collected data on plant mortality of the effect of biotic agents (moth larvae and mycoplasma-like organisms, MLOs) and environmental variables. We also estimated density-dependent relationships affecting the fate of seedlings and adults. Results show that cohorts differed in their survival curves and ageing significantly increased mortality risk. Seedling mortality was density-dependent whereas adult mortality was not affected by density. MLO infection led to higher plant mortality whereas moth larvae attack did not affect plant mortality. In general, seedlings and adult plants experienced the highest mortality events in summer. We found, however, weak relationships between weather records and plant mortality. Age and size structures were not correlated. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive review of age-specific, density-dependent and density-independent factors that account for mortality of L. maritima plants throughout their life cycle in field conditions, highlighting the fact that age is an important factor in determining plant population dynamics. PMID:18426484

Picó, F X; Retana, J

2008-05-01

424

Acute and Chronic Administrations of Rheum palmatum Reduced the Bioavailability of Phenytoin in Rats: A New Herb-Drug Interaction.  

PubMed

The rhizome of Rheum palmatum (RP) is a commonly used herb in clinical Chinese medicine. Phenytoin (PHT) is an antiepileptic with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the acute and chronic effects of RP on the pharmacokinetics of PHT in rat. Rats were orally administered with PHT (200?mg/kg) with and without RP decoction (single dose and seven doses of 2?g/kg) in a crossover design. The serum concentrations of PHT, PHT glucuronide (PHT-G), 4-hydroxyphenytoin (HPPH), and HPPH glucuronide (HPPH-G) were determined by HPLC method. Cell line models were used to identify the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that coadministration of single dose or multiple doses of RP significantly decreased the C(max) and AUC(0-t) as well as the K(10) of PHT, PHT-G, HPPH, and HPPH-G. Cell line studies revealed that RP significantly induced the P-gp-mediated efflux of PHT and inhibited the MRP-2-medicated transport of PHT and HPPH. In conclusion, acute and chronic coadministrations of RP markedly decreased the oral bioavailability of PHT via activation of P-gp, although the MRP-2-mediated excretion of PHT was inhibited. It is recommended that caution should be exercised during concurrent use of RP and PHT. PMID:22829856

Chi, Ying-Chang; Juang, Shin-Hun; Chui, Wai Keung; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

2012-01-01

425

Regulation of podocalyxin expression in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with Chinese herbs (Yishen capsule)  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic nephropathy is an emergent issue in China with increase in patients with type II diabetes. There are several successful Chinese herbal products for the treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy in China. However, the mechanisms mediating the biological activity of these products are still unclear. Podocalyxin is a sialoprotein critical to maintaining integrity of filtration function of glomerulus. Methods By employing streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and a Chinese herb formulation (Yishen capsule), we examined the regulation of podocalyxin expression in the kidney by Yishen capsule through immunofluorescent staining and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results After injection of STZ, there were significant increase in both blood glucose and urinary protein. Serum creatinine and BUN were also increased in rats with injection of STZ. Moreover, expression of podocalyxin in the glomerulus was gradually reduced after injection of STZ. There was also a loss of podocyte foot processes in the glomerular basement membrane. However, Yishen capsule or benazepril was able to restore the expression of podocalyxin and podocyte foot processes in the kidney. Although Yishen capsule could reduce urinary protein level, it has little effect on blood glucose level in the rats injected with STZ. Conclusions Yishen capsule could attenuate the loss of podocalyxin in the glomerulus of rats injected with STZ. PMID:23560927

2013-01-01

426

Extension of lifespan and protection against oxidative stress by an antioxidant herb mixture complex (KPG-7) in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species within cells results in oxidative stress. Furthermore, accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been shown to reduce cell longevity. Many dietary supplements are believed to have anti-aging effects. The herb mixture KPG-7 contains several components with antioxidant activity. We aim to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of KPG-7 and to establish whether KPG-7 has an anti-aging effect. We examined whether dietary supplementation with KPG-7 could provide protection against oxidative stress, extend lifespan, and delay aging in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We found that KPG-7 extended lifespan and delayed aging in adult C. elegans. The expression of oxidation resistance 1 protein was induced by juglone and this effect was significantly suppressed in KPG-7-treated. In addition, the amount of oxidized protein was significantly lower in KPG-7-treated worms than untreated worms. Furthermore, locomotive activity was increased in C. elegans at 3 days of age following the treatment with KPG-7. On the other hand, the level of cellular ATP was lower at 3 days of age in worms treated with KPG-7 than in untreated worms. KPG-7 increases lifespan and delays aging in C. elegans, well corresponding to its activity to protect against oxidative stress. PMID:24062604

Moriwaki, Takahito; Kato, Seij