Introduces the plant Amaryllis, which is the common name for the Hippeastrum species. Describes how to grow and bloom Amaryllis in soil using hydroponics. Introduces experiments investigating the anatomy of the bulb, growing and elongation rates, the flower, and foliage. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)
Hershey, David R.
An ongoing search for alkaloids in the Amaryllidaceae species using GC-MS resulted in the identification of two crinine-type alkaloids, aulicine (1) and 3-O-methyl-epimacowine, (2) from the indigenous Brazilian species Hippeastrum aulicum and Hippeastrum calyptratum, respectively. In addition, two alkaloids, 11-oxohaemanthamine (3) and 7-methoxy-O-methyllycorenine (4) were both isolated from H. aulicum. Furthermore, we provide here complete NMR spectroscopic data for the homolycorine analogues nerinine (5) and albomaculine (6). The absolute stereochemistry of the 5,10b-ethano bridge in the crinine variants was determined by circular dichroism and X-ray crystallographic analysis, thus presenting the first direct evidence for the presence of crinine-type alkaloids in the genus Hippeastrum. PMID:24768284
de Andrade, Jean Paulo; Guo, Ying; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Calvet, Teresa; Dutilh, Jullie; Viladomat, Francesc; Codina, Carles; Nair, Jerald J; Zuanazzi, Jose A Silveira; Bastida, Jaume
The membrane of anthocyanin containing Hippeastrum petal vacuoles was examined for protein and enzyme content after purification by equilibrium density centrifugation. Light scattering, protein, and a Mg/sup 2 +/ -dependent nucleotide specific ATPase were associated with membrane having a density of 1.08 to 1.12 grams per cubic centimeter. A small amount of acid phosphatase was also present in this region of the gradient, but this activity peaked at about 1.12 grams per cubic centimeter. A component of yeast tonoplast, ..cap alpha..-mannosidase, was not significantly present. UDP-glucose, anthocyanidin-3-O-glucosyltransferase, thought to be a cytosol enzyme in Hippeastrum, was absent from tonoplast of vacuoles isolated by osmotic shock in 0.2 molar K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/ or 0.35 molar mannitol. Vacuolar acid phosphatase was insensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetate but was 80% inhibited by 10 millimolar KF, while ATPase was inactivated by 2 millimolar ethylenediaminetetraacetate and only 50% inhibited by 10 millimolar KF,. Five major and about 9 minor polypeptides were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane protein on 5 to 30 and 6 to 16% gradient gels.
The use of anthocyanins in food products as colorants has been limited because of their instability toward alkaline pH and high temperature. This study aimed to determine color stability and mutagenicity of the anthocyanin-based pigment extract from bulb cultures of Hippeastrum (Hippeastrum reticulatum). The pigment extract retained its reddish-orange color under alkaline conditions (?pH 11) and was stable up to 6h at 95°C. The mutagenicity of the extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Hippeastrum pigment extract up to 1.25mgplate(-1) was found non-mutagenic in Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100. Chromosome aberrations were observed when human lymphocytes were treated with the extract up to 1.5mgml(-1). However, the extract up to 1.4mgml(-1) was found to exhibit relatively low or no mutagenicity in in vitro comet assays with human lymphocytes. In in vivo micronucleated reticulocyte assay, mice were treated orally with the extract up to 1gkg(-1). No significant increase of the percentage of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes compared to the negative control groups was found. Taken together, our study indicates that Hippeastrum pigment extract is potentially applicable as an additive colorant in the diet and related products. PMID:24751972
Nitteranon, Viriya; Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Vuttipongchaikij, Supachai; Sakulkoo, Jenjira; Srijakkoat, Monthira; Chokratin, Pakawieng; Harinasut, Poontariga; Suputtitada, Saowanee; Apisitwanich, Somsak
The subcellular distribution of soluble protease in anthesis-stage, anthocyanin-containing Hippeastrum cv. Dutch Red Hybrid petal protoplasts has been reevaluated and that of Triticum aestivum L. var. Red Coat leaf protoplasts determined using /sup 125/I-fibrin as a protease substrate and improved methods for protoplast and vacuole volume estimation. Results indicate that about 20% of the Hippeastrum petal-soluble protease and about 90% of the wheat leaf-soluble protease can be assigned to the vacuole. Protoplast isolation enzyme labeled with /sup 125/I has been used to assess the efficiency of removing isolation enzyme from protoplasts by repeated washing and by separation of protoplasts from debris using density centrifugation. Results of these studies suggest that protoplasts prepared by both methods retain low levels of isolation enzyme. However, when protoplasts prepared by either method were lysed with washing medium lacking osmoticum, little isolation enzyme contaminated the lysates.
Wagner, G.J.; Mulready, P.; Cutt, J.
2 Abstract: The present study was designed to study the effect of different growing media (clay, composted leaves and sand + composted leaves (1: 1 v\\/v) and fertilizer rates of mineral NPK (19: 19: 19) at 0.0, 2.5, 5 g \\/ plant and their combined effect on the vegetative growth, flowering qualities, bulbs production and chemical constituents of leaves of
A. H. El-Naggar; A. B. El-Nasharty
The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each
Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.
Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.
Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin,
Radiolysis of 124 types of herbs was studied. The majority were stable under ?-irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. Radiolytic decomposition was detected at 10 kGy for 16 types of herbs (12.9%) and at 5 kGy for 6 types (4.8%). No detectable radiolytic decomposition was found at <2 kGy. The model system study showed: 1, ?-radiolysis is different from thermohydrolysis and photolysis; 2, water adsorbed on herbs evidently affects the radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Pulse and ?-radiolysis of baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-?- D-glycoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalic-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to the attack of OH radical. The addition of fructose and glucose can inhibit the ?-radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by ?-ray, but important measure and step should be adopted. That is: 1, the herbs must exist in dry state; 2, it is preferred to make bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine and honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs; 3, the producer must pay attention to executing strictly manufacture procedure to reduce the microbiological contamination, thus subsequently lower the applied dose.
Jilan, Wu; Xujia, Zhang; Rongyao, Yuan; Yongke, He
Radiolysis of 124 types of herbs was studied. The majority were stable under ?-irradiation with absorbed dose up to 10 kGy. Radiolytic decomposition was detected at 10 kGy for 16 types of herbs (12.9%) and at 5 kGy for 6 types (4.8%). No detectable radiolytic decomposition was found at < 2 kGy. The model system study showed: 1, ?-radiolysis is different from thermohydrolysis and photolysis; 2, water adsorbed on herbs evidently affects the radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Pulse and ?-radiolysis of baicalin, 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone-?-D-glycoside, glycyrrhizin and corydalic-B showed that some new compounds were formed due to the attack of OH radical. The addition of fructose and glucose can inhibit the ?-radiolytic decomposition of herbs. Chemical clearance displays fruitful and hopeful prospect to disinfect herbs by ?-ray, but important measure and step should be adopted. That is: 1, the herbs must exist in dry state; 2, it is preferred to make bolus by mixing powdered Chinese medicine and honey, as the latter can inhibit the radiolysis of herbs; 3, the producer must pay attention to executing strictly manufacture procedure to reduce the microbiological contamination, thus subsequently lower the applied dose.
Wu, Jilan; Zhang, Xujia; Yuan, Rongyao; He, Yongke
CARACTERIZACIÓN DE UNA VARIANTE DEL VIRUS MOSAICO DEL PEPINO (CMV) ASOCIADA CON LOS SÍNTOMAS DE MOTEADO AMARILLO DE LA AZUCENA (Hippeastrum×hybridum Leopoldii) EN MÉXICO CHARACTERIZATION OF A CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV) STRAIN ASSOCIATED WITH YELLOW MOTTLE SYMPTOMS OF AMARYLLIS (Hippeastrum×hybridum Leopoldii) IN MÉXICO
A strain of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV, Cucumovirus), belonging to the subgroup CMV-Ib, was characterized as the causal agent of yellow mottle diseases in Amaryllis (Hippeastrum× hybridum Leopoldii) from commercial nurseries and home gardens in the State of México. The characterization was performed by indicator host range, morphology and size of viral particle under an electron microscope and determination of
Cleopatra Gutiérrez-Villegas; Roberto Ruiz-Medrano; Elías Piedra-Ibarra; Rodolfo De La Torre-Almaráz; Carretera México-Texcoco
Notes that the challenge for caregivers in developing intergenerational programs is to engage both groups with the materials and with each other while taking into consideration each group's needs and interests. Offers tips for planning any intergenerational activity. Explains how to plan activities using herbs, presents instructions for three
Latimer, Deborah J.
The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.
Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed. PMID:23748541
Maffè, Stefano; Paffoni, Paola; Laura Colombo, Maria; Davanzo, Franca; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Paino, Anna Maria; Franchetti Pardo, Nicolò; Bergamasco, Luca; Signorotti, Fabiana; Parravicini, Umberto
Background: Liver injury or dysfunction is considered as a serious health problem. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders are expensive and cause further damage. Hence, hepatoprotective effects of some herbal drugs have been investigated, and one of the methods to choose herbs in order to study their biological effects is to search in ancient medical texts. Avicenna who is known as the prince of physicians had collected and classified Greek, Persian and Islamic medicine in the best possible way in the book of Canon in Arabic. Objectives: Avicennas book of The Canon of Medicine was reviewed to find the hepatoprotective herbs. Patients and Methods: Three different versions of the Canon were prepared and utilized. To find scientific names of plants we took advantage of three botany references. All of the herbs were investigated on the basis of scientific data from hepatoprotective effects point of view. The searched term was hepatoprotective without narrowing and limiting. The searched databases included Cochrane library, Web of science, SID, Irandoc and IranMedex. Results: 18 plants were found. 85% of the presented species, genus or families of plants were reported to have hepatoprotective properties and in the remaining 15% there were no reports of hepatoprotective effect. Flowers and fruits were the most used part of the plants. Most of the plants had simultaneous protective effects on multiple organs but the protective effect on the liver was mostly accompanied by protective effect on the stomach (83%). The average temperament of these herbs is "hot" in the 2nd phase of the 2nd grade, and "dry" in the 3rd phase of the 2nd grade. Hepatoprotective herbs mostly prescribed as a part of hepatoprotective compound drugs formula or other formula for liver diseases are Crocus sativus, Pistacia lentiscus, and Cinnamomum spp. Conclusions: Maybe there is common mechanism for protecting both liver and stomach. Aquilaria agallocha, Aquilaria malaccensis, and Ruscus aculeatus whose hepatoprotective effects have not yet been reported are considered as good candidates for future investigations. Given that Crocus sativus, and Cinnamomum spp are used as flavors in most countries, they will be introduced for more investigation in order to produce hepatoprotective drugs.
Shamsi-Baghbanan, Hamid; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Minaei, Bagher
In 1994, a 44-year-old woman progressed from normal renal function to advanced renal failure and end-stage renal disease within 8 months. Biopsy revealed extensive interstitial fibrosis with focal lymphocytic infiltration. She received a cadaveric renal transplant in January 1996 and had an uneventful posttransplant course. As a result of a minor motor vehicle accident, the patient had received acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine for pain relief approximately 5 months before the onset of renal symptoms. After the transplant, analysis of the herbal remedies clearly indicated the presence of aristolochic acid in 2 of the 6 Chinese herbs ingested. Ingestion of aristolochic acid has been linked to a newly defined entity, Chinese herb nephropathy (CHN). This article discusses the history of CHN and its implication in the current case and in other recent similar cases and makes recommendations to avoid future problems caused by unregulated use of herbal medicines. This is the first reported case of CHN in the USA.
An isolate of hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) named HLS1-2, causing necrotic spots on leaves of spider lily, was obtained and characterized in China. The complete S RNA and M RNAs of the HLS1-2 isolate are 2724 nt and 4741 nt in length, respectively. The HLS1-2 S RNA sequence is most closely related to that of HCRV, with 99 % identity. Viral proteins encoded by the M RNA are closely related to those of tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV), polygonum ringspot virus (PolRSV) and iris yellow spot virus (IYSV). Phylogenetic trees for the four viral proteins encoded by the S and M RNAs placed HCRV-HLS1-2 in a distinct cluster with IYSV, TYRV and PolRSV and provided further support for the subdivision of tospoviruses into American and Eurasian groups. PMID:23812614
Xu, Ye; Lou, Shi-gao; Li, Xiao-lin; Zheng, Yuan-xian; Wang, Wen-cheng; Liu, Ya-ting
The radioprotective effect of the edible herbs was studied in animals. The results showed: (1) The acute death rate of animals was decreased. (2) The peripheral leukocytes were increased. (3) The valine, hydroxyproline, glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic...
Y. Jiang M. Huang G. Zhu J. Fang X. Fan
... Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals from the foods you eat. In fact, research has not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) help to manage diabetes. Still, more and more people use dietary supplements. ...
Medical benefits of herbs have been known for centuries. Many examples contain powerful active components that, if used correctly, can help in healing the living organism. These herbs can also be provided in the form of capsules and powders, as dietary supplements, and thus differ from conventional foods or food ingredients. The traditional Turkish kitchen is rich of various herbs
Dursun Esiyok; Semih Ötles; Eren Akcicek
Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are enzymes that generate cyclic AMP, which is involved in different physiological and developmental processes in a number of organisms. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a new plant adenylyl cyclases (AC) gene, designated HpAC1, from Hippeastrum x hybridum. This gene encodes a protein of 206 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 23 kD and an isoelectric point of 5.07. The predicted amino acid sequence contains all the typical features of and shows high identity with putative plant ACs. The purified, recombinant HpAC1 is able to convert ATP to cAMP. The complementation test that was performed to analyze the ability of HpAC1 to compensate for the AC deficiency in the Escherichia coli SP850 strain revealed that HpAC1 functions as an adenylyl cyclase and produces cyclic AMP. Moreover, it was shown that the transcript level of HpAC1 and cyclic AMP concentration changed during certain stress conditions. Both mechanical damage and Phoma narcissi infection lead to two sharp increases in HpAC1 mRNA levels during a 72-h test cycle. Changes in intracellular cAMP level were also observed. These results may indicate the participation of a cAMP-dependent pathway both in rapid and systemic reactions induced after disruption of symplast and apoplast continuity. PMID:24721550
Swie?awska, Brygida; Jaworski, Krzysztof; Pawe?ek, Agnieszka; Grzegorzewska, Weronika; Szewczuk, Piotr; Szmidt-Jaworska, Adriana
Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were studied by determining the peroxide values of linoleic\\u000a acid during storage at 50C. Among the herb extracts tested, 44 species showed strong antioxidant activities on the oxidation\\u000a of linoleic acid. The antioxidative effects of these 44 selected herb extracts were studied further in a methyl linoleate\\u000a system during storage for
S. Y. Kim; J. H. Kim; M. J. Oh; M. Y. Jung
Researchers at Intel Labs located on the campus of Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh are figuring out a way to take the drudgery out of house work. They are creating a robot butler named HERB that doesn't mind doing the mundane. HERB stands for Home Exploring Robotic Butler. The idea is to create a robot that can walk into a home, assess the layout and move about on its own. To do that, HERB is being designed to be smart and resourceful. With support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), researchers are programming HERB to think on its own.
As traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become more popular there have been increasing concerns about safety and potential toxicity of the Chinese materia medica (CMM) comprising plants, animal parts and minerals. The potential toxicity of many CMM is well recognised in TCM and to reduce risks use of some herbs is restricted whilst specific processing methods have been developed to modify the activities/toxicity of others. However adverse reactions have been reported, many of these are due misuse or abuse of Chinese medicine. The main problem remains products adulterated with pharmaceuticals for weight loss or erectile dysfunction. But some herbs have narrow therapeutic ranges (e.g., Aconitum species) so toxic effects are frequently reported. Toxic effects from chronic or cumulative dosing are difficult to detect in the traditional setting and recent reports have demonstrated the health problems from Aristolochia species. Despite safety concerns, Chinese medicine appears to be relatively safe with comparatively few reports of adverse reactions compared with overall drug reports. The wealth of information in the Chinese literature needs to be more widely available. As TCM is widely used by patients, improved pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology can contribute valuable safety information, relevant to clinical use. PMID:21077025
Several types of herbs and spices from the local market were irradiated with different doses of gamma radiations. Doses varied from a few kilograys to 10 kilograys. Thermoluminescence of the irradiated samples and their controls was investigated. For the same type of herb or spice glow curves of different magnitudes, corresponding somewhat to the doses given, were obtained from the
A. Mamoon; A. A. Abdul-Fattah; W. H. Abulfaraj
To determine the susceptibilities of Mycoplasma homonis (M. hominis) to Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro, 30 clinical strains of M. hominis were isolated and identified from the clinical specimen. The susceptibilities of M. hominis to 19 herbs were determined by serial dilution methods in vitro. The results showed that M. hominis was susceptible to Radix Isatidis, Radix Angelicae Dahuricae, Cortex Phellodendri, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Fructus Kochiae and Herba Houttuyniae. These findings laid a foundation in treating M. hominis infection with Chinese herbs. PMID:15974478
Che, Ya-Min; Mao, Shu-He; Jiao, Wen-Ling; Fu, Zhi-Yi
Herbs and spices containing essential oils (EOs) in the range of 0.050.1% have demonstrated activity against pathogens, such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, in food systems. Application of herbs, spices and EOs with antimicrobial effects comparable to synthetic additives is still remote for three major reasons: limited data about their effects in
M. M. Tajkarimi; S. A. Ibrahim; D. O. Cliver
A standardized mixture of Chinese herbs has recently been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for chronic atopic eczema in placebo controlled trials in the UK. Aqueous decoctions of this formulated mixture (PSE 222), the placebo mixture, and their component herbs were examined for antioxidant activity to determine whether antioxidant activity could account for the anti-eczema activity. Two measures of
Andrew J. Kirby; Richard J. Schmidt
Herbs and herbal products are considered to be safer and people mix it often with the oral hypoglycemic agent in diabetes therapy. But numerous reports say that every combination of herbs and drugs is not safe. Some combinations may be beneficial and some may be harmful also. So before taking any herbal remedies with oral hypoglycemic agent, patient should consult physician. In this paper we are summarizing the reports available on the interaction of herbal remedies to one of the oral hypoglycemic agents (glibenclamide) and categorizing the effect of the combination is beneficial and harmful.
Rai, Amita; Eapen, Cicy; Prasanth, V. G.
In India, reference to the curative properties of some herbs in the Rigveda ( though very brief) seem to be the earliest records of use of plants in medicine. Far more detailed account is available in the Atharva veda. The period of Rigveda is assumed to be between 3500-1800 B.C. After the Vedas there is no information on the development
K. P. Kochhar
Pakistan has a variety of herbs and medicinal plant resources, due to its varied ecological conditions. Large number of physicians of south Asia (locally called Hakeems and Tib-e-Unani or Ayurvedic medicines) use herbs, plant parts and extracts for treating human diseases. Source of medicinal plants are hilly areas, deserts and coastal zones of the country. Major supply of medicinal herbs
Salik Nawaz Khan; Tariq Riaz; Abdul Hannan; Irum Mukhtar
The HerbInfo list is open, unmoderated, and intended to be an all-purpose list to discuss herbs. Due to the general nature of the list, all subjects related to herbs and their uses are considered to be on topic, regardless of their level of knowledge or expertise.
large and increasing number of patients use medicinal herbs or seek the advice of their physician regarding their use. More than one third of Americans use herbs for health purposes, yet patients (and physicians) often lack accurate information about the safety and efficacy of herbal remedies. Burgeoning interest in medicinal herbs has increased scientific scrutiny of their therapeutic potential and
MaryAnn O'Hara; David Kiefer; Kim Farrell; Kathi Kemper
Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of "interacting herbs." In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:24790635
Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong
Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of interacting herbs. In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes.
Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong
Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation), Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana) and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to). The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes.
Hui, Hongxiang; Tang, George; Go, Vay Liang W
Identification, cultivation, chemistry, and uses of nine Vietnamese herbs, hitherto rare or unknown in the United States,\\u000a are discussed:Giâp Cá (Houttuynia cordata),Lá Lôt (Piper lolot), Rau R?m (Polygonum odoratum),Rau Muông (Ipomoea aquatica),Ngò Gai (Eryngium foetidum),Rau Cân (Oenanthe javanica),Cân Dây Lá (Plectranthus amboinicus),Tía Tô (Perilla frutescens), andRau Ngo (Limnophila aromatica).
K. R. Kuebel; Arthur O. Tucker
Abstract Objectives Despite popular and historical use, there has been little modern research conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of herb use during breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the clinical literature on herbal medicine and lactation. Methods The databases PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HealthSTAR, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Reprotox were systematically searched for human trials from 1970 until 2010. Reference lists from relevant articles were hand-searched. Results Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Clinical studies were divided into three categories: survey studies (n=11), safety studies (n=8), and efficacy studies (n=13). Six studies were randomized controlled trials. The most common herbs studied were St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) (n=3), garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract (n=2), and senna (Cassia senna L.) (n=2). Studies were very heterogeneous with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Overall, poor methodological quality predominated among the studies. Conclusions Our review concludes that further research is needed to assess the prevalence, efficacy, and safety of commonly used herbs during breastfeeding.
Budzynska, Katarzyna; Gardner, Zoe E.; Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Low Dog, Tieraona
Several types of herbs and spices from the local market were irradiated with different doses of ? radiations. Doses varied from a few kilograys to 10 kilograys. Thermoluminescence of the irradiated samples and their controls was investigated. For the same type of herb or spice glow curves of different magnitudes, corresponding somewhat to the doses given, were obtained from the irradiated samples. Most control samples gave little or insignificant glow. Glow curves from different herbs and spices irradiated with the same doses were not similar in the strength of the glow signal given. Samples of the black pepper obtained from different packages sometimes give glow curves of very different intensities. Samples from irradiated black pepper were found to show little fading of their glow curves even at 9 months postirradiation. All irradiations were done under the same experimental conditions and at a dose rate of approximately 1 kGy h-1. The glow curves were obtained using a heating rate of about 9°C s-1 and a constant nitrogen flow rate.
Mamoon, A.; Abdul-Fattah, A. A.; Abulfaraj, W. H.
Ripened cheese varieties containing herbs are traditional in Turkey and have been manufactured for more than 200 years in\\u000a the east and southeast of the country. They are manufactured from raw milk, semi-hard in texture and salty in taste and have\\u000a the aroma of garlic or thyme due to added herbs. Twenty-five types of herb, including Allium, Thymus, Silene and
Ali A. Hayaloglu
Herbs are often administered in combination with therapeutic drugs, raising the potential of herb-drug interactions. An extensive review of the literature identified reported herb-drug interactions with clinical significance, many of which are from case reports and limited clinical observations. Cases have been published reporting enhanced anticoagulation and bleeding when patients on long-term warfarin therapy also took Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen). Allium sativum (garlic) decreased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration of saquinavir, but not ritonavir and paracetamol (acetaminophen), in volunteers. A. sativum increased the clotting time and international normalised ratio of warfarin and caused hypoglycaemia when taken with chlorpropamide. Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) caused bleeding when combined with warfarin or aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), raised blood pressure when combined with a thiazide diuretic and even caused coma when combined with trazodone in patients. Panax ginseng (ginseng) reduced the blood concentrations of alcohol (ethanol) and warfarin, and induced mania when used concomitantly with phenelzine, but ginseng increased the efficacy of influenza vaccination. Scutellaria baicalensis (huangqin) ameliorated irinotecan-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in cancer patients.Piper methysticum (kava) increased the 'off' periods in patients with parkinsonism taking levodopa and induced a semicomatose state when given concomitantly with alprazolam. Kava enhanced the hypnotic effect of alcohol in mice, but this was not observed in humans. Silybum marianum (milk thistle) decreased the trough concentrations of indinavir in humans. Piperine from black (Piper nigrum Linn) and long (P. longum Linn) peppers increased the AUC of phenytoin, propranolol and theophylline in healthy volunteers and plasma concentrations of rifamipicin (rifampin) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Eleutheroccus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) increased the serum concentration of digoxin, but did not alter the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and alprazolam in humans. Hypericum perforatum (hypericum; St John's wort) decreased the blood concentrations of ciclosporin (cyclosporin), midazolam, tacrolimus, amitriptyline, digoxin, indinavir, warfarin, phenprocoumon and theophylline, but did not alter the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine, pravastatin, mycophenolate mofetil and dextromethorphan. Cases have been reported where decreased ciclosporin concentrations led to organ rejection. Hypericum also caused breakthrough bleeding and unplanned pregnancies when used concomitantly with oral contraceptives. It also caused serotonin syndrome when used in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. sertraline and paroxetine). In conclusion, interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs can occur and may lead to serious clinical consequences. There are other theoretical interactions indicated by preclinical data. Both pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic mechanisms have been considered to play a role in these interactions, although the underlying mechanisms for the altered drug effects and/or concentrations by concomitant herbal medicines are yet to be determined. The clinical importance of herb-drug interactions depends on many factors associated with the particular herb, drug and patient. Herbs should be appropriately labeled to alert consumers to potential interactions when concomitantly used with drugs, and to recommend a consultation with their general practitioners and other medical carers. PMID:15916450
Hu, Zeping; Yang, Xiaoxia; Ho, Paul Chi Lui; Chan, Sui Yung; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Eli; Duan, Wei; Koh, Hwee Ling; Zhou, Shufeng
Phyllanthus niruri is a well-known medicinal herb that is widely used in Asia, Africa, and South America. The characterization of two purified polysaccharides from the whole plant has been investigated. Methylation analysis and (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed the chemical structure of two xylans. A hot 15% aqueous KOH fraction yielded a linear beta-(1-->4)-linked xylan, and 2% aqueous KOH afforded a complex acidic heteroxylan, with a (1-->4)-linked beta-Xylp main chain, substituted by rhamnose, arabinose, and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid side chains. These contained nonreducing end-units of arabinose, xylose, galactose, glucose, and nonmethylated glucuronic acid. PMID:15679336
Mellinger, Caroline G; Carbonero, Elaine R; Cipriani, Thales R; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello
Since the consumption of aromatic and medicinal herbs has been increasing in the last years, the Argentinian Health Authorities are concerned to control the quality and security of them. Fungal and aflatoxin contamination are two parameters to be taken into account, to ensure the harmlessness of the phytomedicinal products. In 81 different samples, grouped in end products (EP), raw material (RM) and at harvest (SH), fungal flora (enumeration and identification) as well as naturalAspergillus flavus and aflatoxin occurrence were investigated. In all samples fungal counts fulfilled the international general recommendation limits (maximum 10(5) cfu/g). Predominant flora was made up by xerophilic species ofAspergillus(100%), byPeniciIlium (< 50%) and in less percentage byFusarium (5.6%). Among the Aspergilli, A.flavus was present in all the three groups of samples. Using a TLC method, 47% of A. flavus isolates were toxinogenic, producing aflatoxin B1 and B2. In herbs, 4.7% of RM samples were naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2. Considering the carcinogenic activity of aflatoxins it is essential to regulate them in the raw material (vegetal drug). PMID:23605060
Rizzo, I; Varsavsky, E; Vedoya, G; Haidukowski, M; Frade, H; Chiale, C
Tonifying herbs and evil expelling herbs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for chronic kidney diseases in molecular level were studied by computer aided drug design, including analysis of molecular similarity, predictive ADME simulation and predictive toxic simulation. It was found that this technology could distinguish the structure diversity of compounds from TCM, and screen the lead compounds rapidly. PMID:21355252
Zhu, Wei; Wu, Dinghong; Qiu, Xiaohui; Xu, Wen
Chinese herbs nephropathy: A clue to Balkan endemic nephropathy? Rapidly progressive interstitial renal fibrosis has recently been reported in young women who have been on a slimming regimen including Chinese herbs. We examined four nephroureterectomies performed in three patients prior to or at the time of transplantation to determine the nature and topography of the kidney and urinary tract lesions
Jean-Pierre Cosyns; Michel Jadoul; Jean-Paul Squifflet; Jean-François de Plaen; Dusan Ferluga; Charles Van Ypersele de Strihou
Herbal medicines have become a popular form of therapy. They are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. This article reviews the recent literature on the adverse effects of herbal remedies. Examples of allergic reactions, toxic reactions, adverse effects related to an herbs desired pharmacological actions, possible mutagenic effects, drug interactions, drug contamination, and mistaken plant identities are provided.
The distribution of many woodland herbs extends 1000-2000 km in a north- south direction, yet the majority of these species grow clonally, have little recruitment by seed, and possess no obvious mechanism for long-distance seed dispersal. Although aware that woodland herbs disperse poorly, ecologists have tacitly assumed that, given long periods of time, even small dispersal distances would allow woodland
Michael L. Cain; Hans Damman; Angela Muir
The bioactive elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed. These elements in their appropriate dosage range are considered to be beneficial to health. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were applied to determine the concentrations of various elements. Twenty-two Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs, resourced from the traditional high therapeutic quality areas or provinces were selected. Bioactive analysis focused on Lanthanum (La), Strontium (Sr), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se), especially in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and its associate disorders. The higher elemental concentration herbs, La in: Rhizoma Gastrodiae Elatae, Fructus Crataegi and Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae. Sr in: Radix Puerariae and Folium Ginkgo Biloba. Zn in: Flos Carthami Tinctorii and Fructus Crataegi. Se in: Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Portulaca Oleracea. The results mainly showed that Chinese herbs which are also therapeutic foods may be used as nutritional supplements for preventing and treating elemental deficiency, e.g., hyperlipidemia. More attention in this regard should be paid to herbs that contain La and are traditionally used for regulating cardiovascular disorders. The knowledge of the effects and concentrations of bioactive elements in foods and herbs could guide the selection of Chinese herbs in clinical practice in conjunction with traditional Chinese medicine theories. Further studies should also be considered in relation to Sr, Zn and blood regulating herbs, which could prove to be beneficial. PMID:19655402
Xu, Hong; Xu, Hou-En
Recommendations for intakes fo food in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating do not yet include suggested intakes of herbs and spices, although several dietary guidelines refer to their benefits. Future consideration should be given to including more explicit recommendations about the place of herbs and spices in a healthy diet
P. G. Williams
Chloroform and methanol extracts of various herbs and spices as well as food additives were screened for mutagenicity using the Salmonella\\/microsome assay of Ames and the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA98. The results of this general screening, however, did not provide sufficient information to fully assess the mutagenic potential of certain herbs and spices since the assay of their
Patricia Rockwell; Isaias Raw
The antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined. The ORAC values and total phenolic contents for the medicinal herbs ranged from 1.88 to 22.30 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh weight and 0.23 to 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight, respectively. Origanum x majoricum, O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and Poliomintha longiflora have higher ORAC and phenolic contents as compared to other culinary herbs. The ORAC values and total phenolic content for the culinary herbs ranged from 2.35 to 92.18 micromol of TE/g of fresh weight and 0.26 to 17.51 mg of GAE/g of fresh weight, respectively. These also were much higher than values found in the medicinal herbs. The medicinal herbs with the highest ORAC values were Catharanthus roseus, Thymus vulgaris, Hypericum perforatum, and Artemisia annua. A linear relationship existed between ORAC values and total phenolic contents of the medicinal herbs (R = 0.919) and culinary herbs (R = 0.986). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Among the identified phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum x majoricum, and P. longiflora, whereas quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside were predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba leaves. PMID:11714298
Zheng, W; Wang, S Y
Twenty-seven aromatic herbs, 28 spices and 48 herbal infusions and med plants were analysed for estimation of aflatoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) and a fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected, from 2000 to 2005, from markets, shops and bonded warehouse in Emilia Romagna Region, Italy. Of the 103 samples analysed only 7
B. Romagnoli; V. Menna; N. Gruppioni; C. Bergamini
Van Herby Cheese is a traditional milk product including local herb species in eastern Turkey. This special milk product was previously produced only for the local market, but industrial scale production and marketing have recently started in the region. However, some quality characteristics such as microbial flora and heavy metal concentrations of this novel product need to be investigated. In this study, lead concentrations of 28 different herbs mostly used in Van Herby Cheese were analyzed by AAS. The highest lead concentration of 1.69 mg kg(-1) of the analyzed herbs was found in Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subsp. longifolia. PMID:22164786
Tuncturk, Murat; Tuncturk, Ruveyde; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Ertus, Mehmet M; Ozgokce, Fevzi
Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs
Kulkarni, Reena; Girish, K. J.; Kumar, Abhimanyu
Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs. PMID:23055641
Kulkarni, Reena; Girish, K J; Kumar, Abhimanyu
Anethum graveolens L. (dill) has been used in ayurvedic medicines since ancient times and it is a popular herb widely used as a spice and also yields essential oil. It is an aromatic and annual herb of apiaceae family. The Ayurvedic uses of dill seeds are carminative, stomachic and diuretic. There are various volatile components of dill seeds and herb; carvone being the predominant odorant of dill seed and ?-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, myristicin are the most important odorants of dill herb. Other compounds isolated from seeds are coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and steroids. The main purpose of this review is to understand the significance of Anethum graveolens in ayurvedic medicines and non-medicinal purposes and emphasis can also be given to the enhancement of secondary metabolites of this medicinal plant.
Jana, S.; Shekhawat, G. S.
Kacangma (Leonurus sibiricus L.) is a popular traditional herb that has been consumed for decades by the people of Sarawak as a herbal medicine or culinary ingredient. The toxicity of dried kacangma herb on Sprague Dawley male and female rats was evaluated through 90-day sub-chronic studies. The rats were fed kacangma at the rate of 0.5 (low dose), 5 (medium
CHUA HUN PIN; AMINAH ABDULLAH; M. MURUGAIYAH
The antioxidative and superoxide- and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities and pro-oxidant effect of twelve selected medicinal herbs were studied. The aqueous extracts of Coptis chinensis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Prunella vulgaris and Senecio scandens exhibited the highest potency in inhibiting rat erythrocyte hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in rat kidney and brain homogenates. The aforementioned four herbs also demonstrated strong superoxide- and hydroxyl radical-scavenging
F. Liu; T. B. Ng
Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences.
Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.
Historically, herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases worldwide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for multiple health benefits related to these food items, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antitumorigenic properties of herbs and spices; their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation; and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill consequences. PMID:18499033
Kaefer, Christine M; Milner, John A
The root extracts of a Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has been used as internal medicine to improve liver and kidney functions for centuries. The antimutagenic property of this drug was evaluated with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay in this study. The Trad-MCN bioassay is a well-established test for chromosome damage induced by physical or chemical agents in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequency. Inflorescences of the Tradescantia plant cuttings were first exposed to 35 R soft X-rays (80 Kv, 5 ma, 1 mm Al filter, dose rate around 50 R/min) and followed by drug treatments at 1%, 3% and 6% concentrations of the aqueous solution for a total of 24 hr recovery period. The positive (X-rays), negative (nutrient solution) and drug control (3% drug solution) groups were maintained in each of the three series of repeated experiments. Flower buds of the treated and control groups were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 ratio) for preparation of slides to score MCN frequencies in the early tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells. The mean MCN frequencies (MCN/100 tetrads + SD) of the positive control (X-irradiated) was 26.67 + 9.62; the negative control was 2.92 + 1.90; the drug control was 2.06 + 1.50 and the 35 R X-ray/6% drug treated was 18.75 + 6.54. A 30% reduction of chromosome damage was observed. Antimutagenic effects were relatively lower at lower concentrations. This antimutagenic effect could be the results of the meiotic inhibition, DNA repair or radical elimination from the X-irradiation plant cells.
Hongen Zhang; Te-Hsiu Ma; Byeong-Seon Jeong; Chang-Deok Won [Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong (China)
Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204
Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T
Interest exists in the manufacture of meat products with added functional ingredients to enhance consumer health. Because experimental evidence suggests that many herbs and spices, particularly those of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis L. (sage) and Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), possess a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, they represent promising functional ingredients for incorporation into meat and meat products. The present study aimed to determine the bioactivity of cooked beef patties that were enriched with or without sage or oregano extracts (1,200 microg/g). Cooked beef patties were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure, and the resulting micelles isolated from the digested meats were added to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The antioxidant potential (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] value) of enriched beef patties was significantly higher than the FRAP value of non-enriched beef patties, both before and after in vitro digestion. Cell viability significantly increased following treatment with certain concentrations of the micelle fractions from digested sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties. Pretreatment with micelles derived from sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties did not significantly protect against cell injury or DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2). However, micelles derived from digested sage-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content. In addition, micelles derived from both sage- and oregano-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly protected against H(2)O(2)-induced GSH depletion. Thus, it appears that sage and oregano exhibit some bioactivity within a meat system. Our findings suggest that herbal extracts have potential as possible functional ingredients in meat products. PMID:19735192
Ryan, Eileen; Aherne, S Aisling; O'Grady, Michael N; McGovern, Laura; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Brien, Nora M
Spices and herbs are extensively used in indigenous diets in tropical regions where prevalence of iron deficiency is still high. They are rich in polyphenolic compounds that are expected to inhibit iron absorption by forming iron complexes in the intestine, making dietary iron less available for absorption. The effects of six spices and herbs (chili pepper, garlic, 'Pak kyheng' (Thai leafy vegetable), shallot, tamarind, turmeric) and one mixture of spices (curry paste) on iron availability were determined by measuring the percentage dialyzable iron after addition of spices and herbs to a rice meal after simulated digestion. All tested spices and herbs contained from 0.5 to 33 mg polyphenol per meal and were potent inhibitors of iron availability (20-90%), reducing iron availability in a dose-dependent manner--with the exception of tamarind, which at 11 mg polyphenol per meal enhanced iron availability. Our findings demonstrate that culinary spices and herbs can play an important role in iron nutrition. PMID:18651292
Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Zeder, Christophe; Siriprapa, Pudsadee; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri
A group of 150 people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs were examined. As a reference group, 50 urban dwellers, not exposed to any kind of organic dust were examined. People were subjected to routine physical examination and to lung function examinations with the LUNGTEST 500 spirometer (MES, Kraków, Poland). The spirometric values of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV (1)), vital capacity (VC) and FEV(1)/VC were recorded before and after work. Physical chest examination revealed pathological crepitations in 10 people (6.7 %). The mean baseline spirometric values in the study and reference groups did not show significant differences compared to the normal values. In the herb workers exposed to organic dust the post-shift decrease of all analysed spirometric values was noted. The post-shift decrease of some spirometric values (VC, VC % of normal values) was highly significant (p < 0.01). There was evidenced of a significant positive correlation between the age of examined people and decrease of VC and FEV(1) values. In 12 exposed workers the decrease of FEV(1) or FEV(1) % of normal values higher than 15 % was noted. 50 % of these workers cultivated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This may suggest that dust from herbs, especially thyme dust, may cause acute airway obstruction. In the group showing significant decrease of FEV(1)/FEV(1) % of normal values ( > 15 %) the frequency of reported respiratory work-related symptoms (83.3 %) was higher than in the rest of exposed group (61.5 %). In conclusion, occupational exposure to dust from herbs may cause harmful effects on the respiratory system among herb processing workers. This indicates the need for use of prophylactic measures in this professional group, the more so as number of people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs is growing. PMID:16028858
Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czes?awa; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Góra, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek
Introduction Little is known about herb use among underserved postpartum women and their patterns of communication about herb use with prenatal providers. Methods We interviewed women from the postpartum unit at an urban hospital about herb use during pregnancy, socioeconomic factors, prenatal vitamin use, and diet. We asked women if they discussed use of herbs and vitamins with their prenatal care provider, and their satisfaction with these discussions. We reviewed inpatient chart medication lists for herb use. Results Of 160 women surveyed, 39% reported using herbs during pregnancy. Sixty five percent of subjects took a prenatal vitamin. Fifty-seven percent of herb users (n=40) reported taking prenatal vitamins. Herb users were significantly more likely to report making any dietary change during their pregnancy than non-herb users (P=0.03). Only 38% of herb users discussed it with their prenatal provider and 82% were satisfied with the conversation. Of all 160 subjects, 125 had prenatal vitamin use documented and no women had herbal medicine use documented in the medical record during their delivery hospitalization. Discussion We report a higher frequency of herb use during pregnancy than other studies. The fact that women of all backgrounds and economic status report using herbs during pregnancy makes it even more important for all women to be asked about their use of herbs.
Gardiner, Paula; Jarrett, Kelli; Filippelli, Amanda; Pecci, Christine; Mauch, Maya; Jack, Brian
Evaluation of herbs for antifertility effects has been in progress worldwide for several decades to identify effective and safe substances for control of population explosion. Inspite of availability of internationally accepted guidelines for the assessment of reproductive toxicity/antifertility potential of test substances, many published articles, on critical review, seem to lack reproducibility and are thus likely to mislead both the scientific community and the general public. This paper, while emphasizing the importance of generating authentic toxicity/safety information on acclaimed medicinal herbs, spells out existing pitfalls in such studies, and explores some control measures worth considering in times to come.
Agarwal, Amit; Allan, Joshua J.
This work presents design and optimization of a cylindrical photovoltaic dryer with dual packed beds thermal energy storage for drying medical herb. The dryer is provided with electrical heater where the electrical energy is generated by using photovoltaic system. The electrical heater is designed and sized to realize continuouse drying (day and night) to minimize the drying time. Two packed
ZEEVAB S. ABDEL-REHIM; FATEN H. FAHMY
Mucuna collettii Lace is a Thai herb with a long record of consumption among mature Thai males for the promotion of sexual potency. The mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials of Mucuna collettii extract were carried out by using the Ames test pre-incubation method in the presence and absence of S9 mixture. Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98 and TA 100 were applied
Wichai Cherdshewasart; Wandee Sutjit; Kade Pulcharoen; Rattana Panriansaen; Malyn Chulasiri
Among members of the family Muridae, the herb-field mouse, Apodemus microps, is unique in that aggression is almost entirely lacking. This species, therefore, is a model organism for experimental studies of social behavior without the confounding influence of aggression. We used video surveillance cameras to assess the importance of self-grooming and allogrooming in the social life of this species. Detailed
Pavel Stopka; Romana Graciasova
For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw
Paula M. Koseki; Anna Lúcia C. H. Villavicencio; Mônica S. Brito; Ligia C. Nahme; Kátia I. Sebastião; Paulo R. Rela; Ligia B. Almeida-Muradian; Jorge Mancini-Filho; Paulo C. D. Freitas
Competition and herbivory are two of the main forces shaping plant communities. Although several studies have investigated their impact on plant populations separately, few investigations have examined how they might interact. With the purpose of clarifying the combined roles of competition and herbivory on herb biomass in a grassland, we assessed the effects of different herbivores with reduced grass competition.
Ek del-Val; Michael J. Crawley
For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total ?-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.
Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.
Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many
Divya Singh; Rajiv Gupta; Shubhini A. Saraf
Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many
Divya Singh; Rajiv Gupta; Shubhini A. Saraf
Dietary supplement use has increased exponentially in recent years despite the lack of regulatory oversight and in the face of growing safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the public health implications and safety concerns associated with dietary supplement use, especially by cancer patients. Botanical research is actively pursued at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Integrative Medicine department. Work of the MSKCC Center for the Study of Botanical Immunomodulators is described, and guidelines for cancer patients use of dietary supplements outlined. Herbs and other botanicals are complex, physiologically active agents, but little is known about most of the popular, widely available dietary supplements. Herb-drug interactions, a major concern, are exacerbated in the cancer setting. Biologically active agents may interfere with chemotherapy and other prescription medications. They may exert anti-coagulant activity at rather inconvenient times such as during surgery, and create other serious problems. Research on the bioavailability, effective dosage, safety and benefits of these complex agents is sorely needed. Oncology professionals and other healthcare providers should educate themselves and their patients about these issues. Probably the largest, continuously-updated free information resource is MSKCCs AboutHerbs website (www.mskcc.org/AboutHerbs).
Cassileth, Barrie R.; Heitzer, Marjet; Wesa, Kathleen
Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the
S. Chopra; M. M. Narayanan; R. Joshi; S. Gargari; D. Kanjilal; S. K. Datta; G. K. Mehta
Historically, herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases worldwide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for multiple health benefits related to these food items, including a reduction in cancer risk and
Christine M. Kaefer; John A. Milner
The ecological literature on eastern forest-floor herbs and data collected in the southern Appalachians in Tennessee and North Carolina suggest five possible ecological mechanisms for reducing or limiting alpha diversity of vernal herbs in logged stands, three of which may also account for the slow recovery of some herbaceous species: (1) logging reduces populations of rarer herbs; (2) populations of
ALBERT J. MEIER; DAVID CAMERON DUFFY
Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of
Hui Liao; Linda K. Banbury; David N. Leach
Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of
Hui Liao; Linda K. Banbury; David N. Leach
This study analyzes the role of traditional and commercial herbs in older adults health self-management based on Leventhals Self-Regulatory Model conceptual framework. Sixty-two African American and white adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing the forms of herbs currently being used, sources of information about them, interpretations of health (acute symptoms or chronic conditions) that lead to their use, and the initiation and suspension of use. Traditional herbs are native to the region or have been traditionally cultivated; usually taken raw or boiled to produce tea; and used for treating mild symptoms. Commercial herbs are prepared as pills, extracts, or teas; they are purchased at local stores or ordered by catalog or internet; and used for health promotion, illness prevention or treatment of chronic conditions. Herbs are widely used among older adults; this analysis differentiates the types of herbs they use and their reasons for herbs use.
Altizer, Kathryn; Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bell, Ronny A.; Sandberg, Joanne; Arcury, Thomas A.
Aims The aim of this systematic review was to assess the published clinical evidence on interactions between herbal and conventional drugs. Methods Four electronic databases were searched for case reports, case series or clinical trials of such interactions. The data were extracted and validated using a scoring system for interaction probability. Results One hundred and eight cases of suspected interactions were found. 68.5% were classified as unable to be evaluated, 13% as well-documented and 18.5% as possible interactions. Warfarin was the most common drug (18 cases) and St John's wort the most common herb (54 cases) involved. Conclusion Herbdrug interactions undoubtedly do occur and may put individuals at risk. However our present knowledge is incomplete and more research is urgently needed.
Fugh-Berman, Adriane; Ernst, E
Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH)-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA). We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.
In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.
In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476
Tan, Wen; Lu, Jinjian; Huang, Mingqing; Li, Yingbo; Chen, Meiwan; Wu, Guosheng; Gong, Jian; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Xu, Zengtao; Dang, Yuanye; Guo, Jiajie; Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Yitao
The occurrence of the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in common medicinal herbs and plant extracts was examined. The aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of the fungal strains Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The method involves the implementation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) together with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 are determined as their bromine derivatives, produced in an
Klaus Reif; Wolfgang Metzger
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linné) herbs can be dried at about 50°C reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the DeanStark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12%
Derrick A Balladin; Oliver Headley
A total of 60 Chinese medicinal herbs were examined for contamination of the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (ENNs) A, A1, B, B1 and beauvericin (BEA). The herbs under study are commonly used in China as both medicines and food. The dried samples of herbs were randomly collected from traditional Chinese medicine stores in Zhejiang province, China. Sample preparation was achieved by methanol extraction, followed by a simple membrane filtration step; no tedious clean-ups were involved. ENNs A, A1, B, B1 and BEA were analysed by the recently developed stable isotope dilution assays, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With limits of detection ranging between 0.8 and 1.2 µg kg(-1) for the analytes under study, 25% of all analysed samples were contaminated with at least one of the ENNs and BEA. BEA was the most frequently detected toxin with a 20% incidence in all samples. The percentages of ENN-positive samples were lower: each single ENN was detected in 6.7-11.7% of all samples. Considering the total amounts of the five mycotoxins in single samples, values between 2.5 and 751 µg kg(-1) were found. The mean total amount in positive samples was 126 µg kg(-1). Regarding ginger, the frequent occurrence of ENNs and BEA in dried ginger could be confirmed in samples from Germany. However, in fresh ginger root the toxins were not detectable. This is the first report on the presence of ENNs and BEA in Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24720681
Hu, Ling; Rychlik, Michael
Changes in species richness, turnover, composition and above-ground biomass of herb-rich woodland were documented following\\u000a fertilizer application and water addition over three growing seasons. Addition of fertilizer significantly reduced species\\u000a richness relative to unmanipulated control and water addition plots after 3 years. This change coincided with significant\\u000a increases in biomass, which were largely due to increased growth of exotic annual grasses.
J. N. Price; J. W. Morgan
Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A sclerojuglonic compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.
Korac, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.
\\u000a 1. In vitro and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a potential link between chronic inflammation and cancer. Herbs\\u000a and spices intake, especially in therapeutic dosages, may help decrease inflammation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. Important mechanisms in cancer prevention include attenuation of free radical formation, removal of radicals before damage\\u000a occurs, repair of oxidative damage, elimination of damaged molecules, and the prevention of mutations. Many
Guy H. Johnson; Lyssa Balick
The visual effects of oven- and freeze-drying on Echinacea purpurea herb were assessed by image analysis. Aerial parts of full-bloom plants were chopped by hand and randomly allocated to four drying conditions: freeze-drying and oven-drying at 40, 60, and 80°C. Significant differences in various physical traits of the ligulate flowers (level of red, green, blue and gray colors) and the
E. A. Brovelli; Y. Li; K. Chui
Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant. PMID:23564584
Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mingzhu
During our survey of herbs looking for activity on bone metabolism, we found that the dried leaves of sage strongly inhibit bone resorption. Therefore, we investigated several common herbs rich in essential oils (sage, rosemary, and thyme) and essential oils extracted from these herbs and other plants (oils of sage, rosemary, juniper, pine, dwarf pine, turpentine, and eucalyptus) as well as their monoterpene components (thujone, eucalyptol, camphor, borneol, thymol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, bornylacetate as well as menthol) and found that they inhibit bone resorption when added to the food of rats. Pine oil, used as a representative essential oil, protects an osteoporosis model, the aged ovariectomized rat, from bone loss. The monoterpenes borneol, thymol, and camphor are directly inhibitory in the osteoclast resorption pit assay. Nonpolar monoterpenes may require metabolism to be active in vitro, for example, cis-verbenol, a metabolite of alpha-pinene occurring in human urine, inhibits osteoclast activity in contrast to the parent compound. Within 30 min borneol inhibits the formation of actin rings, a characteristic of resorbing osteoclasts indicating cell polarization. Both the in vitro and the in vivo effects of borneol are reversible. Our study demonstrates for the first time that essential oils and monoterpenes are efficient inhibitors of bone resorption in the rat. PMID:12689680
Mühlbauer, R C; Lozano, A; Palacio, S; Reinli, A; Felix, R
The antimicrobial effects of spices and herbs from 18 plant species were examined on a foodborne pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, with the use of combinations of temperatures and nutrient levels. Basil, clove, garlic, horseradish, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, and thyme exhibited antibacterial activities at incubation of 30 degrees C, while with the exception of horseradish, the same spices and additional 7 species exhibited the activities at 5 degrees C. The lowest MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 0.125% observed in clove and marjoram at 30 degrees C in a nutrient rich medium. Lowering of incubation temperature produced little effect on the MICs except for turmeric. The decreasing of the MIC in turmeric appeared to be basically attributed to the sensitivity of the bacterium to coldness. In nutrient poor medium, the lowest was 0.001 and 0.00025% in marjoram at 30 degrees C and at 5 degrees C, respectively. The sensitivity to several spices and herbs was similar among different clinical serotypes including the emerging strain O3:K6. These results suggest that the spices and herbs can be practical for protecting seafood from the risk of contamination by V. parahaemolyticus and used in hurdle technology with low temperature. PMID:16797760
Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka; Oikawa, Hiroshi
This report describes in detail an inter-laboratory test to detect the irradiation of spices, herbs and spice-and-herb mixtures in the dose range used for reduction of the number of contaminating microorganisms. Approx. 3 months and 9 months after irradia...
G. A. Schreiber U. Wagner A. Leffke N. Helle J. Ammon
Increased use of complementary and alternative herbal medicines in the treatment of various diseases.Some herbal therapies may be causes of potential toxicity that may be renal toxicity caused by the ingestion of herbs. The goal of this study is the toxic and beneficial effects of medicinal herbs on renal health by which evidence for benefit or toxicity has been found. Included are nephrotoxicity from aristolochic acid and other components within herbs, herb-drug interactions, heavy metal toxicity in herbs and adulterants during careless preparation of herbal medicine, resulting in adverse renal effects and renal toxicity from contaminants within the extracts. The review aims to provide knowledge and guide to encourage future toxicity studies on the kidney by medicinal herbs.
Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs.
Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep
Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53??g/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5??g/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5??g/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs. PMID:23766719
Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep
The aqueous and methanol extracts of twenty herbs traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for anti-HIV-1 integrase activity in a non-radioactive ELISA-based HIV-1 integrase assay. The screening was performed at an herb extract concentration of 50 ?g\\/ml. It was found that most of the aqueous and methanol herb extracts could elicit strong inhibition of HIV-1 integrase activity. The inhibition
T. K. Au; T. L. Lam; T. B. Ng; W. P. Fong; D. C. C. Wan
Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm), flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood). These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 401990 µmol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 µmol TE/g), Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 µmol TE/g), Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 µmol TE/g), Artemisia anomala herb (1400 µmol TE/g), Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 µmol TE/g) and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 µmol TE/g). Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action.
Banbury, Linda K.; Leach, David N.
This work was performed to determine the incidence of toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins on 152 dried medicinal and aromatic herbs, belonging to 56 species, which are used as raw material for drugs. International methodologies for fungal enumeration and identification were applied as well as TLC and HPLC techniques for toxins detection. The 52% out of 152 samples were contaminated with species from Aspergillus genus, 27% belonging to the Flavi section and 25% to the Circumdati section. The 16% of the total samples was contaminated with species from Fusarium genus. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus (Flavi section), were the predominant species isolated, 50% out of 40 isolates were toxigenic. Aflatoxin concentrations ranged from 10 to 2000 ng/g. Only 26% of isolates from the Circumdati section (A. alliaceus, A. ochraceus and A. sclerotiorum) produced ochratoxin A in low concentrations between 0.12 and 9 ng/g. From a total of 29 strains of Fusarium spp., 27.5% were Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, which produced fumonisin Bland fumonisin B2 ranged from 20 to 22000 microg/g and from 5 to 3000 microg/g respectively. The remaining species, F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. compactum, F. sombucinum and F. solani were able to produce neither group A and B trichothecenes nor zearalenone. The incidence of A. ochraceus and Fusarium spp. and their toxigenic capacities on medicinal herbs were studied for the first time in Argentina. It would be important to look for natural contamination to define acceptability Limits which allow the control of sanitary quality of medicinal herbs used as phytotherapic medicines in several countries. PMID:15293944
Rizzo, Inés; Vedoya, Gabriela; Maurutto, Silvio; Haidukowski, Miriam; Varsavsky, Edith
In the present study we evaluated the free radical scavenging action of some medicinal herbs growing in Mongolia. The aqueous extract of nine herbs Chamenerion angustifolium (Ch.ang), Equisetum arvense (Eq.arv), Gentiana decumbens (Gn.dec), Geranium pratense (Gr.pra), Lomatogonium carinthiacum (L.car), Nonea poulla (N.pl), Phodococcum vitis-idaea (Ph.v), Sphallerocarpus gracilis (Sph.gr), Stellera chamaejasme (St.cha) were used in the present experiment. The free radical scavenging action was determined in vitro and ex vivo by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and chemiluminescence (CL) analyzer. The results showed that extracts of Ch.ang, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v, Sph.gr and St. cha possess strong scavenging action of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. On the other hand, the radical scavenging action of Eq.arv was low. Extracts of N.pl and Ph.v markedly inhibited the CL generated from rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 system whereas the CL was moderately inhibited by Eq.arv, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car and St.cha. The extracts of Ch.ang and Sph.gr did not decrease the CL generation. Ch.ang, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v and St.cha also depressed reactive oxygen production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate ex vivo. Thus it was confirmed that the medicinal herbs from Mongolia possess high antioxidant potency in vitro and ex vivo. PMID:11185733
Myagmar, B E; Aniya, Y
Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro. Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of bacterial activity and VSC inhibition. Extracted substances from Chinese herbs were identified by VSC inhibition tests with a Halimeter and microbial sensitivity testing. The effectiveness on halitosis was compared between a dentifrice containing one of the effective Chinese herbs (ie, chrysanthemum flower [Chrysanthemum morifolium flos]), 4 commercially available antihalitosis dentifrices, and a positive control that received no treatment. Results: Ten volunteers provided saliva samples for VSC testing. Of the 40 herbs tested, 14 extracts had percent inhibition rates of VSCs >50%. Ten herbs showed greatest effect against all culturable microorganisms with bacterial inhibition >70%. There was a weak positive correlation between bacteriostasis and the anti-VSC activity of the herbs with a correlation coefficient of 0.2579 (Pearson). The mean (SD) values of the VSC testing were as follows: dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower, 55.91 (8.16) ppb; Crest Tea Refreshing Dentifrice®, 48.39 (7.48) ppb (P = NS); Cortex Phellodendri Dentifrice®, 139.90 (14.70) ppb (P < 0.01); Colgate Total Plus Whitening®, 120.94 (15.58) ppb (P < 0.01); Zhong Hua Chinese Herbs Dentifrice®, 136.96 (13.06) ppb (P < 0.01); and positive control, 312.38 (28.58) ppb (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Of 40 herbs tested, 14 Chinese herbs were found to be effective for VSC inhibition. A dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower reduced the formation of VSC in vitro, showing a significantly greater effect than the control group and 3 of 4 dentifrices already on the market.
Li, Ming-yu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Zhu-ting
Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro. Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of bacterial activity and VSC inhibition. Extracted substances from Chinese herbs were identified by VSC inhibition tests with a Halimeter and microbial sensitivity testing. The effectiveness on halitosis was compared between a dentifrice containing one of the effective Chinese herbs (ie, chrysanthemum flower [Chrysanthemum morifolium flos]), 4 commercially available antihalitosis dentifrices, and a positive control that received no treatment. Results: Ten volunteers provided saliva samples for VSC testing. Of the 40 herbs tested, 14 extracts had percent inhibition rates of VSCs >50%. Ten herbs showed greatest effect against all culturable microorganisms with bacterial inhibition >70%. There was a weak positive correlation between bacteriostasis and the anti-VSC activity of the herbs with a correlation coefficient of 0.2579 (Pearson). The mean (SD) values of the VSC testing were as follows: dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower, 55.91 (8.16) ppb; Crest Tea Refreshing Dentifrice®, 48.39 (7.48) ppb (P = NS); Cortex Phellodendri Dentifrice®, 139.90 (14.70) ppb (P < 0.01); Colgate Total Plus Whitening®, 120.94 (15.58) ppb (P < 0.01); Zhong Hua Chinese Herbs Dentifrice®, 136.96 (13.06) ppb (P < 0.01); and positive control, 312.38 (28.58) ppb (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Of 40 herbs tested, 14 Chinese herbs were found to be effective for VSC inhibition. A dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower reduced the formation of VSC in vitro, showing a significantly greater effect than the control group and 3 of 4 dentifrices already on the market. PMID:24683259
Li, Ming-Yu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Zhu-Ting
Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are widely available in the United Kingdom for the treatment of chronic skin disorders. Their benefits are considerable, but their use is completely unregulated. Two patients are described here who suffered an acute hepatitic illness related to taking traditional Chinese herbs. Both recovered fully. The mixtures that they took included two plant components also contained within the mixture taken by a previously reported patient who suffered fatal hepatic necrosis. These cases high-light the need for greater awareness of both the therapeutic and toxic potential of herbal remedies, as well as greater control of their use.
Kane, J A; Kane, S P; Jain, S
Ray Herb's career in the development of electrostatic accelerators spans 65 years. He began in 1933 by pressurizing a Van de Graaff generator, for the first time. Over the next six years, the group at the University of Wisconsin, under his direction, developed the fundamentals of equipotential rings, potential grading, corona triode control, and other basic mechanisms for the practical use of electrostatic accelerators while making fundamental contributions to experimental nuclear physics. This group held the world's record in sustaining potential difference of 4.5 MV. During World War II, he worked on radar at the Radiation Laboratory. After the war, Herb resumed his career with further fundamental contributions including metal/ceramic bonding, ultrahigh vacuum pumping, negative ion source development and metal charge carriers. The company, National Electrostatics, under his direction manufactured the accelerator which still holds the world's record for the highest sustained potential difference of 32+/-1.5 MV. Throughout his career he led teams which made the electrostatic accelerator a valuable tool for applications in a wide variety of scientific fields, well beyond nuclear physics.
Norton, G. A.; Ferry, J. A.; Daniel, R. E.; Klody, G. M.
A series of caffeic acid derivatives (3,5-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid), and the new compound beta,3,4-trihydroxyphenethyl-O-[beta-apiofuranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha- rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-(4-O-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranoside (wedelosin), as well as three known flavonoid glycosides (quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-apiosyl-(1-2)-beta-glucoside, and astragalin or kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucoside) were isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Wedelia chinensis. Wedelosin showed an inhibitory activity on both the classical and the alternative activation pathway of the complement system. Another Chinese medicinal herb, Kyllinga brevifolia, yielded two known flavonoid glycosides [kaempferol 3-O-beta-apiosyl-(1-2)-beta-glucoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-apiosyl-(1-2)-beta-glucoside], and a new quercetin triglycoside [quercetin 3-O-beta-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside 7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside]. The latter compound showed a moderate anti-viral activity. PMID:12184172
Apers, Sandra; Huang, Ying; Van Miert, Sabine; Dommisse, Roger; Berghe, Dirk Vanden; Pieters, Luc; Vlietinck, Arnold
Meridians, acupoints, and Chinese herbs are important components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). They have been used for disease treatment and prevention and as alternative and complementary therapies. Systems biology integrates omics data, such as transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolomics data, in order to obtain a more global and complete picture of biological activity. To further understand the existence and functions of the three components above, we reviewed relevant research in the systems biology literature and found many recent studies that indicate the value of acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Acupuncture is useful in pain moderation and relieves various symptoms arising from acute spinal cord injury and acute ischemic stroke. Moreover, Chinese herbal extracts have been linked to wound repair, the alleviation of postmenopausal osteoporosis severity, and anti-tumor effects, among others. Different acupoints, variations in treatment duration, and herbal extracts can be used to alleviate various symptoms and conditions and to regulate biological pathways by altering gene and protein expression. Our paper demonstrates how systems biology has helped to establish a platform for investigating the efficacy of TCM in treating different diseases and improving treatment strategies.
Lin, Li-Ling; Wang, Ya-Hui; Lai, Chi-Yu; Chau, Chan-Lao; Su, Guan-Chin; Yang, Chun-Yi; Lou, Shu-Ying; Chen, Szu-Kai; Hsu, Kuan-Hao; Lai, Yen-Ling; Wu, Wei-Ming; Huang, Jian-Long; Liao, Chih-Hsin; Juan, Hsueh-Fen
We studied the occurrence of 22 plant functional groups and the distribution patterns of 12 forest herbs in four clear-felled areas of different ages, and across ecotones between the forest and clearcuts in a 4383ha beech forest in central Belgium. The main goal was to improve our knowledge on the clearcut harvesting system and its possible influence on herb vegetation.
Sandrine Godefroid; Sonja Rucquoij; Nico Koedam
The essential oils of the fresh and dried herb Melissa officinalis L., grown in Egypt were subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 60 constituents separated, 21 were identified. The oil consisted mainly of geranial, neral, citronellal, caryophyllene oxide, ?-caryophyllene and geraniol. Drying the herb prior to distillation did not change the qualitative composition of the oil, but the relative amount
A. S. Shabby; S. El-Gengaihi; M. Khattab
More and more attention in the field of drug discovery has been focused on the neuroprotection of natural compounds from traditional medicinal herbs. Cerebral ischemia is a complex pathological process involving a series of mechanisms, and a framework for the development of neuroprotectants from traditional herb medicine is a promising treatment for cerebral ischemia. Natural compounds with the effects of
Peng-fei Wu; Zui Zhang; Fang Wang; Jian-guo Chen
Effect of aqueous extract of several herbs on human platelet aggregation in vitro was investigated. Out of 28 herbs\\/ nutriceuticals investigated, camomile, nettle alfalfa, garlic and onion exhibited most significant anti-platelet activity (? 45% inhibition). Aqueous extracts of alfalfa, fresh nettle, and camomile inhibited ADP induced-platelet aggregation by 73, 65 and 60%, respectively, compared with control (P < 0.05). Camomile
Saulnier Pierre; Lynn Crosbie; Asim K. Duttaroy
A new renal disease called Chinese-herb nephropathy (CHN) has been reported to occur in women who have ingested slimming pills containing powdered extracts of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra (ST). Moderate to end-stage renal disease developed, requiring renal replacement therapy by dialysis or transplantation. Phytochemical analyses of the pills revealed the presence of aristolochic acids (AA) instead of tetrandrine, suggesting
J. L Nortier; J. L Vanherweghem
The component of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can be influenced by soils, climates, and growth stages. The quality of TCM mostly depends on the quality of the raw materials of the used herbs. A portable instrument and simple analysis method are urgently needed to be used for quality control of the raw herbs. In this study, analytical CCC (Model
Xiao Wang; Jianhua Liu; Tianyou Zhang; Yoichiro Ito
Chronic aristolochic acid toxicity in rabbits: A model of Chinese herbs nephropathy?BackgroundChinese herbs nephropathy (CHN) is a new type of subacute interstitial nephritis that is attributed to aristolochic acid (AA), which inadvertently has been included in slimming pills. The contribution of other simultaneously prescribed drugs remains disputed. In the present study, the effects of a chronic intake of AA given
Jean-Pierre Cosyns; Jean-Paul Dehoux; Yves Guiot; Rose-Marie Goebbels; Annie Robert; Alfred M. Bernard; Charles Van Ypersele De Strihou
How to apply rapid and effective method to research medicinal herbs, the representative of complicated mixture system, is the current study focus for analysts. The functions of non-processed and processed medicinal herbs are greatly different, so controlling the processing procedure is highly important for guarantee of the curative effect. Almost, the conventional criteria of processing are based on personal sensory
Lu Yu; Su-Qin Sun; Ke-Feng Fan; Qun Zhou; Isao Noda
The effects of different propagation methods, mulching and nitrogen fertilization on the herb yield and volatile oil content and composition of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) were studied in order to find the optimal cultivation techniques for Finnish conditions. Transplants gave a higher herb yield than sown plants, and an oil richer in geranyl acetate. Mulching had no effect on the
B. Galambosi; Y. Holm; R. Hiltunen
Creation of permanent, semi-natural strips may contribute to increased plant diversity in agricultural areas if they function as habitats for new species. Non-fertilized strips that were ploughed and either unsown or sown with a grass and meadow herb seed mixture were created in a grass crop field, in order to test the establishment of several meadow herb species, to investigate
The wavelet fractal features of fingerprint of medicinal herbs based on wavelet transform has anti-jamming property against the change of sample concentration. However, the recognition rate based on wavelet fractal features is not satisfied when fingerprint of medicinal herbs has some slight changes of concentrations, the number of peak and peak drift of sample are processed in specially situation. In
Jianwei Du; Zhichun Mu; Zhengguang Xu; YuanYan Tang; Limin Cui
This study searched for biological and agricultural bases necessary in formulating suppressive measures of herbaceous mites occurring on perennial herbs in Korea. Of those tetranychids, the tea red spider mite (TRSM), Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida, mainly attacked the perennials and was believed to be of economic importance. Its annual abundances on 3 different herbs are presented and for Codonopsis lanceolata various
Tae-Heung Kim; Joon-Soo Kwak; Kyu-Hwan Choi
This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146
Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G
Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency.
Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.
Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893
Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S
Dementia is a common symptom observed in many psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of senile dementia seen in the general population. Multiple factors like oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation may be related to the neurodegenerative states. Many drugs like cholinesterase have been used for treatment but the progression of the disease still poses a challenge to the clinician. During recent times, herbs have gained much popularity as supplements because of the cost effectiveness, easy availability and fewer side effects. Early diagnosis and proper treatment may help in the prevention of mortality and morbidity concerned with any neurodegenerative disease. Understanding the cellular and molecular biology of the mode of the action of herbal products may be beneficial for researchers and clinicians. The present review article attempts to look into the potential herbal extracts which may act as an antioxidant in combating dementia. PMID:23455743
Tang, C T; Belani, L K; Das, S; Jaafar, M Z
Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. PMID:22988474
Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao
Water extracts of 32 herbs that are constituents of curry and curry powder were screened for superoxide anion radical (O2.-) scavenging activity. Among the screened samples, only clove, allspice, and basil were shown to decrease DMPO-O2.- adduct yields by more than 50% at 0.25 mg/mL as measured by an ESR spin trapping technique based on the HPX-XOD reaction. To study the mechanism of the O2.- scavenging activity, Km values were obtained from a Lineweaver-Burk plot for XOD in the presence of different concentrations of HPX, and the IC50 values at different DMPO concentrations were compared. Clove and basil directly eliminated O2.- like superoxide dismutase (SOD), whereas allspice reduced the amount of O2.- by inhibition of formation of O2.-. PMID:12749199
Yun, Young Sook; Nakajima, Yuki; Iseda, Etsuko; Kunugi, Akira
This Web site from the Integrative Medicine Service of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) provides oncologists and other healthcare professionals with objective information on medicinal herbs and other botanicals. Users may search for a particular plant name or browse the entire catalog by letter of the alphabet. Searches yield a clinical summary for each plant, a description of purported uses, information on adverse effects and drug interactions, and so on. The site also includes a News and Alerts section, a FAQs page (mostly about possible risks and complications), and evaluations of alternative or unproved cancer therapies. The general reader should also find this regularly updated Web site helpful, but MSKCC cautions against substituting the site "for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem."
Ipomea hederacea Jacq. (kaladana or ivy leaf morning-glory), a member of the family Convolvulaceae, is used primarily for its seeds and recognized for its medicinal properties, especially in Asian countries. This medicinal herb contains various valuable chemical constituents such as ecdysteriods, steroidal glycosides, aromatic acids, triterpenes, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements and vitamins. A number of pharmacological properties such as diuretic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, deobstruent, laxative, carminative and anti-inflammatory actions have been ascribed to this plant, besides its use to treat abdominal diseases, fevers, headache and bronchitis. This review focuses on compositional, medicinal and therapeutic properties of this plant, as a potential sources of bioactive molecules for medicinal and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23128091
Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo
Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made.
Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao
A method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs (senna pods, botanical name Cassia angustifolia; devil's claw, botanical name Harpagophytum procumbens; and ginger roots, botanical name Zingiber officinale). The method, which was tested in a mini-collaborative study by 4 laboratories, is based on an immunoaffinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation and fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. It allows the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels lower than 2 ng/g. A second extractant (acetone-water) was tested and compared to the proposed methanol-water extractant. Several post-column derivatization options (electrochemically generated bromine, photochemical reaction, and chemical bromination) as well as different integration modes (height versus area) were also investigated. No differences were found depending on the choice of derivatization system or the signal integration mode used. The method was tested for 3 different matrixes: senna pods, ginger root, and devil's claw. Performance characteristics were established from the results of the study and resulted in HorRat values ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 with mean recoveries from 78 to 91% for the extraction with methanol-water and HorRat values ranging from 0.10-1.03 with mean recoveries from 98 to 103% for the extraction with acetone-water. As a result, the method, with all tested variations, was found to be fit-for-purpose for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs at levels of 1 microg/kg and above. PMID:16792057
Arranz, Isabel; Sizoo, Eric; van Egmond, Hans; Kroeger, Katy; Legarda, Teresa M; Burdaspal, Pedro; Reif, Klaus; Stroka, Joerg
Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 110(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality. PMID:24364459
?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Pawe?; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Gra?yna; Zawi?lak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata
Spices and herbs are natural products or their blends that must be free of extraneous matter content. Conventional production of these products implicates a number of hygienic problems so spices and herbs may be exposed to a wide range of microbial contamination during pre- and post-harvest and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, we have analyzed the microbial quality of 53 samples of spices and dry herbs collected from Spanish markets detecting a contamination of samples of spices with mesophilic aerobic counts (10%) and Enterobacteriaceae (20%). The analysis from herbs showed that the percentage of contamination was 26% in both microbiological values. Pathogenic microorganisms like Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia intermedia, Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Hafni alvei were also isolated from spices and herbs. These unsatisfactory results showed a poor microbiological quality. Spices and dry herbs are used as ingredients in a variety of products prepared in different ways, this fact suggests the need to provide a control system to improve the quality of herbs and spices. PMID:20848208
Sospedra, Isabel; Soriano, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi
Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to not only improve the flavor of edible food but also to prevent and treat chronic health maladies. While the scientific evidence for the use of such common herbs and medicinal plants then had been scarce or lacking, the beneficial effects observed from such use were generally encouraging. It is, therefore, not surprising that the tradition of using such herbs, perhaps even after the advent of modern medicine, has continued. More recently, due to an increased interest in understanding the nutritional effects of herbs/spices more comprehensively, several studies have examined the cellular and molecular modes of action of the active chemical components in herbs and their biological properties. Beneficial actions of herbs/spices include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, gluco-regulatory, and anti-thrombotic effects. One major component of herbs and spices is the polyphenols. Some of the aforementioned properties are attributed to the polyphenols and they are associated with attenuating the metabolic syndrome. Detrimental changes associated with the metabolic syndrome over time affect brain and cognitive function. Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are also risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of herbs and spices have been demonstrated and, whether directly or indirectly, such beneficial effects may also contribute to an improvement in cognitive function. This review evaluates the current evidence available for herbs/spices in potentially improving the metabolic syndrome, as well as their neuroprotective effects on the brain, and cognitive function in animal and human studies. PMID:23092406
Panickar, Kiran S
In Africa, Sutherlandia frutescens is a popular medicinal herb widely consumed by people living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Concomitant use with antiretroviral drugs has generated concerns of herb-drug interaction (HDI). This study investigated the inhibitory effects of the crude extracts of S. frutescens on the major cytochrome P450 isozymes with the use of pooled human liver microsomes. Its effect on the metabolic clearance of midazolam using cryopreserved hepatocytes was also monitored. The potential of S. frutescens to inhibit human ATP-binding cassette transporters (P-gp and BCRP) and the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) activity was assessed using cell lines overexpressing the transporter proteins. S. frutescens showed inhibitory potency for CYP1A2 (IC(50) = 41.0 µg/ml), CYP2A6 (IC(50) = 160 µg/ml), CYP2B6 (IC(50) = 20.0 µg/ml), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 22.4 µg/ml), CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 23.0 µg/ml), CYP2C19 (IC(50) = 35.9 µg/ml), and CYP3A4/5 (IC(50) = 17.5 µg/ml [with midazolam1'-hydroxylation]; IC(50) = 28.3 µg/ml [with testosterone 6?-hydroxylation]). Time-dependent (irreversible) inhibition by S. frutescens was observed for CYP3A4/5 (K(I) = 296 µg/ml, k(inact) = 0.063 min(-1)) under the conditions of this study. S. frutescens also delays the production of midazolam metabolites in the hepatocytes, decreasing its clearance by 40%. Furthermore, S. frutescens inhibited P-gp (IC(50) = 324.8 µg/ml), OATP1B1 (IC(50) = 10.4 µg/ml), and OATP1B3 (IC(50) = 6.6 µg/ml). The result indicates the potential for HDI between S. frutescens and the substrates of the affected enzymes, if sufficient in vivo concentration of the extract is attained. PMID:23209194
Fasinu, Pius S; Gutmann, Heike; Schiller, Hilmar; James, Alexander-David; Bouic, Patrick J; Rosenkranz, Bernd
Re-evaluation of premarketing medicine is a important supplementary of clinical and elementary research. It is a basement that establish the medicine administration supervisition , found and integrity postmarketing washing out mechanism and define reasonable using drug. After drug marketing, we must not only concern on the re-evaluation of herbs security but also focus on evaluating herbs suitable symptom, as well as its dosage and course of treatment, ect. The re-evaluation of symptoms were seen as the core and feature of traditional Chinese medicine's clinical evaluation. It is also seen as hot spot and difficulty of the research . This article try to focus on simply illustrating the necessity and research thinking of re-evaluation symptoms of postmarketing herbs. So we can define the re-evaluation of postmarketing drug's objection, method, and basement. It will provide beneficial experience and reference to re-evaluation symptom of marketed herbs. PMID:20822030
He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan
Five wild herb legumes (Trifolium resupinatum, Melilotus indica, Medicago intertexta, Trigonella hamosa, and Alhagi murarum)\\u000a were collected from cultivated lands of the Nile Valley, and compared with clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), a cultivated forage\\u000a legume. The wild herb legumes exhibited great variation in nodulation percentage, nodule number, nodule mass and acetylene\\u000a reduction activity with regard to locality. Nodulation of T. resupinatum
H. H. Zahran
Objective: To explorate the influence of replenishing Kidney herbs on dexamethasone (DXM) or retinoic acid (RA) induced osteoporosis\\u000a in rats.Methods: Model animal of osteoporosis was made by DXM injection or RA through gastrogavage, and some animals received replenishing\\u000a Kidney herbs during modelling. Changes of serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), estrogen (E), prostaglandin\\u000a E2(PGE2), 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(VD3), uric hydroxyproline (UHP),
Liu Hedi; Li En
ObjectiveMany Chinese herbs contain aristolochic acids (ALAs) which are nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. The objective of this study was to identify whether exposure to herbs containing ALAs increased the risk of kidney disease among Chinese herbalists.MethodsA nested casecontrol study was carried out on 6538 Chinese herbalists registered between 1985 and 1998. All incident cases of chronic renal failure reported to the
Hsiao-Yu Yang; Jung-Der Wang; Tsai-Chang Lo; Pau-Chung Chen
Spices and herbs are natural products or their blends that must be free of extraneous matter content. Conventional production\\u000a of these products implicates a number of hygienic problems so spices and herbs may be exposed to a wide range of microbial\\u000a contamination during pre- and post-harvest and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, we have analyzed the
Isabel Sospedra; Jose M. Soriano; Jordi Mañes
The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants - blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135
Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel
Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities.
Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi
Extracts from a group of destagnative herbs, 764-1, and the effective chemical, 764-3, were tested by an in vitro experiment using a HeLa-S3 cell line. Under aerobic conditions, the shoulder of the cell survival curve diminished or disappeared according to the different doses of 764-1 used, but no change in slope was observed. In nitrogen, when the dose of 764-1 increased to 20 mg/ml (ID20), besides the disappearance of the shoulder, the slope of the curve also showed changes at lower doses (4-8 Gy); up to 10-25 Gy the curve became more flattened. 764-3 showed almost a similar effect by mainly affecting the shoulder of the survival curve. At low drug doses a SER as high as 1.87 might be obtained under hypoxic condition. At the same time 764-1 was used in testing the effect on radiation lung damage. It was found that 764-1 could markedly inhibit the change of alveolar surfactant at 1 and 3 weeks after radiation. A wide field of investigation is thus spread out in front of us on radiosensitization and protection. Further studies on 764-3 are carried out.
Shen, Y.; Yang, X.Y.; Zhan, Q.M.; Guo, R.; Liu, J.W.; Yang, C.Z.
Abstract This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanismsanti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research.
Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537
Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi
Ayurveda has given prime importance to Mutravaha srotas (urinary system) and Srotogata Vikaras (urinary disorders). Being a system responsible for homeostasis of fluids in the body it also detoxifies the body by eliminating certain waste products through urine. When diseased, people produce symptoms such as, increased or decreased urine production, painful maturition, formation of stones, and thereby obstructed micturition, increased frequency of micturition, and so on. There are many herbs with varied actions specifically aimed at mitigating urinary system disorders. Drugs such as Jambu, Amrasthi, and the like, reduce the increased flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutrasangrahaneeya, whereas, drugs like Ikshu, Kustha, and so on, increase the flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutravirechaneeya. There are drugs like Padma, Utpala, and so on, which impart normal color to the urine and are known as Mutravirajaneeya dravyas. Asmarighna dravyas break down the calculi and remove them through the urine. These dravyas, when used under proper direction, help in relieving the pain and apathy caused by the disease.
Bhat, Savitha D.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan
Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing macrophage function. In this study we demonstrated in vitro suppression of macrophage chemiluminescent oxidative burst associated with viable cells and cell-free extracts of two urological neoplasms--murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) and murine bladder tumor (MBT). Suppression was reversed by extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs, Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL). Murine macrophage cell line J774 was incubated with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extract for 18 hours at 37C and 5% CO2. Chemiluminescent oxidative burst as an indicator of macrophage function was triggered by adding zymosan A suspension containing luminol and assayed in an automated luminometer. Photon emission over time was counted and the results were expressed as integrated photon emission. Significant dose-related depression of oxidative burst occurred with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extracts. Depression was partially or completely reversed by the presence of 50-100 micrograms./ml. of either the AM or the LL extract. AM and LL have previously been shown to modulate immune response. Data from this study suggest that they may also exert their antitumor activity via abolition of tumor-associated macrophage suppression. PMID:1856958
Rittenhouse, J R; Lui, P D; Lau, B H
Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing immune functions. We previously showed that a murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) suppressed macrophage function in vitro and that this suppression was abolished by co-incubation with extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs. We now report that these phytochemicals are capable of inhibiting growth of Renca in vivo. BALB/c mice were transplanted intraperitoneally (IP) with 1-2 x 10(5) Renca cells. One day after tumor transplant, mice were randomized into two groups. One group was treated IP, daily for 10 days, with 100 microliters of phytochemicals containing 500 micrograms each of Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum, while the other group received saline as controls. A cure rate of 57% was obtained with these phytochemicals when the initial tumor load was 2 x 10(5), and 100% when the initial tumor load was 1 x 10(5). Additional experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms involved in this protection. Splenic macrophages from tumor-bearing mice were shown to have depressed chemiluminescent oxidative burst activity, and this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Splenocytes from mice transplanted with Renca responded less favorably to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in generating lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells; again this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Our data suggest that these phytochemicals may have exerted their antitumor effects via augmentation of phagocyte and LAK cell activities. PMID:7812364
Lau, B H; Ruckle, H C; Botolazzo, T; Lui, P D
As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.
Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee
Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the ?g/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. PMID:22868119
Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Po?owniak, M; Kozik, V
To study the effect of different storage conditions and storage time on herb quality of Lonicera macranthoides, different packaging materials including vacuum plastic bags, plastic bags, woven bags, sealed with endometrial bags, paper bags, sack bags were selected for the study under different storage conditions including room temperature, 5 degrees C refrigerator, low temperature of - 20 degrees C refrigerator and desiccator. Twenty-four batches of samples were used for the study, and active ingredients were determined. The experimental results showed that the ingredients in each storage group changed with the storage time, storage conditions (storage environment, packaging). Under the same storage time, the storage environment (temperature, humidity) had effect on the stability of herb quality. Low temperature had less effect on herb quality. The effect of packaging on herb quality was as following: plastic vacuum packaging > woven with endometrial sealed packaging > plastic bag > woven bag > sack bags > paper bags. Under the same storage conditions, with the increase of storage time, caffeic acid content increased slowly, and other five ingredients content decreased gradually. Storage time affected significantly on the intrinsic quality (chemical composition) and appearance of herb. It is suggested that low temperature (5 degrees C), dark and sealed storage are suitable for storage of L. macranthoides herb, the storage time should be not more than 24 months. PMID:24956836
Ma, Peng; Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying
Spices and herbs are rich in polyphenols and widely used in habitual diets in the tropical regions. To elucidate their effects on human health, intake of the portion of spices and herbs from habitual diets should be determined. Consumption patterns were determined from 24-hour records or recalls of 181 men and 370 women in Khonkaen and Ubon Ratchathani provinces, representing upper and lower northeast Thailand. There was a slight variation in dishes, but twelve spices/herbs were commonly used in the two areas. The amounts of spices/ herbs in the four most common dishes (Somtum, Jaew, Pon and Kang-Nor-Mai) were estimated by weighing ingredients before and after cooking. The average amount of spices/herbs consumed was 4.9, 26.1, 14 and 11 g/meal, contributing 36.6, 43.1, 20.6 and 29.8 mg polyphenols/meal for Somtum, Jaew, Pon and Kang- Nor-Mai, respectively. Chili was common in all recipes, with an average amount of 8.3-27.5 mg polyphenols/meal. In conclusion, habitual northeast Thai diets contain several spices/herbs and a substantial amount of polyphenols was commonly consumed. PMID:22691861
Tantipopipat, S; Boonpraderm, A; Charoenkiatkul, S; Wasantwisut, E; Winichagoon, P
The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore herbal medicine. In particular, many Chinese herbs have demonstrated some interesting therapeutic properties. The following databases were searched from their inception: MEDLINE (PUBMED), ALT HEALTH WATCH (EBSCO), CINAH and Cochrane Central. Only single Chinese herbs are included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and performed quality assessment. The quality assessment of a clinical trial is based on the Jadad criteria. Seven Chinese herbs and six randomized controlled clinical trials were identified under the predefined criteria. Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A (Lycopodium serratum) and Ginseng have been assessed for their clinical efficacy with limited favorable evidence. No serious adverse events were reported. Chinese herbs show promise in the treatment of AD in terms of their cognitive benefits and more importantly, their mechanisms of action that deal with the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease. However, the current evidence in support of their use is inconclusive or inadequate. Future research should place emphasis on herbs that can treat the root of the disease.
Fu, Li-Min; Li, Ju-Tzu
The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius.
Sarin, Bharti; Martin, Juan Pedro; Mohanty, Aparajita
Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. PMID:23433049
May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L
A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is a collection of several herbs. TCM formulae have been used to treat various diseases for several thousand years. However, wide usage of TCM formulae has results in rapid decline of some rare herbs. So it is urgent to find common available replacements for those rare herbs with the similar effects. In addition, a formula can be simplified by reducing herbs with unchanged effects. Based on this consideration, we propose a method, called formula pair, to replace the rare herbs and simplify TCM formulae. We show its reasonableness from a perspective of pathway enrichment analysis. Both the replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of formulae provide new approaches for a new formula discovery. We demonstrate our approach by replacing a rare herb Forsythia suspensa in the formula the seventh of Sang Ju Yin plus/minus herbs (SSJY) with a common herb Thunberg Fritillary Bulb and simplifying two formulae, the fifth of Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang plus/minus herbs (FDHJST) and Fang Feng Tang (FFT) to a new formula Fang Feng Du Huo Tang (FFDHT).
Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Qian, Min; Shi, Tieliu
Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro.Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of
Ming-yu Li; Jun Wang; Zhu-ting Xu
Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and between-herb-distance to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of co-module across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herbs frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain co-modules enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM.
A utilization way of herb residues is designed to convert herb residues to gas fuel in industrial-scale by a circulating fluidized bed gasifier in this paper. The product gas is used in the production of Chinese medicine, and the heat of the flue gas from the boiler can be used in herb residues drying to realize the energy recycling and no herb residues discharge. The gasification characteristics of herb residues in the circulating fluidized bed of 300 kg/h were investigated for about 200 h. The results indicated that the gas composition and tar yield were affected by biomass flow rate, equivalence ratio (ER), moisture content and char circulating. The lower heating value of product gas was 4-5 MJ/m(3) using herb residues as feedstock. When mean biomass flow rate was at 5.5 kg m(-2)s(-1) and ER at 0.35, the product gas reached a good condition with lower heating value of 4.89 MJ/m(3) and cold gas efficiency of 62.36%. When the moisture content changed from 12.5% to 18.7%, the concentrations of H2, CO and CO2 changed from 4.66% to 6.92%, 11.23% to 10.15%, and 16.55% to 17.82% respectively, and the tar content in gas decreased from 15.1g/m(3) to 14.4 g/m(3) when the moisture content increased from 12.5% to 15.4%. There are metal oxides in the ash of herb residues, especially CaO, MgO, K2O, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 which have obvious function on tar catalytic decomposition. The ash that attaches to the char particles can decrease the tar yield and improve the quality of gas after returning to the gasifier. PMID:23313058
Guo, Feiqiang; Dong, Yuping; Dong, Lei; Jing, Yuanzhuo
Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4%) reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6%) obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1%) obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%), and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments.
Clement, Yuri N; Williams, Arlene F; Aranda, Derick; Chase, Ronald; Watson, Nadya; Mohammed, Rochelle; Stubbs, Odia; Williamson, Deneil
Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and\\/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular\\/mitochondrial
Kam Ming Ko; Hoi Yan Leung
The objective of this study was to investigate the use of oregano herb versus oregano essential oil as feed supplements to increase the oxidative stability of turkey meat stored at 4 C. Thirty 12-week-old o turkeys allocated into five groups were fed a control diet and diets supplemented with 5 g oregano herb\\/kg, 10 g oregano herb\\/kg, 100 mg oregano
Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of\\u000a culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding\\u000a year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the\\u000a intakes of
Monica H Carlsen; Rune Blomhoff; Lene F Andersen
Multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to be a major obstacle for successful anticancer therapy. In this work, fractions from 17 clinically used antitumour traditional Chinese medicinal herbs were tested for their potential to restore the sensitivity of MCF-7/ADR and A549/Taxol cells to a known antineoplastic agent. The effects of these fractions were evaluated by MTT method and an assay of the cellular accumulation of doxorubicin. Fractions from the PB group (herbs with the ability to promote blood circulation and remove blood stasis) showed more significant effects than fractions from the CH group (herbs with the ability to clear away heat and toxic materials). Fractions from CH?Cl? extracts were more effective than fractions from EtOAc extracts. Five herbs (Curcuma wenyujin, Chrysanthemum indicum, Salvia chinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. and Cassia tora L.) could sensitise these resistant cancer cells at a non-toxic concentration (10?µg?mL?¹), and markedly increased doxorubicin accumulation in MCF-7/ADR cells, which necessitates further investigations on the active ingredients of these herbs and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:21848372
Yang, Lei; Wei, Dan-Dan; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Jun-Song; Kong, Ling-Yi
This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. FoodstuffsDetection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.
Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun
Analyses of 2002 National Health Interview supplement on complementary and alternative medicine (NHI%AM) indicate that approximately 38 million adults in the US (18.9% of the population) used natural herbs or supplements in the preceding 12 months, but only one-third told their physician about this use. The objectives of this study are: (i) to determine subpopulation rates of patientphysician communication about herbal product and natural supplement use and (ii) to identify the relative influence of patient factors and interaction factors associated with patient-physician communication about herb and supplement use. Logistic secondary analysis was done by using the complementary and alternative medicine supplement of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Subjects were a random stratified sample of US adults who used herbs in the past 12 months (n = 5?196) and self-reported rates of disclosure to physicians about herb and supplement use. Results show that disclosure rates were significantly lower for males, younger adults, racial and ethnic minorities and less intensive users of medical care. Across subpopulations, disclosure was the exception rather than the norm. Given the potential risks of delayed or inappropriate treatment and adverse drug reactions and interactions, physicians should be aware of herb and supplement use and counsel patients on the potential risks and benefits of these treatments.
Wang, Chi-Chuan; Wu, Chung-Hsuen
Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) and Scutellaria barbata (SB) have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating liver, lung and rectal tumors while Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL) are often used as an adjunct in cancer therapy. In this study, we determined the effects of aqueous extracts of these four herbs on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced mutagenesis using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as the bacterial tester strain and rat liver 9000 x g supernatant as the activation system. The effects of these herbs on [3H]AFB1 binding to calf-thymus DNA were assessed. Organosoluble and water-soluble metabolites of AFB1 were extracted and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mutagenesis assays revealed that all of these herbs produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of histidine-independent revertant (His+) colonies induced by AFB1. At a concentration of 1.5 mg/plate, SB and OD in combination exhibited an additive effect. The trend of inhibition of these four herbs on AFB1-induced mutagenesis was: SB greater than LL greater than AM. LL, OD and SB significantly inhibited AFB1 binding to DNA, reduced AFB1-DNA adduct formation, and also significantly decreased the formation of organosoluble metabolites of AFB1. Our data suggest that these Chinese medicinal herbs possess cancer chemopreventive properties. PMID:1377337
Wong, B Y; Lau, B H; Tadi, P P; Teel, R W
We tested whether polyphenolic substances in extracts of commercial culinary herbs and spices would inhibit fructose-mediated protein glycation. Extracts of 24 herbs and spices from a local supermarket were tested for the ability to inhibit glycation of albumin. Dry samples were ground and extracted with 10 volumes of 50% ethanol, and total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) were measured. Aliquots were incubated in triplicate at pH 7.4 with 0.25 M fructose and 10 mg/mL fatty acid-free bovine albumin. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. In general, spice extracts inhibited glycation more than herb extracts, but inhibition was correlated with total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.89). The most potent inhibitors included extracts of cloves, ground Jamaican allspice, and cinnamon. Potent herbs tested included sage, marjoram, tarragon, and rosemary. Total phenolics were highly correlated with FRAP values (R(2) = 0.93). The concentration of phenolics that inhibited glycation by 50% was typically 4-12 microg/mL. Relative to total phenolic concentration, extracts of powdered ginger and bay leaf were less effective than expected, and black pepper was more effective. Prevention of protein glycation is an example of the antidiabetic potential for bioactive compounds in culinary herbs and spices. PMID:18598169
Dearlove, Rebecca P; Greenspan, Phillip; Hartle, Diane K; Swanson, Ruthann B; Hargrove, James L
It has been known for a long time that aromatic substances (essential oils) contained in plants often exert psychological effects ranging from sedative to excitatory actions. Medicinal effects have also been confirmed through numerous experiences. In ancient times, aromatic trees and herbs were offered to deities, mostly as incenses that were believed to carry people's wishes, such as requests to cure sick people, to Heaven. In the medieval periods, their deep and subtle aromas elevated aromatics to so-called "treasures of the world," while their various medicinal activities including the psychological effects made them useful as treatment measures. Demands for aromatics in our time as raw materials for cosmetics far outweigh those as medicines. The market for aromatics, however, has become virtually non-existent, as the popularity of synthetic aromatics for cosmetics grew. In West Asia, olibanum and myrrh were highly regarded both as incense and analgesics for tooth pain. In India, sandalwood was prized as incense, and sometimes as an antidote for poisonous snakebites. In China and Japan, agalloch (Kyara is agalloch of the highest quality) was considered the most significant of the aromatics. Agalloch and many other aromatics were in possession of the Emperor's family in 8th century Japan; some of which are kept in Nara to this day. Olfactory sense is ultimately identified in the olfactory area of the frontal lobe of the human brain. When stimuli reach the olfactory area, they also affect other cells such as those around the hypothalamus when they go through it. The hypothalamus is the center of instinctive behaviors with the centers for appetite, sexuality, blood pressure and thirst, and greatly affects the psychological side of the human behavior with its delicate connection to the autonomic nerve system. It therefore may not be surprising that aromatics were often used in medicine, which once had close ties with shamanism, animism and other religious activities. Aromatics smokes that connected people on the earth with deities in Heaven healed people's mind, sometimes curing illness through what is now called aromatherapy. In fact, such use of aromatics is still practiced in China, where aromatics are highly regarded as treatment agents. There have also been reports of aromatics being used for psychological and mental disorders. PMID:18548886
Anti-candidial activities of eight traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) herbs were evaluated against six different Candida species. TCM preparations were screened for antifungal activity using a standard agar diffusion assay. Following identification of potential candidate herbs, their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using the standardised NCCLS M-27A broth microdilution assay. Among TCM herbs, Rhizoma Coptidis had potent antifungal activity against Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis, but not against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida parapsolosis. The MIC values of the Rhizoma Coptidis against C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis were 50, 50 and 100 microg ml(-1) respectively. We report here, for the first time, the potent antifungal activity of Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex phellodendri Chinesis on three different non-albicans Candida species, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis and hence their possible use as therapeutic agents. PMID:18076592
Seneviratne, C Jayampath; Wong, Ricky W K; Samaranayake, Lakshman P
Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study. PMID:24621269
Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao
Geographical origin of medical herbs is an important factor of the quality of many traditional Chinese herbal medicines. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether NIR spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition techniques could effectively discriminate geographical origins of medical herbs. Nearest neighbor method (NNM) and a SVM-based multiclass classifier were employed to discriminate 269 Angelicae Dahuricae Radix (ADR) samples from 4 provinces and 380 Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (SMR) samples from 6 provinces in China. The multiclass classifier achieves leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy of 99% for (ADR) and 95% (SMR). This classification scheme can be a highly accurate approach to the rapid and nondestructive discrimination of medical herbs of different origins. PMID:16836125
Liu, Shu-hua; Zhang, Xue-gong; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin
Geographical origin of medical herbs is an important factor of the quality of many traditional Chinese herbal medicines. The objective of this study is to investigate whether FTIR spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition techniques could effectively discriminate geographical origins of medical herbs. Nearest neighbor method (NNM) and a SVM-based multiclass classifier were employed to discriminate 269 angelicae dahuricae radix (ADR) samples from 4 provinces in China and 380 salviae miltiorrhizae radix (SMR) samples from 6 provinces. A leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy of 99% was achieved by the multiclass classifier. The study shows this classification scheme can be a highly accurate approach for the discrimination of medical herbs of different origins. PMID:16201362
Liu, Shu-hua; Zhang, Xue-gong; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin
In the article are shown the results of development of methods for identification of originality of aqueous extract s obtained from herbs with medical properties ingressed in multicomponent phyto preparations. During provided research were developed different methods of evaluation of identity of herbal aqueous extracts with poorly known structure in complex tablets. These methods could be introduced in practice for reliable evaluation of qualitative composition of multicomponent phyto preparations, containing aqueous extract s of herbs studded in this work. Monitoring of qualitative composition of phyto preparations during production and in the phase of marketing will promote further rise of efficacy and safety of remedy. We demonstrate the results of the work aimed to develop the methods for identification of originality of aqueous extracts obtained from herbs with medical properties ingressed in multicomponent phyto preparations. PMID:23676492
Tsomaia, I V; Churguliia, E Dzh
A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts. PMID:24025211
Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro
As, Cd, Pb and Hg were analysed in commonly consumed spices and herbs in Malaysia. The range of As, Cd, Pb and Hg content was 0.24-2.54, 0.23-8.07, 1.54-8.94 and 0.06-0.52?µg?g(-1), respectively. The highest concentration of Cd, Pb and Hg in spices and herbs exceeded the maximum permitted proportion, which are 1, 2 and 0.05?µg?g(-1), respectively. This study suggests further monitoring of Cd, Pb and Hg on daily consumption of spices and herbs and its toxicological implication for consumers since only the amount of As was lower than the permitted concentration. PMID:24786623
Nordin, N; Selamat, J
Medicinal herbs have been effectively used for their anti-inflammatory activity, but their exact role has not yet been documented in scientific literature for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA). Since Sida cordifolia L., Piper longum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Ricinus communis L., Vitex negundo L. and Tribulus terrestris L. have been widely used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory activity, to evaluate anti-osteoarthritic activity of these herbs, we used a collagenase type II-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA) rat model. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II. Powders of herbs were given orally for 20 days as a suspension in water (270 mg/kg b. wt.). The effects of the treatment in the rats were monitored by physiological parameters like body weight, knee diameter, paw retraction, paw volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, radiography and histopathology of knee joint. Selected herbs have significantly prevented body weight loss and knee swelling compared to arthritic control (CIOA). All test groups, including indomethacin (standard drug, 3 mg/kg), significantly reduced paw volume compared to CIOA. GAG release in the serum was significantly lowered in herb treated groups compared to indomethacin. The anterior posterior radiographs of S. cordifolia and P. longum treated groups showed a protective effect against OA. Histopathology revealed protection in the structure of the articular cartilage and in chondrocyte pathology as well as reduced clefting. Treatment with herbs has shown chondroid matrix within normal limits. From the results, we observed that S. cordifolia and P. longum possess potent anti-osteoarthritic activity. PMID:24228609
Nirmal, Pallavi; Koppikar, Soumya; Bhondave, Prashant; Narkhede, Aarti; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Wagh, Narendrakumar; Kulkarni, Omkar; Harsulkar, Abhay; Jagtap, Suresh
A group of 51 herb processing workers employed in a big herb processing facility located in eastern Poland were examined by the skin and precipitin tests with, respectively, 4 and 17 extracts of microorganisms associated with organic dusts. Out of this number, 32 workers were examined by the skin test with 7 extracts of selected herbs processed in the facility. All the subjects were asked about the occurrence of work-related symptoms. 32 healthy office workers were examined with microbial extracts as a reference group. The herb processing workers showed a high proportion of early skin reactions (after 20 min) to the extract of Gram-negative bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis (41.2%), significantly higher compared to the reference group (p<0.01). At all time intervals (20 min, 8 hrs, 24 hrs), the workers responded with a high frequency to the extract of Bacillus subtilis (respectively 72.5%, 64.7%, and 15.7%), significantly greater compared to the reference group (respectively p<0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.05). No significant differences were found between the groups of herb processing workers and referents in skin response to the extracts of Streptomyces albus and Alternaria alternata and, except for the extract of Pantoea agglomerans, in the frequency of positive precipitin reactions to microbial antigens. In the skin test with herb extracts, the highest response among workers were caused by the extracts of chamomile flowers and nettle leaves which evoked 40-65% of positive skin reactions at all time intervals. 39 out of 51 interviewed herb processing workers (76.5%) reported the occurrence of work-related general, respiratory and skin symptoms. The positive skin reactions occurred more frequently among symptomatic workers which suggests that the specific immunologic response might be implicated in etiopathogenesis of work-related symptoms in examined workers. However, in most cases the differences did not attain a significance level which indicates that there is no direct relationship between a positive immunologic response and the appearance of symptoms caused by occupational exposure to herb dust, and that most probably a considerable part of these symptoms might be also due to non-specific immunologic and/or toxic mechanisms. PMID:11748888
Dutkiewicz, J; Skórska, C; Milanowski, J; Mackiewicz, B; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, E; Dutkiewicz, E; Matuszyk, A; Sitkowska, J; Golec, M
Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently, chemical methods of decontamination are recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique was chosen to replace them in use. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology the national program on the application of irradiation to the decontamination of medical herbs is in progress now. The purpose of the program is to elaborate, on the basis of research work, the facility standards and technological instructions indispensable for the practice of radiation technology.
Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Segiet-Kujawa, E.
A methanolic extract from dill (Anethum graveolens) herb was subjected to XAD-2 adsorption chromatography. The methanolic eluate was fractionated with the all liquid chromatographic technique of multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC). After acetylation of MLCCC subfractions and flash chromatography, final purification of dill herb constituents was achieved by preparative and/or analytical HPLC. Nine compounds were obtained in pure form, including the beta-D-glucopyranosides of 9-hydroxypiperitone, p-menth-2-ene-1,6-diol, and 8-hydroxygeraniol. Structure elucidation is based on electrospray ionization ion trap multiple mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as well as one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:11052739
Bonnländer, B; Winterhalter, P
In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.
Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migda?, W.; K ?dzia, B.
From a survey of anti-arthritic remedies used in Igbo tribal ethnomedicine, three plants--Lonchocarpus cyanescens, Costus afar and Terminalia ivorensis--were selected for closer study. Twenty-five volunteers were monitored while receiving treatment from two reputable herbalists, and the result of the clinical investigation prompted the pharmacological and phytochemical studies on the herbs. Differential solvent extracts of the herbs reduced carragenin-induced oedema of the rat paw, checked diarrhoea due to arachidonic acid and castor oil, and ameliorated all signs associated with adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in rats. The constituent-activity relationship of the drugs and their probable mode of action are briefly discussed. PMID:7154695
Iwu, M M; Anyanwu, B N
Natural phenolic compounds play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. Phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants include phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, quinones, and others. Various bioactivities of phenolic compounds are responsible for their chemopreventive properties (e.g., antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, or antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory effects) and also contribute to their inducing apoptosis by arresting cell cycle, regulating carcinogen metabolism and ontogenesis expression, inhibiting DNA binding and cell adhesion, migration, proliferation or differentiation, and blocking signaling pathways. This review covers the most recent literature to summarize structural categories and molecular anticancer mechanisms of phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants. PMID:20043255
Huang, Wu-Yang; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Yanbo
The research work on the microbiological decontamination of medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6, and 10 kGy. It has been shown that D10 values are varied in several samp...
W. Migdal H. B. Owczarczyk
The antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria, total antioxidant capacity and phenolic constituents of methanolic extracts from 11 herbs were investigated and compared with those of green tea (Camellia sinensis). Among the 12 tested herbs, eight herbal extracts could inhibit the growth of Streptococcus sanguinis. Jasmine, jiaogulan, and lemongrass were the most potent, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 1mg\\/ml, while
Tzung-Hsun Tsai; Tsung-Hsien Tsai; You-Chia Chien; Chi-Wei Lee; Po-Jung Tsai
Natural products are the basis of many systems of traditional medicine and continue to provide sources for new drugs. Ethnobiological approaches to drug discovery that have proven productive in the past include the investigation of traditional medical literatures. This study describes a broadly applicable method for locating, selecting and evaluating citations in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine literature of the dynastic period (until 1911) for specific symptoms or disorders. This methodology is applied to evaluate multi-herb formulae for age-related dementia and memory impairment. Of the 174 multi-herb formulae located in the searches, 19 were for disorders broadly consistent with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and/or Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). These appeared in books written between c. 650 to 1911. Of the 176 herbs that appeared in these 19 formulae, those with the highest frequencies were tabulated and hierarchical cluster analysis was undertaken. Chinese pharmacopoeias were consulted to determine the botanical identity of the herbs and also which herbs within the formulas were specific for memory disorders. This study found that the top ten herbs, in terms of frequency of inclusion in multi-herb formulae specific for age-related memory disorders, were all listed in the pharmacopoeias for memory disorders and these formed three clusters. The herbs identified in this study may warrant further experimental and clinical evaluation both individually and in combination. PMID:22311547
May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Bennett, Louise; Hügel, Helmut M; Xue, Charlie C L
Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging.
Ko, Kam Ming; Leung, Hoi Yan
Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority (about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority (more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers (more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/ Rubus schizostylus, Schisandra chinensis Baillon/ Schizandra chinensis and Terminalia chebula Retzius/ Terminalia chebula. Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them.
Ko, Seong-Hee; Choi, Seong-Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Yoo, Sangho
A comprehensive analysis was conducted on resources composition of Chinese Herbs Sang (Morus sp.) in Sichuan using survey data and related literature. The original plants, germplasm collections, cultivation areas, main cultivated varieties and production sale of crude drugs of Sang in Sichuan were clearly expounded. Strategies for development and utilization of Sichuan mulberry resources were suggested. PMID:19294839
Yang, Wen-Yu; Wan, De-Guang
Hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Gentianaceae) flowering herbs on subacute administration were studied using in vivo models in rats. For the activity assessment on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage following biochemical parameters were evaluated; plasma and hepatic tissue malondialdehyde formation, and liver tissue glutathione level, as well as plasma transaminase enzyme levels (aspartate transferase and alanine transferase). Results of biochemical
Didem Deliorman Orhan; Mustafa Aslan; Göknur Aktay; Ender Ergun; Erdem Yesilada; Fatma Ergun
Summary In a greenhouse experiment, single ramets of Ajuga reptans, a stoloniferous herb, were planted on the divider of two halves of trays. The two halves of a tray had the same or different nutrient supply. The aim was to study root and shoot plasticity and the placement of ramets and roots in response to the heterogeneous nutrient environment. Number
Ming Dong; Marinus J. A. Werger
The large quantities of agricultural residues produced in developing countries can play a significant role in meeting their energy demand. However, the abundant quantities of agricultural wastes and forest residues are neither managed effectively nor utilised efficiently. In the case of Nepal these shortcomings are observed even in the management and utilisation of wastes from medicinal herbs and aromatic plants.
G. R. Shaky; I. Shaky; M. Augustus Leon
Medicinal herbs used in indigenous medicines in crude forms for the management of diabetes mellitus, contain both the organic and inorganic constituents. It is known that certain inorganic mineral elements (potassium, zinc, calcium, traces of chromium, etc.) play an important role in the maintenance of normal glucose-tolerance and in the release of insulin from ? cells of islets of Langerhans.
Ajit Kar; B. K Choudhary; N. G Bandyopadhyay
An interlaboratory trial was conducted to validate photostimulated luminescence (PSL) methods for herbs, spices, and seasonings. Forty products (11 herbs, 17 spices, and 12 seasonings) were purchased from a local commercial source, and randomly selected samples were irradiated with 10 kGy. Four blended products were prepared at Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, mixing varying proportions of irradiated material with the untreated product. Precharacterization against a predefined threshold identified low sensitivity products (black and white peppers) and products with high natural signals (thyme, sage, parsley, and mixed herbs), both of which might be susceptible to misclassification. Precharacterization also revealed whether calibration was likely to resolve overlap between classification categories. Eight sets of screening data and 5 sets of calibrated data were returned by participants. Of the 840 samples sent, 1593 screening measurements and 788 calibrated measurements were received from 662 samples. In screening mode, participants reached definitive conclusions in 87% of cases, 99% of which were correct. Of the remaining 13%, calibration to identify low-sensitivity resolved 60% of cases. Overall, 94% of samples were correctly identified by either screening alone, or screening plus calibration; 6% remained unclassified and therefore required further investigation by thermoluminescence. The results confirm the validity of the PSL method for herbs, spices, seasonings, and blends, and emphasize the need for calibration to identify low-sensitivity samples. This method has now been adopted by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. PMID:14632402
Sanderson, David C W; Carmichael, Lorna A; Fisk, Saffron
The recent reports from Hong Kong, Taiwan, China and Korea were reviewed to determine the causes and prospects for prevention of herb-induced aconite poisonings. The contributory factors included overdose (use of greater than the recommended doses), faulty processing (after harvest and during decoction), use of tincture (herbal medicinal wine), use of crude aconite roots (for preparing decoction, proprietary medicines and
Thomas YK Chan
To establish a HPLC-ELSD fingerprint for total steroid saponins in herbs of Dioscorea zingiberensis. Welchrom C,8 (4. 6 mm x 250 mm,5 microm) chromatographic column was adopted and eluted with the mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-water (B) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The column temperature was room temperature. The ELSD conditions were as follows: the temperature of drift tube was 90.0 degreeC, the flow rate of carrier gas (N2) was 2. 8 L min-1, and the injection volume was 10 microL. After the detection of 10 batches of samples,the common mode of HPLC-ELSD fingerprint for total steroid saponins in herbs of D. zingiberensis was established for the first time,and 25 common peaks were determined. Among them, 10 peaks were identified by comparing with reference substances. The similarities of 10 batches of herbs were evaluated in the common mode. All of them were higher than 0. 80. This method is so accurate, reliable and highly repeatable that it can provide scientific basis for evaluating and controlling the quality of total steroid saponins in herbs of D. zingiberensis. PMID:24422399
Zhang, Xin-Xin; Liang, Jin-Ru; Zhao, Ye; Sun, Wen-Ji
Three cycles of honeycomb selection for herb yield, applied on widely spaced individual plants of davana (Artemisia pallens Wall.), resulted in an increase in yield of 12.4% per cycle when the resulting populations were evaluated at commercial plant density. The selection had no adverse effect on essential oil content, davanone content in oil and plant height.
R. N. Kulkarni
This paper presents a review of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. Much of the work was carried out under European community grants under the COPERNICUS programme and in a COST D10 network. Some aspects of classical and non-conventional extraction procedures are also presented and briefly discussed.
In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds,
H. B. Owczarczyk; W. Migdal; B. Kedzia
Natural phenolic compounds play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. Phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants include phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, quinones, and others. Various bioactivities of phenolic compounds are responsible for their chemopreventive properties (e.g., antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, or antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory effects) and also contribute to their inducing apoptosis by arresting
Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Yanbo Zhang
Most herbs and functional foods have not been scientifically tested; this is especially true for the horse. This paper reviews some of the literature pertinent to herbal supplementation in horses and other species. Common supplements like Echinacea, garlic, ginger, ginseng, and yucca are not regulated, and few studies have investigated safe, efficacious doses. Ginseng has been found to exert an
Carey A. Williams; Emily D. Lamprecht
The effects of habitat fragmentation on remnant plant populations have rarely been studied extensively using a single species. We have attempted to quantify the effects of forest fragmentation (primarily that of population size) on populations of Trillium camschatcense, a representative spring herb in the Tokachi plain of Hokkaido, Japan. In this region, intensive agricultural development over the past 100 years has
Hiroshi Tomimatsu; Masashi Ohara
The flowers of the annual herb Impatiens capensis have distinct male and female phases. The male phase lasts four times as long as the female phase, and male flowers contain about 50% more nectar than female flowers. This suggests that the bulk of allocation to the flower is designed to ensure the dispersal of pollen rather than the fertilization of
G. Bell; L. Lefebvre; L.-A. Giraldeau; D. Weary
Loss of nitrogen due to high rate of nitrification could be prevented by blending ammonium containing fertilizers with nitrification inhibitors of both chemical and herbal origin. Based on this fact, Ethiopian traditional medicinal herbs were screened for their nitrification inhibiting ability. Soil samples were collected from Ziway and Awassa areas, Ethiopia where are characterized as fast nitrifying areas. One hundred
Wassie Haile; Thongchai Mala; Yongyuth Osotsapar; Visoot Verasan
Experiments were conducted to compare the responses of 4 greenhouse grown herbs to the aqueous extracts and ground leaf material of stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L., as compared with 3 standard organic fertilizers and 1 inorganic fertilizer incorporated into the growth media. Stinging nettle leaf extract and organic fertilizer significantly increased the growth of French tarragon and purple coneflower. Ammonium
Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24141244
Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Lee, Jong Seok; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan
Herbs and dietary supplements can have significant physiological effects. Garlic (Allium sativum) has shown beneficial lipid effects in a majority of trials; dried garlic preparations are superior to oil preparations. There is preliminary evidence that indicates that hawthorn (Crataegus species) may provide benefits in congestive heart failure. Coenzyme Q also may be of benefit in congestive heart failure. Although observational studies indicate a protective effect of dietary or supplemental vitamin E, controlled trails have not shown a beneficial effect on angina and have been mixed on whether supplementation decreases major cardiac events. Although several observational studies have noted that fish intake protects against cardiovascular disease, prospective studies are less impressive. Fish oil supplementation may have a mild beneficial effect on hypertension, but there is no effect on total cholesterol levels. Trials are inconsistent on whether fish oil reduces restenosis rates following coronary angioplasty. Carnitine appears to have beneficial effects on congestive heart failure and angina; there is also preliminary evidence that arginine may benefit patients with congestive heart failure or angina. Herbs and supplements have been associated with adverse effects and interactions; for example, garlic inhibits platelet aggregation and can cause significant anticoagulation, and the Chinese herb danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) appears to potentiate warfarin. Several herbs and supplements hold promise as adjuncts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for definitive research on the potential risks and benefits of these compounds, including appropriate dosages and formulations, and delineation of adverse events and interactions. (c)2000 by CHF, Inc. PMID:11834913
Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power. PMID:24429698
Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang
Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.
Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang
More powerful database approaches are needed to support biologists in the efficient use of complex, large scale, and rapidly changing systems biology data. We are engaged in research to advance database strategies for capturing, managing, computing, and searching biological concepts in ways that are presently not possible. The Heuristic Entity Relationship Building Environment (HERBE) project is developing mechanisms to automate
Eric G. Stephan; George Chin Jr.; Kyle R. Klicker; Abigail L. Corrigan; Heidi J. Sofia
Aconitum heterophyllum, commonly known as Patris, has become an endangered species due to habitat destruction and extensive exploitation for the drug industry and local medicinal system. These factors, coupled with overgrazing, prolonged seed dormancy, high seedling mortality, and ecological restriction of endemic population to localized niches, mean the herb is in danger of extinction. The present study demonstrated that plants
Showkat Yousuf Beigh; Irshad A. Nawchoo; Muhammad Iqbal
Summary Here, the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was determined in a boreal herb-rich coniferous forest in relation to environmental variables. Root samples of five plant species (Fragaria vesca, Galeobdolon luteum, Hepatica nobilis, Oxalis acetosella and Trifolium pratense) were analysed from stands differing in age and forest management intensity. Thirty-four Glomeromycota taxa (small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene
Maarja pik; Mari Moora; Martin Zobel; lle Saks; Ron Wheatley; Frank Wright; Tim Daniell
Transmission of soil-transmitted helminthes infection is by faecal oral route, and is influenced by food preference. Kelantanese love to consume ulam which are raw vegetables and herbs. Some of the herbs grow on grounds with high humidity and are abundant near drainage areas, these are also places with higher likelihood of harbouring viable parasite ova. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of soiltransmitted helminthes in vegetables, herbs and fruits found in our local setting. The results by microscopy showed that there was no helminthes ovum or protozoan parasite in the samples. However, Strongyloides stercoralis rhabdatiform larvae were identified in water samples used to wash pegaga, kesum and water spinach, and the number of larvae observed were 152, 9 and 16 respectively. Analysis by real-time PCR confirmed the microscopic observation of this helminth. This study highlighted that vegetables and herbs are likely sources of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Thus vegetable sellers as well as the food handlers are the two important groups who are at high risk of acquiring the infection. PMID:21602786
Zeehaida, M; Zairi, N Z; Rahmah, N; Maimunah, A; Madihah, B
Oxidative spoilage of lipid-rich foods decreases their shelf-life and leads to undesirable chemical and physical changes. Nowadays natural antioxidants are generally preferred. The major part of industrially used antioxidants consists of radical scavengers, which inhibit the oxidative chain reaction by inactivating free radicals formed during peroxidation of lipids. Aromatic and medicinal herbs are rich sources of natural radical scavenging compounds.
Many herbal supplements sold today are standardized by a specific chemical constituent or constituents, the presence of which is presumed to validate the botanical identity of the herb. This assumption, however, does not take into account the variability of occurrence for these constituents among other members of the plant kingdom. This paper discusses whether chemical constituents generally used for standardization
Sara L. Crockett; Ikhlas A. Khan
Electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence signals induced by gamma irradiation in some herbs, spices and fruits were systematically studied in order to detect the treatment. Using European protocols the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques are compared in regard to time of storage after irradiation.
J. Raffi; N. D Yordanov; S Chabane; L Douifi; V Gancheva; S Ivanova
The services made an official inquiry into the quality of herbs and spices in the Military supply system at the 12-13 January 1972 Armed Forces Product Evaluation Committee (AFPEC) meeting. As a result of this inquiry, it was recommended that the US Army ...
Y. Masuoka I. T. Nii E. M. Powers
A survey of aflatoxins in herbs and spices has been carried out and cooking experiments conducted to assess the stability of aflatoxin in spice sauces. Of 157 retail samples which included curry powders, pepper, cayenne pepper, chilli, paprika, ginger, cinnamon and coriander, nearly 95% of samples contained below 10 ?g\\/kg total aflatoxins and only nine samples had higher levels. The
Susan Macdonald; Laurence Castle
Obesity and the related disorders, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia have reached epidemic proportions world-wide. The influence of 70 plants, herbs and spices on peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)? activation or antagonism, a drug target for metabolic syndrome, was investigated. Approximately 50 different plant extracts bound PPAR? in competitive ligand binding assay, including pomegranate, apple, clove, cinnamon, thyme, green coffee, bilberry and
Monika Mueller; Alois Jungbauer
Trials were conducted to determine whether an analysis method for measuring phosphine residue using a headspace autosampler, which provides rapid analysis and easier handling, is equally applicable to herbs and spices and other kinds of grains as it is to wheat and small beans. For measur- ing residue levels, the optimal equilibrium time, best sample amount per vial, and impact
Takashi MISUMI; Hisashi KITAMURA; Tetsuo OOGITA
Inorganic dusts from different herbs and spices are investigated in this study using both standard thermoluminescence measurements of integrated intensity versus temperature and measurements of the thermoluminescence emission spectra (intensity as a function of both temperature and wavelength). The importance of particular minerals in the composition of glow peaks detected is discussed. Thermoluminescence emission spectra of the samples studied reveal
T. Calderon; V. Correcher; A. Millan; P. Beneitez; H. M. Rendell; M. Larssen; P. D. Townsend; R. A. Wood
Electron paramagnetic resonance and thermoluminescence signals induced by gamma irradiation in some herbs, spices and fruits were systematically studied in order to detect the treatment. Using European protocols the validity and effectiveness of these two techniques are compared in regard to time of storage after irradiation.
Raffi, J.; Yordanov, N. D.; Chabane, S.; Douifi, L.; Gancheva, V.; Ivanova, S.
Medicinal herbs provide prime source of primary health care in the northern mountainous parts of Pakistan in the Himalayas, Hindu-Kush and Karakorum mountain ranges. However, with the introduction of allopathic drugs, the use of crude drugs from medicinal plants is on the decline and subsequently, the pertinent traditional knowledge may be lost in the near future. During the present study
Muhammad Hamayun; Mir Ajab Khan; Muhammad Fayyaz Chudhary; Habib Ahmad
Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always
A. Alberti; U. Corda; P. Fuochi; E. Bortolin; A. Calicchia; S. Onori
The screening of Thai herbs and spices was carried out to investigate their in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. oryzaeand Penicilliumsp. by using agar well diffusion method. Of thirteen plants tested, crude ethanol extracts of three, namely Piper betel, Boesenbergia pandurata, Andrographis paniculata exhibited antifungal activity against all test microorganisms. Penicillium sp. was more resistant to the extracts
Penkhae Wanchaitanawong; Piyamat Chaungwanit; Ngamtip Poovarodom; Sunee Nitisinprasert
A field trial of five accessions of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell was conducted during 1997 to 1998, at Lucknow, India, to standardize cultivation procedures for domestication of this medicinal herb. The accessions, monitored for growth and bacoside-A yields over 18 months, could be maintained as perennials, but growth properties were sensitive to the growing season. Loss of shoot biomass occurred
S. Mathur; M. M. Gupta; M. Ram; S. Sharma; S. Kumar
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating peppermint are exposed during processing of this herb to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. The exposure to bioaerosols during processing of chamomile is lower; nevertheless, peak values create a respiratory risk for exposed farmers. PMID:16457486
Skórska, Czes?awa; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek
Herb mixtures including cannabis among the other herbs have recently appeared. When cannabinoids from herb extracts are detected by chemical examinations such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, forensic analysts have to determine whether cannabis is actually in the mixture or the cannabinoids are spiked. Morphological examinations are time-consuming, since it is difficult to find several pieces of cannabis among a large number of herb pieces using a microscope. Here, we propose a procedure for efficiently searching for cannabis in herb mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI/IMS). Pieces of herb mixtures were spread on double-sided adhesive tape attached to a stainless steel plate. The pieces were then covered with a conductive sheet and pressed. After a solution containing a matrix reagent was sprayed, the distribution of cannabinoids in the sample was visualized by MALDI/IMS. Then, just the pieces with cannabinoids could be picked up selectively with tweezers and decolorized. Cystolith hairs and trichomes, which are characteristic of cannabis, were observed in most of these pieces using a biological microscope. This MALDI/IMS procedure enables cannabis to be found in herb mixtures without inefficient random sampling and microscopic morphological examination. PMID:24838491
Kuwayama, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki
Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (?bmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.
Yu, Hong; Yu, Shenjing; Ren, Chunsheng; Xiu, Zhilong
The MEDLINE database is an important resource for locating up-to-date information on herbs and other botanical therapies. However, the evolving nature of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the complexity of herbal terminology can make it difficult to identify useful citations. This paper describes optimal search strategies for finding clinical information on herbs and medicinal plants in MEDLINE using the PubMed retrieval system. Searchers will benefit from an understanding of the structure of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and PubMed's advanced search capabilities. Details for using PubMed's MeSH Database, Clinical Queries, Clipboard, and limiting features to retrieve pertinent botanical research are described. Tables containing MeSH terms for medicinal plants and useful print and electronic resources are included. PMID:16131300
Saxton, Jane D; Owen, David J
The in vitro antibacterial activities of a total of 46 extracts from dietary spices and medicinal herbs were investigated by agar-well diffusion method against five foodborne bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Their total phenolic contents were also evaluated. Many herb and spice extracts contained high levels of phenolics and exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the tested extracts than Gram-negative ones. S. aureus was the most sensitive, while E. coli was the most resistant. There were highly positive relationships (R(2)=0.73-0.93) between antibacterial activities and phenolic content of the tested extracts against each bacterium. This suggested that the antibacterial activity of the tested extracts was closely associated with their phenolic constituents. PMID:17449125
Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold
ObjectiveGiven the increasingly common use of complementary medicine in cancer patients, we tested the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of 15 traditional Chinese herbs with purported anticancer properties on ovarian and breast cancer cell lines.
C. Bethan Powell; Philip Fung; Jim Jackson; Joe Dall'Era; Debra Lewkowicz; Isaac Cohen; Karen Smith-McCune
Time to Talk Tips What You Should Know About 5 Popular Herbs Herbal or botanical supplements are ... About Complementary Health Approaches for Quitting Smoking More Time To Talk Tip Sheets Home Home Page Contact ...
This publication contains a compilation of all available scientific and technical data on the irradiation of spices, herbs and other vegetable seasonings. It is intended to assist governments in considering the authorization of this particular application...
AimThe present study investigates the antioxidant effect of two extracts (hydrolyzed and non-hydrolyzed) of five herbs and eight spices in the prevention of LDL + VLDL oxidation promoted by cupric ion.
Gabriel A. Agbor; Joe A. Vinson; Julius E. Oben; Jeanne Y. Ngogang
In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1? and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory
Yuh-Chi Kuo; Chang-Ming Sun; Wei-Jern Tsai; Jun-Chin Ou; Wei-Perng Chen; Ching-Yuang Lin
Of the twenty-two components of tea decoctions commonly used to treat infections, only Scutellaria, Taraxacum, Tussilago and Glycyrrhiza exhibited antimicrobial activity. The activity, when present, was organism specific, i.e., anti-Staphylococcus aureus, including anti-MRSA activity under aerobic and/or anaerobic conditions. However, with the exception of Scutellaria, sub-inhibitory concentrations of the herbs exhibited a pattern of inducing enhanced production of biofilm. PMID:24427955
Lau, Denny; Plotkin, Balbina J
Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of the traditional Chinese herb danggui in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Our aim was to examine whether it might similarly be used to treat glioblastoma multiforme. Methods: The lipid-soluble active ingredients of danggui were extracted with acetone (AS-AC) or chlorophenol (AS-CH) and their antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects were studiedin vitro on
Wei-Hwa Lee; Jong-Shiaw Jin; Wen-Chiuan Tsai; Yu-Ting Chen; Wen-Liang Chang; Chen-Wen Yao; Lia-Fa Sheu; Ann Chen
Complementarity of the nature reserve network in southernmost Finlandwas examined using a simple heuristic algorithm and occurrence data of 75characteristic herb-rich forest vascular plant species in 126 protected and 120non-protected sites. Three different minimum sets were selected to represent 1,5, or 10 occurrences of each species. In each minimum set there weresignificantly more protected than non-protected sites. Thus, although efficiencyis
Risto K. Heikkinen
Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis ( B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis ( Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata ( Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732
Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N
\\u000a About 44 treatment schemes including 40 medicines prepared from Andean medicinal herbs to cure a great variety of diseases,\\u000a such as cancer and other serious illnesses, have been developed. The main problem is to choose a course of medical treatment\\u000a of any disease from this variety, depending on particular criteria characterizing a patient. A classification approach may\\u000a be used for
Leonas Ustinovichius; Robert Balcevich; Dmitry Kochin; Ieva Sliesoraityte
Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), a flavonoid originated from the root of a medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activities in various cell types including macrophages. In this work, we have found that wogonin is a potent neuroprotector from natural source. Wogonin inhibited inflammatory activation of cultured brain microglia by diminishing lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1?,
Heasuk Lee; Young Ok Kim; Hocheol Kim; Sun Yeou Kim; Hae Sook Noh; Sang Soo Kang; Gyeong Jae Cho; Wan Sung Choi; Kyoungho Suk
Some effects of dietary medicinal herbs mixture (HM), Massa medicata fermentata, Crataegi fructus, Artemisia capillaries, and Cnidium officinale, in the proportions 2?2?1?1 were identified in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. In an 8-week feeding trial, fish were fed with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0% HM in a moist diet composed of horse mackerel and\\u000a an artificial diet in equal parts.
Seung-Cheol Ji; Gwan-Sik Jeong; IM Gwang-Soon; Si-Woo Lee; Jin-Hyung Yoo; Kenji Takii
Two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (311), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-FABMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.
U. V. Mallavadhani; K. Narasimhan
Remote sensing of grass/herb quantity is essential for rangeland management of livestock and wildlife. Spectral indices such as NDVI, determined from red and near infrared bands are affected by variable soil and atmospheric conditions and saturate in dense vegetation. Alternatively, the wavelength of maximum slope in the red-NIR transition, termed the red edge position (REP) has potential to mitigate these effects. But the utility of the REP using air- and space-borne imagery is determined by the availability of narrow bands in the region of the red edge and the simplicity of the extraction method. Very recently, we proposed a simple technique for extracting the REP called the linear extrapolation method [Cho and Skidmore, Remote Sens. Environ., 101(2006)118.]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of the linear extrapolation method for estimating fresh grass/herb biomass and compare its performance with the four-point linear interpolation and three-point Lagrangian interpolation methods. The REPs were derived from atmospherically corrected HYMAP images collected over Majella National Park, Italy in July 2004. The predictive capabilities of various REP linear regression models were evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation and test set validation methods. For both validation methods, the linear extrapolation REP models produced higher correlations with grass/herb biomass and lower prediction errors compared with the linear interpolation and Lagrangian REP models. This study demonstrates the potential of REPs extracted by the linear extrapolation method using HYMAP data for estimating fresh grass/herb biomass.
Cho, Moses A.; Sobhan, Istiak M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.
An understanding of how selfing occurs and whether selfing incurs costs relative to outcrossing is necessary for an evolutionary analysis of self-fertilization. We used glasshouse and field experiments to address these questions in the perennial herb Bulbine bulbosa. Flowers did not autonomously self-pollinate, and geito- nogamy was unlikely because plants opened only one short-lived flower per day on average. Instead,
Kathleen Owen; Glenda Vaughton; Mike Ramsey
Shoot populations of the rhizomatous perennial herb Mercurialis perennis were studied in pure stands throughout a developmental cycle in a mixed deciduous wood in eastern England. Shoot cohorts exhibited exponential decay between May and October, with half-lives ranging from 2.1 to 7.1 months, although three out of five populations decayed at virtually the same rate. Differences in decay rates were
M. J. Hutchings
In the years 19861988 investigations were carried out on the influence of fertilizers on the mycorrhizal status of herb-layer plants of a mixed oak-pine forest in the Niepolomice Forest (Southern Poland). The site enrichment with N, P, K altered the frequency of mycorrhizal infection in most species investigated and decreased the percentage of colonized root cells. Some species disappear after
K. Turnau; J. Mitka; A. Kedzierska
Establishment and growth of three perennial herbs and a small tussock grass were studied in an experiment that provided simulated rainfall of 6 mm week?1 or 25 mm once per month and nitrogen fertilization in combination with the different simulated rainfall regimes. Wild onion, Allium macropetalum, failed to establish in plots receiving 25 mm month?1 simulated rainfall. The perennial composite, Bahia absinthifolia, occurred at higher
W. G. Whitford; Y. Steinberger
An efficient in vitro plant regeneration protocol for Swertia chirata Buch.-Ham. ex Wall (Gentianaceae), a critically endangered Himalayan medicinal herb, was developed using shoot tip explants\\u000a derived from in vitro grown seedlings. Media with 2% sucrose and various types of hormones markedly influenced in vitro propagation\\u000a of S. chirata. An in vitro shootlet production system using Murashige and Skoog (MS)
K. Balaraju; P. Agastian; S. Ignacimuthu
Head-Space Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) has been employed for sampling of volatile components and their volatile\\u000a decomposition products occurring in herbal medicines and herb extracts with subsequent injection into a gas chromatographic\\u000a column. The identification and quantification was performed by coupled gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with\\u000a classical splitless injection, electron impact ionization and a quadrupole mass analyzer. As
Jacek Czerwi?ski; Bogdan Zygmunt; Jacek Namie?nik
. ?Carex digitata and Melica nutans are forest understorey herbs with wide European distributions and their northern range margins in Fennoscandia. The species\\u000a have closely similar habitat requirements, occur in small populations in old forest stands on base-rich to neutral soils and\\u000a have restricted dispersal abilities at the present day. This study investigates the structure of allozyme variation (12 and\\u000a 8
T. Tyler; H. C. Prentice; B. Widén
Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis (?? Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis (?? Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae (??? J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa (?? Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium (??? Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis (??? B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis (???? Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix (??? Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata (??? Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata (??? Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba (??? Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug.
Muluye, Rekik A.; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N.
A rapid clonal propagation system for Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae), a rare folk medicinal herb has been developed. Various concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and a range\\u000a of auxins have been investigated for in vitro plantlet production, using rhizomes as explants. In vitro plantlet production has been achieved on 0.75 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 12 ?M BA, 3 ?M
Fatima Shirin; Sandeep Kumar; Yogeshwar Mishra
Inflammation plays an important role in various diseases with high prevalence within populations such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and asthma. Here we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of various fruits, herbs and spices in a lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage model. These compounds acted by reduction of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, enhancement of anti-inflammatory IL-10 production, or reduction of
Monika Mueller; Stefanie Hobiger; Alois Jungbauer
Yield potential of Italian parsley (Petroselinum crispum), Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) was evaluated in multiple harvests from 1993 to 1995. The herbs were grown using a full-bed polyethylene mulch-seepage irrigation system with three nitrogen and potassium rates. In the 199394 growth season, plant survival of sweet marjoram and thyme, but not Italian
A. A. Csizinszky
The antioxidant capacities and phenolic composition in six native, commercially grown, Australian herbs and spices were investigated. Tasmannia pepper leaf, followed by anise myrtle and lemon myrtle contained the highest levels of total phenolics (TP; 102.1; 55.9 and 31.4mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)\\/g dry weight (DW), respectively). Tasmannia pepper leaf exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay) followed
Izabela Konczak; Dimitrios Zabaras; Matthew Dunstan; Patricia Aguas
The effects of cooking and a combination of marinating (chicken) and cooking, on the lipophilic (LAA), hydrophilic (HAA), total (TAA) antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of seven popular herb- and spice-based marinating sauces were determined using ABTS\\/HRP decolorisation assay and FolinCiocalteu reagent, respectively. Marinating chicken prior to cooking had the greatest effect on antioxidant activity and phenolic contents. It
Raymond H. Thomas; Mark A. Bernards; Erin E. Drake; Christopher G. Guglielmo
Purpose: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture plus Chinese herbs in treatment of poststroke depression.\\u000a Methods: Forty-two cases of poststroke depression were treated by acupuncture plus Chinese herbs, and 30 cases of poststroke\\u000a depression were treated by Western drug as control. Results: After 6 weeks of treatment, the scores of Hamilton Depressive\\u000a Scale in two groups were all
Zhu Zhong-chun; Zhang Chen-guang; Yu Ming-zhe
Herb legumes have great potential for rehabilitation of semi-arid degraded soils in Sahelian ecosystems as they establish mutualistic symbiosis with N2-fixing rhizobia. A phylogenetic analysis was performed for 78 root nodule bacteria associated with the common Sahelian herb legume Zornia glochidiata Reichb ex DC in Senegal. Based on ITS (rDNA16S-23S) and recA sequences, these strains were shown to belong to
F. Gueye; L. Moulin; S. Sylla; I. Ndoye; G. Béna
In this study, antimicrobial activities of the four different extracts (in methanol, ethanol, n?hexane and water) of some herbs including Allium vineale, Chaerophyllum macropodum, and Prangos ferulacea were investigated against Listeria monocytogenes serovars 1\\/2b, 4b, and 4ab. For many centuries, these herbs were used in food production in Turkey. While water extracts of all the plants did not show any
Emrullah Sagun; Hisamettin Durmaz; Zekai Tarakci; Osman Sagdic
Eight laboratories participated in a Salmonella detection ring-trial which compared selective enrichment by conventional broths with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) using Dynabeads® Anti-Salmonella. Laboratories analyzed six types of herbs and spices that were spiked with one of six freeze-dried Salmonella species. Each herb and spice analysis comprised of 12 samples (25 g each) which had been spiked at three different levels,
Lucielle Mansfield; Steve Forsythe
Herbs and spices not only variety and racy flavour to Korean foods, they also are the richest source for antioxidant power. The present study evaluates the radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from commonly used herbs and spices in Korea. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of bay extract were 39.5% and 22.1%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was in order of dill (50.0%) > bay (31.3%) > garlic (27.9%) > white pepper and black pepper (15.1-15.3%) > onion (10.1%) extracts. Bay extract had the highest total phenolic content (17.86 ?g CE/g). High correlation coefficients were found between the total phenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R = 0.9162). These results indicate that herbs and spices had high antioxidant activity that is partly due to the phenolic compounds and provide basic data for further development of processed food products. PMID:22149899
Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mira; Goo, Tae-Hwa; Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong-Uk; Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam
As an opportunistic infection, candidiasis is common among individuals infected with HIV. About 90% of patients develop oral and/or oropharyngeal candidiasis in various stages of AIDS. Triazole antifungal agents, such as fluconazole and itraconazole, are considered to be first-choice agents for treatment and prevention because of their relatively low side effects and high effectiveness on mucosal infections. However, with prolonged exposure to azoles, drug resistance becomes a challenge for clinicians and patients alike. In traditional Chinese medicine, more than 300 herbs have been discovered to have "pesticidal" activities, and some of these have been used as antifungal agents in clinical practice for many years. Crude extracts from a number of medicinal herbs have been shown to exhibit antifungal activities in vitro. These include cortex moutan, cortex pseudolaricis, rhizoma alpiniae officinarum, rhizoma coptidis, clove and cinnamon, anemarrhena cortex phellodendri, ramulus cinnamomi, and Chinese gall. The effective anti-Candida principals were identified to be berberine, palmatine, allincin, pseudolaric acid A and B, magnolol, honokiol, and galangin. Thus, traditional Chinese medicinal herbs provide abundant choices for the treatment of refractory candidiasis commonly seen in HIV/AIDS patients. However, there remains a need for further screening of effective extracts and for study of the antifungal mechanisms involved. Importantly, ahead of clinical application, the safety of these compounds must be firmly established. PMID:21441482
Liu, X; Han, Y; Peng, K; Liu, Y; Li, J; Liu, H
This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567
Nahata, A; Dixit, V K
Catalytic therapy (CT) is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo). In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer side effects. The present studies demonstrate that a combined use of ascorbate and herbal extracts results in ROS production and a significant decrease in the number of cancer cells after a single in vitro treatment. Treatment with ascorbate in conjunction with extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs stimulated apoptosis and disrupted the cell cycle. The number of cells accumulating in the sub-G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle was increased 2- to 7-fold, and cells in G(2)/M increased 1.5- to 20-fold, indicating that the treatment protocol was highly effective in suppressing DNA synthesis and potentially reflecting DNA damage in the tumor cells. In addition, 20-40% of the cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of completing treatment. Our results suggest that herbal extracts can function as CT catalysts in the treatment of cancer. PMID:18955293
Rozanova Torshina, Nadejda; Zhang, Jin Z; Heck, Diane E
Catalytic therapy (CT) is a cancer treatment modality based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using a combination of substrate molecules and a catalyst. The most frequently used substrate/catalyst pair is ascorbate/Co phthalocyanine (PcCo). In the present work, herb extracts containing pigments have been studied as a catalyst in place of PcCo. Extracts from herbs are expected to have efficiency comparable with that of phthalocyanines but as natural products, to exhibit fewer side effects. The present studies demonstrate that a combined use of ascorbate and herbal extracts results in ROS production and a significant decrease in the number of cancer cells after a single in vitro treatment. Treatment with ascorbate in conjunction with extracts prepared from several medicinal herbs stimulated apoptosis and disrupted the cell cycle. The number of cells accumulating in the sub-G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle was increased 2- to 7-fold, and cells in G2/M increased 1.5- to 20-fold, indicating that the treatment protocol was highly effective in suppressing DNA synthesis and potentially reflecting DNA damage in the tumor cells. In addition, 2040% of the cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of completing treatment. Our results suggest that herbal extracts can function as CT catalysts in the treatment of cancer.
Zhang, Jin Z.; Heck, Diane E.
As an alternative to modern western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is receiving increasingly attention worldwide. Great efforts have been paid to TCMs modernization, which tries to bridge the gap between TCM and modern western medicine. As TCM and modern western medicine share a common aspect at molecular level that the compound(s) perturb humans dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological condition, the relationship between compounds (in herb, refer to ingredients) and their targets (proteins) should be the key factor to connect TCM and modern medicine. Accordingly, we construct this Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID, http://www.megabionet.org/tcmid/), which records TCM-related information collected from different resources and through text-mining method. To enlarge the scope of the TCMID, the data have been linked to common drug and disease databases, including Drugbank, OMIM and PubChem. Currently, our TCMID contains ?47 000 prescriptions, 8159 herbs, 25 210 compounds, 6828 drugs, 3791 diseases and 17 521 related targets, which is the largest data set for related field. Our web-based software displays a network for integrative relationships between herbs and their treated diseases, the active ingredients and their targets, which will facilitate the study of combination therapy and understanding of the underlying mechanisms for TCM at molecular level.
Xue, Ruichao; Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Shi, Tieliu
As an alternative to modern western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is receiving increasingly attention worldwide. Great efforts have been paid to TCM's modernization, which tries to bridge the gap between TCM and modern western medicine. As TCM and modern western medicine share a common aspect at molecular level that the compound(s) perturb human's dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological condition, the relationship between compounds (in herb, refer to ingredients) and their targets (proteins) should be the key factor to connect TCM and modern medicine. Accordingly, we construct this Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID, http://www.megabionet.org/tcmid/), which records TCM-related information collected from different resources and through text-mining method. To enlarge the scope of the TCMID, the data have been linked to common drug and disease databases, including Drugbank, OMIM and PubChem. Currently, our TCMID contains ?47 000 prescriptions, 8159 herbs, 25 210 compounds, 6828 drugs, 3791 diseases and 17 521 related targets, which is the largest data set for related field. Our web-based software displays a network for integrative relationships between herbs and their treated diseases, the active ingredients and their targets, which will facilitate the study of combination therapy and understanding of the underlying mechanisms for TCM at molecular level. PMID:23203875
Xue, Ruichao; Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Shi, Tieliu
Effect of aqueous extract of several herbs on human platelet aggregation in vitro was investigated. Out of 28 herbs/nutriceuticals investigated, camomile, nettle alfalfa, garlic and onion exhibited most significant anti-platelet activity (>or=45% inhibition). Aqueous extracts of alfalfa, fresh nettle, and camomile inhibited ADP induced-platelet aggregation by 73, 65 and 60%, respectively, compared with control (P < 0.05). Camomile and alfalfa inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation by 84 and 65%, respectively, but nettle could not inhibit collagen-induced aggregation. In contrast, nettle was the most potent inhibitor (66%) of whole blood aggregation induced by collagen, followed by alfalfa (52%), and camomile (30%) compared with control (P < 0.05). None of these three herbs however could inhibit arachidonic acid or thrombin induced platelet aggregation. Camomile and alfalfa strongly inhibited thromboxane B2 synthesis induced by ADP or collagen, but nettle had no effect. Alfalfa and nettle increased cGMP levels in platelets by 50 and 35%, respectively, compared with the control (1.85 +/- 0.23 nM) (P < 0.005). All these data indicate that camomile, nettle and alfalfa have potent anti-platelet properties, and their inhibitory actions are mediated via different mechanisms. PMID:16287614
Pierre, Saulnier; Crosbie, Lynn; Duttaroy, Asim K
Therapeutic interventions in prediabetes are important in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its chronic complications. However, little is known about the pharmacogenetic effect of traditional herbs on prediabetes treatment. A total of 194 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were treated with traditional hypoglycemic herbs (Tianqi Jiangtang) for 12 months in this study. DNA samples were genotyped for 184 mutations in 34 genes involved in drug metabolism or transportation. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that rs1142345 (A > G) in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene was significantly associated with the hypoglycemic effect of the drug (P = 0.001, FDR P = 0.043). The G allele frequencies of rs1142345 in the healthy (subjects reverted from IGT to normal glucose tolerance), maintenance (subjects still had IGT), and deterioration (subjects progressed from IGT to T2D) groups were 0.094, 0.214, and 0.542, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that rs1142345 was also significantly associated with the hypoglycemic effect of the drug between the healthy and maintenance groups (P = 0.027, OR = 4.828) and between the healthy and deterioration groups (P = 0.001, OR = 7.811). Therefore, rs1142345 was associated with the clinical effect of traditional hypoglycemic herbs. Results also suggested that TPMT was probably involved in the pharmacological mechanisms of T2D.
Li, Xi; Lian, Feng-Mei; Guo, Dong; Fan, Lan; Tang, Jie; Peng, Jing-Bo; Deng, Hong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Xiao, Xin-Hua; Wang, Yan-Rong; Qu, Ke-Yi; Deng, Sheng; Zhong, Qi; Sha, Yi-Ling; Zhu, Yan; Bai, Yu-Jing; Chen, Xin-Yan; Zhou, Qiang; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Tong, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Wei
In his classic study in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon, USA), one of the most botanically rich forested regions in North America, R. H. Whittaker (1960) foreshadowed many modern ideas on the multivariate control of local species richness along environmental gradients related to productivity. Using a structural equation model to analyze his data, which were never previously statistically analyzed, we demonstrate that Whittaker was remarkably accurate in concluding that local herb richness in these late-seral forests is explained to a large extent by three major abiotic gradients (soils, topography, and elevation), and in turn, by the effects of these gradients on tree densities and the numbers of individual herbs. However, while Whittaker also clearly appreciated the significance of large-scale evolutionary and biogeographic influences on community composition, he did not fully articulate the more recent concept that variation in the species richness of local communities could be explained in part by variation in the sizes of regional species pools. Our model of his data is among the first to use estimates of regional species pool size to explain variation in local community richness along productivity-related gradients. We find that regional pool size, combined with a modest number of other interacting abiotic and biotic factors, explains most of the variation in local herb richness in the Siskiyou biodiversity hotspot.
Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.
Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/19512007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (5001.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,5002,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.
Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.; Grace, James B.
Most herbs and functional foods have not been scientifically tested; this is especially true for the horse. This paper reviews some of the literature pertinent to herbal supplementation in horses and other species. Common supplements like Echinacea, garlic, ginger, ginseng, and yucca are not regulated, and few studies have investigated safe, efficacious doses. Ginseng has been found to exert an inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Equine studies have tested the anti-inflammatory effects of a single dose of ginger, post-exercise. Echinacea has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Yucca contains steroid-like saponins, which produce anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-spasmodic effects. However, some herbs have drug-like actions that interact with dietary components and may contain prohibited substances like salicylates, digitalis, heroin, cocaine and marijuana. Horses fed garlic at >0.2g/kg per day developed Heinz body anaemia. Drug-herb interactions are common and caution needs to be taken when implementing 'natural product' usage. PMID:17689992
Williams, Carey A; Lamprecht, Emily D
Herbdrug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herbdrug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herbdrug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions.
Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F
Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.
Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.
Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method.
Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge
Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ.
Herbs are a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids, which are known to exert various positive biological effects. However, there is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioavailability of carotenoids from commonly consumed herbs. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were first, to determine the carotenoid content of eight herbs namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill (Anethum graveolens), mint (Metha L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.); and second, to assess carotenoid bioaccessibility from these herbs using a simulated human in vitro digestion model. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food. The content of individual carotenoids varied significantly among the herbs tested. Carotenoid bioaccessibility varied from 0 to 42.8%. Basil and coriander, and their respective micelles, contained the highest levels of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein + zeaxanthin. Our findings show that herbs are rich sources of carotenoids and that these foods can significantly contribute to the intake of bioaccessible carotenoids. PMID:20443063
Daly, Trevor; Jiwan, Marvin A; O'Brien, Nora M; Aherne, S Aisling
A study of dried spices and herbs from retail and production premises to determine the microbiological status of such products was undertaken in the UK during 2004. According to EC Recommendation 2004/24/EC and European Spice Association specifications, 96% of 2833 retail samples and 92% of 132 production batches were of satisfactory/acceptable quality. Salmonella spp. were detected in 1.5% and 1.1% of dried spices and herbs sampled at production and retail, respectively. Overall, 3.0% of herbs and spices contained high counts of Bacillus cereus (1%, > or =10(5) cfu g(-1)), Clostridium perfringens (0.4%, > or =10(3) cfu g(-1)) and/or Escherichia coli (2.1%, > or =10(2) cfu g(-1)). Ninety percent of samples examined were recorded as being 'ready-to-use', 96% of which were of satisfactory/acceptable quality. The potential public health risk of using spices and herbs as an addition to ready-to-eat foods that potentially undergo no further processing is therefore highlighted in this study. Prevention of microbial contamination in dried herbs and spices lies in the application of good hygiene practices during growing, harvesting and processing from farm to fork, and effective decontamination. In addition, the importance of correct food handling practices and usage of herbs and spices by end users cannot be overemphasised. PMID:19028303
Sagoo, S K; Little, C L; Greenwood, M; Mithani, V; Grant, K A; McLauchlin, J; de Pinna, E; Threlfall, E J
Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the 80% methanolic extract as well as the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (BuOH) fractions of the wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp; Piperitum)) and cultivated fennel (F. vulgare var. azoricum). In addition, quantification of the total phenolic content in the 80% methanol extract of fennel wild and cultivated herbs is measured. Materials and Methods: An amount of 400 g of air dried powdered herb of wild and cultivated fennel were sonicated with aqueous methanol (80%), successively extracted with Hexane, EtOAc, and n-BuOH. The EtOAc and n-BuOH were subjected to repeated column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The antioxidant effect was determined in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Hepatoprotective activity was carried out using a Wistar male rat (250300 g). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined as chlorogenic acid and rutin equivalents, respectively. Results: Two phenolic compounds, i.e., 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside and 3?,8?-binaringenin were isolated from the fennel wild herb, their structures were elucidated by spectral methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and UV. The EtOAc and BuOH fractions of wild fennel were found to exhibit a radical scavenging activity higher than those of cultivated fennel. An in vitro method of rat hepatocytes monolayer culture was used for the investigation of hepatotoxic effects of the 80% methanol extract on the wild and cultivated fennel, which were >1000 and 1000 ?g/mL, respectively. As well as, their hepatoprotective effect against the toxic effect of paracetamol (25 mM) was exerted at 12.5 ?g/mL concentration. Conclusions: Fennel (F. Vulgare) is a widespread plant species commonly used as a spice and flavoring. The results obtained in this study indicated that the fennel (F. vulgare) herb is a potential source of natural antioxidant. Two phenolic compounds, i.e. 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside (A) and 3?,8?-binaringenin (B) were isolated from the fennel wild herb for the first time.
Ghanem, Mona T. M.; Radwan, Hany M. A.; Mahdy, El-Sayed M.; Elkholy, Yehya M.; Hassanein, Heba D.; Shahat, Abdelaaty A.
We evaluated the herb-drug interaction potential of Galgeun-tang (GGT) extracts, mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition/induction. Further, the effects of fermentation on the CYP-mediated herb-drug interaction potential of GGT extracts were determined. As measured by LC-ESI/MS/MS, GGT extracts (0-300?g/mL) showed no inhibitory activity toward eight CYP isoforms (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) in pooled human liver microsomes, suggesting that GGT may have low potential for herb-drug interactions mediated by CYP inhibition. Hepatic CYP expression and activity in rats treated with GGT extracts twice per day for 1week was examined. Among the tested CYP isoforms (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B1, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1), CYP1B1 and 4A1 were increased by GGT extracts. Hepatic activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase, and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase, but not midazolam hydroxylase were also elevated. These results raise the possibility that GGT extracts may increase the toxicity of environmental toxicants through the elevating CYP-dependent metabolic activation. Interestingly, the increases in CYP1B1 and CYP4A1 levels, and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase, and chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase activities were attenuated by fermentation of GGT extract using Lactobacillus plantarum KFRI 402, but not 144. Further studies are needed to identify the CYP regulatory component(s) from GGT and determination its metabolism. PMID:23104244
Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Kang, Wonku; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Park, Song-Kyu; Oh, Soo Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Sang Kyum
A simple and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb in andrographis herb by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. The samples were digested by HNO3-HClO4. The digestion-determination method was evaluated with the relative standard deviations for all these elements between 2.1% and 4.6%, and the recoveries were between 92.0% and 103.2%. The measuring method was proved to be simple, reliable and highly sensitive. The dissolution characteristics of the 6 heavy metal elements in different solvents and with different extraction methods such as refluxing, soaking, and ultrasonic assisted extraction were studied. The experimental results showed that Ba was in the highest concentration followed by Cu and Cr, and the concentration of As, Pb and Cd was relatively lower in the herb. With the increase in ethanol concentration, the dissolution amount of Ba decreased but that of Cu and Cr increased, and the highest concentration of Cd was dissolved in acidic solution. Overall, Cd and Pb were difficult to dissolve out with 85% ethanol refluxing, but As dissolved comparatively more under the same condition. Comparing the extraction methods, the higher concentration of these 6 metals was obtained by refluxing water or alkaline water than that by 85% ethanol maceration. These differences might be related to the existent forms of these six elements in the herb. The determination and study on dissolution characteristics of these elements by using ICP-OES was important for rational using medicinal resources and ensuring the safety of drugs. PMID:20384160
Tang, Rui; Li, Tian-Peng; Gu, Xue-Shi; Li, Yong-Jian; Yang, Yi
LPS (lipopolysaccharide), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and lipid A is known to be essential for its toxicity. Therefore it could be an effective measure to prevent sepsis by neutralizing or destroying LPS. Numerous studies have indicated that many traditional Chinese medicines are natural antagonists of LPS in vitro and in vivo. The goal of this study is to develop a rapid method to screen anti-sepsis components from Chinese herbs by use of a direct lipid A-based affinity biosensor technology based on a resonant mirror. The detergent OG (n-octyl ?-D-glucopyranoside) was immobilized on a planar non-derivatized cuvette which provided an alternative surface to bind the terminal hydrophilic group of lipid A. A total of 78 herbs were screened based on the affinity biosensor with a target of lipid A. The aqueous extract of PSA (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr) was found to possess the highest capability of binding lipid A. Therefore an aqueous extraction from this plant was investigated further by our affinity biosensor, polyamide chromatography and IEC-HPLC. Finally, we obtained a component (PSA-I-3) from Paeonia suffruticosa Andr that was evaluated with the affinity biosensor. We also studied the biological activities of PSA-I-3 against sepsis in vitro and in vivo to further confirm the component we screened with the biosensor. In vitro, we found that PSA-I-3 could decrease TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ?) release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, it increased remarkably the survival of KM (KunMing) mice by challenging both lethal-dose LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli compared with control groups. Our results suggest that the constructed affinity biosensor can successfully screen the anti-sepsis component from Chinese herbs. PMID:24654965
Yao, Jie; Chen, Yiguo; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Dongneng; Zheng, Jiang
In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid-solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validated sample preparation procedures were compared. Under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 70-119% for MSPD for most pesticides and 70-118% for LSE, but with several exceptions. Precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were ?16% for MSPD and <18% for LSE. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99254 for both methods. LODs (limits of detection) and LOQs (limits of quantification) for MSPD were within the ranges of 0.003-0.03 and 0.005-0.04 mg/kg, respectively. The data demonstrate that the MSPD method was successfully used for the analysis of 163 pesticides in the following herbs: chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), linden (Tilia), lungwort (Pulmonaria L.), melissa (Melissa L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This paper indicates the potential of MSPD for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues. This method was therefore validated at three spiking levels (the first ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg, the second from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg and the third from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/kg) and applied to real samples (n = 15). MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs. PMID:23670401
?ozowicka, Bo?ena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczy?ski, Piotr; Mici?ski, Jan
A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance.
Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.
Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n = 101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4 kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P < 0.0001; 6.29 RF vs. 6.98 RFS, P ? 0.0001). The RFS overall meal was liked as well as the FF condition. FF and RFS conditions were liked significantly more than RF conditions for each meal item. Liking of FF and RFS meatloaf and vegetables were not significantly different from one another. Pasta FF and RFS conditions were rated significantly differently from each other (7.33 FF vs. 6.61 RFS, P < 0.0001). Adding herbs and spices to reduced fat foods restored liking of the overall meal, meatloaf, and vegetables to that of FF conditions, and significantly improved the liking of RF pasta. Herbs and spices can be a useful tool to improve liking of foods consistent with national guidelines. PMID:24769295
Peters, John C; Polsky, Sarit; Stark, Rebecca; Zhaoxing, Pan; Hill, James O
LPS (lipopolysaccharide), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and lipid A is known to be essential for its toxicity. Therefore it could be an effective measure to prevent sepsis by neutralizing or destroying LPS. Numerous studies have indicated that many traditional Chinese medicines are natural antagonists of LPS in vitro and in vivo. The goal of this study is to develop a rapid method to screen anti-sepsis components from Chinese herbs by use of a direct lipid A-based affinity biosensor technology based on a resonant mirror. The detergent OG (n-octyl ?-D-glucopyranoside) was immobilized on a planar non-derivatized cuvette which provided an alternative surface to bind the terminal hydrophilic group of lipid A. A total of 78 herbs were screened based on the affinity biosensor with a target of lipid A. The aqueous extract of PSA (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr) was found to possess the highest capability of binding lipid A. Therefore an aqueous extraction from this plant was investigated further by our affinity biosensor, polyamide chromatography and IECHPLC. Finally, we obtained a component (PSA-I-3) from Paeonia suffruticosa Andr that was evaluated with the affinity biosensor. We also studied the biological activities of PSA-I-3 against sepsis in vitro and in vivo to further confirm the component we screened with the biosensor. In vitro, we found that PSA-I-3 could decrease TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ?) release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, it increased remarkably the survival of KM (KunMing) mice by challenging both lethal-dose LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli compared with control groups. Our results suggest that the constructed affinity biosensor can successfully screen the anti-sepsis component from Chinese herbs.
Yao, Jie; Chen, Yiguo; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Dongneng; Zheng, Jiang
Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089
Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit
Analysis of common volatile constituents in herbal pair (HP) Chuanxiong Rhizome (CXR)-Notoperygium root (NR) and its single herb was performed by the method of alternative moving window factor analysis (AMWFA). In total, 65, 71, and 79 volatile chemical components in volatile oil of CXR, NR, and HP CXR-NR were separately determined qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 83.69%, 96.04% and 95.39% total contents of volatile oil of CXR, NR, and HP CXR-NR respectively. Analysis by the method of AMWFA indicates that there are 45 common volatile constituents in HP CXR-NR and single herb CXR, and 63 common volatile constituents in HP CXR-NR and single herb NR and 31 common volatile constituents among these three systems. The experimental results also show that the number of volatile chemical components in HP CXR-NR is almost equal to the sum of the number in the two single herbs, and volatile chemical components in HP CXR-NR are mainly from single herb NR. PMID:18229618
Li, Xiao-ru; Zhou, Tao; Liang, Yi-zeng; Zou, Qiao; Zeng, Xiao; Zhang, Bin
A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 ?g kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens. PMID:22271101
Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia
Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777
Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Friedemann, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas
Free radicals are not only destructive to the living cells but also reduce the quality of animal products through oxidation. As a result the superoxide anion radical (O2?-), one of the most destructive reactive oxygen species, is a matter of concern for the animal scientists as well as feed manufacturers to ensure the quality of product to reach consumers demand. The superoxide anion radical scavenging activities (SOSA) of water and MeOH extracts of 2 herbs and 9 pasture samples collected from lowland and highland swards were determined against a 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyroline-N-oxide-O2?-spin adduct based on a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction using electron spin resonance spectrometry. Both the water and MeOH extracted SOSA differed among the herbs and pastures. Species and altitudinal variations were observed between extraction methods. The herbs were higher in both water and MeOH extracted SOSA than the pastures except for water extracts of one pasture, white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Among the pastures, quackgrass (Agrophyron repens L.) showed higher SOSA in both the MeOH and water extracts, and timothy (Phleum pretense L.) showed higher MeOH extracted SOSA. It is apparent that the kind and amount of antioxidants differ among herbs and pastures. Animal health and quality of animal products could be improved by adequate selection and combining of herbs and pastures having higher SOSA.
Al-Mamun, Mohammad; Yamaki, Koji; Masumizu, Toshiki; Nakai, Yumi; Saito, Katsumi; Sano, Hiroaki; Tamura, Yoshifumi
The fates of seeded Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on selected fresh culinary herbs were evaluated at a refrigerated temperature (4 degrees C). Fresh herbs, including cilantro, oregano, basil, chive, parsley, and rosemary, were inoculated with six-strain mixtures of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, and the microbial populations were monitored at 1, 5, 11, 16, 19, and 24 days. For both pathogens, a significant decrease in the population (P < 0.0001) occurred within the first 5 days of storage (< 0.8 log). Both pathogens remained the highest on cilantro and the lowest on rosemary (P < 0.0001). Storage time had a significant effect on the survival of E. coli O157:H7; populations declined as storage time progressed. Although storage of cilantro, basil, and chive was terminated after 19 days because of deteriorated quality, significant numbers of both pathogens were recovered from the remaining fresh herbs after 24 days of storage. The results showed that both bacteria were extremely persistent on all test herbs under the test conditions. The results also reinforce the concept that, once contaminated, bacterial pathogens can persist on fresh herbs throughout a normal distribution time. PMID:16924931
Hsu, Wei-Yea; Simonne, Amarat; Jitareerat, Pongphen
Herbal remedies are clearly a complementary and alternative modality used frequently by patients with hemato-oncological neoplasias during the course of their specific treatment. This review focuses on the potential safety and efficacy of herbs which are either used often or even on a daily basis by patients with hematological malignancies or indicated in the herbal pharmacopeias utilized by various traditional systems of medicine, in order to improve the well-being of patients with these cancers. Traditional medicine worldwide is a source for ongoing laboratory research related to the activity of herbs on cultured cell lines derived from patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. Although the number of clinical studies in the field of hemato-oncology is limited, there appears to be potential efficacy in studies of mistletoe (Viscum album), green tea, Indian and Middle-Eastern spices, and some traditional Chinese, American, and European herbs. In addition to the potential efficacy of herbs, safety issues are also reviewed here, particularly, the documented and potential side effects, herb-drug interactions, and matters of quality control. Based on the above issues, the authors suggest enhancing doctor-patient communication regarding herbal use by adopting a patient-centered attitude based on scientific perspective. PMID:20528250
Ben-Arye, Eran; Attias, Samuel; Tadmor, Tamar; Schiff, Elad
Obstructive jaundice (OJ) is classified as extrahepatic OJ or intrahepatic OJ. Extrahepatic OJ is attributed to a variety of intricate etiological factors. Research has begun with Chinese medicine (CM), which can be used as an adjunctive therapy for extrahepatic OJ. Particular attention has been paid to the therapeutic effects and their mechanisms of single CM herb and relevant extracts. The roles of single CM or their extracts during adjunctive therapy for extrahepatic OJ have been described briefly. This review focuses on the effects and their mechanisms of relevant herbal medicines. PMID:24474675
Zhang, Xi-Ping; Qiu, Feng-Mei; Wang, Xia
Mammals are hypothesized to either promote plant diversity by preventing competitive exclusion or limit diversity by reducing the abundance of sensitive plant species through their activities as browsers or disturbance agents. Previous studies of herbivore impacts in plant communities have focused on tree species and ignored the herbaceous community. In an experiment in mature-phase, tropical moist forest sites in central Panamá, we studied the impact of excluding ground-dwelling mammals on the richness and abundance of herbs in 16, 30x45-m plots. Within each plot, we censused the herbaceous community in 28, 2x2-m subplots (1,792 m2 total area sampled). We identified over 54 species of herbs averaging 1.21 ramets m-2 and covering approximately 4.25% of the forest floor. Excluding mammals for 5 years had no impact on overall species richness. Within exclosures, however, there was a significant two-fold increase in the density of rare species. Overall herbaceous density and percent cover did not differ between exclosures and adjacent control plots, although cover did increase over time. Mammalian exclusion significantly increased the total cover of three-dominant herb species, Pharus latifolius, Calathea inocephala, and Adiantum lucidum, but did not affect their density. This study represents one of the most extensive herbaceous community censuses conducted in tropical forests and is among a few that quantify herbaceous distribution and abundance in terms of both density and cover. Additionally, this work represents the first community level test of mammalian impacts on the herbaceous community in a tropical forest to date. Our results suggest that ground dwelling mammals do not play a key role in altering the relative abundance patterns of tropical herbs in the short term. Furthermore, our results contrast sharply with prior studies on similar temporal and spatial scales that demonstrate mammals strongly alter tree seedling composition and reduce seedling density. Thus, we question the pervasiveness of top-down control on tropical plant communities and the paradigm that defaunation will inexorably lead to widespread, catastrophic shifts in plant communities. PMID:16010533
Royo, Alejandro A; Carson, Walter P
A HPLC method was developed for the determination and identification of the berberine content in Coptidis Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and a related commercially prepared traditional Chinese medicine, Huang-Lian-Jiee-Dwu-Tang. Berberine was separated by a phenyl-bound column with two kinds of mobile phases of acetonitrile : methanol : 20 mM phosphate (35 : 20 : 45, v\\/v\\/v) and acetonitrile : 20 mM phosphate (30 : 70, v\\/v) for single herb and herbal preparation, respectively. Both mobile
Pi-Lo Tsai; Tung-Hu Tsai
This paper describes use of BIOPAK software with a library of equations that predict fuel size classes for shrubs and herbs in the Pacific Northwest. Fuel size classes can be estimated in three ways. When appropiate plant measurements are available, fuel classes can be estimated directly for species (or those of similar form) that have equations in the library. When appropriate plant measurements are not available fuel classes can be estimated in a two-step method provided in the software can be used to develop new equations that estimate fuels from plot-level estimates of species cover and possibly other measure.
Means, J.E.; Krankina, O.N.; Jiang, H.; Li, H.
As an invaluable herb, Dendrobium loddigesii is widely used in Chinese medicinal field. In order to develop a convenient and efficient identification method and investigate the genetic diversity and structure of this species, twelve microsatellite loci were isolated from two microsatellite-enriched libraries. Twenty-six individuals from Baise population were analysed. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.174 to 0.617 and from 0.182 to 0.608, respectively. These microsatellite loci characterized from D. loddigesii will contribute to research on the individual authentication, population structure, genetic diversity and conservation of this species and its similar species. PMID:23270273
Ding, G; Zhang, D; Ding, X
Italian parsley, Petroselinum crispum, summer savory, Satureja hortensis, sweet marjoram, Origanum majorana, and French thyme, Thymus vulgaris, were evaluated for potential yield in a multiple harvest system during the fall-winter-spring (Nov.-June) 19951996 and (Dec.-June) 19961997. The herbs were grown with a full-bed polyethylene mulch-micro-(trickle)-irrigation system using two nitrogen and potassium rates (0.68 N & 0.74 Kkg·ha·day and 1.8 N &
A. A. Csizinszky
Prolipid a known mixture of herbs is used as a plasma lipid lowering medicine. No side effects were registered. However, the\\u000a bioactive substances of Prolipid were not investigated. Therefore in this investigation Prolipids bioactive compounds and\\u000a antioxidant activity were studied. The contents of polyphenols and flavonoids were 19.87?±?2.09 and 3.09?±?0.31 mg gallic\\u000a acid equivalent GAE\\/g DW and 2.09?±?0.24 and 0.57?±?0.05 mg catechin
Zenon Jastrz?bski; Zev Tashma; Elena Katrich; Shela Gorinstein
Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern, (Family: Asteraceae) is a rapidly spreading perennial herb, considered valuable for the management of anti-inflammatory disease. Scientific reports dealing with phytochemical and pharmacological research and its traditional have been reviewed. Reports have also suggested that its prominent constituents viz. triterpenoids, sterols, flavonoids and lactones originate from this plant arbitrate their effects by modulating several therapeutic targets.Out of about 80 species of Pluchea, some of them are on extinct and only 16 have traditional uses in several countries of Asian, Middle East and North American region. The present review covers the period 1935-2011. PMID:22877846
Srivastava, Pooja; Shanker, Karuna
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a golden yellow, leafless, perennial, parasitic herb of the family Convolvulaceae. C. reflexa has been investigated for antispasmodic, hemodynamic, anticonvulsant, anti steroidogenic, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, cardiotonic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, cholinergic, diuretic and hair growth activities. Many chemical constituents have been isolated from C. reflexa such as cuscutin, amarbelin, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, kaempferol, dulcitol, myricetin, quercetin, coumarin and oleanolic acid. This review presents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and traditional and biological medicinal uses of C. reflexa. PMID:22409913
Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Dixit, Vinod K
Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C. nutans. In this study, the extracellular activity of C. nutans extracts against HSV-2 infected on HEp-2 cells was investigated in terms of its molecular aspects. HSV-2 was treated with the extracts and adsorped into the HEp-2 cells. After infection, HSV-2 DNA quantities in the infected cells were assessed and compared by the quantitative dot blot hybridisation technique. The results showed that treating the viruses with either less or more highly purified extracts before infection resulted in great reductions of viral infectivity. Further investigation was performed by Western blot analysis to determine the activities of the extracts on the viral proteins. At least eight viral proteins of the infected cell proteins (ICP) and some structural proteins, including 146, 125, 78, 69, 55, 44, 40 and 20 KDa proteins, were depleted and reduced gradually with higher and lower concentrated herb extracts, respectively. These suggest that the C. nutans extracts highly inactivated or inhibited HSV-2 before infection. PMID:20140802
Vachirayonstien, Thaveechai; Promkhatkaew, Duanthanorm; Bunjob, Malee; Chueyprom, Asawachai; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom
The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522
Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming
The content of nitrate in leafy vegetables, culinary herbs, and cucumber was determined during the years 2006-2008. All samples of Estonian origin, except white cabbage, were grown under cover. Seasonal differences in nitrate concentrations were observed in lettuce and spinach. Nitrate concentrations in lettuce were 22% and those in spinach were 24% higher in winter crops compared with samples collected in summer. The mean nitrate level was 3023 mg kg(-1) for fresh lettuce and 2337 mg kg(-1) for spinach. On average, 11.6% of fresh lettuce and spinach samples nitrate concentration exceeded the maximum level specified in European Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006. The mean levels were 999 mg kg(-1) for imported iceberg lettuce and 1287 mg kg(-1) for frozen spinach, which are below the maximum European Commission limits. Parsley, dill, basil, thyme, and rucola contained high concentrations of nitrate from mean levels of 2134 mg kg(-1) for parsley up to 8150 mg kg(-1) for rucola. Mean nitrate concentrations ranged from 382 to 1115 mg kg(-1) for white cabbage and Chinese cabbage, respectively. The per capita mean daily intake of nitrates related to the consumption of leafy vegetables, culinary herbs, and cucumber for the whole Estonian population was 31.3 mg day(-1), which comprised 14.2% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). PMID:24785500
Tamme, T; Reinik, M; Roasto, M; Meremäe, K; Kiis, A
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an innovative, clean and environmental friendly technology with particular interest for the extraction of essential oil from plants and herbs. Supercritical CO(2) is selective, there is no associated waste treatment of a toxic solvent, and extraction times are moderate. Further, supercritical extracts were often recognized of superior quality when compared with those produced by hydro-distillation or liquid-solid extraction. This review provides a comprehensive and updated discussion of the developments and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is normally performed with pure CO(2) or using a cosolvent; fractionation of the extract is commonly accomplished in order to isolate the volatile oil compounds from other co-extracted substances. In this review the effect of pressure, temperature and cosolvent on the extraction and fractionation procedure is discussed. Additionally, a comparison of the extraction yield and composition of the essential oil of several plants and herbs from Lamiaceae family, namely oregano, sage, thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram and marigold, which were produced in our supercritical pilot-plant device, is presented and discussed. PMID:22595519
Fornari, Tiziana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Erika; García-Risco, Mónica R; Reglero, Guillermo
Abstract Context: Marek's disease (MD) seriously threatens the world poultry industry and has resulted in great economic losses. Chinese medicinal herbs are a rich source for lead compounds and drug candidates for antiviral treatments. Objective: To investigate the anti-MDV activity and mechanism of 20 compounds extracted from Chinese medicinal herbs. Materials and methods: Antiviral assay, time of addition experiments, and virucidal assay were performed on chicken embryo fibroblast cells. The 50% cytotoxic concentration and 50% effective concentration were determined and, accordingly, selectivity index and inhibition ratio were calculated. Results: Antiviral assay showed dipotassium glycyrrhizinate (DG) and sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) exhibited significantly inhibitory activity against MDV in a dose-dependent manner. EC50 of DG and STS were 893.5?±?36.99?µg/mL and 54.82?±?2.99?µg/mL, and selective index (SI) were >3.36 and >9.12, respectively. Time of addition experiment and virucidal assay demonstrated DG inhibited viral replication in the full replication cycle and inactivated MDV particles in non-time-dependent manner, but STS interfered with the early stage of MDV replication and inactivated MDV particles in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, both DG and STS promoted apoptosis of cells infected by MDV. Discussion and conclusion: DG and STS have great potential for developing new anti-MDV drugs for clinic application. PMID:24920229
Sun, Yaogui; Niu, Li; Song, Meiqin; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Na; He, Junping; Wu, Caihong; Jiang, Junbing; Bai, Yuansheng; Guo, Jianhua; Li, Hongquan
Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries. PMID:23122119
Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R
In recent years, the interest in herbal medicinal products, especially in the field of dermatology and cosmetics, has risen enormously. Many plant-derived substances show photoprotective properties in terms of absorption of UV radiation and preventing photodamage to molecular structures of human skin. Modern phytopharmaceutics as well as phytocosmetics require standardized, defined extracts from the herbal matrix. Buckwheat herb is rich in flavonoids, which have been identified as potent antioxidants. Up to now, there have been no systematic investigations available concerning the extraction conditions for phenolic substances from buckwheat herb. In this paper, we report the influence of three extraction parameters, ethanol concentration, temperature, and extraction time, on the response variables extractable matter, antioxidant activity, and content of fagopyrin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid. Our results suggest that an extract with good antioxidant activity, a high content of phenolics, and a low content of the phototoxic fagopyrin can be yielded by agitated maceration with 30% ethanol at 60 degrees C for 2 h. Furthermore, there is good correlation between the antioxidant activity and the rutin content, whereas the extractable matter is not an appropriate parameter for extract quality. Huge differences in the content of rutin and chlorogenic acid when using herbal drugs from different suppliers confirm the demand of standardized procedures for the production of herbal drugs. PMID:15631500
Hinneburg, Iris; Neubert, Reinhard H H
In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fractionated samples from the ethanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Six fractions (isolated from Panax japonicus, Veratrum nigrum, Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Chaenomeles speciosa, and Dictamnus dasycarpus) showed significant effects on active reporter gene expression, three of which (isolated from Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, and Chaenomeles speciosa) were selected for further concentration response analysis and the half maximal effective concentration (EC1/2 max) values were 4.2, 2.7, and 4.8 µg/ml, respectively. Therefore, this reporter gene assay was suitable for screening ?2-adrenoceptor agonists. The results suggest that the six herbal extracts are the possible agonists of ?2-adrenoceptor.
Wang, Hui; Li, Shi-you; Zhao, Chuan-ke; Zeng, Xin
The aim of this study was firstly to identify active molecules in herbs, that are traditionally used for the treatment of snake bite, such as Curcuma antinaia, Curcuma contravenenum, Andrographis paniculata, and Tanacetum parthenium; secondly to test similar structurally related molecules and finally to prepare and evaluate an efficient formulation against Ophiophagus hannah venom intoxification. Three labdane based compounds, including labdane dialdehyde, labdane lactone, and labdane trialdehyde and two lactones including 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and parthenolide were isolated by column chromatography and characterised. Using the isolated rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, the antagonistic effect of crude extracts, isolated compounds and prepared formulations were measured in vitro on the inhibition of the neuromuscular transmission. Inhibition on muscle contraction, produced by the 5 ?g/mL venom, was reversed by test agents in organ bath preparations. A labdane trialdehyde, isolated from C. contravenenum, was identified as the best antagonising agent in the low micromolar range. Tests on formulations of the most potent C. contravenenum extract showed, that the suppository with witepsol H15 was an effective medicine against O. hannah venom. This study elucidated the active compounds, accounting for the antivenin activity of traditionally used herbs and suggested the most suitable formulation, which may help to develop potent medicines for the treatment of snake bite in the future. PMID:22460424
Salama, R; Sattayasai, J; Gande, A K; Sattayasai, N; Davis, M; Lattmann, E
Non irradiated and ?-irradiated dry herbs savoury ( Savoury), wild thyme ( Thymus serpollorium) and marjoram ( Origanum) with absorbed dose of 8 kGy have been investigated by the methods of elecrtron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and thermoluminescence (TL). Non-irradiated herbs exhibit only one weak siglet EPR signal whereas in irradiated samples its intensity increase and in addition two satelite lines are recorded. This triplet EPR spectrum is attributed to cellulose free radical generated by irradiation. It has been found that upon keeping the samples under the normal stock conditions the life-time of the cellulose free radical in the examined samples is 60-80 days. Thus the conclusion has been made that the presence of the EPR signal of cellulose free radical is unambiguous indication that the sample under study has been irradiated but its absence can not be considered as the opposite evidence. In the case when EPR signal was absent the method of TL has been used to give the final decision about the previous radiation treatment of the sample.
Yordanov, N. D.; Gancheva, V.; Radicheva, M.; Hristova, B.; Guelev, M.; Penchev, O.
Downscalingfromthe predictions ofgeneral climatemodels is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of howvariation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951-2007/ 2009) in a complexmontane landscape (the SiskiyouMountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 ??C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500-1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500-2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herbcommunity changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different andmoremodest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide communitylevel validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.
Harrison, S.; Damschen, E. I.; Grace, J. B.
A new renal disease called 'Chinese-herb nephropathy' (CHN) has been reported to occur in women who have ingested slimming pills containing powdered extracts of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra (ST). Moderate to end-stage renal disease developed, requiring renal replacement therapy by dialysis or transplantation. Phytochemical analyses of the pills revealed the presence of aristolochic acids (AA) instead of tetrandrine, suggesting the substitution of ST (Han fang ji) by Aristolochia fangchi containing nephrotoxic and carcinogenic AA. A typical histological feature of CHN is a progressive interstitial fibrosis leading to a severe atrophy of the proximal tubules, as documented by the urinary excretion rates of markers of tubular integrity (reduction of neutral endopeptidase enzymuria and high levels of microproteinurias). Removal of the native kidneys and ureters in end-stage CHN patients provided a high prevalence of urothelial carcinoma (46%). Tissue samples contained AA-related DNA adducts, which are not only specific markers of prior exposure to AA but are also directly involved in tumorigenesis. Exposure to Aristolochia species (spp.) is associated with the development of renal interstitial fibrosis (CHN) and urothelial cancer in humans. Health professionals should be aware that in traditional Chinese medicine, Aristolochia spp. are considered interchangeable with certain other herbal ingredients and are also sometimes mistaken for ST, Akebia, Asarum, Clematis spp. and Cocculus spp. in herbal remedies. PMID:12505369
Nortier, J L; Vanherweghem, J L
The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 to response towards exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and the extract reduced bioluminescence in E. coli [pSB401] and E. coli [pSB1075]. In addition to this, methanolic extract of P. amarus significantly inhibited selected quorum sensing-regulated virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Increasing concentrations of the methanolic extracts of P. amarus reduced swarming motility, pyocyanin production and P. aeruginosa PA01 lecA::lux expression. Our data suggest that P. amarus could be useful for attenuating pathogens and hence, more local traditional herbs should be screened for its anti-quorum sensing properties as their active compounds may serve as promising anti-pathogenic drugs. PMID:24169540
Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan
Centella asiatica herbs have been prescribed as a traditional medicine for wound healing in China and Southeast Asia for a long time. They contain many kinds of triterpenoid compounds, mainly including glycosides (asiaticoside and madecassoside) and corresponding aglycones (asiatic acid and madecassic acid). To identify which is the major active constituent, a comprehensive and comparative study of these compounds was performed. In vitro, primary human skin fibroblasts, originating from healthy human foreskin samples, were treated with various concentrations of asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid, and madecassic acid, respectively. Cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, MMP-1/TIMP-1 balance, and TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo, mice were orally administered with the four compounds mentioned above for two weeks after burn injury. The speed and quality of wound healing, as well as TGF-?1 levels in skin tissues, were examined. Interestingly, in contrast to prevalent postulations, asiaticoside and madecassoside themselves, rather than their corresponding metabolites asiatic acid and madecassic acid, are recognized as the main active constituents of C. asiatica herbs responsible for burn wound healing. Furthermore, madecassoside is more effective than asiaticoside (P = 0.0446 for procollagen type III synthesis in vitro, P = 0.0057 for wound healing speed, and P = 0.0491 for wound healing pattern in vivo, correspondingly).
Wu, Fang; Bian, Difei; Xia, Yufeng; Gong, Zhunan; Tan, Qian; Chen, Jiaojiao; Dai, Yue
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of Angelica sinensis extract (AE), Sophora flavescens extract (SE), and herb pair A. sinensis and S. flavescens extract (HPE). Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) was induced in rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide. The anti-inflammatory potential of AE, SE, and HPE in the regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), maleic dialdehyde (MDA), polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. HPE showed strong antibacterial activity at all tested concentrations (1.25, 2.5, and 5 ?g/ml) to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Shigella Castellani and Chalmers. HPE significantly inhibited EIU-induced upregulation of NF-?B activation and the production of IL-1?, TNF-?, iNOS, ICAM-1, and COX-2. Moreover, HPE suppressed MDA and infiltration of PMN. The study supports the hypothesis that the antipimple and anti-eczema activities of Dangguikushen compound recipe are attributed to herb pairs, A. sinensis and S. flavescens, used in combination. PMID:21976127
Han, Chunchao; Guo, Jianyou
The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 to response towards exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and the extract reduced bioluminescence in E. coli [pSB401] and E. coli [pSB1075]. In addition to this, methanolic extract of P. amarus significantly inhibited selected quorum sensing-regulated virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Increasing concentrations of the methanolic extracts of P. amarus reduced swarming motility, pyocyanin production and P. aeruginosa PA01 lecA?lux expression. Our data suggest that P. amarus could be useful for attenuating pathogens and hence, more local traditional herbs should be screened for its anti-quorum sensing properties as their active compounds may serve as promising anti-pathogenic drugs.
Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan
Current therapies for transplant rejection are sub-optimally effective. In an effort to discover novel immunosuppressants we used cytokine ELISPOT and ELISAs to screen extracts from 53 traditional Chinese herbs for their ability to suppress human alloreactive T cells. We identified a dichloromethane-soluble fraction (QMAD) of Qu Mai (Dianthus superbus) as a candidate. HPLC analysis of QMAD revealed 3 dominant peaks, each with a MW ~600 Daltons and distinct from cyclosporine and rapamycin. When we added QMAD to human mixed lymphocyte cultures, we observed dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation and IFN? production, by naïve and memory alloreactive T cells, and observed an increased frequency of Foxp3+CD4+ T cells. To address whether QMAD induces regulatory T cells we added QMAD to anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated naïve CD4 T cells and observed a dose-dependent upregulation of Foxp3 associated with new suppressive capacity. Mechanistically, QMAD did not induce T cell IL-10 or TGF? but blocked T cell AKT phosphorylation, a key signaling nexus required for T cell proliferation and expansion, that simultaneously prevents Foxp3 transcription. Our findings provide novel insight into the anti-inflammatory effects of one traditional Chinese herb, and support the need for continued isolation, characterization and testing of QMAD-derived components as immune suppressants for transplant rejection.
Reid-Adam, Jessica; Yang, Nan; Song, Ying; Cravedi, Paolo; Li, Xiu-Min; Heeger, Peter
Norovirus (NV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are foodborne enteric viruses associated with outbreaks of disease following consumption of fresh or frozen produce. Model experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of certain commercial processes for the removal of enteric viruses that might be present in berries and herbs. The survival and persistence of HAV, NV, rotavirus (RV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate for NV, in frozen produce over time were determined. Survival and inactivation of HAV, RV and FCV were assessed by viral culture and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), whereas NV persistence was determined by quantitative RT-PCR only. Freezing did not significantly reduce the viability of any of the viruses except the infectivity of FCV in strawberries. Frozen storage for 3 months had limited effects on HAV and RV survival in all tested food products, whereas in frozen raspberries and strawberries FCV infectivity showed the highest decay rate due to acid pH. To simulate postharvesting conditions, fresh berries and herbs were rinsed with tap, warm or chlorinated water or with a chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) solution. Available chlorine at a concentration of 200 ppm and ClO(2) at 10 ppm reduced measurable enteric viruses in raspberry and parsley samples by less than 2 log(10) units. PMID:18547667
Butot, S; Putallaz, T; Sánchez, G
Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as "irradiated") for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.
Alberti, A.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.; Bortolin, E.; Calicchia, A.; Onori, S.
Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein) from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals in chicken meat. Graphical abstract
The biological effects of extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs, Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum, on in vitro lymphocyte blastogenesis were assessed. Aqueous extracts augmented the spontaneous [3H]thymidine incorporation in the mononuclear cells (MNC) of 14 normal subjects from 273.0 to 609.3 counts per minute (cpm) and 252.9 to 656.9 cpm for the two herbs, respectively. The stimulation indices were 2.4 and 3.1, respectively (p less than 0.001). They also augmented the proliferation of normal subjects' lymphocytes induced by suboptimal concentrations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) from 5084.6 to 23,398.3 and 221.7 to 24,132.8 cpm, of concanavalin A (con A) from 4046.5 to 15,661.5 and 677.6 to 14,644.6 cpm, and of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) from 4377.9 to 24,405.6 and 322.7 to 11,730.0 cpm, respectively (p less than 0.00). Herb extracts augmented the PHA responses of the MNC from 14 cancer patients significantly (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively). Extracts of L. lucidum also augmented the con A response of patients (p less than 0.05). The augmenting effect of the herbs on the PHA, con A, and PWM responses was dose dependent, and proliferation was inhibited at higher concentrations. The optimal concentration for stimulating the MNC of cancer patients was 100 micrograms/ml, compared to 10 micrograms/ml for the MNC of normal donors. MNC of seven patients depressed the mitogen responses of normal cells in a co-culture system. This was partially abrogated in five by preincubating the patients' cells in herb extracts for 45 min or by irradiation of the patients' cells. These results suggest that the herb extracts contain immunomodulatory components which may be useful in the immunotherapy of disease. PMID:6644339
Sun, Y; Hersh, E M; Lee, S L; McLaughlin, M; Loo, T L; Mavligit, G M
In a field study, the influence of organic mulches viz. paddy straw and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) distillation waste on herb and essential oil yield and fertilizer N use efficiency in Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.) were examined for two years. Herb yield (dry weight) increased by 17 and 31% with paddy straw and citronella distillation waste, respectively over the
D. D. Patra; Muni Ram; D. V. Singh
Prior to clearcutting, the forest contained few herbaceous species, and net community production (NCP) of the herb-shrub stratum (vegetation below 1.5 m height) was low. Removal of overstory trees by clearcutting increased the number of herb species and N...
J. J. Stransky J. C. Huntley W. J. Risner
Valafridus Strabus, the author of the Latin poem entitled Hortulus (The Little Garden), lived in the Caroline epoch. He was a German monk and a poet and, for some time, he was connected with the famous Benedictine abbey at St. Gallen, which had a garden with curative herbs. He dedicated his best work, The Little Garden, to Grimaldus, the abbot of St. Gallen who was his master and teacher. This work, written in 444 hexameters, consists of 26 chapters which contain descriptions of 23 herbs such as sage, rue, lovage, mint and others. Apart from herbs, there are also descriptions of some vegetables grown in the monastery gardens, such as pumpkin, melon and celery. "The Little Garden" is one of the oldest and most highly valued documents of the medieval knowledge of herb-growing and their curative properties. It also gives us an idea of the arrangement of the medieval monastery garden in which herbs were grown. PMID:11771506
HPLC and LC-MS/MS were used to establish a comprehensive HPLC analytical method of Yinqiao decoction and identify the chemical constituents of the whole and individual herbs of Yinqiao decoction. YWG-C18 (250 mm x4. 6 mm ID, 10 microm) column was used; the mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile (A) and water ( B, with 3% acetic acid) with gradient elution; the flow rate was 1. 0 mL x min(-1) and the column temperature was set up at 25 degrees C. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. The chromatographic fingerprints of Yinqiao Decoction showed 30 main peaks. Peak 2, 14, 15, 17 were from Lonicera japonica Thunb, peak 3, 12, 13, 24 were from Fosythia suspense (Thunb) Vahl, peak 19, 25, 26, 27 were from Arctium lappa L. , peak 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 28 were from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, peak 20, 21 were from Mentha haplocalyx Briq. , peak 22, 23 were from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. , peak 1 presented in the chromatograms of Lonicera japonica Thunb, Fosythia suspense (Thunb) Vahl, Mentha haplocalyx Briq. , Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. and Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. ) A. DC. , peak 7 presented in the chromatograms of Fosythia suspense (Thunb) Vahl and Glycine max (L. ) Merr. , peak 16 presented in the chromatograms of Mentha haplocalyx Briq. and Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. , peak 29 presented in the chromatograms of the herbs except Mentha haplocalyx Briq. and Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. ) A. DC. , peak 30 presented in the chromatograms of the herbs except Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. ) A. DC. , peak 4 was not identified, maybe it was a new constituent produced during decoction. By comparison of the standards isolated and MS spectra, 14 peaks were identified as 2 ( chlorogenic acid) , 9 ( liquiritin ) , 10 ( 4'-O-[ beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1--> 2 ) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl] liquiritigenin), 12 (forsythiaside), 13 (rutin), 14 (4,5-O-dicaffeoylquiniic acid), 15 (3, 5-O-dicaffeoylquiniic acid ), 16 ( 4-0- [ beta-D-apiofuranosyl ( 1 -->2 ) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl ] isoliquiritigenin) , 17 ( 3, 4-O-dicaffeoylquiniic acid) , 18 (2'-O-[ beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1 -->2 ) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl] isoliquiritigenin) , 19 (arctiin) , 20 (linarin) , 25 (genistein) , 28 ( isoliquiritigenin) . The method could be used to identify the characteristics of Yinqiao decoction, and it could be used to evaluate the quality and quantity of Yinqiao decoction. PMID:17518050
Shi, Yue; Shi, Ren-bing
Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of anti-diarrhoeal herbs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in pigs. In Exp 1, 150 weanling-growing piglets (average BW = 7.5±0.24 kg, average age = 27±1 d) were allotted into one of the five dietary treatments, including: i) CON, basal diet, ii) DP, basal diet+1 g/kg date pits, iii) JH, basal diet+0.5 g/kg Japanese-honeysuckle, iv) HCT, basal diet+1 g/kg houttuynia cordata thunb, and v) LE, basal diet+1 g/kg laquer tree extract. From wk 0 to 5, the JH, HCT and LE groups presented higher (p<0.05) ADFI, ADG and gain/feed ratio (G/F) than CON and DP groups. During wk 5 to 10, Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets indicated higher (p<0.05) ADG and ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. During the entire experimental period, a significant increase of ADG appeared in JH, HCT and LE (p<0.05). Pigs fed JH, HCT and LE diets got a higher (p<0.05) ADFI than the pigs fed CON and DP diets. Pigs fed diets with supplementations of herb additives revealled lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhea pigs during d 2 to d 6 compared with pigs fed CON diet. In Exp 2, 60 growing-finishing barrows and gilts (average BW = 54.10±1.20 kg, average age = 54±3 d) were allotted to three treatments: i) CON, basal diet; ii) YG, basal diet+1 g/kg yellow ginger and iii) HR, basal dietary+1 g/kg hoantchy root, respectively. From wk 0 to 5, Dietary supplementation of YG and HR enhanced (p<0.05) ADG. No difference was found between YG and HR treatments. During, wk 5 to 10, ADG also was observed higher in YG and HR treatments than CON group (p<0.05). Additional, YG had the highest ADG (p<0.05) among treatments. There was always an increase of ADG in YG and HR (p<0.05) through all periods. HR treatment showed a lower (p<0.05) score of diarrhoeal pigs on d 1and d 2 compared with CON treatment. Pigs fed YG and HR diets had a higher (p<0.05) longissimus muscle area (LMA) than pigs fed CON diet. In conclusion, anti-diarrhoeal herbs can improve growth performance, and prevent diarrhea incidence in pigs, it can also increase LMA in finishing pigs.
Cho, J. H.; Zhang, S.; Kim, I. H.
The effect of Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) on immune response of carp was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing Astragalus (0.5%), Ganoderma (0.5%) and combination of two herbs (Astragalus 0.5% and Ganoderma 0.5%) for 5 weeks. Other groups of fish were vaccinated (i.p.) against Aeromonas hydrophila/Aeromonas salmonicida (Shering Plough, Essex, U.K.) at the beginning of the experiment and fed the same diets as described above. Control fish (negative control) and fish vaccinated only (positive control) were fed basal diets without supplements of herbs. The respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis, lysozyme activity and circulatory antibody titres in plasma were monitored. Following 5 weeks after feeding, fish were infected with A. hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. The results of this study showed that feeding non-vaccinated and vaccinated carp with combination of Astragalus and Ganoderma stimulated respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis of phagocytic cells in blood and lysozyme and circulatory antibody titres in plasma in vaccinated carp. Fish challenged with A. hydrophila had variable survival. The best survival (60%) was in vaccinated group fed with both herbs, while almost 90% of control fish (negative control) and 60% of fish vaccinated only (positive control) died. PMID:18817878
Yin, Guojun; Ardó, L; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Jeney, Z; Jeney, G
An extract of Achillea millefolium herb (YE) was investigated for antioxidant activity using chemical and biological assays. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of some major phenolics was carried out by HPLC. An on-line HPLC-DPPH assay showed that YE possesses significant antiradical activity which is due to the presence of active components amongst phenolic compounds. Furthermore, direct effects of YE and a
Sonata Trumbeckaite; Raimondas Benetis; Lina Bumblauskiene; Deividas Burdulis; Valdimaras Janulis; Adolfas Toleikis; Pranas Vikelis; Valdas Jaktas
Summary 1 Alliaria petiolata, a European biennial herb, is an important pest in temperate North American deciduous forests. Habitat resource structure has probably been important for invasion and proliferation of this species. 2 Alliaria was grown in an experimental garden at two densities (equivalent to 17 and 170 plants m?2), three nutrient levels (no, low, or high nutrient addition) and
J. Forrest Meekins; Brian C. McCarthy
Soil crusts of rosemary scrubs in south-central Florida were examined for effects on seed germination of four herbs that are killed by fire and must recruit from seed: Eryngium cuneifolium (Apiaceae), Hypericum cumulicola (Hypericaceae), Polygonella basiramia (Polygonaceae), and Paronychia chartacea ssp. chartacea (Caryophyllaceae). Biological soil crusts in these sites are dominated by algae, cyanobacteria, fungi, and bacteria. Because crusts can
Christine V. Hawkes
Effects of forest management and soil acidity on herb layer vegetation were studied after 10 years on 190 permanent plots in south Swedish beech (Fagus sylvatica) and oak (Quercus robur) forests. Species richness generally increased with management intensity, mainly due to establishment of ruderal species from the seed bank. Species richness of the typical forest flora was unaffected by management.
Jörg Brunet; Ursula Falkengren-Grerup; Germund Tyler
A new norditerpenoid alkaloid 9-hydroxysenbushine A has been isolated from the roots of high altitude Himalayan herbAconitumbalfourii by means of vacuum liquid chromatography and centrally accelerated radial thin layer chromatographic techniques and identified by means of MS, H and C?NMR spectral methods.
K. S. Khetwal; Sunita Pande
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated for the quality evaluation of a Chinese herb Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Danshen root) by chemical fingerprinting analysis. Meanwhile a novel sample preparation procedure has been designed which can simultaneously extract both the hydrophilic and lipophilic components for a single run LC system. Comparing to the conventional HPLC method, UPLC
Mei Liu; Yongguo Li; Guixin Chou; Xuemei Cheng; Mian Zhang; Zhengtao Wang
The present study was conducted to evaluate whether the aqueous extract of the herb, Phyl- lanthus niruri (PN) can effectively cure liver from nimesulide (NIM) induced oxidative stress in vivo. In our experiments, we have seen that administration of PN through intraperitoneal route is more effective in hepato-protection than oral administration. PN (100 mg\\/kg body weight) was, therefore, administered intraperitoneally
Mrinal K. Sarkar; Kasturi Sarkar; Rajesh Bhattacharjee; Mary Chatterjee; Parames C. Sil
In this study we characterized the distribution of herb and shrub species relative to landform and forest canopy attributes of streamside forests in the moist, conifer-dominated mountains of coastal Oregon. Species cover and environmental data were collected along transects at 94 sites. Species with relatively similar distributions were classified into 10 species groups to identify major patterns in the vegetation.
Robert J. Pabst; Thomas A. Spies
We have developed a simple electrochemical method to detect DNA damage caused by the photovoltaic effect of nano-TiO2. Meanwhile, we have found that resveratrol, a Chinese Traditional Medicinal Herb species, can have a repairing effect to the oxidized DNA, which can also be detected with the proposed technique in this paper.
Guifang Chen; Jing Zhao; Xinjian Liu; Ge Gao; Junyi Huang; Genxi Li
Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFN?-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100??g/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100??g/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFN?-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703
Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan
This article describes a laboratory exercise used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. The Indian herb, gymnema sylvestre, is used in this experiment to impair the ability of tasting sugar. As a result the impairment alters the perception of sweetness, which leaves a profound and lasting impression on students and gives them a better comprehension of gustation.
Joseph Schroeder, Ellen Flannery-Schroeder (Conneticut College, University of Rhode Island;)
Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFN?-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100??g/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100??g/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFN?-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.
Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan
Angelica glauca (Apiaceae), endemic to the Himalaya, is an endangered medicinal herb for which, beside in situ conservation, ex situ cultivation is recommended to overcome poor seed germination that limits natural reproduction in the species. To determine the germination potential of the species, the germination of seeds collected from several populations were measured. Germination in seeds treated with KNO3 and
Rajiv K. Vashistha; B. P. Nautiyal; M. C. Nautiyal
Aging is associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions, which trigger membrane leakage, release of reactive species from oxygen and nitrogen and subsequent induction of peroxidative reactions that result in biomolecules' damaging and releasing of metals with amplification of free radicals discharge. Free radicals induce neuronal cell death increasing tissue loss, which could be associated with memory detriment. These pathological events are involved in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and carcinogenic processes. Dietary bioactive compounds from different functional foods, herbs and nutraceuticals (ginseng, ginkgo, nuts, grains, tomato, soy phytoestrogens, curcumin, melatonin, polyphenols, antioxidant vitamins, carnitine, carnosine, ubiquinone, etc.) can ameliorate or even prevent diseases. Protection from chronic diseases of aging involves antioxidant activities, mitochondrial stabilizing functions, metal chelating activities, inhibition of apoptosis of vital cells, and induction of cancer cell apoptosis. Functional foods and nutraceuticals constitute a great promise to improve health and prevent aging-related chronic diseases. PMID:15547316
Ferrari, Carlos K B
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin action. We have explored the edible ingredients from folk medicines in Japan that contain substances complementing insulin action, such as the induction of adipocyte differentiation and the enhancement of glucose uptake. We eventually found that the ethanol extract from a Japanese herb "Ashitaba", Angelica keiskei, contained two major chalcones of 4-hydroxyderricin (4-HD) and xanthoangelol that showed strong insulin-like activities via a pathway independent of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation. The 4-HD especially showed the preventive effects on the progression of diabetes in genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. PMID:17583349
Enoki, Tatsuji; Ohnogi, Hiromu; Nagamine, Kinuko; Kudo, Yoko; Sugiyama, Katsumi; Tanabe, Masashige; Kobayashi, Eiji; Sagawa, Hiroaki; Kato, Ikunoshin
Skin hyperpigmentation disorders as a result of abnormal melanin production induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are both a clinical and a cosmetic problem. This melanin production is mediated by tyrosinase whose expression is positively regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). We recently found that expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inhibits melanin production. In this study, we searched for HSP70 inducers from Chinese herbs and selected an ethanol extract of Eupatorium lindleyanum (E. lindleyanum). Not only melanin production but also the activity and expression of tyrosinase were significantly suppressed in cells treated with E. lindleyanum extract as well as in HSP70-overexpressing cells. The expression of MITF was clearly suppressed in cells treated with E. lindleyanum extract but not in HSP70-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that E. lindleyanum extract suppresses the expression of tyrosinase and melanin production through both HSP70-dependent and HSP70-independent mechanisms. PMID:20163455
Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Matsuda, Minoru; Kobayashi, Chisa; Tominaga, Aya; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Nakashima, Koumei; Yokomizo, Kazumi; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Mineda, Kazutaka; Maji, Daisuke; Niwano, Yoshimi; Mizushima, Tohru
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed.
The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS. PMID:24716187
Waisundara, Viduranga; Yian Hoon, Lee
This study investigated the antibacterial efficiency of five spice and herb extracts (cinnamon stick, oregano, clove, pomegranate peel, and grape seed) against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica in cheese at room temperature (~ 23°C). The lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) of cheese was periodically tested by oxidative analyses. The results showed that all five plant extracts were effective against three foodborne pathogens in cheese. Treatments with these extracts increased the stability of cheese against lipid oxidation. Clove showed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The reduction of foodborne pathogen numbers and the inhibition of lipid oxidation in cheese indicated that the extracts of these plants (especially clove) have potential as natural food preservatives. PMID:21142945
Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold
The effect of thermal disturbance and site characteristics on the distribution of herbs was studied in portions of a 3020 ha wetland in the southeastern U.S. Data were collected from four sites with different disturbance histories. Rank correlations between DCA ordination scores and site characteristics indicate that species composition differences among sites were associated with disturbance. Within site differences are related to water depth and substrate type. For all sites along the disturbance gradient, species richness is greatest on consolidated muck. Fewest species occur on loose muck at the most disturbed site (x-bar=1.9), whereas at the other two disturbed sites, logs support fewest species (x-bar=4.1 and 4.2). After 18 yrs of revegetation at a fourth site, vegetation patterns are moderately correlated with water depth (r=0.52). The authors' results fit such mechanistic concepts as the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and the subsidy-stress gradient.
Scott, M.L.; Dunn, C.P.
In this study we investigated the hemolytic, antimicrobial, and phytoregulatory activity of various classes of lipids (triacylglycerols, free fatty acids (FFA), the glyceroglycolipids monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG)), sterols, all of them were obtained from the medical herb Kalanchoe diagremontiana, and also pigments, phenolic compounds (FC), polysaccharides, and ethanol extract (EE) of the herbal. It was established that EE, FC, FFA, and sterols display pH-dependent membranothropic activity. FFA showed antimicrobial activity and stimulated growth of buckwheat stalk sprouts. K. diagremontiana glyceroglycolopids did not display expressed biological activity. Caroteniods displayed pH-independent membranothopic action and antibacterial activity. Chlorophylls displayed antimicrobial action, but did not influence erythrocytes and buckwheat sprouts. Polysaccharides acted against the microorganisms Safale S-04, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysperum and buckwheat sprouts. PMID:20143626
Anisimov, M M; Gerasimenko, N I; Cha?kina, E L; Serebriakov, Iu M
The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907
Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D
Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a simple and cheap sample preparation procedure allowing for the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. The paper shows the possibility of MSPD application for qualitative and quantitative analysis of essential oil components in the following herbs: thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), mint (Mentha piperita), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and oregano (Origanum vulgare). The results obtained using MSPD are compared to two other sample preparation methods: steam distillation (SD) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The results presented in the paper prove that the total amount and the composition of the essential oil component obtained by MSPD are equivalent to those gained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. PMID:20071125
Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina
The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS.
Waisundara, Viduranga; Yian Hoon, Lee
Many temperate taxa were confined to warmer latitudes during the last glacial maximum. As their ranges expanded when climates warmed, genetic drift and inbreeding in relatively small peripheral populations are expected to have reduced genetic diversity and the segregating genetic load. Therefore, inbreeding depression in peripheral populations might be lower than in centrally located sites. We evaluated the consequences of inbreeding for fitness traits in six central and six northern peripheral populations of the herb Campanulastrum americanum. Inbreeding reduced performance for all traits. Inbreeding depression in peripheral populations was lower than in central populations. This difference increased across the life cycle from similar levels for germination, to central populations having three times the inbreeding depression for adult traits. Geographical patterns of inbreeding depression suggest that mating system variation and potential future mating system evolution in many temperate taxa might reflect, at least in part, nonequilibrium conditions associated with historic range changes. PMID:22519698
Barringer, B C; Kulka, E A; Galloway, L F
Trace and major elements were determined in medicinal herbs (Cynara scolymus, Matricaria chamomilla, Artemisia absinthium L., Achillea millefolium, and Inula britannica) as well as in rhizosphere soil samples. Based on the results obtained after microwave-acid-assisted digestion (nitric acid + hydrogen peroxide) and single-step extraction (ammonium acetate), the real and potential acidity and redox potential of the soils, uptake, mobility, and bioavailability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, chromium, lead, and cadmium are discussed. By calculating the bioconcentration factors and their deviation from the recommended values, elevated concentrations, were explained in terms of contamination and pollution. The concentrations measured in both plants and soil samples were below maximum allowable concentration ranges considered for the European Union. PMID:18408895
Razi?, Slavica; Dogo, Svetlana; Slavkovi?, Latinka
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a very commonly encountered urogynaecological entity in developing countries such as India. The most common cause of VVF in developing counties is secondary to obstructive labour. We report a very unusual case of VVF in a young woman that developed due to insertion of an unknown vaginal herb for treatment of primary infertility. Cystoscopy showed a single trigonal fistula measuring 3×2 cm just near the bladder neck. Vaginoscopy revealed cicatrised less capacious vagina and unhealthy vaginal mucosa. She was treated with transvaginal VVF repair using Martius flap interposition which leaked on 10th postoperative day. She underwent re-evaluation and another transvaginal fistula repair for small trigonal residual fistula after 3 months. She is doing well during the follow-up of 2 years. She attained sexual activity after 3 months of surgical repair but could not conceive. PMID:24092608
Paul, Sagorika; Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Kumar, Arvind
Although widespread among fungi, lichens, liverworts, and mosses, seed dispersal mechanisms operated by rain are unusual among flowering plants. Generally speaking, two mechanisms are involved in seed dispersal by rains: the splash-cup and the springboard. Here we describe a new seed dispersal mechanism operated by rain in a Neotropical rainforest herb Bertolonia mosenii Cogniaux (Melastomataceae). The study was carried out at the lowland Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil. We experimentally demonstrate that rain is necessary to release the seeds from the capsules through what we call "squirt-corner" seed dispersal mechanism: when a raindrop strikes the mature fruit, the water droplet forces the seeds outward to the angles (corners) of the triangular capsule and the seeds are released. As far as we know squirt-corner represents a new rain-operated seed dispersal mechanism, and a novel seed dispersal mode both for Melastomataceae and for flowering plants from Neotropical forests. PMID:21669724
Pizo, Marco A; Morellato, L Patrícia C
A total of 225 male broiler chicks (Cobb strain) of day-old age were randomly divided into 15 groups consisting of 15 chicks in each group. Group 1 was maintained as basal diet control and group 2 on ferrous sulfate at 0.5% in feed throughout 6 wk as iron toxic control without any treatment. Groups 3-15 were maintained on FeSO4 at 0.5% in feed for the 4 wk (28 days) of study and thereafter administered with different herbs and their combinations for the remaining 2 wk. The blood samples were drawn from wing vein at the end of 4th and 6th weeks from the birds in each group for the assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Sera samples were separated from the blood for the estimation of alanine transaminase (ALT) and serum creatinine. The birds were sacrificed at the end of 6th wk and tissues were collected for the assay of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and kidney homogenates. The activities of SOD, catalase and ALT, and the concentration of TBARS and serum creatinine were increased significantly (P<0.05), while the concentration of tissue GSH was decreased significantly (P<0.05) in all the groups as compared to basal diet control and the values showed significant improvement in groups 3-15 that were treated during the last 2 weeks. It is concluded that iron induces toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant herbs are useful in treating the iron-induced toxicity.
Ramakrishnan, V.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Reddy, A. Rajasekher; Haritha, C.
Despite washing and decontamination, outbreaks linked to consumption of fresh or minimally-processed leafy greens have been increasingly reported in recent years. In order to assure the safety of produce it is necessary to gain knowledge regarding the exact routes of contamination. Leaf internalization through stomata was previously reported as a potential route of contamination, which renders food-borne pathogens protected from washing and disinfection by sanitizers. In the present study we have examined the incidence (percentage of microscopic fields harboring ? 1 GFP-tagged bacteria) of Salmonella Typhimurium on the surface and underneath the epidermis in detached leaves of seven vegetables and fresh herbs. The incidence of internalized Salmonella varied considerably among the different plants. The highest incidence was observed in iceberg lettuce (81 ± 16%) and arugula leaves (88 ± 16%), while romaine (16 ± 16%) and red-lettuce (20 ± 15%), showed significantly lower incidence (P < 0.05). Internalization incidence in fresh basil was 46 ± 12%, while parsley and tomato leaves demonstrated only marginal internalization (1.9 ± 3.3% and 0.56 ± 1.36%, respectively). Internalization of Salmonella in iceberg lettuce largely varied (0-100%) through a 2 year survey, with a higher incidence occurring mainly in the summer. These results imply that Salmonella internalization occurs in several leafy vegetables and fresh herbs, other than iceberg lettuce, yet the level of internalization largely varies among plants and within the same crop. Since internalized bacteria may evade disinfection, it is of great interest to identify plants which are more susceptible to bacterial internalization, as well as plant and environmental factors that affect internalization. PMID:21262550
Golberg, Dana; Kroupitski, Yulia; Belausov, Eduard; Pinto, Riky; Sela, Shlomo
Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) and many other countries. However, products of animal origin originating from Asian countries entering the European market are still found noncompliant (containing CAP) on a regular basis, even when there is no history of chloramphenicol use in these countries. A possible explanation for the continued detection of these residues is the natural occurrence of CAP in plant material which is used as animal feed, with the consequent transfer of the substance to the animal tissues. Approximately 110 samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. In 26 samples, the presence of CAP was confirmed using the criteria for banned substances defined by the EU. Among other plant materials, samples of the Artemisia family retrieved from Mongolia and from Utah, USA, and a therapeutic herb mixture obtained from local stores in the Netherlands proved to contain CAP at levels ranging from 0.1 to 450 microg/kg. These findings may have a major impact in relation to international trade and safety to the consumer. The results of this study demonstrate that noncompliant findings in animal-derived food products may in part be due to the natural occurrence of chloramphenicol in plant material. This has implications for the application of current EU, USA, and other legislation and the interpretation of analytical results with respect to the consideration of CAP as a xenobiotic veterinary drug residue and the regulatory actions taken upon its detection in food. PMID:20431869
Berendsen, Bjorn; Stolker, Linda; de Jong, Jacob; Nielen, Michel; Tserendorj, Enkhtuya; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchas; Cannavan, Andrew; Elliott, Christopher
The aim of this paper is to assess the functional shifts of the herb layer in the submediterranean Ostrya carpinifolia coppiced forests (central Italy) along a coppicing rotation cycle. More specifically, the following questions were addressed: i) is there a pattern in functional trait composition of the herb layer along a regeneration chronosequence?; ii) which traits states differentiate each regeneration stage?; iii) are patterns of trait state variation related to the change of the environmental conditions? Species cover percentage was recorded in 54 plots (20 m × 20 m) with homogeneous ecological conditions. Relevés, ordered on the basis of the time since the last coppicing event and grouped into three age classes, were analysed with regard to trait variation, based on species absolute and relative abundance. Differences in light, temperature, soil moisture, and nutrients bioindicator values between consecutive regeneration stages were tested using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) revealed statistically significant separation between young and intermediate-aged stands with regard to most traits. Indicator species analysis (ISA) highlighted indicator trait states, which were filtered, along the chronosequence, by changes in environmental conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that light intensity had the greatest effect on traits states variation from the first to the second regeneration stage, while variation from the second to the third age classes was affected by temperature. Young stands were differentiated by short cycle species with acquisitive strategies that only propagated by sexual reproduction, with light seeds, summer green and overwintering green leaves, and a long flowering duration. Intermediate-aged and mature stands were characterized by traits associated with early leaf and flower production, high persistence in time, and showing retentive strategies aimed at resource storage (e.g., geophytes, spring green leaves, rhizomes, and mesomorphic/hygromorphic leaves).
Catorci, Andrea; Vitanzi, Alessandra; Tardella, Federico Maria; Hrak, Vladimir
Background and Aims Ptilotus polystachyus (green mulla mulla; ptilotus) is a short-lived perennial herb that occurs widely in Australia in arid and semi-arid regions with nutrient poor soils. As this species shows potential for domestication, its response to addition of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) was compared to a variety of the domesticated exotic perennial pasture herb Cichorium intybus (chicory), Puna. Methods Pots were filled with 3 kg of an extremely nutrient-deficient sterilized field soil that contained 3 mg kg?1 mineral N and 2 mg kg?1 bicarbonate-extractable P. The growth and P and N accumulation of ptilotus and chicory in response to seven rates of readily available phosphorus (0300 mg P pot?1) and nitrogen (N) (0270 mg N pot?1) was examined. Key Results Ptilotus grew extremely well under low P conditions: shoot dry weights were 23, 6 and 1·7 times greater than for chicory at the three lowest levels of P addition, 0, 15 and 30 mg P pot?1, respectively. Ptilotus could not downregulate P uptake. Concentrations of P in shoots approached 4 % of dry weight and cryo-scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis showed 35196 mm of P in cell vacuoles in a range of tissues from young leaves. Ptilotus had a remarkable tolerance of high P concentrations in shoots. While chicory exhibited symptoms of P toxicity at the highest rate of P addition (300 mg P pot?1), no symptoms were present for ptilotus. The two species responded in a similar manner to addition of N. Conclusions In comparison to chicory, ptilotus demonstrated an impressive ability to grow well under conditions of low and high P availability. Further study of the mechanisms of P uptake and tolerance in ptilotus is warranted.
Ryan, M. H.; Ehrenberg, S.; Bennett, R. G.; Tibbett, M.
Thujone is thought to be the main constituent of medicinal herbs that have antidiabetic properties. Therefore, we examined whether thujone ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Soleus muscles were incubated for < or =12 h without or with palmitate (2 mM). Thujone (0.01 mg/ml), in the presence of palmitate, was provided in the last 6 h of incubation. Palmitate oxidation, AMPK/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation and insulin-stimulated glucose transport, plasmalemmal GLUT4, and AS160 phosphorylation were examined at 0, 6, and 12 h. Palmitate treatment for 12 h reduced fatty acid oxidation (-47%), and insulin-stimulated glucose transport (-71%), GLUT4 translocation (-40%), and AS160 phosphorylation (-26%), but it increased AMPK (+51%) and ACC phosphorylations (+44%). Thujone (6-12 h) fully rescued palmitate oxidation and insulin-stimulated glucose transport, but only partially restored GLUT4 translocation and AS160 phosphorylation, raising the possibility that an increased GLUT4 intrinsic activity may also have contributed to the restoration of glucose transport. Thujone also further increased AMPK phosphorylation but had no further effect on ACC phosphorylation. Inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation with adenine 9-beta-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara) (2.5 mM) or compound C (50 muM) inhibited the thujone-induced improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 translocation, and AS160 phosphorylation. In contrast, the thujone-induced improvement in palmitate oxidation was only slightly inhibited (< or =20%) by Ara or compound C. Thus, while thujone, a medicinal herb component, rescues palmitate-induced insulin resistance in muscle, the improvement in fatty acid oxidation cannot account for this thujone-mediated effect. Instead, the rescue of palmitate-induced insulin resistance appears to occur via an AMPK-dependent mechanism involving partial restoration of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. PMID:20573988
Alkhateeb, Hakam; Bonen, Arend
The herb, Phyllanthus niruri has been known to possess protective activity against various drugs and toxins induced hepatic disorders. Present study was conducted to evaluate the role of the protein isolate of the herb against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cytotoxicity in mice hepatocytes. In vitro cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) leakage were measured as the indicators of cell damage. In addition, measurement of the level of non-protein thiol, glutathione (GSH); activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the extent of lipid peroxidation were carried out to evaluate the prooxidant-antioxidant status of the cell. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed to determine the radical scavenging activity of the protein isolate. Results showed that the administration of the protein isolate prior to TAA exposure significantly reduced the release of LDH and ALT leakage and enhanced the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes. Besides, the protein isolate appeared to prevent the alterations in GSH levels and activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes related to prooxidant-antioxidant status of hepatocytes. It also reduced the TAA-induced lipid peroxidation significantly as demonstrated by the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) production. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed that the protein isolate possessed radical scavenging activity. Combining, the data suggest that the protein isolate could protect hepatocytes from TAA-induced cellular injury probably by its antioxidative and radical scavenging properties. PMID:17913477
Sarkar, Mrinal K; Sil, Parames C
In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer has risen remarkably. Sun light, especially the included ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, is seen as important trigger for the development of skin cancer. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the development of UV-protective substances to use them as sun care products. One approach is the topical application of herbal antioxidants. Plant-derived antioxidants are often extracts and therefore contain a complex mixture of constituents, like flavonoids and polyphenols, which contribute to the overall activity of the extract. In the present study an extract from buckwheat herb was compared to rutin, which is the main constituent of the extract, regarding their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the photoprotective properties of the extract were compared to those of a commercial UV absorber. The antioxidant activity was quantified regarding the reactivity versus the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). The photoprotective properties of the extract were examined by the inhibition of the photosensitized lipid peroxidation of linolic acid. In the DPPH assay, the extract had significantly better antioxidant activity than pure rutin. The extract prevented more effectively the UV-induced peroxidation of linolic acid than rutin itself or the commercial UV absorber. The use of the extract from buckwheat herb seems to be more beneficial than the use of pure rutin. This can be referred to the presence of minor phenolic compounds in the extract. The results indicate that it is advisable to use antioxidants rather than only UV absorber to obtain a maximum of photo protection. PMID:16599267
Hinneburg, I; Kempe, S; Rüttinger, H H; Neubert, R H H
Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) and many other countries. However, products of animal origin originating from Asian countries entering the European market are still found noncompliant (containing CAP) on a regular basis, even when there is no history of chloramphenicol use in these countries. A possible explanation for the continued detection of these residues is the natural occurrence of CAP in plant material which is used as animal feed, with the consequent transfer of the substance to the animal tissues. Approximately 110 samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. In 26 samples, the presence of CAP was confirmed using the criteria for banned substances defined by the EU. Among other plant materials, samples of the Artemisia family retrieved from Mongolia and from Utah, USA, and a therapeutic herb mixture obtained from local stores in the Netherlands proved to contain CAP at levels ranging from 0.1 to 450 µg/kg. These findings may have a major impact in relation to international trade and safety to the consumer. The results of this study demonstrate that noncompliant findings in animal-derived food products may in part be due to the natural occurrence of chloramphenicol in plant material. This has implications for the application of current EU, USA, and other legislation and the interpretation of analytical results with respect to the consideration of CAP as a xenobiotic veterinary drug residue and the regulatory actions taken upon its detection in food.
Berendsen, Bjorn; de Jong, Jacob; Nielen, Michel; Tserendorj, Enkhtuya; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchas; Cannavan, Andrew; Elliott, Christopher
Despite the lack of sufficient information on the safety of herbal products, their use as alternative and/or complementary medicine is globally popular. There is also an increasing interest in medicinal herbs as precursor for pharmacological actives. Of serious concern is the concurrent consumption of herbal products and conventional drugs. Herbdrug interaction (HDI) is the single most important clinical consequence of this practice. Using a structured assessment procedure, the evidence of HDI presents with varying degree of clinical significance. While the potential for HDI for a number of herbal products is inferred from non-human studies, certain HDIs are well established through human studies and documented case reports. Various mechanisms of pharmacokinetic HDI have been identified and include the alteration in the gastrointestinal functions with consequent effects on drug absorption; induction and inhibition of metabolic enzymes and transport proteins; and alteration of renal excretion of drugs and their metabolites. Due to the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of phytochemicals, pharmacodynamic HDIs are also known to occur. The effects could be synergistic, additive, and/or antagonistic. Poor reporting on the part of patients and the inability to promptly identify HDI by health providers are identified as major factors limiting the extensive compilation of clinically relevant HDIs. A general overview and the significance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic HDI are provided, detailing basic mechanism, and nature of evidence available. An increased level of awareness of HDI is necessary among health professionals and drug discovery scientists. With the increasing number of plant-sourced pharmacological actives, the potential for HDI should always be assessed in the non-clinical safety assessment phase of drug development process. More clinically relevant research is also required in this area as current information on HDI is insufficient for clinical applications.
Fasinu, Pius S.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd
Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (1560 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as ecological clock for dating ecological processes.
Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) involves a broad range of empirical testing and refinement and plays an important role in the health maintenance for people all over the world. However, due to the complexity of Chinese herbs, a full understanding of TCMs action mechanisms is still unavailable despite plenty of successful applications of TCM in the treatment of various diseases, including especially cardiovascular diseases (CVD), one of the leading causes of death. Thus in the present work, by incorporating the chemical predictors, target predictors and network construction approaches, an integrated system of TCM has been constructed to systematically uncover the underlying action mechanisms of TCM. From three representative Chinese herbs, i.e., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang which have been widely used in CVD treatment, by combinational use of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening and network pharmacology techniques, we have generated 64 bioactive ingredients and identified 54 protein targets closely associated with CVD, of which 29 are common targets (52.7%) of the three herbs. The result provides new information on the efficiency of the Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD and also explains one of the basic theories of TCM, i.e., multiple herbal drugs can treat one disease. The predicted potential targets were then mapped to target-disease and target-signal pathway connections, which revealed the relationships of the active ingredients with their potential targets, diseases and signal systems. This means that for the first time, the action mechanism of these three important Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD is uncovered, by generating and identifying both their active ingredients and novel targets specifically related to CVD, which clarifies some of the common conceptions in TCM, and thus provides clues to modernize such specific herbal medicines.
Li, Bohui; Xu, Xue; Wang, Xia; Yu, Hua; Li, Xiuxiu; Tao, Weiyang; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling
The functionality of spring mountain herbs, which were collected in the Kajigamori mountain area of Shikoku area in Japan, was investigated in the course of our studies for utilizing local plant resources. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts from seventeen herbs was measured. Among these herbs, two extracts from Polystichym ovato-paleaceum (Japanese name: Tsuyanashiinode) and Sambucus racemosa subsp. sieboldiana (Japanese name: Niwatoko) showed potent DPPH radical scavenging activity. The material evidence for the potent activity of the extracts was studied by a combination of our developed method for detecting antiradical compounds, LC-MS/MS, and enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:22484936
Masuda, Toshiya; Inouchi, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Aya; Shingai, Yoshimi; Inai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Shoji
Danshen, a Chinese herb, reduces hypertension in Oriental medicine. We hypothesized that Danshen acts partially through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis using tanshinone IIA, an active ingredient of Danshen, and the two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension model in hamsters. Oral tanshinone (50 ÃÂµg/100 g body wt) reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 161.2 ÃÂ± 6.9 to 130.0 ÃÂ± 7.8 mmHg (mean ÃÂ± SE; P < 0.05) in hypertensive hamsters. MAP in sham-operated hamsters was 114.3 ÃÂ± 9.2 mmHg. Topical tanshinone at 1 ÃÂµg/ml and 5 ÃÂµg/ml increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.00 to 1.25 ÃÂ± 0.08 and 1.57 ÃÂ± 0.11, respectively, and increased periarteriolar nitric oxide concentration from 87.1 ÃÂ± 11.3 to 146.9 ÃÂ± 23.1 nM (P < 0.05) at 5 ÃÂµg/ml in hamster cheek pouch. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine inhibited tanshinone-induced vasodilation. Hypertension reduced eNOS protein relative to sham-operated control. Tanshinone prevented the hypertension-induced reduction of eNOS and increased eNOS expression to levels higher than sham-operated control in hamster cheek pouch. Topical tanshinone increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.0 to 1.47 ÃÂ± 0.08 in the cremaster muscle of control mice and to 1.12 ÃÂ± 0.13 in cremasters of eNOS knockout mice. In ECV-304 cells transfected with eNOS-green fluorescent protein, tanshinone increased eNOS protein expression 1.35 ÃÂ± 0.05- and 1.85 ÃÂ± 0.07-fold above control after 5-min and 1-h application, respectively. Tanshinone also increased eNOS phosphorylation 1.19 ÃÂ± 0.07- and 1.72 ÃÂ± 0.20-fold relative to control after 5-min and 1-h application. Our data provide a basis to understand the action of a Chinese herb used in alternative medicine. We conclude that eNOS stimulation is one mechanism by which tanshinone induces vasodilation and reduces blood pressure.
David Kim (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery); Fabiola SÃÂ¡nchez (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery); Ricardo G DurÃÂ¡n (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery); Takehito Kanetaka (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery); Walter DurÃÂ¡n (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery)
The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs.
Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu
Eignung von Thermolumineszenz-, Chemilumineszenz-, ESR- und Viskositaetsmessungen zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Arzneidrogen. (Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs).
Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae r...
C. Schuettler G. Gebhardt A. Stock N. Helle K. W. Boegl
Chlorophylls and their green and olive-brown derivatives were successfully separated from culinary herb extracts by HPLC with photodiode-array and mass spectrometry detection. The method involved a ternary gradient elution and reverse-phase separation conditions capable of resolving 24 different pigments (2 chlorophylls and 22 of their derivatives) of different polarities within 28 min. The method was applied to monitor color changes in 50 samples of culinary aromatic herbs subjected to five different drying treatments. Of the 24 pigments, 14 were key to understanding the differences between the primary degradation pathways of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in culinary herbs during drying processes. A color degradation ladder based on the total molar percentage of all the remaining green pigments was also proposed as a tool to measure the impact of drying treatments on aromatic herb visual aspects. PMID:24483726
Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefèvre, Stéphane; Lebuhotel, Julie
A total of 225 male broiler chicks (Cobb strain) of day-old age were procured for the study. The chicks were randomly divided into 15 groups consisting of 15 chicks in each group. Group 1 was maintained as basal diet control and group 2 on chlorpyrifos (CPS) at 100 ppm in feed throughout 6 wk as iron toxic control without any treatment. Groups 3-15 were maintained on CPS at 100 ppm in feed for the 4 wk (28 days) of study and thereafter administered with different herbs and their combinations for remaining 2 wk. The blood samples were drawn from wing vein on 28th day and 42nd day from the birds in each group for the estimation of lipid and protein profiles. The birds were sacrificed at the end of 6th week and liver tissues were collected for histological examination. The concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin and globulins and the A/G ratio were increased significantly (P<;0.05) in toxic groups (215), while high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly (P<;0.05) decreased at the end of 4th week. However, following supplementation of herbs and herbal combinations, the values of lipid and protein profile in groups 315 revived toward normal at the end of 6th week. Histopathology of liver in CPS toxic control (group 2) revealed areas of degeneration, while groups 315 that were treated with herbs and their combinations exhibited these changes in a milder form, indicating regenerative alterations. The study revealed that chorpyrifos-induced changes in lipid and protein profile were improved by supplementation of certain herbs.
Bharathi, P.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Reddy, A. Rajasekher; Alpharaj, M.
In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immuoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cell proliferation. The results indicated that 4 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human cells proliferation activated by IL-I? and IL-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as
Yuh-Chi Kuo; Chang-Ming Sun; Wei-Jern Tsai; Jun.-Chih Ou; Wei-Pern Chen; Ching-Yuang Lin
The effect of two Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Scutellaria radix) on non-specific immune response of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was investigated. Three-month-old tilapia with an average initial weight of 62.8±5.40 g were fed diets containing four doses of Astragalus radix (0; 0.1; 0.5 and 1.0%) and four doses of Scutellaria radix (0; 0.1; 0.5 and 1.0%) for 4 weeks. Respiratory
Guojun Yin; Galina Jeney; Timea Racz; Pao Xu; Xie Jun; Zsigmond Jeney
BackgroundPentaHerbs formula (PHF) containing Cortex Moutan, root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. (Ranunculaceae), Cortex Phellodendri, bark of Phellodendron chinensis Schneid. (Rutaceae), Flos Lonicerae, flower of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Capri-foliaceae), Herba Menthae, aerial part of Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (Labiatae) and Rhizoma Atractylodis, rhizome of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. (Compositae) at the ratio of 2:2:2:1:2 was useful in the management of eczema.
Ben Chung Lap Chan; Kam Lun Ellis Hon; Ping Chung Leung; Sze Wing Sam; Kwok Pui Fung; Mavis Yuk Ha Lee; Hang Yung Alaster Lau
The costs and benefits, measured in terms of dry weight, of physiological integration between clonal ramets, were analysed in two experiments conducted on the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. Firstly, integration between consecutively-produced ramets was examined in an experiment in which stolons grew from one set of growing conditions (either unshaded or shaded and either nutrient-rich or nutrient-poor) into conditions in
A. J. Slade; M. J. Hutchings
A multiple screening approach to detect compounds inhibitory to various aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) life-cycle has been applied to aqueous extracts of 19 herbs traditionally used in Chinese medicine as anti-viral agents. The extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 in a series of in vitro assays. The extracts were tested for inhibition
R. A. Collins; T. B. Ng; W. P. Fong; C. C. Wan; H. W. Yeung
Tribulus terrestris is well known for its medicinal importance in curing urino-genital disorders. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP),\\u000a selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and randomly amplified\\u000a polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used for the first time for the detection of genetic polymorphism in this medicinal herb\\u000a from samples collected from various geographical regions of
Maryam Sarwat; S. Das; P. S. Srivastava
The effects of the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of herb and spice pastes, holy basil and pepper-garlic, on minced salmon flesh waste stored at 4 0 C was determined over 12 days. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were performed to investigate quality changes and to determine the shelf-life of the products. The initial pH of the control sample was
Charupat Pakawatchai; Sunisa Siripongvutikorn; Worapong Usawakesmanee
A solar dryer for drying herbs and spices using hot air from roof-integrated solar collectors was developed. The dryer is a bin type with a rectangular perforated floor. The bin has a dimension of 1.0m×2.0m×0.7m. Hot air is supplied to the dryer from fiberglass-covered solar collectors, which also function as the roof of a farmhouse. The total area of the
S. Janjai; P. Tung
1.?The effect of the dietary inclusion of 5 culinary herbs or their essential oils on the growth, digestibility and intestinal microflora status in female broiler chicks was assessed. From 7 to 28?d of age, either a basal control diet without supplement was given or one of 10 others, consisting of the basal diet with either 10?g\\/kg herb (thyme, oregano, marjoram,
D. E. Cross; R. M. McDevitt; K. Hillman; T. Acamovic
Culinary herbs have the potential to be a significant source of antioxidants in the diet. However, many culinary herbs are\\u000a cooked or undergo some other form of processing before they are consumed as part of a meal and such factors may affect their\\u000a significance as a source of dietary antioxidants. Thus, the impact of cooking (simmering, microwaving, stewing, stir frying
Magali Chohan; Gary Forster-Wilkins; Elizabeth I. Opara
Ocimum sanctum (OS) is a traditionally used medicinal herb, which shows anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, radio-protective and free radical scavenging properties. So far no detailed studies have been reported on its effects on human cancers. Thus, we analyzed its effects on human breast cancer utilizing in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Aqueous extracts were prepared from the mature leaves of Ocimum sanctum cultivated devoid of pesticides. Tumor progression and angiogenesis related processes like chemotaxis, proliferation, apoptosis, 3-dimensional growth and morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth were studied in the presence or absence of the extract and in some experiments a comparison was made with purified commercially available eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid. Aqueous OS leaf extract inhibits proliferation, migration, anchorage independent growth, three dimensional growth and morphogenesis, and induction of COX-2 protein in breast cancer cells. A comparative analysis with eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid showed that the inhibitory effects on chemotaxis and three dimensional morphogenesis of breast cancer cells were specific to OS extract. In addition, OS extracts also reduced tumor size and neoangiogenesis in a MCF10 DCIS.com xenograft model of human DCIS. This is the first detailed report showing that OS leaf extract may be of value as a breast cancer preventive and therapeutic agent and might be considered as additional additive in the arsenal of components aiming at combating breast cancer progression and metastasis.
Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Tait, Larry; Hogan, Victor; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Raz, Avraham
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice herb that belongs to umbel family Apiaceae with diversified uses. We investigated the extent of variability among 22 Indian varieties of coriander using phenotypic and genetic markers. Multilocus genotyping by nine RAPD primers detected an average of intraspecific variations amounting to 66.18% polymorphism in banding patterns. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a greater proportion of total genetic variation exists within population (98%) rather than among populations (2%). Higher values of Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon Information Index (i) and genetic distance analysis validate wider genetic diversity among Indian coriander varieties. Besides total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) length variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions/deletions (INDELS) were detected at seven sites in ITS-1 region. Multiple sequence alignment of 12 sequenced varieties revealed cent per cent identities of 5.8S gene region (162 bp) that validates its conserved nature. Multiple sequence alignment of ITS-1 region may be of phylogenetic significance in distinguishing and cataloguing of coriander germplasm. The representative sequences of each subgroup and all distinct varieties of RAPD clusters have been submitted to NCBI database and assigned Gen Accession numbers HQ 377194-377205. The measures of relative genetic distances among the varieties of coriander did not completely correlate the geographical places of their development. Eventually, the knowledge of their genetic relationships and DNA bar coding will be of significance. PMID:23360008
Singh, S K; Kakani, R K; Meena, R S; Pancholy, Anjly; Pathak, Rakesh; Raturi, Aparna
The increase of allergic diseases has accompanied the global population growth and the major challenge is to reduce morbidity. The currently available treatments present limitations regarding efficacy and safety. Hence, patients with chronic allergic conditions seek alternatives to achieve better control of symptoms. Many natural products have been identified as potential anti-allergic agents. In addition, plant formulations have demonstrated, in general, to be safe in clinical trials and demonstrate additional effects along with Western medicines such as synergism and modulation of the immune system. It is known that plants represent a source of new therapeutic agents and some of them have shown mechanisms of action similar to synthetic agents. However, in general, herbs and their combination are patented mainly by Asian countries to be used in food and drinks or cosmetics and dietary supplements and the anti-allergic mechanisms of action are not yet fully elucidated. In this review, we highlight relevant patent and studies with cultivated plants, plant formulations, and secondary metabolites that have been evaluated with respect to its anti-allergic potential. PMID:22946460
Cota, Betania B; Bertollo, Caryne M; de Oliveira, Djalma M
Because it is well known that endothelin (ET) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, antagonists of ET for clinical use are very important. Because ET and some snake toxins have a homologous structure and similar biologic actions the effect of Chinese anti-snake venom herbal medicines on ET bioactivity was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Hong Bei Si Chou [Cissus assamica (Laws.) Craib] is a herbal medicine used to treat snake bite in Guangxi province. It was found that all the different fractions of EtOH extraction, the EtOAc part of the EtOH extraction, and resverotrol (3,4'5-trihydroxytransstilbene) isolated from the EtOAc part could antagonize ET both in vivo and in vitro. These three fractions transiently relaxed ET-contracted isolated rat aortic ring in a dose-dependent manner. They also antagonized the lethal effects of ET-1 in mice and inhibited blood pressure elevation induced by ET-1. The results have shown that it is possible to find ET antagonists in Chinese anti-snake venom medicinal herbs. In the future, our work should shed new light on the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in which ET is involved. PMID:9595451
Yang, L C; Wang, F; Liu, M
Eighteen allozyme loci were used to examine genetic diversity in 10 natural populations of Sarracenia leucophylla Raf., a pitcher plant restricted to the southeastern United States. One ex situ population propagated for restoration in Georgia was also analyzed. S. leucophylla is an insect-pollinated, outcrossing perennial wetland herb that is threatened over much of its geographic range. Fifteen loci (83.3%) were polymorphic, with a mean number of alleles of 3.33. Compared to species having similar life-history traits and to previously analyzed Sarracenia species, S. leucophylla displayed unexpectedly high genetic diversity. For example, genetic diversity within the species (Hes) was 0.224 and mean population genetic diversity (Hep) was 0.183. Although small S. leucophylla populations maintained less genetic diversity than larger ones, these differences were not statistically significant. Nonetheless, this suggests that small populations may have lost rare alleles. Statistically significant genetic differentiation among populations was found (theta = 0.192, P < .01), although it was not atypical considering the species' life-history characteristics. A significant correlation (P < .01) between genetic and geographic distance was found, indicating an isolation-by-distance effect. However, the correlation coefficient for this relationship was low (r = 0.46), suggesting that factors other than gene flow play a prominent role in the geographic distribution of genetic diversity within the species. The ex situ population captured most of the allozyme variation found in its source population. PMID:15220390
Wang, Z-F; Hamrick, J L; Godt, M J W
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint of Chinese Angelica (CA) was developed basing on the consistent chromatograms of 40 CA samples (Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels). The unique properties of this HPLC fingerprints were validated by analyzing 13 related herbs including 4 Japanese Angelicae Root samples (JA, A. acutiloba Kitagawa and A. acutiloba Kitagawa var. sugiyame Hikino), 6 Szechwan Lovage Rhizome samples (SL, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.) and 3 Cnidium Rhizome samples (CR, Cnidium officinale Makino). Both correlation coefficients of similarity in chromatograms and relative peak areas of characteristic compounds were calculated for quantitative expression of the HPLC fingerprints. The amount of senkyunolide A in CA was less than 30-fold of that in SL and CR samples, which was used as a chemical marker to distinguish them. JA was easily distinguished from CA, SL and CR based on either chromatographic patterns or the amount of coniferyl ferulate. No obvious difference between SL and CR chromatograms except the relative amount of some compounds, suggesting that SL and CR might have very close relationship in terms of chemotaxonomy. Ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide were unequivocally determined whilst senkyunolide I, senkyunolide H, coniferyl ferulate, senkyunolide A, butylphthalide, E-ligustilide, E-butylidenephthalide, Z-butylidenephthalide and levistolide A were tentatively identified in chromatograms based on their atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) MS data and the comparison of their UV spectra with those published in literatures. PMID:15909545
Lu, Guang-Hua; Chan, Kelvin; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Leung, Kelvin; Chan, Chi-Leung; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen
The current study was designed to investigate the effect of madecassoside, the major triterpene in CENTELLA ASIATICA, on burn wound healing and its possible mechanism of action. An oral administration of madecassoside (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) facilitated wound closure in a time-dependent manner and reached its peak effect, nearly completely wound closure, on day 20 in the group receiving the highest dose of 24 mg/kg of madecassoside. Further histopathological analysis revealed that madecassoside alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as enhanced epithelisation resulting from dermal proliferation of fibroblasts. Madecassoside at higher doses (12 and 24 mg/kg) decreased nitric oxide (NO) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the burn skin tissue. However, reduced glutathione (GSH) and hydroxyproline levels were increased in the same skin tissue. In addition, madecassoside promoted skin angiogenesis IN VIVO, correlating with our findings IN VITRO that it stimulated endothelial cell growth in a rat aortic ring assay. These data suggest that madecassoside has significant wound-healing activity and is one of the major reasons for the use of C. ASIATICA herbs in the successful treatment of burn injury. Moreover, the results from the present study indicate that the effect of madecassoside on wound healing may involve several mechanisms including antioxidative activity, collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. PMID:18484522
Liu, Mei; Dai, Yue; Li, Ying; Luo, Yubin; Huang, Fang; Gong, Zhunan; Meng, Qingyu
Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ?75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations.
Herrera, Carlos M.; Medrano, Monica; Bazaga, Pilar
Abstract There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1). Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital) and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin) substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB. PMID:24914722
Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska, Beata; Grzeskowiak, Edmund
Marginal grassland fragments, such as road verges and field margins, may act as important supplemental habitats for grassland plants in the modern agricultural landscape. However, abundance of pollinators in such fragments has been found to decline with distance to larger natural and semi-natural habitats, and this could have corresponding effects on plant pollination. In this study, we performed a field experiment on road verges with three insect-pollinated grassland herbs to examine the relationship between distance to semi-natural grassland and plant reproductive success in two landscapes with contrasting farming intensities. In Lychnis viscaria and Lotus corniculatus, seed production tended to decrease with increasing distance to semi-natural grassland, but only in the landscape with high farming intensity. Seed production in Armeria maritima spp. maritima decreased with distance in both landscapes. Although many studies have investigated effects of natural habitat on crop pollination, little is known about the impact on pollination in native plants. The results from this study indicate that management of semi-natural grasslands improves not only biodiversity within the actual grassland but also pollination of native plants in the surrounding agricultural landscape. PMID:24562471
Jakobsson, Anna; Ågren, Jon
Hypothetically, a species with both cleistogamous (CL) flowers and delayed selfing chasmogamous (CH) flowers should display high levels of reproductive assurance because, over time, obligate selfing by CL flowers should reduce inbreeding depression and delayed selfing in CH flowers should compensate for the absence of outcross pollen. We used pollinator-exclusion experiments to investigate reproductive assurance in the CH flowers of Polygala lewtonii, an herb with a mixed mating system. We followed CH flowers from bud-break to flower/fruit abscission to quantify fruit initiation and maturation and rates of floral development. We also evaluated the efficacy of the selfing mechanism, conducted pollinator watches to assess the likelihood of pollinator limitation, and performed regression analysis to determine the effect of flower position on fruit production. Pollinator exclusion significantly reduced fruit initiation and maturation. Investigation of floral development demonstrated that the selfing mechanism is largely dysfunctional in CH flowers, indicating the failure of reproductive assurance. Low observed rates of insect visitation appear to contradict high rates of CH fruit production in open-pollinated plants, particularly given the rarity of delayed selfing. In both treatments, flower position significantly affected fruit initiation, suggesting a role for resource limitation in both pollinator-excluded and open-pollinated flowers. PMID:21646185
Weekley, Carl W; Brothers, Amanda
Spatial variation in biotic interactions and natural selection are fundamental parts of natural systems, and can be driven by differences in both trait distributions and the local environmental context of the interaction. Most studies of plant-animal interactions have been performed only in natural settings, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of traits and context. To assess the relative importance of trait differences and environmental context for among-population variation in plant resistance to herbivory, we compared oviposition by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines on two ploidy types of the herb Cardamine pratensis under experimentally controlled conditions with oviposition in natural populations. Under controlled conditions, plants from octoploid populations were significantly more preferred than plants from tetraploid populations. This difference was largely mediated by differences in flower size. Among natural populations, there was no difference in oviposition rates between the two ploidy types. Our results suggest that differences in oviposition rates among populations of the two cytotypes in the field are caused mainly by differences in environmental context, and that the higher attractiveness of octoploids to herbivores observed under common environmental conditions is balanced by the fact that they occur in habitats which harbor lower densities of butterflies. This illustrates that spatial variation in biotic interactions is the net result of differences in trait distributions of the interacting organisms and differences in environmental context, and that variation in both traits and context are important in understanding species interactions. PMID:24493660
König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan
In China, the ethylacetate extract of the herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f (TWEE), containing the major active ingredient triptolide, is often used with favorable effect on rheumatoid arthritis patients, in alternation with the use of prednisone. The mechanism of this therapeutic effect, however, has not been completely delineated. In this study, we studied how TWEE and prednisone affect the pituitary and adrenal glands in rats. Thirty normal male Sprague-Dawley rats (ten per group) were randomly assigned to receive: (1) TWEE (25 mg/kg, twice a day), (2) prednisone (2 mg/kg, twice a day), or (3) vehicle (control) (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose 1 ml, twice a day), orally for 30 days. Pituitary and trunk blood were collected on day 31. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) expression in the pituitary gland was assessed morphologically by immunohistochemical techniques. Plasma ACTH concentrations and serum corticosterone concentrations were quantitatively measured by radioimmunoassay. We found that TWEE significantly increased plasma ACTH concentration and serum corticosterone concentration and dramatically increased the number of ACTH-positive cells in the pituitary. Our findings indicate that TWEE can promote the synthesis and secretion of ACTH cells--in the pars distalis of the rat pituitary gland and the production of corticosterone in the zone fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. Our results indicate that TWEE has a cortical hormone-like function and can promote adrenal cortex function by activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:16355451
Chen, Long; Wang, Huijun; Zhao, Ziqin; Zhang, Yihu; Huang, Guangzhao
Blumea balsamifera is a commercially important medicinal herb in China and other parts of Asia. It is used to produce borneol. This plant grows in the wild, but resources have diminished greatly in recent years. We examined the genetic diversity of this species to help develop conservation strategies; 35 plants from five provinces were analyzed using AFLPs. Eight AFLP primer combinations generated 1367 fragments, giving a mean of 172 fragments per primer combination. Polymorphism in the germplasm analysis was found for 1360 (99.48%) of the fragments, of which 264 (19.27%) fragments were unique (accession specific) and 423 (25.33%) of the fragments were rare (present in less than 10% of the accessions). The polymorphic fragments were used to group the accessions in a UPGMA phenogram. Most grouping was geographical. In general, accessions coming from Guizhou and Guangxi showed higher diversities as these accessions were scattered in different groups. The genetic distance estimated by Jaccard similarity coefficient index showed low variability among genotypes (coefficient value ranged from 0.60 to 0.95). More attention should be given to the study and conservation of the biodiversity of this economically important genus. PMID:24782086
Pang, Y X; Wang, W Q; Zhang, Y B; Yuan, Y; Yu, J B; Zhu, M; Chen, Y Y
Artemisia annua is a Chinese antimalarial herb that has been used for more than 2000 years. The maternal and foetal safety of the ethanolic leaf extract of therapeutically active Artemisia annua (EAA), with previously determined artemisinin yield of 1.098% was evaluated in Wistar rats. Twenty pregnant rats, divided into four study groups of saline treated (control), and test groups administered orally with 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weights of EAA, respectively, from gestation days (GD) 8 to 19. Following overnight fast, animals were sacrificed on GD 20, and maternal blood was collected to evaluate biochemical and haematological markers. Foetuses were carefully removed, weighed, and observed for any possible malformation. Biochemical and haematological studies revealed that EAA did not result in maternal hepatotoxicity, haematotoxicity, and hyperlipidemia. While litter size significantly decreased (p?0.05) at 100 mg/kg EAA, maternal estrogen levels decreased in all the EAA-treated groups. Non-viable (21%) and malformed (31%) foetuses were observed at the 300 mg/kg dose of EAA, which implies that although consumption of the leaf extract may not predispose users to hepatotoxicity, haematotoxicity, and hyperlipidemia, it should be taken with caution during pregnancy due to possible risk of embryotoxicity at concentrations higher than the therapeutic dose. PMID:22736625
Abolaji, Amos O; Eteng, Mbeh U; Ebong, Patrick E; Brisibe, Ebiamadon Andi; Dar, Ahsana; Kabir, Nurul; Choudhary, M Iqbal
Shikonin, extracted from medicinal Chinese herb (Lithospermum erythrorhizo), was reported to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects both in vitro and in vivo. We have found that proteasome was a molecular target of shikonin in tumor cells, but whether shikonin targets macrophage proteasome needs to be investigated. In the current study, we report that shikonin inhibited inflammation in mouse models as efficiently as dexamethasone. Shikonin at 4 ?M reduced the Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-mediated TNF? release in rat primary macrophage cultures, and blocked the translocation of p65-NF-?B from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, associated with decreased proteasomal activity. Consistently, shikonin accumulated I?B-?, an inhibitor of NF-?B, and ubiquitinated proteins in rat primary macrophage cultures, demonstrating that the proteasome is a target of shikonin under inflammatory conditions. Shikonin also induced macrophage cell apoptosis and cell death. These results demonstrate for the first time that proteasome inhibition by shikonin contributes to its anti-inflammatory effect. The novel finding about macrophage proteasome as a target of shikonin suggests that this medicinal compound has great potential to be developed into an anti-inflammatory agent.
Lu, Li; Qin, Aiping; Huang, Hongbiao; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Chuanyin; Liu, Ningning; Li, Shujue; Wen, Guanmei; Zhang, Change; Dong, Weihua; Wang, Xuejun; Dou, Q. Ping; Liu, Jinbao
The opening of a canopy gap at Los Tuxtlas rainforest has an impact on populations of the understory herb Aphelandra aurantiaca: the ratio of recruited seedlings per reproductive individual is 1:17 in mature forest vs. gaps. Predation occurring before seed dispersal seems a plausible explanation for this observed difference. In a field experiment, in which insecticide was applied to plants growing in gaps and mature forest, we evaluated the extent to which herbivore damage to flowers, fruits, and seeds reduces the number of seeds available for seedling establishment. Under natural conditions, ?30% of the flowers and >70% of the capsules of A. aurantiaca showed herbivore damage, but its impact changed depending on the type of forest habitat. Flower and fruit herbivores caused more damage in closed forest than in gaps, and this difference was even bigger under the insecticide treatment. Insecticide effectiveness varied depending on the type of forest patch. The highest herbivore impact on seeds was found in the mature forest without insecticide treatment, where most seeds were destroyed. The percentages of seed damage reported here show that predispersal predation is limiting seedling recruitment, especially in mature forest. Other possible explanations might be differences in insect composition, densities, and behavior between gaps and mature forest. PMID:10449389
Calvo-Irabién, L M; Islas-Luna, A
Background: Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice) on human salivary amylase activity and to compare it with other dentifrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of age 18-35 years were randomly selected and divided equally into 4 groups. Group 1 subjects were assigned to use Test Dentifrice (with S. calva root extract), while Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 subjects were assigned to use Herbal Dentifrice (Arodent), Synthetic Dentifrice (Colgate®), and Control Dentifrice respectively. Salivary amylase activity was determined by Bernfeld method in each group, before and after using the given dentifrices. Results: Maximum inhibition of salivary amylase activity was found in the group using test dentifrice as compared to others. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations.
Sapra, Gaurav; Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Aggarwal, Ashish; Chandrashekar, K T; Sharma, Kanika
Antioxidant activities of volatile extracts isolated from thyme, basil, rosemary, chamomile, lavender, and cinnamon were evaluated by two independent assays: the aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay and the conjugated diene assay. The volatile extracts were prepared from dried herbs and spices using liquid-liquid continuous extraction following steam distillation under reduced pressure (55 degrees C and 95 mmHg). The antioxidant activities of the extracts decreased in the following order in both of the lipophilic assay systems: thyme > basil > rosemary > chamomile > lavender and cinnamon. Thyme and basil extracts inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for 40 days at the levels of 10 microg/mL and 50 microg/mL, respectively. The extracts of thyme and basil were effective in retarding methyl linoleate deterioration at 40 degrees C, with activity increasing with concentration in the range 10-200 microg/mL. At a concentration of 50 microg/mL, thyme extract was similar in antioxidant activity to BHT and alpha-tocopherol in the conjugated diene assay. The antioxidant potentials of the volatile extracts used in this study were accurately measured by the lipophilic systems, such as the aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay and the conjugated diene assay. PMID:12166987
Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder, which is neuropathologically identified by age-dependent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Development of symptomatic treatments has been partly successful for PD research, but there remain a number of inadequacies in therapeutic strategies for the disease. The pathogenesis of PD remains intricate, and the present anti-PD treatments appears to be clinically insufficient. Comprehensive research on discovery of novel drug candidates has demonstrated that natural products, such as medicinal herbs, plant extracts, and their secondary metabolites, have great potential as therapeutics with neuroprotective activity in PD. Recent preclinical studies suggest that a number of herbal medicines and their bioactive ingredients can be developed into optimum pharmaceuticals for treating PD. In many countries, traditional herbal medicines are used to prevent or treat neurodegenerative disorders, and some have been developed as nutraceuticals or functional foods. Here we focus on recent advances of the evidence-linked neuroprotective activity of bioactive ingredients of herbal origin in cellular and animal models of PD research.
More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Kang, Seong Mook; Song, Soo-Yeol; Lee, Kippeum; Choi, Dong-Kug
Eucalyptus bridgesiana, Cymbopogon martinii, Thymus vulgaris, Lindernia anagallis, and Pelargonium fragrans are five species of herbs used in Asia. Their essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and a total of 36 components were detected. The results of our study indicated that, except for the essential oil of P. fragrans, all of the essential oils demonstrated obvious antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms. The C. martinii essential oil, which is rich in geraniol, was the most effective antimicrobial additive. All of the essential oils demonstrated antioxidant activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, the T. vulgaris essential oil, which possesses plentiful thymol, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. For P. acnes-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the essential oils of P. aeruginosa, C. martinii, and T. vulgaris reduced the TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-8 secretion levels of THP-1 cells. PMID:21979069
Tsai, Mei-Lin; Lin, Chih-Chien; Lin, Wei-Chao; Yang, Chao-Hsun
Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of 10 Chinese medicinal herb extracts were evaluated by dipping raw sheep meat in extracts, packaging the samples in polyethylene, and refrigerating them at 4 degrees C. The optimum concentrations of Codonopsis pilosula, Platycodon grandiflorum, Artemisia capillaris, Cinnamomum cassia, Rheum palmatum, Ziziphus jujuba, Gardenia jasminoides, Santalum album, Angelica sinensis, and Bletilla striata were 0.10, 0.10, 0.25, 0.10, 0.25, 0.25, 0.25, 0.10, 0.25, and 0.25%, respectively. Analysis revealed that test ingredients were more effective in reducing lipid oxidation and microbial counts in raw sheep meat. Correlation analysis revealed a significant negative linear relationship between the inhibition of hydroxyl and lipid oxidation, and inhibition of hydroxyl was the main factor affecting lipid oxidation. A. capillaris (0.25%), C. pilosula (0.10%), and P. grandiflorum (0.10%) were identified as the most effective antioxidants. S. album (0.10%), A. capillaris (0.10%), and C. cassia (0.10%) were the most effective antimicrobials. A. capillaris (0.25%), C. pilosula (0.10%), and P. grandiflorum (0.10%) increased meat redness significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with the control samples on days 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, and 11. The pH values of sheep meat treated with C. pilosula (0.10%) and A. capillaris (0.10%) were lower than those of meat treated with other extracts. PMID:17612075
Luo, Hongxia; Lin, Shaohua; Ren, Fazheng; Wu, Liping; Chen, Lishui; Sun, Yan
The essential oils extracted from three kinds of herbs were separated by a 5% phenylmethyl silicone (DB-5MS) bonded phase fused-silica capillary column and identified by MS. Seventy-four of the compounds identified were selected as origin data, and their chemical structure and gas chromatographic retention times (RT) were performed to build a quantitative structure-retention relationship model by genetic algorithm and multiple linear regressions analysis. The predictive ability of the model was verified by internal validation (leave-one-out, fivefold, cross-validation and Y-scrambling). As for external validation, the model was also applied to predict the gas chromatographic RT of the 14 volatile compounds not used for model development from essential oil of Radix angelicae sinensis. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validations indicated that the best quantitative structure-retention relationship model was robust and satisfactory, could provide a feasible and effective tool for predicting the gas chromatographic RT of volatile compounds and could be also applied to help in identifying the compound with the same gas chromatographic RT. PMID:20506431
Wei, Yuhui; Xi, Lili; Chen, Dongxia; Wu, Xin'an; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are increasing global health problems. In addition to the malnutrition of a sedentary lifestyle, high calorie intake leads to obesity with many negative health consequences. Macrophages infiltrate adipose tissue and induce chronic inflammation by secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines, including COX-2 and iNOS, among other mediators of inflammation. Free fatty acids mediate adipose tissue signalling through toll-like receptor 4 and the expression of these pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-?B or JNK. PPAR ? activators can inhibit the activation of NF-?B, down-regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we provide an overview of how different culinary herbs and spices exert anti-inflammatory activities and the extent to which they activate PPAR ? and PPAR ?, inhibit the activation of NF-?B, and enhance expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Spices can play essential roles as anti-inflammatory agents in our diet, acting as pan PPAR activators and improving insulin sensitivity, counteracting dyslipidaemia and weight gain. The effects of chronic inflammation caused by obesity are counteracted and, consequently, the progression of diseases associated with chronic inflammation slowed. PMID:22226987
Jungbauer, Alois; Medjakovic, Svjetlana
The dish pack method, which measures growth inhibition or promotion effects of volatile compounds on germinating seeds, was applied to measure the antifungal effects of 52 dried samples of spices and herbs against a soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. Black zira showed the strongest effect, followed by cumin and cardamom. Headspace sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of black zira identified seven volatile compounds, gamma-terpinene, limonene, p-cymene, beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, cuminaldehyde, and myrcene. Among these, cuminaldehyde and p-cymene showed the strongest antifungal activities against F. oxysporum, suggesting roles in the antifungal activity of black zira. The same compounds also showed antifungal activities against another soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus, Verticillium dahliae, and foliar phytopathogenic fungi, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria mali. The total activity calculated from the concentration of cuminaldehyde contained in black zira and its EC(50) against F. oxysporum demonstrated that cuminaldehyde is the main antifungal compound detected in black zira. PMID:17932718
Sekine, Takayuki; Sugano, Mami; Majid, Azizi; Fujii, Yoshiharu
The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the primary taste sensations, students experience and appreciate how the primary tastes are combined to produce overall taste. In addition, the exercises outlined here expand upon previously published demonstrations employing Gymnema sylvestre to include illustrations of the different sensory transduction mechanisms associated with each of the four or five primary taste modalities. Students compare their qualitative primary taste experiences to salt, sugar, aspartame, chocolate, and sweet-sour candy prior to and following exposure to Gymnema sylvestre. The herb's impairment of sweet sensation is profound and dramatically alters the perception of sweetness in sugar, chocolate, and candy without altering the perception of the other primary tastes. The exercise has an indelible effect on students because the herb's intense effect compels students to rely on their unique personal experiences to highlight the principles of gustatory sensation. PMID:23493970
Schroeder, Joseph A; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). During recent epidemics of HFMD in China, medicinal herbals and preparations containing herbal extracts have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy with relative safety profiles. There have been no microbiological studies to validate their usefulness for HFMD. We selected 12 commonly used herbs for HFMD from government recommended guidelines as well as published reports and tested for their antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory activity. A water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) inhibited EV71 infection significantly and was marginally active against CVA16 infection. The IC50 (concentration to have 50% inhibitory effect) values of HCT against a Fuyang strain and a BrCr strain of EV71 were determined at 8.9? ? g/mL and 20.6? ? g/mL, respectively. Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (MHB) water extract was active against CVA16, with an IC50 value of 70.3? ? g/mL. The extract did not exhibit activity against EV71 infection. Although the majority of the extracts showed no activity against viral infection, several extracts demonstrated activity in blocking proinflammatory response by viral infection. This study therefore validates the effectiveness of Chinese herbs for HFMD since some formulations containing the correct combination of the herbs can block viral replication as well as proinflammatory response of HFMD. PMID:23554831
Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chunyang; Xu, Lanfang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Guang; Tan, Ren Xiang; Li, Erguang; Jin, Yu
The abundance of exotic plants is thought to be limited by competition with resident species (including plants and generalist herbivores). In contrast, observations in semiarid Chile suggest that a native generalist rodent, the degu (Octodon degus), may be facilitating the expansion of exotic annual plants. We tested this hypothesis with a 20-year data set from a World Biosphere Reserve in mediterranean Chile. In this semiarid environment, rainfall varies annually and dramatically influences cover by both native and exotic annual plants; degu population density affects the composition and cover of exotic and native annual plants. In low-rainfall years, cover of both native and exotic herbs is extremely low. Higher levels of precipitation result in proportional increases in cover of all annual plants (exotic and native species), leading in turn to increases in degu population densities, at which point they impact native herbs in proportion to their greater cover, indirectly favoring the expansion of exotic plants. We propose that bottom-up control of consumers at our site results in top-down indirect facilitation of invasive annual herbs, and that this pattern may be general to other semiarid ecosystems. PMID:21618907
Madrigal, Jaime; Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L; Gutierrez, Julio R; Squeo, Francisco A
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). During recent epidemics of HFMD in China, medicinal herbals and preparations containing herbal extracts have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy with relative safety profiles. There have been no microbiological studies to validate their usefulness for HFMD. We selected 12 commonly used herbs for HFMD from government recommended guidelines as well as published reports and tested for their antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory activity. A water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) inhibited EV71 infection significantly and was marginally active against CVA16 infection. The IC50 (concentration to have 50% inhibitory effect) values of HCT against a Fuyang strain and a BrCr strain of EV71 were determined at 8.9??g/mL and 20.6??g/mL, respectively. Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (MHB) water extract was active against CVA16, with an IC50 value of 70.3??g/mL. The extract did not exhibit activity against EV71 infection. Although the majority of the extracts showed no activity against viral infection, several extracts demonstrated activity in blocking proinflammatory response by viral infection. This study therefore validates the effectiveness of Chinese herbs for HFMD since some formulations containing the correct combination of the herbs can block viral replication as well as proinflammatory response of HFMD.
Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chunyang; Xu, Lanfang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Guang; Tan, Ren Xiang; Li, Erguang; Jin, Yu
Aim of the study was to evaluate in vivo antioxidant action of medicinal herb Rhodococcum vitis-idaea (Rh.v) on galactosamine (GalN)-induced rat liver toxicity. The results showed that the hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by GalN (700 mg/kg, s.c.) after 24 h evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase activities, and lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate were significantly inhibited, when 10 times diluted Rh.v. extract (5 ml/kg, i.p.) was given to rats 12 and 1 h before GalN treatment demonstrating that the extract of Rh.v is a potent antioxidant and protective against GalN-induced hepatotoxicity. The main antioxidant compound of the herb water extract used in the experiment was determined as arbutin, which possess 8% of dry weight of the herb. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer analysis revealed that the arbutin isolated from Rh.v exhibited strong superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. PMID:15330497
Myagmar, B E; Shinno, E; Ichiba, T; Aniya, Y
Herbal medicines are widely used in many countries for the treatment of many diseases. Although the use of herb extracts as alternative medicine is growing, their toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of water and ethanol extracts of 18 herbs on the hepatic lipid metabolism and steatogenic hepatotoxicity. Ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa induced lipid accumulation in Sk-hep1 human hepatoma cells as determined by Nile red staining. These extracts increased the luciferase activity of sterol regulatory element (SRE) and decreased that of peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), indicating the possibilities of enhanced fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation. To identify the components responsible for the fat accumulation, we tested 50 chemicals isolated from the nine herbs. Apigenin, luteolin, pectolinarin and lupeol from Cirsium japonicum, 8-methoxypsoralen and umbelliferone from Foeniculum vulgare and pomonic acid and jiocerebroside from Rehmanniae glutinosa significantly increased the accumulation of lipid droplets. These results suggest that ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa can cause fatty liver disease by decreasing ?-oxidation of fatty acid and increasing lipogenesis.
Choi, You-Jin; Yoon, Yujin; Choi, Ho-Sung; Park, Sora; Oh, Sehee; Jeong, Se-Mi; Suh, Hyo-Ryung
Due to the severe damage caused by free hydroxyl radicals (OH.) to cells and tissues, there is much interest in finding and studying effective and non-toxic OH. scavengers, including traditional Chinese herbs. In this paper, the simple and highly-sensitive technique of capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD) was used to study the OH. scavenging activities of aqueous extracts from some traditional Chinese herbs. Salicylic acid (SAL) was used as an OH. trap, and the content of OH. could be determined by assaying their products, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA). The optimum conditions for CZE-AD for the determination of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA were explored. The linearity ranges of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA were 1.0 x10(-7) approximately 1.0 x10(-4) mol L(-1), and their detection limits were as low as 2 x 10(-8) mol L(-1), which were much better than the CE-UV method often used. The traditional Chinese herbs studied included Radix angelicae sinensis, Rhizoma coptidis, Ligustrum lucidum, Ligusticum wallichii, Radices glycyrrhizae and Semen plantaginis. The experiments showed that the aqueous extracts from all of the above traditional Chinese herds had free OH. scavenging activities, although to different degrees. PMID:14985912
Li, Hui; Wang, Qingjiang
Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) possesses antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities, and is used as a complementary remedy to improve heart function and blood circulation. Since cardiovascular diseases are often associated with an alteration of mitochondria, the main producers of ATP in cardiac muscle cells, the aim of our work was to determine bioactive constituents present in motherwort aerial parts extract in ethanol and investigate their effects on the functions of cardiac mitochondria. Quantitative determination of polyphenols in L. cardiaca herb extract was performed by HPLC. Mitochondrial respiration rates were evaluated using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Mitochondrial ROS generation was determined fluorimetrically with Amplex Red and horseradish peroxidase. The results showed that constituents (chlorogenic acid, orientin, quercetin, hyperoside, and rutin) of L. cardiaca herb extract uncouple (by 20-90?%) mitochondrial oxidation from phosphorylation, partially inhibit (by ~?40?%) the mitochondrial respiratory chain in cases of pyruvate and malate as well as succinate oxidation, and effectively attenuate the generation of free radicals in mitochondria. Since partial uncoupling of mitochondria, respiratory inhibition, and decreased ROS production are proposed as possible mechanisms of cardioprotection, our results imply that L. cardiaca herb extract could be a useful remedy to protect cardiac muscles from the effects of pathogenic processes. PMID:24841965
Bernatoniene, Jurga; Kopustinskiene, Dalia M; Jakstas, Valdas; Majiene, Daiva; Baniene, Rasa; Kurvietiene, Lolita; Masteikova, Ruta; Savickas, Arunas; Toleikis, Adolfas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata
"Functional dyspepsia" represents a clinical condition of pain and/or persistent or recurrent discomfort that concerns a large portion of the healthy population. It has already been shown that some herbs (Melissa Officinalis, Cynara scolymus) can have favorable effects on digestion. The principal aim of this study is to determine whether the ingestion of "Gran Soleil" dessert, with or without herbs, after meals can be beneficial to health in subjects suffering from functional dyspepsia. For this purpose, thirty subjects with functional dyspepsia were enrolled and were asked to consume "Gran Soleil" with or without herbs; these subjects reported the course of their symptoms on VAS scale, during the basal period and after the ingestion "Gran Soleil" with and without herbs. It has been shown that the ingestion of "Gran Soleil" without herbs can induce a reduction both in the number of events connected to a dyspeptic syndrome and in their intensity; moreover the assumption of "Gran Soleil" with the addition of herbs helped to intensify this effect. PMID:20385075
Gasbarrini, G; Zaccone, V; Covino, M; Gallo, A
Culinary herbs have the potential to be a significant source of antioxidants in the diet. However, many culinary herbs are cooked or undergo some other form of processing before they are consumed as part of a meal and such factors may affect their significance as a source of dietary antioxidants. Thus, the impact of cooking (simmering, microwaving, stewing, stir frying and grilling) and storage (vinegar maceration, cold maceration and freezing) on the antioxidant capacity of common culinary herbs was investigated. Extracts of cinnamon, cloves, fennel, ginger, lavender, parsley, rose, rosemary, sage and thyme were prepared pre and post cooking or storage and their antioxidant capacities determined using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC). Simmering, soup making and stewing significantly increased antioxidant capacity, whilst grilling and stir frying decreased it. Both freezing herbs at -20 degrees C and cold maceration had preservative effects on antioxidant capacity. Herbs in cold vinegar macerations for 1 week showed a decrease in antioxidant capacity compared to the control extracts. These results indicate that the potential of culinary herbs to be significant contributors to dietary antioxidant intake is significantly affected by both cooking and storage. PMID:18224444
Chohan, Magali; Forster-Wilkins, Gary; Opara, Elizabeth I
Background and Aims Despite the recent enormous increase in the number of studies on polyploid species, no studies to date have explored the population dynamics of these taxa. It is thus not known whether the commonly reported differences in single life-history traits between taxa of different ploidy levels result in differences in population dynamics. Methods This study explores differences in single life-history traits and in the complete life cycle between populations of different ploidy levels and compares these differences with differences observed between different habitat types and years. Diploid and hexaploid populations of a perennial herb, Aster amellus, are used as the study system. Transition matrix models were used to describe the dynamics of the populations, and population growth rates, elasticity values and life-table response experiments were used to compare the dynamics between populations and years. Key Results The results indicate that between-year variation in population dynamics is much larger than variation between different ploidy levels and different habitat conditions. Significant differences exist, however, in the structure of the transition matrices, indicating that the dynamics of the different ploidy levels are different. Strong differences in probability of extinction of local populations were also found, with hexaploid populations having higher probability than diploid populations, indicating strong potential differences in persistence of these populations. Conclusions This is the first study on complete population dynamics of plants of different ploidy levels. This knowledge will help to understand the ability of new ploidy levels to spread into new areas and persist there, and the interactions of different ploidy levels in secondary contact zones. This knowledge will also contribute to understanding of interactions of different ploidy levels with other plant species or other interacting organisms such as pollinators or herbivores.
The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.
Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.
Background and Aims Models assessing the prospects of plant species at the landscape level often focus primarily on the relationship between species dynamics and landscape structure. However, the short-term prospects of species with slow responses to landscape changes depend on the factors affecting local population dynamics. In this study it is hypothesized that large herbivores may be a major factor affecting the short-term prospects of slow-responding species in the European landscape, because large herbivores have increased in number in this region in recent decades and can strongly influence local population dynamics. Methods The impact of browsing by large herbivores was simulated on the landscape-level dynamics of the dry grassland perennial polycarpic herb Scorzonera hispanica. A dynamic, spatially explicit model was used that incorporated information on the location of patches suitable for S. hispanica, local population dynamics (matrices including the impact of large herbivores), initial population sizes and dispersal rate of the species. Simulations were performed relating to the prospects of S. hispanica over the next 30 years under different rates of herbivory (browsing intensity) and varying frequencies of population destruction (e.g. by human activity). Key Results Although a high rate of herbivory was detected in most populations of S. hispanica, current landscape-level dynamics of S. hispanica were approximately in equilibrium. A decline or increase of over 20 % in the herbivory rate promoted rapid expansion or decline of S. hispanica, respectively. This effect was much stronger in the presence of population destruction. Conclusions Browsing by large herbivores can have a dramatic effect on the landscape dynamics of plant species. Changes in the density of large herbivores and the probability of population destruction should be incorporated into models predicting species abundance and distribution.
Hemrova, Lucie; Cervenkova, Zita; Munzbergova, Zuzana
Since herbal teas, infusions and decoctions prepared from medicinal plants are popular remedies, it remains a topical question whether these herbal drugs can be treated as sources of essential elements for humans, who often use them in their everyday diet. Therefore, total and water-extractable contents of Mg, Mn and Cu were determined in 41 leaves originating from four botanical species of Plantago lanceolata, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Rubus fruticosus and Betula sp., as well as in 33 samples of herbs represented by three species of Urtica dioica, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The highest level was determined in the case of Mg (in a range from 2.0 to 7.0 mg/g of dry mass [d.m.]), followed by Mn (from 50.0 to 1300.0 mg/kg d.m.), and lowest of all, Cu (from 3.5 to 19.5 mg/kg d.m.). Student's t-test showed that a statistically significant difference exists between samples originating from different plant species regarding the total content and water-extractable forms of Mg, Mn and Cu. By analysis of the relations between elements, it was observed that total level of Cu correlated with total levels of Mg and Mn, which indicates a synergistic interaction between the essential elements under study. With regard to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), the leaves of Rubus fruticosus contained the highest amounts of a water-extractable bioavailable form of Mn, which guarantees from 160 to 200% of the daily requirement of Mn for women and men, respectively. On the other hand, the extract obtained from Urticae folium gave water-extractable Mg in the amount of 76 mg/500 mL, which constitutes about 20% of daily requirement. The plant material richest in water-extractable Cu was Hyperici herba, containing 154.5 microg/500 mL, or 17% of DRI for both sexes. PMID:22574504
Konieczy?ski, Pawe?; Weso?owski, Marek
Background and Aims Cross-pollination and satiation of seed predators are often invoked to explain synchronous mast reproduction in long-lived plants. However, explanations for the synchronous death of parent plants