Sample records for hippeastrum breviflorum herb

  1. Hippeastrum Is Hardly a Humdrum Classroom Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the plant Amaryllis, which is the common name for the Hippeastrum species. Describes how to grow and bloom Amaryllis in soil using hydroponics. Introduces experiments investigating the anatomy of the bulb, growing and elongation rates, the flower, and foliage. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  2. Hyoscyamus niger, a useful local lesion host for a mosaic virus in Hippeastrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. N. de Leeuw

    1972-01-01

    Samenvatting Bladeren vanHyoscyamus niger planten vertoonden chlorotische lokale lesies 7 dagen na inoculatie met sap van mozaïekziekeHippeastrum-planten. Met sap vanHippeastrum-planten zonder mozaïeksymptomen werd geen reactie verkregen. In dooppreparaten gemaakt van chlorotische lesies inHyoscyamus-bladeren en van bladeren vanHippeastrum planten met mozaïeksymptomen werden draadvormige virusdeeltjes van 648–772 nm aangetroffen. Het virus kon met sap geperst uit geïnoculeerdeHyoscyamus-planten weer op gezondeHippeastrum-planten worden overgebracht.

  3. Tilting at windmills: 20 years of Hippeastrum breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hippeastrum Herbert, amaryllis, has yielded popular large-flowered hybrids over a 200-year breeding history, with the Netherlands and South Africa currently dominating the market. The USDA breeding program is now almost ten years old, built upon a ten-year previous history at the University of Flori...

  4. THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF HIPPEASTRUM IN RESPONSE TO TEMPERATURE AND CO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. EPHRATH; C. H. ALEKPEROV; M. SILBERBUSH; E. DAYAN

    EPHRATH, J. E., BEN-AsHER, )., ALEKPEROV, CH., SILBERBUSH, M. and DAYAN E. The growth and development of Hippeastrum in response to temperature and CO2• BIOTRONICS 30, 63-73, 2001. Flowering time of Hippeastrum can be controlled by applying specific thermal regime to large sized bulbs. Due to high-energy costs, the aim of this study was to examine the possibility to reduce

  5. HerbMed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HerbMed is "an interactive, electronic herbal database" that provides scientific and general information on the biochemical action of herbs. A project of the Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc., HerbMed includes a searchable interface, as well as a manual option for browsing the HerbMed database by plant Genus. From Achillea (Yarrow) to Ziziphus (Jujube), the HerbMed database provides detailed information on each herb's biochemical action, the mechanism of action, and warnings for human health. Of special interest to researchers will be the hyperlinks to abstracts in PubMed (reviewed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report), providing published evidence of the scientific information contained in this database. For researchers and educators alike, HerbMed promises to be a useful resource.

  6. Herb-drug interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriane Fugh-Berman

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin,

  7. Medicinal Herb Garden

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contact: The Medicinal Herb Garden Department of Biology University of Washington Box 351800 Seattle, WA 98195-1800 Please note: This hypertext exhibit consists of more than 150 medium-resolution images. These images are provided in GIF or JPEG ...

  8. Herbs: Bridging the Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Deborah J.

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the challenge for caregivers in developing intergenerational programs is to engage both groups with the materials and with each other while taking into consideration each group's needs and interests. Offers tips for planning any intergenerational activity. Explains how to plan activities using herbs, presents instructions for three…

  9. The hazards of psychotropic herbs.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, J A

    1999-05-01

    The use of medicinal herbs has increased over the past few years, and psychotropic herbs are among the most popular on the market. Patients and physicians may assume these products are safe; however, dietary supplements are not subject to the rigorous testing required for prescription medications. Problems that may occur with the use of psychotropic herbs include overuse or abuse, side effects, and herb-drug interactions. Ma huang, St. John's wort, and kava are examples of readily available herbs with the potential for negative effects. Physicians should improve their knowledge of these products so they can provide reliable information to their patients. PMID:10337137

  10. Hepatoprotective Herbs, Avicenna Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi-Baghbanan, Hamid; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Minaei, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liver injury or dysfunction is considered as a serious health problem. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders are expensive and cause further damage. Hence, hepatoprotective effects of some herbal drugs have been investigated, and one of the methods to choose herbs in order to study their biological effects is to search in ancient medical texts. Avicenna who is known as the prince of physicians had collected and classified Greek, Persian and Islamic medicine in the best possible way in the book of Canon in Arabic. Objectives: Avicenna’s book of The Canon of Medicine was reviewed to find the hepatoprotective herbs. Patients and Methods: Three different versions of the Canon were prepared and utilized. To find scientific names of plants we took advantage of three botany references. All of the herbs were investigated on the basis of scientific data from hepatoprotective effects point of view. The searched term was “hepatoprotective” without narrowing and limiting. The searched databases included Cochrane library, Web of science, SID, Irandoc and IranMedex. Results: 18 plants were found. 85% of the presented species, genus or families of plants were reported to have hepatoprotective properties and in the remaining 15% there were no reports of hepatoprotective effect. Flowers and fruits were the most used part of the plants. Most of the plants had simultaneous protective effects on multiple organs but the protective effect on the liver was mostly accompanied by protective effect on the stomach (83%). The average temperament of these herbs is "hot" in the 2nd phase of the 2nd grade, and "dry" in the 3rd phase of the 2nd grade. Hepatoprotective herbs mostly prescribed as a part of hepatoprotective compound drugs formula or other formula for liver diseases are Crocus sativus, Pistacia lentiscus, and Cinnamomum spp. Conclusions: Maybe there is common mechanism for protecting both liver and stomach. Aquilaria agallocha, Aquilaria malaccensis, and Ruscus aculeatus whose hepatoprotective effects have not yet been reported are considered as good candidates for future investigations. Given that Crocus sativus, and Cinnamomum spp are used as flavors in most countries, they will be introduced for more investigation in order to produce hepatoprotective drugs. PMID:24719702

  11. Organising herbs knowledge: Is an ontology or taxonomy the answer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azlida Mamat; Erlin; Azizah Abd Rahman

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses on herbs knowledge from the basic information related herbs to herb researches. Basic information of herbs is refers to overview of herbs through variety of definition based on personal perspective. Currently, a major barrier to our ability to structuring herbs knowledge is various definitions of herbs, difficulty to classify the application of herbal uses and the way

  12. Plated Dinner Classic Caesar Salad, with herb

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    dressing Southern Spinach Salad, hardboiled eggs, mushrooms, and herb croutons, with honey-mustard dressing by herb rice pilaf - 24 Black-Pepper-Crusted Tenderloin of Beef, cracked black pepper studded tenderloin

  13. Antioxidant activities of selected oriental herb extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Kim; J. H. Kim; M. J. Oh; M. Y. Jung

    1994-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of 180 Oriental herbs were studied by determining the peroxide values of linoleic\\u000a acid during storage at 50C. Among the herb extracts tested, 44 species showed strong antioxidant activities on the oxidation\\u000a of linoleic acid. The antioxidative effects of these 44 selected herb extracts were studied further in a methyl linoleate\\u000a system during storage for

  14. Herb Production--Is It for You?

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    the opportunities and risks associ- ated with herb farming and to decide whether an herb enterprise is for you and Legal Requirements (Fur- ther Reading section) provides more information. Depending on how you market investing a penny in land, equipment, or plants. Start creating your paper farm by developing an enterprise

  15. Urothelial lesions in Chinese-herb nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Cosyns; Michel Jadoul; Jean-Paul Squifflet; François-Xavier Wese; Charles van Ypersele de Strihou

    1999-01-01

    Rapidly progressive renal fibrosis after a slimming regimen including Chinese herbs containing aristolochic acid (AA) has been identified as Chinese-herb nephropathy (CHN). We reported urothelial atypia in three patients with CHN, with the subsequent development in one patient of overt transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Therefore, it was decided to remove the native kidneys, as well as the ureters, in all

  16. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drugs Learn about your prescription drugs and over-the- ...

  17. Drying Foods at Home Safely Drying Herbs

    E-print Network

    the stem such as oregano, mint, sage, or bay leaves. Remove leaves from the washed herbs and place them. For example, if a recipe calls for a tablespoon of fresh oregano, use 1 teaspoon of dried. Reference: So Easy

  18. Medicinal Herb REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

    E-print Network

    Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2011. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Chinese Medicinal Herb Garden of the UC Botanical Garden is supported of The Indianapolis Museum of Art. 2012 © UC Botanical Garden at Berkeley excessive urination or sweating, or prolapse

  19. The antioxidant activity of Chinese herbs for eczema and of placebo herbs — I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Kirby; Richard J. Schmidt

    1997-01-01

    A standardized mixture of Chinese herbs has recently been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for chronic atopic eczema in placebo controlled trials in the UK. Aqueous decoctions of this formulated mixture (PSE 222), the placebo mixture, and their component herbs were examined for antioxidant activity to determine whether antioxidant activity could account for the anti-eczema activity. Two measures of

  20. Rasayans and non-rasayans herbs: Future immunodrug – Targets

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas; Shanbhag, Pradnya Palekar

    2013-01-01

    Ayurvedic therapeutics describes vast number of medicinal herbs used as “Vyadhirodhak Chamatav” that has enlightened the application of herbs used as corner stone in various diseases especially those modulating the immune system. Ayurveda literature comprises of rasayana and non-rasayana herbs. Materia Medica entirely enriched with enormous data of rasayana medicinal herbs acting as immunomodulators in existence. However, as such there is no specific review of literature available for non-Rasayana herbs that have immense potential as immunomodulators. This review article empowers data on non-rasayana medicinal herbs as promising future target for immunotherapy. PMID:24347916

  1. Interaction of Herbs and Glibenclamide: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Amita; Eapen, Cicy; Prasanth, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    Herbs and herbal products are considered to be safer and people mix it often with the oral hypoglycemic agent in diabetes therapy. But numerous reports say that every combination of herbs and drugs is not safe. Some combinations may be beneficial and some may be harmful also. So before taking any herbal remedies with oral hypoglycemic agent, patient should consult physician. In this paper we are summarizing the reports available on the interaction of herbal remedies to one of the oral hypoglycemic agents (glibenclamide) and categorizing the effect of the combination is beneficial and harmful. PMID:22844612

  2. A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MaryAnn O'Hara; David Kiefer; Kim Farrell; Kathi Kemper

    1998-01-01

    large and increasing number of patients use medicinal herbs or seek the advice of their physician regarding their use. More than one third of Americans use herbs for health purposes, yet patients (and physicians) often lack accurate information about the safety and efficacy of herbal remedies. Burgeoning interest in medicinal herbs has increased scientific scrutiny of their therapeutic potential and

  3. VALEUR ALIMENTAIRE DE L'HERBE DES PRAIRIES TEMPORAIRES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VALEUR ALIMENTAIRE DE L'HERBE DES PRAIRIES TEMPORAIRES AUX STADES D'EXPLOITATION POUR LE PATURAGE le troupeau de vaches laitières. LI quantité moyenne d'herbe ingérée par jour et par roo kg de poids quantité d'herbe consommée par les animaux est très mal connue parce qu'il est impossible de la mesurer

  4. Article original Complmentation d'un ensilage d'herbe

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Article original Complémentation d'un ensilage d'herbe par des pulpes de betteraves : effet sur les — Un ensilage d'herbe préfanée de coupe tardive a été distribué seul ou supplémenté avec 2,56 kg de'adjonction de pulpes sèches à de l'ensilage d'herbe a augmenté le pourcentage molaire d'acide butyrique (12

  5. Herbinfo: Discussion Group for the Uses of Herbs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The HerbInfo list is open, unmoderated, and intended to be an all-purpose list to discuss herbs. Due to the general nature of the list, all subjects related to herbs and their uses are considered to be on topic, regardless of their level of knowledge or expertise.

  6. Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    . Carefully stir in bell peppers and onions. 6. Cover and chill until ready to serve. Equipment: Cutting boardItalian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters

  7. Herbed Popcorn and Pretzel Mix Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Herbed Popcorn and Pretzel Mix Ingredients: 15 cups popped 94% fat-free butter flavor microwave popcorn (2 bags) 5 cups pretzel twists 1 tablespoon oil or cooking spray 1 tablespoon dried parsley 1 Directions 1. In a very large bowl, toss popcorn and pretzels together. 2. Mix spices and oil together

  8. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:24790635

  9. Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hui, Hongxiang; Tang, George; Go, Vay Liang W

    2009-01-01

    Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation), Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana) and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to). The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes. PMID:19523223

  10. The antioxidative activity of traditional Japanese herbs.

    PubMed

    Xiufen, Wang; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Matsubara, Mai

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the radical scavenging activity of traditional Japanese herbs. Samples used in the experiments were gennoshoko (Geranium nepalense var. thunbergii), yomogi (Artemisia vulgaris var.indica), senburi (Swertia japonica), iwa-tobacco (Conandron ramondioides), sarunokoshikake (Elfvingia applanata), kanzo (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) and matatabi (Actinidia polygama). The water-soluble components of the herbs were extracted in boiling water, and the volatile oil was extracted by a distillation apparatus or steeping in some organic solvents such as petroleum ether and ethyl ether. The radical scavenging activity was determined by the decrease of free radicals of DPPH detected by both colorimetric assay and HPLC method at 517 nm. The extracts of gennoshoko, yomogi and iwa-tobacco showed remarkable radical scavenging activity. The volatile oil of yomogi obtained by distillation or steeping in organic solvents had especially strong antioxidative activity. PMID:15630212

  11. Hypoglycemic herbs and their action mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Hongxiang; Tang, George; Go, Vay Liang W

    2009-01-01

    Conventional drugs treat diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity, increasing insulin production and/or decreasing the amount of glucose in blood. Several herbal preparations are used to treat diabetes, but their reported hypoglycemic effects are complex or even paradoxical in some cases. This article reviews recent findings about some of the most popular hypoglycemic herbs, such as ginseng, bitter melon and Coptis chinensis. Several popular commercially available herbal preparations are also discussed, including ADHF (anti-diabetes herbal formulation), Jiangtangkeli, YGD (Yerbe Mate-Guarana-Damiana) and BN (Byakko-ka-ninjin-to). The efficacy of hypoglycemic herbs is achieved by increasing insulin secretion, enhancing glucose uptake by adipose and muscle tissues, inhibiting glucose absorption from intestine and inhibiting glucose production from heptocytes. PMID:19523223

  12. Systematic Review of Breastfeeding and Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; Gardner, Zoë E.; Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Low Dog, Tieraona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Despite popular and historical use, there has been little modern research conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of herb use during breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the clinical literature on herbal medicine and lactation. Methods The databases PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HealthSTAR, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Reprotox were systematically searched for human trials from 1970 until 2010. Reference lists from relevant articles were hand-searched. Results Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Clinical studies were divided into three categories: survey studies (n=11), safety studies (n=8), and efficacy studies (n=13). Six studies were randomized controlled trials. The most common herbs studied were St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) (n=3), garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract (n=2), and senna (Cassia senna L.) (n=2). Studies were very heterogeneous with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Overall, poor methodological quality predominated among the studies. Conclusions Our review concludes that further research is needed to assess the prevalence, efficacy, and safety of commonly used herbs during breastfeeding. PMID:22686865

  13. Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H B; Lucier, G W; Fisher, K D

    1999-01-01

    Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have been synthesized as a result of knowledge gained from studies of mechanisms of actions of chemicals first isolated from medicinal herbs. Thus, medicinal herbs have played a major role in the development of modern medicine and continue to be widely used in their original form. Whereas it is generally agreed that most medicinal herbs are safe under the conditions used, some are toxic and should be avoided even though they are readily available, and others have significant adverse side effects when misused. Also, little has been done to investigate potential adverse effects that may be associated with extended or high-dose use of medicinal herbs. Thus, concern has been expressed that the lack of quality control used in the preparation of medicinal herbs, plus their unregulated sale and uninformed use, pose potential adverse health effects for consumers. There is also concern regarding potential herb/herb or herb/drug interactions and possible untoward health effects of medicinal herbs in sensitive subpopulations such as the young and the elderly and certain genetically predisposed individuals. In this paper, we discuss these concerns at some length and make recommendations for additional research and education discussed in the recent International Workshop to Evaluate Research Needs on the Use and Safety of Medicinal Herbs. PMID:10504141

  14. [Ancient clinical application of herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bao-luo; Han, Yuan-yuan; Ma, Yu-xia; Gao, Shu-zhong

    2014-09-01

    In order to further improve the curative effect of the herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus, we collected a wide range of literature on herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus and then systematically arranged them to analyze and summarize the technology and operating methods of herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus. We also briefly discussed issues on application of medicine, locust tree skin and ginger, the method of kneading dough for medical uses, and the appropriate size of moxa cone and its using frequency in order to form clear concepts and standardized operations to provide theories and operational basis for the clinical application of modern herb-participated moxibustion on umbilicus. PMID:25509757

  15. [The content of Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in selected species of herbs and herb infusions].

    PubMed

    Raczuk, Jolanta; Biardzka, Elzbieta; Daruk, Justyna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was the recognition of the contents and distributions of calcium, magnesium, iron and copper in 6 herb species (matricaria chamomila, tilia cordata, equisetum arvense, melissa officinalis, mentha piperita, hypericum perforatum) and in the herb infusions. The samples were digested using a microwave oven, and the elements concentration was determined by AAS method. The following levels of Ca, Mg, Mg and Cu in the herbs were determined: 6872-19802 mg/kg Ca, 4630-8530 mg/kg Mg, 149.9-415.6 mg/kg Fe and 15.15-24.64 mg/kg Cu. The values of extractions in the infusions of herb were as follows: 16.1-73.8% Ca, 14.4-37.3% Mg, 5.1-9.7% Fe, 13.1-21.8% Cu. This indicates, that a very small part of the iron can be potentially treated as a bioavailable fraction for persons, using plant drugs as infusions. One glass of infusion (250 cm3) contain elements in quantities corresponding to: 0.78-2.61% average daily dietary intake (ADDIs) of Ca, 0.76-1.36% ADDIs of Mg, 0.26-0.38% ADDIs of Cu and only 0.15-0.33% ADDIs of Fe. PMID:18666620

  16. Chinese herbs nephropathy: A clue to Balkan endemic nephropathy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Cosyns; Michel Jadoul; Jean-Paul Squifflet; Jean-François de Plaen; Dusan Ferluga; Charles Van Ypersele de Strihou

    1994-01-01

    Chinese herbs nephropathy: A clue to Balkan endemic nephropathy? Rapidly progressive interstitial renal fibrosis has recently been reported in young women who have been on a slimming regimen including Chinese herbs. We examined four nephroureterectomies performed in three patients prior to or at the time of transplantation to determine the nature and topography of the kidney and urinary tract lesions

  17. Harmless Herbs? A Review of the Recent Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edzard Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Herbal medicines have become a popular form of therapy. They are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. This article reviews the recent literature on the adverse effects of herbal remedies. Examples of allergic reactions, toxic reactions, adverse effects related to an herb’s desired pharmacological actions, possible mutagenic effects, drug interactions, drug contamination, and mistaken plant identities are provided.

  18. Seed Dispersal and the Holocene Migration of Woodland Herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Cain; Hans Damman; Angela Muir

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of many woodland herbs extends 1000-2000 km in a north- south direction, yet the majority of these species grow clonally, have little recruitment by seed, and possess no obvious mechanism for long-distance seed dispersal. Although aware that woodland herbs disperse poorly, ecologists have tacitly assumed that, given long periods of time, even small dispersal distances would allow woodland

  19. Pathologie vgtale (synthse) Le striga, mauvaise herbe parasite des crales

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pathologie végétale (synthèse) Le striga, mauvaise herbe parasite des céréales africaines ; accepté le 6 novembre 1995) Résumé — La mauvaise herbe parasite Striga hermonthica cause de graves conducteurs de sève des 2 plantes. Cela permet au parasite de prélever chez son hôte l'eau, les élé- ments

  20. Thermoluminescent (TL) trap characteristics in irradiated oregano herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    The aim of this article is to investigate in a very simple way the trap characteristics of the irradiated oregano herb. The preparation of the polymineral dust obtained from the herb is described and then, through a fading experiment, the characteristics of the trapping levels responsible of the thermoluminescent emission are discussed.

  1. [Discriminative stimulus properties of ephedra herb (Ephedra sinica) in rats].

    PubMed

    Furuya, I; Watanabe, S

    1993-02-01

    The stimulus properties of ephedra herb (drug of Chinese medicine) were demonstrated in rats trained to discriminate between 2.5 ml/kg extract of ephedra herb and same volume of distilled water (p.o.). On the discrimination training, animals were shaped on an FR20 schedule to respond to one of two levers for food reinforcement when they were administrated ephedra herb extract, and to respond to the other lever when they were treated with distilled water. Cumulative dosing tests for the discriminative stimulus properties consisted of two to five trials of FR20 schedule; responses for both levers were reinforced. d-Methamphetamine 1.43 mg/kg p.o. indicated complete generalization to the ephedra herb. Nicotine and caffeine indicated modest generalization, but some animals generalized completely. These results suggest that the ephedra herb has d-methamphetamine-like, but unique discriminative stimulus properties. PMID:8317176

  2. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W; Wang, S Y

    2001-11-01

    The antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined. The ORAC values and total phenolic contents for the medicinal herbs ranged from 1.88 to 22.30 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh weight and 0.23 to 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight, respectively. Origanum x majoricum, O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and Poliomintha longiflora have higher ORAC and phenolic contents as compared to other culinary herbs. The ORAC values and total phenolic content for the culinary herbs ranged from 2.35 to 92.18 micromol of TE/g of fresh weight and 0.26 to 17.51 mg of GAE/g of fresh weight, respectively. These also were much higher than values found in the medicinal herbs. The medicinal herbs with the highest ORAC values were Catharanthus roseus, Thymus vulgaris, Hypericum perforatum, and Artemisia annua. A linear relationship existed between ORAC values and total phenolic contents of the medicinal herbs (R = 0.919) and culinary herbs (R = 0.986). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Among the identified phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum x majoricum, and P. longiflora, whereas quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside were predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba leaves. PMID:11714298

  3. Procyanidins from the herb of Hypericum perforatum.

    PubMed

    Ploss, O; Petereit, F; Nahrstedt, A

    2001-06-01

    From the aqueous acetone extract of the herb of Hypericum perforatum the flavanols catechin (1) and epicatechin (2), and the procyanidins A2 (9), B1 (3), B2 (4), B3 (5), B5 (6), B7 (7) and C1 (8) were isolated. Their structures were established as their peracetate derivatives, on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence. The 13C NMR spectrum of the higher molecular weight polymer fraction revealed a 3',4'-dihydroxylated B-ring oxidation pattern and the 2,3-cis relative stereochemistry of the constituent flavan-3-ol units. The mean average molecular size of the polymers was estimated to be 4 to 5 flavan-3-ol units. The procyanidin pattern in comparison to that of Crataegus spec. is briefly discussed. PMID:11446175

  4. [Determination of heavy metal in Chinese herbs].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Gao, Junquan; Zhao, Jingling

    2002-08-01

    Microwave digestion system was used in digesting samples. Lead and cadmium were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Standard reference material (NBS1570), spinach powder was used as analysis quality assurance in this method, and 264 Chinese herbs (23 species) and standard reference material were determined, and satisfactory results were obtained by using this method. Averages recovery of lead, cadmium and mercury is 95.0%, 97.5% and 99.2% respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) is 0.006 mg/kg, 0.208 microgram/kg and 0.026 microgram/kg respectively for lead, cadmium and mercury. Limit of quantity (LOQ) is 0.019 mg/kg, 0.694 microgram/kg and 0.087 microgram/kg respectively for lead, cadmium and mercury. This method is also suitable to determine lead, cadmium and mercury in food. PMID:12600046

  5. Aromatic herbs in Corsican blue tit nests: The 'Potpourri' hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Marcel M.; Dos Santos, Anabelle

    2000-05-01

    This study reports that Corsican blue tit ( Parus caeruleus ogliastrae) nests contain between one to five aromatic herb species between the onset of egg laying till the chicks' finished growth 13 d after hatching. An herb removal experiment during the chick stage shows that blue tits bring fresh aromatic material 1-5 d after herb removal. Nests with a series of distinct odour classes easily perceived by humans have never been reported in birds. A new 'Potpourri' hypothesis is proposed that may explain the functional significance of this behaviour.

  6. Copyright 2009, The Ohio State University Selecting, Storing, and Using Fresh Herbs--page 1

    E-print Network

    Copyright © 2009, The Ohio State University Selecting, Storing, and Using Fresh Herbs--page 1 Family and Consumer Sciences HYG-5520-09 Selecting, Storing, and Using Fresh Herbs Cooking with herbs can. They are a quick way to add a new flair to your favorite meals. Many culinary herbs, both fresh and dried, have

  7. On Vince Vatter's Brilliant Extension of Doron Zeilberger's Enumeration Schemes for Herb Wilf's Classes

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    's Enumeration Schemes for Herb Wilf's Classes Doron ZEILBERGER1 Retail an empirical progra* *m, called HERB. The Maple package HERB found enumeration schemes by testing them WILF, s* *ince the empirical program, HERB, is just that, empirical! OR IS IT?. Digression: How

  8. Quantitative HPLC estimation of flavonoids in showy tick trefoil herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Puodziunene; V. Janulis; L. Ivanauskas; Z. Barsteigene; V. Ribokaite; O. Ragazinskene

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis of flavonoids in showy tick trefoil [Desmodium canadense (L.) DC., Fabaceae] herbs collected in various vegetative phases at the Department of Medicinal Herbs of the Kaunas Botanical\\u000a Garden (Vytautas Magnus University) was performed using HPLC techniques. A total of 15 flavonoids were identified as aglycons\\u000a and glycosides including apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glycoside, luteolin, rutin, vicenin-2, vitexin, isovitexin, vitexin

  9. The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences. PMID:18499033

  10. Herbal Tea Garden Herbal tea is always a delight, especially when prepared from garden-fresh herbs. Here are a few good tea herbs to try in

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Herbal Tea Garden Herbal tea is always a delight, especially when prepared from garden-fresh herbs. Here are a few good tea herbs to try in your own garden: Plant Height Width Peppermint 1'-2' spreads) Italian Parsley 1'-2' 1' If garden space is at a premium, most of the herbs listed above will do well

  11. Antimutagenic property of a Chinese herb

    SciTech Connect

    Hongen Zhang; Te-Hsiu Ma; Byeong-Seon Jeong; Chang-Deok Won [Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Shandong (China)

    1994-12-31

    The root extracts of a Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has been used as internal medicine to improve liver and kidney functions for centuries. The antimutagenic property of this drug was evaluated with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay in this study. The Trad-MCN bioassay is a well-established test for chromosome damage induced by physical or chemical agents in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequency. Inflorescences of the Tradescantia plant cuttings were first exposed to 35 R soft X-rays (80 Kv, 5 ma, 1 mm Al filter, dose rate around 50 R/min) and followed by drug treatments at 1%, 3% and 6% concentrations of the aqueous solution for a total of 24 hr recovery period. The positive (X-rays), negative (nutrient solution) and drug control (3% drug solution) groups were maintained in each of the three series of repeated experiments. Flower buds of the treated and control groups were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 ratio) for preparation of slides to score MCN frequencies in the early tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells. The mean MCN frequencies (MCN/100 tetrads + SD) of the positive control (X-irradiated) was 26.67 + 9.62; the negative control was 2.92 + 1.90; the drug control was 2.06 + 1.50 and the 35 R X-ray/6% drug treated was 18.75 + 6.54. A 30% reduction of chromosome damage was observed. Antimutagenic effects were relatively lower at lower concentrations. This antimutagenic effect could be the results of the meiotic inhibition, DNA repair or radical elimination from the X-irradiation plant cells.

  12. Bioactivity of herb-enriched beef patties.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Eileen; Aherne, S Aisling; O'Grady, Michael N; McGovern, Laura; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Brien, Nora M

    2009-08-01

    Interest exists in the manufacture of meat products with added functional ingredients to enhance consumer health. Because experimental evidence suggests that many herbs and spices, particularly those of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis L. (sage) and Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), possess a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, they represent promising functional ingredients for incorporation into meat and meat products. The present study aimed to determine the bioactivity of cooked beef patties that were enriched with or without sage or oregano extracts (1,200 microg/g). Cooked beef patties were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure, and the resulting micelles isolated from the digested meats were added to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The antioxidant potential (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] value) of enriched beef patties was significantly higher than the FRAP value of non-enriched beef patties, both before and after in vitro digestion. Cell viability significantly increased following treatment with certain concentrations of the micelle fractions from digested sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties. Pretreatment with micelles derived from sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties did not significantly protect against cell injury or DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2). However, micelles derived from digested sage-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content. In addition, micelles derived from both sage- and oregano-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly protected against H(2)O(2)-induced GSH depletion. Thus, it appears that sage and oregano exhibit some bioactivity within a meat system. Our findings suggest that herbal extracts have potential as possible functional ingredients in meat products. PMID:19735192

  13. Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability.

    PubMed

    Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Zeder, Christophe; Siriprapa, Pudsadee; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri

    2009-01-01

    Spices and herbs are extensively used in indigenous diets in tropical regions where prevalence of iron deficiency is still high. They are rich in polyphenolic compounds that are expected to inhibit iron absorption by forming iron complexes in the intestine, making dietary iron less available for absorption. The effects of six spices and herbs (chili pepper, garlic, 'Pak kyheng' (Thai leafy vegetable), shallot, tamarind, turmeric) and one mixture of spices (curry paste) on iron availability were determined by measuring the percentage dialyzable iron after addition of spices and herbs to a rice meal after simulated digestion. All tested spices and herbs contained from 0.5 to 33 mg polyphenol per meal and were potent inhibitors of iron availability (20-90%), reducing iron availability in a dose-dependent manner--with the exception of tamarind, which at 11 mg polyphenol per meal enhanced iron availability. Our findings demonstrate that culinary spices and herbs can play an important role in iron nutrition. PMID:18651292

  14. HERB: A production system for programming with hierarchical expert rule bases: User's manual, HERB Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, K.E.

    1987-12-01

    Expert systems are artificial intelligence programs that solve problems requiring large amounts of heuristic knowledge, based on years of experience and tradition. Production systems are domain-independent tools that support the development of rule-based expert systems. This document describes a general purpose production system known as HERB. This system was developed to support the programming of expert systems using hierarchically structured rule bases. HERB encourages the partitioning of rules into multiple rule bases and supports the use of multiple conflict resolution strategies. Multiple rule bases can also be placed on a system stack and simultaneously searched during each interpreter cycle. Both backward and forward chaining rules are supported by HERB. The condition portion of each rule can contain both patterns, which are matched with facts in a data base, and LISP expressions, which are explicitly evaluated in the LISP environment. Properties of objects can also be stored in the HERB data base and referenced within the scope of each rule. This document serves both as an introduction to the principles of LISP-based production systems and as a user's manual for the HERB system. 6 refs., 17 figs.

  15. Collections and Exsiccates deposited in PRC herbarium Prague: Plantae Scandinaviae ex herb. G. V. Schotte

    E-print Network

    Svoboda, David

    Collections and Exsiccates deposited in PRC herbarium Prague: Plantae Scandinaviae ex herb. G. V Kosteletzky (incl. herb. Mann, Opiz p.p.) Flora exsiccata Austro-Hungarica Flora Hungarica exsiccata Caliciae

  16. Zwischen den Welten Tocquevilles Amerika veranstaltet vom Lehrstuhl fr Politische Philosophie und Ideengeschichte (Prof. Herb)

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    und Ideengeschichte (Prof. Herb) in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Lehrstuhl für Amerikanistik (Prof. Hebel-20 Uhr Universität H 33 18.5. Karlfriedrich Herb, Regensburg Es war einmal in Amerika - Tocqueville über

  17. UTILISATION COMPARE DE L'ENSILAGE DE MAS ET DE L'ENSILAGE D'HERBE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UTILISATION COMPARÉE DE L'ENSILAGE DE MAÏS ET DE L'ENSILAGE D'HERBE POUR LA PRODUCTION LAITIÈRE R-Champanelle RÉSUMÉ Le but de l'essai a été de comparer l'utilisation de l'ensilage de maïs et de l'ensilage d'herbe'une d'ensilage d'herbe (« lot herbe ») et l'autre d'ensilage de maïs (« lot maïs ») et contenant toutes

  18. Organic Greenhouse Container Herb Production in South Florida: Fertilizer and Potting Media1

    E-print Network

    Migliaccio, Kati White

    ABE 373 Organic Greenhouse Container Herb Production in South Florida: Fertilizer and Potting Media climate and high number of pest and disease pressures. Thus, greenhouse production of organic herbs may and fertilizers for organic herb production in greenhouses in this climate. Objectives Greenhouse trials were

  19. MESURE DE LA QUANTIT D'HERBE INGRE PAR UN RUMINANT EN LIBERT AU PATURAGE AU

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MESURE DE LA QUANTITÉ D'HERBE INGÉRÉE PAR UN RUMINANT EN LIBERTÉ AU PATURAGE AU MOYEN DE LA- recte de la digestibilité d'échantillons d'herbe de qualités différentes. 30 - Conclusion. I. - EXPOSÉ'existence d'une relation entre la teneur en azote de la matière fécale d'un ruminant nourri avec de l'herbe

  20. COMPOSITION CHIMIQUE DE L'HERBE ET TTANIE D'HERBAGE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COMPOSITION CHIMIQUE DE L'HERBE ET TÉTANIE D'HERBAGE P. LARVOR L. GUÉGUEN avec la collaboration relations entre la composition chimique de l'herbe et les symptômes de Tétanie d'herbage : 1°) On a comparé, au moyen de la fonction discriminante de R. A. FISHER, la composition de deux groupes d'herbes

  1. Article original Quantits d'herbe ingres par les vaches laitires, les

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Article original Quantités d'herbe ingérées par les vaches laitières, les génisses et les moutons d'herbe de référence (dans le système français des unités d'encombrement) ingérées par des bovins de type très différent et les liaisons entre les quantités d'herbe ingérées par des ovins et des bovins

  2. Article original Ingestion d'herbe au pturage par le cheval de selle

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Article original Ingestion d'herbe au pâturage par le cheval de selle en croissance : effet de l'âge des poulains et de la biomasse d'herbe Pascal MÉSOCHINAa, Jean-Louis PEYRAUDb, Patrick DUNCANc, Didier'alimentation principale des jeunes chevaux, il n'existe que très peu de données sur les quantités d'herbe ingérées sur les

  3. Dgradabilit in sacco d'ensilages d'herbe et contamination bactrienne des rsidus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dégradabilité in sacco d'ensilages d'herbe et contamination bactérienne des résidus E Teller, M de l'ensilage d'herbe. Matériel et méthodes ― Six génisses, mu- nies d'une canule du rumen, ont été nourries à volonté avec chacun des fourrages incubés dans le rumen, à savoir de l'ensilage d'herbe

  4. Influence du prfanage de l'herbe avant ensilage sur l'ingestion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence du préfanage de l'herbe avant ensilage sur l'ingestion et la mastication chez la vache-omasal (Dulphy et Demarquilly, 1974). L'objectif de ce travail est d'analyser l'effet du préfanage de l'herbe'ensilage d'herbe (93 % de ray- grass anglais, début épiaison), réalisé soit di- rectement sans conservateur

  5. On Vince Vatter's Brilliant Extension of Doron Zeilberger's Enumeration Schemes for Herb Wilf's Classes

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    On Vince Vatter's Brilliant Extension of Doron Zeilberger's Enumeration Schemes for Herb Wilf) called WILF. To check the `logical' program, I also wrote an empirical program, called HERB. The Maple package HERB found enumeration schemes by testing them for permutations of size n #20; N 0 , where N 0

  6. Original article Tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three Scots

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three Scots pine stands with different - To evaluate the impact of herb layer structure on the transpiration of Scots pine ecosystems in north-eastern Germany, we measured tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three stands. Parameters of tree

  7. Herbs and grasses as an allochthonous resource in open-canopy headwater streams

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Margaret A.

    Herbs and grasses as an allochthonous resource in open-canopy headwater streams HOLLY L. MENNINGER.S.A. SUMMARY 1. The organic matter dynamics of streams dominated by herbs and grass on their banks are poorly understood, despite the fact that such streams are common worldwide. Further, herbs and grasses can provide

  8. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Susan

    Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities Susan change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951­2007/ 2009) in a complex montane,500­2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb

  9. On Vince Vatter's Brilliant Extension of Doron Zeilberger's Enumeration Schemes for Herb Wilf's Classes

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    On Vince Vatter's Brilliant Extension of Doron Zeilberger's Enumeration Schemes for Herb Wilf) called WILF. To check the `logical' program, I also wrote an empirical program, called HERB. The Maple package HERB found enumeration schemes by testing them for permutations of size n N0, where N0 was some

  10. Aspects mthodologiques de la prvision de la digestibilit de l'herbe pture

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Aspects méthodologiques de la prévision de la digestibilité de l'herbe pâturée par le mouton, les de la digestibilité de l'herbe au pâturage chez trois espèces animales (mouton, bovins, cheval), à partir de trois essais destinés par ailleurs à comparer la digestibilité, mesurée à l'auge, de l'herbe

  11. Overstory influences on herb and shrub communities in mature forests of western

    E-print Network

    Halpern, Charles B.

    Overstory influences on herb and shrub communities in mature forests of western Washington, U of species in the herb and shrub layers in mature forests of western Washington. Overstory variables in cover of Acer circinatum Pursh (the most common shrub species) and late-seral herbs (species reaching

  12. POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR LOSS OF VERNAL-HERB DIVERSITY IN LOGGED EASTERN DECIDUOUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALBERT J. MEIER; DAVID CAMERON DUFFY

    1995-01-01

    The ecological literature on eastern forest-floor herbs and data collected in the southern Appalachians in Tennessee and North Carolina suggest five possible ecological mechanisms for reducing or limiting alpha diversity of vernal herbs in logged stands, three of which may also account for the slow recovery of some herbaceous species: (1) logging reduces populations of rarer herbs; (2) populations of

  13. Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

  14. Flying High with Herb Kelleher: A Profile in Charismatic Leadership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Whitney Gibson; Charles W. Blackwell

    1999-01-01

    Executive Summary Herb Kelleher, co-founder, CEO, President and Chairman of Southwest Airlines is cited in this article as an ideal example of charismatic leadership at its best. A discussion of charismatic leadership focuses on traits and behaviors of charismatic leaders. This model is then used to examine Kelleher's traits and behaviors at Southwest Airlines, named in 1998 as the best

  15. A Possible Mechanism for the Eye Rotation of Typhoon Herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Chi Kuo; R. T. Williams; Jen-Her Chen

    1999-01-01

    An elliptical eye that rotated cyclonically with a period of approximately 144 minutes in Typhoon Herb 1996 was documented. The elliptical region had a semimajor axis of 30 km and a semiminor axis of 20 km. Two complete periods of approximately 144 min were observed in the Doppler radar data. The rotation of the elliptical eye in the context of

  16. Resources limit the fecundity of three woodland herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. McCall; R. B. Primack

    1987-01-01

    Effects of supplemental hand pollination on fruit set, seed number, and seed weight were examined for 3 perennial, woodland herbs, Uvularia sessilifolia, Geranium maculatum, and Maianthemum canadense. We found no evidence for pollen limitation of any measure of fecundity. Low light probably limited fecundity in Geranium, while soil nitrogen limited the number of sseds\\/fruit in Maianthemum. For Geranium and Maianthemum

  17. Flavonoid aglycones and phytosterols from the Erigeron acris L. herb.

    PubMed

    Nazaruk, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    Four flavonoid aglycones (apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin) were isolated from methanolic extract from the herb of Erigemn acris L. (Asteraceae). In this extract five phytosterols (campesterol, chondrillasterol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol(5alpha,3alpha), stigmasterol and spinasterone) were also identified. PMID:17203871

  18. College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension Growing Herbs Outdoors

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    , horticultural sand, vermiculite, and/or compost in with the soil, backfill the area, and then level the soil that came with the purchased plant. Irrigation & Fertilization In general, herbs do not require large amounts of fertilizer and will lose flavor when over-fertilized. Fertilization should be based on soil

  19. Herb–Drug Interactions: Challenges and Opportunities for Improved Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Argikar, Aneesh A.; Lin, Yvonne S.; Nagar, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Supported by a usage history that predates written records and the perception that “natural” ensures safety, herbal products have increasingly been incorporated into Western health care. Consumers often self-administer these products concomitantly with conventional medications without informing their health care provider(s). Such herb–drug combinations can produce untoward effects when the herbal product perturbs the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters. Despite increasing recognition of these types of herb–drug interactions, a standard system for interaction prediction and evaluation is nonexistent. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying herb–drug interactions remain an understudied area of pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of herbal product interaction liability is challenging due to variability in herbal product composition, uncertainty of the causative constituents, and often scant knowledge of causative constituent pharmacokinetics. These limitations are confounded further by the varying perspectives concerning herbal product regulation. Systematic evaluation of herbal product drug interaction liability, as is routine for new drugs under development, necessitates identifying individual constituents from herbal products and characterizing the interaction potential of such constituents. Integration of this information into in silico models that estimate the pharmacokinetics of individual constituents should facilitate prospective identification of herb–drug interactions. These concepts are highlighted with the exemplar herbal products milk thistle and resveratrol. Implementation of this methodology should help provide definitive information to both consumers and clinicians about the risk of adding herbal products to conventional pharmacotherapeutic regimens. PMID:24335390

  20. Herbs–Are they Safe Enough? An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Divya Singh; Rajiv Gupta; Shubhini A. Saraf

    2012-01-01

    Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many

  1. Herbs—Are they safe enough! An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Divya Singh; Rajiv Gupta; Shubhini A. Saraf

    2011-01-01

    Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many

  2. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476

  3. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen; Lu, Jinjian; Huang, Mingqing; Li, Yingbo; Chen, Meiwan; Wu, Guosheng; Gong, Jian; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Xu, Zengtao; Dang, Yuanye; Guo, Jiajie; Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Yitao

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476

  4. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kora?, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  5. Collected seeds and fruits from herbs as prehistoric food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Ernst Behre

    2008-01-01

    New investigations of two archaeobotanical finds are presented: a large assemblage of pure fruits of Polygonum lapathifolium from Bremen-Strom, Germany and the gut contents of a bog body from Kayhausen near Oldenburg, Germany. The general question\\u000a is to find out for sure which herb species were intentionally gathered for human consumption. To accept species as such, they\\u000a have to fulfil

  6. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Kora?, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  7. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dheeraj P.; Pancholi, Shyam S.; Patel, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb. PMID:22171315

  8. Herb use in pregnancy: what nurses should know.

    PubMed

    Born, Diane; Barron, Mary Lee

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a dramatic rise in the availability and use of medicinal herbal preparations. Childbearing women are among those who are asking nurses about herbal use, and therefore nurses need to learn more about this topic. One of the most important points to understand is that in the United States herbs are classified as dietary supplements (not drugs), and manufacturers are therefore not required to provide proof of efficacy or safety before selling these substances. Few studies about effects of herbs have been conducted in the general population, and fewer still have been published about pregnancy use. Because the perinatal nurse has two patients to consider when caring for a pregnant woman, he or she has two equally important mandates: to help the mother without harming the fetus. This article provides an overview of key concepts underlying herbal use in general and also safety in pregnancy. Common herbs that can be safely be used in pregnancy are presented in detail to enable the nurse to better care for the pregnant woman who is considering herbal use. PMID:15867682

  9. Ecotoxicological responses of three ornamental herb species to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mingzhu

    2013-08-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant. PMID:23564584

  10. INFLUENCE DE LA TENEUR EN EAU ET DE LA DSHYDRATATION DE L'HERBE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INFLUENCE DE LA TENEUR EN EAU ET DE LA DÉSHYDRATATION DE L'HERBE SUR SA VALEUR ALIMENTAIRE POUR LES individuellement et à volonté, ont reçu à l'auge, l'un de l'herbe verte (12 à 22 p. 100 de M. S.) et l'autre la même herbe déshydratée à basse tem- pérature. Six vaches munies d'une fistule du rumen ont été

  11. QUANTITS D'HERBE ET DE LAIT CONSOMMES PAR DES VEAUX AU PIS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    QUANTITÉS D'HERBE ET DE LAIT CONSOMMÉES PAR DES VEAUX AU PIS P. LE NEINDRE* M. PETIT A. MULLER* G de lait et d'herbe consommées entre l'âge de 3 et 8 mois par 96 veaux, Novmands ou croisés Claavolais,5 mois qu'entre 5,5 et 8 mois. La consommation d'herbe augmente considérablement entre 3 et 8 mois, de 1

  12. Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Banbury, Linda K.; Leach, David N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm), flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood). These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 40–1990 µmol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 µmol TE/g), Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 µmol TE/g), Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 µmol TE/g), Artemisia anomala herb (1400 µmol TE/g), Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 µmol TE/g) and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 µmol TE/g). Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action. PMID:18955214

  13. Inhibitory effects of aromatic herbs on lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modification by copper.

    PubMed

    Toda, Shizuo

    2003-05-01

    Aromatic herbs have been used as carminatives. Oxygen free radicals are generated in ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the stomach, and induce lipid peroxidation or protein oxidative modification. Several aromatic herbs were shown to have inhibitory effects on the generation of oxygen free radicals. It was shown that several aromatic herbs, Caryophylli Flos, Cinnamomi Cortex, Foeniculi Fructus and Zedoariae Rhizoma, have inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation or protein oxidative modification by copper. PMID:12748995

  14. [Increased resistance to hypoxia under the effect of the mixture of herbs from the Altai].

    PubMed

    Kulikov, V P; Chupikova, I A; Sanarov, E M; Voloboy, N L

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the antihypoxic effect of herb mixture from the Altai in an experiment with rats. This mixture of herbs contains bioflavonoids. Also, it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, angioprotective and antiplatelet properties. The animals received decoction of herbs into the stomach through a tube. Courses lasted 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. Resistance to acute hypobaric hypoxia evaluated by time of animal life in modeling rise to a height of 11,500 meters above sea level. In result, a significant antihypoxic effect was observed in rats treated with decoction of herbs for 21 days. Shorter courses of treatment were not effective. PMID:24000712

  15. Multi-pathway cellular analysis on crude natural drugs/herbs from Japanese kampo formulations.

    PubMed

    Eshima, Shizuka; Yokoyama, Satoru; Abe, Takashi; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Kampo formulations comprise a number of crude natural drugs/herbs as constituents. The crude drugs/herbs have been traditionally classified by their traditional classifications or efficacies in Kampo medicines; however, it has been difficult to establish the scientific link between experimental evidence and traditional classifications in Kampo medicine. To clarify such traditional conceptions, we tested 112 crude drugs/herbs that are major components of Kampo formulations, in the multi-pathway analysis of 10 well-studied transcriptional activities including CREB, ERSF, HIF-1?, IRFs, MYC, NF-?B, p53, SMAD, SOX2, and TCF/LEF in A549 human lung cancer cells. By clustering the results of multi-pathway analysis with the Spearman rank-correlation coefficient and Ward linkage, three distinct traditional categories were significantly enriched in the major groupings, which are heat-clearing and dampness-drying herbs, acrid and warm exterior-resolving herbs, and acrid and cool exterior-resolving herbs. These results indicate that these crude drugs/herbs have similar effects on intracellular signaling and further imply that the traditional classifications of those enriched crude drugs/herbs can be supported by such experimental evidence. Collectively, our new in vitro multi-pathway analysis may be useful to clarify the mechanism of action of crude drugs/herbs and Kampo formulations. PMID:26035432

  16. Multi-Pathway Cellular Analysis on Crude Natural Drugs/Herbs from Japanese Kampo Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Eshima, Shizuka; Yokoyama, Satoru; Abe, Takashi; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Kampo formulations comprise a number of crude natural drugs/herbs as constituents. The crude drugs/herbs have been traditionally classified by their traditional classifications or efficacies in Kampo medicines; however, it has been difficult to establish the scientific link between experimental evidence and traditional classifications in Kampo medicine. To clarify such traditional conceptions, we tested 112 crude drugs/herbs that are major components of Kampo formulations, in the multi-pathway analysis of 10 well-studied transcriptional activities including CREB, ERSF, HIF-1?, IRFs, MYC, NF-?B, p53, SMAD, SOX2, and TCF/LEF in A549 human lung cancer cells. By clustering the results of multi-pathway analysis with the Spearman rank-correlation coefficient and Ward linkage, three distinct traditional categories were significantly enriched in the major groupings, which are heat-clearing and dampness-drying herbs, acrid and warm exterior-resolving herbs, and acrid and cool exterior-resolving herbs. These results indicate that these crude drugs/herbs have similar effects on intracellular signaling and further imply that the traditional classifications of those enriched crude drugs/herbs can be supported by such experimental evidence. Collectively, our new in vitro multi-pathway analysis may be useful to clarify the mechanism of action of crude drugs/herbs and Kampo formulations. PMID:26035432

  17. Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Myagmar, B E; Aniya, Y

    2000-06-01

    In the present study we evaluated the free radical scavenging action of some medicinal herbs growing in Mongolia. The aqueous extract of nine herbs Chamenerion angustifolium (Ch.ang), Equisetum arvense (Eq.arv), Gentiana decumbens (Gn.dec), Geranium pratense (Gr.pra), Lomatogonium carinthiacum (L.car), Nonea poulla (N.pl), Phodococcum vitis-idaea (Ph.v), Sphallerocarpus gracilis (Sph.gr), Stellera chamaejasme (St.cha) were used in the present experiment. The free radical scavenging action was determined in vitro and ex vivo by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and chemiluminescence (CL) analyzer. The results showed that extracts of Ch.ang, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v, Sph.gr and St. cha possess strong scavenging action of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. On the other hand, the radical scavenging action of Eq.arv was low. Extracts of N.pl and Ph.v markedly inhibited the CL generated from rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 system whereas the CL was moderately inhibited by Eq.arv, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car and St.cha. The extracts of Ch.ang and Sph.gr did not decrease the CL generation. Ch.ang, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v and St.cha also depressed reactive oxygen production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate ex vivo. Thus it was confirmed that the medicinal herbs from Mongolia possess high antioxidant potency in vitro and ex vivo. PMID:11185733

  18. The Effects of Herbs and Fruits on Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Md Noor, Sabariah; Ismail, Patimah; Othman, Fauziah

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, herbal therapy is the first and basis form of treatment for most types of diseases. About 75–80% of the world's population prefers herbal therapy as a major treatment due to its better adequacy and satisfactoriness, which enhance human body's symmetry with minimal side effects. Fruits and plants have been presented from the past as promising tools in becoming a natural anticancer agents. Many of these plant extracts are currently used in cancer therapy and prevention. This review paper will particularly explore and emphasize on herbs and fruits used in the treatment of the leukaemia. PMID:25250054

  19. CancerHSP: anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiyang; Li, Bohui; Gao, Shuo; Bai, Yaofei; Shar, Piar Ali; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Zihu; Sun, Ke; Fu, Yingxue; Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Mu, Jiexin; Pei, Tianli; Wang, Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    The numerous natural products and their bioactivity potentially afford an extraordinary resource for new drug discovery and have been employed in cancer treatment. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of most natural anticancer compounds remain elusive, which has become one of the major obstacles in developing novel effective anticancer agents. Here, to address these unmet needs, we developed an anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology (CancerHSP), which records anticancer herbs related information through manual curation. Currently, CancerHSP contains 2439 anticancer herbal medicines with 3575 anticancer ingredients. For each ingredient, the molecular structure and nine key ADME parameters are provided. Moreover, we also provide the anticancer activities of these compounds based on 492 different cancer cell lines. Further, the protein targets of the compounds are predicted by state-of-art methods or collected from literatures. CancerHSP will help reveal the molecular mechanisms of natural anticancer products and accelerate anticancer drug development, especially facilitate future investigations on drug repositioning and drug discovery. CancerHSP is freely available on the web at http://lsp.nwsuaf.edu.cn/CancerHSP.php. PMID:26074488

  20. Herb-drug interactions: focus on metabolic enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Hee; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Yoon Gyoon

    2011-11-01

    As the uses of herbal medicines from traditional natural products are increased, the need for pharmacokinetic studies and relevant data are also increased for safe pharmacotherapy. The market entry for the traditional herbal medicine is easier compared with that for synthetic drugs because of a lower regulatory barrier. Thus, the exact mechanisms for the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of active components in herbal medicines and the potential herb-drug interactions are not always fully understood. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies and relevant data of commonly used herbal remedies are accumulating in this field. In this review, the effects of nine botanicals (ginkgo, green tea, grapes, licorice, saw palmetto, garlic milk thistle, ginseng and St. John's wort) on metabolic enzymes and transporters affecting absorption and disposition of herbal products are summarized. The source of samples (extracts and individual components), the species (human and animal) and in vivo and in vitro systems were separately reviewed for a better understanding of herb-drug interactions. PMID:22139685

  1. CancerHSP: anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Weiyang; Li, Bohui; Gao, Shuo; Bai, Yaofei; Shar, Piar Ali; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Zihu; Sun, Ke; Fu, Yingxue; Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Mu, Jiexin; Pei, Tianli; Wang, Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    The numerous natural products and their bioactivity potentially afford an extraordinary resource for new drug discovery and have been employed in cancer treatment. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of most natural anticancer compounds remain elusive, which has become one of the major obstacles in developing novel effective anticancer agents. Here, to address these unmet needs, we developed an anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology (CancerHSP), which records anticancer herbs related information through manual curation. Currently, CancerHSP contains 2439 anticancer herbal medicines with 3575 anticancer ingredients. For each ingredient, the molecular structure and nine key ADME parameters are provided. Moreover, we also provide the anticancer activities of these compounds based on 492 different cancer cell lines. Further, the protein targets of the compounds are predicted by state-of-art methods or collected from literatures. CancerHSP will help reveal the molecular mechanisms of natural anticancer products and accelerate anticancer drug development, especially facilitate future investigations on drug repositioning and drug discovery. CancerHSP is freely available on the web at http://lsp.nwsuaf.edu.cn/CancerHSP.php. PMID:26074488

  2. Systems Biology of Meridians, Acupoints, and Chinese Herbs in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li-Ling; Wang, Ya-Hui; Lai, Chi-Yu; Chau, Chan-Lao; Su, Guan-Chin; Yang, Chun-Yi; Lou, Shu-Ying; Chen, Szu-Kai; Hsu, Kuan-Hao; Lai, Yen-Ling; Wu, Wei-Ming; Huang, Jian-Long; Liao, Chih-Hsin; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Meridians, acupoints, and Chinese herbs are important components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). They have been used for disease treatment and prevention and as alternative and complementary therapies. Systems biology integrates omics data, such as transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolomics data, in order to obtain a more global and complete picture of biological activity. To further understand the existence and functions of the three components above, we reviewed relevant research in the systems biology literature and found many recent studies that indicate the value of acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Acupuncture is useful in pain moderation and relieves various symptoms arising from acute spinal cord injury and acute ischemic stroke. Moreover, Chinese herbal extracts have been linked to wound repair, the alleviation of postmenopausal osteoporosis severity, and anti-tumor effects, among others. Different acupoints, variations in treatment duration, and herbal extracts can be used to alleviate various symptoms and conditions and to regulate biological pathways by altering gene and protein expression. Our paper demonstrates how systems biology has helped to establish a platform for investigating the efficacy of TCM in treating different diseases and improving treatment strategies. PMID:23118787

  3. Oil of Melissa officinalis L., as Affected by Storage and Herb Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Shabby; S. El-Gengaihi; M. Khattab

    1995-01-01

    The essential oils of the fresh and dried herb Melissa officinalis L., grown in Egypt were subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 60 constituents separated, 21 were identified. The oil consisted mainly of geranial, neral, citronellal, caryophyllene oxide, ?-caryophyllene and geraniol. Drying the herb prior to distillation did not change the qualitative composition of the oil, but the relative amount

  4. Characteristics of hazards induced by extremely heavy rainfall in Central Taiwan — Typhoon Herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L Lin; F. S Jeng

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, Typhoon Herb devastated Taiwan, moving across the northwestern part of the island. Historically, typhoons traveling such a route have frequently caused worse damage than typhoons on other routes. Herb brought record-breaking precipitation to Taiwan, especially the central part of the island. The heavy rainfall led to more than 1315 landslides and 20 debris flows. Seventy-three lives were lost,

  5. Life Histories and Demography of Shade-Tolerant Temperate Forest Herbs: A Paulette Bierzychudek

    E-print Network

    Bierzychudek, Paulette

    forest. Most of the species that have been studied are deciduous perennials. These species generally have growth rates of temperate deciduous forest herbs, or on the temporal stability of their population sizesLife Histories and Demography of Shade-Tolerant Temperate Forest Herbs: A Review Paulette

  6. Forest herb colonization of postagricultural forests in central New York State, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhine Singleton; Sana Gardescu; P. L. Marks; Monica A. Geber

    2001-01-01

    Summary 1 The recovery of forest vegetation following abandonment of agriculture was followed by surveying forest herbs in central New York State at 25 sites where postagricultural forest occurred directly adjacent to old-woods (forest that has never been ploughed). 2 The abundance, richness and diversity of 50 forest herbs were on average lower in postagricultural forests than in old-woods. 3

  7. Kitchen Garden Herbs The sensible practice of planting a garden close by the kitchen door for easy accessibility was brought to this country by the

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Dishes Thyme · Sage · Oregano · Rosemary · Tarragon · Lemon Thyme Herbs For Fish Dill · Parsley · Fennel · Basil · Chervil Herbs For Meat Dishes Rosemary · Bay · Oregano · Marjoram · Mint · Parsley · Sage

  8. [Trends of genome evolution in land and secondary-water herbs].

    PubMed

    Gamale?, Iu V; Sheremet'ev, S N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genome sizes in two groups of herbs, land and secondary-water, has been released. It is shown that their genomes are changed to opposite topics in cenozoic. The genome of land herbs is increased, and it is decreased in secondary water herbs. Genome growth in land herbs is analyzed as the result of unfavourable changes in global climate: cooling, aridization and atmospheric CO2 deficit. Genome minimization in secondary-water herbs is interpreted as the sequence of united effect of two groups of factors: returning to more stable water environment and breakdown of symbiotic relations with fungi partner. The influence of environmental discomfort and development of symbiotic or parasitic relations on genome size is discussed in association with established differences. PMID:22997729

  9. Pharmacogenomics and herb-drug interactions: merge of future and tradition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mou-Ze; Zhang, Yue-Li; Zeng, Mei-Zi; He, Fa-Zhong; Luo, Zhi-Ying; Luo, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Gen; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide using of herb products and the increasing potential herb-drug interaction issue has raised enthusiasm on discovering the underlying mechanisms. Previous review indicated that the interactions may be mediated by metabolism enzymes and transporters in pharmacokinetic pathways. On the other hand, an increasing number of studies found that genetic variations showed some influence on herb-drug interaction effects whereas these genetic factors did not draw much attention in history. We highlight that pharmacogenomics may involve the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic pathways to affect herb-drug interaction. We are here to make an updated review focused on some common herb-drug interactions in association with genetic variations, with the aim to help safe use of herbal medicines in different individuals in the clinic. PMID:25821484

  10. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  11. Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

    2013-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  12. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  13. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Ró?a?ska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached <10(4) CFU/g. Results achieved in the study indicate good hygienic conditions in the production process of spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type. PMID:25846909

  14. Etude du stock de semences de mauvaises herbes dans le sol : le problme de l'chantillonnage

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Etude du stock de semences de mauvaises herbes dans le sol : le problème de l herbes dans le sol pose un problème de nombre de prélèvements de sol à faire. L'objet de ce travail est d'apporter des éléments de réponse à la difficile question Mauvaises herbes, de l'échantillonnage. Stock de

  15. Influence de la teneur en composants paritaux (NDF) des ensilages d'herbe sur le comportement alimentaire

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence de la teneur en composants pariétaux (NDF) des ensilages d'herbe sur le comportement d'herbe offerts à volonté aux animaux. Les données de 19 études de comportement alimentaire d'animaux recevant ad libitum des ensilages d'herbe à brins courts consti- tuent la base de ce travail. Onze

  16. Estimation de la digestibilit de l'herbe ingre au pturage partir de l'azote fcal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Estimation de la digestibilité de l'herbe ingérée au pâturage à partir de l'azote fécal et de la digestibilité de l'herbe pâturée à partir de quelques critères fécaux et de discuter les : utilisation pour prévoir la digestibilité de l'herbe pâturée par des bovins, avec ou sans complémentation au

  17. -SIMULATED EFFECTS OF HERB COMPETITION ON PLANTED QUERCUS FAGINEA -213 Applied Vegetation Science 6: 213-222, 2003

    E-print Network

    Espigares, Tíscar

    - SIMULATED EFFECTS OF HERB COMPETITION ON PLANTED QUERCUS FAGINEA - 213 Applied Vegetation Science 6: 213-222, 2003 © IAVS; Opulus Press Uppsala. Abstract. We tested simulated effects of herb cropland. We produced three types of environment with respect to herb competition: absence of competition

  18. L'levage de l'agneau l'herbe I. Effets de l'ge au sevrage

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L'élevage de l'agneau à l'herbe I. Effets de l'âge au sevrage sur les performances d'agneaux élevés à l'herbe puis engraissés en bergerie Sophie PRACHE A. BRELURUT M. THERIEZ J. LEROUX H. CASSAGNES LN 63122 Ceyrat Résumé Cette étude concerne la production d'agneaux à l'herbe dans le système d

  19. Diffrence entre races bovines dans le dracinement de l'herbe pture P. LE NEINDRE R. KILGOUR

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Différence entre races bovines dans le déracinement de l'herbe pâturée P. LE NEINDRE R. KILGOUR également d'un déra- cinement de l'herbe, tout spécialement du ray-grass anglais, qui entraîne la mort de la facteurs. Enfin Boswell (1977) observe que les bovins déracinent plus l'herbe que les ovins. Nos résultats

  20. Development of antimicrobial cotton fabrics using herb loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, R; Radhai, R; Kotresh, T M; Csiszar, Emilia

    2013-01-16

    In the present work ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum were screened for their anti-microbial activity by using the agar diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was also measured. The methanol extracts O. sanctum proved to have the maximum antimicrobial effect were loaded inside the sodium alginate chitosan nanoparticles by cation induced controlled gelification method and finished on cotton fabric by pad dry cure method. The average particle size of the nanoparticles was calculated using dynamic light scattering technique. The antimicrobial activity of the fabrics was assessed by using the standard AATCC technique (AATCC 100). The quantitative tests proved that cotton fabrics finished with the methanol extract of O. sanctum loaded nanoparticles possessed remarkable antibacterial activities with excellent wash durability. The study revealed that the herb encapsulated nanoparticle could act as a biocontrol agent against bacteria in fabrics. PMID:23121954

  1. Information Resource: About Herbs, Botanicals, and Other Products

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site from the Integrative Medicine Service of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) provides oncologists and other healthcare professionals with objective information on medicinal herbs and other botanicals. Users may search for a particular plant name or browse the entire catalog by letter of the alphabet. Searches yield a clinical summary for each plant, a description of purported uses, information on adverse effects and drug interactions, and so on. The site also includes a News and Alerts section, a FAQs page (mostly about possible risks and complications), and evaluations of alternative or unproved cancer therapies. The general reader should also find this regularly updated Web site helpful, but MSKCC cautions against substituting the site "for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem."

  2. Photovoltaic dryer with dual packed beds for drying medical herb

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Rehim, Z.S.; Fahmy, F.H. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    1998-03-01

    This work presents design and optimization of a cylindrical photovoltaic dryer with dual packed beds thermal energy storage for drying medical herb. The dryer is provided with electrical heater where the electrical energy is generated by using photovoltaic system. The electrical heater is designed and sized to realize continuous drying (day and night) to minimize the drying time. Two packed beds are used to fix the drying temperature in dryer during day and night. The main packed bed thermal energy storage is charged during the sunlight hours directly, to realize continued drying after sunset. An efficient PV dryer is devised to work under forced air created by air blower and heated by the electrical coils.

  3. Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae): an American herb in the Old World.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel F

    2008-05-01

    People in the Indian region often apply shankhapushpi and vishnukranti, two Sanskrit-based common names, to Evolvulus alsinoides. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal American species transported into the area. The period of introduction is uncertain, but probably took place in the 1500s or 1600s. Examination of relationships of Evolvulus alsinoides, geographic distribution, its names in Asia, medical uses, and chemical and laboratory analysis indicates that the alien plant was adopted, given an ancient Indian name, and incorporated into some Old World pharmacopoeias. The herb apparently was included in medicines because it not only reminded people of certain aspects of their gods and goddesses, but also because the chemicals it contained were useful against some maladies. PMID:18384986

  4. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. PMID:22988474

  5. Role of indigenous herbs in the management of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Nishteswar, K.; Joshi, Hemang; Karra, Rahul Dutt

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is a natural phenomenon and decline of physiological and structural changes are incurable in advancing years of human life. When such degenerative changes occur in the brain they may lead to dementia and other memory related conditions. The Ayurvedic classics identified the importance of higher faculties dealing with memory and introduced a separate group of drugs namely Medhya Rasayanas. Regular intake of such drugs will help to prevent the onset of degenerative changes in the brain prematurely. Ayurveda can play a useful role in the management of such geriatric conditions. The current review has been done with a view to update documented Ayurvedic therapeutic modalities for certain geriatric conditions suggested by Ayurvedic classics in the management of diseases called V?tavy?dhi (nervous system disorders), which also include conditions related to memory functions. Recent studies have started validating the claims recorded in Ayurvedic texts. The pathogenesis and remedies for V?tavy?dhi documented in Ayurvedic classics have been reviewed with special emphasis on disorders related to dementia. A review of recent researches on the herbs mentioned in management of v?ta disorders including dementia have been done to understand their role in management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are many herbs of ethno-medicinal source studied experimentally for their potential in treatment of AD. A judicious combination of modern research methodology and Ayurvedic principles could go a long way in the management and care of AD which is going to be a heavy burden on the society in the future. PMID:25737604

  6. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  7. Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.

    PubMed

    ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Pawe?; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Gra?yna; Zawi?lak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality. PMID:24364459

  8. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sheng-Shing; Tsai, Chiu-Lin; Tu, Ching-Yeh; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions. Methods Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient. Results During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ?70 mg/dL). Conclusion Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. PMID:25733840

  9. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra-) Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang-hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-ling; Xing, Xue-feng; Chen, Fei-long; Tan, Xiao-mei; Luo, Jia-bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48?mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination. PMID:25691910

  10. Neuroprotective effect of gui zhi (ramulus cinnamomi) on ma huang- (herb ephedra-) induced toxicity in rats treated with a ma huang-gui zhi herb pair.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang-Hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-Ling; Xing, Xue-Feng; Chen, Fei-Long; Tan, Xiao-Mei; Luo, Jia-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48?mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination. PMID:25691910

  11. Four common herbs seen in dental practice: properties and potential adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Shankland, Wesley E

    2009-04-01

    The use of herbal supplements in North America is steadily growing and raises concerns about safety, efficacy, and how they affect safe patient care. The most notable and direct health risks associated with herbal supplements include hypertension, prolonged bleeding, and the potential for drug-herb interactions, which is of particular concern for patients undergoing anesthesia, both general and local anesthesia. In this article, four of the most commonly used herbs today in North America will be discussed: garlic, gingko, ginseng, and ginger. The pharmacology, benefits, and possible side effects of these herbs will be presented. Awareness of the rising use of herbs is important to prevent, recognize, and treat potential problems that can arise from herbal preparations taken alone or in conjunction with prescription medications. PMID:19455923

  12. Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ba?gel, S; Erdemo?lu, S B

    2006-04-15

    Fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Turkey such as chamomile (Matricaria chammomile L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), linden (Tilia vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioical), rosehip (Fr.Rosa caninae), sage (Salvia officinalis) and senna tea (Cassia anqustifolia). Microwave digestion procedure was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in the medicinal herbs and their infusions were determined by FAAS and ICP-AES. The accuracy and precision were verified against a GBW 07605 Poplar leaves and Tea certified reference material. The mineral and trace element content of medicinal herbs and their infusions showed a wide variability. However, distribution of the elements in the infusions is not high and it is nil especially for Cd, Co, Cr and Pb. PMID:15907975

  13. Chemical composition of indigenous wild herbs, spices, fruits, nuts and leafy vegetables used as food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Achinewhu; C. C. Ogbonna; A. D. Hart

    1995-01-01

    Thirty wild fruits, nuts, herbs, spices and leafy vegetables were characterized and their chemical composition determined. Some of them were not only used for food, but for medicine in minor aliments by the natives. Results of the proximate analysis showed that on dry weight basis, the crude protein content ranged from 4.6 to 22.1 percent for spices and herbs, 3.2

  14. [Analysis on the part of local medicinal herbs in Guangyangzaji (Guang Yang Miscellaneous Notes)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Ke

    2010-09-01

    Guangyangzaji (Guang Yang Miscellaneous Notes) are historical notes written by a scholar of the Qing dynasty: Liu Xian-ting. This book recorded much medical content of the people. Doing simple research and analysis on the name, physical nature and effectiveness of the Lobular Pyrolae, Kai Wood (Chinese pistache), Huanglian snakes (a snake habitat with Coptis grass) and other native herbs can contribute to understanding the evolution of the medicinal herbs. PMID:21163084

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on cerebral ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shan-Yu Su; Ching-Liang Hsieh

    2011-01-01

    s  Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators,\\u000a reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article\\u000a reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral\\u000a ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The

  16. Effects of thinning on plant species diversity and composition of understory herbs in a larch plantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaojun Zhu; Zhihong Mao; Caihong Zhang; Qiaoling Yan; Zugen Liu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of thinning on plant species diversity and composition of understory herbs in a larch plantation were investigated.\\u000a The relationships between plant species diversity and composition of understory herbs and light conditions were established.\\u000a Twenty-five 1 m × 1 m plots and fifteen 13 m × 1 m transects were set up in unthinned and thinned stands, respectively. All

  17. Quantitative hplc estimation of flavonoids in showy tick trefoil ( Desmodium canadense ) herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Puodziuniene; V. Kairyte; V. Janulis; A. Razukas; Z. Barsteigiene; O. Ragazinskiene

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of flavonoids in showy tick trefoil (Desmodium canadense L., Fabaceae) herbs during various vegetative phases were performed using HPLC techniques at the Department of Medicinal\\u000a Herbs of the Kaunas Botanical Garden (Vytautas Magnus University). A total of 15 flavonoids of aglycone and glycoside nature\\u000a was determined including apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glycoside, luteolin, rutin, 2-vicenin, vitexin, isovitexin, vitexin rhamnoside,

  18. Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage) modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbricus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Vattem, DA; Lester, CE; DeLeon, RC; Jamison, BY; Maitin, V

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. Objective: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage) modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed (ad libitum) on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v)] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW) induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Results: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation. PMID:23598918

  19. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120?days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ?-carotene?-?linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

  20. Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.

    PubMed

    Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Po?owniak, M; Kozik, V

    2012-11-15

    Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the ?g/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. PMID:22868119

  1. [Case of law-evading herbs poisoning that induced shock and myocardial damage].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nakano, Minoru; Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Miyazaki, Dai; Okamori, Satoshi; Akuzawa, Hisashi; Yuasa, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Law-evading herbs may induce poisoning symptoms, especially when they contain synthetic cannabinoids. However, their detailed pharmacological effects have not yet been clarified. Some reports have previously described symptoms of poisoning, but only a few reports have so far described shock and myocardial damage (MD). We experienced a case of shock and MD in a patient who had smoked law-evading herbs. A 61-year-old male presented at an emergency department 8 hours after smoking law-evading herbs (Rush Trip, High Men Monster) with chest pain. A vasopressor agent was administered to treat shock and antiarrhythmic drugs were administered due to ventricular arrhythmia. The contents of the law-evading herbs were unknown, so an in-hospital follow-up was conducted to treat the patient's symptoms. The follow-up blood test showed an increased level of cardiac enzymes, which thereafter demonstrated a spontaneous remission. The systemic conditions tended to improve and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the 5th hospital day. The contents of the law-evading herbs in question were thereafter,analyzed, and synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-210, JWH-081 and JWH-122) as well as caffeine were detected. The cause for the poisoning symptoms were suspected to be the presence of synthetic cannabinoids and caffeine. Such law-evading herbs may contain synthetic cannabinoids and caffeine which both may induce shock and MD. PMID:25771668

  2. The effect of a medicinal Chinese herb on platelet function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Roberts, J M; Grant, P G; Colman, R W; Schreiber, A D

    1982-12-27

    We investigated the effect of the Chinese herb Injectio Salvia Miltiorrhizae (ISM) on human platelet function in vitro. ISM inhibited platelet aggregation and serotonin release induced by either ADP or epinephrine in a dose dependent manner. This effect of ISM was observed with both gel-filtered platelets (ID50 = 8-30 micrograms ISM/ml gel-filtered platelets) and platelets in plasma (ID50 = 400-900 micrograms ISM/ml of platelet-rich plasma). The active molecule(s) in ISM was heat stable, resistant to acid, base and proteolysis and fractionated on Sephadex 6-25 at MW approximately 280. ISM did not interact with the platelet alpha-adrenergic receptor, but increased cAMP in intact platelets. The results are consistent with the concept that ISM inhibition of platelet aggregation and release is mediated by an increase in platelet cAMP. The exact mechanism whereby ISM increases platelet cAMP appears to be that of inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. The effect of ISM on platelet function is one mechanism which might explain the therapeutic effect of ISM in experimental and clinical coronary artery disease. PMID:6298967

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.

    PubMed

    Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

  4. Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms—anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

  5. Use of Chinese herb medicine in experimental radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Yang, X.Y.; Zhan, Q.M.; Guo, R.; Liu, J.W.; Yang, C.Z.

    1989-02-01

    Extracts from a group of destagnative herbs, 764-1, and the effective chemical, 764-3, were tested by an in vitro experiment using a HeLa-S3 cell line. Under aerobic conditions, the shoulder of the cell survival curve diminished or disappeared according to the different doses of 764-1 used, but no change in slope was observed. In nitrogen, when the dose of 764-1 increased to 20 mg/ml (ID20), besides the disappearance of the shoulder, the slope of the curve also showed changes at lower doses (4-8 Gy); up to 10-25 Gy the curve became more flattened. 764-3 showed almost a similar effect by mainly affecting the shoulder of the survival curve. At low drug doses a SER as high as 1.87 might be obtained under hypoxic condition. At the same time 764-1 was used in testing the effect on radiation lung damage. It was found that 764-1 could markedly inhibit the change of alveolar surfactant at 1 and 3 weeks after radiation. A wide field of investigation is thus spread out in front of us on radiosensitization and protection. Further studies on 764-3 are carried out.

  6. Estrogenic activities of ten medicinal herbs from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Ibtesam A; Ali, Lizna; Jabeen, Ayesha; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Rizvi, Tahir A; Ashraf, S Salman

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants have long been recognized as remedies and important sources of treatment for developing countries. In the present study, we report on a detailed study to quantify the presence of five known phytoestrogens in 10 widely used herbs used in the Middle East. Surprisingly some of these plants were almost devoid of tested phytoestrogens, whereas others were very rich in known phytoestrogens. For example, Hibiscus sabdariffa was found to be the richest in quercetin and daidzein, whereas Cyperus conglomeratus had the highest concentrations of kaempferol and genistein. On the other hand, Salvadora persica was almost devoid of the screened phytoestrogens. Ethanolic extracts were further tested for their proliferative activities in cell-culture using estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and were found to fall into three distinct groups based on their estrogenic activities. The most potent herbal extract (O. vulgare) was further fractionated and the fractions were analyzed again for phytoestrogenic content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and proliferative activity. Our results indicate that the proliferative activities of some of the extracts and fractions are not completely attributable to the phytoestrogens screened, thus it is likely that some of these plants may have other (perhaps yet unknown) phytoestrogens. PMID:22700791

  7. Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid profiling has been widely used in the bacteria species identification, we hypothesized that fatty acid characteristics might discriminate the Panax herbs according to species. To test the hypothesis, fatty acids of Panax species, including Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius, were characterized and compared using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results The content of investigated 11 fatty acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid, arachidic acid and eicosadienoic acid, obviously varied among three species, suggesting each species has its own fatty acid pattern. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis according to the absolute and relative contents of fatty acids, showed that 30 tested samples could be clearly differentiated according to the species. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis provides reliable platform to classify these three Panax species, which is helpful for ensuring their safety and efficacy. PMID:23336351

  8. Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Consolación; Rodríguez-Torres, Alfonso; Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen. PMID:22331454

  9. Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Yuri N; Williams, Arlene F; Aranda, Derick; Chase, Ronald; Watson, Nadya; Mohammed, Rochelle; Stubbs, Odia; Williamson, Deneil

    2005-01-01

    Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4%) reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6%) obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1%) obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%), and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments. PMID:15713232

  10. The last large pelletron accelerator of the Herb era

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, S.; Narayanan, M. M.; Joshi, R.; Gargari, S.; Kanjilal, D.; Datta, S. K.; Mehta, G. K. [Nuclear Science Centre, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    1999-04-26

    Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the high voltage terminal and consequently the option of further stripping the ion species of the selected charge states at high energy dead section, and elaborate pulsing system in the pre-acceleration region consisting of a beam chopper, a travelling wave deflector, a light ion buncher (1-80 amu) and a heavy ion buncher (>80 amu). NSC was established as a heavy ion accelerator based inter university centre in 1985. It became operational in July 1991 to cater to the research requirements of a large user community which at present includes about fifty universities, twenty-eight colleges and a dozen other academic institutes and research laboratories. The number of users in Materials and allied sciences is about 500. Various important modifications have been made to improve the performance of the accelerator in the last seven years. These include replacement of the corona voltage grading system by a resistor based one, a pick-up loop to monitor charging system performance, conversion from basic double unit structure to singlet, installation of a spiral cavity based phase detector system with post-accelerator stripper after the analyzing magnet, and a high efficiency multi harmonic buncher. Installation of a turbo pump based stripper gas recirculation system in the terminal is also planned. A brief description of utilization of the machine will be given.

  11. Determination of Heavy Metals Concentration in Traditional Herbs Commonly Consumed in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Dghaim, Rania; Al Khatib, Safa; Rasool, Husna; Ali Khan, Munawwar

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), were purchased from the local market in Dubai and analyzed for their cadmium, lead, copper, iron, and zinc contents. Microwave-assisted digestion was applied for the dissolution of the samples and heavy metals concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Metals were found to be present in varied concentrations in the herb samples. The concentration ranges were found as follows: less than 0.1–1.11?mg·kg?1 for cadmium, less than 1.0–23.52?mg·kg?1 for lead, 1.44–156.24?mg·kg?1 for copper, 12.65–146.67?mg·kg?1 for zinc, and 81.25–1101.22?mg·kg?1 for iron. The findings of the study suggest that most of the analyzed herbs contained unsafe levels of heavy metals that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits (PL). PMID:26000023

  12. A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

    2013-11-01

    This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

  13. Determination of heavy metals concentration in traditional herbs commonly consumed in the United arab emirates.

    PubMed

    Dghaim, Rania; Al Khatib, Safa; Rasool, Husna; Ali Khan, Munawwar

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), were purchased from the local market in Dubai and analyzed for their cadmium, lead, copper, iron, and zinc contents. Microwave-assisted digestion was applied for the dissolution of the samples and heavy metals concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Metals were found to be present in varied concentrations in the herb samples. The concentration ranges were found as follows: less than 0.1-1.11?mg·kg(-1) for cadmium, less than 1.0-23.52?mg·kg(-1) for lead, 1.44-156.24?mg·kg(-1) for copper, 12.65-146.67?mg·kg(-1) for zinc, and 81.25-1101.22?mg·kg(-1) for iron. The findings of the study suggest that most of the analyzed herbs contained unsafe levels of heavy metals that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits (PL). PMID:26000023

  14. Inhibition of protein glycation by extracts of culinary herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Dearlove, Rebecca P; Greenspan, Phillip; Hartle, Diane K; Swanson, Ruthann B; Hargrove, James L

    2008-06-01

    We tested whether polyphenolic substances in extracts of commercial culinary herbs and spices would inhibit fructose-mediated protein glycation. Extracts of 24 herbs and spices from a local supermarket were tested for the ability to inhibit glycation of albumin. Dry samples were ground and extracted with 10 volumes of 50% ethanol, and total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) were measured. Aliquots were incubated in triplicate at pH 7.4 with 0.25 M fructose and 10 mg/mL fatty acid-free bovine albumin. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. In general, spice extracts inhibited glycation more than herb extracts, but inhibition was correlated with total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.89). The most potent inhibitors included extracts of cloves, ground Jamaican allspice, and cinnamon. Potent herbs tested included sage, marjoram, tarragon, and rosemary. Total phenolics were highly correlated with FRAP values (R(2) = 0.93). The concentration of phenolics that inhibited glycation by 50% was typically 4-12 microg/mL. Relative to total phenolic concentration, extracts of powdered ginger and bay leaf were less effective than expected, and black pepper was more effective. Prevention of protein glycation is an example of the antidiabetic potential for bioactive compounds in culinary herbs and spices. PMID:18598169

  15. A Review on the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs and Formulae with Hypolipidemic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Sham, Tung-Ting; Chan, Chi-On; Wang, You-Hua; Yang, Jian-Mei; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, characterized by the abnormal blood lipid profiles, is one of the dominant factors of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For the low cost, effectiveness, and fewer side effects, the popularity of using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to handle hyperlipidemia is increasing and its role in health care has been recognized by the public at large. Despite the importance of TCM herbs and formulations, there is no comprehensive review summarizing their scientific findings on handling hyperlipidemia. This review summarizes the recent experimental and clinical results of nine representative single Chinese herbs and seven classic TCM formulae that could improve lipid profiles so as to help understand and compare their underlying mechanisms. Most of single herbs and formulae demonstrated the improvement of hyperlipidemic conditions with multiple and diverse mechanisms of actions similar to conventional Western drugs in spite of their mild side effects. Due to increasing popularity of TCM, more extensive, well-designed preclinical and clinical trials on the potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions as well as their mechanisms are warranted. Hyperlipidemic patients should be warned about the potential risks of herb-drug interactions, particularly those taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. PMID:25110708

  16. [Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts. PMID:24025211

  17. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xian-hui; Bai, Jiang-tao; Kong, Wei-na; He, Xiao-ping; Yan, Peng; Shao, Tie-mei; Yu, Wen-guo; Chai, Xi-qing; Wu, Yan-hua; Liu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade amplification in Alzheimer’s disease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer’s disease patients. An APPswe/PS1?E9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease was used. The intragastric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer’s disease. These compounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  18. Retrospect and prospect of active principles from Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Lu-qi; Tang, Xi-can; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2010-01-01

    With an ageing population, dementia has become one of the world's primary health challenges. However, existing remedies offer limited benefits with certain side effects, which has prompted researchers to seek complementary and alternative therapies. China has long been known for abundant usage of various herbs. Some of these herbal decoctions are effective in stimulating blood circulation, supplementing vital energy and resisting aging, the lack of which are believed to underlie dementia. These herbs are regarded as new and promising sources of potential anti-dementia drugs. With the rapid evolution of life science and technology, numerous active components have been identified that are highly potent and multi-targeted with low toxicity, and therefore meet the requirements for dementia therapy. This review updates the research progress of Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia, focusing on their effective principles. PMID:20523337

  19. Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: From bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuan; Bai, Ai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed. PMID:25339799

  20. Influence of six medicinal herbs on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Pallavi; Koppikar, Soumya; Bhondave, Prashant; Narkhede, Aarti; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Wagh, Narendrakumar; Kulkarni, Omkar; Harsulkar, Abhay; Jagtap, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been effectively used for their anti-inflammatory activity, but their exact role has not yet been documented in scientific literature for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA). Since Sida cordifolia L., Piper longum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Ricinus communis L., Vitex negundo L. and Tribulus terrestris L. have been widely used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory activity, to evaluate anti-osteoarthritic activity of these herbs, we used a collagenase type II-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA) rat model. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II. Powders of herbs were given orally for 20 days as a suspension in water (270 mg/kg b. wt.). The effects of the treatment in the rats were monitored by physiological parameters like body weight, knee diameter, paw retraction, paw volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, radiography and histopathology of knee joint. Selected herbs have significantly prevented body weight loss and knee swelling compared to arthritic control (CIOA). All test groups, including indomethacin (standard drug, 3 mg/kg), significantly reduced paw volume compared to CIOA. GAG release in the serum was significantly lowered in herb treated groups compared to indomethacin. The anterior posterior radiographs of S. cordifolia and P. longum treated groups showed a protective effect against OA. Histopathology revealed protection in the structure of the articular cartilage and in chondrocyte pathology as well as reduced clefting. Treatment with herbs has shown chondroid matrix within normal limits. From the results, we observed that S. cordifolia and P. longum possess potent anti-osteoarthritic activity. PMID:24228609

  1. Phytotherapeutic profile of Nigerian herbs. I: Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agents.

    PubMed

    Iwu, M M; Anyanwu, B N

    1982-11-01

    From a survey of anti-arthritic remedies used in Igbo tribal ethnomedicine, three plants--Lonchocarpus cyanescens, Costus afar and Terminalia ivorensis--were selected for closer study. Twenty-five volunteers were monitored while receiving treatment from two reputable herbalists, and the result of the clinical investigation prompted the pharmacological and phytochemical studies on the herbs. Differential solvent extracts of the herbs reduced carragenin-induced oedema of the rat paw, checked diarrhoea due to arachidonic acid and castor oil, and ameliorated all signs associated with adjuvant-induced polyarthritis in rats. The constituent-activity relationship of the drugs and their probable mode of action are briefly discussed. PMID:7154695

  2. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migda?, W.; K ?dzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  3. Comparison of anti-oxidant activities of seventy herbs that have been used in Korean traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seong-Hee; Choi, Seong-Won; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Yoo, Sangho

    2008-01-01

    Many herbs have been used as therapeutics in Korean traditional medicine. In view of their clinical indications, anti-oxidant activity may contribute to their pharmacological effects. However, anti-oxidant information on these plants has not been available. In this study, seventy herbs which have been used in Korean traditional medicine were selected and screened for anti-oxidant activity using their water extracts. The anti-oxidant activity was assessed by their ability to inhibit three oxidation reactions; luminol/Fenton reagent, 2, 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCHF)/Fenton reagent and DCHF/peroxynitrite. In each assay, 70 herbs were divided into two groups; anti-oxidant group which inhibited the respective oxidation reaction and was majority (about 60 herbs), and pro-oxidant group which enhanced the oxidation reaction but was minority (more or less 10 herbs). When the herbs were listed in the order of their anti-oxidant strength, the orders obtained from each assay were found to be quite similar. The upper top rankers (more or less 10 herbs) in each assay showed strong activity compared to the others. The uppermost rankers in each assay were Rubus coreanus Miquel/ Rubus schizostylus, Schisandra chinensis Baillon/ Schizandra chinensis and Terminalia chebula Retzius/ Terminalia chebula. Of the pro-oxidant herbs, about 4-5 herbs were strongly pro-oxidant, which enhanced the control oxidation reactions to 150-300%. But the meaning of this observation is not known since few of them in one assay were also anti-oxidant in other assays. The results obtained in the present study may serve as information for understanding pharmacological effects of these herbs and developing new drugs from them. PMID:20126599

  4. Influence du niveau d'alimentation, de la supplmentation et de la qualit de l'herbe sur la digestibilit en vue de la mesure

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence du niveau d'alimentation, de la supplémentation et de la qualité de l'herbe sur la béliers adultes, recevant de l'herbe de prairie naturelle. En cage, nous avons étu- dié deux facteurs susceptibles de modifier la digestibilité de l'herbe : 11 le niveau d'alimentation (NA) bien que, pour des

  5. IngnieriesN33p.3544 Parmi les diffrents aspects de l'valuation des effets environnementaux de la prime l'herbe, l'impact

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    environnementaux de la prime à l'herbe, l'impact de cette mesure communautaire sur les paysages revêt une'échelle cantonale a été construite autour de l'opposition herbe/cultures. Elle permet de décrire et de cartographier'échelle nationale pour apprécier la place de l'herbe dans les « paysages cantonaux » et les enjeux environnementaux

  6. Paru en ligne dans Projets de paysage : http://www.projetsdepaysage.fr/fr/les_eleveurs_l_herbe_et_la_montagne_un_paysage_de_la_pratiq

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Paru en ligne dans « Projets de paysage » : http://www.projetsdepaysage.fr/fr/les_eleveurs_l_herbe_et_la_montagne_un_paysage_de_la_pratiq ue_pastorale_ 1 Les éleveurs, l'herbe et la montagne : un paysage de la pratique pastorale ? Éléments auteur, publié dans "projets de paysage 4 (2010) http://www.projetsdepaysage.fr/fr/ les_eleveurs_l_herbe

  7. Estimation de la digestibilit de l'herbe pture par le mouton adulte au moyen de la lignine selon Christian. Essais prliminaires (1)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Estimation de la digestibilité de l'herbe pâturée par le mouton adulte au moyen de la lignine selon digestibilité de l'herbe pâtu- rée déterminés soit directement à partir des concentrations en azote ou en 1. - Trois herbes de prairie naturelle de plaine et deux ray-grass ita- liens récoltés à des époques

  8. Influence d'un apport d'orge floconne ou de pulpe de betterave une herbe exploite au stade piaison sur la digestion dans le rumen

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence d'un apport d'orge floconnée ou de pulpe de betterave à une herbe exploitée au stade à base d'herbe fraîche exploitée au stade montaison chez le bélier et notamment une augmentation du ici les résultats partiels d'une expérience semblable réalisée avec une herbe exploitée au stade

  9. Etude de la statose hpatique en dbut de lactation chez les vaches laitires consommant de l'ensilage d'herbe

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    'ensilage d'herbe A. MAZUR, S. BAZIN Y. RAYSSIGUIER Laboratoire des Maladies Métaboliques, /.N.R.A.. Theix complémentation adéquate en aliment concentré l'utili- sation de l'ensilage d'herbe pourrait conduire à l'ensilage d'herbe. Matériel et méthodes. Nous avons étudié 74 vaches laitières de production supérieure à 5

  10. Influence du prfanage de l'herbe avant ensilage sur l'ingestion, les temps de mastication et la digestion dans le rumen des bovins

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence du préfanage de l'herbe avant ensilage sur l'ingestion, les temps de mastication et la certain nombre de paramètres susceptibles d'expliquer la meilleure ingestibilité des ensilages d'herbe pendant 36 jours (dont 14 jours d'adaptation) soit avec de l'herbe (81 % de ray-grass anglais) ensilée

  11. Herbert S. Wilf: 1931-2012 I first met Herb and Ruth Wilf in the summer of 1966 at an AMS three week

    E-print Network

    Herbert S. Wilf: 1931-2012 I first met Herb and Ruth Wilf in the summer of 1966 at an AMS three find a real home at Penn. After 45 years, it continues to be. Around then Herb shifted his mathematical of a glorious era of Combinatorics at Penn. Herb's work, often joint with others, put us on the map with results

  12. Prvision de la quantit d'herbe ingre par la vache laitire au pturage. Comparaison de mthodes d'estimation de la digestibilit

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Prévision de la quantité d'herbe ingérée par la vache laitière au pâturage. Comparaison de méthodes jours). La digestibilité de l'herbe est estimée à partir de l'azote fécal (Bartiaux-Thill et Oger, 1986), de la lignine fécale (Théwis et al., résultats non publiés) ou de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe

  13. Common herbs used in different skin disorders as described in ayurvedic classics.

    PubMed

    Singh, O R; Das, B; Padhi, M M; Tewari, N S

    2003-01-01

    Diseases of skin account for a great deal of misery, suffering, incapacity and economic loss, Including the genetic causes the diet, climate, sunlight mental factors and allergy etc. have been proved as aetiological factors beyond doubts. Natural herbs seem to be more promising in the field of dematology as already described in ancient Ayurvedic texts. PMID:22557091

  14. Compensation of seed production after severe injury in the short-lived herb Barbarea vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Martínková; Stanislav Mihulka

    2008-01-01

    A pot experiment with the common ruderal herb Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) was set up to elucidate to what extent short-lived species sprouting from roots regenerate and compensate for seed production after damage. We tested if sprouting from roots ensures survival after severe aboveground biomass damage, but the number of seeds produced declines with increasing severity of injury, decreasing nutrient availability

  15. Heavy metals modify costs of reproduction and clonal growth in the stoloniferous herb Potentilla anserina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari Koivunen; Kari Saikkonen; Timo Vuorisalo; Pia Mutikainen

    2004-01-01

    We examined costs of sexual reproduction and clonal propagation, and their consequences for resource allocation in the clonal stoloniferous herb, Potentilla anserina, a typical pioneer species in disturbed areas. We used heavy-metal treatment in soil to create unfavourable growing conditions, because costs of reproduction are more likely to be expressed when resources are limited. We also studied whether heavy metals

  16. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

  17. Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri N Clement; Arlene F Williams; Derick Aranda; Ronald Chase; Nadya Watson; Rochelle Mohammed; Odia Stubbs; Deneil Williamson

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting

  18. Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thaveechai Vachirayonstien; Duanthanorm Promkhatkaew; Malee Bunjob; Asawachai Chueyprom; Pranee Chavalittumrong; Pathom Sawanpanyalert

    2010-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C.

  19. The effect of Chelidonium majus herb extract on choleresis in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Vahlensieck, U; Hahn, R; Winterhoff, H; Gumbinger, H G; Nahrstedt, A; Kemper, F H

    1995-06-01

    The total ethanolic extract, the phenolic and the alkaloidal fraction of the herb of Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveraceae) were tested for their choleretic activity using the isolated perfused rat liver. The total extract significantly caused chloresis by increasing the bile acid independent flow (BAIF); the observed weak activity of both fractions, tested each and as combination, however, was not significant. PMID:7617771

  20. A novel and rapid method to screen for ?-lactamase inhibitors from extracts of herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Zaichang; Yang Xiaosheng; Niu Yule

    Based on starch-iodine agar plate, a novel screening method that can be used to screen for ?-lactamase inhibitors from extracts of herbs is established. The extracts of 100 traditional Chinese medicines were screened for ?- lactamase inhibitors by this method. The inhibition rates of the Rheum palmatum L., Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., Hypericum japonicum Thunb., Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr., Oxalis

  1. An overview of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mircea Vinatoru

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from herbs. Much of the work was carried out under European community grants under the COPERNICUS programme and in a COST D10 network. Some aspects of classical and non-conventional extraction procedures are also presented and briefly discussed.

  2. Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ba?gel; S. B. Erdemo?lu

    2006-01-01

    Fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Turkey such as chamomile (Matricaria chammomile L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), linden (Tilia vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioical), rosehip (Fr.Rosa caninae), sage (Salvia officinalis) and senna tea (Cassia anqustifolia).

  3. Use of Stinging Nettle as a Potential Organic Fertilizer for Herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Li

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the responses of 4 greenhouse grown herbs to the aqueous extracts and ground leaf material of stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L., as compared with 3 standard organic fertilizers and 1 inorganic fertilizer incorporated into the growth media. Stinging nettle leaf extract and organic fertilizer significantly increased the growth of French tarragon and purple coneflower. Ammonium

  4. Mycorrhizal benefit in two low arctic herbs increases with increasing temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MINNA-MAARIT KYTOVIITA; ANNA LIISA RUOTSALAINEN

    2007-01-01

    Climate change may influence the relationship between arctic plants and their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. The benefit of the symbiosis for the host plant affects vegetation succession and may be a key parameter in predicting vegetation responses to warming. We investigated the mycorrhizal benefit in the low arctic perennial herbs Potentilla crantzii and Ranunculus acris in symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal

  5. Natural Phenolic Compounds From Medicinal Herbs and Dietary Plants: Potential Use for Cancer Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Yanbo Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Natural phenolic compounds play an important role in cancer prevention and treatment. Phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants include phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, quinones, and others. Various bioactivities of phenolic compounds are responsible for their chemopreventive properties (e.g., antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, or antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory effects) and also contribute to their inducing apoptosis by arresting

  6. Trichome production and spatiotemporal variation in herbivory in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Torang; M. Gaudeul; J. Aûgren

    Allocation theory suggests that the optimal level of resistance against herbivores should vary with the risk of herbivory if allocation to resistance is costly. The perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata has a genetically based polymorphism for trichome production and occurs in a glabrous and a trichome-producing form. Leaf trichomes (hairs) can protect plants against insect herbivores, and may increase tolerance to

  7. In vitro antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of herbs against Propionibacterium acnes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-Hsien Tsai; Tzung-Hsun Tsai; Wen-Huey Wu; Jonathon Te-Peng Tseng; Po-Jung Tsai

    2010-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne by inducing certain inflammatory mediators and comedogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of herbal extracts against P. acnes. Among the ten tested herbs, methanolic extracts of rose (Rosa damascene), duzhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.), and yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) were found to

  8. Shikonin extracted from medicinal Chinese herbs exerts anti-inflammatory effect via proteasome inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Lu; Aiping Qin; Hongbiao Huang; Ping Zhou; Chuanyin Zhang; Ningning Liu; Shujue Li; Guanmei Wen; Change Zhang; Weihua Dong; Xuejun Wang; Q. Ping Dou; Jinbao Liu

    2011-01-01

    Shikonin, extracted from medicinal Chinese herb (Lithospermum erythrorhizo), was reported to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects both in vitro and in vivo. We have found that proteasome was a molecular target of shikonin in tumor cells, but whether shikonin targets macrophage proteasome needs to be investigated. In the current study, we report that shikonin inhibited inflammation in mouse models as

  9. Nitrate in leafy vegetables, culinary herbs, and cucumber grown under cover in Estonia: content and intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tamme; M. Reinik; M. Roasto; K. Meremäe; A. Kiis

    2010-01-01

    The content of nitrate in leafy vegetables, culinary herbs, and cucumber was determined during the years 2006–2008. All samples of Estonian origin, except white cabbage, were grown under cover. Seasonal differences in nitrate concentrations were observed in lettuce and spinach. Nitrate concentrations in lettuce were 22% and those in spinach were 24% higher in winter crops compared with samples collected

  10. Effects of Fire on the Demography of the Endangered, Geophytic Herb Silene spaldingii (Caryophyllaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Lesica

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the effects of disturbances such as fire on plant demography helps elucidate the mechanisms that cause changes in community composition. I studied the effects of spring and fall fires onSilene spaldingii, an endangered perennial herb of grasslands in northwest Montana. Individual S. spaldingii plants were mapped, and size and flowering were recorded for 1 yr prior and 5 yr

  11. Evaluating the consequences of habitat fragmentation: a case study in the common forest herb Trillium camschatcense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Tomimatsu; Masashi Ohara

    2006-01-01

    The effects of habitat fragmentation on remnant plant populations have rarely been studied extensively using a single species. We have attempted to quantify the effects of forest fragmentation (primarily that of population size) on populations of Trillium camschatcense, a representative spring herb in the Tokachi plain of Hokkaido, Japan. In this region, intensive agricultural development over the past 100 years has

  12. Introduced deer and the pollination and reproduction of an animal-pollinated herb

    E-print Network

    Vazquez, Diego

    Introduced deer and the pollination and reproduction of an animal-pollinated herb Diego P. Va black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) in the Haida Gwaii ar- chipelago affects, pollination, and reproductive success of A. formosa among three small islands colonized by deer and three deer

  13. The chemical composition and membrane stability activity of some herbs used in local therapy for anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Falade; I. O. Otemuyiwa; A. Oladipo; O. O. Oyedapo; B. A. Akinpelu; S. R. A. Adewusi

    2005-01-01

    The chemical composition and the membrane stabilizing activity of the decoctions of the dry Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae) calyx (Sobo in a Nigerian language), Theobroma cacao Linn. (N.O. Sterculiaceae) root (cocoa) and the dry stalk of white and red cultivars of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poaceae) were determined. These herbs are often used locally for the management of anemia. Ash

  14. Antimutagenicity of Japanese traditional herbs, gennoshoko, yomogi, senburi and iwa-tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Naoko; Xiufen, Wang; Takechi, Ryusuke; Itoh, Yoshimi; Mamo, John; Pal, Sebely

    2004-01-01

    The multistage induction theory is generally regarded as the mechanism of carcinogenesis. In order to prevent the initiation stage of carcinogenesis, it is meaningful to discover the functional components of edible plants. The objective of this research was to test the antimutagenicity of the functional components of several typical traditional herbs used in Japan. The traditional herbs, gennoshoko (Geranium nepalense var. thunbergii), yomogi (Artemisia vulgaris var. indica), senburi (Swertia japonica), iwa-tobacco (Conandron ramondioides), sarunokoshikake (Elfvingia applanata), kanzo (Glycyeehiza uralensis Fisch) and matatabi (Actinidia polygama) were examined by Ames mutagenesis assay test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 against mutagens, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2 and B(a)P. The water-soluble components or volatile oil of the herbs were extracted in boiling water. The extracts of gennoshoko showed strong antimutagenicity against B(a)P with S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100, as well as Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 with S. typhimurium TA98. Yomogi, senburi and iwa-tobacco were also proved to have good antimutagenicity against Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 with S. typhimurium TA98, but weaker antimutagenicity against B(a)P. Other herbs did not show any obvious antimutagenicity against these mutagens. In addition, the volatile oil of yomogi also had remarkable antimutagenic effect against the mutagens we used with S. typhimurium TA98. PMID:15630266

  15. Isolation, identification and evaluation of natural antioxidants from aromatic herbs cultivated in Lithuania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dapkevicius

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative spoilage of lipid-rich foods decreases their shelf-life and leads to undesirable chemical and physical changes. Nowadays natural antioxidants are generally preferred. The major part of industrially used antioxidants consists of radical scavengers, which inhibit the oxidative chain reaction by inactivating free radicals formed during peroxidation of lipids. Aromatic and medicinal herbs are rich sources of natural radical scavenging compounds.

  16. Resource allocation of chilean herbs in response to climatic and microclimatic factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabian M. Jaksi?; Gloria Montenegro

    1979-01-01

    Resource allocation to aerial vegetative, underground vegetative, and reproductive biomass is studied in four Chilean herbs: the annuals Chaetanthera ciliata, Erodium cicutarium, Trisetobromus hirtus, and the perennial Solenomelus peduncularis. Absolute (weight), and relative (% vegetative\\/total, % root\\/shoot) changes in biomass were determined in relation to concomitant changes in a climatic (rain regime in two subsequent years) and a microclimatic factor

  17. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN POLLINATION OF A MONTANE HERB: A SEVEN-YEAR STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary V. Price; Nickolas M. Waser; Rebecca E. Irwin; Diane R. Campbell; Alison K. Brody

    2005-01-01

    Pollination by animals is critical to sexual reproduction of most angiosperms. However, little is known about variation in pollination service to single plant species. We report results of a long-term study of Ipomopsis aggregata, a semelparous montane herb whose flowers are visited by hummingbird and insect pollinators as well as ''floral larce- nists.'' We censused flower visitors over seven summers

  18. Land use effects on “spring annual” herbs in rare non?forest ecosystems of New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Rogers; Jacob Mc C. Overton

    2007-01-01

    We examined trends over six consecutive spring seasons in three “spring annual” herbs, Myosurus minimus subsp. novae?zelandiae (Ranunculaceae), Ceratocephalapungens (Ranunculaceae), and Myosotis pygmaea var. minutiflora (Boraginaceae), in terms of their habitats and site land uses in several rare, non?forest ecosystems. On dry hillslopes, saline soils, and turfs of ephemeral wetlands (including coastal turfs), Ceratocephala and Myosotis declined where sites were

  19. Network Understanding of Herb Medicine via Rapid Identification of Ingredient-Target Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.

  20. Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

  1. AN EXTENDED FLOWERING AND FRUITING SEASON HAS FEW DEMOGRAPHIC EFFECTS IN A MEDITERRANEAN PERENNIAL HERB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. X AVIER PICO; HANS DE KROON; JAVIER RETANA

    2004-01-01

    The Mediterranean perennial herb Lobularia maritima shows an exception- ally extended flowering and fruiting that lasts for 10 months, from early September to late June. We hypothesized that such an extended phenology may be a flexible mechanism that enhances population persistence in variable Mediterranean environments, as fecundity in one part of the season could compensate for reproductive failure in another

  2. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, “Dongeuibogam,” we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in “Dongeuibogam.” These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects. PMID:25861371

  3. Establishment of a comprehensive list of candidate antiaging medicinal herb used in korean medicine by text mining of the classical korean medical literature, "dongeuibogam," and preliminary evaluation of the antiaging effects of these herbs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. "Dongeuibogam," a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, "Dongeuibogam," we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in "Dongeuibogam." These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects. PMID:25861371

  4. A Systematic Review of the Reporting of Adverse Events Associated With Medical Herb Use Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Denise; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Nasser, Hafsa; Saper, Robert; White, Laura; Vohra, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Information about the safety of herbal medicine often comes from case reports published in the medical literature, thus necessitating good quality reporting of these adverse events. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the comprehensiveness of reporting of published case reports of adverse events associated with herb use in the pediatric population. Methods: Electronic literature search included 7 databases and a manual search of retrieved articles from inception through 2010. We included published case reports and case series that reported an adverse event associated with exposure to an herbal product by children under the age of 18 years old. We used descriptive statistics. Based on the International Society of Epidemiology's “Guidelines for Submitting Adverse Events Reports for Publication,” we developed and assigned a guideline adherence score (0-17) to each case report. Results: Ninety-six unique journal papers were identified and represented 128 cases. Of the 128 cases, 37% occurred in children under 2 years old, 38% between the ages of 2 and 8 years old, and 23% between the ages of 9 and 18 years old. Twenty-nine percent of cases were the result of an intentional ingestion while 36% were from an unintentional ingestion. Fifty-two percent of cases documented the Latin binomial of the herb ingredients; 41% documented plant part. Thirty-two percent of the cases reported laboratory testing of the herb, 20% documented the manufacturer of the product, and 22% percent included an assessment of the potential concomitant therapies that could have been influential in the adverse events. Mean guideline adherence score was 12.5 (range 6-17). Conclusions: There is considerable need for improvement in reporting adverse events in children following herb use. Without better quality reporting, adverse event reports cannot be interpreted reliably and do not contribute in a meaningful way to guiding recommendations for medicinal herb use. PMID:24416663

  5. Microbiological study of fresh herbs from retail premises uncovers an international outbreak of salmonellosis.

    PubMed

    Elviss, N C; Little, C L; Hucklesby, L; Sagoo, S; Surman-Lee, S; de Pinna, E; Threlfall, E J

    2009-08-31

    This Local Authorities Co-ordinators of Regulatory Services/Health Protection Agency study was prompted by the increasing concern regarding the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat salad vegetable products, particularly fresh herbs. During May to October 2007, 3760 ready-to-eat fresh herbs, of different varieties, were sampled across the UK to assess their microbiological safety in relation to salmonella contamination and levels of Escherichia coli. Sixty (1.6%) herb samples were found to be of unsatisfactory quality according to Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria of foodstuffs, i.e. contaminated with Salmonella spp. and/or containing E. coli at >10(3) cfu/g. When criteria in the PHLS Microbiological Guidelines for some ready-to-eat foods (2000) were used, 117 (3.9%) of herb samples were of unsatisfactory quality due to the presence of salmonella and/or E. coli at > or = 10(2) cfu/g. Eighteen (0.5%) samples of six different herb types were contaminated with Salmonella spp.: identified as serotypes Senftenberg (8), Agona (2), Anatum (1), Durban (1), Javiana (1), Mgulani (1), Montevideo (1), Unnamed (I 16:g, t: z42) (1), Virchow (1) and mixed Newport & Virchow (1). In each case the retailer and the UK Food Standards Agency were immediately informed and remedial action taken. Samples contaminated with S. Senftenberg were specifically associated with basil grown in Israel. Thirty-two human cases of S. Senftenberg infection were subsequently identified throughout England and Wales and a further 19 in Scotland, Denmark, The Netherlands and the USA. The strain of S. Senftenberg identified from the basil and that from cases had an indistinguishable molecular profile, suggesting a likely connection between consumption of basil and human infection. The presence of Salmonella spp. is unacceptable in ready-to-foods such as fresh herbs. This study highlights the necessity of applying good agricultural and hygiene practices pre-, during and post-harvest, at processing, retail and use. These practices help to prevent cross-contamination and/or bacterial growth occurring in these products. Best practice is to store and display such products at, or below, 8 degrees C as this inhibits bacterial growth. PMID:19237218

  6. Application of EPR Spectroscopy to Examination of the Effect of Sterilization Process on Free Radicals in Different Herbs.

    PubMed

    Paw?owska-Góral, Katarzyna; Ramos, Pawe?; Pilawa, Barbara; Kurzeja, Ewa

    2013-03-01

    Free radicals in the original and sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom were studied. An X-band (9.3 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was the experimental technique. Effect of microwave power in the range of 2.2-70 mW on amplitudes, linewidths, and lineshape parameters of the EPR spectra was tested. Free radicals concentrations in the non- and sterilized herb samples were compared. The aim of this work was to determine properties and concentration of free radicals in steam sterilized caraway, curry, curcuma and cardamom. It was pointed out that free radicals (~10(18)?spin/g) exist in both the original and sterilized herbs. Complex free radical system with oxygen and carbon paramagnetic centers characterizes the examined herbs. Homogeneously dipolar broadened EPR spectra were measured for all the tested herbs. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the examined samples. Practical usefulness of EPR method in food technology was discussed. PMID:23487576

  7. Choosing chemical markers for quality assurance of complex herbal medicines: Development and application of the herb MaRS criteria.

    PubMed

    Bensoussan, A; Lee, S; Murray, C; Bourchier, S; van der Kooy, F; Pearson, J L; Liu, J; Chang, Dennis; Khoo, C S

    2015-06-01

    With increasing use of herbal medicines for chronic or serious illness, relevant quality assurance methods are essential for making claims of therapeutic benefit. Adequate demonstration of safety and efficacy based on chemical composition and ensuring consistency between manufactured batches is critical. To date, there has been no uniform standard approach or detailed framework provided to industry for selecting relevant chemical markers used to standardize herbal products. We developed the Herbal Marker Ranking System (Herb MaRS) providing guidance on prioritizing the selection of chemical markers for quality control of complex multi-herb mixtures, while also taking into account the bioactivity in relation to the symptoms of the disease and its concentration in the formula. We apply the Herb MaRS evaluation criteria to a seven-herb formulation for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Our ranking scale accommodates the clinical and pharmacological use of the formulation and its claimed indications. PMID:25704128

  8. The Efficacy of Chinese Medicinal Herbs towards Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junping; Liu, Weiwei; Hussain Dhiloo, Khalid; Guo, Yuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Bio-insecticidal effects of seven Chinese medicinal herbs on mortality, fecundity, developmental periods and life table parameters of the grape phylloxera were investigated. In an excised root bioassay experiment aqueous extracts from seven Chinese medicinal herbs increased grape phylloxera first instar mortality (26.00–38.50%) compared to other instars. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (?), fecundity rate and net reproductive rate (R0) were significantly reduced by A. bidentata, A. tataricus, O. basilicum, P. frutescens and N. cataria. In a glasshouse pot trial, eggs, nymphs, adults and total population were significantly reduced before population establishment compared to those after its population established, by A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum. Overall, A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum can be used to suppress all life-stages of grape phylloxera. PMID:26186216

  9. Isolation of two new bioactive proanthocyanidins from Cistus salvifolius herb extract.

    PubMed

    Qa'dan, F; Nahrstedt, A; Schmidt, M

    2011-06-01

    Two new proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin (1) and epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2) in addition to the known compound epigallocatechin-(4beta-->6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (3), were isolated from the air-dried herb of Cistus salvifolius. The chemical structures were determined on the basis of 1D-and 2D-NMR-spectra (HSQC, HMBC) of their peracetylated derivatives, MALDI-TOF-mass spectra, and by acid-catalysed degradation with phloroglucinol. The isolated compounds 1-3 and the water extract of C. salvifolius herb were tested for their inhibitory activities against COX-1 and COX-2. Compound 2 showed the strongest inhibitory effect on COX-2 followed by compound 3, compound 1 and the water extract, while compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate in vitro inhibition against COX-1. PMID:21699087

  10. Interactions between herbs and conventional drugs: overview of the clinical data.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Angelo A

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the clinical evidence of interactions between herbal and conventional medicines. Herbs involved in drug interactions--or that have been evaluated in pharmacokinetic trials--are discussed in this review. While many of the interactions reported are of limited clinical significance and many herbal products (e.g. black cohosh, saw palmetto, echinacea, hawthorn and valerian) seem to expose patients to minor risk under conventional pharmacotherapy, a few herbs, notably St. John's wort, may provoke adverse events sufficiently serious to endanger the patients' health. Healthcare professionals should remain vigilant for potential interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs, especially when drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are used. PMID:22236736

  11. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong; Yu, Shenjing; Ren, Chunsheng; Xiu, Zhilong

    2012-02-01

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (?bmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  12. Treatment of allergic inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by a simple compound, Bavachinin, isolated from Chinese herbs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Wen, Ti; Wei, Jun; Wu, Zhenzhou; Wang, Puyue; Hong, Zhangyong; Zhao, Liqing; Wang, Bin; Flavell, Richard; Gao, Shumei; Wang, Min; Yin, Zhinan

    2013-01-01

    Asthmatic inflammation is mediated by a type 2 helper T cell (Th2) cytokine response, and blocking Th2 cytokine production is proven to have a potent therapeutic effect against asthmatic inflammation. Using IL-4-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mice, we demonstrated that Bavachinin, a single compound isolated from a Chinese herb, significantly inhibited Th2 cytokine production, including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Notably, this compound almost completely blocked inflammation in the ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized animal asthma model. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this chemical selectively affects the level of GATA-3, most likely by affecting the stability of GATA-3 mRNA. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the potential therapeutic value of this single compound derived from Chinese herbs. PMID:24013845

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstracts Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The effects include inhibiting the activation of microglia, decreasing levels of adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1, attenuating expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?, reducing inducible nitric oxide synthase and reactive oxygen species, and regulating transcription factors such as nuclear factor-?B. PMID:21740583

  14. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)

    PubMed Central

    Rim, In-Sook

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 µl/cm2 which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 µl/cm2, 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity. PMID:16809961

  15. Biological Inhibitory Effects of the Chinese Herb Danggui on Brain Astrocytoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Hwa Lee; Jong-Shiaw Jin; Wen-Chiuan Tsai; Yu-Ting Chen; Wen-Liang Chang; Chen-Wen Yao; Lia-Fa Sheu; Ann Chen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of the traditional Chinese herb danggui in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Our aim was to examine whether it might similarly be used to treat glioblastoma multiforme. Methods: The lipid-soluble active ingredients of danggui were extracted with acetone (AS-AC) or chlorophenol (AS-CH) and their antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects were studiedin vitro on

  16. EFFECTS OF FEW INDIAN MEDICINAL HERBS ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATIC INJURY IN ANIMALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feroz Khan Z; Syed Mohammed; Basheeruddin Asdaq; Prasanna Kumar SR

    The Phyllantus nirruri (PN), Andrographis paniculata (AP) and Picrroriza kurroa (PK) have been widely used in number of hepatoprotective formulations based on their traditional claims. However, no published data showing the comparative study of these herbs is available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of standardised herbal extracts of PN 142.5 mg\\/kg, p.o), AP

  17. Dietary medicinal herbs improve growth performance, fatty acid utilization, and stress recovery of Japanese flounder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Cheol Ji; Gwan-Sik Jeong; IM Gwang-Soon; Si-Woo Lee; Jin-Hyung Yoo; Kenji Takii

    2007-01-01

    Some effects of dietary medicinal herbs mixture (HM), Massa medicata fermentata, Crataegi fructus, Artemisia capillaries, and Cnidium officinale, in the proportions 2?2?1?1 were identified in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. In an 8-week feeding trial, fish were fed with 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0% HM in a moist diet composed of horse mackerel and\\u000a an artificial diet in equal parts.

  18. Chemical studies on the constituents of the chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia helioscopia L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2006-07-01

    Euphoheliosnoid D (1), a new jatrophone-type diterpenoid, was isolated together with 22 known metabolites from the Chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia helioscopia L. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 14-23 were obtained from the species for the first time while compound 14, 2alpha-hydroxy helioscopinolide B, was isolated as a new natural product. PMID:16819227

  19. Comparative study on the free flavonoid aglycones in herbs of different species of Polygonum L.

    PubMed

    Smolarz, Helena D

    2002-01-01

    The flavonoid aglycones were studied in the herbs of the following taxons of the Polygonum L. genus: P. hydropiper L, P. bistorta L., P. aviculare L., P. persicaria L., P. lapathifolium ssp. tomentosum (Schrank) Dans, P. lapathifolium ssp. nodosum (Pers.) Dans, P. amphibium L., P. mite Schrank, P. conolvulus L. (Bilderdykia convolvulus L.) by means of the RP-HPLC method. The content of taxifolin, quercetin, quercetin-3-methyl ether, kaempferol, myritcetin, luteolin, isorhamnetin and rhamnetin were determined. PMID:12365607

  20. Patient Disclosure about Herb and Supplement Use among Adults in the US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Kennedy; Chi-Chuan Wang; Chung-Hsuen Wu

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of 2002 National Health Interview supplement on complementary and alternative medicine (NHIS\\/CAM) indicate that approximately 38 million adults in the US (18.9% of the population) used natural herbs or supplements in the preceding 12 months, but only one-third told their physician about this use. The objectives of this study are: (i) to determine subpopulation rates of patient-physician communication about

  1. Research progress on the mechanism of single-Chinese medicinal herbs in treating diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Xia; Liu, Tong-Hua; Huang, Zong-Tao; Li, Juan-E; Wu, Li-Li

    2011-03-01

    Treating diabetes mellitus (DM) with Chinese medicine (CM) has had a few thousands years of history. Past Chinese medical texts had already recorded numerous medicinal herbs as well as recipes for treating DM and accumulated much clinical experience. In the following article, the prevention of DM using CM in the past 5 years is retrospectively studied, and mainly focuses on the usage of simple Chinese herbal extracts or monomers in terms of cellular as well as molecular biology. PMID:21359928

  2. Chloroplast DNA variation in the European herb Silene dioica (red campion): postglacial migration and interspecific introgression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Honor C. Prentice; J. U. Malm; L. Hathaway

    2008-01-01

    Summary  Many recent studies of intraspecific geographic variation in maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in European trees\\u000a have revealed haplotype distributions that can be interpreted in terms of scenarios of postglacial migration and range expansion.\\u000a However, there is still a lack of comparable information from widespread herb species. In the present study, we investigated\\u000a the geographic distribution of cpDNA variation in

  3. Availability of essential trace elements in medicinal herbs used for diabetes mellitus and their possible correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Choudhury; R. Acharya; A. G. C. Nair; A. V. R. Reddy; A. N. Garg

    2008-01-01

    Four plant parts (leaves, roots, fruits and seeds) of twenty samples of sixteen antidiabetic herbs including three commercially\\u000a marketed capsules have been analyzed for 6 minor (Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 21 trace (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu,\\u000a Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by

  4. Flavonoid wogonin from medicinal herb is neuroprotective by inhibiting inflammatory activation of microglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heasuk Lee; Young Ok Kim; Hocheol Kim; Sun Yeou Kim; Hae Sook Noh; Sang Soo Kang; Gyeong Jae Cho; Wan Sung Choi; Kyoungho Suk

    2003-01-01

    Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), a flavonoid originated from the root of a medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory activities in various cell types including macrophages. In this work, we have found that wogonin is a potent neuroprotector from natural source. Wogonin inhibited inflammatory activation of cultured brain microglia by diminishing lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1?,

  5. Effects of excluding sheep from an alpine dwarf-herb community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon R. Miller; Claire Geddes; David K. Mardon

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Festuca ovina–Alchemilla alpina–Silene acaulis dwarf-herb community is a rare component of the few and scattered calcareous grasslands found at high altitude in the Scottish Highlands. It contains nationally scarce and rare arctic-alpine species. The community is often heavily grazed and it has been suggested that it is a plagioclimax maintained by herbivores, principally sheep.Aim: Determine the role of

  6. The influence of pollen addition and ramet isolation on current sexual reproduction in a clonal herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Ganger

    1997-01-01

    Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense Desf.), a rhizomatous, perennial herb, was the subject of a 2-year field experiment that examined two factors potentially\\u000a affecting fruit and seed production: pollen addition and ramet isolation. Ramets were either open pollinated or overpollinated\\u000a by hand to supplement natural levels. Rhizomes of the ramets were either severed, to prevent resource supplementation from\\u000a the genet, or

  7. Complementarity and other key criteria in the conservation of herb-rich forests in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Risto K. Heikkinen

    2002-01-01

    Complementarity of the nature reserve network in southernmost Finlandwas examined using a simple heuristic algorithm and occurrence data of 75characteristic herb-rich forest vascular plant species in 126 protected and 120non-protected sites. Three different minimum sets were selected to represent 1,5, or 10 occurrences of each species. In each minimum set there weresignificantly more protected than non-protected sites. Thus, although efficiencyis

  8. Leaf optical properties of an alpine perennial herb Selinum vaginatum clarke grown at two altitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Purohit; A. R. Nautiyal; P. Thapliyal

    1988-01-01

    The absorptivity of the leaves at all the wavelengths decreased whereas the reflectivity and transmissivity increased when\\u000a an alpine perennial herb, Selinum vaginatum was grown at lower (550 m) elevation. The lower elevation climate modified leaves\\u000a to absorb comparatively less near-infrared radiation as compared to that under natural habitat. The lower altitude habitat\\u000a had a positive effect on infinite reflectance

  9. Defoliation of the annual herb Abutilon theophrasti : mechanisms underlying reproductive compensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Mabry; P. W. Wayne

    1997-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that under some conditions plants may fully or partially compensate for leaf tissue loss;\\u000a however, the mechanisms underlying compensatory responses are not well understood. Previous work demonstrated that the annual\\u000a herb Abutilon theophrasti fully compensated for 75% defoliation, but only when grown in the absence of stem competition. We examined potential mechanisms\\u000a of compensatory

  10. Cytoprotective and pro-apoptotic activities of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich extracts.

    PubMed

    Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Konczak, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Three commercially grown native herbs unique to Australia, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata R. Br., Winteracea; TPL), anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum Vickery, Craven & Biffen, Myrtaceae; AM) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora F. Muell, Myrtaceae; LM) as well as a reference sample bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae; BL) were examined for potential cytoprotective properties. All native herbs exhibited greater cellular antioxidant activity as measured by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay than bay leaf and reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by 25-50%. All herb extracts reduced the proliferation of colon (HT-29; IC(50)=0.75-1.39mg/ml), stomach (AGS; IC(50)=0.59-1.88mg/ml), bladder (BL13; IC(50)=0.56-1.12mg/ml) and liver (HepG2; IC(50)=0.38-1.36mg/ml) cancer cells. No significant reduction of cell viability of non-transformed colon (CCD-18Co; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) and mixed stomach and intestine (Hs 738.St/Int; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) cells was observed. Flow cytometry analysis and the results of the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay conducted with respectively, promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells suggest an increase in apoptosis following treatment with the herb extracts. The occurrence of apoptotic cells coincided with an increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. The results of the CBMNCyt assay suggested no direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells as a result of treatment with all extracts, applied at final concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml. PMID:23017386

  11. A system for screening agonists targeting ? 2 -adrenoceptor from chinese medicinal herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Wang; Shi-you Li; Chuan-ke Zhao; Xin Zeng

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled\\u000a receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging\\u000a analysis. To

  12. Kava, the anxiolytic herb: back to basics to prevent liver injury?

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Sarris, Jerome; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The use of the anxiolytic herb kava has caused toxic liver injury in Western countries and economic problems in South Pacific Islands due to tthe regulatory ban on kava. This analysis shows poor quality of kava raw material as a cause for its toxicity and suggests preventative measures by going back to the traditional use of kava for the sake of the patients and the South Pacific economy. PMID:21284704

  13. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid composition of three Chinese medicinal herbs, Eupatorium cannabinum, E. japonicum and Crotalaria assamica.

    PubMed

    Edgar, J A; Lin, H J; Kumana, C R; Ng, M M

    1992-01-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid composition of three Chinese herbs, "pei lan", "cheng gan cao" and "zi xiao rong," identified respectively as Eupatorium cannabinum, Eupatorium japonicum (Compositae) and Crotalaria assamica (Leguminosae), were studied by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry. Viridiflorine, cynaustraline, amabiline, supinine, echinatine, rinderine and isomers of these alkaloids were found in the Eupatorium species. Monocrotaline was the only pyrrolizidine alkaloid detected in the Crotalaria species. PMID:1471612

  14. Rare earth elements in forest-floor herbs as related to soil conditions and mineral nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Germund Tyler; Tommy Olsson

    2005-01-01

    Mixtures of rare earth elements (REEs) in fertilizers are widely used in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition. REE\\u000a concentrations in wild-growing plants, especially herbs, are little known. This study describes differences in the concentrations\\u000a and proportions of REEs in eight forest-floor herbaceous plants and relates these differences to soil and mineral nutrient\\u000a conditions. REEs studied were yttrium (Y), lanthanum

  15. Local richness along gradients in the Siskiyou herb flora: R. H. Whittaker revisited.

    PubMed

    Grace, James B; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I

    2011-01-01

    In his classic study in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon, USA), one of the most botanically rich forested regions in North America, R. H. Whittaker (1960) foreshadowed many modern ideas on the multivariate control of local species richness along environmental gradients related to productivity. Using a structural equation model to analyze his data, which were never previously statistically analyzed, we demonstrate that Whittaker was remarkably accurate in concluding that local herb richness in these late-seral forests is explained to a large extent by three major abiotic gradients (soils, topography, and elevation), and in turn, by the effects of these gradients on tree densities and the numbers of individual herbs. However, while Whittaker also clearly appreciated the significance of large-scale evolutionary and biogeographic influences on community composition, he did not fully articulate the more recent concept that variation in the species richness of local communities could be explained in part by variation in the sizes of regional species pools. Our model of his data is among the first to use estimates of regional species pool size to explain variation in local community richness along productivity-related gradients. We find that regional pool size, combined with a modest number of other interacting abiotic and biotic factors, explains most of the variation in local herb richness in the Siskiyou biodiversity hotspot. PMID:21560681

  16. Mining Symptom-Herb Patterns from Patient Records Using Tripartite Graph

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinpeng; Poon, Josiah; Poon, Simon K.; Xu, Ling; Sze, Daniel M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the western medical approach where a drug is prescribed against specific symptoms of patients, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment has a unique step, which is called syndrome differentiation (SD). It is argued that SD is considered as patient classification because prior to the selection of the most appropriate formula from a set of relevant formulae for personalization, a practitioner has to label a patient belonging to a particular class (syndrome) first. Hence, to detect the patterns between herbs and symptoms via syndrome is a challenging problem; finding these patterns can help prepare a prescription that contributes to the efficacy of a treatment. In order to highlight this unique triangular relationship of symptom, syndrome, and herb, we propose a novel three-step mining approach. It first starts with the construction of a heterogeneous tripartite information network, which carries richer information. The second step is to systematically extract path-based topological features from this tripartite network. Finally, an unsupervised method is used to learn the best parameters associated with different features in deciding the symptom-herb relationships. Experiments have been carried out on four real-world patient records (Insomnia, Diabetes, Infertility, and Tourette syndrome) with comprehensive measurements. Interesting and insightful experimental results are noted and discussed. PMID:26167191

  17. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; g?n jú hu?), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; sh?n zh?), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; luò shén) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26151009

  18. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Framework for Quantitative Prediction of an Herb–Drug Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

    2014-01-01

    Herb–drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb–drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160?mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650?mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb–drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions. PMID:24670388

  19. Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.

    2012-08-01

    Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

  20. Local richness along gradients in the Siskiyou herb flora: R.H. Whittaker revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.

    2011-01-01

    In his classic study in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon, USA), one of the most botanically rich forested regions in North America, R. H. Whittaker (1960) foreshadowed many modern ideas on the multivariate control of local species richness along environmental gradients related to productivity. Using a structural equation model to analyze his data, which were never previously statistically analyzed, we demonstrate that Whittaker was remarkably accurate in concluding that local herb richness in these late-seral forests is explained to a large extent by three major abiotic gradients (soils, topography, and elevation), and in turn, by the effects of these gradients on tree densities and the numbers of individual herbs. However, while Whittaker also clearly appreciated the significance of large-scale evolutionary and biogeographic influences on community composition, he did not fully articulate the more recent concept that variation in the species richness of local communities could be explained in part by variation in the sizes of regional species pools. Our model of his data is among the first to use estimates of regional species pool size to explain variation in local community richness along productivity-related gradients. We find that regional pool size, combined with a modest number of other interacting abiotic and biotic factors, explains most of the variation in local herb richness in the Siskiyou biodiversity hotspot.

  1. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; ??? g?n jú hu?), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; ?? sh?n zh?), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; ?? luò shén) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  2. Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

    2011-01-01

    Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method. PMID:22207851

  3. [Textual research on origin and development of genuine medicinal herbs of Shanyao].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue-Feng; Huang, Lu-Qi; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Yang, Lian-Ju; Yang, Jing-Yu

    2008-04-01

    Making textual research on Bencao and documents, this article inquires to the origin and development of genuine medicinal herbs of Shanyao (Rhizoma Dioscoreae) on the points of change of the growing areas and the development of cultivating and processing techniques and clinical uses. The study indicates that the medicinal use of Dioscorea oposita went through several periods: the period of the use of wild D. oposita before Tang dynasty, the period of the mixed use of wild and cultivating D. oposita from Song to the middle of Qing dynasty, and the period of the main use of cultivating D. oposita after the latter stage of Qing dynasty (18th century). It considers that the growing area of genuine medicinal herbs of Shanyao appeared in Ming dynasty and finally formed "Huaishanyao" on the early of 20th century. The acknowledgement of Huaishanyao as genuine medicinal herbs is related closely to its cultivating and processing techniques and clinical uses. The development of cultivating techniques provided the resource of Shanyao, the invention of processing techniques improved its appearance and quality, and the clinical uses and practices by modern and contemporary famous medical men played an important role to the social approval and development of Huaishanyao. PMID:18589795

  4. Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  5. [Research about improving flowability of powder of Chinese herbs extracts by surface modification technology].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Hong; Lu, Wen-Liang; Li, Jia-Jia; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Zhou, Qun

    2014-12-01

    In this study, modification technology by surface coating was used to improve the flowability of powder of Chinese herbs extracts. Seven kinds of powder of Chinese herbs extracts were coated with 1% silica nanoparticles using an under-driven Comil. The powder characteristics tester was used to evaluate the flowability of uncoated and coated powders. Surface morphology and particle size distribution of powders were compared by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. The powder hygroscopicity was also investigated. The results showed that, after modification, angle of repose, angle of spatula, compressibility and adhesiveness extremely decreased, and flowability index substantially increased, the powder flowability was significantly improved, especially Gegen and Dahuang extracts powders. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the distribution of silica nanoparticles on the host drug particle surfaces. There were no remarkable changes in the particle size distribution and hygroscopicity of all powders after coating. Therefore, Comilling for surface coating modification technology was an effective method to improve the flowability of Chinese herbs extracts and suggested a possible way forward to enhance the quality of Chinese drugs pharmaceutics in their study and manufacture. PMID:25911807

  6. Investigation of the Biosynthetic Potential of Endophytes in Traditional Chinese Anticancer Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kristin I.; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man Yuen; Neilan, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a rich empirical knowledge of the use of plants for the treatment of disease. In addition, the microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are also of interest as the producers of the compounds responsible for the observed plant bioactivity. The present study has pioneered the use of genetic screening to assess the potential of endophytes to synthesize bioactive compounds, as indicated by the presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) genes. The total DNA extracts of 30 traditional Chinese herbs, were screened for functional genes involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. The four PCR screens were successful in targeting four bacterial PKS, six bacterial NRPS, ten fungal PKS and three fungal NRPS gene fragments. Analysis of the detected endophyte gene fragments afforded consideration of the possible bioactivity of the natural products produced by endophytes in medicinal herbs. This investigation describes a rapid method for the initial screening of medicinal herbs and has highlighted a subset of those plants that host endophytes with biosynthetic potential. These selected plants can be the focus of more comprehensive endophyte isolation and natural product studies. PMID:22629306

  7. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects. PMID:20974978

  8. Inhibitory effect of anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory herbs on herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, C Y; Hsieh, C L; Wu, S L; Lai, I L; Ho, T Y

    2001-01-01

    The increasing clinical use of acyclovir, ganciclovir, and foscarnet against herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus has been associated with the emergence of drug-resistant herpesvirus strains. To develop anti-HSV compounds from plants, 31 herbs used as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents in Chinese medicine were screened. Five different preparations (cold aqueous, hot aqueous, ethanolic, acid ethanolic, and methanolic) from 31 herbs were analyzed by plaque reduction assay, and 7 extracts. which showed significant antiviral activities, were further elucidated for their antiviral mechanisms. Our results showed that ethanolic extract of Rheum officinale and methanolic extract of Paeonia suffruticosa prevented the process of virus attachment and penetration. Aqueous extract of P. suffruticosa and ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan inhibited virus attachment to cell surface. Aqueous extract of Sophora flavescens and methanolic extract of M. toosendan showed no effect on virus attachment and penetration. These data indicated that these 4 herbs have a potential value as a source of new powerful anti-HSV compounds. PMID:11789588

  9. Radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of commonly used herbs and spices in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mira; Goo, Tae-Hwa; Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong-Uk; Park, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2012-08-01

    Herbs and spices not only variety and racy flavour to Korean foods, they also are the richest source for antioxidant power. The present study evaluates the radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from commonly used herbs and spices in Korea. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities of bay extract were 39.5% and 22.1%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was in order of dill (50.0%) > bay (31.3%) > garlic (27.9%) > white pepper and black pepper (15.1-15.3%) > onion (10.1%) extracts. Bay extract had the highest total phenolic content (17.86 ?g CE/g). High correlation coefficients were found between the total phenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R = 0.9162). These results indicate that herbs and spices had high antioxidant activity that is partly due to the phenolic compounds and provide basic data for further development of processed food products. PMID:22149899

  10. [Screening of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Chinese dietary herbs].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Zhang, Kaibin; Ji, Xiuhong; Wang, Yanwen; Jeffrey, Zidichouski; Tong, Yan; Gao, Huimin; Zhang, Junzeng; Wang, Zhimin

    2012-05-01

    The present study was conducted to develop new inhibitors of pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase from Chinese dietary herbs. Sixty-three dietary herbs from 39 taxonomic families were selected and extracted with aqueous ethanol or water. The extracts were then tested with in vitro enzyme assays for their ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase and alpha-glucosidase activities. Orlistat and acarbose were used as two positive controls. The extracts of Nelumbo nucifera, Curcuma longa, Piper longum and Morus alba showed strong pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects with IC50 at (28.00 +/- 5.51), (5.24 +/- 0.51), (14.76 +/- 2.58), (4.78 +/- 0.58), (3.41 +/- 0.67) mg x L(-1), respectively. These extracts also showed potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 at (1.98 +/- 0.13), (0. 18 + 0.007), (0.71 +/- 0.08), (0.077 +/- 0.005), (0.089 +/- 0.006) g x L(-1), respectively. The results provide useful information for developing new drugs or natural health products for hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia from Chinese dietary herbs. PMID:22803384

  11. Phenolic compounds from Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp. Piperitum) (Apiaceae) herb and evaluation of hepatoprotective antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Mona T. M.; Radwan, Hany M. A.; Mahdy, El-Sayed M.; Elkholy, Yehya M.; Hassanein, Heba D.; Shahat, Abdelaaty A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the 80% methanolic extract as well as the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (BuOH) fractions of the wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare (Subsp; Piperitum)) and cultivated fennel (F. vulgare var. azoricum). In addition, quantification of the total phenolic content in the 80% methanol extract of fennel wild and cultivated herbs is measured. Materials and Methods: An amount of 400 g of air dried powdered herb of wild and cultivated fennel were sonicated with aqueous methanol (80%), successively extracted with Hexane, EtOAc, and n-BuOH. The EtOAc and n-BuOH were subjected to repeated column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. The antioxidant effect was determined in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Hepatoprotective activity was carried out using a Wistar male rat (250–300 g). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined as chlorogenic acid and rutin equivalents, respectively. Results: Two phenolic compounds, i.e., 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside and 3?,8?-binaringenin were isolated from the fennel wild herb, their structures were elucidated by spectral methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and UV. The EtOAc and BuOH fractions of wild fennel were found to exhibit a radical scavenging activity higher than those of cultivated fennel. An in vitro method of rat hepatocytes monolayer culture was used for the investigation of hepatotoxic effects of the 80% methanol extract on the wild and cultivated fennel, which were >1000 and 1000 ?g/mL, respectively. As well as, their hepatoprotective effect against the toxic effect of paracetamol (25 mM) was exerted at 12.5 ?g/mL concentration. Conclusions: Fennel (F. Vulgare) is a widespread plant species commonly used as a spice and flavoring. The results obtained in this study indicated that the fennel (F. vulgare) herb is a potential source of natural antioxidant. Two phenolic compounds, i.e. 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylalchohol-6-O-caffeoyl-?-D-glucopyranoside (A) and 3?,8?-binaringenin (B) were isolated from the fennel wild herb for the first time. PMID:22518082

  12. Influence de la complmentation de l'herbe de pturage par de l'orge et de la pulpe de betterave sur la digestion

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence de la complémentation de l'herbe de pâturage par de l'orge et de la pulpe de betterave'une complémentation de l'herbe par un concentré énergétique. L'objec- tif de ce travail est d'étudier l'influence d'une supplémentation d'orge ou/et de pulpe de betterave sur la digestion de l'herbe de pâturage permanent et plus parti

  13. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  14. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Herb Usage Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Julia; White, Laura F.; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Bharmal, Nazleen; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies display a wide range of herb use prevalence among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States. We searched databases indexing the literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, and Medline. We included studies that reported herbal medicine prevalence among ethnic minorities, African American, Hispanic, or Asian adults living in the United States. Data from 108 included studies found the prevalence of herb use by African Americans was 17 % (range 1–46 %); for Hispanics, 30 % (4–100 %); and for Asians, 30 % (2–73 %). Smaller studies were associated with higher reported herb use (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference (p = 0.01) between regional and national studies with regional studies reporting higher use. While herb usage surveys in racial/ethnic minorities show great variability, indications suggest high prevalence. More research is needed to understand herb use among ethnic/racial minorities, reasons for use, and barriers to disclosure of use to clinicians. PMID:22723252

  15. Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Joseph A.; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the primary taste sensations, students experience and appreciate how the primary tastes are combined to produce overall taste. In addition, the exercises outlined here expand upon previously published demonstrations employing Gymnema sylvestre to include illustrations of the different sensory transduction mechanisms associated with each of the four or five primary taste modalities. Students compare their qualitative primary taste experiences to salt, sugar, aspartame, chocolate, and sweet-sour candy prior to and following exposure to Gymnema sylvestre. The herb’s impairment of sweet sensation is profound and dramatically alters the perception of sweetness in sugar, chocolate, and candy without altering the perception of the other primary tastes. The exercise has an indelible effect on students because the herb’s intense effect compels students to rely on their unique personal experiences to highlight the principles of gustatory sensation. PMID:23493970

  16. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor ?B Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

  17. Lipid A-based affinity biosensor for screening anti-sepsis components from herbs

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jie; Chen, Yiguo; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Dongneng; Zheng, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    LPS (lipopolysaccharide), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and lipid A is known to be essential for its toxicity. Therefore it could be an effective measure to prevent sepsis by neutralizing or destroying LPS. Numerous studies have indicated that many traditional Chinese medicines are natural antagonists of LPS in vitro and in vivo. The goal of this study is to develop a rapid method to screen anti-sepsis components from Chinese herbs by use of a direct lipid A-based affinity biosensor technology based on a resonant mirror. The detergent OG (n-octyl ?-D-glucopyranoside) was immobilized on a planar non-derivatized cuvette which provided an alternative surface to bind the terminal hydrophilic group of lipid A. A total of 78 herbs were screened based on the affinity biosensor with a target of lipid A. The aqueous extract of PSA (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr) was found to possess the highest capability of binding lipid A. Therefore an aqueous extraction from this plant was investigated further by our affinity biosensor, polyamide chromatography and IEC–HPLC. Finally, we obtained a component (PSA-I-3) from Paeonia suffruticosa Andr that was evaluated with the affinity biosensor. We also studied the biological activities of PSA-I-3 against sepsis in vitro and in vivo to further confirm the component we screened with the biosensor. In vitro, we found that PSA-I-3 could decrease TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ?) release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, it increased remarkably the survival of KM (KunMing) mice by challenging both lethal-dose LPS and heat-killed Escherichia coli compared with control groups. Our results suggest that the constructed affinity biosensor can successfully screen the anti-sepsis component from Chinese herbs. PMID:24654965

  18. Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance. PMID:25071580

  19. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations. PMID:24156089

  20. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions.

    PubMed

    Miller, L G

    1998-11-01

    Herbal medicinals are being used by an increasing number of patients who typically do not advise their clinicians of concomitant use. Known or potential drug-herb interactions exist and should be screened for. If used beyond 8 weeks, Echinacea could cause hepatotoxicity and therefore should not be used with other known hepatoxic drugs, such as anabolic steroids, amiodarone, methotrexate, and ketoconazole. However, Echinacea lacks the 1,2 saturated necrine ring associated with hepatoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may negate the usefulness of feverfew in the treatment of migraine headaches. Feverfew, garlic, Ginkgo, ginger, and ginseng may alter bleeding time and should not be used concomitantly with warfarin sodium. Additionally, ginseng may cause headache, tremulousness, and manic episodes in patients treated with phenelzine sulfate. Ginseng should also not be used with estrogens or corticosteroids because of possible additive effects. Since the mechanism of action of St John wort is uncertain, concomitant use with monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is ill advised. Valerian should not be used concomitantly with barbiturates because excessive sedation may occur. Kyushin, licorice, plantain, uzara root, hawthorn, and ginseng may interfere with either digoxin pharmacodynamically or with digoxin monitoring. Evening primrose oil and borage should not be used with anticonvulsants because they may lower the seizure threshold. Shankapulshpi, an Ayurvedic preparation, may decrease phenytoin levels as well as diminish drug efficacy. Kava when used with alprazolam has resulted in coma. Immunostimulants (eg, Echinacea and zinc) should not be given with immunosuppressants (eg, corticosteroids and cyclosporine). Tannic acids present in some herbs (eg, St John wort and saw palmetto) may inhibit the absorption of iron. Kelp as a source of iodine may interfere with thyroid replacement therapies. Licorice can offset the pharmacological effect of spironolactone. Numerous herbs (eg, karela and ginseng) may affect blood glucose levels and should not be used in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:9818800

  1. Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC

    E-print Network

    Eric B. Norman; Keenan Thomas; Pedro Guillaumon; Alan R. Smith

    2014-06-10

    Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

  2. Sub-acute toxicity evaluation of an aqueous extract of Labisia pumila, a Malaysian herb.

    PubMed

    Singh, G D; Ganjoo, M; Youssouf, M S; Koul, A; Sharma, R; Singh, S; Sangwan, P L; Koul, S; Ahamad, D B; Johri, R K

    2009-10-01

    Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), is a popular herb among the women in Malaysia known locally as "Kacip Fatimah". Recently many nutraceutical products containing the powdered or extracted parts of the plant have become available for women's health care. However no evaluation of the effect of the repeated dosing of any herbal product of this plant had been undertaken prior to a 28-day sub-acute study presented in this report. The results showed that a dose of 50mg/kg of an aqueous extract of L. pumila corresponded to no-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), whereas higher doses were associated with some toxicity concerns. PMID:19654032

  3. Antifeedants from Chinese medicinal herb, Erythrina variegata var. orientalis, against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; Chu, Sha Sha; Jiang, Guo Hua; Liu, Shao Liang

    2012-02-01

    The screening for insecticidal principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the stem bark of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis possessed significant feeding deterrence against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the stem bark extract of E. variegata var. orientalis resulted in the isolation of two alkaloids, identified as erysopine and erysovine from their spectroscopic data. Erysopine and erysovine possessed antifeedant activity against S. zeamais adults with EC50 values of 108.5 and 89.7 ppm, respectively. PMID:22474945

  4. HPLC DETERMINATION OF BERBERINE IN MEDICINAL HERBS AND A RELATED TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pi-Lo Tsai; Tung-Hu Tsai

    2002-01-01

    A HPLC method was developed for the determination and identification of the berberine content in Coptidis Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and a related commercially prepared traditional Chinese medicine, Huang-Lian-Jiee-Dwu-Tang. Berberine was separated by a phenyl-bound column with two kinds of mobile phases of acetonitrile : methanol : 20 mM phosphate (35 : 20 : 45, v\\/v\\/v) and acetonitrile : 20 mM phosphate (30 : 70, v\\/v) for single herb and herbal preparation, respectively. Both mobile

  5. [The motive characteristics and pattern of manifestation of Chinese medicinal herb during the period of "Cultural Revolution"].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2009-01-01

    During the period of "Cultural Revolution", there started a movement of Chinese medicinal herb throughout the whole country. As a national movement meeting the needs of the time, not only had the guarantee of national policy, but also had the support of finance and the propaganda of People's Daily, PLA Daily and Red Flag Magazine. The movement had all kinds of different manifestations such as cooperative medical care, mobile medical team, research team, three tu (folk recipe, folk healer, folk medicine), four selves (self-planting, self-collection, self-making, self-use), exhibition of Chinese medicinal herb, compiling the handbook of Chinese medicinal herb etc. It had reference values to the current medical care system. PMID:19824359

  6. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb) used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast). Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast) from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein) from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence accumulation of metals in chicken meat. Graphical abstract PMID:22429523

  7. Efficient preparation of Hangekobokuto (Banxia-Houpo-Tang) decoction by adding perilla herb before decoction is finished.

    PubMed

    Sumino, Megumi; Saito, Yuko; Ikegami, Fumio; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

    2012-12-01

    Hangekobokuto (banxia-houpo-tang) is a Kampo (traditional Japanese) medicine used mostly for anxiety disorder and consists of Pinellia Tuber, Poria Sclerotium, Magnolia Bark, Perilla Herb and Ginger. Perilla Herb contains an essential oil rich in perillaldehyde, which has a pleasant flavor, but this is easily lost due to heating. We therefore investigated how the major constituents of hangekobokuto, namely perillaldehyde, rosmarinic acid, magnolol and [6]-gingerol, varied with time during decoction and approached an optimal condition for decoction. Rosmarinic acid at 15 min after boiling, and magnolol and [6]-gingerol at 30 min were mostly extracted, while 0.09 mg of perillaldehyde remained at 15 min, but was not detected at 30 min. From these results, a decoction was prepared by adding Perilla Herb 1, 2, 5 and 10 min prior to the termination time of decoction at 30 min. When Perilla Herb was added 1 min beforehand, perillaldehyde was abundant (1.58 mg) and the amount of rosmarinic acid was already the same as that in the conventional decoction at 30 min, but the amount of total extract was inadequate. When Perilla Herb was added 5 min beforehand, perillaldehyde remained to some extent (0.61 mg) and rosmarinic acid was significantly increased compared with that in the conventional decoction at 30 min. From these results, we can conclude that the decoction should be prepared by boiling for not more than 30 min and, if possible, Perilla Herb should be added 5 min prior to the termination time. Considering the antidepressant-like activity of perillaldehyde and rosmarinic acid, the suggested method will not only achieve better treatment for anxiety, but also provide an effective use of crude drugs in the resource-limited environment. PMID:23413567

  8. Enhanced chromatographic fingerprinting of herb materials by multi-wavelength selection and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Lucio-Gutiérrez, J Ricardo; Coello, J; Maspoch, S

    2012-01-13

    A strategy for multi-wavelength chromatographic fingerprinting of herbal materials, using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV-Vis diode array detector is presented. Valeriana officinalis was selected to show the proposed methodology since it is a widely used commercially available herbal drug, and because misfit with other valerian species is a current issue. The enhanced fingerprints were constructed by compiling into a single data vector the chromatograms from four wavelengths (226, 254, 280 and 326 nm), at which characteristic chemical constituents of studied herbs presented maximum absorbance. Chromatographic data pretreatment included baseline correction, normalization and correlation optimized warping. A simplex optimization was performed to retrieve the optimal values of the parameters used in the warping. General success rates of a classification above 90% were achieved by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The sensitivity and specificity of constructed models were above 94%. Tests on laboratory-made mixtures showed that it is possible to detect adulterations or counterfeits with 5% foreign herbal material, even if it is from the Valerianaceae family. The results suggest that the proposed enhanced fingerprinting approach can be used to authenticate herb materials with complex chromatographic profiles. PMID:22123110

  9. A system for screening agonists targeting ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Li, Shi-you; Zhao, Chuan-ke; Zeng, Xin

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fractionated samples from the ethanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Six fractions (isolated from Panax japonicus, Veratrum nigrum, Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Chaenomeles speciosa, and Dictamnus dasycarpus) showed significant effects on active reporter gene expression, three of which (isolated from Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, and Chaenomeles speciosa) were selected for further concentration response analysis and the half maximal effective concentration (EC1/2 max) values were 4.2, 2.7, and 4.8 µg/ml, respectively. Therefore, this reporter gene assay was suitable for screening ?2-adrenoceptor agonists. The results suggest that the six herbal extracts are the possible agonists of ?2-adrenoceptor. PMID:19353741

  10. A Systematic Review of the Reporting of Adverse Events Associated with Medical Herb Use among Children

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Adams, Denise; Filippelli, Amanda; Nasser, Hafsa; Saper, Robert; White, Laura; Vohra, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To perform a systematic review of adverse events associated with herb use in the pediatric population. Since many health care providers get their information about the safety of herbal medicine from case reports published in the medical literature, it is important to assess the quality of these case reports. Methods Electronic literature search included 7 databases and a manual search of retrieved articles from inception through 2010. We included case reports and case series that reported an adverse event associated with exposure to an herbal product by children under the age of 18 years old. Based on the International Society of Epidemiology's “Guidelines for Submitting Adverse Events Reports for Publication”, we assigned a guideline adherence score (0-17) to each case report. Results Ninety-six unique journal papers were identified and represented 128 cases. Of the 128 cases, 37% occurred in children under 2 years old, 38% between the ages of 2 – 8 years old, and 23 % between the ages 9-18 years old. In a few cases, the child used a product that was contaminated (5%) or adulterated (2%). Twenty-nine percent of cases were the result of an intentional ingestion while 36% were from an unintentional ingestion. Mean guideline adherence score was 12.5 (range 6 – 17). Conclusions There is considerable need for improvement in reporting adverse events in children following herb use. Without better quality reporting, adverse event reports cannot be interpreted reliably, and do not contribute in a meaningful way to guiding clinical recommendations. PMID:19203654

  11. Sterilization of polydimethylsiloxane surface with Chinese herb extract: a new antibiotic mechanism of chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Ren, Song; Wu, Ming; Guo, Jiayu; Zhang, Wang; Liu, Xiaohan; Sun, Lili; Holyst, Robert; Hou, Sen; Fang, Yongchun; Feng, Xizeng

    2015-01-01

    Coating of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface with a traditional Chinese herb extract chlorogenic acid (CA) solves the contemporary problem of sterilization of PDMS surface. The E. coli grows slower and has a higher death rate on the CA-coated PDMS surfaces. A smoother morphology of these E. coli cell wall is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Unlike the reported mechanism, where CA inhibits bacterial growth by damaging the cell membrane in the bulk solution, we find the CA-coated PDMS surface also decreases the stiffness of the cell wall. A decrease in the Young's modulus of the cell wall from 3 to 0.8?MPa is reported. Unexpectedly, the CA effect on the swarming ability and the biofilm stability of the bacteria can be still observed, even after they have been removed from the CA environment, indicating a decrease in their resistance to antibiotics for a prolonged time. The CA-coated PDMS surface shows better antibiotic effect against three types of both Gram-positive and Gran-negative bacteria than the gentamicin-coated PDMS surface. Coating of CA on PDMS surface not only solves the problem of sterilization of PDMS surface, but also shines light on the application of Chinese traditional herbs in scientific research. PMID:25993914

  12. Thin layer modeling of tom yum herbs in vacuum heat pump dryer.

    PubMed

    Artnaseaw, A; Theerakulpisut, S; Benjapiyaporn, C

    2010-04-01

    Thin layer vacuum heat pump drying experiments were conducted to determine drying models for Tom Yum herbs (chili, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaf and galangal slice). The drying experiments were conducted in a vacuum heat pump dryer at a constant drying pressure of 0.2 bars and drying temperatures ranging from 50 °C to 65 °C. The experimental results were fitted to a number of well-known thin layer drying models and it was found, for the range of drying temperature tested, that the Midilli model is the best model for all Tom Yum herbs. To account for the influence of drying temperature, the constants and coefficients of model were formulated as functions of the drying temperature. Statistical tests of agreement between the model and experimental results were performed by determining the coefficient of determination (R²) , reduced chi-square (?²) and root mean square error (RMSE). It was found that the model is in very good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21339129

  13. The chemical composition and membrane stability activity of some herbs used in local therapy for anemia.

    PubMed

    Falade, O S; Otemuyiwa, I O; Oladipo, A; Oyedapo, O O; Akinpelu, B A; Adewusi, S R A

    2005-10-31

    The chemical composition and the membrane stabilizing activity of the decoctions of the dry Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae) calyx (Sobo in a Nigerian language), Theobroma cacao Linn. (N.O. Sterculiaceae) root (cocoa) and the dry stalk of white and red cultivars of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poaceae) were determined. These herbs are often used locally for the management of anemia. Ash content was from 3.5 to 7.2%, tannin 7-46 mg/kg catechin equivalent, ascorbic acid content 250-625 mg/kg and total anthocyanin 57-150 mg/kg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent. Phytate was not detected in any sample but alkaloids and saponins were present except in Sobo. The decoctions contained 0.2-2.0% of the herbs' total tannin content while the pH was 3.2-6.7. Iron and zinc content was highest in Sobo while Theobroma cacao root contained the highest calcium and magnesium. Solubility and mineral availability were highest in the decoction of Sobo and lowest but available in Theobroma cacao root decoction. The decoction of Theobroma cacao exhibited a high membrane stabilizing activity while those of Sorghum bicolor and Hibiscus sabdariffa were only average. The study indicated that the herbal decoctions could provide some minerals and also help to stabilize the red blood cells from stress injury. PMID:16039811

  14. Light-induced fading of the PSL signal from irradiated herbs and spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, A.; Corda, U.; Fuochi, P.; Bortolin, E.; Calicchia, A.; Onori, S.

    2007-08-01

    Reliability of the photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique, as screening method for irradiated food identification, has been tested with three kinds of herbs and spices (oregano, red pepper and fennel), prepared in two different ways (granular: i.e. seeds and flakes, or powdered), over a long period of storage with different light exposures. The irradiated samples kept in the dark gave always a positive response (the sample is correctly classified as "irradiated") for the overall examination period. The samples kept under ambient light conditions, in typical commercial glass containers, exhibited a reduction of the PSL signal, more or less pronounced depending on the type of food and packaging. The different PSL response of the irradiated samples is to be related to the quantity and quality of the mineral debris present in the individual food. It was also found that, for the same type of food, the light-induced fading was much stronger for the flaked and seed samples than for the corresponding powder samples, the penetrating capability of light being much more inhibited in powdered than in whole seeds or flaked form samples. The observed light bleaching of the PSL signal in irradiated herbs and spices is of practical relevance since it may lead to false negative classifications.

  15. Immunosuppressive effects of the traditional Chinese herb Qu Mai on human alloreactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Reid-Adam, J; Yang, N; Song, Y; Cravedi, P; Li, X-M; Heeger, P

    2013-05-01

    Current therapies for transplant rejection are suboptimally effective. In an effort to discover novel immunosuppressants we used cytokine ELISPOT and ELISAs to screen extracts from 53 traditional Chinese herbs for their ability to suppress human alloreactive T cells. We identified a dichloromethane-soluble fraction (Qu Mai fraction AD [QMAD]) of Qu Mai (Dianthus superbus) as a candidate. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of QMAD revealed three dominant peaks, each with a MW ~600 Daltons and distinct from cyclosporine and rapamycin. When we added QMAD to human mixed lymphocyte cultures, we observed dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation and IFN? production, by naïve and memory alloreactive T cells, and observed an increased frequency of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells. To address whether QMAD induces regulatory T cells we added QMAD to anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated naïve CD4 T cells and observed a dose-dependent upregulation of Foxp3 associated with new suppressive capacity. Mechanistically, QMAD did not induce T cell IL-10 or TGF? but blocked T cell AKT phosphorylation, a key signaling nexus required for T cell proliferation and expansion, that simultaneously prevents Foxp3 transcription. Our findings provide novel insight into the antiinflammatory effects of one traditional Chinese herb, and support the need for continued isolation, characterization and testing of QMAD-derived components as immune suppressants for transplant rejection. PMID:23433080

  16. Effect of ?-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-07-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of ?-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of ?-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  17. The co-use of conventional drugs and herbs among patients in Norwegian general practice: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Different patient groups are known to use herbal remedies and conventional drugs concomitantly (co-use). This poses a potential risk of herb-drug interaction through altering the drug’s pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Little is known about co-use among patients in general practice. The primary aim of this study was to compare patients in general practice that co-use herbal remedies and conventional drugs with those who do not. The secondary aim was to register the herb-drug combinations with potential clinical relevant interactions among the co-users. Method A questionnaire based cross-sectional study conducted in the autumn 2011 in a general practice office with four general practitioners (GPs) and one intern in Western Norway. Adults >18 years who came for an office visit were invited. The questionnaire asked about demographics, herbal use, conventional drug use and communication about herbal use. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare co-users to the other patients. Results Of the 381 patients who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of herbal use was 44%, with bilberry (41%), green tea (31%), garlic (27%), Aloe vera (26%) and echinacea (18%) as the most frequently used. Among those using conventional drugs regularly, 108 (45%) co-used herbs. Close to 40% of patients on anticoagulants co-used herbs, with garlic and bilberry as the most frequent herbs. Compared to all other patients, co-users had significantly (p?herbs to treat an illness (adjOR 4.2), use two or more herbs (polyherbacy, adjOR 12.1) and having experienced adverse effects of herbal use (adjOR 37.5). Co-use was also associated with use of analgesics or dermatological drugs (adjOR 5.1 and 7.9 respectively). Three out of four patients did not discuss herbal use with any health care professional. Conclusion A sizable proportion of the GP patients co-used herbs with conventional drugs, also combinations with reported interaction potential or additive effects like anticoagulants and garlic. The low disclosure of herbal use to their GP, polyherbacy and the risk of interactions in vulnerable groups like elderly and chronically ill patients, warrant increased awareness among GPs. PMID:24171723

  18. A Model Simulating the Genesis of Banded Vegetation Patterns in Niger Author(s): J. M. Thiery, J.-M. D'Herbes and C. Valentin

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    .-M. D'Herbes and C. Valentin Source: Journal of Ecology, Vol. 83, No. 3 (Jun., 1995), pp. 497,497-507 A modelsimulatingthegenesisofbandedvegetation patternsinNiger J. M. THIERY, J.-M. D'HERBES* and C. VALENTIN* CEA/DPVE, Centrede Cadarache,13108

  19. Trend and Pattern of Herb and Supplement Use in the United States: Results from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi-Chuan; Tsai, Meng-Ting; Huang, Wan-Ting; Kennedy, Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background. In 1990s, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including use of herbs and supplements, gained popularity in the United States. However, more recent surveys suggest that demand for herbs and supplements has stabilized. Objective. This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and changes in herb and supplement use among the US adults, using the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). Methods. Weighted population estimates were derived from three complementary and alternative medicine supplements to the NHIS. Prevalence rates for herb and supplement use were compared, using Wald chi-square tests to measure changes between years. Results. An estimated 40.6 million US adults reported herb and supplement use in 2012. However, the rate of herb and supplement use dropped from 18.9% in 2002 to 17.9% in 2007 and 2012 (P < 0.05). This decline in use was more pronounced among women, racial or ethnic minorities, and adults with low incomes. Conclusion. Herb and supplements use remains common in the USA, but adult use rates are on the decline. It is still important for health care providers to ask patients about herb and supplement use. PMID:25574184

  20. Combination of acupuncture and chinese medicinal herbs in treating model rats with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui-Jie; Zhou, Jue; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Yang, Dan-Hong; Qu, Fan

    2011-01-01

    We explored the effects of combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs in treating model rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and to explore whether acupuncture has positive effects on the absorption of salvianolic acid B in the extracts of a Chinese medicine formula when treating the model rats. 60 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Groups A, B, C, D, E and F, with ten rats in each group. Except Group F, all of the other rats were induced to PCOS with oral administration of letrozole. The rats in Group F served as normal controls. Group A was treated with acupuncture. Group B was treated with oral administration of the extracts of the Chinese medicine formula. Group C was treated with a combination of oral administration of the extracts of Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Group D received western medicine as positive controls. After treatment, the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone(LH) and testosterone (T) in each group were detected with the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) and the serum concentration of salvianolic acid B were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The serum levels of T and the ratio of LH/FSH in Group A, B. C, D, and F were significantly lower than those of Group E, indicating the model rats with PCOS were successfully established. Compared with Groups A, B, D and E, the serum levels of T and the ratio of LH/FSH in Group C were significantly lower respectively, indicating combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs can significantly enhance curative effects in treating model rats with PCOS. The concentration of serum salvianolic acid Group C was significantly higher than Group B, indicating that acupuncture might improve the absorption of salvianolic acid B from the extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge in the Chinese medicine formula. Combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs significantly enhance curative effects in treating model rats with PCOS and acupuncture has positive effects in improving the absorption of salvianolic acid B in the extracts of the Chinese medicine formula when treating the model rats with PCOS. PMID:22654211

  1. Responses of the biennial forest herb Alliaria petiolata to variation in population density, nutrient addition and light availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Forrest Meekins; Brian C. McCarthy

    2000-01-01

    Summary 1 Alliaria petiolata, a European biennial herb, is an important pest in temperate North American deciduous forests. Habitat resource structure has probably been important for invasion and proliferation of this species. 2 Alliaria was grown in an experimental garden at two densities (equivalent to 17 and 170 plants m?2), three nutrient levels (no, low, or high nutrient addition) and

  2. Differential Responses to Simulated Precipitation Exhibited by a Typical Shrub and a Herb Coexisted in Hunshandak Sandy Land

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NIU Shu-Li; PENG Yu; JIANG Gao-Ming; LI Yong-Geng; GAO Lei-Ming; LIU Mei-Zhen; CUI Hong-Xia; DING Li

    To assess the ecophysiological responses and adaptive strategies to rainfall exhibited by different plant functional types, we compared gas exchange, leaf water potential (?leaf) and PS? photo- chemical efficiency (Fv\\/Fm) between Hedysarum fruticosum Pall. (shrub) and Salsola collina Y. L. Chang (herb) under a series of simulated rainfalls. The experiment was conducted in Hunshandak Sandy Land, North China. The values

  3. Effect of Microwave Oven and Warm-Air Drying on the Microflora and Volatile Oil Profile of Culinary Herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Deans; Katerina P. Svoboda; Mary C. Bartlett

    1991-01-01

    A number of culinary herb species Allium schoenoprasum L., Anethum graveolens L., Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm., Artemisia dracunculus L., Coriandrum sativum L., Levisticum officinale Koch. Mentha spicata L., Origanum majorana L., Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A. W. Hill, Salvia officinalis L., Satureja hortensis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. were dried by warm-air and microwave ovens. The microbiological quality of

  4. Increased intake of selected vegetables, herbs and fruit may reduce bone turnover in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-04-01

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ? 9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (-3.2 ?g/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (-0.065 ?g/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation. PMID:25856221

  5. Traditional Chinese Herb Combined with Surgery versus Surgery for Varicocele Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dun, Rong-Liang; Yao, Min; Yang, Long; Cui, Xue-Jun; Mao, Jian-Min; Peng, Yu; Qi, Guang-Chong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery for male varicocele infertility compared to surgery. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) data of traditional Chinese herbs combined with surgery for male varicocele fertility versus surgery were collected by searching the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Chinese databases. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Handbook. Study outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data. Results. Seventeen of 72 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria. The methodological qualities of the RCTs were low. Compared with the surgery group, the traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery group had superiority in pregnancy rate at 3-month (RR = 1.76, and P = 0.008), 6-month (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005), and 2-year (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005) follow-ups. No RCT was found to describe the side effects. Conclusion. On considering the low methodological quality of RCTs, there was no enough evidence on traditional Chinese herb with surgery for male varicocele infertility, and more high-quality RCTs of large sample sizes are required. PMID:25705240

  6. Traditional Chinese Herb Combined with Surgery versus Surgery for Varicocele Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Rong-liang; Yao, Min; Cui, Xue-jun; Mao, Jian-min; Peng, Yu; Qi, Guang-chong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery for male varicocele infertility compared to surgery. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) data of traditional Chinese herbs combined with surgery for male varicocele fertility versus surgery were collected by searching the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Chinese databases. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Handbook. Study outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data. Results. Seventeen of 72 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria. The methodological qualities of the RCTs were low. Compared with the surgery group, the traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery group had superiority in pregnancy rate at 3-month (RR = 1.76, and P = 0.008), 6-month (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005), and 2-year (RR = 1.58, and P = 0.0005) follow-ups. No RCT was found to describe the side effects. Conclusion. On considering the low methodological quality of RCTs, there was no enough evidence on traditional Chinese herb with surgery for male varicocele infertility, and more high-quality RCTs of large sample sizes are required. PMID:25705240

  7. Population growth rate of a common understory herb decreases non-linearly across a gradient of deer herbivory

    E-print Network

    Population growth rate of a common understory herb decreases non-linearly across a gradient of deer-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and the resulting increase in herbivory of forest understory plants populations of white-tailed deer (henceforth deer) throughout eastern North America (McCabe and McCabe, 1997

  8. The Use of Herbs in Pastures: An Interview Survey Among BioDynamic and Organic Farmers with Dairy Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naja W. Smidt; Leon Brimer

    2005-01-01

    Lack of knowledge about the effects of herbs in pastures and the frequency of their use by today's organic farmers has limited the development of new methods to improve animal health compatible with organic farming principles. Understanding farmers' agricultural practices is an early step in a participatory research process. With this in mind, we conducted a two-tiered, semi-structured survey of

  9. New Insights into the Chemical and Biochemical Basis of the “Yang-Invigorating” Action of Chinese Yang-Tonic Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hoi Shan; Leung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Wing Man; Ko, Kam Ming

    2014-01-01

    In the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, many Yang-tonic herbs have been used for retarding the decline in bodily function and delaying the onset of age-related diseases. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that Yang-invigorating herbs/formulations protect against oxidative injury in various organs and also extend the median lifespan in mice. This lifespan extension was associated with an upregulation of cellular antioxidant status including that of mitochondria whose functional capacity is also increased by “Yang-invigorating” herbs/formulations. In this paper, we propose that triterpenes and phytosterols, which are ubiquitously found in Yang-tonic herbs, may be the chemical entities responsible for enhancing mitochondrial functional and antioxidant capacity and thus the “Yang-invigorating” action. The biochemical mechanism underlying this “Yang-invigorating” action may involve a sustained production of low levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) secondary to an increased activity of the electron transport chain, with the possible involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling. The increase in mitochondrial functional capacity can retard the decline in bodily function during aging, whereas the mitochondrial ROS production is instrumental in eliciting a glutathione antioxidant response via redox-sensitive signaling pathways, which can delay the onset of age-related diseases. PMID:25610483

  10. Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joseph Schroeder, Ellen Flannery-Schroeder (Conneticut College, University of Rhode Island; )

    1999-11-30

    This article describes a laboratory exercise used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. The Indian herb, gymnema sylvestre, is used in this experiment to impair the ability of tasting sugar. As a result the impairment alters the perception of sweetness, which leaves a profound and lasting impression on students and gives them a better comprehension of gustation.

  11. The effect of Chinese medicinal herb Zingiberis rhizoma extract on cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Peng Chang; Jan-Yi Chang; Fang-Yu Wang; Jan-Gowth Chang

    1995-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of the Chinese medicinal herb Zingiberis rhizoma, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), was found to show biphasic effects on secretion of cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. In this study, the augmentative effect of Zingiberis rhizoma extract on cytokine secretion was shown to be time dependent. No significant secretion of cytokine was

  12. The flowering pattern of the perennial herb Lobularia maritima : an unusual case in the Mediterranean basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Xavier Picó; Javier Retana

    2001-01-01

    In plant communities of the Mediterranean Basin most plant species reach their blooming peak in spring and have characteristically short flowering periods of two-three months. The perennial herb Lobularia maritima represents an exception to these characteristics, because it flowers for almost 10 months, and has its flowering peak in autumn. In this five-year study, we describe the flowering pattern of

  13. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Mei Shao; Wen Xu; Hui Dai; Pengfei Tu; Zhongjun Li; Xiao-Ming Gao

    2004-01-01

    The immunopotentiating effect of the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a medicinal herb, has been associated with its polysaccharide fractions (Astragalus polysaccharides, APS). We herein demonstrate that APS activates mouse B cells and macrophages, but not T cells, in terms of proliferation or cytokine production. Fluorescence-labeled APS (fl-APS) was able to selectively stain murine B cells, macrophages and a also human

  14. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Sokovi?, Marina; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brki?, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components. PMID:21030907

  15. Response of wetland herb communities to gradients of disturbance and substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.L.; Dunn, C.P.

    1987-07-01

    The effect of thermal disturbance and site characteristics on the distribution of herbs was studied in portions of a 3020 ha wetland in the southeastern U.S. Data were collected from four sites with different disturbance histories. Rank correlations between DCA ordination scores and site characteristics indicate that species composition differences among sites were associated with disturbance. Within site differences are related to water depth and substrate type. For all sites along the disturbance gradient, species richness is greatest on consolidated muck. Fewest species occur on loose muck at the most disturbed site (x-bar=1.9), whereas at the other two disturbed sites, logs support fewest species (x-bar=4.1 and 4.2). After 18 yrs of revegetation at a fourth site, vegetation patterns are moderately correlated with water depth (r=0.52). The authors' results fit such mechanistic concepts as the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and the subsidy-stress gradient.

  16. Interactions between herbs and antidiabetics: an overview of the mechanisms, evidence, importance, and management.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choi, Min Sun; Choe, Kevin; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies are quickly gaining importance because they are perceived to be free of side effects due to their natural origin. However, herbal remedies are complex mixtures of bioactive entities, which may interact with prescription drugs through pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic mechanisms and sometimes result in life-threatening consequences. In particular, diabetes patients are often treated with multiple medications due to different comorbidities, and such patients use antidiabetic medications for their entire lives; thus, it is important to make the public aware of herb interactions with antidiabetic drugs. In this paper, we summarize the reports available on the interaction of herbal remedies with oral hypoglycemic agents and describe mechanisms, preclinical or clinical evidence, importance, and management strategies. PMID:25475096

  17. HSP70 inducers from Chinese herbs and their effect on melanin production.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Matsuda, Minoru; Kobayashi, Chisa; Tominaga, Aya; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Nakashima, Koumei; Yokomizo, Kazumi; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Mineda, Kazutaka; Maji, Daisuke; Niwano, Yoshimi; Mizushima, Tohru

    2010-08-01

    Skin hyperpigmentation disorders as a result of abnormal melanin production induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation are both a clinical and a cosmetic problem. This melanin production is mediated by tyrosinase whose expression is positively regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). We recently found that expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) inhibits melanin production. In this study, we searched for HSP70 inducers from Chinese herbs and selected an ethanol extract of Eupatorium lindleyanum (E. lindleyanum). Not only melanin production but also the activity and expression of tyrosinase were significantly suppressed in cells treated with E. lindleyanum extract as well as in HSP70-overexpressing cells. The expression of MITF was clearly suppressed in cells treated with E. lindleyanum extract but not in HSP70-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that E. lindleyanum extract suppresses the expression of tyrosinase and melanin production through both HSP70-dependent and HSP70-independent mechanisms. PMID:20163455

  18. Identification and characterization of multiple curcumin synthases from the herb Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Kita, Tomoko; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2009-09-01

    Curcuminoids are pharmaceutically important compounds isolated from the herb Curcuma longa. Two additional type III polyketide synthases, named CURS2 and CURS3, that are capable of curcuminoid synthesis were identified and characterized. In vitro analysis revealed that CURS2 preferred feruloyl-CoA as a starter substrate and CURS3 preferred both feruloyl-CoA and p-coumaroyl-CoA. These results suggested that CURS2 synthesizes curcumin or demethoxycurcumin and CURS3 synthesizes curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin. The availability of the substrates and the expression levels of the three different enzymes capable of curcuminoid synthesis with different substrate specificities might influence the composition of curcuminoids in the turmeric and in different cultivars. PMID:19622354

  19. Antifungal Activity and Composition of Essential Oils of Conyza canadensis Herbs and Roots

    PubMed Central

    Veres, Katalin; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Lázár, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed), collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%), while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus) by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis PMID:23049473

  20. Arsenic accumulation and resistance mechanism in Panax notoginseng, a traditional rare medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Yan, X L; Lin, L Y; Liao, X Y; Zhang, W B

    2012-03-01

    Panax notoginseng, a traditional rare Chinese medicinal herb, was recently found to bring health risk to consumers, mainly because soil in its major plantation area was contaminated by arsenic (As). We investigated the effect of soil As pollution on the growth and As uptake of pot-cultured P. notoginseng, and the associated mechanisms of As stressed response. Results showed that, comparing with P. notoginseng growing in a low-As soil, the root, stem, and leaf biomasses of those growing in a high-As soil significantly reduced by 0.75, 0.09 and 0.21 g seedling(-1), respectively. Arsenic concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of the seedlings growing in high-As soil were 22, 15 and 3 times higher than those growing in low-As soil, respectively. Regardless of the soil As concentration, As existed in plants mainly as As(III), suggesting that the reduction of As(V) is a key step in As metabolism. Arsenic was distributed primarily in cell walls (51.7% for plants growing in the low-As soil, and 51.5% in the high-As soil), followed by cytoplasm supernatant, with cell organelles containing the least As. Compared with plants growing in the low-As soil, those in the high-As soil had increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities in their roots, stems, and leaves, which would be associate with improving the resistance of P. notoginseng to As stress. The results suggest that there exists some special mechanisms of As-tolerance in P. notoginseng and the study is of significance in developing measures to reduce As in the herb. PMID:22189375

  1. Antioxidant and photoprotective properties of an extract from buckwheat herb (Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH).

    PubMed

    Hinneburg, I; Kempe, S; Rüttinger, H H; Neubert, R H H

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer has risen remarkably. Sun light, especially the included ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, is seen as important trigger for the development of skin cancer. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the development of UV-protective substances to use them as sun care products. One approach is the topical application of herbal antioxidants. Plant-derived antioxidants are often extracts and therefore contain a complex mixture of constituents, like flavonoids and polyphenols, which contribute to the overall activity of the extract. In the present study an extract from buckwheat herb was compared to rutin, which is the main constituent of the extract, regarding their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the photoprotective properties of the extract were compared to those of a commercial UV absorber. The antioxidant activity was quantified regarding the reactivity versus the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). The photoprotective properties of the extract were examined by the inhibition of the photosensitized lipid peroxidation of linolic acid. In the DPPH assay, the extract had significantly better antioxidant activity than pure rutin. The extract prevented more effectively the UV-induced peroxidation of linolic acid than rutin itself or the commercial UV absorber. The use of the extract from buckwheat herb seems to be more beneficial than the use of pure rutin. This can be referred to the presence of minor phenolic compounds in the extract. The results indicate that it is advisable to use antioxidants rather than only UV absorber to obtain a maximum of photo protection. PMID:16599267

  2. Inhibitory Mechanisms of Human CYPs by Three Alkaloids Isolated from Traditional Chinese Herbs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Hellum, Bent Håvard; Liang, Aihua; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2015-06-01

    The three purified herbal compounds tetrahydropalmatine (Tet), neferine and berberine (Ber) were explored in vitro for basic inhibition mechanisms towards recombinant human CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activities. Phenacetin, dextromethorphan and testosterone, respectively, were used as CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates, and their metabolites were determined by validated HPLC methodologies. Positive inhibition controls were used. Mechanism-based (irreversible) inhibition was assessed by time-dependent and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent and reversible inhibition by Lineweaver-Burk plot assessments. Inhibition mechanisms were also assessed by computerized interaction prediction by using the Discovery Studio CDOCKER software (Accelrys, San Diego, CA, USA). Tetrahydropalmatine showed a mechanism-based inhibition of both CYP1A2 and CYP2D6, and Ber of CYP2D6. Neferine and Ber both showed a nonmechanistic inhibition of CYP1A2. All compounds showed a similar and significant mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4. Tetrahydropalmatine and Ber demonstrated both reversible and irreversible inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Tetrahydropalmatine and Ber displayed H-bond and several Pi-bond connections with specific amino acid residues of CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, giving further knowledge to the identified reversible and irreversible herb-drug interactions. Tetrahydropalmatine and Ber should be considered for herb-drug interactions in clinical therapy until relevant clinical studies are available. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25640685

  3. Trait variations along a regenerative chronosequence in the herb layer of submediterranean forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catorci, Andrea; Vitanzi, Alessandra; Tardella, Federico Maria; Hršak, Vladimir

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the functional shifts of the herb layer in the submediterranean Ostrya carpinifolia coppiced forests (central Italy) along a coppicing rotation cycle. More specifically, the following questions were addressed: i) is there a pattern in functional trait composition of the herb layer along a regeneration chronosequence?; ii) which traits states differentiate each regeneration stage?; iii) are patterns of trait state variation related to the change of the environmental conditions? Species cover percentage was recorded in 54 plots (20 m × 20 m) with homogeneous ecological conditions. Relevés, ordered on the basis of the time since the last coppicing event and grouped into three age classes, were analysed with regard to trait variation, based on species absolute and relative abundance. Differences in light, temperature, soil moisture, and nutrients bioindicator values between consecutive regeneration stages were tested using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) revealed statistically significant separation between young and intermediate-aged stands with regard to most traits. Indicator species analysis (ISA) highlighted indicator trait states, which were filtered, along the chronosequence, by changes in environmental conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that light intensity had the greatest effect on traits states variation from the first to the second regeneration stage, while variation from the second to the third age classes was affected by temperature. Young stands were differentiated by short cycle species with acquisitive strategies that only propagated by sexual reproduction, with light seeds, summer green and overwintering green leaves, and a long flowering duration. Intermediate-aged and mature stands were characterized by traits associated with early leaf and flower production, high persistence in time, and showing retentive strategies aimed at resource storage (e.g., geophytes, spring green leaves, rhizomes, and mesomorphic/hygromorphic leaves).

  4. Herb-drug interaction between the extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and hydrochlorothiazide in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Ndu, Okechukwu O; Nworu, Chukwuemeka S; Ehiemere, Chinwendu O; Ndukwe, Nichola C; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu S

    2011-06-01

    Decoctions of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Family Malvaceae) are very popular for the preparation of homemade refreshing drinks and are also used medicinally for a variety of ailments. Particularly remarkable are the various scientific reports supporting diuretic and antihypertensive potentials. It is therefore not unusual for patients who are on orthodox antihypertensive medications to use medicinal H. sabdariffa drinks concomitantly without regard to the possibility of herb-drug interactions. This possibility necessitated this study in which the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), a commonly prescribed diuretic drug, were examined. The effects of concomitant administration of HSE on urine volume, urine pH, and urinary concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride ions, as well as on the pharmacokinetic parameters of HCT, were determined in experimental rats and rabbits. Co-administration of HSE with HCT caused a significant increase in the volume of urine excreted and resulted in a decrease in the pH of urine and the concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride ions. Co-administration of HSE (20-40?mg/kg) with HCT (10?mg/kg) increased and prolonged the plasma concentration, the mean area under the concentration-time curve, and the volume of distribution of HCT achieved over the 24-hour sampling period. The plasma clearance and the elimination rate constant of HCT decreased with increasing dose of HSE co-administered with the HCT. The results of this study reveal a possible herb-drug interaction involving HCT and HSE, used as an ingredient in medicinal or refreshing drinks in many countries. PMID:21480802

  5. An Overview of the Evidence and Mechanisms of Herb–Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Fasinu, Pius S.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Despite the lack of sufficient information on the safety of herbal products, their use as alternative and/or complementary medicine is globally popular. There is also an increasing interest in medicinal herbs as precursor for pharmacological actives. Of serious concern is the concurrent consumption of herbal products and conventional drugs. Herb–drug interaction (HDI) is the single most important clinical consequence of this practice. Using a structured assessment procedure, the evidence of HDI presents with varying degree of clinical significance. While the potential for HDI for a number of herbal products is inferred from non-human studies, certain HDIs are well established through human studies and documented case reports. Various mechanisms of pharmacokinetic HDI have been identified and include the alteration in the gastrointestinal functions with consequent effects on drug absorption; induction and inhibition of metabolic enzymes and transport proteins; and alteration of renal excretion of drugs and their metabolites. Due to the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of phytochemicals, pharmacodynamic HDIs are also known to occur. The effects could be synergistic, additive, and/or antagonistic. Poor reporting on the part of patients and the inability to promptly identify HDI by health providers are identified as major factors limiting the extensive compilation of clinically relevant HDIs. A general overview and the significance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic HDI are provided, detailing basic mechanism, and nature of evidence available. An increased level of awareness of HDI is necessary among health professionals and drug discovery scientists. With the increasing number of plant-sourced pharmacological actives, the potential for HDI should always be assessed in the non-clinical safety assessment phase of drug development process. More clinically relevant research is also required in this area as current information on HDI is insufficient for clinical applications. PMID:22557968

  6. Characterization and classification of seven citrus herbs by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Guo, Long; Liu, Ke; Liu, E-Hu; Li, Ping

    2014-04-25

    Citrus herbs have been widely used in traditional medicine and cuisine in China and other countries since the ancient time. However, the authentication and quality control of Citrus herbs has always been a challenging task due to their similar morphological characteristics and the diversity of the multi-components existed in the complicated matrix. In the present investigation, we developed a novel strategy to characterize and classify seven Citrus herbs based on chromatographic analysis and chemometric methods. Firstly, the chemical constituents in seven Citrus herbs were globally characterized by liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Based on their retention time, UV spectra and MS fragmentation behavior, a total of 75 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized in these herbal medicines. Secondly, a segmental monitoring method based on LC-variable wavelength detection was developed for simultaneous quantification of ten marker compounds in these Citrus herbs. Thirdly, based on the contents of the ten analytes, genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines (GA-SVM) was employed to differentiate and classify the 64 samples covering these seven herbs. The obtained classifier showed good prediction performance and the overall prediction accuracy reached 96.88%. The proposed strategy is expected to provide new insight for authentication and quality control of traditional herbs. PMID:24656543

  7. Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs

    PubMed Central

    Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15–60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as “ecological clock” for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

  8. Radical scavenging activity of spring mountain herbs in the Shikoku mountain area and identification of antiradical constituents by simple HPLC detection and LC-MS methods.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Toshiya; Inouchi, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Aya; Shingai, Yoshimi; Inai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    The functionality of spring mountain herbs, which were collected in the Kajigamori mountain area of Shikoku area in Japan, was investigated in the course of our studies for utilizing local plant resources. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts from seventeen herbs was measured. Among these herbs, two extracts from Polystichym ovato-paleaceum (Japanese name: Tsuyanashiinode) and Sambucus racemosa subsp. sieboldiana (Japanese name: Niwatoko) showed potent DPPH radical scavenging activity. The material evidence for the potent activity of the extracts was studied by a combination of our developed method for detecting antiradical compounds, LC-MS/MS, and enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:22484936

  9. A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2014-07-01

    Herbs and spices have long been used to improve the flavour of food without being considered as nutritionally significant ingredients. However, the bioactive phenolic content of these plant-based products is currently attracting interest. In the present work, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution/accurate mass measurement LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied for the comprehensive identification of phenolic constituents of six of the most widely used culinary herbs (rosemary, thyme, oregano and bay) and spices (cinnamon and cumin). In this way, up to 52 compounds were identified in these culinary ingredients, some of them, as far as we know, for the first time. In order to establish the phenolic profiles of the different herbs and spices, accurate quantification of the major phenolics was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Multivariate statistical treatment of the results allowed the assessment of distinctive features among the studied herbs and spices. PMID:24518346

  10. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is a molecular vascular target for the Chinese herb Danshen in hypertension

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Kim (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School Department of Pharmacology and Physiology and Department of Surgery)

    2006-12-15

    Danshen, a Chinese herb, reduces hypertension in Oriental medicine. We hypothesized that Danshen acts partially through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis using tanshinone IIA, an active ingredient of Danshen, and the two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension model in hamsters. Oral tanshinone (50 µg/100 g body wt) reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 161.2 ± 6.9 to 130.0 ± 7.8 mmHg (mean ± SE; P < 0.05) in hypertensive hamsters. MAP in sham-operated hamsters was 114.3 ± 9.2 mmHg. Topical tanshinone at 1 µg/ml and 5 µg/ml increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.00 to 1.25 ± 0.08 and 1.57 ± 0.11, respectively, and increased periarteriolar nitric oxide concentration from 87.1 ± 11.3 to 146.9 ± 23.1 nM (P < 0.05) at 5 µg/ml in hamster cheek pouch. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine inhibited tanshinone-induced vasodilation. Hypertension reduced eNOS protein relative to sham-operated control. Tanshinone prevented the hypertension-induced reduction of eNOS and increased eNOS expression to levels higher than sham-operated control in hamster cheek pouch. Topical tanshinone increased normalized arteriolar diameter from 1.0 to 1.47 ± 0.08 in the cremaster muscle of control mice and to 1.12 ± 0.13 in cremasters of eNOS knockout mice. In ECV-304 cells transfected with eNOS-green fluorescent protein, tanshinone increased eNOS protein expression 1.35 ± 0.05- and 1.85 ± 0.07-fold above control after 5-min and 1-h application, respectively. Tanshinone also increased eNOS phosphorylation 1.19 ± 0.07- and 1.72 ± 0.20-fold relative to control after 5-min and 1-h application. Our data provide a basis to understand the action of a Chinese herb used in alternative medicine. We conclude that eNOS stimulation is one mechanism by which tanshinone induces vasodilation and reduces blood pressure.

  11. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Using an Automated Blood Sampling System and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tse; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chien, Chao-Feng; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The safety of herbal products is one of the major concerns for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, and pharmacokinetic data of medicinal herbs guide us to design the rational use of the herbal formula. This article reviews the advantages of the automated blood sampling (ABS) systems for pharmacokinetic studies. In addition, three commonly used sample preparative methods, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, are introduced. Furthermore, the definition, causes and evaluation of matrix effects in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis are demonstrated. Finally, we present our previous works as practical examples of the application of ABS systems and LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic studies of Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:24716112

  12. Environmental factors influencing herb layer productivity in Central European oak forests: insights from soil and biomass analyses and a phytometer experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irena Axmanová; David Zelený; Ching-Feng Li; Milan Chytrý

    2011-01-01

    Habitat productivity and vegetation biomass are important factors affecting species diversity and ecosystem function, but\\u000a factors determining productivity are still insufficiently known, especially in the forest herb layer. These factors are difficult\\u000a to identify because different methods often yield different results. We sampled the herb layer biomass and assessed soil nutrients,\\u000a moisture and light availability in 100 m2 plots in Czech

  13. Comparison of the contents of kampo decoctions containing ephedra herb when prepared simply or by re-boiling according to the traditional theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuhiro Hayashi; Kyoko Shimura; Toshiaki Makino; Hajime Mizukami

    2010-01-01

    Herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (mao-zai) are among the most important medicinal prescriptions in Japanese traditional\\u000a kampo medicine to treat cold symptoms, bronchial asthma, arthralgia, and rheumatism. Shokan-zatsubyo-ron (Shanghan zabing lun in Chinese), a classical textbook of kampo medicine published in 220 A.D., describes that when herbal formulas containing\\u000a ephedra herb (stem of Ephedra sinica) such as maoto (mahuang-tang) and

  14. A comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 inhibition by partially purified aqueous extracts of chinese medicinal herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Collins; T. B. Ng; W. P. Fong; C. C. Wan; H. W. Yeung

    1997-01-01

    A multiple screening approach to detect compounds inhibitory to various aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) life-cycle has been applied to aqueous extracts of 19 herbs traditionally used in Chinese medicine as anti-viral agents. The extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 in a series of in vitro assays. The extracts were tested for inhibition

  15. Analysis of genetic diversity through AFLP, SAMPL, ISSR and RAPD markers in Tribulus terrestris , a medicinal herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam Sarwat; S. Das; P. S. Srivastava

    2008-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is well known for its medicinal importance in curing urino-genital disorders. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP),\\u000a selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and randomly amplified\\u000a polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used for the first time for the detection of genetic polymorphism in this medicinal herb\\u000a from samples collected from various geographical regions of

  16. Identification of biblical hyssop and origin of the traditional use of oregano-group herbs in the Mediterranean region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Fleisher; Zhenia Fleisher

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study of the traditional use of oregano-like herbs in the Mediterranean region provides convincing evidence\\u000a that the hyssop of the Bible is the carvacrol chemotype of the plantMajorana syriaca. The ancient tradition of ritual use of this plant gave rise to two cultures of condiments: za’atar in the Middle East and\\u000a oregano in Europe.\\u000a \\u000a The flavor of the

  17. Age-specific, density-dependent and environment-based mortality of a short-lived perennial herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. X. Pico ´; J. Retana

    2008-01-01

    Density-independent and density-dependent processes affect plant mortality. Although less well understood, age-specific mortality can also play an important role in plant mortality. The goal of this study was to analyse sev- eral factors accounting for mortality in the Mediterranean short-lived peren- nial herb Lobularia maritima. We followed three cohorts of plants (from emergence to death) during 4 years in field

  18. Chinese herbs and herbal extracts for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and potential therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Wei; Wang, Yan-Qin; Wei, Li-Chun; Shi, Mei; Chan, Ying-Shing

    2007-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating degenerative disease resulting from massive degenerative loss of dopamine neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. The most classic therapy for PD is levodopa administration, but the efficacy of levodopa treatment declines as the disease progresses. The neuroprotective strategies to rescue nigral dopamine neurons from progressive death are currently being explored, and among them, the Chinese herbs and herbal extracts have shown potential clinical benefit in attenuating the progression of PD in human beings. Growing studies have indicated that a range of Chinese herbs or herbal extracts such as green tea polyphenols or catechins, panax ginseng and ginsenoside, ginkgo biloba and EGb 761, polygonum, triptolide from tripterygium wilfordii hook, polysaccharides from the flowers of nerium indicum, oil from ganoderma lucidum spores, huperzine and stepholidine are able to attenuate degeneration of dopamine neurons and sympotoms caused by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro and in vivo conditions. In addition, accumulating data have suggested that Chinese herbs or herbal extracts may promote neuronal survival and neurite growth, and facilitate functional recovery of brain injures by invoking distinct mechanisms that are related to their neuroprotective roles as the antioxidants, dopamine transporter inhibitor, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, free radical scavengers, chelators of harmful metal ions, modulating cell survival genes and signaling, anti-apoptosis activity, and even improving brain blood circulation. New pharmaceutical strategies against PD will hopefully be discovered by understanding the various active entities and valuable combinations that contribute to the biological effects of Chinese herbs and herbal extracts. PMID:17691984

  19. Determination of Carotenoids in the Chinese Medical Herb Jiao-Gu-Lan ( Gynostemma Pentaphyllum MAKINO) by Liquid Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Liu; T. H. Kao; B. H. Chen

    2004-01-01

    The amount and variety of carotenoids in Jiao-Gu-Lan ( Gynostemma pentaphyllum MAKINO), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb which is currently sold in Taiwan and China as herbal tea, were determined by HPLC. Dried Jiao-Gu-Lan samples were ground into fine materials, and the carotenoids were extracted, saponified and subjected to HPLC analysis. A gradient mobile phase of methanol\\/isopropanol (99\\/1, v\\/v) (A)

  20. Seed size variation and its effect on germination and seedling performance in the clonal herb Convallaria majalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ove Eriksson

    1999-01-01

    Variation in seed size is common both within and among plant species. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight, and its implications for some components of fitness in the clonal herb Convallaria majalis. This species produces berries containing 4.1 seeds on average. The average seed weight was 16.5 mg, with a coefficient of variation of 32.7%. Seed packaging in

  1. Identification of Epilobium Species and Willow-herbs ( Onagraceae ) by HPLC Analysis of Flavonoids as Chemotaxonomic Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hevesi Tóth; A. Balázs; V. Vukics; É. Sz?ke; Á. Kéry

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare macro- and micromorphological characteristics and flavonoid composition of some Epilobium species and commercial willow-herbs for their authentication and quality control. In order to determine the flavonoid composition\\u000a of extracts, the flavonol-glycosides were also hydrolised quantitatively to their aglycones. Before and after hydrolysis flavonoid\\u000a fingerprints were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography using two

  2. The protective mechanism of magnolol, a Chinese herb drug, against warm ischemia-reperfusion injury of rat liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Jawan; Shigeru Goto; Tair-Long Pan; Chia-Yun Lai; Hsiang-Ning Luk; Hock-Liew Eng; Yu-Chun Lin; Yaw-Sen Chen; Kok-Mao Lan; Sao-Wei Hsieh; Chih Chi Wang; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chao-Long Chen

    2003-01-01

    Background.Cell apoptosis following warm ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major concern in clinical issues such as organ transplantation, trauma, and cardiogenic shock. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible role of magnolol, a Chinese herb drug, in apoptotic injury and the kinetic expression of apoptotic-related genes in rat livers subjected to warm ischemia-reperfusion (WI\\/R).

  3. Comparison of the contents of kampo decoctions containing ephedra herb when prepared simply or by re-boiling according to the traditional theory.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Shimura, Kyoko; Makino, Toshiaki; Mizukami, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    Herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (mao-zai) are among the most important medicinal prescriptions in Japanese traditional kampo medicine to treat cold symptoms, bronchial asthma, arthralgia, and rheumatism. Shokan-zatsubyo-ron (Shanghan zabing lun in Chinese), a classical textbook of kampo medicine published in 220 A.D., describes that when herbal formulas containing ephedra herb (stem of Ephedra sinica) such as maoto (mahuang-tang) and kakkonto (gegen-tang) are prepared, ephedra herb is first boiled alone, the scum is removed, and then other crude drugs are added and decocted. In the present study, we evaluated evidence for the benefit of boiling ephedra herb prior to other crude drugs by analyzing the contents of the extract and four ephedrine alkaloids (ephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norephedrine), which are considered the main active ingredients in ephedra herb. We prepared two different decoctions of maoto and kakkonto: one decoction was prepared by boiling all the crude drugs at the same time and the other decoction was prepared according to the classical textbook. In both decoctions of maoto and kakkonto, neither alkaloid contents in the extract nor extracting ratio of four ephedrine alkaloids exhibited significant difference. As far as the ephedrine alkaloid content goes, there is no evidence for the benefit of the boiling method for ephedra herb described in the classical textbook of kampo medicine. PMID:20091242

  4. A capsule review of recent studies on the application of mass spectrometry in the analysis of Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zongwei; Lee, F S C; Wang, X R; Yu, W J

    2002-10-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is gaining increasing popularity worldwide as an alternative approach to the development of pharmaceuticals in therapeutic applications. Chemical characterization and compositional analysis of Chinese medicines provide the necessary scientific basis for the discovery and development of new drugs of natural origin. Applications of mass spectrometry in the analysis of Chinese herbal medicines have been growing rapidly in recent years owing to the rapid technical advances and increasing availability of the instrumentation. This paper reviews the current status of how different mass spectrometric techniques are being used to support research studies of Chinese medicines. The focus is on crude herbal medicines and their derived products. The review is not meant to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a general overview of the various research activities in this rapidly expanding field. In the discussion of specific herbs, the emphasis is placed on ginseng and Danshen, two of the herbs for which active experimental work is on-going in the authors' laboratories. Other selected herbs will be discussed only briefly, aiming primarily to illustrate the current status of research in the area. PMID:12375275

  5. Effects of Medicinal herb Extracts and their Components on Steatogenic Hepatotoxicity in Sk-hep1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, You-Jin; Yoon, Yujin; Choi, Ho-Sung; Park, Sora; Oh, Sehee; Jeong, Se-Mi; Suh, Hyo-Ryung; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicines are widely used in many countries for the treatment of many diseases. Although the use of herb extracts as alternative medicine is growing, their toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of water and ethanol extracts of 18 herbs on the hepatic lipid metabolism and steatogenic hepatotoxicity. Ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa induced lipid accumulation in Sk-hep1 human hepatoma cells as determined by Nile red staining. These extracts increased the luciferase activity of sterol regulatory element (SRE) and decreased that of peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), indicating the possibilities of enhanced fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid oxidation. To identify the components responsible for the fat accumulation, we tested 50 chemicals isolated from the nine herbs. Apigenin, luteolin, pectolinarin and lupeol from Cirsium japonicum, 8-methoxypsoralen and umbelliferone from Foeniculum vulgare and pomonic acid and jiocerebroside from Rehmanniae glutinosa significantly increased the accumulation of lipid droplets. These results suggest that ethanol extracts of Cirsium japonicum, Carthamus tinctorius, Rehmanniae glutinosa (preparata), Polygala tenuifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Polygonum multiflorum, and Acorus gramineus and water extracts of Polygonum multiflorum and Rehmanniae glutinosa can cause fatty liver disease by decreasing ?-oxidation of fatty acid and increasing lipogenesis. PMID:24278574

  6. A Laboratory Evaluation of Medicinal Herbs Used in China for the Treatment of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chunyang; Xu, Lanfang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Guang; Tan, Ren Xiang; Li, Erguang; Jin, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). During recent epidemics of HFMD in China, medicinal herbals and preparations containing herbal extracts have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy with relative safety profiles. There have been no microbiological studies to validate their usefulness for HFMD. We selected 12 commonly used herbs for HFMD from government recommended guidelines as well as published reports and tested for their antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory activity. A water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) inhibited EV71 infection significantly and was marginally active against CVA16 infection. The IC50 (concentration to have 50% inhibitory effect) values of HCT against a Fuyang strain and a BrCr strain of EV71 were determined at 8.9??g/mL and 20.6??g/mL, respectively. Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (MHB) water extract was active against CVA16, with an IC50 value of 70.3??g/mL. The extract did not exhibit activity against EV71 infection. Although the majority of the extracts showed no activity against viral infection, several extracts demonstrated activity in blocking proinflammatory response by viral infection. This study therefore validates the effectiveness of Chinese herbs for HFMD since some formulations containing the correct combination of the herbs can block viral replication as well as proinflammatory response of HFMD. PMID:23554831

  7. The Genome of Dendrobium officinale Illuminates the Biology of the Important Traditional Chinese Orchid Herb.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Hui; Tian, Yang; Lian, Jinmin; Yang, Ruijuan; Hao, Shumei; Wang, Xuanjun; Yang, Shengchao; Li, Qiye; Qi, Shuai; Kui, Ling; Okpekum, Moses; Ma, Xiao; Zhang, Jiajin; Ding, Zhaoli; Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Sheng, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional Chinese orchid herb that has both ornamental value and a broad range of therapeutic effects. Here, we report the first de novo assembled 1.35 Gb genome sequences for D. officinale by combining the second-generation Illumina Hiseq 2000 and third-generation PacBio sequencing technologies. We found that orchids have a complete inflorescence gene set and have some specific inflorescence genes. We observed gene expansion in gene families related to fungus symbiosis and drought resistance. We analyzed biosynthesis pathways of medicinal components of D. officinale and found extensive duplication of SPS and SuSy genes, which are related to polysaccharide generation, and that the pathway of D. officinale alkaloid synthesis could be extended to generate 16-epivellosimine. The D. officinale genome assembly demonstrates a new approach to deciphering large complex genomes and, as an important orchid species and a traditional Chinese medicine, the D. officinale genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of orchid plants, as well as the study of medicinal components and potential genetic breeding of the dendrobe. PMID:25825286

  8. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions: are preventive screenings necessary and appropriate?

    PubMed

    Butterweck, Veronika; Derendorf, Hartmut; Gaus, Wilhelm; Nahrstedt, Adolf; Schulz, Volker; Unger, Matthias

    2004-09-01

    Pharmacokinetic interactions often occur as a result of activity changes of drug-metabolizing and transporting proteins, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The activity of these enzymes and drug transporters can be enhanced or inhibited by synthetic drugs as well as by natural products. Since the number of herb-drug interactions has increased in recent years, systematic in vitro screenings and more clinical studies to identify such interactions were proposed for herbal medicinal products. However, previous results regarding this issue are not only contradictory but also of less predictability. One reason for the discrepancies could be the lack of validation of the recommended in vitro tests. Furthermore, it has to be considered that pharmacokinetic drug interactions are not only mediated by herbal medicines but also by several foods, beverages and life-style products. Since herbal medicines are considered to have a broad therapeutic range, a preventive risk assessment for pharmacokinetic drug interactions should first be realized for synthetic drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Efforts to identify all possible interactions will lead to limitless investigations and to inconsistent decisions. PMID:15386186

  9. Separation of Four Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from a Chinese Herb by HSCCC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Yue, Hui-Lan; Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Li, Jing; Shao, Yun

    2015-07-01

    Four phenylpropanoid glycosides (PPGs), such as echinacoside, wiedemannioside C, forsythoside B and verbascoside, were isolated and purified from the Tibetan medicinal herb Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph. var. tubiformis (Klotz) Tsoong by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with macroporous resin (MR) column separation for the first time. In the present study, the two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (10 : 6:15, v/v/v) was used for HSCCC separation. A total of 3.5 mg of echinacoside, 12.6 mg of wiedemannioside C, 22.7 mg of forsythoside B and 48.7 mg of verbascoside with the purity of 93.6, 97.9, 97.8 and 98.1%, respectively, were obtained from 120 mg of crude sample. The HSCCC fractions were analyzed by HPLC, and the chemical structures were identified by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The results demonstrate that MR coupled with HSCCC is a powerful technique for separation of PPGs from natural products. PMID:25410625

  10. Yeasts in nectar enhance male fitness in a montane perennial herb.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Robert N

    2014-07-01

    Floral nectar of many plant species is prone to colonization by microbial organisms such as yeasts. Their presence and metabolism of nectar chemical components have the potential to modify a suite of floral traits important for pollinator attraction, including nectar quality and scent. However, studies on the direct and indirect effects of nectar-inhabiting microorganisms on pollinator behavior and plant reproductive success remain rare. To determine their potential to affect pollinator behavior and plant fitness, we experimentally manipulated the common nectar-inhabiting yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii in the nectar of Delphinium nuttallianum, a short-lived montane perennial herb. We detected positive, indirect, pollinator-mediated effects of yeasts on male plant fitness measured as pollen donation using powdered fluorescent dyes. However, we detected no direct or indirect effects on components of female fitness. Matching effects on male plant fitness, pollinators responded positively to the presence of yeasts, removing more nectar from flowers treated with M. reukaufii. Our results provide evidence of effects of nectar-inhabiting yeasts on male plant fitness and highlight the importance of microorganisms in mediating plant-pollinator interactions and subsequent plant fitness. PMID:25163113

  11. Differential seed dispersal in Oxalis acetosella,a cleistogamous perennial herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Henrik

    2000-03-01

    Explosive seed dispersal in the cleistogamous perennial forest herb Oxalis acetosella was studied during two growing seasons, to determine whether seeds derived from chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers differ in dispersal distance. Seed dispersal distance, seed weight, and height of fruits were measured for both flower types, and the effects of phenology and year were also taken into account. The dispersal experiment was performed indoors, using plants transplanted from natural populations to pots. CL seeds were thrown significantly further than were CH seeds, though there was a considerable overlap in dispersal distances. There was also a significant positive relationship between seed weight and dispersal distance. No relationship was found between fruit height and dispersal distance. The results of this study contradict the common view that CL progeny should always be dispersed closer to the mother plant than CH progeny. The ecological implications of the dispersal difference are unclear, especially since it is uncertain whether CH seeds are generally outcrossed or not. Variation in dispersal distance in O. acetosella seems to be mainly dependent on a combination of reproductive mode and variation in seed weight.

  12. Curcuminoid biosynthesis by two type III polyketide synthases in the herb Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Kita, Tomoko; Funa, Nobutaka; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2009-04-24

    Curcuminoids found in the rhizome of turmeric, Curcuma longa, possess various biological activities. Despite much attention regarding the biosynthesis of curcuminoids because of their pharmaceutically important properties and biosynthetically intriguing structures, no enzyme systems have been elucidated. Here we propose a pathway for curcuminoid biosynthesis in the herb C. longa, which includes two novel type III polyketide synthases. One of the type III polyketide synthases, named diketide-CoA synthase (DCS), catalyzed the formation of feruloyldiketide-CoA by condensing feruloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. The other, named curcumin synthase (CURS), catalyzed the in vitro formation of curcuminoids from cinnamoyldiketide-N-acetylcysteamine (a mimic of the CoA ester) and feruloyl-CoA. Co-incubation of DCS and CURS in the presence of feruloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA yielded curcumin at high efficiency, although CURS itself possessed low activity for the synthesis of curcumin from feruloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. These findings thus revealed the curcumin biosynthetic route in turmeric, in which DCS synthesizes feruloyldiketide-CoA, and CURS then converts the diketide-CoA esters into a curcuminoid scaffold. PMID:19258320

  13. Mycorrhizal benefit in two low arctic herbs increases with increasing temperature.

    PubMed

    Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa

    2007-08-01

    Climate change may influence the relationship between arctic plants and their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. The benefit of the symbiosis for the host plant affects vegetation succession and may be a key parameter in predicting vegetation responses to warming. We investigated the mycorrhizal benefit in the low arctic perennial herbs Potentilla crantzii and Ranunculus acris in symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus claroideum. Temperature response in the mycorrhiza-mediated acquisition of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), growth, and photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency were determined. Near the average natural soil temperature (12°C), mycorrhiza did not improve plant nutrient capture but significantly enhanced plant P capture at 17°C. Photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency was higher at 17°C than at 12°C and was further increased by mycorrhiza at 17°C. Photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency was not affected by temperature or mycorrhiza. Increasing the growing temperature by 5°C increased the relative shoot growth rate by 15%. Mycorrhizal symbiosis did not enhance plant growth rate, but the plants gained between 20% and 90% more mycorrhiza-mediated P when grown at higher temperature. The results suggest that these low arctic species have good potential to respond positively to increasing temperatures. PMID:21636497

  14. Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase

    PubMed Central

    Sapra, Gaurav; Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Aggarwal, Ashish; Chandrashekar, K T; Sharma, Kanika

    2013-01-01

    Background: Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice) on human salivary amylase activity and to compare it with other dentifrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of age 18-35 years were randomly selected and divided equally into 4 groups. Group 1 subjects were assigned to use Test Dentifrice (with S. calva root extract), while Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 subjects were assigned to use Herbal Dentifrice (Arodent™), Synthetic Dentifrice (Colgate®), and Control Dentifrice respectively. Salivary amylase activity was determined by Bernfeld method in each group, before and after using the given dentifrices. Results: Maximum inhibition of salivary amylase activity was found in the group using test dentifrice as compared to others. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations. PMID:24130585

  15. Strong inbreeding depression in two Scandinavian populations of the self-incompatible perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Mousset, Mathilde; Hagenblad, Jenny; Hansson, Bengt; Agren, Jon

    2013-10-01

    Inbreeding depression is a key factor influencing mating system evolution in plants, but current understanding of its relationship with selfing rate is limited by a sampling bias with few estimates for self-incompatible species. We quantified inbreeding depression (?) over two growing seasons in two populations of the self-incompatible perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea in Scandinavia. Inbreeding depression was strong and of similar magnitude in both populations. Inbreeding depression for overall fitness across two seasons (the product of number of seeds, offspring viability, and offspring biomass) was 81% and 78% in the two populations. Chlorophyll deficiency accounted for 81% of seedling mortality in the selfing treatment, and was not observed among offspring resulting from outcrossing. The strong reduction in both early viability and late quantitative traits suggests that inbreeding depression is due to deleterious alleles of both large and small effect, and that both populations experience strong selection against the loss of self-incompatibility. A review of available estimates suggested that inbreeding depression tends to be stronger in self-incompatible than in self-compatible highly outcrossing species, implying that undersampling of self-incompatible taxa may bias estimates of the relationship between mating system and inbreeding depression. PMID:24094340

  16. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Some Medicinal Herbs by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Matei, Alina O; Gatea, Florentina; Radu, Gabriel L

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry in negative mode method was developed for the identification and quantitative determination of 13 individual phenolics (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, fisetin, isorhamnetin, hesperidin and chrysin) from ethanolic extracts [30, 50 and 70% (w/v)] of Calendula officinalis, Hypericum perforatum, Galium verum and Origanum vulgare and some commercial extracts of these medicinal herbs. Correlation coefficients (r(2)) from calibration curves for all the compounds were between 0.9971 and 0.9996. Limit of detection was in the range of 0.070-0.280 µg/mL and limit of quantification was from 0.233 to 0.932 µg/mL. The method was partially validated and the results obtained are: the intra- and interday relative standard deviation values were within 0.086 and 2.821% and recovery values vary from 95.84% (coumaric acid) to 103.20% (rutin). PMID:25583972

  17. Effects of fire on the demography of the endangered, geophytic herb Silene spaldingii (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Lesica, P

    1999-07-01

    Understanding the effects of disturbances such as fire on plant demography helps elucidate the mechanisms that cause changes in community composition. I studied the effects of spring and fall fires on Silene spaldingii, an endangered perennial herb of grasslands in northwest Montana. Individual S. spaldingii plants were mapped, and size and flowering were recorded for 1 yr prior and 5 yr subsequent to the burn treatments. Enhanced seedling recruitment (70-410%) and a 22% increase in population size were the principal effects of fire on S. spaldingii, and fall burn plots had lower recruitment than spring burn plots. These effects were apparent for 2-3 yr following the treatments. Fire had no detectable effect on the survival of adults or recruits of S. spaldingii. Silene spaldingii exhibits prolonged dormancy in which plants do not produce aboveground vegetation for one to several consecutive years. Results suggest that fire has a positive effect on the population dynamics of S. spaldingii by removing litter and creating safe sites for recruitment. Prescribed fire should be an important tool for managing populations of this rare plant. PMID:10406723

  18. Seed longevity and fire: germination responses of an exotic perennial herb in NW Patagonian grasslands (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Franzese, J; Ghermandi, L

    2011-11-01

    Fire affects grassland composition by selectively influencing recruitment. Some exotic species can increase their abundance as a consequence of fire-stimulated seed germination, but response may depend on seed age. Rumex acetosella L. (Polygonaceae, sheep's sorrel) is a cosmopolitan herb that has invaded NW Patagonia's grasslands. This species forms persistent soil seed banks and increases after disturbances, particularly fire. We studied how fire and seed longevity influence R. acetosella germination. In 2008, we conducted laboratory experiments where we exposed different-aged seeds (up to 19 years old) to heat, smoke, charcoal, ash and control treatments. Total percentage germination and mean germination time depended on both seed age and fire treatment. Germination of younger seeds decreased with increasing temperature. There was no general pattern in germination responses of different-aged seeds to smoke, charcoal and ash. While smoke improved the germination of fresh seeds, charcoal decreased germination. Germination of untreated seeds was negatively correlated with seed age, and mean germination time increased with seed age. In most treatments, fresh seeds had lower germination than 1-5-year-old seeds, indicating an after-ripening requirement. Smoke stimulates R. acetosella germination, causing successful recruitment during post-fire conditions. Fresh seeds are particularly responsive to fire factors, possibly because they have not experienced physical degradation and are more receptive to environmental stimuli. Knowing the colonisation potential from the soil seed bank of this species during post-fire conditions will allow us to predict their impact on native communities. PMID:21973326

  19. Pinelliae rhizoma, a toxic chinese herb, can significantly inhibit CYP3A activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinjun; Cheng, Zaixing; He, Shugui; Shi, Jian; Liu, Shuqiang; Zhang, Guiyu; Zhu, Lijun; Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhongqiu; Lin, Na; Lu, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    Raw Pinelliae Rhizoma (RPR) is a representative toxic herb that is widely used for eliminating phlegm or treating cough and vomiting. Given its irritant toxicity, its processed products, including Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum (PRP) and Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum cum Zingibere et Alumine (PRPZA), are more commonly applied and administered concomitantly with other chemical drugs, such as cough medications. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RPR, PRP, and PRPZA on CYP3A activity. Testosterone (Tes) and buspirone (BP) were used as specific probe substrates ex vivo and in vivo, respectively. CYP3A activity was determined by the metabolite formation ratios from the substrates. Ex vivo results show that the metabolite formation ratios from Tes significantly decreased, indicating that RPR, PRP, and PRPZA could inhibit CYP3A activity in rats. CYP3A protein and mRNA levels were determined to explore the underlying mechanism. These levels showed marked and consistent down-regulation with CYP3A activity. A significant decrease in metabolite formation ratios from BP was also found in PRPZA group in vivo, implying that PRPZA could inhibit CYP3A activity. Conclusively, co-administration of PR with other CYP3A-metabolizing drugs may cause drug-drug interactions. Clinical use of PR-related formulae should be monitored carefully to avoid adverse interactions. PMID:25574821

  20. Madecassoside isolated from Centella asiatica herbs facilitates burn wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Dai, Yue; Li, Ying; Luo, Yubin; Huang, Fang; Gong, Zhunan; Meng, Qingyu

    2008-06-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effect of madecassoside, the major triterpene in CENTELLA ASIATICA, on burn wound healing and its possible mechanism of action. An oral administration of madecassoside (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) facilitated wound closure in a time-dependent manner and reached its peak effect, nearly completely wound closure, on day 20 in the group receiving the highest dose of 24 mg/kg of madecassoside. Further histopathological analysis revealed that madecassoside alleviated infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as enhanced epithelisation resulting from dermal proliferation of fibroblasts. Madecassoside at higher doses (12 and 24 mg/kg) decreased nitric oxide (NO) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the burn skin tissue. However, reduced glutathione (GSH) and hydroxyproline levels were increased in the same skin tissue. In addition, madecassoside promoted skin angiogenesis IN VIVO, correlating with our findings IN VITRO that it stimulated endothelial cell growth in a rat aortic ring assay. These data suggest that madecassoside has significant wound-healing activity and is one of the major reasons for the use of C. ASIATICA herbs in the successful treatment of burn injury. Moreover, the results from the present study indicate that the effect of madecassoside on wound healing may involve several mechanisms including antioxidative activity, collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. PMID:18484522

  1. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Gentiana rigescens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Allan, Andrew C; Li, Caixia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Yao, Qiuyang

    2015-01-01

    Gentiana rigescens is an important medicinal herb in China. The main validated medicinal component gentiopicroside is synthesized in shoots, but is mainly found in the plant's roots. The gentiopicroside biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory control remain to be elucidated. Genome resources of gentian are limited. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can aid in supplying global gene expression profiles. In this study we present sequence and transcript abundance data for the root and leaf transcriptome of G. rigescens, obtained using the Illumina Hiseq2000. Over fifty million clean reads were obtained from leaf and root libraries. This yields 76,717 unigenes with an average length of 753 bp. Among these, 33,855 unigenes were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in public protein and nucleotide databases. Digital abundance analysis identified 3306 unigenes differentially enriched between leaf and root. Unigenes found in both tissues were categorized according to their putative functional categories. Of the differentially expressed genes, over 130 were annotated as related to terpenoid biosynthesis. This work is the first study of global transcriptome analyses in gentian. These sequences and putative functional data comprise a resource for future investigation of terpenoid biosynthesis in Gentianaceae species and annotation of the gentiopicroside biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory mechanisms. PMID:26006235

  2. Context-dependent resistance against butterfly herbivory in a polyploid herb.

    PubMed

    König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variation in biotic interactions and natural selection are fundamental parts of natural systems, and can be driven by differences in both trait distributions and the local environmental context of the interaction. Most studies of plant-animal interactions have been performed only in natural settings, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of traits and context. To assess the relative importance of trait differences and environmental context for among-population variation in plant resistance to herbivory, we compared oviposition by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines on two ploidy types of the herb Cardamine pratensis under experimentally controlled conditions with oviposition in natural populations. Under controlled conditions, plants from octoploid populations were significantly more preferred than plants from tetraploid populations. This difference was largely mediated by differences in flower size. Among natural populations, there was no difference in oviposition rates between the two ploidy types. Our results suggest that differences in oviposition rates among populations of the two cytotypes in the field are caused mainly by differences in environmental context, and that the higher attractiveness of octoploids to herbivores observed under common environmental conditions is balanced by the fact that they occur in habitats which harbor lower densities of butterflies. This illustrates that spatial variation in biotic interactions is the net result of differences in trait distributions of the interacting organisms and differences in environmental context, and that variation in both traits and context are important in understanding species interactions. PMID:24493660

  3. Herbs and nutrients in the treatment of depression, anxiety, insomnia, migraine, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Brown, R P; Gerbarg, P L

    2001-03-01

    Although a multitude of pharmaceutical agents are available for the treatment of mood disorders, anxiety and insomnia, many patients have difficulty tolerating the side effects, do not respond adequately, or eventually lose their response. Many therapeutic herbs and nutrients have far fewer side effects and may provide an alternative treatment or can be used to enhance the effect of prescription medications. In the article, the authors review the quality of the evidence supporting the clinical effects of a number of commonly used types of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) for mood disorders, anxiety, and insomnia. They review data on the use of St. John's Wort, S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM-e), B vitamins, inositol, omega-3 fatty acids, and choline for mood disorders; data on the use of kava and other herbal agents and fish extract for anxiety and insomnia; and data on valerian and melatonin for insomnia. The authors also discuss the use of CAM to treat migraines, which may be comorbid with mood and anxiety disorders, and obesity, which can occur as a side effect of psychotropic medications. They consider the data on feverfew and butterbur for migraines and on chromium picolinate and the combination of ephedrine and caffeine for obesity. The authors also review issues related to comorbid medical illness, side effects, drug interactions, dosage, and brand selection. PMID:15990509

  4. Ecophysiological roles of abaxial anthocyanins in a perennial understorey herb from temperate deciduous forests

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Esteban, Raquel; Míguez, Fátima; Artetxe, Unai; Castañeda, Verónica; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of abaxial anthocyanins is an intriguing leaf trait particularly common among deeply shaded understorey plants of tropical and temperate forests whose ecological significance is still not properly understood. To shed light on it, possible ecophysiological roles of abaxial anthocyanins were tested in the perennial understorey herb of temperate deciduous forests Saxifraga hirsuta, chosen as a model species due to the coexistence of green and anthocyanic leaves and the presence of an easily removable lower anthocyanic epidermis. Anthocyanins accumulated during autumn, which temporally matched the overstorey leaf fall. Patterns of development of abaxial anthocyanins and direct measurements of photochemical efficiency under monochromatic light were not consistent with a photoprotective hypothesis. Enhancement of light capture also seemed unlikely since the back-scattering of red light towards the lower mesophyll was negligible. Seed germination was similar under acyanic and anthocyanic leaves. A relevant consequence of abaxial anthocyanins was the dramatic reduction of light transmission through the leaf. The dark environment generated underneath the Saxifraga canopy was enhanced by the horizontal repositioning of leaves, which occurs in parallel with reddening. This might play a role in biotic interactions by inhibiting vital processes of competitors, which may be of especial importance in spring before the overstorey leaves sprout. PMID:25922298

  5. The determination of trace lead in Chinese medicinal herbs by flow injection analysis in polyethyleneglycol medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Aiqin; Zhu, Xiashi; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yaqin

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a new flow injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of Pb 2+ in Chinese medicinal herbs was developed. In the buffer solution of borax-NaOH (pH 10.5), Pb 2+ reacted with 2-[(5-bromo-2-pyridyl)-azo]-5-(diethyl-amino)phenol (5-Br-PADAP) to form a complex. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was enhanced in the presence of polyethyleneglycol-800 (PG-800). The main factors affecting the determination were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range and detection limit is 0.0-0.3 ?g/mL and 1.5 ng/mL (correlation coefficient r = 0.9996), respectively. The linear regression equation is A = -0.005 + 0.60 c (?g/mL). The sample throughout is 10 h -1. Foreign substrates effects were also investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of lead in reference material, goldthread and lepidium seed.

  6. The flowering pattern of the perennial herb Lobularia maritima: an unusual case in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier Picó, F.; Retana, Javier

    2001-08-01

    In plant communities of the Mediterranean Basin most plant species reach their blooming peak in spring and have characteristically short flowering periods of two-three months. The perennial herb Lobularia maritima represents an exception to these characteristics, because it flowers for almost 10 months, and has its flowering peak in autumn. In this five-year study, we describe the flowering pattern of L. maritima at the population and community levels. Despite the unusually extended flowering period of L. maritima, the species showed characteristic low among-year variability in the length of the flowering period but large interannual variation in the distribution of flowers throughout the flowering period. The flowering pattern (unimodal or bimodal) of L. maritima individuals differed among the five years, suggesting that L. maritima plants are plastic enough to tailor their flowering to variable environmental conditions. We conclude that flowering phenology of L. maritima represents a very particular case in the plant community studied, and the influence of abiotic and biotic factors on the phenology of this species is discussed.

  7. Epigenetic Differentiation Persists after Male Gametogenesis in Natural Populations of the Perennial Herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ?75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations. PMID:23936245

  8. Epigenetic differentiation persists after male gametogenesis in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ~75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations. PMID:23936245

  9. Ecophysiological roles of abaxial anthocyanins in a perennial understorey herb from temperate deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Esteban, Raquel; Míguez, Fátima; Artetxe, Unai; Castañeda, Verónica; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of abaxial anthocyanins is an intriguing leaf trait particularly common among deeply shaded understorey plants of tropical and temperate forests whose ecological significance is still not properly understood. To shed light on it, possible ecophysiological roles of abaxial anthocyanins were tested in the perennial understorey herb of temperate deciduous forests Saxifraga hirsuta, chosen as a model species due to the coexistence of green and anthocyanic leaves and the presence of an easily removable lower anthocyanic epidermis. Anthocyanins accumulated during autumn, which temporally matched the overstorey leaf fall. Patterns of development of abaxial anthocyanins and direct measurements of photochemical efficiency under monochromatic light were not consistent with a photoprotective hypothesis. Enhancement of light capture also seemed unlikely since the back-scattering of red light towards the lower mesophyll was negligible. Seed germination was similar under acyanic and anthocyanic leaves. A relevant consequence of abaxial anthocyanins was the dramatic reduction of light transmission through the leaf. The dark environment generated underneath the Saxifraga canopy was enhanced by the horizontal repositioning of leaves, which occurs in parallel with reddening. This might play a role in biotic interactions by inhibiting vital processes of competitors, which may be of especial importance in spring before the overstorey leaves sprout. PMID:25922298

  10. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome of the Chinese Medicinal Herb, Gentiana rigescens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Allan, Andrew C.; Li, Caixia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Yao, Qiuyang

    2015-01-01

    Gentiana rigescens is an important medicinal herb in China. The main validated medicinal component gentiopicroside is synthesized in shoots, but is mainly found in the plant’s roots. The gentiopicroside biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory control remain to be elucidated. Genome resources of gentian are limited. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies can aid in supplying global gene expression profiles. In this study we present sequence and transcript abundance data for the root and leaf transcriptome of G. rigescens, obtained using the Illumina Hiseq2000. Over fifty million clean reads were obtained from leaf and root libraries. This yields 76,717 unigenes with an average length of 753 bp. Among these, 33,855 unigenes were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in public protein and nucleotide databases. Digital abundance analysis identified 3306 unigenes differentially enriched between leaf and root. Unigenes found in both tissues were categorized according to their putative functional categories. Of the differentially expressed genes, over 130 were annotated as related to terpenoid biosynthesis. This work is the first study of global transcriptome analyses in gentian. These sequences and putative functional data comprise a resource for future investigation of terpenoid biosynthesis in Gentianaceae species and annotation of the gentiopicroside biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory mechanisms. PMID:26006235

  11. Timing of flowering and intensity of attack by a butterfly herbivore in a polyploid herb

    PubMed Central

    König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Timing of plant development both determines the abiotic conditions that the plant experiences and strongly influences the intensity of interactions with other organisms. Plants and herbivores differ in their response to environmental cues, and spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions might influence the synchrony between host plants and herbivores, and the intensity of their interactions. We investigated whether differences in first day of flowering among and within 21 populations of the polyploid herb Cardamine pratensis influenced the frequency of oviposition by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines during four study years. The proportion of plants that became oviposited upon differed among populations, but these differences were not related to mean flowering phenology within the population in any of the four study years. Attack rates in the field were also not correlated with resistance to oviposition estimated under controlled conditions. Within populations, the frequency of butterfly attack was higher in early-flowering individuals in two of the four study years, while there was no significant relationship in the other 2 years. Larger plants were more likely to become oviposited upon in all 4 years. The effects of first flowering day and size on the frequency of butterfly attack did not differ among populations. The results suggest that differences in attack intensities among populations are driven mainly by differences in the environmental context of populations while mean differences in plant traits play a minor role. The fact that within populations timing of flowering influenced the frequency of herbivore attack only in some years and suggests that herbivore-mediated selection on plant phenology differs among years, possibly because plants and herbivores respond differently to environmental cues.

  12. Habitat specialization through germination cueing: a comparative study of herbs from forests and open habitats

    PubMed Central

    ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen Pieter; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently accompanied by specialization in their regeneration niche; and (2) species are thereby adapted to utilize different windows of opportunity in time (season) and space (habitat). Methods Seed germination response to temperature, light and stratification was tested for 17 congeneric pairs, each consisting of one forest species and one open-habitat species. A factorial design was used with temperature levels and diurnal temperature variation (10 °C constant, 15–5 °C fluctuating, 20 °C constant, 25–15 °C fluctuating), and two light levels (light and darkness) and a cold stratification treatment. The congeneric species pair design took phylogenetic dependence into account. Key Results Species from open habitats germinated better at high temperatures, whereas forest species performed equally well at low and high temperatures. Forest species tended to germinate only after a period of cold stratification that could break dormancy, while species from open habitats generally germinated without cold stratification. The empirically derived germination strategies correspond quite well with establishment opportunities for forest and open-habitat plant species in nature. Conclusions Annual changes in temperature and light regime in temperate forest delimit windows of opportunity for germination and establishment. Germination strategies of forest plants are adaptations to utilize such narrow windows in time. Conversely, lack of fit between germination ecology and environment may explain why species of open habitats generally fail to establish in forests. Germination strategy should be considered an important mechanism for habitat specialization in temperate herbs to forest habitats. The findings strongly suggest that phases in the plant life cycle other than the established phase should be considered important in adaptive specialization. PMID:23186835

  13. Mating system in Mexican populations of the annual herb Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Marín, M; Solís-Montero, L; Souto Vilaros, D; Lee, M Y Q

    2013-11-01

    Traditionally, annual colonising species are expected to have high rates of self-fertilisation, although recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that cross-fertilisation can be selected for under heterogeneous pollination environments. Solanum rostratum is a self-compatible annual herb that colonises disturbed habitats. Despite the lack of physiological mechanisms to prevent self-fertilisation, pollen transfer between individuals is expected to be favoured because of its complex floral morphology. In previous studies of S. rostratum it has been shown that anther dimorphism within flowers results in precise pollen placement on the pollinator's body, and the presence of mirror-image floral morphs within plants promotes outcrossing in experimental arrays. However, the mating system of natural populations of S. rostratum has never been assessed, and thus whether it is predominantly selfing or outcrossing remains unknown. We hypothesise that floral and inflorescence morphology of S. rostratum should facilitate cross-fertilisation, making it a predominantly outcrossing despite its lack of a self-incompatibility system. To test this hypothesis, we estimated outcrossing rates by genotyping 700 individuals at 13 microsatellite loci, sampled from four populations across a 690-km transect in the species' native range. We found that populations had mean outcrossing rates of 0.70 ± 0.03, with multiple sires contributing to paternity of each progeny array (average effective number of sires = 8.97 ± 0.57). This indicates that natural populations S. rostratum have relatively high levels of outcrossing, probably facilitated by its floral and inflorescence morphology. We speculate that partial selfing in this species may be an unavoidable consequence of displaying multiple flowers at the same time (geitonogamy), as well as the result of self-pollen transfer by illegitimate visitors. PMID:23294438

  14. In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. through somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Mohd Zahid; Kukreja, Arun Kumar; Bisht, Narendra Singh

    2010-07-01

    Tuberous roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. which are a source of steroidal saponins, possess immunomodulatory, adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, diuretic, hemostatic and anti-tumour properties. Poor seed setting and germination and slow growth in conventional vegetative propagation are major constraints in the large-scale cultivation of this commercially important medicinal plant. In the present study, a procedure for in vitro propagation of this endangered herb through somatic embryogenesis has been established. Seeds of Chlorophytum borivilianum were germinated on MS medium supplemented with 57.74 ?M gibberellic acid and hypocotyl portion from germinated seedling was used as explant for callus induction. Moderate to good callus induction was observed on MS medium containing 1.16 ?M kinetin and 1.13-2.26 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Regular subculturing of callus on kinetin (1.16 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1.13 ?M) supplemented medium induced somatic embryogenesis. In modified MS medium, 1.79 mM NH4NO3 and 10.72 mM KNO3 was optimal for somatic embryogenesis. 7.38 ?M 2-isopentenyladenine supplemented to modified MS medium, showed best response for somatic embryogenesis while proline (0.76 mM) as an amino acid supplement gave better response than glutamine. 30% germination of mature somatic embryos was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 15.54 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine. Multiplication of C. borivilianum through somatic embryogenesis may offer a better approach compared to organogenesis for developing scale-up technology employing bioreactors for its mass propagation. PMID:23572975

  15. [Interpretation of the concept of 'medicinal product' in relation to herb- and cannabinoid-based products].

    PubMed

    Zsigmond, Ferge

    2014-11-30

    On 10th of July 2014 the European Court of Justice made in his decisions in relation to the cases D. (C-358/13) and G. (C-181/14) an interpretation, that the concept of 'medicinal product' according to the law of the European Union does not include the materials, which are - as not covering substances, such as those at issue in the main proceedings, which produce effects that merely modify physiological functions but which are not such as to have any beneficial effects, either immediately or in the long term, on human health, are consumed solely to induce a state of intoxication and are, as such, harmful to human health. The Court made his interpretation after the request for preliminary ruling from the Bundesgerichtshof (the High Court of Justice in Germany). The Court had to decide in two criminal procedures, whether for the retail of mixtures including syntetic canabinoids, such as complements of marihuana, due the fact that they are "unsafe medicinal products", a criminal proceeding can be initiated or not. The Ordinary Courts had two persons (D. and G.) for selling the unsafe medicinal products sentenced to one year and nine months imprisonment, and suspension (D.), and sentenced (G.) to four years and six months imprisonment and fined with a charge of two hundred thousand Euro. The retail of herb mixtures containing, inter alia, synthetic cannabinoids, did not fall under the German law on narcotic drugs at the material time, resulting that the German Authorities could not initiate a criminal procedure. PMID:25417136

  16. Inbreeding effects on fitness traits in the heterocarpic herb Leontodon autumnalis L. (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picó, F. X.; Koubek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Heterocarpic plants are characterized by the production of distinct types of fruits that usually differ in their ecological behavior. In the Asteraceae, differences are mainly found between peripheral non-dispersal and central dispersal achenes (single-seeded fruits). Inbreeding depression is considered as an evolutionary force as it may reduce several fitness traits, and in the case of heterocarpic plants, it could influence fitness traits (e.g., seed set, germination rate, growth rate) of each fruit morph, which may have important ecological and evolutionary consequences. In particular, differential effects on fitness traits and dispersal of selfed and outcrossed progeny can strongly determine the viability of extant populations and the potential to colonize new habitats. We conducted a hand-pollination experiment in greenhouse conditions to test whether inbreeding affects the fitness of achene morphs in the heterocarpic herb Leontodon autumnalis (Asteraceae). Results show that achene morphs significantly differ in their ecological behavior, peripheral achenes germinating more and faster than central achenes. The significant interaction between pollination treatment and achene morph for germination probability might indicate a link between dormancy and mating system in L. autumnalis: germination was higher for outcrossed achenes in central achenes whereas the opposite pattern was exhibited by peripheral achenes. Selfing dramatically reduced seed set, probably as a consequence of strong self-incompatibility mechanisms rather than inbreeding effects. Inbreeding depression significantly affected late life-cycle traits, such as growth rate and biomass at flowering. Overall, results suggest that inbreeding depression seems to be an important selective force maintaining outcrossing in L. autumnalis.

  17. A resprouter herb reduces negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeders after fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raventós, José; Wiegand, Thorsten; Maestre, Fernando T.; de Luis, Martín

    2012-01-01

    Plant communities are often composed of species belonging to different functional groups, but relatively few studies to date have explicitly linked their spatial structure to the outcome of the interaction among them. We investigated if mortality of seeder species during their establishment after fire is influenced by the proximity of the resprouter herb Brachypodium retusum. The study was conducted in a Mediterranean shrubland (00°39' W; 38°43' N), 40 km northwest of Alicante (Spain) with Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus, Helianthemum marifolium, and Ononis fruticosa as dominant obligate seeder species and a herbaceous layer is dominated by the resprouter B. retusum. We followed the fate of mapped seedlings and the biomass of B. retusum one, two, three and nine years after an experimental fire. We used point pattern analyses to evaluate the spatial pattern of mortality of seeder species at these years in relation to the biomass of B. retusum. We hypothesize that B. retusum may initially have a positive impact on seeder survival. We implemented this hypothesis as a point process model that maintains the overall number of dead seeder plants, but seeder survival varied proportionally to the biomass of B. retusum in its neighborhood. We then contrasted this hypothesis with a previous analysis based on a random mortality hypothesis. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that proximity of B. retusum reduced the mortality of seeder plants at their establishment phase (i.e., 2 yrs after fire). However, we found no evidence that B. retusum influenced seeder mortality when plants grow to maturity. We also found that, under the more stressful conditions (fire + erosion scenario), B. retusum had a lower impact on the performance of seeder species. Our results suggest that B. retusum may reduce negative density-dependent effects among neighboring seeder plants during the first years after fire.

  18. Relationships between the floral neighborhood and individual pollen limitation in two self-incompatible herbs.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Anna; Lázaro, Amparo; Totland, Orjan

    2009-07-01

    Local flower density can affect pollen limitation and plant reproductive success through changes in pollinator visitation and availability of compatible pollen. Many studies have investigated the relationship between conspecific density and pollen limitation among populations, but less is known about within-population relationships and the effect of heterospecific flower density. In addition, few studies have explicitly assessed how the spatial scales at which flowers are monitored affect relationships. We investigated the effect of floral neighborhood on pollen limitation at four spatial scales in the self-incompatible herbs Armeria maritima spp. maritima and Ranunculus acris spp. acris. Moreover, we measured pollen deposition in Armeria and pollinator visits to Ranunculus. There was substantial variation in pollen limitation among Armeria individuals, and 25% of this variation was explained by the density of compatible and heterospecific flowers within a 3 m circle. Deposition of compatible pollen was affected by the density of compatible and incompatible inflorescences within a 0.5 m circle, and deposition of heterospecific pollen was affected by the density of heterospecific flowers within a 2 m circle. In Ranunculus, the number of pollinator visits was affected by both conspecific and heterospecific flower densities. This did not, however, result in effects of the floral neighborhood on pollen limitation, probably due to an absence of pollen limitation at the population level. Our study shows that considerable variation in pollen limitation may occur among individuals of a population, and that this variation is partly explained by floral neighborhood density. Such individual-based measures provide an important link between pollen limitation theory, which predicts ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences for individual plants, and studies of the effects of landscape fragmentation on plant species persistence. Our study also highlights the importance of considering multiple spatial scales to understand the spatial extent of pollination processes within a population. PMID:19415338

  19. An activator of calcium-dependent potassium channels isolated from a medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    McManus, O B; Harris, G H; Giangiacomo, K M; Feigenbaum, P; Reuben, J P; Addy, M E; Burka, J F; Kaczorowski, G J; Garcia, M L

    1993-06-22

    Large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (maxi-K) channels play an important role in regulating the tone of airway smooth muscle and the release of bronchoconstrictive substances from nerves in the lung. Crude extracts of Desmodium adscendens, a medicinal herb used in Ghana as a treatment for asthma, inhibit binding of monoiodotyrosine charybdotoxin (125I-ChTX) to receptor sites in bovine tracheal smooth muscle membranes that have been shown to be associated with maxi-K channels. Using this assay, three active components have been purified and identified by NMR and MS. Comparison with authentic samples revealed the three active components as the known triterpenoid glycosides dehydrosoyasaponin I (DHS-I), soyasaponin I, and soyasaponin III. The most potent of these compounds, DHS-I, is a partial inhibitor of 125I-ChTX binding (Ki = 120 nM, 62% maximum inhibition). Inhibition of 125I-ChTX binding is primarily due to a decrease in the observed maximum number of binding sites, with a smaller decrease in affinity. DHS-I increases the rate of toxin dissociation from its receptor, suggesting that modulation of ChTX binding occurs through an allosteric mechanism. DHS-I reversibly increases the open probability of maxi-K channels from bovine tracheal smooth muscle incorporated into planar lipid bilayers when applied to the intracellular, but not the extracellular, side of the membrane at concentrations as low as 10 nM. In contrast, DHS-I had no effect on several other types of potassium channels or membrane transporters. This natural product is the first example of a high-affinity activator of calcium-dependent potassium channels and is the most potent known potassium channel opener. PMID:7685635

  20. Timing of flowering and intensity of attack by a butterfly herbivore in a polyploid herb.

    PubMed

    König, Malin A E; Wiklund, Christer; Ehrlén, Johan

    2015-05-01

    Timing of plant development both determines the abiotic conditions that the plant experiences and strongly influences the intensity of interactions with other organisms. Plants and herbivores differ in their response to environmental cues, and spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions might influence the synchrony between host plants and herbivores, and the intensity of their interactions. We investigated whether differences in first day of flowering among and within 21 populations of the polyploid herb Cardamine pratensis influenced the frequency of oviposition by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines during four study years. The proportion of plants that became oviposited upon differed among populations, but these differences were not related to mean flowering phenology within the population in any of the four study years. Attack rates in the field were also not correlated with resistance to oviposition estimated under controlled conditions. Within populations, the frequency of butterfly attack was higher in early-flowering individuals in two of the four study years, while there was no significant relationship in the other 2 years. Larger plants were more likely to become oviposited upon in all 4 years. The effects of first flowering day and size on the frequency of butterfly attack did not differ among populations. The results suggest that differences in attack intensities among populations are driven mainly by differences in the environmental context of populations while mean differences in plant traits play a minor role. The fact that within populations timing of flowering influenced the frequency of herbivore attack only in some years and suggests that herbivore-mediated selection on plant phenology differs among years, possibly because plants and herbivores respond differently to environmental cues. PMID:26140202

  1. The effects of large herbivores on the landscape dynamics of a perennial herb

    PubMed Central

    Hemrová, Lucie; ?ervenková, Zita; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Models assessing the prospects of plant species at the landscape level often focus primarily on the relationship between species dynamics and landscape structure. However, the short-term prospects of species with slow responses to landscape changes depend on the factors affecting local population dynamics. In this study it is hypothesized that large herbivores may be a major factor affecting the short-term prospects of slow-responding species in the European landscape, because large herbivores have increased in number in this region in recent decades and can strongly influence local population dynamics. Methods The impact of browsing by large herbivores was simulated on the landscape-level dynamics of the dry grassland perennial polycarpic herb Scorzonera hispanica. A dynamic, spatially explicit model was used that incorporated information on the location of patches suitable for S. hispanica, local population dynamics (matrices including the impact of large herbivores), initial population sizes and dispersal rate of the species. Simulations were performed relating to the prospects of S. hispanica over the next 30 years under different rates of herbivory (browsing intensity) and varying frequencies of population destruction (e.g. by human activity). Key Results Although a high rate of herbivory was detected in most populations of S. hispanica, current landscape-level dynamics of S. hispanica were approximately in equilibrium. A decline or increase of over 20 % in the herbivory rate promoted rapid expansion or decline of S. hispanica, respectively. This effect was much stronger in the presence of population destruction. Conclusions Browsing by large herbivores can have a dramatic effect on the landscape dynamics of plant species. Changes in the density of large herbivores and the probability of population destruction should be incorporated into models predicting species abundance and distribution. PMID:22492260

  2. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823?mg/100g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270?mg/100g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102?mg/100g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65?mg/100g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

  3. Leaf damage decreases fitness and constrains phenotypic plasticity to drought of a perennial herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Quezada, Iván M.; Suárez, Lorena H.

    2009-09-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are increasingly prone to drought stress. Herbivory might limit plant functional responses to water shortage. This may occur as a result of plant resource depletion or due to the fact that leaf damage and drought may elicit opposite phenotypic responses. We evaluated the impact of herbivory on plant fitness in the field, and the effects of leaf damage on phenotypic plasticity to reduced soil moisture in a greenhouse. The study species was Convolvulus demissus, a perennial herb endemic to central Chile, which has a Mediterranean-type climate. Controlled herbivory by chrysomelid beetles (natural herbivores) in the field had a negative impact on plant fitness, estimated as number of fruits. Whereas reduced soil moisture alone did not affect seedling survival, damaged seedlings (simulated herbivory) had greater mortality when growing under water shortage. The hypothesis that herbivory would constrain phenotypic plasticity was supported by significant statistical interactions between leaf damage and soil moisture, followed by inspections of reaction norms. This was verified both overall (all phenotypic traits taken together, MANOVA) and in four of the six traits evaluated (ANOVAs). When plants were damaged, the reaction norms in response to low soil moisture of water use efficiency, root:shoot ratio and xylem water potential showed reduced slopes. While undamaged plants increased root biomass in response to low moisture, the opposite trend was found for damaged plants. The simultaneous occurrence of herbivory and drought events might curtail recruitment in plant populations of central Chile and other Mediterranean-type ecosystems due to the inability of damaged seedlings to show functional responses to low soil moisture. This finding is of ecological significance in view of current and projected trends of increased aridity in these ecosystems.

  4. Chemical composition and fatty acid content of some spices and herbs under Saudi Arabia conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 ?mg/100 g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 ?mg/100 g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 ?mg/100 g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 ?mg/100 g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

  5. EPR spectra induced by gamma-irradiation of some dry medical herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordanov, N. D.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.

    2009-04-01

    The radiation-induced EPR spectra in some medical herbs are reported. The samples studied are: (i) leaves of nettle, common balm, peppermint and thyme; (ii) stalks of common balm, thyme, milfoil, yarrow and marigold; (iii) blossoms of yarrow and marigold; (iv) blossoms and leaves of hawthorn and tutsan; and (v) roots of common valerian, nettle, elecampane (black and white), restharrows and carlina. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak anisotropic singlet EPR line with effective g-value of 2.0050±0.0002. The radiation-induced spectra fall into three groups. EPR spectra of irradiated blossoms of yarrow and marigold, stalks of common balm, thyme, tutsan and yarrow as well as roots of common valerian, nettle and elecampane (black and white) show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum typical for irradiated plants. It is characterized by one intense central line with g=2.0050±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines situated ca. 30 G left and right to it. EPR spectra of gamma-irradiated restharrows and carlina are complex. They may be represented by one triplet corresponding to the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, one relatively intense singlet, situated in the center of the spectrum, and five weak additional satellite lines left and right to the center. The last spectrum was assigned as "carbohydrate-like" type. Only one intense EPR singlet with g=2.0048±0.0005 was recorded after irradiation of leaves of nettle and common balm. The lifetime of the radiation-induced EPR spectra was followed for a period of 3 months.

  6. Epigenetic variation predicts regional and local intraspecific functional diversity in a perennial herb.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Mónica; Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2014-10-01

    The ecological significance of epigenetic variation has been generally inferred from studies on model plants under artificial conditions, but the importance of epigenetic differences between individuals as a source of intraspecific diversity in natural plant populations remains essentially unknown. This study investigates the relationship between epigenetic variation and functional plant diversity by conducting epigenetic (methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms, MSAP) and genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphisms, AFLP) marker-trait association analyses for 20 whole-plant, leaf and regenerative functional traits in a large sample of wild-growing plants of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus from ten sampling sites in south-eastern Spain. Plants differed widely in functional characteristics, and exhibited greater epigenetic than genetic diversity, as shown by per cent polymorphism of MSAP fragments (92%) or markers (69%) greatly exceeding that for AFLP ones (41%). After controlling for genetic structuring and possible cryptic relatedness, every functional trait considered exhibited a significant association with at least one AFLP or MSAP marker. A total of 27 MSAP (13.0% of total) and 12 AFLP (4.4%) markers were involved in significant associations, which explained on average 8.2% and 8.0% of trait variance, respectively. Individual MSAP markers were more likely to be associated with functional traits than AFLP markers. Between-site differences in multivariate functional diversity were directly related to variation in multilocus epigenetic diversity after multilocus genetic diversity was statistically accounted for. Results suggest that epigenetic variation can be an important source of intraspecific functional diversity in H. foetidus, possibly endowing this species with the capacity to exploit a broad range of ecological conditions despite its modest genetic diversity. PMID:25208110

  7. Extreme intraplant variation in nectar sugar composition in an insect-pollinated perennial herb.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Carlos M; Pérez, Ricardo; Alonso, Conchita

    2006-04-01

    Variation in nectar chemistry among plants, flowers, or individual nectaries of a given species has been only rarely explored, yet it is an essential aspect to our understanding of how pollinator-mediated selection might act on nectar traits. This paper describes variation in nectar sugar composition in a population of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae) and dissects it into components due to variation among plants, flowers of the same plant, and nectaries of the same flower. The proportions of sucrose, glucose, and fructose in single-nectary nectar samples collected at two times in the flowering season were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sugar composition varied extensively among nectaries, and nearly all combinations of individual sugars were recorded. Population-wide variance was mainly accounted for by variation among flowers of the same plant (56% of total), nectaries of the same flower (30%), and only minimally by differences among plants (14%). In absolute terms, intraplant variation was similar to or greater than that ordinarily reported in interspecific comparisons. Results suggest that the prevailing notion of intraspecific constancy in nectar sugar composition may be unwarranted for some species and that more elaborate nectar sampling designs are required to detect and appropriately account for extensive within-plant variance. Within-plant variation in nectar sugar composition will limit the ability of pollinators to exert selection on nectar chemistry in H. foetidus and may be advantageous to plants by reducing the number of flowers visited per foraging bout by variance-sensitive, risk-averse pollinators. PMID:21646218

  8. Rare earth elements in forest-floor herbs as related to soil conditions and mineral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Germund; Olsson, Tommy

    2005-08-01

    Mixtures of rare earth elements (REEs) in fertilizers are widely used in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition. REE concentrations in wild-growing plants, especially herbs, are little known. This study describes differences in the concentrations and proportions of REEs in eight forest-floor herbaceous plants and relates these differences to soil and mineral nutrient conditions. REEs studied were yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and lutetium (Lu). Leaf concentrations of sum REEs differed more than one order of magnitude between species, being highest in Anemone nemorosa (10.1 nmol/g dry mass) and lowest in Convallaria majalis (0.66 nmol/g) from the same site. Leaf concentrations of all REEs correlated positively (p < 0.001), as did sum REE with calcium (Ca) and strontium (Sr) concentrations (p < 0.001). A negative relationship (r = -0.83, (p < 0.001) was measured between phosphorus (P) concentrations and sum REE concentrations in leaves. However, the proportions of the single REEs in the REE sum differed among species. In A. nemorosa, 57% of the molar REE sum was taken by Y + La, and only 21% by Ce. The other extreme was Maianthemum bifolium, with 37% La + Y and 41% Ce. These two species had 2.7-3.0% of the REE sum as heavier lanthanides, compared to 4.1-5.2% in the six other species. No clear relationship between soil properties or REE contents and leaf REE concentrations was detected. For La, however, an overrepresentation in leaves prevailed throughout all species compared to soils, whereas particularly Nd, Sm, and Tb had a lower proportion in the leaves of all species than in their soils. Possible uptake mechanisms of REEs in plants are discussed. PMID:16116249

  9. Identifying roles of “Jun-Chen-Zuo-Shi” component herbs of QiShenYiQi formula in treating acute myocardial ischemia by network pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of “Jun-Chen-Zuo-Shi” (also known as “sovereign-minister-assistant-courier”) component herbs of Chinese medicine is not fully understood. This study aims to test the “Jun-Chen-Zuo-Shi” rule with the QiShenYiQi formula (QSYQ) on treating acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) by a network pharmacology approach. Methods An Acute Myocardial Ischemia (AMI) specific Organism Disturbed Network (AMI-ODN), was constructed by integrating data of disease-associated genes, protein-protein interaction and microarray experiments. A network-based index, Network Recovery Index for Organism Disturbed Network (NRI-ODN), was developed to measure the therapeutic efficacy of QSYQ and its ingredients, i.e., the ability to recover disturbed AMI network model back to normal state. Results The whole formula of QSYQ got a NRI-ODN score of 864.48, which outperformed all individual herbs. Additionally, the primary component herbs, Radix Astragalus membranaceus and Radix Salvia miltiorrrhiza showed NRI-DON score of 680.27 and 734.31 respectively, which meant a better performance to recover disturbed AMI network than the supplementary component herbs, Panax notoginseng and Dalbergia sissoo did (545.76 and 584.88, respectively). Conclusion AMI-ODN model and NRI-ODN identified the possible roles of “Jun-Chen-Zuo-Shi” component herbs of QSYQ in treating AMI at molecular network and pathway level. PMID:25342960

  10. The Chinese herbs Scutellaria baicalensis and Fritillaria cirrhosa target NF?B to inhibit proliferation of ovarian and endometrial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kavandi, Leyla; Lee, Laura R; Bokhari, Amber A; Pirog, John E; Jiang, Yongping; Ahmad, Kashif A; Syed, Viqar

    2015-05-01

    The herbs Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) and Fritillaria cirrhosa (FC) are widely used in Chinese medicine to treat several aliments and as an adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. No information is available regarding the two herbs' influence on ovarian and endometrial cancer. To fill this data gap we compared cell growth responses to SB and FC in ovarian and endometrial cancer cell lines. Dose-dependent cell growth inhibition was observed following higher doses in all cell lines while lower doses stimulated growth in only endometrial cell lines. Higher doses of SB and FC significantly decreased cell growth on soft agar and decreased the invasive potential of cancer cells. Treatment of cells with both herbs resulted in activation of caspase-3, G0 /G1 phase cell cycle arrest, downregulation of cyclins D1 and D3 and induction of p27. Both herbs decreased NF?B DNA binding, reduced expression of phosphorylated I?B?, abrogated NF?B activation, and downregulated NF?B-regulated metastasis-promoting proteins in cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of NF?B attenuated SB- and FC-induced cell growth inhibition. These results suggest that inhibition of NF?B activation may be an important mechanism for growth suppression by SB and FC. Data indicate that these herbs may represent a new source of agents for NF?B inhibition in cancer therapy. PMID:24249479

  11. Derivative multiple reaction monitoring and single herb calibration approach for multiple components quantification of traditional Chinese medicine analogous formulae.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhao; Xiao, Shun; Ai, Ni; Luo, Kedi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2015-01-01

    In comparison with monotherapy in western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) advocates combinational therapy for treating diseases and TCM formula is a representative for this approach. Despite of extensive clinical applications of TCM formulae, knowledge about their pharmacological activities, mechanisms of action and cellular targets remains limited. A main contributing factor to these unanswered questions is unavailability of chemical compositions and their contents in the formulae. Several challenges hinder global qualitative and quantitative analysis of the formulae, including large quantities of constituents, potential physicochemical changes during decoction and lack of authentic standards. Herein we introduced an integrated strategy based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) systems to address such challenges. First, liquid chromatography-ion trap and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT/MS and LC-QTOF/MS) were utilized to characterize chemical profiling of the formulae. Meanwhile, MS(2) of IT/MS produced major parameters for derivative multiple reaction monitoring (DeMRM) on liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-TQ/MS), which offered rapid and direct transition design in the quantitative assay. Instead of authentic standards, serial dilutions of single herbs were employed in this study to construct calibration curves necessary for calculating relative concentrations of components. Xiao-Banxia decoction and its four analogous formulae were then taken to exemplify the feasibility of currently proposed methodology. Among the 160 qualitatively identified components, a total of 138 components were semi-quantified for these decoctions. Based on these results, we demonstrated that co-decoction of different herbs could result in concentration variations of components and this effect was more prominent when certain herbs were combined. Our results indicated that the present strategy would significantly contribute to chemical studies on TCM and its utilities could be extended to other research fields, such as metabolomics and comparative chemistry. PMID:25541090

  12. Comparison of GC–MS and LC–MS methods for the analysis of antioxidant phenolic acids in herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarit Kivilompolo; Vít Ob?rka; Tuulia Hyötyläinen

    2007-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in herb extracts. The methods were based on liquid\\u000a chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–TOFMS) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The methods were\\u000a compared in terms of their linearity, repeatability, selectivity, sensitivity and the speed of the analysis. The sensitivity\\u000a was good for both methods, with limits of detection of <80 ng\\/ml

  13. Antioxidant effects of Chinese traditional medicine: focus on trilinolein isolated from the Chinese herb sanchi (Panax pseudoginseng).

    PubMed

    Chan, P; Tomlinson, B

    2000-05-01

    It is thought that oxygen-derived free radicals (OFR) cause lipid peroxidation, which contributes to the process of atherosclerosis, and they are also involved in the myocardial damage seen with ischemia and reperfusion. Antioxidants could potentially ameliorate such harmful effects. Many natural plant products have been shown to have antioxidant effects. Trilinolein, a triacylglycerol purified from Panax pseudoginseng, which is commonly used in Chinese traditional medicine, has been found to have pharmacological effects, including antioxidant activity that may explain the benefits in treating circulatory disorders perceived from the use of the herb over the centuries. PMID:10806597

  14. Evaluation of Synergistic Antibacterial and Antioxidant Efficacy of Essential Oils of Spices and Herbs in Combination

    PubMed Central

    Bag, Anwesa; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible synergistic interactions on antibacterial and antioxidant efficacy of essential oils of some selected spices and herbs [bay leaf, black pepper, coriander (seed and leaf), cumin, garlic, ginger, mustard, onion and turmeric] in combination. Antibacterial combination effect was evaluated against six important food-borne bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) using microbroth dilution, checkerboard titration and time-kill methods. Antioxidant combination effect was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging method. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bioactivity –guided fractionation of active essential oils for isolation of bioactive compounds was done using TLC-bioautography assay and chemical characterization (qualitative and quantitative) of bioactive compounds was performed using DART-MS and HPLC analyses. Cytotoxic potential was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality assay as well as MTT assay using human normal colon cell line. Results showed that among the possible combinations tested only coriander/cumin seed oil combination showed synergistic interactions both in antibacterial (FICI : 0.25-0.50) and antioxidant (CI : 0.79) activities. A high positive correlation between total phenolic content and antibacterial activity against most of the studied bacteria (R2 = 0.688 – 0.917) as well as antioxidant capacity (R2 = 0.828) was also observed. TLC-bioautography-guided screening and subsequent combination studies revealed that two compounds corresponding to Rf values 0.35 from coriander seed oil and 0.53 from cumin seed oil exhibited both synergistic antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The bioactive compound corresponding to Rf 0.35 from coriander seed oil was identified as linalool (68.69%) and the bioactive compound corresponding to Rf 0.53 from cumin seed oil was identified as p-coumaric acid (7.14%) by DART-MS and HPLC analyses. The coriander/cumin seed oil combination did not show any cytotoxic effect both in brine shrimp lethality as well as human normal colon cell line assays. The LC50 in brine shrimp lethality assay was found to be 4945.30 ?g/ml and IC50 in human normal colon cell line was > 1000 ?g/ml. The results provide evidence that coriander/cumin seed oil combination might indeed be used as a potential source of safe and effective natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:26132146

  15. Herb-Drug Interaction of Paullinia cupana (Guarana) Seed Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Amiodarone in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Lourenço, Nulita; Falcão, Amílcar

    2012-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is used in weight-loss programs as a constituent of medicinal/dietary supplements. This study aimed to assess a potential herb-drug interaction among a standardized (certified) Paullinia cupana extract and amiodarone (narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study rats were simultaneously coadministered with a single dose of Paullinia cupana (821?mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50?mg/kg, p.o.), and in a second study rats were pretreated during 14 days with Paullinia cupana (821?mg/kg/day, p.o.) receiving amiodarone (50?mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Blood samples were collected at several time points after amiodarone dosing, and several tissues were harvested at the end of the experiments (24?h after dose). Plasma and tissue concentrations of amiodarone and its major metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) were measured and analysed. A significant reduction in the peak plasma concentration (73.2%) and in the extent of systemic exposure (57.8%) to amiodarone was found in rats simultaneously treated with Paullinia cupana and amiodarone; a decrease in tissue concentrations was also observed. This paper reports for the first time an herb-drug interaction between Paullinia cupana extract and amiodarone, which determined a great decrease on amiodarone bioavailability in rats. PMID:23304200

  16. Chronic Cold-Water-Induced Hypothermia Impairs Memory Retrieval and Nepeta menthoides as a Traditional "Hot" Herb Reverses the Impairment.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian-Attar, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) describes a kind of dementia with similar signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It explains the pathology of dementia with cold intemperament of the brain, which means that the brain is colder than its healthy form. ITM strategy for treatment of dementia is to heat the brain up by medical "hot" herbs. Nepeta menthoides (NM) is one of these "hot" herbs. To evaluate the veracity of ITM concept about dementia and its treatment, we first try to examine if coldness of brain can make memory impairment. If so, can NM reverse memory impairment? Rats in cold-water-induced hypothermic (CWH) groups were immersed up to the neck in 3.5 °C water, for 5 min during 14 consecutive days. As a control, rats were forced to swim in warm water at the same conditions. To eliminate the impact of forced swimming stress, a group of intact rats was also added. After last swimming in day 14, some groups received drug (100 or 500 mg/ Kg aqueous extract of NM) or vehicle via i.p. injection. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze, and tau hyperphosphorylation was measured by western blotting. The results showed that CWH impairs learning and memory and induces tau hyperphosphorylation. 100 mg/Kg of NM reversed memory impairment as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. ITM theory about the relationship between brain hypothermia and dementia is in accordance with our findings. PMID:24711845

  17. Chronic Cold-Water-Induced Hypothermia Impairs Memory Retrieval and Nepeta menthoides as a Traditional “Hot” Herb Reverses the Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian-Attar, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) describes a kind of dementia with similar signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It explains the pathology of dementia with cold intemperament of the brain, which means that the brain is colder than its healthy form. ITM strategy for treatment of dementia is to heat the brain up by medical “hot” herbs. Nepeta menthoides (NM) is one of these “hot” herbs. To evaluate the veracity of ITM concept about dementia and its treatment, we first try to examine if coldness of brain can make memory impairment. If so, can NM reverse memory impairment? Rats in cold-water-induced hypothermic (CWH) groups were immersed up to the neck in 3.5 °C water, for 5 min during 14 consecutive days. As a control, rats were forced to swim in warm water at the same conditions. To eliminate the impact of forced swimming stress, a group of intact rats was also added. After last swimming in day 14, some groups received drug (100 or 500 mg/ Kg aqueous extract of NM) or vehicle via i.p. injection. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze, and tau hyperphosphorylation was measured by western blotting. The results showed that CWH impairs learning and memory and induces tau hyperphosphorylation. 100 mg/Kg of NM reversed memory impairment as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. ITM theory about the relationship between brain hypothermia and dementia is in accordance with our findings. PMID:24711845

  18. Polysaccharides of St. John's Wort Herb Stimulate NHDF Proliferation and NEHK Differentiation via Influence on Extracellular Structures and Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Abakuks, S.; Deters, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    St. John's Wort herb extracts often contain undesirable or volitional polysaccharides. As polysaccharides exhibit structure-dependent biological functions in the present study water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from herb material, fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into four main polysaccharide fractions (denominated as Hp1, Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4) and characterized by HPAEC-PAD, CE, IR and GC-MS. Biological activity on human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts was assessed by investigation of their effect on proliferation, metabolism, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and differentiation. The underlying mechanisms were investigated in gene expression studies. Polysaccharide fraction Hp1 was mainly composed of ?-D-glucose. Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4 contained pectic structures and arabinogalactan proteins varying in composition and quantity. Polysaccharides of Hp1 induced the keratinocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the epidermal growth factor and insulin receptor. While the collagen secretion of fibroblasts was stimulated by each polysaccharide fraction only Hp1 stimulated the synthesis. The fibroblast proliferation was reduced by Hp1 and increased by Hp4. This effect was related to the influence on genes that referred to oxidative stress, metabolism, transcription processes and extracellular proteins. In conclusion polysaccharides have been shown as biologically active ingredients of aqueous St. John's Wort extracts with a relation between their structural characteristics and function. PMID:22848211

  19. Silver-nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering wiper for the detection of dye adulteration of medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zhu, Qingxia; Lv, Diya; Zheng, Binxing; Liu, Yanhua; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng

    2015-08-01

    By using a silver nanoparticle wiper as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate, a highly sensitive, convenient, and rapid platform for detecting dye adulteration of medicinal herbs was obtained. Commercially available filter paper was functionalized with silver nanoparticles to transform it into the flexible wiper. This device was found to collect dye molecules with unprecedented ease. Experiments were performed to optimize various factors such as the type of wiper used, the wetting reagent, and the wetting/wiping mode and time. Excellent wiper performance was observed in the detection of the simulated adulteration of samples with dyes at various concentrations. The limits of detection for nine dyes, including 10(-6) g/mL for malachite green, 10(-7) g/mL for Rhodamine 6G, and 5?×?10(-8) g/mL for methylene blue, were discerned. The results of this investigation show that this proposed method is potentially highly advantageous for field-based applications. Graphical Abstract Schematic diagram illustrating the fabrication of the paper-based SERS substrate, sample collection process on a herb and SERS examination with the portable Raman spectrometer. PMID:26044737

  20. Drug- and herb-induced liver injury: Progress, current challenges and emerging signals of post-marketing risk

    PubMed Central

    Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury is a hot topic for clinicians, academia, drug companies and regulators, as shown by the steadily increasing number of publications in the past 15 years. This review will first provide clues for clinicians to suspect idiosyncratic (unpredictable) DILI and succeed in diagnosis. Causality assessment remains challenging and requires careful medical history as well as awareness of multifaceted aspects, especially for herbs. Drug discontinuation and therapy reconciliation remain the mainstay in patent’s management to minimize occurrence of acute liver failure. The second section will address novel agents associated with liver injury in 2014 (referred to as “signals”), especially in terms of clinical, research and drug development implications. Insights will be provided into recent trends by highlighting the contribution of different post-marketing data, especially registries and spontaneous reporting systems. This literature scrutiny suggests: (1) the importance of post-marketing databases as tools of clinical evidence to detect signals of DILI risk; and (2) the need for joining efforts in improving predictivity of pre-clinical assays, continuing post-marketing surveillance and design ad hoc post-authorization safety studies. In this context, ongoing European/United States research consortia and novel pharmaco-epidemiological tools (e.g., specialist prescription event monitoring) will support innovation in this field. Direct oral anticoagulants and herbal/dietary supplements appear as key research priorities. PMID:26167249

  1. Drug and herb induced liver injury: Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale for causality assessment

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Causality assessment of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI) is hampered by the lack of a standardized approach to be used by attending physicians and at various subsequent evaluating levels. The aim of this review was to analyze the suitability of the liver specific Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale as a standard tool for causality assessment in DILI and HILI cases. PubMed database was searched for the following terms: drug induced liver injury; herb induced liver injury; DILI causality assessment; and HILI causality assessment. The strength of the CIOMS lies in its potential as a standardized scale for DILI and HILI causality assessment. Other advantages include its liver specificity and its validation for hepatotoxicity with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity, based on cases with a positive reexposure test. This scale allows prospective collection of all relevant data required for a valid causality assessment. It does not require expert knowledge in hepatotoxicity and its results may subsequently be refined. Weaknesses of the CIOMS scale include the limited exclusion of alternative causes and qualitatively graded risk factors. In conclusion, CIOMS appears to be suitable as a standard scale for attending physicians, regulatory agencies, expert panels and other scientists to provide a standardized, reproducible causality assessment in suspected DILI and HILI cases, applicable primarily at all assessing levels involved. PMID:24653791

  2. Possible mechanism underlying the effect of Heshouwuyin, a tonifying kidney herb, on sperm quality in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herb mixtures are used as alternatives to hormone therapy in China for the treatment of partial androgen deficiency in aging men. However, the compositions of these herb mixtures are complex and their mechanisms are often unknown. This study investigates the effect of Heshouwuyin, a Chinese herbal compound for invigorating the kidney, on the control of testosterone secretion and sperm function. Methods Aged Wistar rats were administered with Heshouwuyin. A Shouwu pill group and young group were used as controls. Results Morphology, chemiluminescence, fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and western blot showed that the epididymal sperm of naturally aged rats had intact plasma membranes. They also had abnormal mitochondrial function and DNA integrity, a significant decline in serum testosterone levels, and significant pathological changes in the structure of testicular tissues. Heshouwuyin significantly improved sperm function and serum testosterone levels, and improved testicular morphology. Moreover, the curative efficacy of Heshouwuyin after 60 days was better than that of Heshouwuyin after 30 days and the Shouwu pill group. Conclusion Heshouwuyin exerts an important role in controlling testosterone secretion and sperm function. PMID:25034094

  3. Drug- and herb-induced liver injury: Progress, current challenges and emerging signals of post-marketing risk.

    PubMed

    Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury is a hot topic for clinicians, academia, drug companies and regulators, as shown by the steadily increasing number of publications in the past 15 years. This review will first provide clues for clinicians to suspect idiosyncratic (unpredictable) DILI and succeed in diagnosis. Causality assessment remains challenging and requires careful medical history as well as awareness of multifaceted aspects, especially for herbs. Drug discontinuation and therapy reconciliation remain the mainstay in patent's management to minimize occurrence of acute liver failure. The second section will address novel agents associated with liver injury in 2014 (referred to as "signals"), especially in terms of clinical, research and drug development implications. Insights will be provided into recent trends by highlighting the contribution of different post-marketing data, especially registries and spontaneous reporting systems. This literature scrutiny suggests: (1) the importance of post-marketing databases as tools of clinical evidence to detect signals of DILI risk; and (2) the need for joining efforts in improving predictivity of pre-clinical assays, continuing post-marketing surveillance and design ad hoc post-authorization safety studies. In this context, ongoing European/United States research consortia and novel pharmaco-epidemiological tools (e.g., specialist prescription event monitoring) will support innovation in this field. Direct oral anticoagulants and herbal/dietary supplements appear as key research priorities. PMID:26167249

  4. Global transcriptome analysis profiles metabolic pathways in traditional herb Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao (A. mongolicus, family Leguminosae) is one of the most important traditional Chinese herbs. Among many secondary metabolites it produces, the effective bioactive constituents include isoflavonoids and triterpene saponins. The genomic resources regarding the biosynthesis of these metabolites in A. mongolicus are limited. Although roots are the primary material harvested for medical use, the biosynthesis of the bioactive compounds and its regulation in A. mongolicus are not well understood. Therefore, a global transcriptome analysis on A. mongolicus tissues was performed to identify the genes essential for the metabolism and to profile their expression patterns in greater details. Results RNA-sequencing was performed for three different A. mongolicus tissues: leaf, stem, and root, using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. A total of 159.5 million raw sequence reads were generated, and assembled into 186,324 unigenes with an N50 of 1,524bp. Among them, 129,966 unigenes (~69.7%) were annotated using four public databases (Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, CDD, Pfam), and 90,202, 63,946, and 78,326 unigenes were found to express in leaves, roots, and stems, respectively. A total of 8,025 transcription factors (TFs) were identified, in which the four largest families, bHLH, MYB, C3H, and WRKY, were implicated in regulation of tissue development, metabolisms, stress response, etc. Unigenes associated with secondary metabolism, especially those with isolavonoids and triterpene saponins biosynthesis were characterized and profiled. Most genes involved in the isoflavonoids biosynthesis had the lowest expression in the leaves, and the highest in the stems. For triterpene saponin biosynthesis, we found the genes in MVA and non-MVA pathways were differentially expressed among three examined tissues, indicating the parallel but compartmentally separated biosynthesis pathways of IPP and DMAPP in A. mongolicus. The first committed enzyme in triterpene saponin biosynthesis from A. mongolicus, cycloartenol synthase (AmCAS), which belongs to the oxidosqualene cyclase family, was cloned by us to study the astragalosides biosynthesis. Further co-expression analysis indicated the candidate CYP450s and glycosyltransferases (GTs) in the cascade of triterpene saponins biosynthesis. The presence of the large CYP450 families in A. mongolicus was further compared with those from Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana, and the diversity and phylegenetic relationships of the CYP450 families were established. Conclusion A transcriptome study was performed for A. mongolicus tissues to construct and profile their metabolic pathways, especially for the important bioactive molecules. The results revealed a comprehensive profile for metabolic activities among tissues, pointing to the equal importance of leaf, stem, and root in A. mongolicus for the production of bioactive compounds. This work provides valuable resources for bioengineering and in vitro synthesis of the natural compounds for medical research and for potential drug development. PMID:26099797

  5. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Galvez Ranilla; Young-In Kwon; Emmanouil Apostolidis; Kalidas Shetty

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. High phenolic and antioxidant activity-containing medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had

  6. Recent advances in biologically active compounds in herbs and spices: A review of the most effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory active principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Rubió; Maria-José Motilva; Maria-Paz Romero

    2012-01-01

    Spices, like vegetables, fruit, and medicinal herbs, are known to possess a variety of antioxidant effects and other biological activities. Phenolic compounds in these plant materials are closely associated with their antioxidant activity, which is mainly due to their redox properties and their capacity to block the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). More recently, their ability to interfere with

  7. Effects of single-tree and group selection harvesting on the diversity and abundance of spring forest herbs in deciduous forests in southwestern Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karla J. Falk; Dawn M. Burke; Ken A. Elliott; Stephen B. Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Selection harvesting, by mimicking natural disturbance regimes of eastern deciduous hardwood forests, has been applied as a sustainable management practice that combines wood production with biodiversity conservation. However, the effects of this technique on understory herbs are unclear, particularly for spring ephemerals which have been suggested as sensitive to disturbance. Here, we experimentally assess the immediate effects of single-tree and

  8. Geographical Differentiation of the Floristic Composition and Structure of the Herb Layer of Forest Permanent Plots in East Germany, Poland, and Belarus 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewa Roo-Zielinska; Jerzy Solon

    The influences of a geographical location on floristic composition, horizontal structure, and biomass of the herb layer in pine and mixed pine forest communities along climatic and pollution gradients in East Germany, Poland, and Belarus were determined. Phytosociological records were collected in permanent plots in May 1995. Each record covered an area of 400 m 2 . The floristic composition

  9. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Da Chuanxiong Formula: A Famous Herb Pair Composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Gastrodiae Rhizoma for Headache

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jinming; Feng, Yi; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Chronic headache such as migraine and nervous headache has become one of the most common locations of pain and one of the most difficult diseases to recover due to its numerous causes and inconvenience to keep acesodyne administration for a long time. However, there are a series of treatment theories and herbal formulas for this disease in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in which Da Chuanxiong formula (DCXF), a herb pair composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR), Chuanxiong in Chinese, and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR) called as Tianma in China, is a greatly classic representative. This formula has been used for headaches via dispelling wind pathogen and dissipating blood stasis for many years in TCM. In recent years, the efficiency and representativeness of DCXF have garnered many researchers' attention. To reveal the compatibility mechanism and develop innovative Chinese herb, herein ethnopharmacological relevance, chemical characters, and pharmacological actions of DCXF are detailed. It is expected to give a comprehensive interpretation of DCXF, namely, Chuanxiong Tianma herb pair (CTHP), to inherit the essence of herb pair and innovate drug delivery system of this prescription. PMID:24066012

  10. Effects of the fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria against phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and on the growth of host plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinsuke Kuwaki; Iichiro Ohhira; Masumi Takahata; Atsuko Hirota; Yoshiyuki Murata; Mikiro Tada

    2004-01-01

    The fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria (FHL) was assayed for antifungal activities against Rosellinia necatrix, Helicobasidium mompa, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium graminicola and Pyricularia oryzae. FHL completely inhibited the growth of R. necatrix, H. mompa, P. graminicola and P. oryzae, and reduced the growth of F. oxysporum by 35%. When the seeds of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), Asparagus

  11. Growth behaviour and IAA production by a Rhizobium sp. isolated from root nodules of a leguminous medicinal herb, Tephrosea purpurea Pers., in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. De; P. S. Basu

    1996-01-01

    The Rhizobium sp. isolated from the root nodules of a leguminous medicinal herb, Tephrosea purpurea Pers. produced a high amount of indole acetic acid (126 ?g\\/ml) from L-tryptophan supplemented basal medium. Growth and indole acetic acid production started simultaneously, the bacteria had a separate growth and production phase. The production was maximum in the stationary phase of growth of the

  12. Content of toxic and essential metals in medicinal herbs growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova-Panovska, Tatjana; Baceva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajce

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare Ba, Cr, Cd, Fe, Sr, Pb, and Zn content in medicinal herbs Urtica dioica L., Taraxacum officinale, and Matricaria recutita growing in polluted and unpolluted areas of the Republic of Macedonia. The metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the unpolluted area of Mt. Plackovica the metal content in Taraxacum officinale was in the descending order: Fe>Sr>Zn>Ba>Cr, while Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection. In the polluted area of Veles, the order was as follows: Fe>Zn>Sr>Pb>Ba>Cd>Cr. Our results suggest that quality assurance and monitoring of toxic metals is needed for plants intended for human use and consumption. Medicinal plants should be picked in areas free of any contamination sources. PMID:20860970

  13. Regulation of Cellular Metabolism and Cytokines by the Medicinal Herb Feverfew in the Human Monocytic THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chun-Huai

    2009-01-01

    The herb feverfew is a folk remedy for various symptoms including inflammation. Inflammation has recently been implicated in the genesis of many diseases including cancers, atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanisms of action of feverfew in the human body are largely unknown. To determine the cellular targets of feverfew extracts, we have utilized oligo microarrays to study the gene expression profiles elicited by feverfew extracts in human monocytic THP-1 cells. We have identified 400 genes that are consistently regulated by feverfew extracts. Most of the genes are involved in cellular metabolism. However, the genes undergoing the highest degree of change by feverfew treatment are involved in other pathways including chemokine function, water homeostasis and heme-mediated signaling. Our results also suggest that feverfew extracts effectively reduce Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-mediated TNF-? and CCL2 (MCP-1) releases by THP-1 cells. We hypothesize that feverfew components mediate metabolism, cell migration and cytokine production in human monocytes/macrophages. PMID:18955216

  14. Pharmacological properties of traditional medicines (XXVII). Interaction between Ephedra Herb and Gypsum under hyperthermal conditions in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dan; Sunouchi, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Tetsurou; Saito, Ken-ichi; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2002-07-01

    There are many important considerations in the interactions among the herbal constituents in a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Ephedra Herb [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph) is described a warm and acrid agent in TCM. The combination of Eph and Gypsum [Chinese characters: see text] (Eph-Gyp) shows specific actions in patients with different body temperatures. Previous reports suggested that Gypsum prevents the thermogenesis effect induced by ephedrine at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. In this investigation, the properties of Eph-Gyp in hyperthermal rats were studied in detail. It was shown that Gypsum Extract (GyE) enhanced the thermogenesis of Eph in hyperthermal rats, although not in normal rats. The results support not only the opposite actions of Eph-GyE but also the clinical differences in the symptomatic patterns of body temperature for Makyo-Kanseki-To [Chinese characters: see text] and Dai-Seiryu-To [Chinese characters: see text]. PMID:12132660

  15. Medicinal herb extract and a single-compound drug confer similar complex pharmacogenomic activities in mcf-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning-Sun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Chen, Chih-Huai; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

    2004-01-01

    Metabolite profiling and DNA microarray analysis of global gene expression profiles were employed to characterize the bioactivities of the herbal extract of Anoectochilus formosanus (AF), a popular folk medicine with anticancer activity, in MCF-7 cancer cells. The pharmacogenomic activities of this plant extract as a crude phytocompound mixture were compared to those conferred by the single-compound drug, plumbagin. A similar level of complexity in transcriptional regulation at the genomic level was observed for both AF extract- and plumbagin-treated MCF-7 cells, as revealed by the number of up- or downregulated genes as well as by the specific but distinct patterns found in the gene-clustering analysis. This finding offers evidence to support the search for fractionated medicinal herb extracts or phytocompound mixtures, in addition to single-compound drugs, as defined therapeutic agents. PMID:15067226

  16. [Discussion on strengthening yin of chinese herbs with bitter-flavor clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization research].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Mei; Bao; Zhaorigetu; Zhuang, Xin-Ying; Que, Ling; Tian, Chang-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is the subject that study of basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, property of Chinese materia medica and clinical application. The study on the standardization research of the terminology of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is an important premise and foundation to standardization, modernization and internationalization, informationization construction of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology and is also the important content of the subject construction. To provide some exploring ideas for clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization, this article elaborates the concept of strengthening Yin with bitter-flavor herbs in several aspects, such as connotation and the historical origin, the clinical application in the traditional, modern clinic application, and the modern basic research and so on. PMID:24490579

  17. Hepatotoxicity or Hepatoprotection? Pattern Recognition for the Paradoxical Effect of the Chinese Herb Rheum palmatum L. in Treating Rat Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-ling; Jin, Cheng; Liu, Dao-jian; Kong, Wei-jun; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hong-juan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity of some Chinese herbs has been a cause for concern in recent years. However, some herbs, such as rhubarb, have been documented as having both therapeutic and toxic effects on the liver, leading to the complex problem of distinguishing the benefits from the risks of using this herb. To comparatively analyze the dose-response relationship between rhubarb and hepatic health, we administrated total rhubarb extract(RE) to normal and carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-treated rats for 12 weeks at 4 dosage levels(2.00, 5.40, 14.69 and 40.00 g·kg?1, measured as the quantity of crude material), followed by biochemical and histopathological tests of the rats' livers. A composite pattern was extracted by factor analysis, using all the biochemical indices as variables, into a visual representation of two mathematically obtained factors, which could be interpreted as the fibrosis factor and the cellular injury factor, according to the values of the variable loadings. The curative effect of administering the two lowest dosages of RE to CCl4-treated rats was mainly expressed as a decrease in the extent of cellular injury. The hepatoprotective mechanism of RE might be related to its antioxidant effect, the antagonism of the free radical damage to hepatocytes caused by CCl4. By contrast, the RE-induced liver damage was mainly expressed as a significant increase in the amount of fibrosis in both normal rats at all dosage levels and CCl4-treated rats at the two highest dosage levels. Therefore, the hepatotoxic potential of RE could be attributable to the liver cell fibrosis induced by high doses of the herb. This study illustrates the bidirectional potential of rhubarb and demonstrates the feasibility of using factor analysis to study the dose-response relationships between herbal medicines and hepatotoxicity or the healing effects of these herbs by extracting the underlying interrelationships among a number of functional bio-indices in a holistic manner. PMID:21915343

  18. The partitioning of water uptake between growth forms in a Neotropical savanna: do herbs exploit a third water source niche?

    PubMed

    Rossatto, D R; da Silveira Lobo Sternberg, L; Franco, A C

    2013-01-01

    In addition to trees and grasses, the savannas of central Brazil are characterised by a diverse herbaceous dicot flora. Here we tested whether the coexistence of a highly diversified assemblage of species resulted in stratification or strong overlap in the use of soil water resources. We measured oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of stem water from herbs, grasses and trees growing side by side, as well as the isotopic composition of water in soil profile, groundwater and rainfall, and predawn (?(pd)) and midday (?(md)) leaf water potentials. We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate vertical partitioning of soil water by the three growth forms. Grasses relied on shallow soil water (5-50 cm) and were strongly anisohydric. ?(pd) and ?(md) decreased significantly from the wet to the dry season. Trees extracted water from deeper regions of the soil profile (60-120 cm) and were isohydric. ?(pd) and ?(md) did not change from the wet to the dry season. Herbs overlapped with grasses in patterns of water extraction in the dry season (between 10 and 40 cm), but they took up water at soil depths intermediate (70-100 cm) to those of trees and grasses during the wet season. They showed seasonal changes in ?(pd) but not in ?(md). We conclude that vertical partitioning of soil water may have contributed to coexistence of these three growth forms and resulted in a more complex pattern of soil water extraction than the two-compartment model of soil water uptake currently used to explain the structure and function of tropical savanna ecosystems. PMID:22672316

  19. Use of a common laboratory glassware detergent improves recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis from lettuce, herbs and raspberries.

    PubMed

    Shields, Joan M; Lee, Michelle Minjung; Murphy, Helen R

    2012-02-01

    The success of any protocol designed to detect parasitic protozoa on produce must begin with an efficient initial wash step. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto herbs, lettuces and raspberries, eluted with one of four wash solutions and the recovered number of oocysts determined via fluorescent microscopy. Recovery rates for fluorescein thiosemicarbazide labeled C. parvum oocysts seeded onto spinach and raspberries and washed with de-ionized water were 38.4 ± 10.1% and 34.9 ± 6.2%, respectively. Two alternative wash solutions viz. 1M glycine, pH 5.5 and a detachment solution were tested also using labeled C. parvum seeded spinach and raspberries. No statistically significant difference was noted in the recovery rates. However, a wash solution containing 0.1% Alconox, a laboratory glassware detergent, resulted in a significant improvement in oocyst recovery. 72.6 ± 6.6% C. parvum oocysts were recovered from basil when washed with 0.1% Alconox compared to 47.9 ± 5.8% using detachment solution. Also, C. cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto lettuces, herbs and raspberries and the recovery using de-ionized water were compared to 0.1% Alconox wash: basil 17.5 ± 5.0% to 76.1 ± 14.0%, lollo rosso lettuce 38.3 ± 5.5% to 72.5 ± 8.1%, Tango leaf lettuce 45.9 ± 5.4% to 71.1 ± 7.8% and spring mix (mesclun) 39.8 ± 0.7% to 80.2 ± 11.3%, respectively. These results suggest that the use of Alconox in a wash solution significantly improves recovery resulting in the detection of these parasitic protozoa on high risk foods. PMID:22094179

  20. An integrated analysis of the effects of past land use on forest herb colonization at the landscape scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verheyen, K.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Biesbrouck, B.; Hermy, M.

    2003-01-01

    1 A framework that summarizes the direct and indirect effects of past land use on forest herb recolonization is proposed, and used to analyse the colonization patterns of forest under storey herbaceous species in a 360-ha mixed forest, grassland and arable landscape in the Dijle river valley (central Belgium). 2 Fine-scale distribution maps were constructed for 14 species. The species were mapped in 15946 forest plots and outside forests (along parcel margins) in 5188 plots. Forest stands varied in age between 1 and more than 224 years. Detailed land-use history data were combined with the species distribution maps to identify species-specific colonization sources and to calculate colonization distances. 3 The six most frequent species were selected for more detailed statistical analysis. 4 Logistic regression models indicated that species frcquency in forest parcels was a function of secondary forest age, distance from the nearest colonization source and their interaction. Similar age and distance effects were found within hedgerows. 5 In 199 forest stands, data about soils, canopy structure and the cover of competitive species were collected. The relative importance of habitat quality and spatio-temporal isolation tor the colonization of the forest herb species was quantified using structural equation modelling (SEM), within the framework proposed for the effects of past land use. 6 The results of the SEM indicate that, except for the better colonizing species, the measured habitat quality variables are of minor importance in explaining colonization patterns, compared with the combination of secondary forest age and distance from colonization sources. 7 Our results suggest the existence of a two-stage colonization process in which diaspore availability determines the initial pattern, which is affected by environmental sorting at later stages.

  1. An integrated analysis of the effects of past land use on forest herb colonization at the landscape scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verheyen, K.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Beisbrouck, B.; Hermy, M.

    2003-01-01

    1. A framework that summarizes the direct and indirect effects of past land use on forest herb recolonization is proposed, and used to analyse the colonization patterns of forest understorey herbaceous species in a 360-ha mixed forest, grassland and arable landscape in the Dijle river valley (central Belgium). 2. Fine-scale distribution maps were constructed for 14 species. The species were mapped in 15 946 forest plots and outside forests (along parcel margins) in 5188 plots. Forest stands varied in age between 1 and more than 224 years. Detailed land-use history data were combined with the species distribution maps to identify species-specific colonization sources and to calculate colonization distances. 3. The six most frequent species were selected for more detailed statistical analysis. 4. Logistic regression models indicated that species frequency in forest parcels was a function of secondary forest age, distance from the nearest colonization source and their interaction. Similar age and distance effects were found within hedgerows. 5. In 199 forest stands, data about soils, canopy structure and the cover of competitive species were collected. The relative importance of habitat quality and spatio-temporal isolation for the colonization of the forest herb species was quantified using structural equation modelling (SEM), within the framework proposed for the effects of past land use. 6. The results of the SEM indicate that, except for the better colonizing species, the measured habitat quality variables are of minor importance in explaining colonization patterns, compared with the combination of secondary forest age and distance from colonization sources. 7. Our results suggest the existence of a two-stage colonization process in which diaspore availability determines the initial pattern, which is affected by environmental sorting at later stages.

  2. On this sad occasion I speak to you from several different perspectives. In the beginning, I was a mathematical friend and collaborator: Herb and I proved theorems and wrote papers

    E-print Network

    (n) divided by ...", or some such thing. To borrow a metaphor from computer science, Herb's brain had teenager ­ she challenged him with the question "What is the purpose of life?" His response was that one

  3. Comparative Effects of Er-Xian Decoction, Epimedium Herbs, and Icariin with Estrogen on Bone and Reproductive Tissue in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liming; Wang, Yin; Jiang, Yiping; Han, Ting; Nie, Yan; Zhao, Lu; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Qin, Luping

    2012-01-01

    Er-Xian Decoction (EXD), Epimedium herbs (herbs of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, EBH), and icariin (ICA) have been proven to have estrogen-like and antiosteoporotic activity and are used for the treatment of osteoporosis, menopausal syndrome, and age-associated diseases. The present study found that EXD, EBH, and ICA treatments, emulating estrogen, significantly contributed to bone density and architecture in OVX rats and that EXD is similar to estrogen and exerts a concomitant effect on bone formation and bone resorption at the tissue level, while EBH and ICA produced bone-protective effects mainly by inhibiting bone resorption. Nevertheless, EXD, EBH, and ICA treatments manifested a fewer adverse effects on the uterus, mammary gland, and vagina compared to estrogen administrations. Among the EXD, EBH, and ICA, EXD was found to have superior efficacy and safety profile. PMID:23227099

  4. Natural occurrence of fumonisins and ochratoxin A in some herbs and spices commercialized in Poland analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Bocianowski, Jan; Goli?ski, Piotr

    2013-12-01

    Unsanitary conditions during harvesting, drying, packing and storage stages in production and processing of spices and herbs could introduce mycotoxin contamination. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and fumonisins in popular spices and herbs was studied, using liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, ergosterol as a factor indicating fungal development was also analysed. A total of 79 different samples commercialized in Poland were randomly purchased from popular markets were tested for mycotoxins. The frequency of samples with fumonisins was lower (31%) than ochratoxin A (49%). Free from mycotoxins were samples of bay leaf and white mustard. ERG content - in spice samples with high concentration level of mycotoxins - was also significantly higher than in samples with little to no mycotoxins. PMID:24010625

  5. Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

  6. Effect of a Mixed Herb—Enriched Diet on the Innate Immune Response and Disease Resistance of Paralichthys olivaceus against Philasterides dicentrarchi Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramasamy Harikrishnan; Chellam Balasundaram; Man-Chul Kim; Ju-Sang Kim; Yong-Jae Han; Moon-Soo Heo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a mixed herb—enriched diet obtained from pomegranate Punica granatum, Dalmatian chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, and mastic-leaved prickly-ash Zanthoxylum schinifolium on innate immune mechanisms (e.g., phagocytosis activity, respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity, and disease resistance) of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus against the scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi. All experimental groups were challenged with P. dicentrarchi (1

  7. Prediction of changes in the occurrence of forest herbs in hedgerow networks along a climate gradient in north-western Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Wehling; Martin Diekmann

    2010-01-01

    Many herbaceous forest plant species are endangered and suffer from habitat loss and fragmentation, especially in agricultural\\u000a landscapes. Hedgerow networks represent a forested habitat that may serve as a refuge for forest herbs, even though also hedges\\u000a have recently been strongly reduced in number and size. It is yet disputed to which extent hedgerows offer a suitable environment\\u000a for forest

  8. Determination of in vitro antioxidant and UV-protecting activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Galinsoga parviflora and Galinsoga quadriradiata herb.

    PubMed

    Bazylko, Agnieszka; Borzym, Joanna; Parzonko, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    Galinsoga species are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory agents and accelerators for wound healing. They also have reported antioxidant activity. We examined aqueous and ethanolic extracts derived from the Galinsoga herb as potential photoprotectors, as the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has implicated in skin damage. The extracts used in the study were standardized by determining the sum of flavonoids, and the amount of caffeic acid and its derivatives. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by examining the scavenging of two radicals (O2(-) and H2O2) generated in cell-free systems. We also examined the effect on ROS generation by human skin fibroblasts after UV irradiation. In addition we determined the cytotoxicity of the extracts and their protective effect against damage caused by UV irradiation (MTT test, LDH release test and staining with annexine V-FITC/PI). Our findings show that the ethanolic extracts from the herb have cytotoxic effects, while the aqueous extracts from Galinsoga herb have protective activity, in part due to their ability to inhibit ROS generation. In the conclusion the aqueous extracts from the both tested species may be effective as photoprotectors. PMID:26092182

  9. Rapid screening method for intact glucosinolates in Chinese medicinal herbs by using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry in negative ion mode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Chan, Wan; Liang, Zhitao; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Lee, Albert Wai-Ming; Cai, Zongwei

    2008-09-01

    An optimized method using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-ITMS) in negative ion mode has been developed for screening different structural classes of intact glucosinolates in six Chinese medicinal herbs. The glucosinolates were extracted with hot methanol/water (70:30 v/v) and separation of the individual glucosinolates was achieved using a reversed-phase C18 column with an aqueous ammonium acetate/methanol gradient. Identification of the intact glucosinolates was based on the detection of compounds with a constant neutral loss of 242 Da corresponding to the combined loss of anhydroglucose (162 Da) and sulfur trioxide (80 Da) in collision-induced dissociation. The structures of the identified glucosinolates were confirmed with the use of group-specific product ions at m/z 195, 241, 259, 275 in their corresponding MS/MS product ion spectra. Differentiation of intact glucosinolates was achieved through their respective retention times and molecular masses as well as the characteristic product ions. The limits of detection were at the low nanogram level per injection, based on constant neutral loss scans. Significant variation in the compositions of intact glucosinolates was identified in the cruciferous herbs. This method was applied in the differentiation and quality control of two pairs of easily confused herbs. PMID:18711760

  10. PXR-Mediated Upregulation of CYP3A Expression by Herb Compound Praeruptorin C from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Li, Yu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Tao; Bi, Hui-Chang

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that Praeruptorin C effectively transactivated the mRNA, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via the CAR-mediated pathway, but whether and how PC could affect the expression and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via PXR pathway remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of PC on the CYP3A gene expression was investigated in mice primary hepatocytes after knockdown of PXR by transient transfection of PXR siRNA, and the gene expression, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the LS174T cells with PXR overexpression were determined by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and LC-MS/MS-based CYP3A4 substrate assay, respectively. We found that the level of CYP3a11 gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes was significantly increased by praeruptorin C, but such an induction was suppressed after knockdown of pregnane X receptor by its siRNA. In PXR-overexpressed LS174T cells, PC significantly enhanced CYP3A4 mRNA, protein expression, and functional activity through PXR-mediated pathway; conversely, no such increase was found in the untransfected cells. These findings suggest that PC can significantly upregulate CYP3A level via the PXR-mediated pathway, and this should be taken into consideration to predict any potential herb-drug interactions between PC, Qianhu, and the other coadministered drugs. PMID:24379885

  11. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. PMID:23207186

  12. Rapid Quantitative Analyses of Elements on Herb Medicine and Food Powder Using TEA CO2 Laser-Induced Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khumaeni, Ali; Ramli, Muliadi; Idris, Nasrullah; Lee, Yong Inn; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Lie, Tjung Jie; Deguchi, Yoji; Niki, Hideaki; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2009-03-01

    A novel technique for rapid quantitative analyses of elements on herb medicine and food powder has successfully been developed. In this technique, the powder samples were plugged in a small hole (2 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth) and covered by a metal mesh. The Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser (1500 mJ, 200 ns) was focused on the powder sample surfaces passing through the metal mesh at atmospheric pressure of nitrogen surrounding gas. It is hypothesized that the small hole functions to confine the powder particles and suppresses the blowing-off, while the metal mesh works as the source of electrons to initiate the strong gas breakdown plasma. The confined powder particles are subsequently ablated by the laser irradiation and the ablated particles move into the strong gas breakdown plasma region to be atomized and excited. Using this method, a quantitative analysis of the milk powder sample containing different concentrations of Ca was successfully demonstrated, resulting in a good linear calibration curve with high precision.

  13. Responses to drought stress among sex morphs of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae), a subdioecious perennial herb native to the East Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Lijuan; Wang, Zhengkun; Zhu, Wanlong; Meng, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that dioecious plants occur more frequently in dry and nutrient-poor habitats, suggesting that abiotic stress factors could contribute to evolution of dioecy from hermaphrodite. Therefore, experimental investigations on the responses of subdioecious species, a special sexual system comprising male, female, and hermaphrodite plants, to abiotic stress factors could quantify the contribution of selective pressure on the evolution of dioecy. In this study, we evaluated the physiological responses of different sex morphs of Oxyria sinensis Hemsley, a perennial herb native to the East Himalayas, to drought stress. Male, female, and hermaphrodite plants of O. sinensis were subjected to low, moderate, and high drought stress conditions in a glasshouse. Generally, with increasing water stress, the values of most measured variables slightly decreased, whereas water-use efficiency slightly increased. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in most of the measured parameters among the sex morphs under each drought stress treatment, indicating that O. sinensis might be well-adapted to drought stress conditions as its typical habitat is the dry and hot habitats of xerothermic river valleys. However, nitrogen-use efficiency was significantly higher in male and female plants than in hermaphrodite plants under high drought stress conditions, suggesting that that nitrogen-use efficiency under conditions of drought stress might have contributed to the evolution of dioecy from the hermaphrodite to some degree. PMID:25505531

  14. HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS for analysis of major chemical constituents of Yinchen-Zhizi herb pair extract.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhiwen; Ling, Yun; Li, Zhixiong; Chen, Mingcang; Sun, Zhaolin; Huang, Chenggang

    2014-04-01

    The Yinchen-Zhizi herb pair (YZHP) consists of Herba Artemisiae Scopariae (Yinchen in Chinese) and Fructus Gardeniae (Zhizi in Chinese), and is mainly used to treat icteric hepatitis, itching skin and eczema. However, the bioactive constituents responsible for the pharmacological effects of YZHP are still unclear to date. In this work, a rapid and sensitive method was established to comprehensively study the constituents in YZHP extract by HPLC-Q-TOF MS/MS. The analysis was performed on an HPLC system equipped with an Agilent poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (100?×?2.1?mm, 2.7?mm) working in a gradient elution program coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry operating in the negative ion mode. As a result, a total of 46 compounds including 17 from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae and 36 from Fructus Gardeniae were detected and tentatively identified in YZHP extract by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry and retrieving the reference literature. More importantly, a series of constituents, such as many iridoid glycosides, were reported for the first time in this formula. The HPLC-Q-TOF MS/MS method was developed and utilized successfully to identify the major constituents in YZHP extract and would be helpful for further metabolism and pharmacology research on YZHP. PMID:24122818

  15. Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: Thonningia sanguinea on experimentally-induced liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi, M A; Yonamine, M; Aniya, Y

    1999-06-01

    The antioxidant action of medicinal herbs used in Ghana for treating various ailments was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Five plants, Desmodium adscendens, Indigofera arrecta, Trema occidentalis, Caparis erythrocarpus, and Thonningia sanguinea were tested for their free radical scavenging action by their interaction with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of these five plants, only Thonningia sanguinea was found to scavenge the DPPH radical. Lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes induced by H2O2 was also inhibited by T. sanguinea. The hepatoprotective effect of T. sanguinea was studied on acute hepatitis induced in rats by a single dose of galactosamine (GalN, 400 mg/kg, IP) and in mice by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 25 microl/kg, IP). GalN induced hepatotoxicity in rats as evidenced by an increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and glutathione (GSH) S-transferase activities in serum was significantly inhibited when T. sanguinea extract (5 ml/kg, IP) was given to rats 12 hr and 1 hr before GalN treatment. The activity of liver microsomal GSH S-transferase, which is known to be activated by oxidative stress, was increased by the GaIN treatment and this increase was blocked by T. sanguinea pretreatment. Similarly, T. sanguinea pretreatment also inhibited CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. These data indicate that T. sanguinea is a potent antioxidant and can offer protection against GalN- or CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:10401991

  16. Age-specific, density-dependent and environment-based mortality of a short-lived perennial herb.

    PubMed

    Picó, F X; Retana, J

    2008-05-01

    Density-independent and density-dependent processes affect plant mortality. Although less well understood, age-specific mortality can also play an important role in plant mortality. The goal of this study was to analyse several factors accounting for mortality in the Mediterranean short-lived perennial herb Lobularia maritima. We followed three cohorts of plants (from emergence to death) during 4 years in field conditions. We collected data on plant mortality of the effect of biotic agents (moth larvae and mycoplasma-like organisms, MLOs) and environmental variables. We also estimated density-dependent relationships affecting the fate of seedlings and adults. Results show that cohorts differed in their survival curves and ageing significantly increased mortality risk. Seedling mortality was density-dependent whereas adult mortality was not affected by density. MLO infection led to higher plant mortality whereas moth larvae attack did not affect plant mortality. In general, seedlings and adult plants experienced the highest mortality events in summer. We found, however, weak relationships between weather records and plant mortality. Age and size structures were not correlated. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive review of age-specific, density-dependent and density-independent factors that account for mortality of L. maritima plants throughout their life cycle in field conditions, highlighting the fact that age is an important factor in determining plant population dynamics. PMID:18426484

  17. Heshouwu decoction, a Chinese herb for tonifying kidney, ameliorates hypothalamic-pituitary- testicular axis secretion in aging rats?

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Siyun; Kou, Suru; Zhou, Xiaochun; Ding, Liang

    2012-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence demonstrates the anti-aging effect of Heshouwu in pill form. In this study, a subacute aging rat model was established by continuous intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and treated with Heshouwu decoction (a Chinese herb for tonifying the kidney, comprising Heshouwu pill, Herba Epimedii, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, and Poria). Heshouwu pill treated rats were the positive control group. Radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot assay showed hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone, hypothalamic substance P, and serum gonadotropin levels to be significantly increased in the model rats; the concentrations of hypothalamic ?-endorphin, and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and testosterone were significantly decreased. 17?- and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in testicular tissue was also decreased. Intragastric administration of Heshouwu decoction at high (9.6 g/mL/100 g), medium (4.8 g/mL/100 g), and low (2.4 g/mL/100 g) doses, Heshouwu decoction pretreatment at a medium dose (4.8 g/mL/100 g), and Heshouwu pill (2.06 g/mL/100 g) significantly reversed these changes. Heshouwu decoction pretreatment and high-dose Heshouwu decoction had the greatest anti-aging effects. These experimental findings indicate that Heshouwu decoction can improve hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis secretion in a subacute aging rat model, and prevent and delay gonadal axis aging, with an effect superior to that of Heshouwu pill. PMID:25657700

  18. Control of reed canarygrass promotes wetland herb and tree seedling establishment in an upper Mississippi River Floodplain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomsen, Meredith; Brownell, Kurt; Groshek, Matthew; Kirsch, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) is recognized as a problematic invader of North American marshes, decreasing biodiversity and persisting in the face of control efforts. Less is known about its ecology or management in forested wetlands, providing an opportunity to apply information about factors critical to an invader's control in one wetland type to another. In a potted plant experiment and in the field, we documented strong competitive effects of reed canarygrass on the establishment and early growth of tree seedlings. In the field, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel restoration strategy, combining site scarification with late fall applications of pre-emergent herbicides. Treatments delayed reed canarygrass emergence the following spring, creating a window of opportunity for the early growth of native plants in the absence of competition from the grass. They also allowed for follow-up herbicide treatments during the growing season. We documented greater establishment of wetland herbs and tree seedlings in treated areas. Data from small exclosures suggest, however, that deer browsing can limit tree seedling height growth in floodplain restorations. Slower tree growth will delay canopy closure, potentially allowing reed canarygrass re-invasion. Thus, it may be necessary to protect tree seedlings from herbivory to assure forest regeneration.

  19. Responses to drought stress among sex morphs of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae), a subdioecious perennial herb native to the East Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Lijuan; Wang, Zhengkun; Zhu, Wanlong; Meng, Lihua

    2014-11-01

    It is generally accepted that dioecious plants occur more frequently in dry and nutrient-poor habitats, suggesting that abiotic stress factors could contribute to evolution of dioecy from hermaphrodite. Therefore, experimental investigations on the responses of subdioecious species, a special sexual system comprising male, female, and hermaphrodite plants, to abiotic stress factors could quantify the contribution of selective pressure on the evolution of dioecy. In this study, we evaluated the physiological responses of different sex morphs of Oxyria sinensis Hemsley, a perennial herb native to the East Himalayas, to drought stress. Male, female, and hermaphrodite plants of O. sinensis were subjected to low, moderate, and high drought stress conditions in a glasshouse. Generally, with increasing water stress, the values of most measured variables slightly decreased, whereas water-use efficiency slightly increased. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in most of the measured parameters among the sex morphs under each drought stress treatment, indicating that O. sinensis might be well-adapted to drought stress conditions as its typical habitat is the dry and hot habitats of xerothermic river valleys. However, nitrogen-use efficiency was significantly higher in male and female plants than in hermaphrodite plants under high drought stress conditions, suggesting that that nitrogen-use efficiency under conditions of drought stress might have contributed to the evolution of dioecy from the hermaphrodite to some degree. PMID:25505531

  20. Seed size variation and its effect on germination and seedling performance in the clonal herb Convallaria majalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Ove

    1999-02-01

    Variation in seed size is common both within and among plant species. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight, and its implications for some components of fitness in the clonal herb Convallaria majalis. This species produces berries containing 4.1 seeds on average. The average seed weight was 16.5 mg, with a coefficient of variation of 32.7%. Seed packaging in fruits was on average 12.5%, and showed a slight tendency to increase with fruit weight. A trade-off was found between seed weight and seed number both within fruits and within ramets. The probability and timing of germination was not influenced by seed size. A field experiment and indirect evidence suggested that post-dispersal seed predation was not related to seed size. Increasing seed weight conferred an advantage to developing seedlings. This advantage was enhanced if a seedling was growing in the close vicinity of a seedling of another species. It is suggested that seed size variation in C. majalis primarily is the result of resource variation during fruit development. A conflict between parents and offspring may however contribute to increase seed size variation.

  1. Regulation of podocalyxin expression in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with Chinese herbs (Yishen capsule)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic nephropathy is an emergent issue in China with increase in patients with type II diabetes. There are several successful Chinese herbal products for the treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy in China. However, the mechanisms mediating the biological activity of these products are still unclear. Podocalyxin is a sialoprotein critical to maintaining integrity of filtration function of glomerulus. Methods By employing streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and a Chinese herb formulation (Yishen capsule), we examined the regulation of podocalyxin expression in the kidney by Yishen capsule through immunofluorescent staining and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results After injection of STZ, there were significant increase in both blood glucose and urinary protein. Serum creatinine and BUN were also increased in rats with injection of STZ. Moreover, expression of podocalyxin in the glomerulus was gradually reduced after injection of STZ. There was also a loss of podocyte foot processes in the glomerular basement membrane. However, Yishen capsule or benazepril was able to restore the expression of podocalyxin and podocyte foot processes in the kidney. Although Yishen capsule could reduce urinary protein level, it has little effect on blood glucose level in the rats injected with STZ. Conclusions Yishen capsule could attenuate the loss of podocalyxin in the glomerulus of rats injected with STZ. PMID:23560927

  2. Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Niancui; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Min

    2014-07-15

    A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features of each component. Tissue distribution results showed that ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin mostly distributed in liver and kidney both in herb couple and single herb distributed most in liver and kidney. Compared with single herb, RRHC could increase or decrease the concentrations of five components at different time points compared with the sing herb. The results indicated the method was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of different combination of RRHC in rats. The compatibility of two Chinese herbs could alter the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of major bio-active components in the single herb. The results might be helpful for further investigation of compatibility mechanism of RRHC. PMID:24927419

  3. tout l'L E M A G A Z I N E D E L' U N I V E R S I T D E F R A N C H E -C O M T / J u i n 2 0 0 8 / n u m r o 13 9L'Herbe en zik, le campus en musique

    E-print Network

    Jeanjean, Louis

    8 / n u m é r o 13 9L'Herbe en zik, le campus en musique CULTUREtoutl'Ufc 24 Ufc U N I V E R S I T É D E F R A N C H E - C O M T É Avec 14 000 entrées vendues, la 7ème édition de l'Herbe en zik est une régionaux sélectionnés dans le cadre d'une action de découverte des nouveaux talents baptisée Zik en Herbe

  4. Population Genetic Effects of Urban Habitat Fragmentation in the Perennial Herb Viola pubescens (Violaceae) using ISSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Theresa M.; Sbita, Sarah J.; Wick, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Fragmentation of natural habitats can negatively impact plant populations by leading to reduced genetic variation and increased genetic distance as populations become geographically and genetically isolated from one another. To test whether such detrimental effects occur within an urban landscape, the genetic structure of six populations of the perennial herb Viola pubescens was characterized in the metropolitan area of Greater Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio, USA. Methods Using three inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, 51 loci amplified across all urban populations. For reference, four previously examined agricultural populations in central/northern Ohio and a geographically distant population in Michigan were also included in the analysis. Key Results Urban populations retained high levels of genetic variation (percentage of polymorphic loci, Pp = 80·7 %) with similar genetic distances among populations and an absence of unique alleles. Geographic and genetic distances were correlated with one another, and all populations grouped according to region. Individuals from urban populations clustered together and away from individuals from agricultural populations and from the Michigan population in a principle coordinates analysis. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the genetic variability was partitioned within populations (69·1 %) and among groups (22·2 %) of southwestern Ohio, central/northern Ohio and Michigan groups. Mean Fst was 0·308, indicating substantial population differentiation. Conclusions It is concluded that urban fragmentation does not appear to impede gene flow in V. pubescens in southwestern Ohio. These results are consistent with life history traits of this species and the possibility of high insect abundance in urban habitats due to diverse floral resources and nesting sites. Combined with the cleistogamous breeding system of this species, pollinator availability in the urban matrix may buffer populations against detrimental effects of habitat fragmentation, at least in larger forest fragments. Consequently, it may be inappropriate to generalize about genetic effects of fragmentation across landscapes or even across plant species with different pollination systems. PMID:17556381

  5. Purification and characterization of a 43 kD hepatoprotective protein from the herb Cajanus indicus L.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kasturi; Ghosh, Ayantika; Kinter, Michael; Mazumder, Barsanjit; Sil, Parames C

    2006-09-01

    Cajanus indicus L, a herb, is popularly known for its hepatoprotective activity. Aqueous extract of the leaves of this plant contains hepatoprotective and hepatostimulatory molecule(s). Present study was aimed to isolate, purify and characterize the active principle(s) responsible for that activity. A hepatoprotective protein molecule has been purified to homogeneity (approximately 300 fold). Homogeneous preparation of the protein was achieved by homogenization, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography. The protein purified is composed of a single polypeptide chain having an apparent molecular mass of 43 kD as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration through sephadex G-75 column. The isoelectric point of the protein determined was 4.8. Loss of biological activity after heat and protease treatment confirmed that the active molecule is a protein. Peptide fragments of the protein generated by trypsin cleavage were subjected to MALDI-TOF as well as LC-MS analyses and among the various fragments, four were very prominent and used for the determination of the amino acid sequence of the hepatoprotective protein. While one of the peptide fragment revealed strong sequence homology with plastocyanin, another fragment showed some similarity with a tomato protein present in the NCBI non-redundant database. The third peptide, on the other hand, is unique as it did not show any sequence homology with any known protein in the database. The protein showed maximum hepatoprotective activity when administered at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight for five days after CCl(4 )administration. Histopathological studies also supported the hepatoprotective nature of the protein. Along with its curative property, the protein also possesses preventive role against a number of toxin induced hepatic damages. PMID:17091391

  6. Virtual Screening and Molecular Dynamics Study of Potential Negative Allosteric Modulators of mGluR1 from Chinese Herbs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ludi; Zhang, Xianbao; Chen, Xi; He, Yusu; Qiao, Liansheng; Zhang, Yanling; Li, Gongyu; Xiang, Yuhong

    2015-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate subtype 1 (mGluR1), a member of the metabotropic glutamate receptors, is a therapeutic target for neurological disorders. However, due to the lower subtype selectivity of mGluR1 orthosteric compounds, a new targeted strategy, known as allosteric modulators research, is needed for the treatment of mGluR1-related diseases. Recently, the structure of the seven-transmembrane domain (7TMD) of mGluR1 has been solved, which reveals the binding site of allosteric modulators and provides an opportunity for future subtype-selectivity drug design. In this study, a series of computer-aided drug design methods were utilized to discover potential mGluR1 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs). Pharmacophore models were constructed based on three different structure types of mGluR1 NAMs. After validation using the built-in parameters and test set, the optimal pharmacophore model of each structure type was selected and utilized as a query to screen the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD). Then, three different hit lists of compounds were obtained. Molecular docking was used based on the latest crystal structure of mGluR1-7TMD to further filter these hits. As a compound with high QFIT and LibDock Score was preferred, a total of 30 compounds were retained. MD simulation was utilized to confirm the stability of potential compounds binding. From the computational results, thesinine-4'-O-?-d-glucoside, nigrolineaxanthone-P and nodakenin might exhibit negative allosteric moderating effects on mGluR1. This paper indicates the applicability of molecular simulation technologies for discovering potential natural mGluR1 NAMs from Chinese herbs. PMID:26184151

  7. Intraspecific competition and light effect on reproduction of Ligularia virgaurea, an invasive native alpine grassland clonal herb.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tian-Peng; Zhang, Ge-Fei; Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Du, Guo-Zhen; He, Gui-Yong

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between sexual reproduction and clonal growth in clonal plants often shows up at the ramet level. However, only a few studies focus on the relationship at the genet level, which could finally account for evolution. The sexual reproduction and clonal growth of Ligularia virgaurea, a perennial herb widely distributed in the alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China, were studied under different competition intensities and light conditions at the genet level through a potted experiment. The results showed that: (1) sexual reproduction did not depend on density or light, and increasing clonal growth with decreasing density and increasing light intensity indicated that intraspecific competition and light intensity may affect the clonal life history of L. virgaurea; (2) both sexual reproduction and clonal growth show a positive linear relationship with genet size under different densities and light conditions; (3) a threshold size is required for sexual reproduction and no evidence of a threshold size for clonal growth under different densities and light conditions; (4) light level affected the allocation of total biomass to clonal and sexual structures, with less allocation to clonal structures and more allocation to sexual structures in full sunlight than in shade; (5) light determined the onset of sexual reproduction, and the genets in the shade required a smaller threshold size for sexual reproduction to occur than the plants in full sunlight; and (6) no evidence was found of trade-offs between clonal growth and sexual reproduction under different densities and light conditions at the genet level, and the positive correlation between two reproductive modes indicated that these are two integrated processes. Clonal growth in this species may be viewed as a growth strategy that tends to maximize genet fitness. PMID:24683463

  8. Mutualists and antagonists drive among-population variation in selection and evolution of floral display in a perennial herb

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Jon; Hellström, Frida; Toräng, Per; Ehrlén, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in the direction of selection drives the evolution of adaptive differentiation. However, few experimental studies have examined the relative importance of different environmental factors for variation in selection and evolutionary trajectories in natural populations. Here, we combine 8 y of observational data and field experiments to assess the relative importance of mutualistic and antagonistic interactions for spatial variation in selection and short-term evolution of a genetically based floral display dimorphism in the short-lived perennial herb Primula farinosa. Natural populations of this species include two floral morphs: long-scaped plants that present their flowers well above the ground and short-scaped plants with flowers positioned close to the ground. The direction and magnitude of selection on scape morph varied among populations, and so did the frequency of the short morph (median 19%, range 0–100%; n = 69 populations). A field experiment replicated at four sites demonstrated that variation in the strength of interactions with grazers and pollinators were responsible for among-population differences in relative fitness of the two morphs. Selection exerted by grazers favored the short-scaped morph, whereas pollinator-mediated selection favored the long-scaped morph. Moreover, variation in selection among natural populations was associated with differences in morph frequency change, and the experimental removal of grazers at nine sites significantly reduced the frequency of the short-scaped morph over 8 y. The results demonstrate that spatial variation in intensity of grazing and pollination produces a selection mosaic, and that changes in biotic interactions can trigger rapid genetic changes in natural plant populations. PMID:24145439

  9. [Textual Research on Chiding Disease and Matixiang Herb in Da he wai ke (External Medicine of Da He)].

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Wen-Yu; Wu, Ya-Mei

    2012-11-01

    Recorded in Da he wai ke (The External Medicine of Da He) in the Ming dynasty without a corresponding disease title in contemporary scholarly concepts of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Chiding disease was described as an acute symptomatic disease with inevitable serious conditions of convulsion-like or mania-like behavior, and as a refractory ailment. It was also considered as an alias of Hongsiding (namely the acute lymphangitis) in few ancient books. Matixiang, a Chinese herb for treatment of Chiding, was regarded as a nonsuch drug by Da he wai ke, and was considered as a take-then-cure drug by Chuang yang jing yan quan shu (Compendium for Experience in Sores Diseases). The present studies about Chiding and Matixiang show that: (1) the name of Chiding was first seen in Zhong zang jing (Master Hua's Classic of the Viscera) ; (2) Chiding was rarely mentioned in medical literature of the Song, Yuan and Qing Dynasty, but mostly seen in the Ming Dynasty; (3) Xinding and Huoyanding were found as synonyms of Chiding ; (4) the distinction between Chiding and Hongsiding (flaming sore) was revealed by comparison analysis of their etiology, affected part(s), symptoms, prognosis and syndromic pictures; (5) Chiding on the tongue is the same as "Tongue Ding" or "Sublingual Ding" in contemporary TCM and as "Sublingual Space Infection" in Western Medicine. Moreover, Chiding on the hands, feet or other skin parts could be classified as "Hands/Feet Ding" in contemporary TCM and as "Furuncle" (i.e., Acute Suppurative Folliculitis and Perifolliculitis or cellulites of the tongue) in Western Medicine; (6) Matixiang is probably deduced as Asarum forbesii Maxim., A. ichangense C. Y. Cheng et C. S. Yang, family Aristolochiaceae, or Valeriana jatamansi Jones., family Valerianaceae. PMID:23363849

  10. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 ?g/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50) at 8/16 ?g/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA. PMID:22942699

  11. Randomized Clinical Trial: The Clinical Effects of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion in Patients with Diarrhoea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu-xia; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Cun-zhi; Wang, Lin-peng; Guo, Gang; Du, Dong-qing; Wang, Zhi-lei; Ma, Hong; Qi, Ping; Li, Zhao-feng; Guo, Yan-ping; Yi, Hua-qiang; Gao, Shu-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the efficacy of Herb-partitioned moxibustion in treating IBS-D patients. Method. 210 IBS-D patients were randomly assigned on a 3 : 3 : 2 basis to group HM, group FM, or group PB for 4-week treatment. The change of GSRS total score at weeks 4 and 8, the changes of GSRS specific scores, and adverse events were evaluated. Results. Patients in group HM and group FM had lower GSRS total score at week 4 (1.98 ± 0.303, 2.93 ± 0.302 versus 3.73 ± 0.449) and at week 8 (2.75 ± 0.306, 3.56 ± 0.329 versus 4.39 ± 2.48) as compared with patients' score in group PB. However, there was no significant difference of GSRS total score between group HM and group FM. The effect of HM was significantly greater than that of orally taking PB in ameliorating the symptoms of rugitus (0.38 versus 0.59, P < 0.05), abdominal pain (0.28 versus 0.57, P < 0.01), abdominal distension (0.4 versus 0.7, P < 0.01), and increased passage of stools (0.06 versus 0.25, P < 0.01) at the end of treatment period. In the follow-up period, patients' therapeutic effect in group HM remained greater than that in group FM (in abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and increased passage of stools) and that in group PB (in loose stools). Conclusions. HM appears to be a promising, efficacious, and well-tolerated treatment for patients with IBS-D. PMID:24454500

  12. CO2 and water vapour exchange in four alpine herbs at two altitudes and under varying light and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Rawat, A S; Purohit, A N

    1991-06-01

    CO2 and water vapour exchange rates of four alpine herbs namely: Rheum emodi, R. moorcroftianum, Megacarpaea polyandra and Rumex nepalensis were studied under field conditions at 3600 m (natural habitat) and 550 m altitudes. The effect of light and temperature on CO2 and water vapour exchange was studied in the plants grown at lower altitude. In R. moorcroftianum and R. nepalensis, the average photosynthesis rates were found to be about three times higher at 550 m as compared to that under their natural habitat. However, in M. polyandra, the CO2 exchange rates were two times higher at 3600 m than at 550 m but in R. emodi, there were virtually no differences at the two altitudes. These results indicate the variations in the CO2 exchange rates are species specific. The change in growth altitude does not affect this process uniformly.The transpiration rates in R. emodi and M. polyandra were found to be very high at 3600 m compared to 550 m and are attributed to overall higher stomatal conductance in plants of these species, grown at higher altitude. The mid-day closure of stomata and therefore, restriction of transpirational losses of water were observed in all the species at 550 m altitude. In addition to the effect of temperature and relative humidity, the data also indicate some endogenous rhythmic control of stomatal conductance.The temperature optima for photosynthesis was close to 30°C in M. polyandra and around 20°C in the rest of the three species. High temperature and high light intensity, as well as low temperature and high light intensity, adversely affect the net rate of photosynthesis in these species.Both light compensation point and dark respiration rate increased with increasing temperature.The effect of light was more prominent on photosynthesis than the effect of temperature, however, on transpiration the effect of temperature was more prominent than the effect of light intensity.No definite trends were found in stomatal conductance with respect to light and temperature. Generally, the stomatal conductance was highest at 20°C.The study reveals that all these species can easily be cultivated at relatively lower altitudes. However, proper agronomical methodology will need to be developed for better yields. PMID:24414969

  13. Growing Herbs in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Masabni, Joseph

    2009-04-08

    , potpourri Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) 24 Crinkled, dull green leaves with white blossoms; vigorous grower Prefers full sun, can grow in partial shade; space 12 in. apart Harvest mature leaves Leaves: soup, meat, tea, summer drink Lemon verbena... (Aloysia triphylla) 24?60 Shrub with long leaves that smell like lemon at touch; flowers are small and white or purple Grow from stem cuttings in full sun; space 24 in. apart Harvest mature leaves Lemon-flavored leaves: drink, salad, jelly, tea...

  14. Herbed Tomato Casserole Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    /2 teaspoons sugar 1/4 teaspoon oregano 1/4 teaspoon rosemary 1 1/2 tablespoons margarine Directions 1. Preheat tomatoes and pour into a mixing bowl. 4. Add 1 cup stuffing mix, sugar, oregano, rosemary to bowl. Mix well

  15. Herbs at a Glance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... iBooks. For Nooks Plug your Nook into your computer, and it will show the folders on it ... directions below to download the eBook to your computer’s desktop . Download the ePub file and save it ...

  16. Gauging the clinical significance of P-glycoprotein-mediated herb-drug interactions: Comparative effects of St. John's wort, echinacea, clarithromycin, and rifampin on digoxin pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Bill J.; Swain, Ashley; Williams, D. Keith; Barone, Gary; Battu, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Concomitant administration of botanical supplements with drugs that are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates may produce clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study evaluated the effects of St. John's wort and Echinacea on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin, a recognized P-gp substrate. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized St. John's wort (300 mg three times daily) or Echinacea (267 mg three times daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (300 mg twice daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxin® 0.25 mg) was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin plasma concentrations were obtained over 24 hours and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of AUC(0-3), AUC(0-24), T1/2, and Cmax, were used to assess the effects of St. John's wort, Echinacea, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin disposition. St. John's wort and rifampin both produced significant reductions (p<0.05) in AUC(0-3), AUC(0-24), and Cmax, while clarithromycin increased these parameters significantly (p<0.05). Echinacea supplementation did not affect digoxin pharmacokinetics. Clinically significant P-gp-mediated herb-drug interactions are more likely to occur with St. John's wort than with Echinacea. PMID:18214850

  17. Hypothesis of active components in volatile oil from a Chinese herb formulation, 'Shao-Fu-Zhu-Yu decoction', using GC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Su, Shulan; Hua, Yongqing; Duan, Jin-Ao; Shang, Erxin; Tang, Yuping; Bao, Xingjie; Lu, Yin; Ding, Anwei

    2008-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with few or no side effects has increasingly attracted attention all over the world. However, the bioactive components and the therapeutic mechanisms are usually not understood because of the complex chemical compositions of these medicines. In this paper, GC-MS coupled with a chemometric method was developed for analysis of active components in volatile oil from a Chinese herb formulation, "Shao-Fu-Zhu-Yu Decoction". The volatile oils, obtained by hydrodistillation from "Shao-Fu-Zhu-Yu Decoction" (SFZYD) and its constituent herbs with abundant volatile oil (Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Cinnamomum cassia, Foeniculum vulgare, Zingiber officinale), were chemically analyzed using GC-MS and bioassayed using oxytocin-induced uterine contraction assay in vitro. Then, a mathematic model relating the chemical compositions and their activities in inhibiting mice uterine contraction was established for hypothesis of the bioactive compounds based on chemometrics. As a result, nine compounds which might contribute to the inhibition of oxytocin-induced uterine contraction were selected, and the activities of some of them were further confirmed by our experiments and/or the literature. The data suggest that the developed method is helpful for screening bioactive components from complex mixtures, such as the extracts of TCM. PMID:18338402

  18. Dietary supplementation with a probiotic fermented four-herb combination enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Ko, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-12-01

    Herbs including Curcuma longa, Houttuynia cordata, Prunus mume and Rubus coreanus have potential immune enhancing and antimicrobial effects. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects, and some are important in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the immune enhancing effects of a probiotic fermented four-herb combination (PFH) in broiler chicks and to demonstrate the prophylactic effect of PFH against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for promotion of immune activity and disease prevention. Continuous ingestion of PFH markedly increased lysozyme activity in serum and the spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, the CD4(+):CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen and antibody production level in broiler chicks. Conversely, prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in serum and PBMC culture medium was significantly decreased in the PFH-fed chicks compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, mortality was delayed in the 2% PFH-fed chicks. Moreover, the survival rates in the 2% PFH-fed group remained the highest among all the trial groups throughout the experimental period. Taken together, these findings suggest that PFH enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks, likely because of potent stimulation of nonspecific immune responses. PMID:20675965

  19. Molecular matchmaking between the popular weight-loss herb Hoodia gordonii and GPR119, a potential drug target for metabolic disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyong; Ma, Yuyong; Li, Jing; Ma, Junjun; Yu, Biao; Xie, Xin

    2014-10-01

    African cactiform Hoodia gordonii (Asclepiadaceae) has been used for thousands of years by Xhomani Bushmen as an anorexant during hunting trips and has been proposed as a new agent for the management of body weight. However, its in vivo targets and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. GPR119, a G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in pancreatic ? cells and intestinal L cells, has been demonstrated to facilitate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and represents a novel and attractive target for the therapy of metabolic disorders. Here, we disclose that Gordonoside F (a steroid glycoside isolated from H. gordonii), but not the widely known P57, activates specifically GPR119. Successful synthesis of Gordonoside F facilitates further characterization of this compound. Gordonoside F promotes GSIS both in vitro and in vivo and reduces food intake in mice. These effects are mediated by GPR119 because GPR119 knockout prevents the therapeutic effects of Gordonoside F. Interestingly, the appetite-suppressing effect of Hoodia extract was also partially blocked by GPR119 knockout. Our results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that GPR119 is a direct target and one of the major mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of the popular "weight loss" herb H. gordonii. Given the long history of safe application of this herb in weight control, it is foreseeable that the novel scaffold of Gordonoside F provides a promising opportunity to develop new drugs in treating metabolic diseases. PMID:25246581

  20. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. High phenolic and antioxidant activity-containing medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had the highest anti-hyperglycemia relevant in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with no effect on alpha-amylase. Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibited significantly the hypertension relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). All evaluated pepper (Capsicum) genus exhibited both anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hypertension potential. Major phenolic compounds in Matico (Piper angustifolium R.), Guascas (Galinsoga parviflora) and Huacatay were chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Therefore, specific medicinal plants, herbs and spices from Latin America have potential for hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention associated with Type 2 diabetes. PMID:20185303

  1. Topical herbal formulae in the management of psoriasis: systematic review with meta-analysis of clinical studies and investigation of the pharmacological actions of the main herbs.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shiqiang; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony L; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie C L

    2014-04-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examined the topical use of multi-herbal formulations for the management of psoriasis vulgaris. Studies were identified from PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE, and the Chinese databases CNKI and CQVIP. Methods were according to the Cochrane Handbook and meta-analyses used RevMan 5.1. Nine studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The comparisons were with placebo and/or anti-psoriatic pharmacotherapy (APP) with two studies having three arms. The pooled meta-analysis data indicated the topical herbal formulae improved overall clinical efficacy (defined as 50% improvement or greater) when compared with: topical placebo (plus oral herbal co-intervention); topical APP alone; and topical APP (plus pharmaceutical co-intervention). Improvement was evident in Modified Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score when topical herbal formula was compared to placebo (plus oral herbal co-intervention). No serious adverse events were reported. The most commonly used herbs were Sophora flavescens root and Lithospermum erythrorhizon root. Experimental studies reported that these herbs and/or their constituents have anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and tissue repair actions. These actions may at least partially explain the apparent benefits of the topical multi-herbal formulations in psoriasis. PMID:23817996

  2. Herb medicine Inchin-ko-to (TJ-135) regulates PDGF-BB-dependent signaling pathways of hepatic stellate cells in primary culture and attenuates development of liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide administration in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukihiro Imanishi; Naoto Maeda; Kohji Otogawa; Shuichi Seki; Hiroko Matsui; Norifumi Kawada; Tetsuo Arakawa

    2004-01-01

    Background\\/AimsWe studied the effect of Inchin-ko-to (TJ-135), a herb medicine that has been clinically used for liver cirrhosis in Japan, on liver fibrosis in a rat model and on the function of stellate cells.

  3. Using Herbs and Spices/Preparing Sauces and Gravies. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.11. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with herbs and spices and the selection and preparation of sauces and gravies. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas:…

  4. A Systematic Approach to Evaluate Herb-Drug Interaction Mechanisms: Investigation of Milk Thistle Extracts and Eight Isolated Constituents as CYP3A Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of potential untoward interactions between herbal products and conventional medications, a standard system for prospective assessment of these interactions remains elusive. This information gap was addressed by evaluating the drug interaction liability of the model herbal product milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam. The inhibitory effects of commercially available milk thistle extracts and isolated constituents on midazolam 1?-hydroxylation were screened using human liver and intestinal microsomes. Relative to vehicle, the extract silymarin and constituents silybin A, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, and silychristin at 100 ?M demonstrated >50% inhibition of CYP3A activity with at least one microsomal preparation, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50s for isosilybin B and silychristin were ?60 and 90 ?M, respectively, whereas those for the remaining constituents were >100 ?M. Extracts and constituents that contained the 1,4-dioxane moiety demonstrated a >1.5-fold shift in IC50 when tested as potential mechanism-based inhibitors. The semipurified extract, silibinin, and the two associated constituents (silybin A and silybin B) demonstrated mechanism-based inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 (KI, ?100 ?M; kinact, ?0.20 min?1) but not microsomal CYP3A activity. The maximum predicted increases in midazolam area under the curve using the static mechanistic equation and recombinant CYP3A4 data were 1.75-fold, which may necessitate clinical assessment. Evaluation of the interaction liability of single herbal product constituents, in addition to commercially available extracts, will enable elucidation of mechanisms underlying potential clinically significant herb-drug interactions. Application of this framework to other herbal products would permit predictions of herb-drug interactions and assist in prioritizing clinical evaluation. PMID:23801821

  5. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 noncompetitively inhibits P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: a case for herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Zhou, Fang; Wu, Xiaolan; Gu, Yi; Ai, Hua; Zheng, Yuanting; Li, Yannan; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Hao, Gang; Sun, Jianguo; Peng, Ying; Wang, Guangji

    2010-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent efflux transporter highly expressed in gastrointestinal tract and multidrug resistance tumor cells. Inhibition or induction of P-gp can cause drug-drug interactions and thus influence the effects of P-gp substrate drugs. Previous studies indicated that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 [20(S)-Rh2] could synergistically enhance the anticancer effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents at a nontoxic dose. The aim of present study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo whether 20(S)-Rh2 was a P-gp inhibitor and analyze the possible inhibitory mechanisms and potential herb-drug interactions. Results showed that in vitro, 20(S)-Rh2 significantly enhanced rhodamine 123 retention in cells and decreased the efflux ratio of digoxin, fexofenadine, and etoposide, which were comparable to the effects of the established P-gp inhibitor verapamil. However, the transport of 20(S)-Rh2 suggested that 20(S)-Rh2 was not a P-gp substrate. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect persisted for at least 3 h after removal of 20(S)-Rh2. Unlike P-gp substrates, 20(S)-Rh2 inhibited both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities. It also significantly decreased UIC2 binding fluorescence, a marker for conformational change of P-gp. In situ and in vivo experiments showed that 20(S)-Rh2 increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and maximum plasma concentration of digoxin, fexofenadine, and etoposide significantly without affecting terminal elimination half-time. Long-term treatment with 20(S)-Rh2 failed to affect intestinal P-gp expression in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, 20(S)-Rh2 is a potent noncompetitive P-gp inhibitor, which indicates a potential herb-drug interaction when 20(S)-Rh2 is coadministered with P-gp substrate drugs. It could increase the absorption of P-gp substrate drugs without long-term induction of P-gp expression in rats. PMID:20837659

  6. Chinese herbs and their active ingredients for activating?xue?(blood)?promote the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Si, Yin-Chu; Li, Qiang; Xie, Chun-E; Niu, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Chang-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Some Chinese herbs are anti-thrombolysis, and anti-inflammatory, improves brain RNA content, promotes brain protein synthesis, enhances dopamine function, regulates brain hormones, and improves microcirculation in central nervous system that might improve, repair and rehabilitation from the stroke and brain injury. Specific Chinese herbs and their components, such as Acanthopanax, Angelica, could maintain the survival of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Ganoderma spore Polygala, Tetramethylpyrazine, Gardenia, Astragaloside and Ginsenoside Rg1 promoted proliferation of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Astragaloside promoted differentiation of neural stem cell into neuron and glia in vivo. Astragalus, Safflower, Musk, Baicalin, Geniposide, Ginkgolide B, Cili polysaccharide, Salidroside, Astragaloside, Antler polypeptides, Ginsenoside Rg1, Panax notoginseng saponins promoted proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro. Salvia, Astragalus, Ginsenoside Rg1, P. notoginseng saponins, Musk polypeptide, Muscone and Ginkgolide B promoted neural-directed differentiation of MSCs into nerve cells. These findings are encouraging further research into the Chinese herbs for developing drugs in treating patients of stroke and brain injury. PMID:24716802

  7. Chinese herbs and their active ingredients for activating?xue?(blood)?promote the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Some Chinese herbs are anti-thrombolysis, and anti-inflammatory, improves brain RNA content, promotes brain protein synthesis, enhances dopamine function, regulates brain hormones, and improves microcirculation in central nervous system that might improve, repair and rehabilitation from the stroke and brain injury. Specific Chinese herbs and their components, such as Acanthopanax, Angelica, could maintain the survival of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Ganoderma spore Polygala, Tetramethylpyrazine, Gardenia, Astragaloside and Ginsenoside Rg1 promoted proliferation of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Astragaloside promoted differentiation of neural stem cell into neuron and glia in vivo. Astragalus, Safflower, Musk, Baicalin, Geniposide, Ginkgolide B, Cili polysaccharide, Salidroside, Astragaloside, Antler polypeptides, Ginsenoside Rg1, Panax notoginseng saponins promoted proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro. Salvia, Astragalus, Ginsenoside Rg1, P. notoginseng saponins, Musk polypeptide, Muscone and Ginkgolide B promoted neural-directed differentiation of MSCs into nerve cells. These findings are encouraging further research into the Chinese herbs for developing drugs in treating patients of stroke and brain injury. PMID:24716802

  8. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Liu, Hui-Ju; Wen, Che-Sheng; Hsu, Chung-Hua; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24?h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ER ? protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ER ? protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

  9. Effects of Clonal Integration on Microbial Community Composition and Processes in the Rhizosphere of the Stoloniferous Herb Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kuprian

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ningfei; Li, Jun; Ni, Shijun; Chen, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of rhizodeposition on soil C and N availabilities lead to substantial changes of microbial community composition and processes in the rhizosphere of plants. Under heterogeneous light, photosynthates can be translocated or shared between exposed and shaded ramets by clonal integration. Clonal integration may enhance the rhizodeposition of the shaded ramets, which further influences nutrient recycling in their rhizosphere. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a pot experiment by the stoloniferous herb Glechoma longituba subjected to heterogeneous light. Microbial biomass and community composition in the rhizosphere of shaded offspring ramets, assessed by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis, were markedly altered by clonal integration. Clonal integration positively affected C, N availabilities, invertase and urease activities, N mineralization (Nmin) and nitrification rates (Nnitri) in the rhizosphere of shaded offspring ramets. However, an opposite pattern was also observed in phenoloxidase (POXase) and peroxidase (PODase) activities. Our results demonstrated that clonal integration facilitated N assimilation and uptake in the rhizosphere of shaded offspring ramets. The experiment provides insights into the mechanism of nutrient recycling mediated by clonal integration. PMID:25243590

  10. Effect of a mixed herb-enriched diet on the innate immune response and disease resistance of Paralichthys olivaceus against Philasterides dicentrarchi infection.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the effect of a mixed herb-enriched diet obtained from pomegranate Punica granatum, Dalmatian chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, and mastic-leaved prickly-ash Zanthoxylum schinifolium on innate immune mechanisms (e.g., phagocytosis activity, respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity, and disease resistance) of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus against the scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi. All experimental groups were challenged with P. dicentrarchi (1 x 10(5) ciliates/mL) through intraperitoneal administration of the pathogen (50 microL) on day 1. On day 7, the infected groups were fed 0, 5, 50, and 100 mg/kg of the enriched diets. The innate immune parameters, cumulative mortality, and relative percent survival (RPS) were assessed at weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4. Administration of 50 or 100 mg/kg of the herbal-enriched diet enhanced immunity throughout the experimental period. However, at the 5-mg/kg dosage, the enriched diet did not enhance the innate immune estimates at any time. At doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, administration of the diet preceding the challenge with P. dicentrarchi decreased the percentage cumulative mortality in the experimental groups and thereby increased RPS values. This study reports that administration of 50 or 100 mg/kg mixed herbal-enriched diet could positively influence the innate immune response to P. dicentrarchi and enhance the health status of olive flounder with respect to this microbe. PMID:21413507

  11. In vitro propagation of the medicinal herbs Ocimum americanum L. syn. O. canum Sims. (hoary basil) and Ocimum sanctum L. (holy basil).

    PubMed

    Pattnaik, S; Chand, P K

    1996-08-01

    A procedure is outlined for in vitro propagation of two medicinal herbs, Ocimum americanum L. syn. O. canum Sims (hoary basil) and Ocimum sanctum L. (holy basil), using axillary shoot buds. Multiple shoot formation was induced from shoot bud explants of both species on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with benzyladenine (BA). The optimum BA concentrations for shoot proliferation were 0.25 mg/l for O. americanum and 1.0 mg/l for O. sanctum. Incorporation of 0.5 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA3) along with BA in the culture medium resulted in a marked increase in the frequency of axillary branching as well as multiple shoot formation. Shoot buds collected between September through December were most responsive in culture. Shoots of O. americanum were rooted on half-strength MS supplemented with 1.0 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), whereas O. sanctum rooted best on medium with 1.0 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The plantlets were hardened off and successfully established in natural soil, where they grew and matured normally. PMID:24178222

  12. Traditional Medicinal Herbs and Food Plants Have the Potential to Inhibit Key Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes In Vitro and Reduce Postprandial Blood Glucose Peaks In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi; Subratty, A. Hussein; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Choudhary, M. Iqbal; Nahar Khan, S.

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that some medicinal herbs and food plants commonly used in the management of diabetes can reduce glucose peaks by inhibiting key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. To this effect, extracts of Antidesma madagascariense (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum (EM), Pittosporum senacia (PS), and Faujasiopsis flexuosa (FF), Momordica charantia (MC), and Ocimum tenuiflorum (OT) were evaluated for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory effects based on starch-iodine colour changes and PNP-G as substrate, respectively. Only FF and AM extracts/fractions were found to inhibit ?-amylase activity significantly (P < 0.05) and coparable to the drug acarbose. Amylase bioassay on isolated mouse plasma confirmed the inhibitory potential of AM and FF extracts with the ethyl acetate fraction of FF being more potent (P < 0.05) than acarbose. Extracts/fractions of AM and MC were found to inhibit significantly (P < 0.05) ?-glucosidase activity, with IC50 comparable to the drug 1-deoxynojirimycin. In vivo studies on glycogen-loaded mice showed significant (P < 0.05) depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose following ingestion of AM and MC extracts. Our findings tend to provide a possible explanation for the hypoglycemic action of MC fruits and AM leaf extracts as alternative nutritional therapy in the management of diabetes. PMID:22654584

  13. An integrated analysis for determining the geographical origin of medicinal herbs using ICP-AES/ICP-MS and (1)H NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Kook; Bong, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2014-10-15

    ICP-MS and (1)H NMR are commonly used to determine the geographical origin of food and crops. In this study, data from multielemental analysis performed by ICP-AES/ICP-MS and metabolomic data obtained from (1)H NMR were integrated to improve the reliability of determining the geographical origin of medicinal herbs. Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia albiflora with different origins in Korea and China were analysed by (1)H NMR and ICP-AES/ICP-MS, and an integrated multivariate analysis was performed to characterise the differences between their origins. Four classification methods were applied: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour classification (KNN), support vector machines (SVM), and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Results were compared using leave-one-out cross-validation and external validation. The integration of multielemental and metabolomic data was more suitable for determining geographical origin than the use of each individual data set alone. The integration of the two analytical techniques allowed diverse environmental factors such as climate and geology, to be considered. Our study suggests that an appropriate integration of different types of analytical data is useful for determining the geographical origin of food and crops with a high degree of reliability. PMID:24837936

  14. Promoting Effects on Proliferation and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Four “Kidney-Tonifying” Traditional Chinese Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Bin; Zhang, Ai-guo; Zhang, Xian; Ge, Wen-jie; Dai, Guo-da; Tan, Xiang-ling; Roodrajeetsing, Gopaul; Cai, Jian-ping

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine can promote the proliferation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). We chose four “Kidney-tonifying” Chinese herbal medicines, Radix Astragali, Salvia, Herba Epimedii, and Saussurea Involucrata, to evaluate whether they had positive effects on the proliferation of BMSCs and TGF-?1-induced chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The four Chinese herbal medicines were intragastrically administered to Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively, to prepare drug-containing serums of corresponding Chinese herbs. BMSCs were isolated, cultured, and exposed to culture solution containing 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15% (v/v) Radix Astragali-, Salvia-, Herba Epimedii-, and Saussurea Involucrata-containing serum, respectively. TGF-?1-induced BMSCs were addressed in the same manner. Collagen type II protein was assessed by immunofluorescence methods. To assess whether the drug-containing serums had positive effects on the proliferation of BMSCs and TGF-?1-induced BMSCs, MTT method was assessed. The proliferation of BMSCs was significantly enhanced when exposed to culture solutions containing 1% and 5% Radix Astragali-, 1% and 5% Salvia-, 5% Herba Epimedii-, and 1%, 5%, and 10% Saussurea Involucrata-containing serum. The proliferation of TGF-?1-induced BMSCs was significantly enhanced when exposed to 1%, 5%, and 15% Radix Astragali-, 10% and 15% Salvia-, 5%, and 15% Herba Epimedii-, and 1%, 5%, and 10% Saussurea Involucrata-containing serum. PMID:26137494

  15. Extensive contemporary pollen-mediated gene flow in two herb species, Ranunculus bulbosus and Trifolium montanum, along an altitudinal gradient in a meadow landscape

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Philippe; Kettle, Chris J.; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pluess, Andrea R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic connectivity between plant populations allows for exchange and dispersal of adaptive genes, which can facilitate plant population persistence particularly in rapidly changing environments. Methods Patterns of historic gene flow, flowering phenology and contemporary pollen flow were investigated in two common herbs, Ranunculus bulbosus and Trifolium montanum, along an altitudinal gradient of 1200–1800 m a.s.l. over a distance of 1 km among five alpine meadows in Switzerland. Key Results Historic gene flow was extensive, as revealed by Fst values of 0·01 and 0·007 in R. bulbosus and T. montanum, respectively, by similar levels of allelic richness among meadows and by the grouping of all individuals into one genetic cluster. Our data suggest contemporary pollen flow is not limited across altitudes in either species but is more pronounced in T. montanum, as indicated by the differential decay of among-sibships correlated paternity with increasing spatial distance. Flowering phenology among meadows was not a barrier to pollen flow in T. montanum, as the large overlap between meadow pairs was consistent with the extensive pollen flow. The smaller flowering overlap among R. bulbosus meadows might explain the slightly more limited pollen flow detected. Conclusions High levels of pollen flow among altitudes in both R. bulbosus and T. montanum should facilitate exchange of genes which may enhance adaptive responses to rapid climate change. PMID:23408831

  16. Assessment of Extracts from Red Yeast Rice for Herb-Drug Interaction by in-vitro and in-vivo assays

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Wai To; Subramaniam, G.; Lee, Joel; Loh, Heng Meng; Leung, Pak Ho Henry

    2012-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the yeast Monascus purpureus over rice. It is a source of natural red food colorants, a food garnish and a traditional medication. Results of the current study demonstrated that polar fractions of the RYR preparations contained herbal-drug interaction activity, which if left unremoved, enhanced P-glycoprotein activity and inhibited the major drug metabolizing cytochromes P450, i,e, CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. The data from Caco-2 cell absorption and animal model studies further demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic modulation effect by RYR preparations containing the polar fractions (“untreated” preparation) was greater than that from RYR preparations with the polar fractions removed (“treated” preparation). The data indicates a potential for herb-drug interactions to be present in RYR commonly sold as nutritional supplements when the polar fractions are not removed and this should be taken into consideration when RYR is consumed with medications, including verapamil. PMID:22389767

  17. Effects of the fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria against phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and on the growth of host plants.

    PubMed

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Ohhira, Iichiro; Takahata, Masumi; Hirota, Atsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Tada, Mikiro

    2004-01-01

    The fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria (FHL) was assayed for antifungal activities against Rosellinia necatrix, Helicobasidium mompa, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium graminicola and Pyricularia oryzae. FHL completely inhibited the growth of R. necatrix, H. mompa, P. graminicola and P. oryzae, and reduced the growth of F. oxysporum by 35%. When the seeds of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), Brassica campestris L. (komatsuna), Oryza sativa L. (rice), Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach), Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (tall fescue), and Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. (tomato) were put on plates containing 0.69 mg/ml FHL, their germination rates did not decrease. The root elongation of A. officinalis, B. campestris, O. sativa, and L. esculentum seedlings was suppressed on plates containing 6.92 mg/ml FHL, but the root elongation of M. sativa was not suppressed on the 6.92 mg/ml FHL plate. When FHL was diluted to less than 1.73 mg/ml, the diluted FHL solution did not suppress the germination of B. campestris seeds, but it suppressed the root elongation of B. campestris seedlings. An FHL concentration higher than 0.35 mg/ml hastened the growth of seedlings of B. campestris in the presence of a chemical fertilizer but delayed the growth of these seedlings in the absence of the chemical fertilizer, suggesting that inorganic elements could affect the efficiency of FHL. PMID:16233688

  18. Inhibition of methyleugenol bioactivation by the herb-based constituent nevadensin and prediction of possible in vivo consequences using physiologically based kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Al-Subeihi, Ala' A A; Alhusainy, Wasma; Paini, Alicia; Punt, Ans; Vervoort, Jacques; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2013-09-01

    Methyleugenol (ME) occurs naturally in a variety of spices, herbs, including basil, and their essential oils. ME induces hepatomas in rodent bioassays following its conversion to a DNA reactive metabolite. In the present study, the basil constituent nevadensin was shown to be able to inhibit SULT-mediated DNA adduct formation in HepG2 cells exposed to the proximate carcinogen 1'-hydroxymethyleugenol in the presence of nevadensin. To investigate possible in vivo implications of SULT inhibition by nevadensin on ME bioactivation, the rat physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model developed in our previous work to describe the dose-dependent bioactivation and detoxification of ME in male rat was combined with the recently developed PBK model describing the dose-dependent kinetics of nevadensin in male rat. The resulting binary ME-nevadensin PBK model was used to predict the possible nevadensin mediated reduction in ME DNA adduct formation and resulting carcinogenicity at the doses of ME used by the NTP carcinogenicity study. Using these data an updated risk assessment using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach was performed. The results obtained point at a potential reduction of the cancer risk when rodents are orally exposed to ME within a relevant food matrix containing SULT inhibitors compared to exposure to pure ME. PMID:23831728

  19. Variation in DNA methylation transmissibility, genetic heterogeneity and fecundity-related traits in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Carlos M; Medrano, Mónica; Bazaga, Pilar

    2014-03-01

    Inferences about the role of epigenetics in plant ecology and evolution are mostly based on studies of cultivated or model plants conducted in artificial environments. Insights from natural populations, however, are essential to evaluate the possible consequences of epigenetic processes in biologically realistic scenarios with genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous populations. Here, we explore associations across individuals between DNA methylation transmissibility (proportion of methylation-sensitive loci whose methylation status persists unchanged after male gametogenesis), genetic characteristics (assessed with AFLP markers), seed size variability (within-plant seed mass variance), and realized maternal fecundity (number of recently recruited seedlings), in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus along a natural ecological gradient in southeastern Spain. Plants (sporophytes) differed in the fidelity with which DNA methylation was transmitted to descendant pollen (gametophytes). This variation in methylation transmissibility was associated with genetic differences. Four AFLP loci were significantly associated with transmissibility and accounted collectively for ~40% of its sample-wide variance. Within-plant variance in seed mass was inversely related to individual transmissibility. The number of seedlings recruited by individual plants was significantly associated with transmissibility. The sign of the relationship varied between populations, which points to environment-specific, divergent phenotypic selection on epigenetic transmissibility. Results support the view that epigenetic transmissibility is itself a phenotypic trait whose evolution may be driven by natural selection, and suggest that in natural populations epigenetic and genetic variation are two intertwined, rather than independent, evolutionary factors. PMID:24471446

  20. EDRF (endothelium-derived relaxing factor)-release and Ca sup ++ -channel blockage by Magnolol, an antiplatelet agent isolated from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, in rat thoracic aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Cheming; Yu, Sheumeei; Chen, Chienchih; Huang, Yulin; Huang, Turfu (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan) National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan))

    1990-01-01

    Magnolol is an antiplatelet agent isolated from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis. It inhibited norepinephrine-induced phasic and tonic contractions in rat thoracic aorta. At the plateau of the NE-induced tonic contraction, addition of magnolol caused two phases (fast and slow) of relaxation. These two relaxations were concentration-dependent, and were not inhibited by indomethacin. The fast relaxation was completely antagonized by hemoglobin and methylene blue, and disappeared in de-endothelialized aorta while the slow relaxation was not affected by the above treatments. Magnolol also inhibited high potassium-induced, calcium-dependent contraction of rat aorta in a concentration-dependent manner. {sup 45}Ca{sup ++} influx induced by high potassium or NE was markedly inhibited by magnolol. Cyclic GMP, but not PGI{sub 2}, was increased by magnolol in intact, but not in de-endothelialized aorta. It is concluded that magnolol relaxed vascular smooth muscle by releasing endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and by inhibiting calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels.

  1. The effect of pulp and seed extract of Citrullus Colocynthis, as an antidaibetic medicinal herb, on hepatocytes glycogen stores in diabetic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shafaei, Hajar; Rad, Jafar Soleimani; Delazar, Abbas; Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicinal herbs such as Citrullus Colocynthis (C.C) have been used traditionally in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However therapeutic applications and adverse effects of C.C and its natural variants are not determined well. The current work investigates the effects of pulp and seed extract of C.C on hepatocyte's glycogen stores. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male rabbits were divided into six groups (control and diabetic) randomly. Alloxan was used in order to induce diabetes mellitus in animals. Among 5 diabetic groups, one remained as control and the rest received 100 and 200 mg/kg/day of either pulp or seed extract. One month later, animals were sacrificed and their liver specimen fixed in 10% Formalin was stained with periodic acid schiff (PAS) for light microscopic scanning. Results: PAS staining of hepatocytes revealed large amounts of glycogen stores in diabetic animals treated with pulp and seed extracts of C.C, contrary with non-treated diabetic rabbits. Sites of glycogen deposition were also different in animals treated with seed extract (P < 0.0001). No hepatic congestion was seen in treated animals. Dose escalation has no effect on the obtained results. Conclusions: The anti-diabetic effects of C.C can be explained by its effects on accumulation of glycogen stores in hepatocytes. The importance of varied sites of glycogen deposition by the application of C.C needs to be determined. PMID:25625097

  2. Carnosic acid and carnosol, phenolic diterpene compounds of the labiate herbs rosemary and sage, are activators of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Rau, Oliver; Wurglics, Mario; Paulke, Alexander; Zitzkowski, Jessica; Meindl, Nadine; Bock, Andreas; Dingermann, Theodor; Abdel-Tawab, Mona; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

    2006-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand activated transcription factor, belonging to the metazoan family of nuclear hormone receptors. Activation of PPARgamma increases the transcription of enzymes involved in primary metabolism, leading to lower blood levels of fatty acids and glucose. Hence, PPARgamma represents the major target for the glitazone type of drugs currently being used clinically for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, activators of PPARgamma show beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour effects. Utilizing a fusion receptor of the yeast Gal4-DNA binding domain joined to the hinge region and ligand binding domain of the human PPARgamma in combination with a Gal4-driven luciferase reporter gene, cotransfected into Cos7 cells, we tested sage and rosemary extracts prepared with 80 % aqueous ethanol for possible PPARgamma activation. This revealed that both extracts are capable of selectively activating Gal4-PPARgamma fusion receptor, in a concentration-dependent manner, with EC (50) values of 22.8 +/- 8.4 mg/L and 33.7 +/- 7.3 mg/L for rosemary and sage, respectively. Subsequent analysis of the characteristic constituents revealed the phenolic diterpene compounds carnosol, present in both herbs, and carnosic acid to be active principles of these extracts, showing EC (50) values of 41.2 +/- 5.9 microM and 19.6 +/- 2.0 microM, respectively. Thus it can be concluded that the glucose lowering effect reported recently for rosemary may be attributed to PPARgamma activation. Moreover, our observations may also explain the anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects of both compounds published previously. PMID:16858665

  3. Invasibility of a Nutrient-Poor Pasture through Resident and Non-Resident Herbs Is Controlled by Litter, Gap Size and Propagule Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, R. Lutz; Ruch, Diana; Otte, Annette; Donath, Tobias W.

    2012-01-01

    Since inference concerning the relative effects of propagule pressure, biotic interactions, site conditions and species traits on the invasibility of plant communities is limited, we carried out a field experiment to study the role of these factors for absolute and relative seedling emergence in three resident and three non-resident confamilial herb species on a nutrient-poor temperate pasture. We set up a factorial field experiment with two levels each of the factors litter cover (0 and 400 g m?2), gap size (0.01 and 0.1 m2) and propagule pressure (5 and 50 seeds) and documented soil temperature, soil water content and relative light availability. Recruitment was recorded in spring and autumn 2010 and in spring 2011 to cover initial seedling emergence, establishment after summer drought and final establishment after the first winter. Litter alleviated temperature and moisture conditions and had positive effects on proportional and absolute seedling emergence during all phases of recruitment. Large gaps presented competition-free space with high light availability but showed higher temperature amplitudes and lower soil moisture. Proportional and absolute seedling recruitment was significantly higher in large than in small gaps. In contrast, propagule pressure facilitated absolute seedling emergence but had no effects on proportional emergence or the chance for successful colonisation. Despite significantly higher initial seedling emergence of resident than non-resident species, seed mass and other species-specific traits may be better predictors for idiosyncratic variation in seedling establishment than status. Our data support the fluctuating resource hypothesis and demonstrate that the reserve effect of seeds may facilitate seedling emergence. The direct comparison of propagule pressure with other environmental factors showed that propagule pressure affects absolute seedling abundance, which may be crucial for species that depend on other individuals for sexual reproduction. However, propagule batch size did not significantly affect the chance for successful colonisation of disturbed plots. PMID:22911863

  4. Occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera in the maize herb layer: implications for Environmental Risk Assessment of genetically modified Bt-maize.

    PubMed

    Rauschen, Stefan; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Gathmann, Achim

    2010-10-01

    Beetles (Coleoptera) are a diverse and ecologically important group of insects in agricultural systems. The Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of genetically modified Bt-crop varieties with insect resistances thus needs to consider and assess the potential negative impacts on non-target organisms belonging to this group. We analysed data gathered during 6 years of field-release experiments on the impact of two genetically modified Bt-maize varieties (Ostrinia-resistant MON810 and Diabrotica-resistant MON88017) on the occurrence and field densities of Coleoptera, especially the two families Coccinellidae and Chrysomelidae. Based on a statistical analysis aimed at establishing whether Bt-maize varieties are equivalent to their near-isogenic counterparts, we discuss the limitations of using field experiments to assess the effects of Bt-maize on these two beetle families. The densities of most of the beetle families recorded in the herb layer were very low in all growing seasons. Coccinellidae and Chrysomelidae were comparatively abundant and diverse, but still low in numbers. Based on their role as biological control agents, Coccinellidae should be a focus in the ERA of Bt-plants, but given the large natural variability in ladybird densities in the field, most questions need to be addressed in low-tier laboratory tests. Chrysomelidae should play a negligible role in the ERA of Bt-plants, since they occur on-crop as secondary pests only. Species occurring off-crop, however, can be addressed in a similar fashion as non-target Lepidoptera in Cry1Ab expressing Bt-maize. PMID:20012775

  5. Reversal of Muscle Atrophy by Zhimu-Huangbai Herb-Pair via Akt/mTOR/FoxO3 Signal Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Song, Lili; Zhang, Mixia; Lu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jing; Alemu, Paulos N.; Zhang, Yanjun; Wei, Hongjun; Li, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is one of the serious complications of diabetes. Zhimu-Huangbai herb-pair (ZB) is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine formulas for treating Xiaoke (known as diabetes) and its complications. However, the effect of ZB on reversal of muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this research, we investigated the effect and possible mechanisms of ZB on skeletal muscle atrophy in diabetic mice. Animal model of diabetic muscle atrophy was developed by high fat diet (HFD) feeding plus streptozotocin (STZ) injection. After oral adminstration of ZB for 6 weeks, the effects of ZB on reversal of muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated by biochemical, histological and western blot methods. The skeletal muscle weight, strength, and cross-sectional area of diabetic mice were significantly increased by ZB treatment. Biochemical results showed that ZB treatment reduced the serum glucose level, and elevated the serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin levels significantly compared with untreated diabetic group. The western blot results showed that ZB activated the mTOR signal pathway, shown as increased phosphorylations (p-) of Akt, mTOR, Raptor, S6K1 and reduced Foxo3 expression compared with the model group. ZB could reverse muscle atrophy in diabetic mice. This may be through activation of mTOR signaling pathway that promotes protein synthesis, and inactivation foxo3 protein that inhibits protein degradation. These findings suggested that ZB may be considered as a potential candidate drug in treatment of diabetic muscle atrophy. PMID:24968071

  6. Effects of different concentrations of tetramethylpyrazine, an active constituent of Chinese herb, on human corneal epithelial cell damaged by hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Deng, Xin-Guo; Zhang, Shi-Hua; He, Mei-Feng; Zhao, Dong-Qing

    2014-01-01

    AIM To discuss the effects of different concentrations of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an active constituent of Chinese herb, on damaged Shandong human corneal epithelial cell (SDHCEC) induced by hydrogen peroxide. METHODS We detected the combined effects of TMP with concentrations ranging from 4 mg/mL to 0.03 mg/mL and 800 µM hydrogen peroxide on SDHCEC. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was processed at 3, 6 and 12h separately while the detection of cell apoptosis at 6h only by flow cytometry. RESULTS The viability of SDHCEC with 0.5 mg/mL, 0.25 mg/mL, 0.125 mg/mL and 0.06 mg/mL TMP joint with 800 µM hydrogen peroxide at 3h and 6h was significantly higher than that with 800 µM hydrogen peroxide only, P<0.05. However, except 0.25 mg/mL, TMP with other concentrations joint with 800 µM hydrogen peroxide at 12h could not significantly inhibit decreased SDHCEC viability induced by 800 µM hydrogen peroxide. At 12h, TMP of 0.5 mg/mL, 0.25 mg/mL, 0.125 mg/mL and 0.06 mg/mL could significantly inhibit SDHCEC early apoptosis induced by 800 µM hydrogen peroxide, most remarkable at 0.25 mg/mL TMP, P<0.05. CONCLUSION Our results suggested that hydrogen peroxide can induce apoptosis related damage to SDHCEC. TMP can protect SDHCEC from the damage, and the protective effects may be associated with its anti-apoptosis mechanism. PMID:25540744

  7. Characterization of the herb-derived components in rats following oral administration of Carthamus tinctorius extract by extracting diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs) in the MS(n) chromatograms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Feng; Song, Yue-Lin; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2014-12-21

    In this study, a new strategy named extracting diagnostic fragment ions (DFIs) in the MS(n) chromatograms [E(DFI)MS(n)Cs] was proposed to rapidly detect and identify the in vivo components derived from the extract of Carthamus tinctorius (ECT), using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. In order to comprehensively summarize the DFIs for the global identification of in vivo constituents of ECT, chemical profiling was carried out, and then the typical metabolic pathways of the primary components were proposed according to their chemical categories, by orally administering representative reference compounds. Based on the proposed metabolic pathways and the fragmentation rules, a list of DFIs was constructed and adopted to differentiate and identify the metabolites from the endogenous substances in the MS(n) chromatograms of ECT-treated biological samples, in combination with the neutral loss scan mode as a supplement. As a result, a total of 156 compounds were tentatively assigned in vivo, including 63, 73, 50, and 17 components from rat plasma, urine, bile, and feces, respectively, following oral administration of ECT. Deglycosylation, oxidation, methylation, sulfonation, and glucuronidation were observed as the major metabolic pathways for the chemical constituents of ECT, and dehydroxylation was detected at the A-ring of flavones for the first time. The findings suggested that the E(DFI)MS(n)Cs-based strategy which integrated ideas from single compounds to herbal extracts and from extract chemical profiling to in vivo metabolite profiling, could be used as a reliable tool for rapidly discovering and identifying herb-related constituents in vivo. PMID:25343164

  8. Multiple genes of mevalonate and non-mevalonate pathways contribute to high aconites content in an endangered medicinal herb, Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Nikhil; Kumar, Varun; Sood, Hemant; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-12-01

    Aconitum heterophyllum Wall, popularly known as Atis or Patis, is an important medicinal herb of North-Western and Eastern Himalayas. No information exists on molecular aspects of aconites biosynthesis, including atisine- the major chemical constituent of A. heterophyllum. Atisine content ranged from 0.14% to 0.37% and total alkaloids (aconites) from 0.20% to 2.49% among 14 accessions of A. heterophyllum. Two accessions contained the highest atisine content with 0.30% and 0.37% as well as the highest alkaloids content with 2.22% and 2.49%, respectively. No atisine was detected in leaves and shoots of A. heterophyllum, thereby, suggesting that the biosynthesis and accumulation of aconite alkaloids occur mainly in roots. Quantitative expression analysis of 15 genes of MVA/MEP pathways in roots versus shoots, differing for atisine content (0-2.2 folds) showed 11-100 folds increase in transcript amounts of 4 genes of MVA pathway; HMGS, HMGR, PMK, IPPI, and 4 genes of MEP pathway; DXPS, ISPD, HDS, GDPS, respectively. The overall expression of 8 genes decreased to 5-12 folds after comparative expression analysis between roots of high (0.37%) versus low (0.14%) atisine content accessions, but their relative transcript amounts remained higher in high content accessions, thereby implying their role in atisine biosynthesis and accumulation. PCA analysis revealed a positive correlation between MVA/MEP pathways genes and alkaloids content. The current study provides first report wherein partial sequences of 15 genes of MVA/MEP pathways have been cloned and studied for their possible role in aconites biosynthesis. The outcome of study has potential applications in the genetic improvement of A. heterophyllum. PMID:25239552

  9. Molecular angiogenic events of a two-herb wound healing formula involving MAPK and Akt signaling pathways in human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheuk-Lun; Tam, Jacqueline Chor Wing; Sanders, Andrew J; Ko, Chun-Hay; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Harding, Keith G; Jiang, Wen G; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology has provided new insight in advanced cell behavioral study by its nanometer sensitivity, precise electrical wounds generation, and high reproducibility that can be monitored in real time in a noninvasive way. However, little is known regarding pro-angiogenic agents in wound healing studies using endothelial cells evaluated with ECIS technology. Our previous studies showed a prominent wound healing effect of a two-herb formula (NF3) comprising of Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix in a rat chronic wound model through actions including angiogenesis. Here we further investigated the angiogenic effect and its underlying molecular mechanism through proliferation, motility, and tubule formation of human vascular endothelial cells (HECV) using ECIS technology. It was first shown that HECV treated with NF3 had a higher resistance than that of control using ECIS cell attachment and cell migration model (p < 0.01). We further validated in a scratch assay that NF3 treatment significantly stimulated HECV cell migration (p < 0.01-0.05). Also, NF3-treated HECV were observed to develop into a significantly more branched tubular structure when compared with control (p < 0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, Western blot analysis of NF3-treated HECV revealed the activated expression of p-Akt, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases for p-ERK, p-p38, and p-JNK. We propose that the effect of NF3 in the promotion of endothelial cell migration and tubule formation could be mediated through pathways involving p-Akt and activated MAP kinases. Hence, we demonstrated the complexity of the angiogenic effect activated by NF3 molecularly and functionally. NF3 treatment could offer therapeutic value to chronic wound healing for its pro-angiogenic efficacy. PMID:23755905

  10. Reversal of muscle atrophy by Zhimu-Huangbai herb-pair via Akt/mTOR/FoxO3 signal pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Zhuang, Pengwei; Wang, Yan; Song, Lili; Zhang, Mixia; Lu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jing; Alemu, Paulos N; Zhang, Yanjun; Wei, Hongjun; Li, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is one of the serious complications of diabetes. Zhimu-Huangbai herb-pair (ZB) is widely used in Chinese traditional medicine formulas for treating Xiaoke (known as diabetes) and its complications. However, the effect of ZB on reversal of muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this research, we investigated the effect and possible mechanisms of ZB on skeletal muscle atrophy in diabetic mice. Animal model of diabetic muscle atrophy was developed by high fat diet (HFD) feeding plus streptozotocin (STZ) injection. After oral adminstration of ZB for 6 weeks, the effects of ZB on reversal of muscle atrophy and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated by biochemical, histological and western blot methods. The skeletal muscle weight, strength, and cross-sectional area of diabetic mice were significantly increased by ZB treatment. Biochemical results showed that ZB treatment reduced the serum glucose level, and elevated the serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin levels significantly compared with untreated diabetic group. The western blot results showed that ZB activated the mTOR signal pathway, shown as increased phosphorylations (p-) of Akt, mTOR, Raptor, S6K1 and reduced Foxo3 expression compared with the model group. ZB could reverse muscle atrophy in diabetic mice. This may be through activation of mTOR signaling pathway that promotes protein synthesis, and inactivation foxo3 protein that inhibits protein degradation. These findings suggested that ZB may be considered as a potential candidate drug in treatment of diabetic muscle atrophy. PMID:24968071

  11. The protective effects of Chinese herb-Taikong Yangxin Prescription on the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle in rats induced by hindlimb unloading through activating Akt/GSK-3beta signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yuan; Min, Yuan; Jianfeng, Zhang; Zhili, Li; Huijuan, Wang; Desheng, Wang; Yinghui, Li; Yongzhi, Li; Shizhong, Jiang

    Objective To test the hypothesis that traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescrip-tion can activate the Akt/GSK-3? signaling pathway and alleviate the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle in rats induced by hindlimb unloading. Methods The physiological effects of simulated microgravity was induced by 7d hindlimb unloading in rats. TaiKong Yangxin Pre-scription was given daily by gastric irrigation as countermeasure against effects of simulated microgravity. The frozen sections of left ventricular cardiac muscles were stained by FITC la-beled lectin and visualized by laser scanning confocal microscopy, the cross section areas(CSA) of cardiomyocytes were calculated by IPP6.0 Image software. The protein expression of TnI, phosphorylation level of Akt and GSK-3? were measured by Western blot. Results Simulated microgravity decreased the CSA of cardiomyocytes and protein expression of TnI in left ven-tricular cardiac muscles, inhibited the phosphorylation level of Akt at serine 473 and GSK-3? at serine 9. The traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescription alleviated the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscles, reversed the declined protein expression of TnI and phosphoryla-tion levels of Akt at serine 473 and GSK-3? at serine 9 in hindlimb-unloading rats. Conclusion The traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescription has significant countermeasure effects on the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle induced by hindlimb unloading in rats, in which activating Akt/GSK-3? signaling pathway plays an important role.(Funded by Advanced space medico-engineering research project of China, grant NO. 2005SY5206005 and SJ200801)

  12. Interactivity and Thought Herb Clark (herb@psych.stanford.edu)

    E-print Network

    Rogers, Yvonne

    and even self­talk may be part of a distributed process of thinking, one that can feed back and influence-0515 USA Susan Goldin-Meadow (sgm@uchicago.edu) Department of Psychology, 5730 South Woodlawn Ave. Chicago, manipulating objects, talking to oneself, and more. One obvious goal of communication is to coordinate thoughts

  13. Shenqi fuzheng, an injection concocted from chinese medicinal herbs, combined with platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Platinum-based chemotherapy has been a standard therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but it has high toxicity. In China, Shenqi Fuzheng, a newly developed injection concocted from Chinese medicinal herbs has been reported that may increase efficacy and reduce toxicity when combined with platinum-based chemotherapy, but little is known about it outside of China. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing clinical evidence on Shenqi Fuzheng Injection(SFI) combined with platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC. Methods Pubmed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, and CBM search were organized for all documents published, in English and Chinese, until April 2010. The randomized controlled clinical trials were selected based on specific criteria, in which a SFI plus platinum-based chemotherapy treatment group was compared with a platinum-based chemotherapy control group for patients with advanced NSCLC. The quality of studies was assessed by modified Jadad's scale, and Revman 4.2 software was used for data syntheses and analyses. Results Twenty nine studies were included in this review based on our selection criteria. Of them, ten studies were of high quality and the rest were of low quality, according to the modified Jadad scale. The meta-analysis showed there was a statistically significant higher tumor response (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.32; P = 0.001) and performance status ((RR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.70; P < 0.00001); but lower severe toxicity for WBC (RR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.47; P < 0.00001), PLT (RR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.52; P < 0.00001), HB (RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.66; P < 0.0001) and nausea and vomiting (RR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.47; P < 0.00001), when the SFI plus platinum-based chemotherapy treatment group was compared with the platinum-based chemotherapy control group. Sensitivity analysis was restricted to studies with the high quality, and the result was similar when the studies with low quality were excluded. Asymmetry was observed in a funnel plot analysis, and Egger's test also indicated an evidence of publication bias (P = 0.016). Conclusions SFI intervention appears to be useful to increase efficacy and reduce toxicity when combined with platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC, although this result needs to be further verified by more high-quality trials. PMID:20969765

  14. Among-Population Variation in Microbial Community Structure in the Floral Nectar of the Bee-Pollinated Forest Herb Pulmonaria officinalis L

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Lenaerts, Marijke; Brys, Rein; Willems, Kris; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Background Microbial communities in floral nectar have been shown to be characterized by low levels of species diversity, yet little is known about among-plant population variation in microbial community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the microbial community structure (yeasts and bacteria) in floral nectar of ten fragmented populations of the bee-pollinated forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. We also explored possible relationships between plant population size and microbial diversity in nectar, and related microbial community composition to the distance separating plant populations. Culturable bacteria and yeasts occurring in the floral nectar of a total of 100 plant individuals were isolated and identified by partially sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene, respectively. A total of 9 and 11 yeast and 28 and 39 bacterial OTUs was found, taking into account a 3% (OTU0.03) and 1% sequence dissimilarity cut-off (OTU0.01). OTU richness at the plant population level (i.e. the number of OTUs per population) was low for yeasts (mean: 1.7, range: 0–4 OTUs0.01/0.03 per population), whereas on average 6.9 (range: 2–13) OTUs0.03 and 7.9 (range 2–16) OTUs0.01 per population were found for bacteria. Both for yeasts and bacteria, OTU richness was not significantly related to plant population size. Similarity in community composition among populations was low (average Jaccard index: 0.14), and did not decline with increasing distance between populations. Conclusions/Significance We found low similarity in microbial community structure among populations, suggesting that the assembly of nectar microbiota is to a large extent context-dependent. Although the precise factors that affect variation in microbial community structure in floral nectar require further study, our results indicate that both local and regional processes may contribute to among-population variation in microbial community structure in nectar. PMID:23536759

  15. Inhibition of fungal growth on bread by volatile components from spices and herbs, and the possible application in active packaging, with special emphasis on mustard essential oil.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, P V; Rios, R

    2000-09-25

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the most important spoilage fungi of bread was investigated. Penicillium commune, P. roqueforti, Aspergillus flavus and Endomyces fibuliger were able to grow at oxygen levels down to 0.03%, while the chalk mould E. fibuliger was capable of growing even in the presence of an oxygen absorber. High levels of carbon dioxide retarded growth but not completely. As an alternative to MAP active packaging (AP) using volatile essential oils (EO) and oleoresins (OL) from spices and herbs were tested against a range of fungi commonly found on bread. Concentrations of 1, 10 or 100 microl EO or OL were added to a filter paper placed in the lid of a Petri dish inoculated with one of the test fungi. The Petri dish was sealed hermetically to avoid the exchange of gases. Mustard essential oil showed the strongest effect. Cinnamon, garlic and clove also had high activity, while oregano oleoresin only inhibited growth weakly. Vanilla showed no inhibitory effect towards the tested microorganisms at the applied concentrations. A. flavus was more resistant than the other microorganisms while P. roqueforti was the most sensitive. Mustard essential oil was investigated in greater detail. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the active component, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), was determined for the same species and an additional three moulds and one yeast. MIC values ranged from 1.8 to 3.5 microg/ml gas phase. Results showed that whether AITC was fungistatic or fungicidal depended on its concentration, and the concentration of spores. When the gas phase contained at least 3.5 microg/ml, AITC was fungicidal to all tested fungi. Results of sensory evaluation showed, that hot-dog bread was more sensitive to AITC than rye bread. The minimal recognisable concentration of AITC was 2.4 microg/ml gas phase for rye bread and between 1.8 and 3.5 microg/ml gas phase for hot-dog bread. These findings showed that the required shelf-life of rye bread could be achieved by active packaging with AITC. Active packaging of hot-dog bread, may nevertheless require the additional effect of other preserving factors to avoid off-flavour formation PMID:11016611

  16. Certified organic herb mulching demonstration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of organo-pestiphytology (the study of organic weed control) is to investigate and develop weed control strategies that are fundamental to the cropping system rather than afterthoughts to a production system. The scarcity of approved organic herbicides reinforces the necessity for org...

  17. Extracts from Epilobium sp. herbs, their components and gut microbiota metabolites of Epilobium ellagitannins, urolithins, inhibit hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells-(LNCaP) proliferation and PSA secretion.

    PubMed

    Stolarczyk, Magdalena; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Granica, Sebastian; Stefa?ska, Joanna; Naruszewicz, Marek; Kiss, Anna K

    2013-12-01

    Extracts from Epilobium sp. herbs have been traditionally used in the treatment of prostate-associated ailments. Our studies demonstrated that the extracts from Epilobium angustifolium, Epilobium parviflorum and Epilobium hirsutum herbs are potent prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) proliferation inhibitors with IC50 values around 35 µg/ml. The tested extracts reduced prostate specific antigen (PSA) secretion (from 325.6?±?25.3 ng/ml to ~90 ng/ml) and inhibited arginase activity (from 65.2?±?1.1 mUnits of urea/mg of protein to ~40 mUnits of urea/mg protein). Selected constituents of extracts (oenothein B, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside) were proven to be active in relation to LNCaP cells. However, oenothein B was the strongest inhibitor of cells proliferation (IC50 ?=?7.8?±?0.8 ?M), PSA secretion (IC50 ?=?21.9?±?3.2 ?M) and arginase activity (IC50?=?19.2?±?2.0 ?M). Additionally, ellagitannins from E. hirustum extract were proven to be transformed by human gut microbiota into urolithins. Urolithin C showed the strongest activity in the inhibition of cell proliferation (IC50 ?=?35.2?±?3.7 ?M), PSA secretion (reduced PSA secretion to the level of 100.7?±?31.0 ng/ml) and arginase activity (reduced to the level of 27.9?±?3.3 mUnits of urea/mg of protein). Results of the work offer an explanation of the activity of Epilobium extracts and support the use of Epilobium preparations in the treatment of prostate diseases. PMID:23436427

  18. Determination of analytes in medical herbs extracts by SPE coupled with two-dimensional planar chromatography in combination with diode array scanning densitometry and HPLC-diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Tuzimski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an application of 2-D high-performance planar chromatography-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-DAD after solid-phase extraction (SPE) for identification and quantitative analysis of pesticides (isoproturon, aziprotryne, hexazinone, flufenoxuron, methabenzthiazuron, procymidone, and ?-cypermethrin) in Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) samples. The procedure described for the determination of compounds is inexpensive and can be applied to routine analysis of analytes in medical herbs' samples after preliminary cleanup and concentration by SPE. Average recoveries on C18 SPE cartridges of pesticides eluted with 5 mL tetrahydrofuran by the proposed HPLC-DAD method, before and after 2-D-high-performance planar chromatography separation of analytes from M. officinalis L. samples spiked with pesticide at a concentration level of 10 ?g/g in plant material are presented. Method validation parameters for the quantification of pesticides by the proposed HPLC-DAD after SPE method are also presented. PMID:21171173

  19. Simultaneous determination of six triterpenic acids in some Chinese medicinal herbs using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongliang; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Shucheng; Liu, Di; Chen, Guang; Hu, Na; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2015-03-25

    A novel analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of six triterpenic acids using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) follow by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Six triterpenic acids (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, maslinic acid, betulonic acid and corosolic acid) were extracted by UA-DLLME using chloroform and acetone as the extraction and disperser solvents, respectively. After the extraction and nitrogen flushing, the extracts were rapidly derivatized with 2-(12,13-dihydro-7H-dibenzo[a,g]carbazol-7-yl)ethyl4-methylbenzenesulfonate. The main experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency and derivatization yield were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.95-1.36 ng mL(-1) and 3.17-4.55 ng mL(-1), respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the method has been successfully applied for the analysis of triterpenic acids in six different traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:25569287

  20. Application of GC/MS-based metabonomic profiling in studying the therapeutic effects of Huangbai-Zhimu herb-pair (HZ) extract on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Liu, Hongyue; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Jinbiao; Zhou, Zhensheng; Chu, Huilun; Zhuang, Pengwei; Zhang, Yanjun

    2015-08-01

    A protocol for metabolic profiling of mice urine was developed based on gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to explore metabolic state directly. The intra-day, inter-day, repeatability, and stability RSD for most endogenous compounds were less than 3%. Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) mice model was induced by high calorie diet combined with streptozocin. Urine from the control, T2DM and Huangbai-Zhimu herb-pair (HZ) treatment mice were enrolled in the subsequent study to show the usefulness of the method. OPLS-DA scores plots demonstrate that the cluster of T2DM mice is separated from that of control mice, while HZ-T2DM mice are located close to control mice, indicating that metabolic profiles of these HZ-T2DM mice are placed toward those of control group. The results illustrate that HZ treatment could lower the level of d-glucose, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, propanoic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and 2,3-dihydroxybutanoic acid in urine of DM mice, meanwhile the results show that HZ treatment could ameliorate T2DM symptoms by intervening the fatty acid metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. This preliminary application indicated that the method is suitable and reliable for urine metabolic profiling. This study might explain the metabolic effects of T2DM and the mechanisms of action of HZ against T2DM. PMID:26094210

  1. Comparative metabolomics analysis on hematopoietic functions of herb pair Gui-Xiong by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Weixia; Tang, Yuping; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Qian, Yefei; Wang, Linyan; Zhang, Li; Liu, Pei; Su, Shulan; Qian, Dawei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-06-13

    The compatibility of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui, DG) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong, CX), a famous herb pair Gui-Xiong (GX), can produce synergistic and complementary hematopoiesis. In present study, global metabolic profiling with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) combined with pattern recognition method was performed to discover the underlying hematopoietic regulation mechanisms of DG, CX and GX on hemolytic and aplastic anemia rats (HAA) induced by acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH) and cyclophosphamide (CP). Thirteen endogenous metabolites contributing to the separation of model group and control group were tentatively identified. The levels of LPCs including lysoPC (18:0), lysoPC (20:4), lysoPC (16:0) and lysoPC (18:2), sphinganine, nicotinic acid, thiamine pyrophosphate, phytosphingosine, and glycerophosphocholine increased significantly (p<0.05) in HAA, while the levels of oleic acid, 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, ceramides (d18:1/14:0), and 17a-hydroxypregnenolone decreased significantly (p<0.05) in comparison with control rats. Those endogenous metabolites were chiefly involved in thiamine metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism. The metabolic deviations could be regulated closer to normal level after DG, CX and GX intervention. In term of hematopoietic function, GX was the most effective as shown by the relative distance in PLS-DA score plots and relative intensity of metabolomic strategy, reflecting the synergic action between DG and CX. The relative distance calculation was firstly used in metabolomics for semi-quantization. PMID:24794940

  2. A UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of three monoterpene glycosides and four alkaloids in rat plasma: application to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan and single herb extract.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yu; Wu, Yun; Wang, Fenrong; Ma, Wen; Bian, Qiaoxia; Lee, David Y-W; Dai, Ronghua

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of three monoterpene glycosides (paeoniflorin, alibiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin) and four alkaloids (tetrahydropalmatine, corydaline, dehydrocorydaline and berberine), the main active ingredients of Radix Paeoniae Rubra extract (RPE) and Corydalis yanhusuo extract (CYE) in Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXLD), and to compare the pharmacokinetics of these active ingredients in normal and arthritic rats orally administrated with HLXLD or RPE/CYE alone. The analytes and internal standard (IS) (geniposide) were separated on a XBridge C18 column (150?×?4.6?mm, 3.5?µm) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.01% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.6?ml/min. The detection of the analytes was performed on Acquity UPLC-MS/MS system with an electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mode via polarity switching between negative (for monoterpene glycosides) and positive (for alkaloids) ionization mode. The lower limits of quantification were 2.5, 1, 0.5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.02 and 0.01?ng/ml for paeoniflorin, alibiflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, tetrahydropalmatine, corydaline, dehydrocorydaline and berberine, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). The mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat plasma were all more than 83.1%. The validated method has been successfully applied to determination of the analytes. Results showed that there were remarkable differences in pharmacokinetic properties of the analytes between herbal formula and single herb group, normal and arthritic group. PMID:25800193

  3. Complement-activating polysaccharides from medicinal herbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruki Yamada; Hiroaki Kiyohara

    \\u000a The complement system consists of over 20 serum proteins including nine com-plement components (C1 to C9) and their regulators,\\u000a and is normally present in blood serum in an inactive form. The system is essential for the operation of the innate as well\\u000a as the adaptive immune defence [1]. The complement proteins can be activated through three cascade pathways: by the

  4. Vegetable & Herb Disease Control Products for Texas 

    E-print Network

    Black, Mark; Hess, Jesus F.

    1999-12-17

    ---------------- 1 - Bok choy (pak choi, mustard cabbage; Brassica rapa var. chinesis) 2 - Broccoli (flowering, cavalo broccoli; B. oleracea var. italica) 3 - Broccoli, Chinese (gay lon; B. oleracea var. alboglabra) 4 - Broccoli raab (B. ruvo) 5..., other soil and seed fungi) s - Downy mildew (Peronospora farinosa f. sp. betae) t - Leaf blight (black spots, angular spot; Alternaria alternata, A. brassicae) u - Leaf spot (Cercospora beticola) v - Phytophthora w - Plant parasitic nematodes (see...

  5. Herbs containing L- Dopa: An update

    PubMed Central

    Ramya, Kuber B; Thaakur, Santhrani

    2007-01-01

    L-Dopa is the drug of choice in the treatment of Parkinson's disease but it has dose related adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, orthostatic hypotension, end of dose deterioration, on off phenomena and on chronic therapy motor complications synonymous to parkinsonism. Mucuna pruriens (M.P) commonly known as velvet beans or cowitch are used in case of spasms associated with Parkins onism. Clinical efficacy of seeds of this plant was confirmed and the efficacy was contributed to its L-Dopa content. M.P extract showed twice the antiparkinsonism activity compared with synthetic L-Dopa. There is sufficient L-Dopa in broad bean (Vicia faba) pods. One study proved its efficacy in Parkinsonism. Ginkgo biloba extract showed protective effect in vivo and invitro. 50% ethanolic extract of Plumbago zeylanica was effective in rats. The following plants were reported to have L-Dopa but their protective effect is yet to be established in animal models. Vigna aconitifolia, Vigna unguiculata, Vigna vexillata, Prosopis chilensis, Pileostigma malabarica, Phanera vahlis, Parkinsonia acculeata, Macuna urens, Canvavalia glandiata, Cassia floribanda, Casia hirsute and Dalbergia retusa etc. PMID:22557260

  6. [Herbs on the Internet: risky information].

    PubMed

    Firenzuoli, Fabio; Gori, Luigi; Di Simone, Luisa; Morsuillo, Maria

    2006-04-01

    We analyzed Internet information about herbal products and dietary supplements regulated by Ministry of Public Health. We screened 522 Italian web sites and we found information about toxic risks on Germander (Teucrium chamaedrys), Red yeast fermented rice (Monascus ruber), Borage (Borago officinalis) and Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) respectively in: 63%, 47%, 3% and 22% of the web sites. It is also possible the on-line purchase. Results show that in Internet there are not correct instructions about risks of herbal products. PMID:16729486

  7. Vegetable & Herb Disease Control Products for Texas

    E-print Network

    Black, Mark; Hess, Jesus F.

    1999-12-17

    ) ----------------- Other species ------------------ 17 - Arugula (rocket salad, roquette; Eruca sativa) 18 - Cress, garden (peppergrass; Lepidium sativum, L. virginicum) 19 - Cress, upland (Barbarea vulgaris, B. verna) 20 - Horseradish (Armoracia rusticiana) 21...

  8. Some Sri Lankan common pot-herbs.

    PubMed

    Liyanaratne, Jinadas

    2003-10-01

    As a follow-up of the articles of R. Brindha and S. Parvathy, ASL, XXII, 2003, 166-168, fifteen edible plants of South Asian ecosystem, commonly used in Sri Lankan cuisine, are dealt with in view of their ethnobotanical and ehtonomedical value. Their vernacular names (Sanskrit, Sinhala, and Tamil given here) often reveal different botanical features and medicinal properties. PMID:22557115

  9. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  10. Drug–Herb and Drug–Food Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amitava Dasgupta

    Interactions between herbal supplements and drugs and between food and drugs are of significant clinical importance. St. John’s\\u000a wort, a popular herbal supplement, induces cytochrome P 450 mixed function oxidase as well as modulated P-glycoprotein in\\u000a intestine and reduces plasma concentrations of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, amitriptyline, digoxin, fexofenadine, indinavir,\\u000a methadone, midazolam, nevirapine, phenoprocoumon, squinavir, simvastatin, theophylline and warfarin. These reductions may

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chiou, Yi-Shiou; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence shows that inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases. Thus, suppressing chronic inflammation has the potential to delay, prevent, and control various chronic diseases, including cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, joint, skin, pulmonary, blood, lymph, liver, pancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Various natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have been shown to safely suppress proinflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of TCM occur by inhibition of the expression of master transcription factors (for example, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)), pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), chemokines (for example, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-24), intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (for example, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)). However, a handful of review articles have focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of TCM and explore their possible mechanisms of action. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to identify the anti-inflammatory constituents of TCM and their molecular targets that may create new opportunities for innovation in modern pharmacology. PMID:24716101

  12. Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs in MS: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... relating to supplements. Impact of MS on the immune system: In MS, the immune system actively damages myelin (the protective covering of nerves) ... MS involve the attempt to down-regulate the immune system. The details of the immune system are very ...

  13. Antibacterial Effect of Herbs and Spices Extract on Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venugopal Amrita; Dasani Sonal; Rai Shalini

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli are the most commonly present bacterium in the human intestine, which helps in preventing the entry of pathogenic microorganisms. E. coli are non-pathogenic in normal conditions, but if present in excess, will become causative agent of various diseases like urinary tract infection, diarrhoea, vomiting etc. With increasing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, there is a shift of choice

  14. A Tribute to Herb Wilf Doron ZEILBERGER 1

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    of a solar eclipse, one can find the following: ``Herbert Wilf of New York City, sent in times of the first American Mathematical Monthly article it says: 1 Department of Mathematics, Rutgers University (New at math dot rutgers dot edu , http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/ . Dec. 7, 2011. 1 #12; ``His

  15. A Tribute to Herb Wilf Doron ZEILBERGER1

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    issue of Sky and Telescope, in an article that reported on readers' observati* *ons of a solar eclipse Department of Mathematics, Rutgers University (New Brunswick), Hill Center-Bu* *sch Campus, 110 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019, USA. zeilberg at math dot rutgers dot edu , http://www.math.rutgers

  16. A Tribute to Herb Wilf Doron ZEILBERGER1

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    of a solar eclipse, one can find the following: "Herbert Wilf of New York City, sent in times of the first American Mathematical Monthly article it says: 1 Department of Mathematics, Rutgers University (New at math dot rutgers dot edu , http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/ . Dec. 7, 2011. 1 #12;"His principal

  17. Essential oils from aromatic herbs as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Miranda-Novales, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-04-01

    Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics is a health problem. Essential oils (EOs) possess antibacterial properties and have been screened as potential sources of novel antimicrobial compounds. Terpenes and terpenoids are components derived from EOs. Some of these EOs show inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Carvacrol has specific effects on S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Perilla oil suppresses expression of ?-toxin, Staphylococcus enterotoxin A and B and toxic shock syndrome toxin. Geraniol shows good activity in modulating drug resistance in several gram-negative species. EOs could act as biopreservatives, reducing or eliminating pathogenic bacteria and increasing the overall quality of animal and vegetable food products. Although clinical studies are scarce, the uses of EOs for topical administration and as penetration enhancers for antiseptics are promising. Little information exists for oral administration. PMID:21903378

  18. Resource sharing among ramets in the clonal herb, Fragaria chiloensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Alpert; H. A. Mooney

    1986-01-01

    The herbaceous perennial, Fragaria chiloensis, reproduces vegetatively on coastal sand dunes in California by growth of stolons that bear rosettes. Movement of water and photosynthates through stolons integrates water and carbon metabolism of rosettes both before and after they root. New, unrooted rosettes import sufficient water and nitrogen to maintain levels near those of established rosettes; yet support of an

  19. The Discipline of Hope: A Conversation with Herb Kohl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Marge

    1998-01-01

    The author of "The Discipline of Hope" (1998) values environments that foster a sense of belonging and love of learning. Besides engaging students' imagination, teachers must convince students that they are people of worth who can accomplish something in a difficult world. Children must remain hopeful, and adults must not abandon public education.…

  20. Hongbin Zhu Email: herb.zhu@gmail.com .

    E-print Network

    of colonic polyps",the 13th International Conference on Medical Imaging Computing and Computer Assisted mucosa," 11th International Conference on Medical Imaging Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention/1996 ­ 7/2000 B.S. Mechanics Engineering School, HUST, Wuhan, China. Research Interests · Medical Image