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1

Hyoscyamus niger, a useful local lesion host for a mosaic virus in Hippeastrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samenvatting Bladeren vanHyoscyamus niger planten vertoonden chlorotische lokale lesies 7 dagen na inoculatie met sap van mozaïekziekeHippeastrum-planten. Met sap vanHippeastrum-planten zonder mozaïeksymptomen werd geen reactie verkregen. In dooppreparaten gemaakt van chlorotische lesies inHyoscyamus-bladeren en van bladeren vanHippeastrum planten met mozaïeksymptomen werden draadvormige virusdeeltjes van 648–772 nm aangetroffen. Het virus kon met sap geperst uit geïnoculeerdeHyoscyamus-planten weer op gezondeHippeastrum-planten worden overgebracht.

G. T. N. de Leeuw

1972-01-01

2

The Herb Garden Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

3

Vacuole/extravacuole distribution of soluble protease in Hippeastrum petal and Triticum leaf protoplasts  

SciTech Connect

The subcellular distribution of soluble protease in anthesis-stage, anthocyanin-containing Hippeastrum cv. Dutch Red Hybrid petal protoplasts has been reevaluated and that of Triticum aestivum L. var. Red Coat leaf protoplasts determined using /sup 125/I-fibrin as a protease substrate and improved methods for protoplast and vacuole volume estimation. Results indicate that about 20% of the Hippeastrum petal-soluble protease and about 90% of the wheat leaf-soluble protease can be assigned to the vacuole. Protoplast isolation enzyme labeled with /sup 125/I has been used to assess the efficiency of removing isolation enzyme from protoplasts by repeated washing and by separation of protoplasts from debris using density centrifugation. Results of these studies suggest that protoplasts prepared by both methods retain low levels of isolation enzyme. However, when protoplasts prepared by either method were lysed with washing medium lacking osmoticum, little isolation enzyme contaminated the lysates.

Wagner, G.J.; Mulready, P.; Cutt, J.

1981-11-01

4

Culinary herbFAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.

1997-01-01

5

HerbMed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HerbMed is "an interactive, electronic herbal database" that provides scientific and general information on the biochemical action of herbs. A project of the Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc., HerbMed includes a searchable interface, as well as a manual option for browsing the HerbMed database by plant Genus. From Achillea (Yarrow) to Ziziphus (Jujube), the HerbMed database provides detailed information on each herb's biochemical action, the mechanism of action, and warnings for human health. Of special interest to researchers will be the hyperlinks to abstracts in PubMed (reviewed in the July 18, 1997 Scout Report), providing published evidence of the scientific information contained in this database. For researchers and educators alike, HerbMed promises to be a useful resource.

6

Molecular characterization of the hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus L segment and its protein.  

PubMed

Hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) is a novel tospovirus that was identified in Yunnan Province, China, in 2013. We have sequenced the HCRV L gene, which is 8909 nt long and encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (2873 amino acids, 330.8 kDa). The HCRV L protein shared highest similarity (89.4 %) with that of tomato yellow ring virus. The L protein contains a negative-sense RNA virus RNA-directed RNA polymerase motif and an endonuclease domain at the N-terminus. Combined with our previous reports of the S and M RNAs, the genome sequence of HCRV is now completed. PMID:24841760

Xu, Ye; Lou, Shi-Gao; Li, Qiu-Fang; Hu, Qing; Sun, Li-Peng; Li, Zheng-Yue; Li, Yong-Zhong; Liu, Ya-Ting

2014-10-01

7

Herbs in dentistry.  

PubMed

Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research. PMID:22117784

Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan

2011-12-01

8

Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

Hatch, Duane

9

Medicinal Herb Garden  

MedlinePLUS

... Medicinal Herb Garden: An unofficial hypertext tour and partial catalog by Michael Boer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License . Permissions beyond ...

10

Herbs in exercise and sports.  

PubMed

The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size. PMID:22738233

Chen, Chee Keong; Muhamad, Ayu Suzailiana; Ooi, Foong Kiew

2012-01-01

11

[Herbs and cardiotoxic effects].  

PubMed

Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed. PMID:23748541

Maffè, Stefano; Paffoni, Paola; Laura Colombo, Maria; Davanzo, Franca; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Paino, Anna Maria; Franchetti Pardo, Nicolò; Bergamasco, Luca; Signorotti, Fabiana; Parravicini, Umberto

2013-06-01

12

Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients. PMID:25233607

Mili?, Natasa; Milosevi?, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozi?, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

2014-08-01

13

Drying Foods at Home Safely Drying Herbs  

E-print Network

Drying Foods at Home Safely Drying Herbs An herb garden that is properly maintained can supply jars, freezer bags, and airtight plastic containers. Like other foods dried at home, dried herbs an abundance of fresh herbs during the growing season. Drying what you can't use (or give away) is a great way

14

Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

15

Herb and Supplement Use Among the Retail Population of an Independent, Urban Herb Store  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of herbal medicine use among American adults is well documented. Because of the possible herb–drug interactions, health care providers need to be aware of herb and supplement use by their patients. This descriptive pilot study (N = 35) was designed to explore the demographics, beliefs, concurrent pharmaceutical use with herbs and supplements and their primary sources of information,

Erin L. Archer; Diane K. Boyle

2008-01-01

16

What are Herbs? Trees, shrubs, annuals, vines,  

E-print Network

#12;What are Herbs? Trees, shrubs, annuals, vines, and more primitive plants, such as ferns, mosses, etc. valued for their flavor, fragrance, medicinal and healthful qualities, economic must be saved or purchased every year. #12;Warm Season Annuals (Plant: March-September) Herbs Part

Jawitz, James W.

17

Herbs as a food source in Turkey.  

PubMed

Medical benefits of herbs have been known for centuries. Many examples contain powerful active components that, if used correctly, can help in healing the living organism. These herbs can also be provided in the form of capsules and powders, as dietary supplements, and thus differ from conventional foods or food ingredients. The traditional Turkish kitchen is rich of various herbs which have been employed as ingredients since ancient times. The present paper provides a brief overview of some important herbs in the Turkish flora, including fennel, sage, rosemary, mallow, sweet basil, savory, chicory, nettle, thyme, flax, cumin, caper, coriander, milk thistle, spanish lavender, marjoram, dandelion, rocket, purslane, spanish salsify, amaranthus, wild radish, and wild mustard. Studies on these herbs have revealed that they contain powerful active components that might be effective for increasing human health and preventing cancer. PMID:15373716

Esiyok, Dursun; Otles, Semih; Akcicek, Eren

2004-01-01

18

Medicinal Herb REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING  

E-print Network

2011. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Chinese Medicinal Herb Garden of the UC Botanical Garden is supported of The Indianapolis Museum of Art. 2012 © UC Botanical Garden at Berkeley excessive urination or sweating, or prolapse

Doudna, Jennifer A.

19

Treatment of acute bronchiolitis with Chinese herbs.  

PubMed Central

In a randomised single blind trial the Chinese herbs Shuang Huang Lian were evaluated for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis. Children with acute bronchiolitis and serological evidence of recent respiratory syncytial virus infection were studied in a tertiary hospital in Harbin, China. The 96 children were randomised into three treatment groups: herbs, herbs with antibiotics, and antibiotics alone. The herbs were prepared by the medical school pharmacy and administered daily by intravenous infusion for seven days. The main outcomes, assessed blindly, were symptomatic improvement in cough, fever, wheezing, chest signs, and duration of stay in hospital. The mean duration of symptoms from the start of treatment was 6.2 (confidence interval 5.6 to 6.9) days in the two groups treated with herbs compared with 8.6 (confidence interval 7.5 to 9.8) days in the group treated with antibiotics alone. The mean reductions in duration of clinical manifestations for treatment with antibiotics alone compared with herbs were: from 3.1 to 1.5 days for fever, 9.1 to 6.1 days for cough, 6.5 to 4.1 days for wheezing, and 7.2 to 4.9 days for chest crackles. No adverse effect of Shuang Huang Lian herbal treatment was detected. In conclusion, this study confirms Chinese experience with Shuang Huang Lian that it is safe and effective, and warrants further study. PMID:8503668

Kong, X T; Fang, H T; Jiang, G Q; Zhai, S Z; O'Connell, D L; Brewster, D R

1993-01-01

20

Rasayans and non-rasayans herbs: Future immunodrug - Targets  

PubMed Central

Ayurvedic therapeutics describes vast number of medicinal herbs used as “Vyadhirodhak Chamatav” that has enlightened the application of herbs used as corner stone in various diseases especially those modulating the immune system. Ayurveda literature comprises of rasayana and non-rasayana herbs. Materia Medica entirely enriched with enormous data of rasayana medicinal herbs acting as immunomodulators in existence. However, as such there is no specific review of literature available for non-Rasayana herbs that have immense potential as immunomodulators. This review article empowers data on non-rasayana medicinal herbs as promising future target for immunotherapy. PMID:24347916

Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Une, Hemant Devidas; Shanbhag, Pradnya Palekar

2013-01-01

21

Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework. PMID:20061249

Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomi?, Sinisa

2009-12-01

22

College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension Herb and Spice History  

E-print Network

College of Agricultural Sciences · Cooperative Extension Herb and Spice History Herb and Spice Definitions Before learning about the history of herbs and spices, it is necessary to define these terms of 530 million pounds valued at $372 million were imported into the United States. Herbal History The use

Guiltinan, Mark

23

AIR DRYING OF THREE AROMA HERBS (BASIL, DILL AND TEA HERB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though, the knowledge about dehydration process has been improved and many dehydrators may be utilized, still it exists some vegetable stuff such aroma herbs needing to be analyzed during their dehydration performance. The present work studied the sorption and air-drying phenomena for three aroma herbs. Sorption isotherms were obtained at 25, 35 and 45ºC and modeled by seven equations,

J. F. Vélez-Ruiz; M. E. Lima Carrera; R. C. Macedo

24

Updates on the clinical evidenced herb-warfarin interactions.  

PubMed

Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of "interacting herbs." In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:24790635

Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong

2014-01-01

25

Systematic Review of Breastfeeding and Herbs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives Despite popular and historical use, there has been little modern research conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of herb use during breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the clinical literature on herbal medicine and lactation. Methods The databases PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HealthSTAR, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Reprotox were systematically searched for human trials from 1970 until 2010. Reference lists from relevant articles were hand-searched. Results Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Clinical studies were divided into three categories: survey studies (n=11), safety studies (n=8), and efficacy studies (n=13). Six studies were randomized controlled trials. The most common herbs studied were St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) (n=3), garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract (n=2), and senna (Cassia senna L.) (n=2). Studies were very heterogeneous with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Overall, poor methodological quality predominated among the studies. Conclusions Our review concludes that further research is needed to assess the prevalence, efficacy, and safety of commonly used herbs during breastfeeding. PMID:22686865

Budzynska, Katarzyna; Gardner, Zoe E.; Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Low Dog, Tieraona

2012-01-01

26

Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.  

PubMed

Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. PMID:12112294

Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young

2002-06-01

27

Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.  

PubMed Central

Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have been synthesized as a result of knowledge gained from studies of mechanisms of actions of chemicals first isolated from medicinal herbs. Thus, medicinal herbs have played a major role in the development of modern medicine and continue to be widely used in their original form. Whereas it is generally agreed that most medicinal herbs are safe under the conditions used, some are toxic and should be avoided even though they are readily available, and others have significant adverse side effects when misused. Also, little has been done to investigate potential adverse effects that may be associated with extended or high-dose use of medicinal herbs. Thus, concern has been expressed that the lack of quality control used in the preparation of medicinal herbs, plus their unregulated sale and uninformed use, pose potential adverse health effects for consumers. There is also concern regarding potential herb/herb or herb/drug interactions and possible untoward health effects of medicinal herbs in sensitive subpopulations such as the young and the elderly and certain genetically predisposed individuals. In this paper, we discuss these concerns at some length and make recommendations for additional research and education discussed in the recent International Workshop to Evaluate Research Needs on the Use and Safety of Medicinal Herbs. PMID:10504141

Matthews, H B; Lucier, G W; Fisher, K D

1999-01-01

28

[The content of Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in selected species of herbs and herb infusions].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was the recognition of the contents and distributions of calcium, magnesium, iron and copper in 6 herb species (matricaria chamomila, tilia cordata, equisetum arvense, melissa officinalis, mentha piperita, hypericum perforatum) and in the herb infusions. The samples were digested using a microwave oven, and the elements concentration was determined by AAS method. The following levels of Ca, Mg, Mg and Cu in the herbs were determined: 6872-19802 mg/kg Ca, 4630-8530 mg/kg Mg, 149.9-415.6 mg/kg Fe and 15.15-24.64 mg/kg Cu. The values of extractions in the infusions of herb were as follows: 16.1-73.8% Ca, 14.4-37.3% Mg, 5.1-9.7% Fe, 13.1-21.8% Cu. This indicates, that a very small part of the iron can be potentially treated as a bioavailable fraction for persons, using plant drugs as infusions. One glass of infusion (250 cm3) contain elements in quantities corresponding to: 0.78-2.61% average daily dietary intake (ADDIs) of Ca, 0.76-1.36% ADDIs of Mg, 0.26-0.38% ADDIs of Cu and only 0.15-0.33% ADDIs of Fe. PMID:18666620

Raczuk, Jolanta; Biardzka, Elzbieta; Daruk, Justyna

2008-01-01

29

Herbal remedies: drug-herb interactions.  

PubMed

Controlled clinical studies are needed to clarify and determine the clinical importance of drug-herb interactions. However, it is unlikely that this information will be forthcoming except as anecdotal reports. Patients taking drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (cyclosporine, digoxin, hypoglycemic agents, lithium, phenytoin, procainamide, theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants, and warfarin) should be discouraged from using herbal products. All drugs with a narrow therapeutic index may either have increased adverse effects or be less effective when used in conjunction with herbal products. More research is required to define the interactions. When adverse reactions are experienced with drug therapy, patients must always be queried as to their intake of herbal products: what they are taking in pills and tincture form, what they are drinking as teas, and what they are eating from their garden. PMID:11961942

Kuhn, Merrily A

2002-04-01

30

PA02.08. Role of herbs in psychosomatic disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Stress is taking toll of the health of the people in this present competitive and challenging world. Ayurvedic acharayas have realized the role of mind on the body thousands of years ago. While mentioning the etiology of almost every disease our acharyas have mentioned the psychological factors like bhaya, shoka, kroda etc along with the physiological causes. It shows the effect of mind in causation of a disease. These psychological factors like bhaya, shoka etc when become excessive and uncontrollable they lead to manasika rogas. These manasika rogas are called as psychosomatic disorders. In Ayurveda a number of herbs have been mentioned as medhya rasayanas. The herbs like brahmi, mandookaparni, shankapuspi, aswagandha, yestimadhu, guduchi etc, have been mentioned at various contexts which work in different ways to help restore the health in psychosomatic disorders. Hence the present topic the “ROLE OF HERBS IN PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS” was taken up to study the mode of action of herbs mentioned in manasika rogas. Method: The drugs mentioned by the brihatrayees under the treatment of manasika rogas like unmada and apasmara are enumerated and later the properties of most frequently mentioned herbs are studied. Result: The herbs like Brahmi, Shankapuspi act by their nootropic activity and the herbs like Lashuna, Vaca etc act by their high antioxidant property. Conclusion: The drugs by our acharyas act by their rasa, guna virya and vipaka help in the elimination of aggravated dosas their by helps the body to regain the homeostasis of tridoshas.

Ramgopal, KVRSS

2013-01-01

31

PROCESSING OF FRESH, PARTIALLY DEWATERED HERBS WITH NEAR-CRITICAL FLUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from dry herbs and spices using supercritical and liquid CO2 is practised on an industrial scale. Extraction is only economically and technically feasible for herbs that have relatively high value essential oils that are not degraded by drying of the freshly harvested herb. The extraction of essential oils from fresh herbs is not

O. J. Catchpole; B. M. Smallfield; P. J. Dyer; J. B. Grey; C. McNamara; N. B. Perry; N. E. Durling

32

MedlinePlus: Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Drugs, Supplements, and Herbal Information Drugs Learn about your prescription ... included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies to learn ...

33

The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences. PMID:18499033

Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

2009-01-01

34

Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.  

PubMed

Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

2013-01-01

35

Comparative in vitro antimicrobial activity of Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

Eighteen herbs used in the treatment of infectious diseases in traditional Chinese medicine were evaluated for in vitro activity against ten microbial pathogens. Lyophilized teas were tested by the agar dilution technique at 100-1600 micrograms/ml. Eleven of the preparations were active against at least one microorganism and six of these were active against at least three of the test isolates. Huangqin (Scutellaria sp.) and Huanglian (Coptis sp.) were each active against five of the isolates. Huangqin inhibited Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris at 200 micrograms/ml. Huangqin alone showed strong activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis (less than or equal to 100 micrograms/ml) and Candida albicans (200 micrograms/ml). The antimicrobial activity of various teas, prepared with equal weights of herbs, could be compared against a particular pathogen by considering both the percentage of water-soluble material in the herbs and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the filtered, lyophilized decoctions. PMID:3724208

Franzblau, S G; Cross, C

1986-03-01

36

[Establishment of comprehensive fingerprint database of traditional Chinese herbs].  

PubMed

Quality control of traditional Chinese herbs by fingerprint is being paid close attention in these years. A database software has been designed and built to store these fingerprints and other relevant information. The use of this database is very simple and convenient for ordinary analysts who have no experience on professional database software. This software could be used under many kinds of operation systems such as Windows 95, 98, 2000 and Windows NT 4.0, 5.0. By now, nearly 30 fingerprints and their relevant information of ten kinds of traditional Chinese herbs have been input into this database, and the number of fingerprints in this base will be continuously increased in the future. This database is helpful for the analysis and quality control of traditional Chinese herbs. PMID:12541628

Wang, Long-xing; Xiao, Hong-bin; Liang, Xin-miao

2002-01-01

37

[Relationships between properties and functional targets of Chinese herbs].  

PubMed

Functional targets are the objects that Chinese herbal medicines act directly upon. If the relationships between the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were analyzed clearly, it would benefit the overall understanding of the holistic mechanisms of Chinese herbal treatments. In this paper, data regarding the properties of Chinese herbs and their functional targets were collected from the 2005 edition of The People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. After analyzing and assessing the data, the relationships were defined between the four qi, meridian entry and medicinal functional targets and between the four qi, five flavors and mode of function. Then the relationships between a single herbal medicine and a prescription were analyzed, and the results conformed with the traditional knowledge of Chinese herbal nature and efficacy. This demonstrated that the holistic mechanisms of the properties of Chinese herbs adhere to the findings, which may be beneficial for the development and compatibility of Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:21749831

Xiao, Bin; Tao, Ou; Luo, Ji; Wang, Yun

2011-07-01

38

Molecular mechanism of herbs in human lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

Herbs have been considered natural and valuable sources for anticancer drug discovery. Herbal medicine has been prescribed in many countries over centuries for treating various diseases including infectious and malignant diseases. Nowadays, many of the drugs that have been used for treatment of malignant diseases are derived from natural products such as Taxol, a natural product isolated initially from Pacific Yew (Taxus brevifolia). This review article describes research on molecular mechanisms, especially cytotoxic effect of natural products from plant sources, primarily preclinical studies, involving human lung cancer cells in vitro for providing more knowledge and issues for potential drug development from medicinal herbs in the future. PMID:16471127

Kummalue, Tanawan

2005-11-01

39

Consumer acceptance of model soup system with varying levels of herbs and salt.  

PubMed

Although herbs have been reported as one of the most common saltiness enhancers, few studies have focused on the effect of herbs on reducing added sodium as well as the impact of herbs on consumers' overall liking of foods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effect of varying levels of herbs on reducing added sodium and consumers' overall liking of soups and identify the impact of salt levels on consumers' overall liking of soups. Overall liking of freshly prepared and retorted canned soups with varying levels of herbs was evaluated before and after adding salt by consumers ad libitum until the saltiness of the soup was just about right for them. The results of the study demonstrated that when the perceived herb flavor increased, the amount of salt consumers added to fresh soups decreased (P ? 0.006); however, consumers' overall liking decreased (P ? 0.013) as well for the highest level of herb tested in the study. Although overall liking of all canned soups was not significantly decreased by herbs, the amount of salt consumers added was also not significantly decreased when herbs were used. Overall liking of all soups significantly increased after more salt was added (P ? 0.001), which indicates that salt level was a dominant factor in affecting consumers' overall liking of soups with varying levels of herbs. These findings imply the role of herbs in decreasing salt intake, and the adequate amount of herbs to be added in soup systems. PMID:25220863

Wang, Chao; Lee, Youngsoo; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2014-10-01

40

Original article Tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three Scots  

E-print Network

Original article Tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three Scots pine stands with different - To evaluate the impact of herb layer structure on the transpiration of Scots pine ecosystems in north-eastern Germany, we measured tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three stands. Parameters of tree

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

[Reseach on changes of varieties of ancient and modern Chinese herbs].  

PubMed

Because of many reasons, big changes occur in the varieties of ancient and modern Chinese herbs. Besides a significant increase in the number, there are many other features, such as significant differences among mainstream varieties, partly resolving the chaotic situation of uncoincidence of different herb names, increasing proportion of plant herbs, and herbal multi-polarization, etc. PMID:22032153

Tang, Decai

2011-07-01

42

Chicken Caesar Salad $8 Caesar salad, grilled chicken breast, herb  

E-print Network

olives, sweet onions, red wine vinaigrette EXPLORER PIZZA Cheese Pizza $6 Pepperoni Pizza $6.25 Vegetable Pizza $6.5 AMERICAN GRILL 100% Angus Ground Beef with Cheese $8 Toasted roll, iceberg, tomato, red onionSALAD Chicken Caesar Salad $8 Caesar salad, grilled chicken breast, herb croutons, Parmesan cheese

Patterson, Bruce D.

43

Herb-drug interactions: challenges and opportunities for improved predictions.  

PubMed

Supported by a usage history that predates written records and the perception that "natural" ensures safety, herbal products have increasingly been incorporated into Western health care. Consumers often self-administer these products concomitantly with conventional medications without informing their health care provider(s). Such herb-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when the herbal product perturbs the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters. Despite increasing recognition of these types of herb-drug interactions, a standard system for interaction prediction and evaluation is nonexistent. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying herb-drug interactions remain an understudied area of pharmacotherapy. Evaluation of herbal product interaction liability is challenging due to variability in herbal product composition, uncertainty of the causative constituents, and often scant knowledge of causative constituent pharmacokinetics. These limitations are confounded further by the varying perspectives concerning herbal product regulation. Systematic evaluation of herbal product drug interaction liability, as is routine for new drugs under development, necessitates identifying individual constituents from herbal products and characterizing the interaction potential of such constituents. Integration of this information into in silico models that estimate the pharmacokinetics of individual constituents should facilitate prospective identification of herb-drug interactions. These concepts are highlighted with the exemplar herbal products milk thistle and resveratrol. Implementation of this methodology should help provide definitive information to both consumers and clinicians about the risk of adding herbal products to conventional pharmacotherapeutic regimens. PMID:24335390

Brantley, Scott J; Argikar, Aneesh A; Lin, Yvonne S; Nagar, Swati; Paine, Mary F

2014-03-01

44

College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension Growing Herbs Outdoors  

E-print Network

. Check soil moisture using a trowel, moisture meter, or your fingers, and irrigate when the soil is dry of the easiest plants to grow because they tolerate a variety of soil types and have relatively few insect in full sun. Soil Preparation It is best to plant herbs in soil with good drainage. If water remains

Guiltinan, Mark

45

Resources limit the fecundity of three woodland herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of supplemental hand pollination on fruit set, seed number, and seed weight were examined for 3 perennial, woodland herbs, Uvularia sessilifolia, Geranium maculatum, and Maianthemum canadense. We found no evidence for pollen limitation of any measure of fecundity. Low light probably limited fecundity in Geranium, while soil nitrogen limited the number of sseds\\/fruit in Maianthemum. For Geranium and Maianthemum

C. McCall; R. B. Primack

1987-01-01

46

Herbs–Are they Safe Enough? An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many

Divya Singh; Rajiv Gupta; Shubhini A. Saraf

2012-01-01

47

Herbs—Are they safe enough! An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs based on herbs have become a common form of therapy as well as for prophylaxis because they are often perceived as being natural and therefore harmless. Today they are one of the hottest trends and most sought after in the field of nutrition or herbal therapeutics. As the use of complementary medicine grows, so does the knowledge that many

Divya Singh; Rajiv Gupta; Shubhini A. Saraf

2011-01-01

48

Flavonoid aglycones and phytosterols from the Erigeron acris L. herb.  

PubMed

Four flavonoid aglycones (apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin) were isolated from methanolic extract from the herb of Erigemn acris L. (Asteraceae). In this extract five phytosterols (campesterol, chondrillasterol, stigmast-7-en-3-ol(5alpha,3alpha), stigmasterol and spinasterone) were also identified. PMID:17203871

Nazaruk, Jolanta

2006-01-01

49

The Public Health Impact of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements  

PubMed Central

Dietary supplement use has increased exponentially in recent years despite the lack of regulatory oversight and in the face of growing safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the public health implications and safety concerns associated with dietary supplement use, especially by cancer patients. Botanical research is actively pursued at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Integrative Medicine department. Work of the MSKCC Center for the Study of Botanical Immunomodulators is described, and guidelines for cancer patients’ use of dietary supplements outlined. Herbs and other botanicals are complex, physiologically active agents, but little is known about most of the popular, widely available dietary supplements. Herb-drug interactions, a major concern, are exacerbated in the cancer setting. Biologically active agents may interfere with chemotherapy and other prescription medications. They may exert anti-coagulant activity at rather inconvenient times such as during surgery, and create other serious problems. Research on the bioavailability, effective dosage, safety and benefits of these complex agents is sorely needed. Oncology professionals and other healthcare providers should educate themselves and their patients about these issues. Probably the largest, continuously-updated free information resource is MSKCC’s AboutHerbs website (www.mskcc.org/AboutHerbs). PMID:19890479

Cassileth, Barrie R.; Heitzer, Marjet; Wesa, Kathleen

2009-01-01

50

An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy  

PubMed Central

Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and leaves are hairy, more over it has two types of stomata, anisocytic and paracytic. A herb, C. pluricaulis has emerged as a good source of the traditional medicine for the treatment of liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, and CNS disease. Pharmacological results have validated the use of this species in traditional medicine. All the parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. Expansion of research materials would provide more opportunities for the discovery of new bioactive principles from C. pluricaulis. PMID:25182446

Agarwa, Parul; Sharma, Bhawna; Fatima, Amreen; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

2014-01-01

51

An update on Murraya koenigii spreng: a multifunctional Ayurvedic herb.  

PubMed

Murraya koenigii Spreng (Rutaceae), a medicinally important herb of Indian origin, has been used for centuries in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Leaves, fruits, roots and bark of this plant are a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. These alkaloids have been reported for their various pharmacological activities such as antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal, diuretic and antioxidant activities. Apart from these activities, the plant is reported to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant make a demand of an exhaustive review of its potential as a valuable therapeutic agent for the treatment and management of various ailments frequently affecting humans. The present review gives a detailed description of the phytochemical, pharmacological, clinical and pre-clinical works carried out on this medicinal herb and also throws light on its therapeutic potential. PMID:21849142

Gupta, Priyanka; Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod K

2011-08-01

52

Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin), alkaloids (berberine), terpenes (artemisinin, ?-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid), quinones (shikonin and emodin) and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3), which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed. PMID:21777476

2011-01-01

53

Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae.  

PubMed

The anti-HIV-1 activity of aromatic herbs in Labiatae was evaluated in vitro. Forty five extract from among 51 samples obtained from 46 herb species showed significant inhibitory effects against HIV-1 induced cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. In particular, the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis, a family of Mentha x piperita "grapefruit mint," Mentha x piperita var. crispa, Ocimum basilicum cv "cinnamon," Perilla frutescens var. crispa f. viridis, Prunella vulgaris subsp. asiatica and Satureja montana showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity (with an ED of 16 microg/ml). The active components in the extract samples were found to be water-soluble polar substances, not nonpolar compounds such as essential oils. In addition, these aqueous extracts inhibited giant cell formation in co-culture of Molt-4 cells with and without HIV-1 infection and showed inhibitory activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. PMID:9743251

Yamasaki, K; Nakano, M; Kawahata, T; Mori, H; Otake, T; Ueba, N; Oishi, I; Inami, R; Yamane, M; Nakamura, M; Murata, H; Nakanishi, T

1998-08-01

54

Collected seeds and fruits from herbs as prehistoric food  

Microsoft Academic Search

New investigations of two archaeobotanical finds are presented: a large assemblage of pure fruits of Polygonum lapathifolium from Bremen-Strom, Germany and the gut contents of a bog body from Kayhausen near Oldenburg, Germany. The general question\\u000a is to find out for sure which herb species were intentionally gathered for human consumption. To accept species as such, they\\u000a have to fulfil

Karl-Ernst Behre

2008-01-01

55

Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation  

PubMed Central

Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

Korac, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

2011-01-01

56

Analysis of some Indian medicinal herbs by INAA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Indian medicinal herbs, used for strengthening the body immune system, are rich source of many essential nutrient\\u000a elements in bioavailable form. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) employing short (5 minutes) and long (14 hours\\u000a and 3 days) reactor irradiation followed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry has been used for the determination of\\u000a Al, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl,

A. N. Garg; A. Kumar; A. G. C. Nair; A. V. R. Reddy

2007-01-01

57

Ecotoxicological responses of three ornamental herb species to cadmium.  

PubMed

Cadmium is one of the most toxic elements. The ideal vegetal cover should be ensured by the selection of appropriate plant species for successful phytoremediation. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of Cd on the following 3 ornamental herbs were investigated: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Based on the inhibition rate of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, early seedling growth, median inhibition concentration (IC50) values, and index of tolerance (IT) values, ecotoxicological indicators were determined. The results showed that 10??M to 50??M Cd had little effect on seed germination or root and shoot elongation of the 3 ornamental herbs (p?>?0.01). With an increase in Cd concentrations, alfalfa (M. sativa) was the most sensitive to Cd toxicity in terms of seed germination and root elongation. Based on the IC50 of root elongation, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the least sensitive to Cd. Based on the IC50 of seed germination and shoot elongation, white clover had the least sensitivity to Cd. Among the 3 ornamental herbs, based on the IC50 of seed germination and root and shoot elongation, alfalfa (M. sativa) was all the most sensitive plant. According to the index of tolerance, Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) was the most tolerant plant. PMID:23564584

Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Mingzhu

2013-08-01

58

Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics  

PubMed Central

Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm), flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood). These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 40–1990 µmol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 µmol TE/g), Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 µmol TE/g), Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 µmol TE/g), Artemisia anomala herb (1400 µmol TE/g), Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 µmol TE/g) and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 µmol TE/g). Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action. PMID:18955214

Banbury, Linda K.; Leach, David N.

2008-01-01

59

Medicinal Herbs for Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Cochrane Hepatobiliary Systematic Review of Randomized Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess beneficial and harmful effects of medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS:The databases of the Cochrane Collaboration, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and BIOSIS were searched combined with manual searches of five Chinese and one Japanese journals. We included randomized trials comparing medicinal herbs with placebo, no intervention, nonspecific treatment, other herbs, or interferon

Jianping Liu; Eric Manheimer; Kiichiro Tsutani; Christian Gluud

2003-01-01

60

The Antimycobacterial Activity of Hypericum perforatum Herb and the Effects of Surfactants.  

E-print Network

?? Due to the essential demands for novel anti-tuberculosis treatments for global tuberculosis control, this research investigated the antimycobacterial activity of Hypericum perforatum herb (commonly… (more)

Shen, Shujie

2012-01-01

61

Effect of a variety of Chinese herbs and an herb-containing dentifrice on volatile sulfur compounds associated with halitosis: An in vitro analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro. Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of bacterial activity and VSC inhibition. Extracted substances from Chinese herbs were identified by VSC inhibition tests with a Halimeter and microbial sensitivity testing. The effectiveness on halitosis was compared between a dentifrice containing one of the effective Chinese herbs (ie, chrysanthemum flower [Chrysanthemum morifolium flos]), 4 commercially available antihalitosis dentifrices, and a positive control that received no treatment. Results: Ten volunteers provided saliva samples for VSC testing. Of the 40 herbs tested, 14 extracts had percent inhibition rates of VSCs >50%. Ten herbs showed greatest effect against all culturable microorganisms with bacterial inhibition >70%. There was a weak positive correlation between bacteriostasis and the anti-VSC activity of the herbs with a correlation coefficient of 0.2579 (Pearson). The mean (SD) values of the VSC testing were as follows: dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower, 55.91 (8.16) ppb; Crest Tea Refreshing Dentifrice®, 48.39 (7.48) ppb (P = NS); Cortex Phellodendri Dentifrice®, 139.90 (14.70) ppb (P < 0.01); Colgate Total Plus Whitening®, 120.94 (15.58) ppb (P < 0.01); Zhong Hua Chinese Herbs Dentifrice®, 136.96 (13.06) ppb (P < 0.01); and positive control, 312.38 (28.58) ppb (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Of 40 herbs tested, 14 Chinese herbs were found to be effective for VSC inhibition. A dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower reduced the formation of VSC in vitro, showing a significantly greater effect than the control group and 3 of 4 dentifrices already on the market. PMID:24683259

Li, Ming-yu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Zhu-ting

2010-01-01

62

Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Mongolia.  

PubMed

In the present study we evaluated the free radical scavenging action of some medicinal herbs growing in Mongolia. The aqueous extract of nine herbs Chamenerion angustifolium (Ch.ang), Equisetum arvense (Eq.arv), Gentiana decumbens (Gn.dec), Geranium pratense (Gr.pra), Lomatogonium carinthiacum (L.car), Nonea poulla (N.pl), Phodococcum vitis-idaea (Ph.v), Sphallerocarpus gracilis (Sph.gr), Stellera chamaejasme (St.cha) were used in the present experiment. The free radical scavenging action was determined in vitro and ex vivo by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and chemiluminescence (CL) analyzer. The results showed that extracts of Ch.ang, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v, Sph.gr and St. cha possess strong scavenging action of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. On the other hand, the radical scavenging action of Eq.arv was low. Extracts of N.pl and Ph.v markedly inhibited the CL generated from rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 system whereas the CL was moderately inhibited by Eq.arv, Gn.dec, Gr.pra, L.car and St.cha. The extracts of Ch.ang and Sph.gr did not decrease the CL generation. Ch.ang, Gr.pra, L.car, N.pl, Ph.v and St.cha also depressed reactive oxygen production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate ex vivo. Thus it was confirmed that the medicinal herbs from Mongolia possess high antioxidant potency in vitro and ex vivo. PMID:11185733

Myagmar, B E; Aniya, Y

2000-06-01

63

Hepatitis induced by traditional Chinese herbs; possible toxic components.  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are widely available in the United Kingdom for the treatment of chronic skin disorders. Their benefits are considerable, but their use is completely unregulated. Two patients are described here who suffered an acute hepatitic illness related to taking traditional Chinese herbs. Both recovered fully. The mixtures that they took included two plant components also contained within the mixture taken by a previously reported patient who suffered fatal hepatic necrosis. These cases high-light the need for greater awareness of both the therapeutic and toxic potential of herbal remedies, as well as greater control of their use. PMID:7890220

Kane, J A; Kane, S P; Jain, S

1995-01-01

64

Characterization of phenolic constituents from ephedra herb extract.  

PubMed

Nine known compounds: trans-cinnamic acid, catechin, syringin, epicatechin, symplocoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside 7-O-glucoside, isovitexin 2-O-rhamnoside, herbacetin 7-O-glucoside, and pollenitin B and a new flavonoid glycoside, characterized as herbacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside (1) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence, were isolated from a traditional crude drug, "Ephedra herb extract". Compound 1 had no effects on HGF-induced motility, whereas herbacetin, which is an aglycone of 1, significantly inhibited it. PMID:23666001

Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Yamakami, Saori; Yoshida, Takashi; Wakana, Daigo; Hyuga, Masashi; Hyuga, Sumiko; Hanawa, Toshihiko; Goda, Yukihiro

2013-01-01

65

Systems Biology of Meridians, Acupoints, and Chinese Herbs in Disease  

PubMed Central

Meridians, acupoints, and Chinese herbs are important components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). They have been used for disease treatment and prevention and as alternative and complementary therapies. Systems biology integrates omics data, such as transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolomics data, in order to obtain a more global and complete picture of biological activity. To further understand the existence and functions of the three components above, we reviewed relevant research in the systems biology literature and found many recent studies that indicate the value of acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Acupuncture is useful in pain moderation and relieves various symptoms arising from acute spinal cord injury and acute ischemic stroke. Moreover, Chinese herbal extracts have been linked to wound repair, the alleviation of postmenopausal osteoporosis severity, and anti-tumor effects, among others. Different acupoints, variations in treatment duration, and herbal extracts can be used to alleviate various symptoms and conditions and to regulate biological pathways by altering gene and protein expression. Our paper demonstrates how systems biology has helped to establish a platform for investigating the efficacy of TCM in treating different diseases and improving treatment strategies. PMID:23118787

Lin, Li-Ling; Wang, Ya-Hui; Lai, Chi-Yu; Chau, Chan-Lao; Su, Guan-Chin; Yang, Chun-Yi; Lou, Shu-Ying; Chen, Szu-Kai; Hsu, Kuan-Hao; Lai, Yen-Ling; Wu, Wei-Ming; Huang, Jian-Long; Liao, Chih-Hsin; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

2012-01-01

66

Inactivation of Enteric Viruses in Minimally Processed Berries and Herbs?  

PubMed Central

Several hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated berries and vegetables have recently been reported. Model experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of freeze-drying, freeze-drying combined with heating, and steam blanching for inactivation of enteric viruses that might be present on the surface of berries and herbs. Inactivation of HAV and inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for HuNoV, were assessed by viral culturing and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), whereas HuNoV survival was determined only by quantitative RT-PCR. While freeze-drying barely reduced (<1.3 log10 units) the amount of HAV RNA detected in frozen produce, a greater decline in HAV infectivity was observed. The resistance of HuNoV genogroup I (GI) to freeze-drying was significantly higher than that of HuNoV GII on berries. Addition of a terminal dry heat treatment at 120°C after freeze-drying enhanced virus inactivation by at least 2 log10 units, except for HuNoV GII. The results suggest that steam blanching at 95°C for 2.5 min effectively inactivated infectious enteric viruses if they were present in herbs. Our results provide data for adjusting food processing technologies if viral contamination of raw materials is suspected. PMID:19395576

Butot, S.; Putallaz, T.; Amoroso, R.; Sanchez, G.

2009-01-01

67

Herb-drug interactions: an overview of systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The aim of this overview of systematic reviews (SRs) is to evaluate critically the evidence regarding interactions between herbal medicinal products (HMPs) and synthetic drugs. METHODS Four electronic databases were searched to identify relevant SRs. RESULTS Forty?six SRs of 46 different HMPs met our inclusion criteria. The vast majority of SRs were of poor methodological quality. The majority of these HMPs were not associated with severe herb–drug interactions. Serious herb–drug interactions were noted for Hypericum perforatum and Viscum album. The most severe interactions resulted in transplant rejection, delayed emergence from anaesthesia, cardiovascular collapse, renal and liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, bradycardia, hypovolaemic shock, inflammatory reactions with organ fibrosis and death. Moderately severe interactions were noted for Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, Piper methysticum, Serenoa repens and Camellia sinensis. The most commonly interacting drugs were antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. CONCLUSION The majority of the HMPs evaluated in SRs were not associated with drug interactions with serious consequences. However, the poor quality and the scarcity of the primary data prevent firm conclusions. PMID:22670731

Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala; Ernst, Edzard

2013-01-01

68

Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals  

PubMed Central

Background Herbs and other dietary supplements are among the most commonly used complementary medical therapies. However, clinicians generally have limited knowledge, confidence and communication about herbs and dietary supplements (HDS). We compared diverse clinicians' expertise about HDS to better target future curricula. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians, pharmacists, nurses, dietitians and trainees in these professions prior to e-curriculum about HDS in 2004–2005. The survey had 28 questions about knowledge, 19 questions about their confidence and 11 questions about their communication practices about HDS. Results Of the 1,268 participants, 25% were male; the average age was 40 years. Mean scores were 66% correct for knowledge; 53/95 on the confidence scale and 2.2 out of possible 10 on the communication practices scale. On average, scores were lowest for those who used fewer HDS; and trainees and nurses compared with physicians, pharmacists and dietitians (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Conclusion Clinicians have moderate levels of knowledge and confidence, but poor communication skills about HDS. Future curricula about HDS should target nurses, students, practitioners and those not currently using HDS. Research is needed to determine the most cost-effective educational strategies for diverse health professionals. PMID:16646964

Kemper, Kathi J; Gardiner, Paula; Gobble, Jessica; Woods, Charles

2006-01-01

69

Population dynamics and the effect of disturbance in the monocarpic herb Carlina vulgaris (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Löfgren, P., Eriksson, O. & Lehtilä, K. 2000: Population dynamics and the effect of disturbance in the monocarpic herb Carlina vulgaris (Asteraceae). — Ann. Bot. Fennici 37: 183-192. The population dynamics of short-lived monocarpic perennials are often considered to be influenced by disturbance, providing areas of bare soil. We studied demography of the monocarpic herb Carlina vulgaris (Asteraceae), with special

Per Löfgren; Ove Eriksson; Kari Lehtilä

70

Rapid and Simple Method for Quality Control of Raw Materials of Herbs by HSCCC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The component of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can be influenced by soils, climates, and growth stages. The quality of TCM mostly depends on the quality of the raw materials of the used herbs. A portable instrument and simple analysis method are urgently needed to be used for quality control of the raw herbs. In this study, analytical CCC (Model

Xiao Wang; Jianhua Liu; Tianyou Zhang; Yoichiro Ito

2007-01-01

71

Shelf life of the green herb ‘shado beni’ ( Eryngium foetidum L.) stored under refrigerated conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postharvest behaviour of the food flavouring herb ‘shado beni’ (Eryngium foetidum L.) also known as ‘bhandhanya’ during storage at 3, 10, 17 and 28 °C (ambient), with and without unsealed packaging was investigated. Unpackaged shado beni rapidly transpired and wilted with a concomitant decrease in freshness and loss of odour. Weight loss of such herbs ranged from 85% under

Clement K. Sankat; Vashti Maharaj

1996-01-01

72

Distribution of herbs and shrubs in relation to landform and canopy cover in riparian forests  

E-print Network

Distribution of herbs and shrubs in relation to landform and canopy cover in riparian forests the distribution of herb and shrub species relative to landform and forest canopy attributes of streamside forests landforms, topographic positions, microsites, and coniferous tree cover within the trans-riparian gradient

73

Noncorrelated effects of seed predation and pollination on the perennial herb Ruellia nudiflora remain  

E-print Network

Noncorrelated effects of seed predation and pollination on the perennial herb Ruellia nudiflora seed predator and pollinator effects on the perennial herb Ruellia nudiflora at two sites in Yucatan predator and pollinator effects on R. nudiflora seed production and (2) whether such an interaction varied

Herrera, Carlos M.

74

Protein Molecular Markers for Herbal Natures of Six Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new method of using molecular markers to study the material base of the herbal nature of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs. The feasibility of using the all-electric ion chromatography to select the appropriate protein molecular markers for studying the herbal nature of TCM herbs is also discussed. In the study, the chromatographic peaks of the total

Wang Hou-wei; Dou Yan-ling; Tian Jing-zhen; Wang Zhen-guo

2008-01-01

75

Chemical correlation between Gegen Qinlian dispensing granule and its four raw herbs by LC fingerprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gegen Qinlian dispensing granule, a favorite composite formula, is a combination of Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Scutellariae, Rhizoma Coptidis and Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae Praeparata cum Melle. To develop a method to overall evaluate correlation between the formula and its four raw herbs, LC fingerprints of the formula and its raw herbs were developed and LC-DAD-MS was employed to identify

L. Chen; Y. P. Tang; M. J. Chen; H. S. Deng; X. P. Yan; D. K. Wu

2010-01-01

76

Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using ?-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (?-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

2014-10-01

77

Information Resource: About Herbs, Botanicals, and Other Products  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Integrative Medicine Service of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) provides oncologists and other healthcare professionals with objective information on medicinal herbs and other botanicals. Users may search for a particular plant name or browse the entire catalog by letter of the alphabet. Searches yield a clinical summary for each plant, a description of purported uses, information on adverse effects and drug interactions, and so on. The site also includes a News and Alerts section, a FAQs page (mostly about possible risks and complications), and evaluations of alternative or unproved cancer therapies. The general reader should also find this regularly updated Web site helpful, but MSKCC cautions against substituting the site "for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem."

2001-01-01

78

[Cat's Claw: an herb from the Peruvian Amazon].  

PubMed

Uncaria tomentosa, also known as cat's claw, an herb from the highlands of the Peruvian Amazon, has been used by natives for hundreds of years to treat immunologic and digestive disorders. Research began in the 1970s to discover the benefits of this plant in relieving symptoms of cancers, arthritis, and other ailments. It has the ability to cleanse the digestive tract, aiding victims of Crohn's, colitis, gastritis and more. In a 1989 study by Klaus Keplinger, several alkaloid oxidants found in the plant's roots showed an ability to stimulate the immune system. The principal alkaloids are isopteropodine and rynchophyiline. Extracts of cat's claw mixed with AZT in an experimental drug, called Krallendom, were effective in reducing symptoms in AIDS patients in Austria. The plant has been useful in reducing secondary effects of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer victims as well. PMID:11363206

Steinberg, P N

1995-01-01

79

Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))

1990-08-01

80

Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae): an American herb in the Old World.  

PubMed

People in the Indian region often apply shankhapushpi and vishnukranti, two Sanskrit-based common names, to Evolvulus alsinoides. These are pre-European names that are applied to a medicinal American species transported into the area. The period of introduction is uncertain, but probably took place in the 1500s or 1600s. Examination of relationships of Evolvulus alsinoides, geographic distribution, its names in Asia, medical uses, and chemical and laboratory analysis indicates that the alien plant was adopted, given an ancient Indian name, and incorporated into some Old World pharmacopoeias. The herb apparently was included in medicines because it not only reminded people of certain aspects of their gods and goddesses, but also because the chemicals it contained were useful against some maladies. PMID:18384986

Austin, Daniel F

2008-05-01

81

Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

A method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs (senna pods, botanical name Cassia angustifolia; devil's claw, botanical name Harpagophytum procumbens; and ginger roots, botanical name Zingiber officinale). The method, which was tested in a mini-collaborative study by 4 laboratories, is based on an immunoaffinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography separation and fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. It allows the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels lower than 2 ng/g. A second extractant (acetone-water) was tested and compared to the proposed methanol-water extractant. Several post-column derivatization options (electrochemically generated bromine, photochemical reaction, and chemical bromination) as well as different integration modes (height versus area) were also investigated. No differences were found depending on the choice of derivatization system or the signal integration mode used. The method was tested for 3 different matrixes: senna pods, ginger root, and devil's claw. Performance characteristics were established from the results of the study and resulted in HorRat values ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 with mean recoveries from 78 to 91% for the extraction with methanol-water and HorRat values ranging from 0.10-1.03 with mean recoveries from 98 to 103% for the extraction with acetone-water. As a result, the method, with all tested variations, was found to be fit-for-purpose for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs at levels of 1 microg/kg and above. PMID:16792057

Arranz, Isabel; Sizoo, Eric; van Egmond, Hans; Kroeger, Katy; Legarda, Teresa M; Burdaspal, Pedro; Reif, Klaus; Stroka, Joerg

2006-01-01

82

Algicidal effects of four Chinese herb extracts on bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.  

PubMed

Extracts from four Chinese herbs, Phellodendri chinensis cortex, Artemisia annua L., Scutellaria baicalensis G. and Citrus reticulate peel were tested for their algicidal effects on Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The results showed that M. aeruginosa was more susceptible than C. pyrenoidosa. The growth of M. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) by the four herb extracts. Among the four herbs, P. chinensis cortex and S. baicalensis had the greatest inhibitory effects on M. aeruginosa, followed by C reticulate peel and A. annua. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of S. baicalensis, P chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel and A. annua were 0.87, 0.88, 5.27 and 1 1.16 gherb L-1, respectively. The growth of C. pyrenoidosa was moderately inhibited by the herb extracts individually. The EC5o concentrations for S. baicalensis, P. chinensis cortex, C. reticulate peel andA. annua were 8.67, 11.67, 12.81 and 12.44 g herb L-1', respectively. Extract from S. baicalensis displayed stronger algicidal effects on C. pyrenoidosa than the other three herbs, although no lethal effect on C. pyrenoidosa was observed during the cultivation period. Compared with corresponding individual extract at the same dosage, the binary mixtures of the four herb extracts enhanced the algicidal effects on M. aeruginosa. The maximum inhibitory rates of all binary mixtures of the four herb extracts were all above 92% during the 10-day incubation. The results demonstrate that Chinese herbs, such as P. chinensis cortex or S. baicalensis and their combinations, could offer an effective alternative for mitigating outbreaks of harmful algal blooms in water bodies. PMID:24701910

Ye, Liangtao; Qian, Jiazhong; Jin, Song; Zuo, Shengpeng; Mei, Hui; Ma, Suming

2014-01-01

83

Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic and diuretic effects of a commercially available Solidago gigantea Herb. extract.  

PubMed

The evaluation of a commercially available Solidago gigantea Herb. extract (Urol mono) revealed pronounced anti-inflammatory properties in the rat with respect to a reduction of the carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema. A direct comparison with diclofenac-Na (3 mg/kg b.w. p.o.) revealed that a high dose of Solidago gigantea Herb. extract possesses the same anti-inflammatory efficacy as diclofenac-Na. In addition, the Solidago gigantea Herb. extract exhibited moderate spasmolytic and diuretic properties. PMID:7710440

Leuschner, J

1995-02-01

84

Protection against Cancer with Medicinal Herbs via Activation of Tumor Suppressor  

PubMed Central

Cancer remains a major cause of death, although research is ongoing for the development of more effective drugs. Some herbs have shown potential in preventing the occurrence and/or progression of cancer and other chronic diseases. They are being screened comprehensively to explore the possibility of development of feasible anticancer drugs. However, more information is required about the response to and the molecular target for specific herbs. It seems that there is a relationship between some medicinal herbs and tumor suppressor molecules which protect a cell from cancer. In this paper, we summarize the progress of recent research on herbs, with a particular focus on its anticancer role and molecular mechanisms underlying the cancer prevention property, supporting design for further research in this field. PMID:23213333

Kitagishi, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Mayumi; Matsuda, Satoru

2012-01-01

85

Occupational kidney disease among Chinese herbalists exposed to herbs containing aristolochic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMany Chinese herbs contain aristolochic acids (ALAs) which are nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. The objective of this study was to identify whether exposure to herbs containing ALAs increased the risk of kidney disease among Chinese herbalists.MethodsA nested case–control study was carried out on 6538 Chinese herbalists registered between 1985 and 1998. All incident cases of chronic renal failure reported to the

Hsiao-Yu Yang; Jung-Der Wang; Tsai-Chang Lo; Pau-Chung Chen

2010-01-01

86

Assessment of the Microbiological Safety of Dried Spices and Herbs Commercialized in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spices and herbs are natural products or their blends that must be free of extraneous matter content. Conventional production\\u000a of these products implicates a number of hygienic problems so spices and herbs may be exposed to a wide range of microbial\\u000a contamination during pre- and post-harvest and they can present high microbial counts. In this study, we have analyzed the

Isabel Sospedra; Jose M. Soriano; Jordi Mañes

2010-01-01

87

Plasticity in response to phosphorus and light availability in four forest herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential ability of forest herbs to colonize secondary forests on former agricultural land is generally attributed\\u000a to different rates of dispersal. After propagule arrival, however, establishing individuals still have to cope with abiotic\\u000a soil legacies from former agricultural land use. We focused on the plastic responses of forest herbs to increased phosphorus\\u000a availability, as phosphorus is commonly found to

Lander Baeten; Margot Vanhellemont; Pieter De Frenne; An De Schrijver; Martin Hermy; Kris Verheyen

2010-01-01

88

Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.  

PubMed

Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-04-01

89

Extraction of epicuticular wax and nonacosan-10-OL from Ephedra herb utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results concerning the processing feasibility of using supercritical CO2 were reported for the extraction of epicuticular wax fromEphedra herb. Subsequently the isolability of nonacosan-10-ol from the total extract of epicuticular wax was evaluated by TLC and\\u000a gas chromatography. Also, Soxhlet extractions ofEphedra herb by n-hexane and chloroform were performed and these results were compared with those obtained by supercritical

Young Hae Choi; Jinwoong Kim; Min Jeong Noh; Eun Mee Park; Ki-Pung Yoo

1996-01-01

90

Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with ?-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that ?-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

2004-09-01

91

Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.  

PubMed

Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120?days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ?-carotene?-?linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-08-01

92

An Overview of Important Ethnomedicinal Herbs of Phyllanthus Species: Present Status and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius. PMID:24672382

Sarin, Bharti; Martin, Juan Pedro; Mohanty, Aparajita

2014-01-01

93

Critical analysis of herbs acting on Mutravaha srotas  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda has given prime importance to Mutravaha srotas (urinary system) and Srotogata Vikaras (urinary disorders). Being a system responsible for homeostasis of fluids in the body it also detoxifies the body by eliminating certain waste products through urine. When diseased, people produce symptoms such as, increased or decreased urine production, painful maturition, formation of stones, and thereby obstructed micturition, increased frequency of micturition, and so on. There are many herbs with varied actions specifically aimed at mitigating urinary system disorders. Drugs such as Jambu, Amrasthi, and the like, reduce the increased flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutrasangrahaneeya, whereas, drugs like Ikshu, Kustha, and so on, increase the flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutravirechaneeya. There are drugs like Padma, Utpala, and so on, which impart normal color to the urine and are known as Mutravirajaneeya dravyas. Asmarighna dravyas break down the calculi and remove them through the urine. These dravyas, when used under proper direction, help in relieving the pain and apathy caused by the disease. PMID:22131705

Bhat, Savitha D.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2010-01-01

94

Modern European monographs for quality control of Chinese herbs.  

PubMed

The actual concern about the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on observations that these medicinal plants may have a high risk potential due to insufficient definitions, problems with identity, purity and falsifications. No uniform legal status for these groups of herbal drugs currently exists in the European Union. For quality control, monographs for TCM herbs can mainly be found in the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China. Based on these facts the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia decided in 2005 to establish TCM-herbal drug monographs for the most important medicinal plants imported from Far East. These new monographs had to be established and evaluated on the basis of existing monographs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP), English edition 2005. Due to important differences in the overall features of EP and ChP, a simple adapt/adopt procedure was not feasible. Therefore, specialist groups were mandated with a corresponding working programme. Some results and actual problems related to this working programme will be presented and discussed. PMID:21077026

Bauer, Rudolf; Franz, Gerhard

2010-12-01

95

Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa with Extracts from Chinese Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Boiling water extracts of 66 selected Chinese medicinal herbs were screened for their anticyanobaterial activity against Microcystis aeruginosa by the soft-agar overlayer (SAO) method. Results indicated that extracts from 16 materials could inhibit the growth of this bacterial species. Among these anticyanobacterial samples, eight extracts showed low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), including four extracts with MICs between 1 and 6 mg/mL, and four extracts with MICs < 1 mg/mL which could be considered useful to prevent the outbreak of cyanobacteria before the appearance of cyanobacterial blooms. Further study showed that three extracts with MIC values < 1 mg/mL induced intensive chlorophyll-a lysis within 7 days at the MIC. The results suggested that highly efficient anticyanobacterial compounds must be involved in the inhibitory activities. The final results indicated these three extracts (from Malaphis chinensis, Cynips gallae-tinctoriae and Fructus mume) had the potential to be developed as algicides due to their remarkably anticyanobacterial activities. PMID:19865537

Yang, Jing-Dong; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Yu-Fen; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhi-Qi

2009-01-01

96

Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.  

PubMed

The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

2014-01-01

97

Linking vital rates to invasiveness of a perennial herb.  

PubMed

Invaders generally show better individual performance than non-invaders and, therefore, vital rates (survival, growth, fecundity) could potentially be used to predict species invasiveness outside their native range. Comparative studies have usually correlated vital rates with the invasiveness status of species, while few studies have investigated them in relation to population growth rate. Here, I examined the influence of five vital rates (plant establishment, survival, growth, flowering probability, seed production) and their variability (across geographic regions, habitat types, population sizes and population densities) on population growth rate (?) using data from 37 populations of an invasive, iteroparous herb (Lupinus polyphyllus) in a part of its invaded range in Finland. Variation in vital rates was often related to habitat type and population density. The performance of the populations varied from declining to rapidly increasing independently of habitat type, population size or population density, but differed between regions. The population growth rate increased linearly with plant establishment, and with the survival and growth of vegetative individuals, while the survival of flowering individuals and annual seed production were not related to ?. The vital rates responsible for rapid population growth varied among populations. These findings highlight the importance of both regional and local conditions to plant population dynamics, demonstrating that individual vital rates do not necessarily correlate with ?. Therefore, to understand the role of individual vital rates in a species ability to invade, it is necessary to quantify their effect on population growth rate. PMID:24390414

Ramula, Satu

2014-04-01

98

Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.  

PubMed

This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, ?-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

2013-08-01

99

Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage) modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbricus terrestris  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. Objective: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage) modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed (ad libitum) on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v)] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW) induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Results: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation. PMID:23598918

Vattem, DA; Lester, CE; DeLeon, RC; Jamison, BY; Maitin, V

2013-01-01

100

Replacements of Rare Herbs and Simplifications of Traditional Chinese Medicine Formulae Based on Attribute Similarities and Pathway Enrichment Analysis  

PubMed Central

A Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula is a collection of several herbs. TCM formulae have been used to treat various diseases for several thousand years. However, wide usage of TCM formulae has results in rapid decline of some rare herbs. So it is urgent to find common available replacements for those rare herbs with the similar effects. In addition, a formula can be simplified by reducing herbs with unchanged effects. Based on this consideration, we propose a method, called “formula pair,” to replace the rare herbs and simplify TCM formulae. We show its reasonableness from a perspective of pathway enrichment analysis. Both the replacements of rare herbs and simplifications of formulae provide new approaches for a new formula discovery. We demonstrate our approach by replacing a rare herb “Forsythia suspensa” in the formula “the seventh of Sang Ju Yin plus/minus herbs (SSJY)” with a common herb “Thunberg Fritillary Bulb” and simplifying two formulae, “the fifth of Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang plus/minus herbs (FDHJST)” and “Fang Feng Tang” (FFT) to a new formula “Fang Feng Du Huo Tang” (FFDHT). PMID:23533462

Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Meixia; Yi, Zhenghui; Wen, Chengping; Qian, Min; Shi, Tieliu

2013-01-01

101

Herb network construction and co-module analysis for uncovering the combination rule of traditional Chinese herbal formulae  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is characterized by the wide use of herbal formulae, which are capable of systematically treating diseases determined by interactions among various herbs. However, the combination rule of TCM herbal formulae remains a mystery due to the lack of appropriate methods. Methods From a network perspective, we established a method called Distance-based Mutual Information Model (DMIM) to identify useful relationships among herbs in numerous herbal formulae. DMIM combines mutual information entropy and “between-herb-distance” to score herb interactions and construct herb network. To evaluate the efficacy of the DMIM-extracted herb network, we conducted in vitro assays to measure the activities of strongly connected herbs and herb pairs. Moreover, using the networked Liu-wei-di-huang (LWDH) formula as an example, we proposed a novel concept of “co-module” across herb-biomolecule-disease multilayer networks to explore the potential combination mechanism of herbal formulae. Results DMIM, when used for retrieving herb pairs, achieves a good balance among the herb’s frequency, independence, and distance in herbal formulae. A herb network constructed by DMIM from 3865 Collaterals-related herbal formulae can not only nicely recover traditionally-defined herb pairs and formulae, but also generate novel anti-angiogenic herb ingredients (e.g. Vitexicarpin with IC50=3.2 ?M, and Timosaponin A-III with IC50=3.4 ?M) as well as herb pairs with synergistic or antagonistic effects. Based on gene and phenotype information associated with both LWDH herbs and LWDH-treated diseases, we found that LWDH-treated diseases show high phenotype similarity and identified certain “co-modules” enriched in cancer pathways and neuro-endocrine-immune pathways, which may be responsible for the action of treating different diseases by the same LWDH formula. Conclusions DMIM is a powerful method to identify the combination rule of herbal formulae and lead to new discoveries. We also provide the first evidence that the co-module across multilayer networks may underlie the combination mechanism of herbal formulae and demonstrate the potential of network biology approaches in the studies of TCM. PMID:21172056

2010-01-01

102

Tropical forest fragmentation limits pollination of a keystone understory herb.  

PubMed

Loss of native vegetation cover is thought to be a major driver of declines in pollination success worldwide. However, it is not well known whether reducing the fragmentation of remaining vegetation can ameliorate these negative effects. We tested the independent effects of composition vs. configuration on the reproductive success of a keystone tropical forest herb (Heliconia tortuosa). To do this we designed a large-scale mensurative experiment that independently varied connected forest-patch size (configuration) and surrounding amount of forest (composition). In each patch, we tested whether pollen tubes, fruit, and seed set were associated with these landscape variables. We also captured hummingbirds as an indication of pollinator availability in a subset of patches according to the same design. We found evidence for an effect of configuration on seed set of H. tortuosa, but not on other aspects of plant reproduction; proportion of seeds produced increased 40% across the gradient in patch size we observed (0.64 to > 1300 ha), independent of the amount of forest in the surrounding landscape at both local and landscape scales. We also found that the availability of pollinators was dependent upon forest configuration; hummingbird capture rates increased three and one-half times across the patch size gradient, independent of forest amount. Finally, pollinator availability was strongly positively correlated with seed set. We hypothesize that the effects of configuration on plant fitness that we observed are due to reduced pollen quality resulting from altered hummingbird availability and/or movement behavior. Our results suggest that prioritizing larger patches of tropical forest may be particularly important for conservation of this species. PMID:25230471

Hadley, Adam S; Frey, Sarah J K; Robinson, W Douglas; Kress, W John; Betts, Matthew G

2014-08-01

103

An innovative example of herb residues recycling by gasification in a fluidized bed.  

PubMed

A utilization way of herb residues is designed to convert herb residues to gas fuel in industrial-scale by a circulating fluidized bed gasifier in this paper. The product gas is used in the production of Chinese medicine, and the heat of the flue gas from the boiler can be used in herb residues drying to realize the energy recycling and no herb residues discharge. The gasification characteristics of herb residues in the circulating fluidized bed of 300 kg/h were investigated for about 200 h. The results indicated that the gas composition and tar yield were affected by biomass flow rate, equivalence ratio (ER), moisture content and char circulating. The lower heating value of product gas was 4-5 MJ/m(3) using herb residues as feedstock. When mean biomass flow rate was at 5.5 kg m(-2)s(-1) and ER at 0.35, the product gas reached a good condition with lower heating value of 4.89 MJ/m(3) and cold gas efficiency of 62.36%. When the moisture content changed from 12.5% to 18.7%, the concentrations of H2, CO and CO2 changed from 4.66% to 6.92%, 11.23% to 10.15%, and 16.55% to 17.82% respectively, and the tar content in gas decreased from 15.1g/m(3) to 14.4 g/m(3) when the moisture content increased from 12.5% to 15.4%. There are metal oxides in the ash of herb residues, especially CaO, MgO, K2O, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 which have obvious function on tar catalytic decomposition. The ash that attaches to the char particles can decrease the tar yield and improve the quality of gas after returning to the gasifier. PMID:23313058

Guo, Feiqiang; Dong, Yuping; Dong, Lei; Jing, Yuanzhuo

2013-04-01

104

Oregano Herb Versus Oregano Essential Oil as Feed Supplements to Increase the Oxidative Stability of Turkey Meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the use of oregano herb versus oregano essential oil as feed supplements to increase the oxidative stability of turkey meat stored at 4 C. Thirty 12-week-old o turkeys allocated into five groups were fed a control diet and diets supplemented with 5 g oregano herb\\/kg, 10 g oregano herb\\/kg, 100 mg oregano

2005-01-01

105

Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and\\/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular\\/mitochondrial

Kam Ming Ko; Hoi Yan Leung

2007-01-01

106

The Importance of Sexual and Clonal Reproduction for Population Dynamics in the Understory Herb Calathea marantifolia (Marantaceae).  

E-print Network

??I addressed how light availability influences sexual and clonal offspring production, demographic performance and contribution to population dynamics by studying the Neotropical understory herb Calathea… (more)

Matlaga, David Packard

2008-01-01

107

Inhibition of protein glycation by extracts of culinary herbs and spices.  

PubMed

We tested whether polyphenolic substances in extracts of commercial culinary herbs and spices would inhibit fructose-mediated protein glycation. Extracts of 24 herbs and spices from a local supermarket were tested for the ability to inhibit glycation of albumin. Dry samples were ground and extracted with 10 volumes of 50% ethanol, and total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) were measured. Aliquots were incubated in triplicate at pH 7.4 with 0.25 M fructose and 10 mg/mL fatty acid-free bovine albumin. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. In general, spice extracts inhibited glycation more than herb extracts, but inhibition was correlated with total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.89). The most potent inhibitors included extracts of cloves, ground Jamaican allspice, and cinnamon. Potent herbs tested included sage, marjoram, tarragon, and rosemary. Total phenolics were highly correlated with FRAP values (R(2) = 0.93). The concentration of phenolics that inhibited glycation by 50% was typically 4-12 microg/mL. Relative to total phenolic concentration, extracts of powdered ginger and bay leaf were less effective than expected, and black pepper was more effective. Prevention of protein glycation is an example of the antidiabetic potential for bioactive compounds in culinary herbs and spices. PMID:18598169

Dearlove, Rebecca P; Greenspan, Phillip; Hartle, Diane K; Swanson, Ruthann B; Hargrove, James L

2008-06-01

108

[Aromatic trees and herbs that connect Heaven and earth].  

PubMed

It has been known for a long time that aromatic substances (essential oils) contained in plants often exert psychological effects ranging from sedative to excitatory actions. Medicinal effects have also been confirmed through numerous experiences. In ancient times, aromatic trees and herbs were offered to deities, mostly as incenses that were believed to carry people's wishes, such as requests to cure sick people, to Heaven. In the medieval periods, their deep and subtle aromas elevated aromatics to so-called "treasures of the world," while their various medicinal activities including the psychological effects made them useful as treatment measures. Demands for aromatics in our time as raw materials for cosmetics far outweigh those as medicines. The market for aromatics, however, has become virtually non-existent, as the popularity of synthetic aromatics for cosmetics grew. In West Asia, olibanum and myrrh were highly regarded both as incense and analgesics for tooth pain. In India, sandalwood was prized as incense, and sometimes as an antidote for poisonous snakebites. In China and Japan, agalloch (Kyara is agalloch of the highest quality) was considered the most significant of the aromatics. Agalloch and many other aromatics were in possession of the Emperor's family in 8th century Japan; some of which are kept in Nara to this day. Olfactory sense is ultimately identified in the olfactory area of the frontal lobe of the human brain. When stimuli reach the olfactory area, they also affect other cells such as those around the hypothalamus when they go through it. The hypothalamus is the center of instinctive behaviors with the centers for appetite, sexuality, blood pressure and thirst, and greatly affects the psychological side of the human behavior with its delicate connection to the autonomic nerve system. It therefore may not be surprising that aromatics were often used in medicine, which once had close ties with shamanism, animism and other religious activities. Aromatics smokes that connected people on the earth with deities in Heaven healed people's mind, sometimes curing illness through what is now called aromatherapy. In fact, such use of aromatics is still practiced in China, where aromatics are highly regarded as treatment agents. There have also been reports of aromatics being used for psychological and mental disorders. PMID:18548886

Sugiyama, Shigeru

2007-01-01

109

Heavy metals in spices and herbs from wholesale markets in Malaysia.  

PubMed

As, Cd, Pb and Hg were analysed in commonly consumed spices and herbs in Malaysia. The range of As, Cd, Pb and Hg content was 0.24-2.54, 0.23-8.07, 1.54-8.94 and 0.06-0.52?µg?g(-1), respectively. The highest concentration of Cd, Pb and Hg in spices and herbs exceeded the maximum permitted proportion, which are 1, 2 and 0.05?µg?g(-1), respectively. This study suggests further monitoring of Cd, Pb and Hg on daily consumption of spices and herbs and its toxicological implication for consumers since only the amount of As was lower than the permitted concentration. PMID:24786623

Nordin, N; Selamat, J

2013-01-01

110

[The vicissitude of the historically famous medicinal herb Xuan Huanglian (Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala)].  

PubMed

"Xuan Huanglian" is particularly referring to the Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala W. T. Wang et Hsiao distributed in the Southern Anhui mountainous regions adjacent to Xuan Cheng and its adjoining northwest Zhejiang mountainous regions. This herb produced here is of perfect qualities used as an authentic medicinal herb from Ben cao jing ji zhu (Variorum of Classic of Materia Medica) of 536 A. D to Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplement to the Compendium of Materia Medica) of 1803 A. D. It was recorded successively as an authentic medicinal herb in herbal literature for a period as long as 1200 years. It is declined gradually because of prolonged and unlimitedly gathering, leading to the shortage of its resources. PMID:24915650

Wang, De-qun; Peng, Hua-sheng

2008-07-01

111

Toxicity of the Chinese herb mu tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis). What history tells us.  

PubMed

Plant sources of some traditional Chinese herbs may have changed over time. History records of herbal toxicity should be viewed critically when different plants might have been used under the same name in earlier eras. The current main source of the Chinese herb Mu Tong is Aristolochia manshuriensis. Examination of classical Chinese herbal literature revealed that until the mid 17th century the original source plants of Mu Tong had been several Akebia species. From the 17th century until the early 20th century Clematis species were the main source of Mu Tong. A manshuriensis has only been widely used since the 1950s. Renal failure due to ingestion of large doses of A. manshuriensis has been reported in China and other countries while no such toxicity has been recorded in traditional Chinese herbal texts. Documentation of traditional Chinese herbal literature should help to ensure the safe use of Chinese herbs. PMID:12503251

Zhu, You-Ping

2002-01-01

112

Identification and characterisation of the chinese herb Langdu by LC-MS/MS analysis.  

PubMed

An LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the identification of three species of herb used as the traditional Chinese medicine Langdu, namely Stellera chamaejasme L., Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata and E. fischeriana Steud. As these herbs contain different mixtures of marker compounds, they could be unambiguously differentiated from each other by comparing their respective characteristic segmental multiple reaction monitoring profiles. The profiles indicated that S. chamaejasme contained daphnetin, skimmetine, stellerin, chamaechromone and neochamaejasmin, E. fischeriana contained ebracteolata compound B, ingenol, jolkinolide B and fischeriana A, whilst E. ebracteolata contained ebracteolata compounds B and C along with ingenol. These results were confirmed from the respective MS/MS spectra. The method has been successfully applied to differentiate these herbs from the related species Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott and E. kansui Liou. PMID:12597254

Su, Xiao-Li; Lin, Rui-Chao; Wong, Siu-Kay; Tsui, Shu-Ki; Kwan, Sik-Yiu

2003-01-01

113

Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: From bench to bedside  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed. PMID:25339799

Wan, Ping; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuan; Bai, Ai-Ping

2014-01-01

114

[Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].  

PubMed

A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts. PMID:24025211

Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

2013-01-01

115

Potent anti-microbial activity of traditional Chinese medicine herbs against Candida species.  

PubMed

Anti-candidial activities of eight traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) herbs were evaluated against six different Candida species. TCM preparations were screened for antifungal activity using a standard agar diffusion assay. Following identification of potential candidate herbs, their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using the standardised NCCLS M-27A broth microdilution assay. Among TCM herbs, Rhizoma Coptidis had potent antifungal activity against Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis, but not against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida parapsolosis. The MIC values of the Rhizoma Coptidis against C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis were 50, 50 and 100 microg ml(-1) respectively. We report here, for the first time, the potent antifungal activity of Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex phellodendri Chinesis on three different non-albicans Candida species, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis and hence their possible use as therapeutic agents. PMID:18076592

Seneviratne, C Jayampath; Wong, Ricky W K; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

2008-01-01

116

Influence of six medicinal herbs on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats.  

PubMed

Medicinal herbs have been effectively used for their anti-inflammatory activity, but their exact role has not yet been documented in scientific literature for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA). Since Sida cordifolia L., Piper longum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Ricinus communis L., Vitex negundo L. and Tribulus terrestris L. have been widely used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory activity, to evaluate anti-osteoarthritic activity of these herbs, we used a collagenase type II-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA) rat model. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II. Powders of herbs were given orally for 20 days as a suspension in water (270 mg/kg b. wt.). The effects of the treatment in the rats were monitored by physiological parameters like body weight, knee diameter, paw retraction, paw volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, radiography and histopathology of knee joint. Selected herbs have significantly prevented body weight loss and knee swelling compared to arthritic control (CIOA). All test groups, including indomethacin (standard drug, 3 mg/kg), significantly reduced paw volume compared to CIOA. GAG release in the serum was significantly lowered in herb treated groups compared to indomethacin. The anterior posterior radiographs of S. cordifolia and P. longum treated groups showed a protective effect against OA. Histopathology revealed protection in the structure of the articular cartilage and in chondrocyte pathology as well as reduced clefting. Treatment with herbs has shown chondroid matrix within normal limits. From the results, we observed that S. cordifolia and P. longum possess potent anti-osteoarthritic activity. PMID:24228609

Nirmal, Pallavi; Koppikar, Soumya; Bhondave, Prashant; Narkhede, Aarti; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Wagh, Narendrakumar; Kulkarni, Omkar; Harsulkar, Abhay; Jagtap, Suresh

2013-01-01

117

The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migda?, W.; K ?dzia, B.

2000-03-01

118

Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods/Design The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ? 5 servings/day to ? 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ? 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B) selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet). Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. Discussion This study will provide information on midlife women’s bone health and how a dietary intervention increasing fruit and vegetable/herb intake affects bone, inflammatory and metabolic markers and urinary electrolyte excretion. It assesses changes in nutrient intake, estimated dietary acid load and sodium: potassium ratios. The study also explores whether specific fruit/vegetables and herbs with bone resorbing properties has an effect on bone markers. Trial registration ACTRN 12611000763943 PMID:23305630

2013-01-01

119

Evaluating the traditional Chinese literature for herbal formulae and individual herbs used for age-related dementia and memory impairment.  

PubMed

Natural products are the basis of many systems of traditional medicine and continue to provide sources for new drugs. Ethnobiological approaches to drug discovery that have proven productive in the past include the investigation of traditional medical literatures. This study describes a broadly applicable method for locating, selecting and evaluating citations in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine literature of the dynastic period (until 1911) for specific symptoms or disorders. This methodology is applied to evaluate multi-herb formulae for age-related dementia and memory impairment. Of the 174 multi-herb formulae located in the searches, 19 were for disorders broadly consistent with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and/or Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). These appeared in books written between c. 650 to 1911. Of the 176 herbs that appeared in these 19 formulae, those with the highest frequencies were tabulated and hierarchical cluster analysis was undertaken. Chinese pharmacopoeias were consulted to determine the botanical identity of the herbs and also which herbs within the formulas were specific for memory disorders. This study found that the top ten herbs, in terms of frequency of inclusion in multi-herb formulae specific for age-related memory disorders, were all listed in the pharmacopoeias for memory disorders and these formed three clusters. The herbs identified in this study may warrant further experimental and clinical evaluation both individually and in combination. PMID:22311547

May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Bennett, Louise; Hügel, Helmut M; Xue, Charlie C L

2012-06-01

120

Functional analysis of cultured neural cells for evaluating cold/cool- and hot/warm-natured Chinese herbs.  

PubMed

Recently, modern scientific research has been required to understand pharmacological basis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory based on the ancient clinical experience, and to investigate the molecular mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs. Here, 20 Chinese herbs, classified into 4 properties (hot, warm, cold and cool) of TCM, were analyzed for their ability to exhibit antioxidant action, to enhance glucose uptake by murine microglia N9 cells, and to influence neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) release from rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. We found a generally protective effect of both hot/warm-natured and cold/cool-natured herbs against H(2)O(2)-induced N9 cell death, partially by elevating superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Glucose uptake was elevated after treatment with some hot/warm-natured herbs. In addition, most herbs with hot/warm nature tended to stimulate NE release, while such stimulatory effect was not observed in the herbs with cold/cool nature. Two cold/cool-natured herbs, Rhizoma coptidis and Radix scutellariae, even significantly suppressed the release. These results suggest that the distinct abilities of Chinese herbs to regulate neural cell functions appear to be correlated with their natures identified in traditional TCM theory, and may be a useful guide for their utility in neural degenerative diseases. PMID:18711773

Liu, Yan-Qiu; Cheng, Meng-Chun; Wang, Long-Xing; Zhao, Nan; Xiao, Hong-Bin; Wang, Zheng-Tao

2008-01-01

121

Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs  

PubMed Central

Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging. PMID:17386115

Ko, Kam Ming; Leung, Hoi Yan

2007-01-01

122

Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as growth promoters in the farm animals has led to the recent EU-ban on the use of several antibiotics as growth

F. Guo

2003-01-01

123

Effect of boreal forest logging on nectar production of four understory herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of floral nectar production, an important trait for supporting populations of pollinators, is known to be affected by local environment. This study examines the effect, 9 years after an anthropogenic disturbance—variable retention logging,—on the rate of daily nectar production of four common herbs (Chamerion angustifolium, Delphinium glaucum, Mertensia paniculata and Vicia americana) in the boreal forest of Alberta,

Chris J. Pengelly; Ralph V. Cartar

2011-01-01

124

Chinese Medicinal Herbs for Childhood Pneumonia: A Systematic Review of Effectiveness and Safety  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for Childhood Pneumonia. Methods. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The searched electronic databases included PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, and VIP. All studies included were assessed for quality and risk bias. Review Manager 5.1.6 software was used for data analyses, and the GRADEprofiler software was applied to classify the systematic review results. Results. Fourteen studies were identified (n = 1.824). Chinese herbs may increase total effective rate (risk ratio (RR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11–1.26) and improve cough (total mean difference (MD), ?2.18; 95% CI, (?2.66)–(?1.71)), fever (total MD, ?1.85; 95% CI, (?2.29)–(?1.40)), rales (total MD, ?1.53; 95% CI, (?1.84)–(?1.23)), and chest films (total MD, ?3.10; 95% CI, (?4.11)–(?2.08)) in Childhood Pneumonia. Chinese herbs may shorten the length of hospital stay (total MD, ?3.00; 95% CI, (?3.52)–(?2.48)), but no significant difference for adverse effects (RR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.09–1.72) was identified. Conclusion. Chinese herbs may increase total effective rate and improve symptoms and signs. However, large, properly randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are required. PMID:23554826

Yang, Qianchun; Wu, Darong; Mao, Wei; Liu, Xusheng; Bao, Kun; Lin, Qizhan; Lu, Fuhua; Zou, Chuan; Li, Chuang

2013-01-01

125

Resource allocation of chilean herbs in response to climatic and microclimatic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource allocation to aerial vegetative, underground vegetative, and reproductive biomass is studied in four Chilean herbs: the annuals Chaetanthera ciliata, Erodium cicutarium, Trisetobromus hirtus, and the perennial Solenomelus peduncularis. Absolute (weight), and relative (% vegetative\\/total, % root\\/shoot) changes in biomass were determined in relation to concomitant changes in a climatic (rain regime in two subsequent years) and a microclimatic factor

Fabian M. Jaksi?; Gloria Montenegro

1979-01-01

126

Shade over coffee: its effects on berry borer, leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine the relationships between different ecological features of shade and the incidence of coffee berry borer, coffee leaf rust and spontaneous herbs in rustic coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. Thirty-six 10 m by 10 m plots were established within coffee plantations. The following variables were measured or estimated: number of vegetation strata, percent

L. Soto-Pinto; I. Perfecto; J. Caballero-Nieto

2002-01-01

127

Herb layer productivity under different light gaps in the forests of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A productivity estimation of tree, shrub and herb layer biomass was undertaken in Uttara Kannada, a Western Ghats district in Karnataka in differentially managed forests. In addition to biomass, light gap in these sample sites was also estimated to understand the relationship between the light interception pattern at different canopy layers and their productivity. The studies indicate that tree biomass

D. M. Bhat; K. S. Murali; N. H. Ravindranath

2005-01-01

128

Effects of Fire on the Demography of the Endangered, Geophytic Herb Silene spaldingii (Caryophyllaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the effects of disturbances such as fire on plant demography helps elucidate the mechanisms that cause changes in community composition. I studied the effects of spring and fall fires onSilene spaldingii, an endangered perennial herb of grasslands in northwest Montana. Individual S. spaldingii plants were mapped, and size and flowering were recorded for 1 yr prior and 5 yr

Peter Lesica

1999-01-01

129

Isolation, identification and evaluation of natural antioxidants from aromatic herbs cultivated in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative spoilage of lipid-rich foods decreases their shelf-life and leads to undesirable chemical and physical changes. Nowadays natural antioxidants are generally preferred. The major part of industrially used antioxidants consists of radical scavengers, which inhibit the oxidative chain reaction by inactivating free radicals formed during peroxidation of lipids. Aromatic and medicinal herbs are rich sources of natural radical scavenging compounds.

A. Dapkevicius

2002-01-01

130

Effect of packaging materials and storage on major volatile compounds in three Australian native herbs.  

PubMed

Lemon myrtle, anise myrtle, and Tasmanian pepper leaf are commercial Australian native herbs with a high volatile or essential oil content. Packaging of the herbs in high- or low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) has proven to be ineffective in preventing a significant loss of volatile components on storage. This study investigates and compares the effectiveness of alternate high-barrier property packaging materials, namely, polyvinylidene chloride coated polyethylene terephthalate/casted polypropylene (PVDC coated PET/CPP) and polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/aluminum foil/linear low-density polyethylene (PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE), in prevention of volatile compound loss from the three native herbs stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. Concentrations of major volatiles were monitored using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. After 6 months of storage, the greatest loss of volatiles from lemon myrtle was observed in traditional LDPE packaging (87% loss) followed by storage in PVDC coated PET/CPP (58% loss) and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE (loss of 23%). The volatile loss from anise myrtle and Tasmanian pepper leaf stored in PVDC coated PET/CPP and PET/PET/Foil/LLDPE packaging was <30%. This study clearly indicates the importance of selecting the correct packaging material to retain the quality of herbs with high volatile content. PMID:23682630

Chaliha, Mridusmita; Cusack, Andrew; Currie, Margaret; Sultanbawa, Yasmina; Smyth, Heather

2013-06-19

131

Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

2014-01-01

132

Preliminary studies on the inorganic constituents of some indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs on oral glucose tolerance test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal herbs used in indigenous medicines in crude forms for the management of diabetes mellitus, contain both the organic and inorganic constituents. It is known that certain inorganic mineral elements (potassium, zinc, calcium, traces of chromium, etc.) play an important role in the maintenance of normal glucose-tolerance and in the release of insulin from ? cells of islets of Langerhans.

Ajit Kar; B. K Choudhary; N. G Bandyopadhyay

1999-01-01

133

Medicinal Herbs Used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Esan people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well- developed herbal medicine used to cure and manage various disease conditions. Herbal medicine offered remedies to common ailments ranging from common cold to complex pathological disorders including those

R. I. Okoli; O. Aigbe; Ohaju-Obodo; J. K. Mensah

2007-01-01

134

Copyright 2009, The Ohio State University Selecting, Storing, and Using Fresh Herbs--page 1  

E-print Network

. Becauseherbsaresopopular,theyarebeingsoldfresh at the roadside market and grocery store and are often grown as part in the refrigerator in a perforated plastic bag. When you are ready to use them, wash the herbs gentlyundercool in a tall glass or vase with an inch of water, like cut flowers. Cover loosely with a plastic bag to allow

135

Flexible life history responses to flower and rosette bud removal in three perennial herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible life history responses to flower and rosette bud removal in three perennial herbs Nienke Hartemink, Eelke Jongejans and Hans de Kroon, In a garden experiment we investigated the response to continuous removal of either flower buds or rosette buds in three perennial grassland species (Hypochaeris radicata, Succisa pratensis and Centaurea jacea), which differ in longevity and flowering type. We

Nienke Hartemink; Eelke Jongejans; J. C. J. M. de Kroon

2004-01-01

136

Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of some aromatic herbs essential oils from Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological effects on Sitophilus granarius were evaluated for three aromatic herbs essential oils: Foeniculum vulgare, Rosmarius officinalis and Lippia citriodora. Stored grain pests were currently controlled by chemical pesticides. This control method leads to pollution of the environment and intoxication of consumers. Essential oils of aromatic plants are more considered as good control alternative tools. Filter papers treated with

Safia Zoubiri; Aoumeur Baaliouamer

2011-01-01

137

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: comparison with conventional hydrodistillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, hydro-distillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from three aromatic herbs: basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), garden

Marie E Lucchesi; Farid Chemat; Jacqueline Smadja

2004-01-01

138

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN POLLINATION OF A MONTANE HERB: A SEVEN-YEAR STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollination by animals is critical to sexual reproduction of most angiosperms. However, little is known about variation in pollination service to single plant species. We report results of a long-term study of Ipomopsis aggregata, a semelparous montane herb whose flowers are visited by hummingbird and insect pollinators as well as ''floral larce- nists.'' We censused flower visitors over seven summers

Mary V. Price; Nickolas M. Waser; Rebecca E. Irwin; Diane R. Campbell; Alison K. Brody

2005-01-01

139

Network understanding of herb medicine via rapid identification of ingredient-target interactions.  

PubMed

Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power. PMID:24429698

Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

2014-01-01

140

Compensation of seed production after severe injury in the short-lived herb Barbarea vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment with the common ruderal herb Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) was set up to elucidate to what extent short-lived species sprouting from roots regenerate and compensate for seed production after damage. We tested if sprouting from roots ensures survival after severe aboveground biomass damage, but the number of seeds produced declines with increasing severity of injury, decreasing nutrient availability

Jana Martínková; Stanislav Mihulka

2008-01-01

141

Evaluating the consequences of habitat fragmentation: a case study in the common forest herb Trillium camschatcense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of habitat fragmentation on remnant plant populations have rarely been studied extensively using a single species. We have attempted to quantify the effects of forest fragmentation (primarily that of population size) on populations of Trillium camschatcense, a representative spring herb in the Tokachi plain of Hokkaido, Japan. In this region, intensive agricultural development over the past 100 years has

Hiroshi Tomimatsu; Masashi Ohara

2006-01-01

142

Land use effects on “spring annual” herbs in rare non?forest ecosystems of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined trends over six consecutive spring seasons in three “spring annual” herbs, Myosurus minimus subsp. novae?zelandiae (Ranunculaceae), Ceratocephalapungens (Ranunculaceae), and Myosotis pygmaea var. minutiflora (Boraginaceae), in terms of their habitats and site land uses in several rare, non?forest ecosystems. On dry hillslopes, saline soils, and turfs of ephemeral wetlands (including coastal turfs), Ceratocephala and Myosotis declined where sites were

Geoffrey Rogers; Jacob Mc C. Overton

2007-01-01

143

Fire History of a Temperate Forest with an Endemic Fire-Dependent Herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dendroecological fire history study was conducted for The Nature Conser- vancy's Narrows Preserve on Peters Mountain, Virginia, where the predominant vegetation is oak (Quercus L.)-dominated forest containing some other hardwoods and pines (Pinus L.). The site encompasses all the known habitat of the endangered and endemic Peters Mountain mallow (Iliamna corei Sherff.), a perennial herb that requires fire for

Jennifer A. Hoss; Charles W. Lafon; Henri D. Grissino-Mayer; Serena R. Aldrich; Georgina G. DeWeese

2008-01-01

144

Causes and consequences of sectoriality in the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes of sectoriality and consequences for clone behaviour are examined using data from the stoloniferous herb Glechoma hederacea. The proximal causes of physiological integration patterns are investigated using anatomical studies, acid fuchsin dye to reveal patterns of xylem continuity between ramets, and 14C as a label to reveal quantitative photoassimilate translocation patterns in the phloem. Dye movement in the

Elizabeth A. C. Price; Michael J. Hutchings; Christopher Marshall

1996-01-01

145

?-Glucosidase and ?-amylase inhibitory activities of Nepalese medicinal herb Pakhanbhed ( Bergenia ciliata, Haw.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicine has been used for many years by different cultures around the world for the treatment of diabetes. The Nepalese herb Pakhanbhed, is one of the traditional remedies used for diabetes since prehistoric times. In this study, we examined the anti-diabetic activity using an in vitro model and isolated the active compounds from Pakhanbhed. Extraction and fractionation of the

Megh Raj Bhandari; Nilubon Jong-Anurakkun; Gao Hong; Jun Kawabata

2008-01-01

146

Organic Greenhouse Container Herb Production in South Florida: Fertilizer and Potting Media1  

E-print Network

ABE 373 Organic Greenhouse Container Herb Production in South Florida: Fertilizer and Potting Media. Sprenkel, Extension Specialist, North Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy, FL. , The use of trade Commissioners Cooperating. Larry Arrington, Dean Background Organic food production in the U.S. increased

Migliaccio, Kati White

147

A novel and rapid method to screen for ?-lactamase inhibitors from extracts of herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on starch-iodine agar plate, a novel screening method that can be used to screen for ?-lactamase inhibitors from extracts of herbs is established. The extracts of 100 traditional Chinese medicines were screened for ?- lactamase inhibitors by this method. The inhibition rates of the Rheum palmatum L., Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., Hypericum japonicum Thunb., Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr., Oxalis

Yang Zaichang; Yang Xiaosheng; Niu Yule

148

A Symbolic Logic Strategy For Mapping Biological Concepts in the HERBE Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

More powerful database approaches are needed to support biologists in the efficient use of complex, large scale, and rapidly changing systems biology data. We are engaged in research to advance database strategies for capturing, managing, computing, and searching biological concepts in ways that are presently not possible. The Heuristic Entity Relationship Building Environment (HERBE) project is developing mechanisms to automate

Eric G. Stephan; George Chin Jr.; Kyle R. Klicker; Abigail L. Corrigan; Heidi J. Sofia

2003-01-01

149

Chinese herbs as modulators of human mesangial cell proliferation: preliminary studies.  

PubMed

In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as follows (in microg/ml): Selaginella tamariscina (MLS-032), 56.0 +/- 2.0; Ixeris chinensis (MLS-033), 62.7 +/- 1.7; Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (MLS-034), 25.0 +/- 1.5; Scutellaris rivularis (MLS-036), 39.6 +/- 1.1; Condonacanthus paucifiorus (MLS-042),63.6 +/- 2.6; Xanthium strumarium (MLS-043), 42.8 +/- 1.3; Daemonoropus margaritae (MLS-044), 56.1 +/- 1.9. These findings indicate that human mesangial cells were most sensitive to MLS-034 treatment. These herbs also decreased interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Moreover, TNF-alpha mRNA expression was inhibited by MLS-034. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved, because no cell deaths were observable. We hypothesize that the inhibitory mechanisms of these Chinese herbs may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in human mesangial cells. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure compounds from these Chinese herbs and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. PMID:9665376

Kuo, Y C; Sun, C M; Tsai, W J; Ou, J C; Chen, W P; Lin, C Y

1998-07-01

150

Herb abundance and life-history traits in two contrasting alpine habitats in southern Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonisation is often a critical stage in the life history of plants, and recruitment success is expected to have a strong impact on plant frequencies especially among herbs. Several plant traits (seed size, plant height, leaf dry weight and specific leaf area) are suggested to be functionally important in early life stages, and the impact of such traits is expected

Gunnar Austrheim; Marianne Evju; Atle Mysterud

2005-01-01

151

Factors Associated with herb and dietary supplement use by young adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between use of herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) and lifestyle\\/behavior factors in young adults in the US. METHODS: Analyzing the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the patterns of HDS (excluding vitamins\\/minerals) use among young adults in the United States using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: In our sample of

Paula Gardiner; Kathi J Kemper; Anna Legedza; Russell S Phillips

2007-01-01

152

Flowering of understory herbs following thinning in the western Cascades, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thinning of young forest stands encourages development of the understory layer by increasing the levels of light and belowground resources. High-intensity thinning, with associated ground disturbance and high light levels, can lead to dominance by early seral species or by a few species of shrubs, while low-intensity thinning may not increase resource levels enough to encourage forest herbs. Changes in

Briana C. Lindh

2008-01-01

153

Pharmacists' attitudes and awareness towards the use and safety of herbs in Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Kuwait towards the use of herbs. Methods Self-administered questionnaire was designed as the study instrument and distributed among 100 qualified pharmacists working in government and private pharmacies in Kuwait. Results The mean age was 34.2 (SD=7.5) years. About 51% of pharmacists reported they had used herbal therapy in their lifetime. The majority were interested in herbal information, and their herbal information came mainly from their previous classes during college. Although the pharmacists’ knowledge about uses of selected herbs was good, their awareness about side effects of those herbs was modest. About 31% of the pharmacists did not have enough information about potential interactions between herbs and conventional medicines. Conclusion Herbal information is needed for pharmacy students as part of the Pharmacy College curriculum. Continuing education programs for practising pharmacists about the safety of different herbal products should be established in Kuwait.

Abahussain, Nada A.; Abahussain, Eman A.; Al-Oumi, Fawaz M.

154

Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating peppermint are exposed during processing of this herb to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. The exposure to bioaerosols during processing of chamomile is lower; nevertheless, peak values create a respiratory risk for exposed farmers. PMID:16457486

Skórska, Czes?awa; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2005-01-01

155

Mechanisms of action of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia and deterioration of cognitive function. Although several drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease delay its onset and slow its progression, still there is no drug with profound disease-modifying effects. Studies aiming the treatment of this neurodegenerative disorder explore various disease mechanisms. Since antiquity, medicinal herbs have been used in traditional medicine. Recent studies suggest that the neurobiological effects of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs may contribute to clinical benefits in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. This review focuses on five phytochemicals, berberine, curcumin, ginsenoside Rg1, puerarin, and silibinin, which have been mostly investigated to treat the development and progression of this neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:25210998

Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

2014-10-01

156

[Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

2013-09-01

157

Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on cerebral ischemia  

PubMed Central

Abstracts Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The effects include inhibiting the activation of microglia, decreasing levels of adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1, attenuating expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?, reducing inducible nitric oxide synthase and reactive oxygen species, and regulating transcription factors such as nuclear factor-?B. PMID:21740583

2011-01-01

158

Interactions between herbs and conventional drugs: overview of the clinical data.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the clinical evidence of interactions between herbal and conventional medicines. Herbs involved in drug interactions--or that have been evaluated in pharmacokinetic trials--are discussed in this review. While many of the interactions reported are of limited clinical significance and many herbal products (e.g. black cohosh, saw palmetto, echinacea, hawthorn and valerian) seem to expose patients to minor risk under conventional pharmacotherapy, a few herbs, notably St. John's wort, may provoke adverse events sufficiently serious to endanger the patients' health. Healthcare professionals should remain vigilant for potential interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs, especially when drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are used. PMID:22236736

Izzo, Angelo A

2012-01-01

159

Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)  

PubMed Central

This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 µl/cm2 which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 µl/cm2, 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity. PMID:16809961

Rim, In-Sook

2006-01-01

160

Anticachectic effects of Coptidis rhizoma, an anti-inflammatory herb, on esophageal cancer cells that produce interleukin 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbs as alternative cancer therapies have attracted a great deal of recent attention due to their low toxicity and costs. In this study, the antitumor activity and anticachectic effect of Coptidisrhizoma, an anti-inflammatory herb, were investigated in nude mice carrying a human esophageal cancer cell line YES-2, which constitutively secretes interleukin-6 (IL-6) and induces cachexia when injected into these mice.

Norio Iizuka; Koji Miyamoto; Shoichi Hazama; Shigefumi Yoshino; Kiyoshi Yoshimura; Kiwamu Okita; Tetsuo Fukumoto; Shigeru Yamamoto; Akira Tangoku; Masaaki Oka

2000-01-01

161

Chloroplast DNA variation in the European herb Silene dioica (red campion): postglacial migration and interspecific introgression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Many recent studies of intraspecific geographic variation in maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) in European trees\\u000a have revealed haplotype distributions that can be interpreted in terms of scenarios of postglacial migration and range expansion.\\u000a However, there is still a lack of comparable information from widespread herb species. In the present study, we investigated\\u000a the geographic distribution of cpDNA variation in

Honor C. Prentice; J. U. Malm; L. Hathaway

2008-01-01

162

Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis (?? Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis (?? Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae (??? J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa (?? Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium (??? Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis (??? B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis (???? Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix (??? Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata (??? Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata (??? Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba (??? Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

Muluye, Rekik A.; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N.

2014-01-01

163

Effects of excluding sheep from an alpine dwarf-herb community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Festuca ovina–Alchemilla alpina–Silene acaulis dwarf-herb community is a rare component of the few and scattered calcareous grasslands found at high altitude in the Scottish Highlands. It contains nationally scarce and rare arctic-alpine species. The community is often heavily grazed and it has been suggested that it is a plagioclimax maintained by herbivores, principally sheep.Aim: Determine the role of

Gordon R. Miller; Claire Geddes; David K. Mardon

2010-01-01

164

Carbohydrate storage and use in an alpine population of the perennial herb, Oxytropis sericea  

Microsoft Academic Search

I tested hypotheses for ecological roles of storage carbohydrates in perennating organs (roots and branches) of alpine Oxytropis sericea, a leguminous herb. In naturally growing plants, total nonstructural carbohydrates achieved their maximal concentration in\\u000a the fall, declined during winter, and reached minimal levels immediately after growth initiation in the spring. Experimental\\u000a manipulation of carbon sink-source relations through shading of leaves

Tomasz Wyka

1999-01-01

165

GA 3 induced flowering in Podophyllum hexandrum Royle: A rare alpine medicinal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, an important alpine herb, is the source of highly valued podophyllotoxin. The effect of some plant growth substances\\u000a (GA3, BAP & ABA), uniconazole (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis), and a combination of GA3 and uniconazole were examined in respect to influence on sprouting in rhizomes of P. hexandrum and on induction of flowering at a lower altitude.

Hemant Pandey; Shyamal K. Nandi; Bhuwan Chandra; Mohammad Nadeem; Lok Man S. Palni

2001-01-01

166

Liquid chromatographic separation of the alkaloids in coptis-evodia herb couple  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of seven quaternary and ten tertiary alkaloids in the coptis-evodia herb couple were separated on a Cosmosil 5C18-MS column (5 ?m, 250×4.6 mm I.D.) using a mixture of methanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate-NaOAc-HOAc buffer or NaOAc-HOAc buffer as eluent, wherein the latter was found to be better for the analysis of coptis-evodia crude extract. Experiments showed that retention

Chan-Yeo Chu; Shuenn-Jyi Sheu

1996-01-01

167

Determination of flavonoids and alkaloids in the scute-coptis herb couple by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic (MEKC) method was developed for the simultaneous assay of six scute flavonoids (baicalin, wogonin 7-O-glucuronide, oroxylin A 7-O-glucuronide, baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A) and four coptis alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, coptisine and epiberberine) in the scute-coptis herb couple. The carrier composed of a buffer solution (5 mM sodium borate, 15 mM sodium dihydrogenphosphate and 50 mM

Kwei-Lan Li; Shuenn-Jyi Sheu

1995-01-01

168

Two novel butanol rhamnosides from an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (3–11), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-FABMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

U. V. Mallavadhani; K. Narasimhan

2009-01-01

169

Two novel butanol rhamnosides from an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta.  

PubMed

Two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (3-11), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-O-beta-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-FABMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:19401919

Mallavadhani, U V; Narasimhan, K

2009-01-01

170

Comparative study on the free flavonoid aglycones in herbs of different species of Polygonum L.  

PubMed

The flavonoid aglycones were studied in the herbs of the following taxons of the Polygonum L. genus: P. hydropiper L, P. bistorta L., P. aviculare L., P. persicaria L., P. lapathifolium ssp. tomentosum (Schrank) Dans, P. lapathifolium ssp. nodosum (Pers.) Dans, P. amphibium L., P. mite Schrank, P. conolvulus L. (Bilderdykia convolvulus L.) by means of the RP-HPLC method. The content of taxifolin, quercetin, quercetin-3-methyl ether, kaempferol, myritcetin, luteolin, isorhamnetin and rhamnetin were determined. PMID:12365607

Smolarz, Helena D

2002-01-01

171

Determination of rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid in aromatic herbs by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HPLC method for the determination of rosmarinic and caffeic acids in several aromatic herbs, namely, rosemary, sage, thyme, spearmint, balm, and lavender, has been developed and validated. The separation system consisted of a C18 reversed-phase column, a gradient elution system of methanol\\/water containing orthophosphoric acid, and a photodiode array detector. The content of rosmarinic and caffeic acids was found

Huafu Wang; Gordon J. Provan; Keith Helliwell

2004-01-01

172

The effect of perennial herbs on the physical properties of saline soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the physical and water-physical properties of saline chernozemic-meadow soils improve under the impact of\\u000a artificially sown perennial herbs: the content of water-stable aggregates >0.25 mm increases, the bulk density of the topsoil\\u000a decreases, and the soil permeability increases. As the grass cover becomes older, the soil permeability somewhat decreases,\\u000a though it remains higher in comparison with

V. S. Kursakova

2006-01-01

173

Anti-protozoal efficacy of medicinal herb extracts against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether alcohol extracts of herbs (Sophora flavescens Aiton, Sinomenium acutum (Thunb.) Rehder and E.H. Wilson, Pulsatilla koreana (Yabe ex Nakai) Nakai ex T. Mori, Ulmus macrocarpa Hance and Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.) from South Korea, possess in vitro anti-protozoal activity against cultures of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. These herbs have been used as human anti-parasitics in Asian countries for many years. Alcohol extracts of these herbs were serially diluted to final concentrations ranging from 625 to 19.5 ng/ml in media and added to wells containing either T. gondii or N. caninum tachyzoites in equine dermal (ED) cells. Parasite growth inhibition was measured using 3H-uracil incorporation as compared to untreated controls. T. japonica inhibited T. gondii proliferation by 99.3, 95.5, 73.0 and 54.0% in the range from 156 to 19.5 ng/ml, and S. flavescens inhibited T. gondii proliferation by 98.7, 83.0 and 27.2% in the range from 156 to 39 ng/ml. T. japonica inhibited N. caninum proliferation by 97.8, 97.9, 85.3 and 46.4% in the range from 156 to 19.5 ng/ml. S. flavescens inhibited N. caninum proliferation by 98.6, 97.0, 69.5 and 14.0% in the range from 156 to 19.5 ng/ml. Toxicity to host cells was noted when concentrations of T. japonica and S. flavescens exceeded 625 ng/ml. The herb extracts from S. acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, and U. macrocarpa also showed toxicity at higher levels but did not achieve the same inhibition effects at the lower concentrations against T. gondii and N. caninum as T. japonica and S. flavescens. PMID:14519322

Youn, H J; Lakritz, J; Kim, D Y; Rottinghaus, G E; Marsh, A E

2003-08-29

174

Sweet goldenrod ( Solidago odora , Asteraceae): A medicine, tea, and state Herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet goldenrod (Solidago odora) has a long history of medicinal use by Native Americans and was exported for tea in the nineteenth century. In 1996 sweet\\u000a goldenrod was proclaimed the State Herb of Delaware. The essential oil of flowering tops ofS. odora f.odora originally from Maryland is characterized by 70.81 ±3.82% methyl chavicol (estragole) and 12.45 ±2.26% myrcene, while the

Arthur O. Tucker; Michael J. Maciarello; Keith Clancy

1999-01-01

175

Chemical studies on the constituents of the chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia helioscopia L.  

PubMed

Euphoheliosnoid D (1), a new jatrophone-type diterpenoid, was isolated together with 22 known metabolites from the Chinese medicinal herb Euphorbia helioscopia L. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compounds 14-23 were obtained from the species for the first time while compound 14, 2alpha-hydroxy helioscopinolide B, was isolated as a new natural product. PMID:16819227

Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yue-Wei

2006-07-01

176

Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a normal immune response; but if the body's regulation of inflammation is dysfunctional, then it will have an adverse effect on the body. Although use of modern drugs for inflammation has a relieving effect, it is still unsatisfactory. Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant strains and even new kinds of microorganisms is causing significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, more attention has been focused on herbal medicine to treat various diseases because of the ability of the herbs to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their multiple mechanisms of action. Thus, a large number of studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the traditional Chinese herbs. Literature survey was performed by conducting systematic electronic search in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and in books. This review has listed 11 heat-clearing Chinese herbs (HCCHs) including Scutellaria baicalensis ( Huáng Qín), Coptis chinensis ( Huáng Lián), Flos Lonicerae ( J?n Yín H?a), Forsythia suspensa ( Lián Qiào), Isatidis Folium ( Dà Q?n Yè), Radix Isatidis ( B?n Lán G?n), Viola yedoensis ( Z? Hu? Dì D?n), Pulsatilla Radix ( Bái Tóu W?n), Andrographis paniculata ( Chu?n X?n Lián), Houttuynia cordata ( Yú X?ng C?o), and Patrinia Herba ( Bài Jiàn C?o), which have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and has described their effects through different mechanisms of action and multiple targets. Their ability to affect multiple target signaling pathways and their potential mechanisms of action contributing to their anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity may be related to their action of removing heat and counteracting toxicity. Further studies are needed on the collection of HCCHs to know the detailed mechanism of action of herbs in this group for the assessment of effective drug. PMID:24860732

Muluye, Rekik A; Bian, Yuhong; Alemu, Paulos N

2014-04-01

177

Forest herb layer response to long-term light deficit along a forest developmental series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate deciduous forest communities are slow-changing systems, with herbaceous understorey communities displaying a delayed response to overstorey canopy and light dynamics. While light availability constrains herbaceous understorey diversity and composition in space and time, its response in the long-term absence of light has seldom been quantified, particularly as it is often confounded by covariation in soil conditions. We studied a developmental high-forest series in two widespread NW-European temperate deciduous forest communities with different dominant canopy tree species: Stellario-Carpinetum (Oak-hornbeam canopy) and Milio-Fagetum (Beech canopy). All plots had soil conditions which were not significantly different, enabling investigation into the direct effects of the long-term absence of light on the herbaceous understorey, disentangled from the confounding effects of soil variation. Plant species richness measures declined with canopy cover continuity in the herb layer of the oak-hornbeam stands, whereas richness in the herb layer of the beech stands displayed a unimodal response. Nonetheless, in both plant communities, species richness and closed-forest species richness were negatively affected by the extended absence of light in stands with the longest period of continuous canopy cover. The long-term limitation or decline in quantitative and qualitative light availability as a result of extended periods of canopy cover was shown to be the primary driver behind losses in alpha-diversity, community composition turn-over and individual species dynamics. Heliophilous species were lost from both communities, while closed-forest species also declined, as a direct consequence of the prolonged period without ample light on the forest floor. This study demonstrates how the herb layer is affected by the absence of light on the forest floor mediated by long periods of continuous canopy cover. Despite different temporal responses in herb layer richness and composition between different shade-casting canopy species, the eventual outcome in the prolonged absence of light is independent of dominant canopy species.

Plue, J.; Van Gils, B.; De Schrijver, A.; Peppler-Lisbach, C.; Verheyen, K.; Hermy, M.

2013-11-01

178

Plasticity in response to phosphorus and light availability in four forest herbs.  

PubMed

The differential ability of forest herbs to colonize secondary forests on former agricultural land is generally attributed to different rates of dispersal. After propagule arrival, however, establishing individuals still have to cope with abiotic soil legacies from former agricultural land use. We focused on the plastic responses of forest herbs to increased phosphorus availability, as phosphorus is commonly found to be persistently bioavailable in post-agricultural forest soils. In a pot experiment performed under field conditions, we applied three P levels to four forest herbs with contrasting colonization capacities: Anemone nemorosa, Primula elatior, Circaea lutetiana and Geum urbanum. To test interactions with light availability, half of the replicas were covered with shade cloths. After two growing seasons, we measured aboveground P uptake as well as vegetative and regenerative performance. We hypothesized that fast-colonizing species respond the most opportunistically to increased P availability, and that a low light availability can mask the effects of P on performance. All species showed a significant increase in P uptake in the aboveground biomass. The addition of P had a positive effect on the vegetative performances of two of the species, although this was unrelated to their colonization capacities. The regenerative performance was affected by light availability (not by P addition) and was related to the species' phenology. Forest herbs can obviously benefit from the increased availability of P in post-agricultural forests, but not all species respond in the same way. Such differential patterns of plasticity may be important in community dynamics, as they affect the interactions among species. PMID:20300776

Baeten, Lander; Vanhellemont, Margot; De Frenne, Pieter; De Schrijver, An; Hermy, Martin; Verheyen, Kris

2010-08-01

179

The influence of pollen addition and ramet isolation on current sexual reproduction in a clonal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense Desf.), a rhizomatous, perennial herb, was the subject of a 2-year field experiment that examined two factors potentially\\u000a affecting fruit and seed production: pollen addition and ramet isolation. Ramets were either open pollinated or overpollinated\\u000a by hand to supplement natural levels. Rhizomes of the ramets were either severed, to prevent resource supplementation from\\u000a the genet, or

Michael T. Ganger

1997-01-01

180

Cytoprotective and pro-apoptotic activities of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich extracts.  

PubMed

Three commercially grown native herbs unique to Australia, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata R. Br., Winteracea; TPL), anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum Vickery, Craven & Biffen, Myrtaceae; AM) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora F. Muell, Myrtaceae; LM) as well as a reference sample bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae; BL) were examined for potential cytoprotective properties. All native herbs exhibited greater cellular antioxidant activity as measured by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay than bay leaf and reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by 25-50%. All herb extracts reduced the proliferation of colon (HT-29; IC(50)=0.75-1.39mg/ml), stomach (AGS; IC(50)=0.59-1.88mg/ml), bladder (BL13; IC(50)=0.56-1.12mg/ml) and liver (HepG2; IC(50)=0.38-1.36mg/ml) cancer cells. No significant reduction of cell viability of non-transformed colon (CCD-18Co; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) and mixed stomach and intestine (Hs 738.St/Int; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) cells was observed. Flow cytometry analysis and the results of the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay conducted with respectively, promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells suggest an increase in apoptosis following treatment with the herb extracts. The occurrence of apoptotic cells coincided with an increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. The results of the CBMNCyt assay suggested no direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells as a result of treatment with all extracts, applied at final concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml. PMID:23017386

Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Konczak, Izabela

2013-01-01

181

Variation in dormancy and germination in three co-occurring perennial forest herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesic deciduous forest herbs often disperse seed with morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) that prevents germination during\\u000a unfavorable periods for seedling survival. However, for seeds of some species with MPD, seasonal separation of root and shoot\\u000a emergence and variation in dormancy levels can complicate interpretation of seedling emergence timing in the field. We tested\\u000a whether dormancy-break and germination requirements differed among co-occurring

Matthew A. Albrecht; Brian C. McCarthy

182

Antimicrobial and biofilm effects of herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Of the twenty-two components of tea decoctions commonly used to treat infections, only Scutellaria, Taraxacum, Tussilago and Glycyrrhiza exhibited antimicrobial activity. The activity, when present, was organism specific, i.e., anti-Staphylococcus aureus, including anti-MRSA activity under aerobic and/or anaerobic conditions. However, with the exception of Scutellaria, sub-inhibitory concentrations of the herbs exhibited a pattern of inducing enhanced production of biofilm. PMID:24427955

Lau, Denny; Plotkin, Balbina J

2013-11-01

183

Novel phenolic glycoside dimer and trimer from the whole herb of Pyrola rotundifolia.  

PubMed

From the water-soluble constituents of the whole herb of Pyrola rotundifolia (Pyrolaceae), one novel phenolic glycoside dimer, pyrolaside A (1), and one novel phenolic glycoside trimer, pyrolaside B (2), together with two known phenolic glycosides homoarbutin (3) and isohomoarbutin (4), were isolated. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and confirmed with chemical degradation. In vitro tests for antimicrobial activity showed pyrolaside B (2) to possess significant activity against two Gram-positive organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. PMID:16079548

Chang, Jun; Inui, Taichi

2005-08-01

184

In vitro plantlet production system for Kaempferia galanga, a rare Indian medicinal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid clonal propagation system for Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae), a rare folk medicinal herb has been developed. Various concentrations of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and a range\\u000a of auxins have been investigated for in vitro plantlet production, using rhizomes as explants. In vitro plantlet production has been achieved on 0.75 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 12 ?M BA, 3 ?M

Fatima Shirin; Sandeep Kumar; Yogeshwar Mishra

2000-01-01

185

Micropropagation of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum), a rare Indian medicinal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro clonal multiplication of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et. Fernand.), a rare Indian medicinal herb, has been achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 22.2 µM benzyladenine using young shoot bases as explants. Shoots multiplied at a rate of four-fold every 3 weeks. All shoots rooted when transferred to MS medium with 3\\/4-strength inorganic and organic

S. D. Purohit; Ashish Dave; Gotam Kukda

1994-01-01

186

Alkaloids of the herb sedum acre L. Part I. Chromatographic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloid extracts from the herb Sedum acre L. (stonecrop) were analysed by the “moist buffered paper” technique in solvent systems of the type nonpolar or weakly polar solvent-aqueous buffer solution, which were found to be much more selective than one-phse systems or liquid-solid systems. In addition to six previously known Sedum alkaloids, three new alkaloids in the extract were demonstrated.

S. Bieganowska; A. Waksmundzki

1976-01-01

187

Field evidence of plastic growth responses to habitat heterogeneity in the clonal herb Ranunculus repens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stolon internode lengths were measured on plants of the clonal herbRanunculus repens growing in a hay meadow which was subject to disturbance by mole (Talpa europaea) activity. Within the site three habitat types were recognized: closed grassland, the open ground of fresh molehills and\\u000a the grass-molehill boundary. The lengths of stolon internodes ofR. repens differed significantly in each of the

Stephen Waite

1994-01-01

188

Patient Disclosure about Herb and Supplement Use among Adults in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of 2002 National Health Interview supplement on complementary and alternative medicine (NHIS\\/CAM) indicate that approximately 38 million adults in the US (18.9% of the population) used natural herbs or supplements in the preceding 12 months, but only one-third told their physician about this use. The objectives of this study are: (i) to determine subpopulation rates of patient-physician communication about

Jae Kennedy; Chi-Chuan Wang; Chung-Hsuen Wu

2008-01-01

189

Defoliation of the annual herb Abutilon theophrasti : mechanisms underlying reproductive compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have shown that under some conditions plants may fully or partially compensate for leaf tissue loss;\\u000a however, the mechanisms underlying compensatory responses are not well understood. Previous work demonstrated that the annual\\u000a herb Abutilon theophrasti fully compensated for 75% defoliation, but only when grown in the absence of stem competition. We examined potential mechanisms\\u000a of compensatory

C. M. Mabry; P. W. Wayne

1997-01-01

190

Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.

2012-08-01

191

The rs1142345 in TPMT Affects the Therapeutic Effect of Traditional Hypoglycemic Herbs in Prediabetes  

PubMed Central

Therapeutic interventions in prediabetes are important in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its chronic complications. However, little is known about the pharmacogenetic effect of traditional herbs on prediabetes treatment. A total of 194 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects were treated with traditional hypoglycemic herbs (Tianqi Jiangtang) for 12 months in this study. DNA samples were genotyped for 184 mutations in 34 genes involved in drug metabolism or transportation. Multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that rs1142345 (A > G) in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene was significantly associated with the hypoglycemic effect of the drug (P = 0.001, FDR P = 0.043). The “G” allele frequencies of rs1142345 in the healthy (subjects reverted from IGT to normal glucose tolerance), maintenance (subjects still had IGT), and deterioration (subjects progressed from IGT to T2D) groups were 0.094, 0.214, and 0.542, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that rs1142345 was also significantly associated with the hypoglycemic effect of the drug between the healthy and maintenance groups (P = 0.027, OR = 4.828) and between the healthy and deterioration groups (P = 0.001, OR = 7.811). Therefore, rs1142345 was associated with the clinical effect of traditional hypoglycemic herbs. Results also suggested that TPMT was probably involved in the pharmacological mechanisms of T2D. PMID:23737827

Li, Xi; Lian, Feng-Mei; Guo, Dong; Fan, Lan; Tang, Jie; Peng, Jing-Bo; Deng, Hong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Xiao, Xin-Hua; Wang, Yan-Rong; Qu, Ke-Yi; Deng, Sheng; Zhong, Qi; Sha, Yi-Ling; Zhu, Yan; Bai, Yu-Jing; Chen, Xin-Yan; Zhou, Qiang; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Tong, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Wei

2013-01-01

192

Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.; Grace, James B.

2010-01-01

193

Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

Zuo, Zhong

2013-01-01

194

Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities  

PubMed Central

Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects. PMID:20974978

Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.; Grace, James B.

2010-01-01

195

Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?  

PubMed Central

Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method. PMID:22207851

Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

2011-01-01

196

Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:15681161

Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Huang, Tung-Liang

2005-02-01

197

Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2014-08-01

198

A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.  

PubMed

The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage. PMID:19139984

Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

2009-12-01

199

Molecular dissection of a medicinal herb with anti-tumor activity by oligonucleotide microarray.  

PubMed

It is difficult to understand precisely the physiological actions of herbs because they contain a complex array of constituent molecules. In the present study we used DNA microarray data for 12600 genes to examine the anti-proliferative activity of the herb Coptidis rhizoma and eight constituent molecules against eight human pancreatic cancer cell lines. We identified 27 genes showing strong correlation with the 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) of C. rhizoma after 72-h exposure. Hierarchical cluster analysis with correlation coefficients between expression levels of these 27 C. rhizoma-related genes and the ID50 of each constituent molecule classified these test molecules into two clusters, one consisting of C. rhizoma and berberine and the other consisting of the remaining seven molecules. Our results suggest that one molecule, berberine, can account for the majority of the anti-proliferative activity of C. rhizoma and that DNA microarray analyses can be used to improve our understanding of the actions of an intact herb. PMID:15964315

Hara, Akiko; Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Uchimura, Shunji; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Miyamoto, Koji; Hazama, Shoichi; Okita, Kiwamu; Oka, Masaaki

2005-07-15

200

Local richness along gradients in the Siskiyou herb flora: R.H. Whittaker revisited  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In his classic study in the Siskiyou Mountains (Oregon, USA), one of the most botanically rich forested regions in North America, R. H. Whittaker (1960) foreshadowed many modern ideas on the multivariate control of local species richness along environmental gradients related to productivity. Using a structural equation model to analyze his data, which were never previously statistically analyzed, we demonstrate that Whittaker was remarkably accurate in concluding that local herb richness in these late-seral forests is explained to a large extent by three major abiotic gradients (soils, topography, and elevation), and in turn, by the effects of these gradients on tree densities and the numbers of individual herbs. However, while Whittaker also clearly appreciated the significance of large-scale evolutionary and biogeographic influences on community composition, he did not fully articulate the more recent concept that variation in the species richness of local communities could be explained in part by variation in the sizes of regional species pools. Our model of his data is among the first to use estimates of regional species pool size to explain variation in local community richness along productivity-related gradients. We find that regional pool size, combined with a modest number of other interacting abiotic and biotic factors, explains most of the variation in local herb richness in the Siskiyou biodiversity hotspot.

Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.

2011-01-01

201

Immunologic reactivity to work-related airborne allergens in people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs.  

PubMed

A group of 150 people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs were examined. The examined group consisted of 47 thyme farmers, 32 chamomile farmers, 31 sage farmers and 40 workers of herbs processing industry. As a reference group, 50 urban dwellers, not exposed to any kind of organic dust, were examined. Skin prick tests and precipitin tests were conducted with, respectively, 4 and 11 microbial antigens associated with organic dust. Both skin and precipitin tests were also conducted with herbal extracts of chamomile and sage. Precipitin tests were carried out with sera not concentrated and sera 3-fold concentrated. Tests for inhibition of leukocyte migration (MIF) were also conducted with 4 microbial antigens. People occupationally exposed to dust from herbs showed a higher frequency of positive skin reactions to microbial antigens compared to the reference group. The results of precipitin test also revealed greater reactivity to the environmental microbial antigens in the examined group, compared to the reference group. The highest frequency of positive results was noted with the antigen of Pantoea agglomerans (30.6 % with sera not concentrated and 48.3 % with sera 3-fold concentrated) - the difference compared to the reference group (12.0 %) was highly significant (p < 0.01). The frequencies of positive results of MIF test in the examined group were high with all antigens tested: Arthrobacter globiformis (12.6 %), Pantoea agglomerans (11.1 %), Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (17.0 %), Aspergillus fumigatus (13.3 %), and, compared to the reference group with no positive result for any antigen, all the differences were significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the frequency of positive allergological reactions to airborne microorganisms was high in people occupationally exposed to dust from herbs and suggests a potential role of microbial allergens in the pathogenesis of work-related health disorders among herb workers. The risk of sensitization seems to be greatest among thyme farmers, who showed the highest positive response. The results confirmed the particular allergenic importance of Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans. PMID:15236509

Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czes?awa; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2004-01-01

202

The evaluation of a fast and simple pesticide multiresidue method in various herbs by gas chromatography.  

PubMed

In this study two analytical methods, one based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and the other on liquid-solid extraction (LSE), coupled with gas chromatography, were evaluated and used to determine the presence of 163 pesticides (6 acaricides, 62 fungicides, 18 herbicides and 77 insecticides) in various herbs. Both methods were optimized considering different parameters (sample to sorbent mass ratio, extracting solvent, sorbents for clean-up step, etc.). The results of these validated sample preparation procedures were compared. Under optimum conditions, the mean recoveries obtained were in the range of 70-119% for MSPD for most pesticides and 70-118% for LSE, but with several exceptions. Precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), were ?16% for MSPD and <18% for LSE. Correlation coefficients were higher than 0.99254 for both methods. LODs (limits of detection) and LOQs (limits of quantification) for MSPD were within the ranges of 0.003-0.03 and 0.005-0.04 mg/kg, respectively. The data demonstrate that the MSPD method was successfully used for the analysis of 163 pesticides in the following herbs: chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), linden (Tilia), lungwort (Pulmonaria L.), melissa (Melissa L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). This paper indicates the potential of MSPD for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticide residues. This method was therefore validated at three spiking levels (the first ranging from 0.005 to 0.05 mg/kg, the second from 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg and the third from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/kg) and applied to real samples (n = 15). MSPD proves to be a simple, fast and very useful multiresidue method and can be recommended for routine pesticide monitoring studies in various herbs. PMID:23670401

?ozowicka, Bo?ena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Rutkowska, Ewa; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczy?ski, Piotr; Mici?ski, Jan

2014-01-01

203

[Studies on six heavy metal elements dissolution characteristics of Andrographis herb by ICP-OES].  

PubMed

A simple and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb in andrographis herb by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. The samples were digested by HNO3-HClO4. The digestion-determination method was evaluated with the relative standard deviations for all these elements between 2.1% and 4.6%, and the recoveries were between 92.0% and 103.2%. The measuring method was proved to be simple, reliable and highly sensitive. The dissolution characteristics of the 6 heavy metal elements in different solvents and with different extraction methods such as refluxing, soaking, and ultrasonic assisted extraction were studied. The experimental results showed that Ba was in the highest concentration followed by Cu and Cr, and the concentration of As, Pb and Cd was relatively lower in the herb. With the increase in ethanol concentration, the dissolution amount of Ba decreased but that of Cu and Cr increased, and the highest concentration of Cd was dissolved in acidic solution. Overall, Cd and Pb were difficult to dissolve out with 85% ethanol refluxing, but As dissolved comparatively more under the same condition. Comparing the extraction methods, the higher concentration of these 6 metals was obtained by refluxing water or alkaline water than that by 85% ethanol maceration. These differences might be related to the existent forms of these six elements in the herb. The determination and study on dissolution characteristics of these elements by using ICP-OES was important for rational using medicinal resources and ensuring the safety of drugs. PMID:20384160

Tang, Rui; Li, Tian-Peng; Gu, Xue-Shi; Li, Yong-Jian; Yang, Yi

2010-02-01

204

Toxicogenomics for the prediction of toxicity related to herbs from traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Toxicogenomics represents the integration of genomics and toxicology to investigate the interaction between genes and environmental stress in human health. It is a scientific field that studies how the genome is involved in responses to environmental stressors and toxicants. The patterns of altered gene expression that are caused by specific exposures or disease outcomes reveal how toxicants may act and cause disease. Nowadays, toxicogenomics faces great challenges in discriminating the molecular basis of toxicity. We do believe that advances in this field will eventually allow us to describe all the toxicological interactions that occur within a living system. Toxicogenomic responses of a toxic agent in one species (e.g., laboratory animals) may predict the mode of action in another species (e.g., humans) (predictive toxicology). Development and application of toxicogenomic databases and new bioinformatics tools are among the most important aspects of toxicogenomic research which will facilitate sharing and interpretation of the huge amount of biological information generated in this field. Medicinal herbs have played an important role in pharmacy from ancient to modern times. Nowadays, there is a revival of interest in medicinal plants and an increasing scientific interest in bioactive natural products. Medicinal herbs are usually considered to be nontoxic. However, the consumption of herbs could produce prominent toxic effects either due to inherent toxicity or to contaminants (heavy metals, microorganisms, pesticides, toxic organic solvents, radioactivity, etc.). Therefore, a critical assessment of their toxicity is an urgent issue. This review explores the field of toxicogenomics, pinpoints some of its research approaches and describes the challenges it faces. In particular, Chinese herbal preparations have been implicated. PMID:20957595

Youns, Mahmoud; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Efferth, Thomas

2010-12-01

205

Herbal medicines in Brazil: pharmacokinetic profile and potential herb-drug interactions  

PubMed Central

A plethora of active compounds found in herbal medicines can serve as substrate for enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. When a medicinal plant is co-administered with a conventional drug and little or no information is known about the pharmacokinetics of the plant metabolites, there is an increased risk of potential herb-drug interactions. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in a population may act to predispose individuals to adverse reactions. The use of herbal medicines is rapidly increasing in many countries, particularly Brazil where the vast biodiversity is a potential source of new and more affordable treatments for numerous conditions. Accordingly, the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS) produced a list of 71 plant species of interest, which could be made available to the population in the near future. Physicians at SUS prescribe a number of essential drugs and should herbal medicines be added to this system the chance of herb-drug interactions further increases. A review of the effects of these medicinal plants on Phase 1 and Phase 2 metabolic mechanisms and the transporter P-glycoprotein was conducted. The results have shown that approximately half of these medicinal plants lack any pharmacokinetic data. Moreover, most of the studies carried out are in vitro. Only a few reports on herb-drug interactions with essential drugs prescribed by SUS were found, suggesting that very little attention is being given to the safety of herbal medicines. Here we have taken this information to discuss the potential interactions between herbal medicines and essential drugs prescribed to Brazilian patients whilst taking into account the most common polymorphisms present in the Brazilian population. A number of theoretical interactions are pinpointed but more pharmacokinetic studies and pharmacovigilance data are needed to ascertain their clinical significance. PMID:25071580

Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Prieto, Jose M.

2014-01-01

206

Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

Schroder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

207

Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea  

PubMed Central

Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs. PMID:25320715

Shon, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yunjeong; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Jun Kyoung; Kim, Minju; Park, Eunju; Kim, Gyo-Nam

2014-01-01

208

``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

2009-05-01

209

Determination of 16 insect growth regulators in edible Chinese traditional herbs by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 ?g kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens. PMID:22271101

Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia

2012-03-01

210

Inhibition of Nuclear Factor ?B Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

2010-01-01

211

Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC  

E-print Network

Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

Norman, Eric B; Guillaumon, Pedro; Smith, Alan R

2014-01-01

212

Report on Gamma-Ray Analysis of Seaweed Samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC  

E-print Network

Five seaweed samples from Naturespirit Herbs LLC were counted using low-background high-resolution gamma-ray detectors to search for evidence of contamination from the Fukushima reactor accident. No evidence of Cs-134 was observed in any of the samples. Very low levels of Cs-137 were observed and are attributed to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. However, these levels of Cs-137 are small compared to the levels of the naturally occurring K-40 observed from these seaweed samples.

Eric B. Norman; Keenan Thomas; Pedro Guillaumon; Alan R. Smith

2014-06-10

213

HPLC DETERMINATION OF BERBERINE IN MEDICINAL HERBS AND A RELATED TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A HPLC method was developed for the determination and identification of the berberine content in Coptidis Radix, Phellodendri Cortex and a related commercially prepared traditional Chinese medicine, Huang-Lian-Jiee-Dwu-Tang. Berberine was separated by a phenyl-bound column with two kinds of mobile phases of acetonitrile : methanol : 20 mM phosphate (35 : 20 : 45, v\\/v\\/v) and acetonitrile : 20 mM phosphate (30 : 70, v\\/v) for single herb and herbal preparation, respectively. Both mobile

Pi-Lo Tsai; Tung-Hu Tsai

2002-01-01

214

Differential niche modification by males and females of a dioecious herb: extending the Jack Sprat effect.  

PubMed

Males and females of dioecious plants often differ in morphological, physiological and life-history traits, probably as a result of their different requirements for reproduction. We found that the growth and reproductive effort of individuals of the dioecious herb Mercurialis annua depended on whether males or females had been growing in the soil previously. This suggests that males and females of M. annua differentially modify the soil in which they are growing. Our study indicates that sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants can give rise to increased environmental heterogeneity as a consequence of sex-specific niche modification. PMID:20825527

Sánchez-Vilas, J; Pannell, J R

2010-10-01

215

The Effects of Uygur Herb Hyssopus officinalis L. on the Process of Airway Remodeling in Asthmatic Mice  

PubMed Central

It has been proved that Uygur herb Hyssopus offcinalis L. could affect the levels of some cytokines (such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-?) in asthmatic mice. By detection of the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 and the morphological changes, the aim of this research is to reveal the mechanism of Uygur herb Hyssopus offcinalis L. in the process of airway remodeling. It was observed that the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 increased, but the ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1 decreased in airway remodeling group. However, the expression of both MMP-9 and TIMP-1 decreased after being treated with dexamethasone and Hyssopus offcinalis L., accompanied by the relieved pathological changes, including collagen deposition, mucus secretion, and smooth muscle proliferation. It is suggested that Uygur herb Hyssopus offcinalis L. could inhibit airway remodeling by correcting imbalance of MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio.

Ma, Xiaojuan; Ma, Xiumin; Ma, Zhixing; Sun, Zhan; Yu, Wenyan; Wang, Jing; Li, Fengsen; Ding, Jianbing

2014-01-01

216

Long-Term Chinese Herbs Decoction Administration for Management of Hot Flashes Associated with Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs decoction Shu-Gan-Liang-Xue on endocrine therapy- associated hot flashes symptom in breast cancer patients. Methods Sixty-six patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy were categorized to two groups, the control group received endocrine therapy alone, the other group is administered with Chinese herbs decoction Shu-Gan-Liang-Xue besides the endocrine therapy: Shu-Gan-Liang-Xue decoction was administered above 6 months per year for more than 2 years. Frequency of hot flashes per day was recorded, and the effect of Shu-Gan-Liang-Xue decoction on hot flashes symptom being assessed with Kupperman Scoring Index. Results Sixty cases were analyzed, 32 cases in endocrine therapy combining Chinese herbs decoction group, 28 cases in mere endocrine therapy group. For hot flashes symptom, in Chinese herbs decoction administration group, 7 cases (21.9%) reported symptom disappeared, 22 cases (68.7%) reported symptom alleviated, 3 cases (9.4%) reported symptom not changed; in endocrine therapy alone group, 5 cases (17.9%) reported symptom disappeared, 13 cases (46.4%) reported symptom alleviated, 10 cases (10/28, 35.7%) reported symptom not changed. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (P=0.013). For sleeping disorder, in Chinese herbs decoction administration group, 27 cases (84.4%) reported symptom improved, 5 cases (15.6%) reported no change; in endocrine therapy alone group, 16 cases (57.1%) symptom improved, 12 cases (42.9%) reported no change in sleeping disorder (P=0.019), the difference was also of significance statistically. Conclusion Long-term Chinese herbs decoction administration remarkably improved hot flashes symptom and sleeping disorder associated with endocrine therapy, meanwhile without definite toxicity and influence on the risk of recurrence of tumor. PMID:23467638

Xue, Dong; Sun, Hong; Li, Ping-ping

2011-01-01

217

Correlation between the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of aqueous extracts from Bulgarian herbs.  

PubMed

The water phase antioxidant activity of extracts from 23 Bulgarian medicinal plants was studied in relation to their polyphenol content in comparison with mate, black tea, honeybush and rooibos foreign species. Antioxidant activity was measured by the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) cation radical decolorization assay, and the total polyphenol content was assayed according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Five Bulgarian plant extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of mate, which is 21.7% of all Bulgarian herbs included in this study. These were Alchemilla vulgaris L. (4.79 +/- 0.14 mm), Sambucus ebulus L. (4.03 +/- 0.07 mm), Mentha spicata L. (3.90 +/- 0.03 mm), Fragaria vesca L. (3.74 +/- 0.06 mm), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (3.63 +/- 0.05 mm). Another eight Bulgarian medicinal plant extracts exhibited an intermediate antioxidant activity - lower than that of mate and higher than that of honeybush, which makes 34.8% of all Bulgarian herbs included in the study. More than half of the herbal extracts included in the present study exhibited antioxidant activity higher than or comparable to the reference foreign plants. A positive correlation (r = 0.92) between antioxidant activity and polyphenol content was found, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity of the aqueous plant extracts is due to a great extent to their polyphenols. PMID:16906640

Kiselova, Yoana; Ivanova, Diana; Chervenkov, Trifon; Gerova, Daniela; Galunska, Bistra; Yankova, Tatyana

2006-11-01

218

Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations.  

PubMed

Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries. PMID:23122119

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-01-15

219

[Analysis of the main components of coptis-evodia herb couple by HPLC-DAD-MS].  

PubMed

A comprehensive HPLC-DAD-MS method was developed to study the chemical components of semi-bionic extract of Coptis-Evodia herb couple. The extract was isolated on a Hypersil BDS C18 column (4.6 mm x 200 mm, 5 microm) using acetonitrile-ammonium formic buffer as mobile phase by gradient elution. Detection was performed on DAD and MS equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source by full scan and product full scan on positive mode. The chromatogram of Coptis-Evodia showed seventeen main peaks, eight of which were from Evodia while the others were from Coptis. By comparison of the retention time, the on-line UV spectra and MS spectra, four peaks were identified as jatrorrhizine, hydroxevodiamine, palmatine and berberine, and three peaks were deduced as epiberberine, columbamine and coptisine. In addition, berberine and palmatine were quantitatively determined. No new component was created in the semi-bionic extract of the herb couple, yet the solubilities of berberine and palmatine decreased. PMID:18630268

Deng, Ya-Ting; Liao, Qiong-Feng; Bi, Kai-Shun; Yao, Mei-Cun; Jiang, Xiao-fei; Xie, Zhi-Yong

2008-03-01

220

Study of vacuum microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenolic compounds and pigment from Chinese herbs.  

PubMed

Vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE), in which microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was performed in vacuum, was specially designed and applied for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds and pigments from Chinese herbs. The extraction conditions including solid/liquid ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and degree of vacuum were optimized. Subsequently, VMAE, MAE, and conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE) were evaluated with resveratrol and emodin extraction from Rhizma Polygoni Cuspidati, myricetin and quercetin extraction from Myrica rubra leaves, and safflomin A extraction from Flos Carthami. In addition, the different microstructures of those rhizome, leaf, and flower samples were investigated before and after extraction. It was obvious that the extraction yields of resveratrol, myricetin and safflomin A (thermosensitive compounds) with VMAE were higher than that with MAE or HRE by increments of 6.4-9.4% and 7.9-29.5%, respectively. In contrast, there was no obvious difference among the extraction yields for emodin and quercetin (thermo-stable compounds) with VMAE, MAE and HRE, except that the solvent consumption in VMAE was decreased. The results suggest that VMAE is a good alternative for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds and pigments, especially thermosensitive compounds, from Chinese herbs. PMID:18534606

Wang, Jun-Xia; Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Li, Gong-Ke

2008-07-11

221

Effect of ?-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was carried out to find the effect of ?-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of ?-irradiation on medicinal herb.

Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

2009-07-01

222

A system for screening agonists targeting ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs*  

PubMed Central

In order to develop a model for screening the agonists of human ?2-adrenoceptor from Chinese medicinal herbs extracts, we used a cell-based functional assay based on a common G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) regulation mechanism and destabilized enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) reporter gene technique. The positive cell clone was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and imaging analysis. To assess the value of this model, we screened over 2000 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fractionated samples from the ethanol extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Six fractions (isolated from Panax japonicus, Veratrum nigrum, Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Chaenomeles speciosa, and Dictamnus dasycarpus) showed significant effects on active reporter gene expression, three of which (isolated from Phellodendron amurense, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, and Chaenomeles speciosa) were selected for further concentration response analysis and the half maximal effective concentration (EC1/2 max) values were 4.2, 2.7, and 4.8 µg/ml, respectively. Therefore, this reporter gene assay was suitable for screening ?2-adrenoceptor agonists. The results suggest that the six herbal extracts are the possible agonists of ?2-adrenoceptor. PMID:19353741

Wang, Hui; Li, Shi-you; Zhao, Chuan-ke; Zeng, Xin

2009-01-01

223

[Efficacy and safety of symphytum herb extract cream in the treatment of pressure ulcers].  

PubMed

In an open, prospective use study, 161 patients with 198 decubitus ulcers (pressure ulcers, ITT population) in stages II and III were treated with the topical preparation symphytum herb extract cream. The bandages with the cream were changed every 2-3 days. The primary parameters evaluated were the area of the sore and the depth of the wound (planimetrically in mm). In all, 151 patients with a total of 184 pressure sores (PP population) were included and received treatment over a period of 4 weeks in order to evaluate the treatment results. Complete healing of the pressure sores within 4 weeks was observed in 85.9?% (PP population)/79.8?% (ITT population) of the treated ulcers. Over a treatment duration of 25-30 days, a 89.2?% reduction of the total decubitus area was observed. The same result was found for the depth of the pressure ulcer with a reduction of 88?%. The overall treatment success was from both the perspective of the physician and the patient considered successful in 90.4?% (5-point scale) of cases and 87.9% (100 mm VAS, PP population). Two cases of local irritation were observed after 25/30 days (1.2?% of the patients with exposure), thus showing very good skin compatibility. The efficacy of symphytum herb extract cream is surprisingly good in the treatment of pressure ulcers. PMID:24048776

Stepán, J; Ehrlichova, J; Hladikova, M

2014-04-01

224

Who invented the dichotomous key? Richard Waller's watercolors of the herbs of Britain.  

PubMed

On 27 March 1689, Richard Waller, Fellow and Secretary of the Royal Society presented his "Tables of the English Herbs reduced to such an order, as to find the name of them by their external figures and shapes" to his assembled colleagues at a meeting of the Royal Society. These tables were developed for the novice by being color images, composed in pencil and watercolor, of selected plants and their distinguishing characteristics. The botanical watercolors for the tables are now a Turning-the-Pages document online on the website of the Royal Society. However, for the past 320 years, the scientific context for the creation of these outstanding botanical watercolors has remained obscure. These tables were developed by Waller as an image-based dichotomous key, pre-dating by almost 100 years the text-based dichotomous keys in the first edition of Flora Française (1778) by Jean Baptiste Lamarck, who is generally given priority for the development of the dichotomous key. How these large folio images were arranged to illustrate a dichotomous key is unknown, but an arrangement based on Waller's description is illustrated here as leaf-ordering for the separate hierarchical clusters (tables). Although only 24 species of watercolored dicot herbs out of a total of 65 in the set of watercolors (the others being monocots) are used in these tables, they are a "proof of concept", serving as models upon which a method is based, that of using a key composed of dichotomous choices for aiding identification. PMID:22074776

Griffing, Lawrence R

2011-12-01

225

Identification and evaluation of agents isolated from traditionally used herbs against Ophiophagus hannah venom.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was firstly to identify active molecules in herbs, that are traditionally used for the treatment of snake bite, such as Curcuma antinaia, Curcuma contravenenum, Andrographis paniculata, and Tanacetum parthenium; secondly to test similar structurally related molecules and finally to prepare and evaluate an efficient formulation against Ophiophagus hannah venom intoxification. Three labdane based compounds, including labdane dialdehyde, labdane lactone, and labdane trialdehyde and two lactones including 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and parthenolide were isolated by column chromatography and characterised. Using the isolated rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, the antagonistic effect of crude extracts, isolated compounds and prepared formulations were measured in vitro on the inhibition of the neuromuscular transmission. Inhibition on muscle contraction, produced by the 5 ?g/mL venom, was reversed by test agents in organ bath preparations. A labdane trialdehyde, isolated from C. contravenenum, was identified as the best antagonising agent in the low micromolar range. Tests on formulations of the most potent C. contravenenum extract showed, that the suppository with witepsol H15 was an effective medicine against O. hannah venom. This study elucidated the active compounds, accounting for the antivenin activity of traditionally used herbs and suggested the most suitable formulation, which may help to develop potent medicines for the treatment of snake bite in the future. PMID:22460424

Salama, R; Sattayasai, J; Gande, A K; Sattayasai, N; Davis, M; Lattmann, E

2012-02-01

226

The co-use of conventional drugs and herbs among patients in Norwegian general practice: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Different patient groups are known to use herbal remedies and conventional drugs concomitantly (co-use). This poses a potential risk of herb-drug interaction through altering the drug’s pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Little is known about co-use among patients in general practice. The primary aim of this study was to compare patients in general practice that co-use herbal remedies and conventional drugs with those who do not. The secondary aim was to register the herb-drug combinations with potential clinical relevant interactions among the co-users. Method A questionnaire based cross-sectional study conducted in the autumn 2011 in a general practice office with four general practitioners (GPs) and one intern in Western Norway. Adults >18 years who came for an office visit were invited. The questionnaire asked about demographics, herbal use, conventional drug use and communication about herbal use. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare co-users to the other patients. Results Of the 381 patients who completed the questionnaire, the prevalence of herbal use was 44%, with bilberry (41%), green tea (31%), garlic (27%), Aloe vera (26%) and echinacea (18%) as the most frequently used. Among those using conventional drugs regularly, 108 (45%) co-used herbs. Close to 40% of patients on anticoagulants co-used herbs, with garlic and bilberry as the most frequent herbs. Compared to all other patients, co-users had significantly (p?herbs to treat an illness (adjOR 4.2), use two or more herbs (polyherbacy, adjOR 12.1) and having experienced adverse effects of herbal use (adjOR 37.5). Co-use was also associated with use of analgesics or dermatological drugs (adjOR 5.1 and 7.9 respectively). Three out of four patients did not discuss herbal use with any health care professional. Conclusion A sizable proportion of the GP patients co-used herbs with conventional drugs, also combinations with reported interaction potential or additive effects like anticoagulants and garlic. The low disclosure of herbal use to their GP, polyherbacy and the risk of interactions in vulnerable groups like elderly and chronically ill patients, warrant increased awareness among GPs. PMID:24171723

2013-01-01

227

Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the

D. E. Cross; R. M. Mcdevitt; T. Acamovic

2011-01-01

228

Influence of straw mulching on fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency, moisture conservation and herb and essential oil yield in Japanese mint ( Mentha arvensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field study, the influence of organic mulches viz. paddy straw and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) distillation waste on herb and essential oil yield and fertilizer N use efficiency in Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis L.) were examined for two years. Herb yield (dry weight) increased by 17 and 31% with paddy straw and citronella distillation waste, respectively over the

D. D. Patra; Muni Ram; D. V. Singh

1993-01-01

229

Influence of different dates of planting on growth, herb, oil yield and quality of essential oil of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) in the North Indian Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted for two years (2007–2008 and 2008–2009) to study the effect of different dates of planting for three menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) cultivars (Saksham, Kushal and Kosi; developed by Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India) on herb yield, oil yield and oil quality. All the cultivars produced higher herb and oil yields when

Rajesh K. Chauhan; Mohammed Anwar; Sukhmal Chand; Dharani D. Patra

2012-01-01

230

Influence of different dates of planting on growth, herb, oil yield and quality of essential oil of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) in the NorthIndian Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted for two years (2007–2008 and 2008–2009) to study the effect of different dates of planting for three menthol mint (Mentha arvensis) cultivars (Saksham, Kushal and Kosi; developed by Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, India) on herb yield, oil yield and oil quality. All the cultivars produced higher herb and oil yields when

Rajesh K. Chauhan; Mohammed Anwar; Sukhmal Chand; Dharani D. Patra

2011-01-01

231

Responses of gas exchange to humidity in populations of three herbs from environments differing in atmospheric water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to humidity of net photosynthesis and leaf conductance of single attached leaves were examined in populations of herbs from wet soil sites in Beltsville, Maryland and Davis, California, USA. Plants were grown in controlled environments under three conditions which differed in the magnitude of the day-night temperature difference and in daytime air saturation deficit. No population differences in response

J. A. Bunce

1986-01-01

232

Synthesis of potential radioprotective components from Chinese herb drug Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , umbelliferae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extracts of some Chinese traditional herb drugs, reported by Hong-Fu Wang et al. in China, could inhibit platelet aggregation as well as protect against radiation damage in mice, rat and rabbits. The inhibitory effects of the extracts of five Chinese drugs on the rate of platelet aggregation were observed in both in vitro and in vivo tests, averaging

1993-01-01

233

Effects of Formulating Dahuang Huanglian Xeixin Decoction with Different Combinations of Herbs on the Concentrations of Marker Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HPLC method was developed to separate all nine marker chemicals of Dahuang Huanglian Xiexin Decoction (DHXD) prepared from different combinations of herbs. The herbal products were soaked separately in boiling water for various durations of time. Then, they were analyzed by an HPLC equipped with a phenyl column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 ?m) and a UV detector set at

Zou Jiali; Huang Ping; Yuan Yuemei; Yao Meicun; Francis C. P. Law

2009-01-01

234

Influence of selfing and maternal effects on life-cycle traits and dispersal ability in the herb Hypochaeris radicata (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological and evolutionary implications of dispersal are many. Pollination type and maternal effects may affect plant fitness traits, including life-cycle traits as well as dispersal ability. This study investigated the joint influence of pollination type and maternal effects on both life-cycle traits and dispersal ability in the herb Hypochaeris radicata. We conducted experimental crosses to obtain selfed and outcrossed

F. X. Pico Mercader; N. JOOP OUBORG; JAN VAN GROENENDAEL

2004-01-01

235

Neurotrophic and Neuroprotective Effects of Tripchlorolide, an Extract of Chinese Herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, on Dopaminergic Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported recently that the immunosuppressant FK506 produced neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether tripchlorolide, an immunosuppressive extract of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, could exert similar neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects similar to those of FK506. It was found that tripchlorolide promoted axonal elongation and protected dopaminergic neurons

Feng-Qiao Li; Xiao-Xin Cheng; Xi-Bin Liang; Xin-Hong Wang; Bing Xue; Qi-Hua He; Xiao-Min Wang; Ji-Sheng Han

2003-01-01

236

Determination of carbamate insecticides in Chinese medicinal herbs by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector.  

PubMed

A simplified method for determining carbamate insecticides (including metolcarb, isoprocarb, fenobucarb, carbofuran, pirimicarb, and carbaryl) in Chinese medicinal herbs (White Peony Alba, Red Peony Root, and Baical Skullcap Root) is described. Standards were fortified into Chinese medicinal herbs at 3 levels (0.05-0.5 mg/kg). The carbamates were extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The results showed average recoveries between 80.77 and 104.56%. The method evidenced good robustness, accuracy, and precision for monitoring carbamates in Chinese medicinal herb samples, and it is a suitable alternative to replace the currently dedicated analytical systems. The minimum detectable amount ranged from 3.0 x 10(-10) to 5.0 x 10(-10)g, and the limit of quantification was 0.05 mg/kg. The method is rapid, simple, sensitive, and reproducible, and it can be conveniently used as a low-cost, rapid method for measuring the carbamate insecticide contamination of Chinese medicinal herbs. PMID:16152951

Wu, Jialun; Li, Liqing; Zou, Yaohua

2005-01-01

237

Larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from commonly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the potential of essential oils from commonly used medical and culinary herbs in Lebanon as an environmentally safe measure to control the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. The composition of essential oils extracted from parsley seeds and leaves, alpine thyme inflorescences, anis seeds, and coriander fruits were analyzed by GC–MS, and the major components of these oils were

K. M. Knio; J. Usta; S. Dagher; H. Zournajian; S. Kreydiyyeh

2008-01-01

238

Simultaneous analysis of seven alkaloids in Coptis-Evodia herb couple and Zuojin pill by UPLC with accelerated solvent extraction.  

PubMed

A rapid, sensitive, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography-UV detection method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of seven active alkaloids, berberine, palmatine, coptisine, jatrorrhizine, epiberberine, evodiamine, and rutaecarpine, in the Coptis-Evodia herb couple and the Zuojin pill preparation. The original validated method had a total time of about 11 min, which was reduced to 4.7 min by further optimization of gradient elution conditions with eluent A comprising water/methanol/formic acid (v/v/v, 90:10:0.1) and eluent B ACN. An accelerated solvent extraction method was used for the rapid extraction of herb products and pill preparations. Linear behavior over the investigated concentration ranges was observed, with values of r(2) greater than 0.9987 for all analytes. Experiment results were satisfactory for both intra-day and inter-day precision, and method accuracy. Method recovery ranged from 95.7 to 103.5% based on pure reference standards. The validated method was successfully applied to determine amounts of bioactive alkaloid compounds in five samples, in the Coptis-Evodia herb couple, and the commercial Zuojin pill products. The developed method achieved baseline resolution for all seven main basic compounds and is suitable for use as a routine procedure for the rapid identification and quantification of basic compounds in the Coptis-Evodia herb couple and related products. PMID:20715137

Gao, Xin; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Marriott, Philip J

2010-09-01

239

Pollen limitation and distance-dependent fecundity in females of the clonal gynodioecious herb Glechoma hederacea (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen movement is often restricted in natural populations, and insufficient pollination is a potential constraint on sexual reproduction in outcrossing species. Seed-set should decrease with increased distance from the pollen source in outcrossing plants. This prediction was tested using females of the clonal, gynodioecious herb Glechoma hederacea in three natural populations. In controlled pollinations, both hermaphrodites and females had similar

Björn Widén; Marie Widén

1990-01-01

240

Distribution of herbs and shrubs in relation to landform and canopy cover in riparian forests of coastal Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we characterized the distribution of herb and shrub species relative to landform and forest canopy attributes of streamside forests in the moist, conifer-dominated mountains of coastal Oregon. Species cover and environmental data were collected along transects at 94 sites. Species with relatively similar distributions were classified into 10 species groups to identify major patterns in the vegetation.

Robert J. Pabst; Thomas A. Spies

1998-01-01

241

Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.  

PubMed

Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFN?-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100??g/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100??g/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFN?-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

2014-01-01

242

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFN?-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100??g/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100??g/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFN?-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:24696703

Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

2014-01-01

243

Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a laboratory exercise used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. The Indian herb, gymnema sylvestre, is used in this experiment to impair the ability of tasting sugar. As a result the impairment alters the perception of sweetness, which leaves a profound and lasting impression on students and gives them a better comprehension of gustation.

Joseph Schroeder, Ellen Flannery-Schroeder (Conneticut College, University of Rhode Island;)

1999-11-30

244

Curative role of the aqueous extract of the herb, Phyllanthus niruri, against nimesulide induced oxidative stress in murine liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to evaluate whether the aqueous extract of the herb, Phyl- lanthus niruri (PN) can effectively cure liver from nimesulide (NIM) induced oxidative stress in vivo. In our experiments, we have seen that administration of PN through intraperitoneal route is more effective in hepato-protection than oral administration. PN (100 mg\\/kg body weight) was, therefore, administered intraperitoneally

Mrinal K. Sarkar; Kasturi Sarkar; Rajesh Bhattacharjee; Mary Chatterjee; Parames C. Sil

2005-01-01

245

A Comparative Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Commonly Used South Asian Herbs  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activities of curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, Indian malabar leaves, red silk cotton tree leaves, cowitch leaves, holyfruit tree leaves, and black mustard seeds were compared. Their effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were investigated. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay determined the antioxidant potential of the extracts, while the ROS scavenging ability was explored in hyperglycemia-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The SOD assay determined if the extracts stimulated the enzyme activity in the HUVECs. Curry leaf and fenugreek extracts had high ORAC values and superior free radical scavenging abilities compared with the rest of the extracts. The curry leaf extract had also increased the SOD activity. Fenugreek extract had not increased the SOD activity of the HUVECs. Thus, the two herbs displayed two distinct pathways of action for scavenging of ROS. PMID:24716187

Waisundara, Viduranga; Yian Hoon, Lee

2013-01-01

246

Antifungal activity and composition of essential oils of Conyza canadensis herbs and roots.  

PubMed

Essential oils from herbs and roots of Conyza canadensis (horseweed), collected in Hungary, were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical compositions of the oils were analysed by combination of GC and GC/MS. The major constituent of the oil obtained from the aerial parts of horseweed was limonene (78%), while the main component of root oil was 2Z,8Z-matricaria ester. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were tested on Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, reference fungal strains, and fungal strains isolated from patients (Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Rhodotorula, and Aspergillus) by agar disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. None of the oils showed any activity against the tested bacterial strains, but exhibited moderate-to-strong activity against all fungi with the only exception of A. fumigatus. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in case of Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichophyton interdigitalis. PMID:23049473

Veres, Katalin; Csupor-Löffler, Boglárka; Lázár, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

2012-01-01

247

Anti-bacterial activity of Euphorbia fusiformis--a rare medicinal herb.  

PubMed

Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. ex. D.Don (Euphorbiaceae) is a rare medicinal herb. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of the leaves and rootstocks were investigated for anti-bacterial properties by using disc diffusion and well-in agar methods, against pathogenic strains of Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhii A and Salmonella typhii B). The different extracts differed significantly in their anti-bacterial properties with the methanolic extract being very effective followed by acetone and chloroform extracts. Aqueous and ethanolic extract showed very least activity. The result highlights that rootstock extracts had good anti-bacterial properties than leaf extracts. The results of this study support the use of this plant in traditional medicine to treat fever, wound infections and intestinal disorders. PMID:16159702

Natarajan, D; Britto, S John; Srinivasan, K; Nagamurugan, N; Mohanasundari, C; Perumal, G

2005-10-31

248

Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast-growing epidemic affecting people globally. Furthermore, multiple complications and comorbidities are associated with T2DM. Lifestyle modifications along with pharmacotherapy and patient education are the mainstay of therapy for patients afflicted with T2DM. Western medications are frequently associated with severe adverse drug reactions and high costs of treatment. Herbal medications have long been used in the treatment and prevention of T2DM in both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Indian medicine (TIM). This review examines in vivo, in vitro, and clinical evidence supporting the use of various herbs used in TCM and TIM. The problems, challenges, and opportunities for the incorporation of herbal frequently used in TCM and TIM into Western therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:23737828

Wang, Zhijun

2013-01-01

249

Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) are known to possess anti-oxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23531917

Petiwala, Sakina M.; Puthenveetil, Angela G.; Johnson, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01

250

Polyphenols from the Mediterranean herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for prostate cancer.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean diet is rich in fruits and vegetables and has been associated with a variety of health benefits including cancer prevention. One aspect of the diet that has not received enough attention is Mediterranean herbs. Specifically, rosemary and its polyphenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol) are known to possess anti-oxidant activity that may be beneficial for cancer control. Herein, we describe the in vitro and in vivo studies carried out towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of carnosic acid and carnosol leading to inhibition of prostate cancer. The reported findings suggest that these polyphenols target multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis. Further work is required to understand its potential for health promotion and potential drug discovery for prostate cancer chemoprevention. PMID:23531917

Petiwala, Sakina M; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Johnson, Jeremy J

2013-01-01

251

Evidence of natural occurrence of the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol in herbs and grass  

PubMed Central

Chloramphenicol (CAP), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was detected in several herb and grass samples from different geographic origins. Due to its suspected carcinogenicity and linkages with the development of aplastic anemia in humans, CAP is banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU) and many other countries. However, products of animal origin originating from Asian countries entering the European market are still found noncompliant (containing CAP) on a regular basis, even when there is no history of chloramphenicol use in these countries. A possible explanation for the continued detection of these residues is the natural occurrence of CAP in plant material which is used as animal feed, with the consequent transfer of the substance to the animal tissues. Approximately 110 samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection. In 26 samples, the presence of CAP was confirmed using the criteria for banned substances defined by the EU. Among other plant materials, samples of the Artemisia family retrieved from Mongolia and from Utah, USA, and a therapeutic herb mixture obtained from local stores in the Netherlands proved to contain CAP at levels ranging from 0.1 to 450 µg/kg. These findings may have a major impact in relation to international trade and safety to the consumer. The results of this study demonstrate that noncompliant findings in animal-derived food products may in part be due to the natural occurrence of chloramphenicol in plant material. This has implications for the application of current EU, USA, and other legislation and the interpretation of analytical results with respect to the consideration of CAP as a xenobiotic veterinary drug residue and the regulatory actions taken upon its detection in food. PMID:20431869

Berendsen, Bjorn; de Jong, Jacob; Nielen, Michel; Tserendorj, Enkhtuya; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchas; Cannavan, Andrew; Elliott, Christopher

2010-01-01

252

Trait variations along a regenerative chronosequence in the herb layer of submediterranean forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to assess the functional shifts of the herb layer in the submediterranean Ostrya carpinifolia coppiced forests (central Italy) along a coppicing rotation cycle. More specifically, the following questions were addressed: i) is there a pattern in functional trait composition of the herb layer along a regeneration chronosequence?; ii) which traits states differentiate each regeneration stage?; iii) are patterns of trait state variation related to the change of the environmental conditions? Species cover percentage was recorded in 54 plots (20 m × 20 m) with homogeneous ecological conditions. Relevés, ordered on the basis of the time since the last coppicing event and grouped into three age classes, were analysed with regard to trait variation, based on species absolute and relative abundance. Differences in light, temperature, soil moisture, and nutrients bioindicator values between consecutive regeneration stages were tested using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) revealed statistically significant separation between young and intermediate-aged stands with regard to most traits. Indicator species analysis (ISA) highlighted indicator trait states, which were filtered, along the chronosequence, by changes in environmental conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that light intensity had the greatest effect on traits states variation from the first to the second regeneration stage, while variation from the second to the third age classes was affected by temperature. Young stands were differentiated by short cycle species with acquisitive strategies that only propagated by sexual reproduction, with light seeds, summer green and overwintering green leaves, and a long flowering duration. Intermediate-aged and mature stands were characterized by traits associated with early leaf and flower production, high persistence in time, and showing retentive strategies aimed at resource storage (e.g., geophytes, spring green leaves, rhizomes, and mesomorphic/hygromorphic leaves).

Catorci, Andrea; Vitanzi, Alessandra; Tardella, Federico Maria; Hršak, Vladimir

2012-08-01

253

An Overview of the Evidence and Mechanisms of Herb-Drug Interactions  

PubMed Central

Despite the lack of sufficient information on the safety of herbal products, their use as alternative and/or complementary medicine is globally popular. There is also an increasing interest in medicinal herbs as precursor for pharmacological actives. Of serious concern is the concurrent consumption of herbal products and conventional drugs. Herb–drug interaction (HDI) is the single most important clinical consequence of this practice. Using a structured assessment procedure, the evidence of HDI presents with varying degree of clinical significance. While the potential for HDI for a number of herbal products is inferred from non-human studies, certain HDIs are well established through human studies and documented case reports. Various mechanisms of pharmacokinetic HDI have been identified and include the alteration in the gastrointestinal functions with consequent effects on drug absorption; induction and inhibition of metabolic enzymes and transport proteins; and alteration of renal excretion of drugs and their metabolites. Due to the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of phytochemicals, pharmacodynamic HDIs are also known to occur. The effects could be synergistic, additive, and/or antagonistic. Poor reporting on the part of patients and the inability to promptly identify HDI by health providers are identified as major factors limiting the extensive compilation of clinically relevant HDIs. A general overview and the significance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic HDI are provided, detailing basic mechanism, and nature of evidence available. An increased level of awareness of HDI is necessary among health professionals and drug discovery scientists. With the increasing number of plant-sourced pharmacological actives, the potential for HDI should always be assessed in the non-clinical safety assessment phase of drug development process. More clinically relevant research is also required in this area as current information on HDI is insufficient for clinical applications. PMID:22557968

Fasinu, Pius S.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

2012-01-01

254

Antioxidant and photoprotective properties of an extract from buckwheat herb (Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH).  

PubMed

In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer has risen remarkably. Sun light, especially the included ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, is seen as important trigger for the development of skin cancer. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the development of UV-protective substances to use them as sun care products. One approach is the topical application of herbal antioxidants. Plant-derived antioxidants are often extracts and therefore contain a complex mixture of constituents, like flavonoids and polyphenols, which contribute to the overall activity of the extract. In the present study an extract from buckwheat herb was compared to rutin, which is the main constituent of the extract, regarding their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the photoprotective properties of the extract were compared to those of a commercial UV absorber. The antioxidant activity was quantified regarding the reactivity versus the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). The photoprotective properties of the extract were examined by the inhibition of the photosensitized lipid peroxidation of linolic acid. In the DPPH assay, the extract had significantly better antioxidant activity than pure rutin. The extract prevented more effectively the UV-induced peroxidation of linolic acid than rutin itself or the commercial UV absorber. The use of the extract from buckwheat herb seems to be more beneficial than the use of pure rutin. This can be referred to the presence of minor phenolic compounds in the extract. The results indicate that it is advisable to use antioxidants rather than only UV absorber to obtain a maximum of photo protection. PMID:16599267

Hinneburg, I; Kempe, S; Rüttinger, H H; Neubert, R H H

2006-03-01

255

Region and site conditions affect phenotypic trait variation in five forest herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of organisms to express different phenotypes under different environmental conditions. It may buffer individuals both against short-term environmental fluctuations and long-term effects of global change. A plastic behaviour in response to changes in the environment may be especially important in species with low migration rates and colonization capacities, such as in many forest plants in present-day fragmented landscapes. We compared the phenotypic trait variation (used as a proxy for the amount of phenotypic plasticity) of five forest herbs (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Circaea lutetiana, Impatiens noli-tangere, Sanicula europaea and Stachys sylvatica) between two regions in Germany that differ in their overall environmental conditions (Bremen in the northwest, Freiburg in the southwest; 5 species × 2 regions × 8-15 populations × 25-50 individuals). In addition, we measured light intensity and important soil parameters (soil pH, moisture, K, P and N) in all populations. We found consistent differences in trait variability between the two regions in several species. In Brachypodium and Stachys both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in Freiburg. Similarly, reproductive traits of Impatiens and Sanicula appeared to be more variable in Freiburg, while in both species at least one of the vegetative traits was more variable in Bremen. Mean local environmental conditions also affected trait variation; in most of the species both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in sites with higher nutrient contents and higher light availability. Across all traits and both regions, seed or fruit production was most variable. In summary, at least some of the studied forest herbs appear to respond strongly to large-scale environmental differences, showing a higher trait variability in the more southern region. Given the assumption that phenotypic trait variation is positively associated with phenotypic plasticity, we conclude that these populations may more easily respond to changes in the environment.

Lemke, Isgard Holle; Kolb, Annette; Diekmann, Martin Reemt

2012-02-01

256

The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide  

PubMed Central

Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet. PMID:20096093

2010-01-01

257

Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs.  

PubMed

Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m(2), 27.9 m(2), and 40.6 m(2), respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15-60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m(2)) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m(2). In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as "ecological clock" for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

2011-11-01

258

Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs  

PubMed Central

Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15–60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as “ecological clock” for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

2011-01-01

259

Quantitation of chlorophylls and 22 of their colored degradation products in culinary aromatic herbs by HPLC-DAD-MS and correlation with color changes during the dehydration process.  

PubMed

Chlorophylls and their green and olive-brown derivatives were successfully separated from culinary herb extracts by HPLC with photodiode-array and mass spectrometry detection. The method involved a ternary gradient elution and reverse-phase separation conditions capable of resolving 24 different pigments (2 chlorophylls and 22 of their derivatives) of different polarities within 28 min. The method was applied to monitor color changes in 50 samples of culinary aromatic herbs subjected to five different drying treatments. Of the 24 pigments, 14 were key to understanding the differences between the primary degradation pathways of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in culinary herbs during drying processes. A color degradation ladder based on the total molar percentage of all the remaining green pigments was also proposed as a tool to measure the impact of drying treatments on aromatic herb visual aspects. PMID:24483726

Lafeuille, Jean-Louis; Lefèvre, Stéphane; Lebuhotel, Julie

2014-02-26

260

NCCAM's 5 Most Searched-For Herbs of 2012: What the Science Says about Evening Primrose Oil, St. John's Wort, Fenugreek,...  

MedlinePLUS

... Most Searched-For Herbs of 2012 : What the Science Says January 2013 The following are the top ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

261

Eignung von Thermolumineszenz-, Chemilumineszenz-, ESR- und Viskositaetsmessungen zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Arzneidrogen. (Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae r...

C. Schuettler, G. Gebhardt, A. Stock, N. Helle, K. W. Boegl

1993-01-01

262

The effect of herbs and their associated essential oils on performance, dietary digestibility and gut microflora in chickens from 7 to 28 days of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The effect of the dietary inclusion of 5 culinary herbs or their essential oils on the growth, digestibility and intestinal microflora status in female broiler chicks was assessed. From 7 to 28?d of age, either a basal control diet without supplement was given or one of 10 others, consisting of the basal diet with either 10?g\\/kg herb (thyme, oregano, marjoram,

D. E. Cross; R. M. McDevitt; K. Hillman; T. Acamovic

2007-01-01

263

Chemopreventive Effect of Five Drugs on Renal Interstitial Fibrosis Induced by an Aristolochic AcidContaining Chinese Herb in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: This study focuses on the chemopreventive effect of five drugs on renal interstitial fibrosis induced by an aristolochic acid-containing Chinese herb Mu-Tong. Methods: Renal interstitial fibrosis was induced in rats by administration of the Mu-Tong solution intragastrically for 6 weeks, and 36 rats were randomly divided into six groups: (1) Mu-Tong, (2) Mu-Tong + captopril, (3) Mu-Tong + losartan,

Shaoming Zhu; Jiubo Liu; Lin Chen; Yan Li; Junxia Yao; Chaoxia Jin; Zuojun Wang; Lei Wang; Pingyong Wu; Qiang Luo; Juan Zhou

2005-01-01

264

Oil and Herb Yields of Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) in Relation to Nitrogen and Irrigation Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were designed to study the influence of irrigation at varying soil matric potentials or IW\\/CPE (Irrigation Water\\/Cumulative Pan Evaporation) ratios and N applications on the yield and N uptake by Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt). The results showed that irrigating the crop when soil matric potential reaches -60 kPa or RV\\/CPE ratio reaches 0.8 resulted in maximum herb

Munnu Singh; Govind D. Chandrasekhara; Eranki V. S. Prakasa Rao

1996-01-01

265

Fire-mediated effects of shrubs, lichens and herbs on the demography of Hypericum cumulicola in patchy Florida scrub  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the effect of disturbance and interspecific interactions on population dynamics and availability of suitable\\u000a habitats for colonization and growth is critical for conservation and management of endangered species. Hypericum cumulicola is a narrowly endemic, small perennial herb virtually restricted to open areas of well-drained white sand in Florida rosemary\\u000a scrub, a naturally patchy community that burns about every 20–80

Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio; Marina Morales-Hernández

1997-01-01

266

Inhibition of glutathione S-transferases by thonningianin A, isolated from the African medicinal herb, Thonningia sanguinea, in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that increased expression of glutathione S-transferase (EC: 2.5.1.18, GST) is involved in resistance of tumor cells against chemotherapeutic agents. In this study we investigated the inhibitory effects of thonningianin A (Th A), a novel antioxidant isolated from the medicinal herb, Thonningia sanguinea on uncharacterized rat liver GST and human GST P1-1. Using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrate, rat

Maxwell Afari Gyamfi; Ikuko Ichiba Ohtani; Etsuki Shinno; Yoko Aniya

2004-01-01

267

Within-season adjustment of sex expression in females and hermaphrodites of the clonal gynodioecious herb Glechoma longituba (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The within-season modification or adjustment of sex expression was studied in the gynodioecious herb Glechoma longituba. The results from seven natural populations indicated that the seed sets of hermaphrodite ramets were relatively stable compared\\u000a to those of female ramets. However, a negative correlation was detected between the seed set of female ramets and their frequency\\u000a of occurrence in a population.

Yan-Wen Zhang; Chun-Feng Yang; Wahiti Robert Gituru; You-Hao Guo

2008-01-01

268

An analysis of the costs and benefits of physiological integration between ramets in the clonal perennial herb Glechoma hederacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs and benefits, measured in terms of dry weight, of physiological integration between clonal ramets, were analysed in two experiments conducted on the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. Firstly, integration between consecutively-produced ramets was examined in an experiment in which stolons grew from one set of growing conditions (either unshaded or shaded and either nutrient-rich or nutrient-poor) into conditions in

A. J. Slade; M. J. Hutchings

1987-01-01

269

Tolerance of a perennial herb, Pimpinella saxifraga , to simulated flower herbivory and grazing: immediate repair of injury or postponed reproduction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perennial, polycarpic herbs can respond to herbivory either by (1) regrowth in the same season in order to compensate for\\u000a lost reproductive structures or by (2) postponing reproduction until the following growing season. We tested these response\\u000a patterns with the perennial umbellifer Pimpinella saxifraga by simulating flower herbivory and shoot grazing both in the field and in a common garden

A. P. Huhta; P. Rautio; K. Hellström; M. Saari; J. Tuomi

270

Tolerance of a perennial herb, Pimpinella saxifraga , to simulated flower herbivory and grazing: immediate repair of injury or postponed reproduction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perennial, polycarpic herbs can respond to herbivory either by (1) regrowth in the same season in order to compensate for\\u000a lost reproductive structures or by (2) postponing reproduction until the following growing season. We tested these response\\u000a patterns with the perennial umbellifer Pimpinella saxifraga by simulating flower herbivory and shoot grazing both in the field and in a common garden

A. P. Huhta; P. Rautio; K. Hellström; M. Saari; J. Tuomi

2009-01-01

271

Analysis of genetic diversity through AFLP, SAMPL, ISSR and RAPD markers in Tribulus terrestris , a medicinal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribulus terrestris is well known for its medicinal importance in curing urino-genital disorders. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP),\\u000a selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and randomly amplified\\u000a polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used for the first time for the detection of genetic polymorphism in this medicinal herb\\u000a from samples collected from various geographical regions of

Maryam Sarwat; S. Das; P. S. Srivastava

2008-01-01

272

Evaluation of free hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of some Chinese herbs by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the severe damage caused by free hydroxyl radicals (OH·) to cells and tissues, there is much interest in finding and studying effective and non-toxic OH· scavengers, including traditional Chinese herbs. In this paper, the simple and highly-sensitive technique of capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD) was used to study the OH· scavenging activities of aqueous extracts from

Hui Li; Qingjiang Wang

2004-01-01

273

Comparative pharmacokinetics of dehydroevodiamine and coptisine in rat plasma after oral administration of single herbs and Zuojinwan prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zuojinwan, which consists of Rhizoma coptidis–Evodia rutaecarpa powder (6:1,g\\/g), is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, clinically used for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders. This study compared the pharmacokinetics of dehydroevodiamine and coptisine, the main active ingredients in Zuojinwan, in rats administrated with whole prescription or single herbs. Multiple blood concentration peaks were observed in the mean plasma–concentration curves. The

Rui Yan; Yin Wang; Wenjin Shen; Youping Liu; Xin Di

274

Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.  

PubMed

Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 ?g of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 ?g of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC50=16, 29, and 59 ?M, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 ?M). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC50=0.43±0.07 ?M), hispidulin (IC50=0.49±0.06 ?M), and naringenin (IC50=2.5±0.29 ?M). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management. PMID:24881464

Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

2014-07-01

275

Roots, shoots and reproduction: sexual dimorphism in size and costs of reproductive allocation in an annual herb.  

PubMed

Females tend to be smaller than males in woody dioecious plant species, but they tend to be larger in herbs. The smaller size of females in woody species has been attributed to higher reproductive costs, yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided for their larger size in herbs. Because herbs have higher nitrogen concentrations in their tissues than woody plants, and because pollen is particularly rich in nitrogen, we predicted that male growth would be more compromised by reproduction than female growth. To test this hypothesis, we conducted three experiments on the annual dioecious herb Mercurialis annua. First, we compared the timing of reproduction between males and females and found that males started flowering earlier than females; early flowering is expected to compromise growth more than later flowering. Second, we compared plants allowed to flower with those prevented from flowering by experimental debudding and found that males incurred a higher reproductive cost than females in terms of both biomass and, particularly, nitrogen. Third, we grew plants under varying levels of nitrogen availability and found that although sexual size dimorphism was unaffected by nitrogen, females, but not males, decreased their relative allocation to both roots and reproduction under high nitrogen availability. We propose that males deal with the high cost of pollen production in terms of nitrogen by allocating biomass to nitrogen-harvesting roots, whereas females pay for carbon-rich seeds and fruits by investing in photosynthetic organs. Sexual dimorphism would thus seem to be the outcome of allocation to above- versus below-ground sinks that supply resources (carbon versus nitrogen) limiting the female and male reproduction differentially. PMID:18682371

Harris, Mark S; Pannell, John R

2008-11-22

276

Roots, shoots and reproduction: sexual dimorphism in size and costs of reproductive allocation in an annual herb  

PubMed Central

Females tend to be smaller than males in woody dioecious plant species, but they tend to be larger in herbs. The smaller size of females in woody species has been attributed to higher reproductive costs, yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided for their larger size in herbs. Because herbs have higher nitrogen concentrations in their tissues than woody plants, and because pollen is particularly rich in nitrogen, we predicted that male growth would be more compromised by reproduction than female growth. To test this hypothesis, we conducted three experiments on the annual dioecious herb Mercurialis annua. First, we compared the timing of reproduction between males and females and found that males started flowering earlier than females; early flowering is expected to compromise growth more than later flowering. Second, we compared plants allowed to flower with those prevented from flowering by experimental debudding and found that males incurred a higher reproductive cost than females in terms of both biomass and, particularly, nitrogen. Third, we grew plants under varying levels of nitrogen availability and found that although sexual size dimorphism was unaffected by nitrogen, females, but not males, decreased their relative allocation to both roots and reproduction under high nitrogen availability. We propose that males deal with the high cost of pollen production in terms of nitrogen by allocating biomass to nitrogen-harvesting roots, whereas females pay for carbon-rich seeds and fruits by investing in photosynthetic organs. Sexual dimorphism would thus seem to be the outcome of allocation to above- versus below-ground sinks that supply resources (carbon versus nitrogen) limiting the female and male reproduction differentially. PMID:18682371

Harris, Mark S; Pannell, John R

2008-01-01

277

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of medicinal herb, Terminalia catappa L. from Okinawa Island and its tannin corilagin.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of Terminalia catappa L. collected from Okinawa Island were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using leaves extract and isolated antioxidants. A water extract of the leaves of T. catappa showed a strong radical scavenging action for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide (O(2)(.-)) anion. Chebulagic acid and corilagin were isolated as the active components from T. catappa. Both antioxidants showed a strong scavenging action for O(2)(.-) and peroxyl radicals and also inhibited reactive oxygen species production from leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate. Galactosamine (GalN, 600 mg/kg, s.c.,) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 microg/kg, i.p.)-induced hepatotoxicity of rats as seen by an elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities was significantly reduced when the herb extract or corilagin was given intraperitoneally to rats prior to GalN/LPS treatment. Increase of free radical formation and lipid peroxidation in mitochondria caused by GalN/LPS treatment were also decreased by pretreatment with the herb/corilagin. In addition, apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and the increase in caspase-3 activity in the liver observed with GalN/LPS treatment were prevented by the pretreatment with the herb/corilagin. These results show that the extract of T. catappa and its antioxidant, corilagin are protective against GalN/LPS-induced liver injury through suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:17293097

Kinoshita, S; Inoue, Y; Nakama, S; Ichiba, T; Aniya, Y

2007-11-01

278

A Laboratory Evaluation of Medicinal Herbs Used in China for the Treatment of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease  

PubMed Central

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). During recent epidemics of HFMD in China, medicinal herbals and preparations containing herbal extracts have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy with relative safety profiles. There have been no microbiological studies to validate their usefulness for HFMD. We selected 12 commonly used herbs for HFMD from government recommended guidelines as well as published reports and tested for their antiviral activity and anti-inflammatory activity. A water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) inhibited EV71 infection significantly and was marginally active against CVA16 infection. The IC50 (concentration to have 50% inhibitory effect) values of HCT against a Fuyang strain and a BrCr strain of EV71 were determined at 8.9??g/mL and 20.6??g/mL, respectively. Mentha haplocalyx Briq. (MHB) water extract was active against CVA16, with an IC50 value of 70.3??g/mL. The extract did not exhibit activity against EV71 infection. Although the majority of the extracts showed no activity against viral infection, several extracts demonstrated activity in blocking proinflammatory response by viral infection. This study therefore validates the effectiveness of Chinese herbs for HFMD since some formulations containing the correct combination of the herbs can block viral replication as well as proinflammatory response of HFMD. PMID:23554831

Chen, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chunyang; Xu, Lanfang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Guang; Tan, Ren Xiang; Li, Erguang; Jin, Yu

2013-01-01

279

Bottom-up control of consumers leads to top-down indirect facilitation of invasive annual herbs in semiarid Chile.  

PubMed

The abundance of exotic plants is thought to be limited by competition with resident species (including plants and generalist herbivores). In contrast, observations in semiarid Chile suggest that a native generalist rodent, the degu (Octodon degus), may be facilitating the expansion of exotic annual plants. We tested this hypothesis with a 20-year data set from a World Biosphere Reserve in mediterranean Chile. In this semiarid environment, rainfall varies annually and dramatically influences cover by both native and exotic annual plants; degu population density affects the composition and cover of exotic and native annual plants. In low-rainfall years, cover of both native and exotic herbs is extremely low. Higher levels of precipitation result in proportional increases in cover of all annual plants (exotic and native species), leading in turn to increases in degu population densities, at which point they impact native herbs in proportion to their greater cover, indirectly favoring the expansion of exotic plants. We propose that bottom-up control of consumers at our site results in top-down indirect facilitation of invasive annual herbs, and that this pattern may be general to other semiarid ecosystems. PMID:21618907

Madrigal, Jaime; Kelt, Douglas A; Meserve, Peter L; Gutierrez, Julio R; Squeo, Francisco A

2011-02-01

280

Herb-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) maxim extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in rats.  

PubMed

Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim is one of the herbs used to treat erectile dysfunction in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction in Western Medicine. This study evaluates the herbal-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The rat plasma was sampled from each anesthetized rat after pretreatment with 3-days Epimedium sagittatum extract (1/2 g/kg/day) and intravenous injection with sildenafil (10/30 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetic data demonstrate that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of sildenafil (10 mg/kg) was significantly decreased in groups that received a high dose of Epimedium sagittatum extract. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that there was significant herb-drug interaction of Epimedium sagittatum extract on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil at low and high daily doses, suggesting co-administration use of Epimedium sagittatum extract and sildenafil in clinical practice should be prevented due to possible herb-drug interactions. PMID:23792897

Hsueh, Thomas Y; Wu, Yu-Tse; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Chiu, Allen W; Lin, Chi-Hung; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

281

Evaluation of free hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of some Chinese herbs by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection.  

PubMed

Due to the severe damage caused by free hydroxyl radicals (OH.) to cells and tissues, there is much interest in finding and studying effective and non-toxic OH. scavengers, including traditional Chinese herbs. In this paper, the simple and highly-sensitive technique of capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD) was used to study the OH. scavenging activities of aqueous extracts from some traditional Chinese herbs. Salicylic acid (SAL) was used as an OH. trap, and the content of OH. could be determined by assaying their products, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA). The optimum conditions for CZE-AD for the determination of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA were explored. The linearity ranges of 2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA were 1.0 x10(-7) approximately 1.0 x10(-4) mol L(-1), and their detection limits were as low as 2 x 10(-8) mol L(-1), which were much better than the CE-UV method often used. The traditional Chinese herbs studied included Radix angelicae sinensis, Rhizoma coptidis, Ligustrum lucidum, Ligusticum wallichii, Radices glycyrrhizae and Semen plantaginis. The experiments showed that the aqueous extracts from all of the above traditional Chinese herds had free OH. scavenging activities, although to different degrees. PMID:14985912

Li, Hui; Wang, Qingjiang

2004-04-01

282

Studies on genetic divergence among Indian varieties of a spice herb, Coriandrum sativum.  

PubMed

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice herb that belongs to umbel family Apiaceae with diversified uses. We investigated the extent of variability among 22 Indian varieties of coriander using phenotypic and genetic markers. Multilocus genotyping by nine RAPD primers detected an average of intraspecific variations amounting to 66.18% polymorphism in banding patterns. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a greater proportion of total genetic variation exists within population (98%) rather than among populations (2%). Higher values of Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon Information Index (i) and genetic distance analysis validate wider genetic diversity among Indian coriander varieties. Besides total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) length variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions/deletions (INDELS) were detected at seven sites in ITS-1 region. Multiple sequence alignment of 12 sequenced varieties revealed cent per cent identities of 5.8S gene region (162 bp) that validates its conserved nature. Multiple sequence alignment of ITS-1 region may be of phylogenetic significance in distinguishing and cataloguing of coriander germplasm. The representative sequences of each subgroup and all distinct varieties of RAPD clusters have been submitted to NCBI database and assigned Gen Accession numbers HQ 377194-377205. The measures of relative genetic distances among the varieties of coriander did not completely correlate the geographical places of their development. Eventually, the knowledge of their genetic relationships and DNA bar coding will be of significance. PMID:23360008

Singh, S K; Kakani, R K; Meena, R S; Pancholy, Anjly; Pathak, Rakesh; Raturi, Aparna

2012-07-01

283

Effect of an herb root extract, herbal dentifrice and synthetic dentifrice on human salivary amylase  

PubMed Central

Background: Salivary amylase is an enzyme, which plays a vital role in formation of dental plaque. It has the ability to bind on the bacterial surfaces and to hydrolyze starch, giving rise to products that are transformed into acids leading to dental caries. Suppression of salivary amylase activity can lead to decrease in risk of dental caries and plaque associated periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an herb, Spilanthes calva (in form of a test dentifrice) on human salivary amylase activity and to compare it with other dentifrices. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of age 18-35 years were randomly selected and divided equally into 4 groups. Group 1 subjects were assigned to use Test Dentifrice (with S. calva root extract), while Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 subjects were assigned to use Herbal Dentifrice (Arodent™), Synthetic Dentifrice (Colgate®), and Control Dentifrice respectively. Salivary amylase activity was determined by Bernfeld method in each group, before and after using the given dentifrices. Results: Maximum inhibition of salivary amylase activity was found in the group using test dentifrice as compared to others. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, the root extract of S. calva possess significant inhibitory activity for salivary amylase. Use of S. calva root extract will provide a wider protection against different pathogenic oral microflora. Use of this extract singly or in combination is strongly recommended in the dentifrice formulations. PMID:24130585

Sapra, Gaurav; Vyas, Yogesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rahul; Aggarwal, Ashish; Chandrashekar, K T; Sharma, Kanika

2013-01-01

284

Effects of fire on the demography of the endangered, geophytic herb Silene spaldingii (Caryophyllaceae).  

PubMed

Understanding the effects of disturbances such as fire on plant demography helps elucidate the mechanisms that cause changes in community composition. I studied the effects of spring and fall fires on Silene spaldingii, an endangered perennial herb of grasslands in northwest Montana. Individual S. spaldingii plants were mapped, and size and flowering were recorded for 1 yr prior and 5 yr subsequent to the burn treatments. Enhanced seedling recruitment (70-410%) and a 22% increase in population size were the principal effects of fire on S. spaldingii, and fall burn plots had lower recruitment than spring burn plots. These effects were apparent for 2-3 yr following the treatments. Fire had no detectable effect on the survival of adults or recruits of S. spaldingii. Silene spaldingii exhibits prolonged dormancy in which plants do not produce aboveground vegetation for one to several consecutive years. Results suggest that fire has a positive effect on the population dynamics of S. spaldingii by removing litter and creating safe sites for recruitment. Prescribed fire should be an important tool for managing populations of this rare plant. PMID:10406723

Lesica, P

1999-07-01

285

The determination of trace lead in Chinese medicinal herbs by flow injection analysis in polyethyleneglycol medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a new flow injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of Pb 2+ in Chinese medicinal herbs was developed. In the buffer solution of borax-NaOH (pH 10.5), Pb 2+ reacted with 2-[(5-bromo-2-pyridyl)-azo]-5-(diethyl-amino)phenol (5-Br-PADAP) to form a complex. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was enhanced in the presence of polyethyleneglycol-800 (PG-800). The main factors affecting the determination were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range and detection limit is 0.0-0.3 ?g/mL and 1.5 ng/mL (correlation coefficient r = 0.9996), respectively. The linear regression equation is A = -0.005 + 0.60 c (?g/mL). The sample throughout is 10 h -1. Foreign substrates effects were also investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of lead in reference material, goldthread and lepidium seed.

Gong, Aiqin; Zhu, Xiashi; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yaqin

2008-01-01

286

Seed longevity and fire: germination responses of an exotic perennial herb in NW Patagonian grasslands (Argentina).  

PubMed

Fire affects grassland composition by selectively influencing recruitment. Some exotic species can increase their abundance as a consequence of fire-stimulated seed germination, but response may depend on seed age. Rumex acetosella L. (Polygonaceae, sheep's sorrel) is a cosmopolitan herb that has invaded NW Patagonia's grasslands. This species forms persistent soil seed banks and increases after disturbances, particularly fire. We studied how fire and seed longevity influence R. acetosella germination. In 2008, we conducted laboratory experiments where we exposed different-aged seeds (up to 19 years old) to heat, smoke, charcoal, ash and control treatments. Total percentage germination and mean germination time depended on both seed age and fire treatment. Germination of younger seeds decreased with increasing temperature. There was no general pattern in germination responses of different-aged seeds to smoke, charcoal and ash. While smoke improved the germination of fresh seeds, charcoal decreased germination. Germination of untreated seeds was negatively correlated with seed age, and mean germination time increased with seed age. In most treatments, fresh seeds had lower germination than 1-5-year-old seeds, indicating an after-ripening requirement. Smoke stimulates R. acetosella germination, causing successful recruitment during post-fire conditions. Fresh seeds are particularly responsive to fire factors, possibly because they have not experienced physical degradation and are more receptive to environmental stimuli. Knowing the colonisation potential from the soil seed bank of this species during post-fire conditions will allow us to predict their impact on native communities. PMID:21973326

Franzese, J; Ghermandi, L

2011-11-01

287

Advances in Neuroprotective Ingredients of Medicinal Herbs by Using Cellular and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder, which is neuropathologically identified by age-dependent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Development of symptomatic treatments has been partly successful for PD research, but there remain a number of inadequacies in therapeutic strategies for the disease. The pathogenesis of PD remains intricate, and the present anti-PD treatments appears to be clinically insufficient. Comprehensive research on discovery of novel drug candidates has demonstrated that natural products, such as medicinal herbs, plant extracts, and their secondary metabolites, have great potential as therapeutics with neuroprotective activity in PD. Recent preclinical studies suggest that a number of herbal medicines and their bioactive ingredients can be developed into optimum pharmaceuticals for treating PD. In many countries, traditional herbal medicines are used to prevent or treat neurodegenerative disorders, and some have been developed as nutraceuticals or functional foods. Here we focus on recent advances of the evidence-linked neuroprotective activity of bioactive ingredients of herbal origin in cellular and animal models of PD research. PMID:24073012

More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Kang, Seong Mook; Song, Soo-Yeol; Lee, Kippeum; Choi, Dong-Kug

2013-01-01

288

Classification of antituberculosis herbs for remedial purposes by using fuzzy sets.  

PubMed

Using fuzzy set theory, we created a system, that assesses a herb's usefulness for the treatment of tuberculosis, based on ethnobotanical data. We analysed two systems which contain different amount of inputs. The first system contains four inputs, the second one contains six inputs. We used the Takagi-Sugeno-Kanga model. Mamdani model is poor at representation as it needs more fuzzy rules than that of TSK to model a real world system where accuracy is demanded. It has been employed a fuzzy controller, and a fuzzy model, in successfully solving difficult control and modelling problems in practice. It is implemented in the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox in Matlab. The data for inputs are gathered in the database named SOPAT (selection of plants against tuberculosis), which is part of a project coordinated by the Oxford International Biomedical Centre. In this database there could be up to one million plant species. It would be cumbersome to select a remedy from one (or some) of these species looking at the data base one-by-one. By means of the fuzzy set theory this remedy can be chosen very quickly. PMID:18773936

Dudek, Gabriela; Grzywna, Zbigniew J; Willcox, Merlin L

2008-12-01

289

Epigenetic Differentiation Persists after Male Gametogenesis in Natural Populations of the Perennial Herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae)  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of assessing the stability of epigenetic variation in non-model organisms living in real-world scenarios, no studies have been conducted on the transgenerational persistence of epigenetic structure in wild plant populations. This gap in knowledge is hindering progress in the interpretation of natural epigenetic variation. By applying the methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) technique to paired plant-pollen (i.e., sporophyte-male gametophyte) DNA samples, and then comparing methylation patterns and epigenetic population differentiation in sporophytes and their descendant gametophytes, we investigated transgenerational constancy of epigenetic structure in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). Single-locus and multilocus analyses revealed extensive epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations. Locus-by-locus comparisons of methylation status in individual sporophytes and descendant gametophytes showed that ?75% of epigenetic markers persisted unchanged through gametogenesis. In spite of some epigenetic reorganization taking place during gametogenesis, multilocus epigenetic differentiation between sporophyte populations was preserved in the subsequent gametophyte stage. In addition to illustrating the efficacy of applying the MSAP technique to paired plant-pollen DNA samples to investigate epigenetic gametic inheritance in wild plants, this paper suggests that epigenetic differentiation between adult plant populations of H. foetidus is likely to persist across generations. PMID:23936245

Herrera, Carlos M.; Medrano, Monica; Bazaga, Pilar

2013-01-01

290

High diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a boreal herb-rich coniferous forest.  

PubMed

* Here, the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was determined in a boreal herb-rich coniferous forest in relation to environmental variables. * Root samples of five plant species (Fragaria vesca, Galeobdolon luteum, Hepatica nobilis, Oxalis acetosella and Trifolium pratense) were analysed from stands differing in age and forest management intensity. * Thirty-four Glomeromycota taxa (small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequence groups) were detected from 90 root samples (911 clones), including eight new taxa. Sequence groups related to Glomus intraradices were most common (MO-G3 and MO-G13). Samples of H. nobilis were colonized by more AM fungal taxa (3.68 +/- 0.31) than those of O. acetosella (2.69 +/- 0.34), but did not differ significantly in this respect from those of F. vesca (3.15 +/- 0.38). Effects of forest management, host plant species (except above) or season on the number or composition of fungal taxa in root samples were not detected, and neither were they explained by environmental variables (vegetation, soil and light conditions). * This is the most taxon-rich habitat described to date in terms of root-colonizing Glomeromycota. The data demonstrate the importance of temperate coniferous forests as habitats for AM fungi and plants. Lack of obvious fungal community patterns suggests more complex effects of biotic and abiotic factors, and possibly no adverse effect of common forest management practices on AM fungal diversity. PMID:18537886

Opik, Maarja; Moora, Mari; Zobel, Martin; Saks, Ulle; Wheatley, Ron; Wright, Frank; Daniell, Tim

2008-01-01

291

Yeasts in nectar enhance male fitness in a montane perennial herb.  

PubMed

Floral nectar of many plant species is prone to colonization by microbial organisms such as yeasts. Their presence and metabolism of nectar chemical components have the potential to modify a suite of floral traits important for pollinator attraction, including nectar quality and scent. However, studies on the direct and indirect effects of nectar-inhabiting microorganisms on pollinator behavior and plant reproductive success remain rare. To determine their potential to affect pollinator behavior and plant fitness, we experimentally manipulated the common nectar-inhabiting yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii in the nectar of Delphinium nuttallianum, a short-lived montane perennial herb. We detected positive, indirect, pollinator-mediated effects of yeasts on male plant fitness measured as pollen donation using powdered fluorescent dyes. However, we detected no direct or indirect effects on components of female fitness. Matching effects on male plant fitness, pollinators responded positively to the presence of yeasts, removing more nectar from flowers treated with M. reukaufii. Our results provide evidence of effects of nectar-inhabiting yeasts on male plant fitness and highlight the importance of microorganisms in mediating plant-pollinator interactions and subsequent plant fitness. PMID:25163113

Schaeffer, Robert N

2014-07-01

292

Linking environmental and demographic data to predict future population viability of a perennial herb.  

PubMed

Recent advances in stochastic demography provide tools to examine the importance of random and periodic variation in vital rates for population dynamics. In this study, we explore with simulations the effect of disturbance regime on population dynamics and viability. We collected 7 years of demographic data in three populations of the perennial herb Primula farinosa, and used these data to examine how variation in vital rates affected population viability parameters (stochastic growth rate, lambda(S)), and how vital rates were related to weather conditions. Elasticity analysis indicated that the stochastic growth rate was very sensitive to changes in regeneration, quantified as the production, survival, and germination of seeds. In one of the study years, all seedlings and mature plants in the demography plots died. This extinction coincided with the driest summer during the study period. Simulations suggested that a future increase in the frequency of high-mortality years due to climate change would result in reduced population growth rate, and an increased importance of survival in the seed bank for population viability. The results illustrate how the limited demographic data typically available for many natural systems can be used in simulation models to assess how environmental change will affect population viability. PMID:20072788

Toräng, Per; Ehrlén, Johan; Agren, Jon

2010-05-01

293

Distance to semi-natural grassland influences seed production of insect-pollinated herbs.  

PubMed

Marginal grassland fragments, such as road verges and field margins, may act as important supplemental habitats for grassland plants in the modern agricultural landscape. However, abundance of pollinators in such fragments has been found to decline with distance to larger natural and semi-natural habitats, and this could have corresponding effects on plant pollination. In this study, we performed a field experiment on road verges with three insect-pollinated grassland herbs to examine the relationship between distance to semi-natural grassland and plant reproductive success in two landscapes with contrasting farming intensities. In Lychnis viscaria and Lotus corniculatus, seed production tended to decrease with increasing distance to semi-natural grassland, but only in the landscape with high farming intensity. Seed production in Armeria maritima spp. maritima decreased with distance in both landscapes. Although many studies have investigated effects of natural habitat on crop pollination, little is known about the impact on pollination in native plants. The results from this study indicate that management of semi-natural grasslands improves not only biodiversity within the actual grassland but also pollination of native plants in the surrounding agricultural landscape. PMID:24562471

Jakobsson, Anna; Ågren, Jon

2014-05-01

294

Critique of medicinal conspicuousness of Parsley(Petroselinum crispum): a culinary herb of Mediterranean region.  

PubMed

WHO estimates, around 80% of the especially developing world is indigent on complementary and alternative medicines which are prodigiously derived from herbal material. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an important culinary herb originated from the Mediterranean region. It possesses small and dark seeds with volatile oil content. Petroselinum crispum is now planted throughout the world due to its usage in food industry, perfume manufacturing, soaps, and creams. Its main constituents subsume coumarins, furanocoumarins (bergapten, imperatori), ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, apiole, various terpenoic compounds, phenyl propanoids, phathalides, and tocopherol. Due to these constituents, it has been annunciated to possess a number of possible medicinal emblematics including, antimicrobial, antianemic, menorrhagic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic, antihypertensive, diuretic effects, hypoglycaemic, hypouricemic, anti oxidative and estrogenic activities. In Morocco, Parsley is mostly used as an elixir to treat arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of parsley, made it propitious in food systems. Its ELI17 gene has been corroborated as a particularly fast-responding gene. There is a requisite for extensive research to avail the maximal benefits of this significant medicinal plant. The aim of this review paper is to divulge the chemical constituents of parsley that are explicitly related to substantial medicinal facets. PMID:24374449

Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz

2014-01-01

295

Antioxidant capacity of some herbs/spices from cameroon: a comparative study of two methods.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the antioxidant capacity of 14 herbs/spices from Cameroon. Freeze-dried samples extracted in methanol (free or unconjugated polyphenol) and in 1.2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) in methanol (total antioxidant that is both unconjugated and conjugated) were analyzed using two different antioxidant assay methods [Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (Folin) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)]. The 1.2 M HCl in methanol extracts had significantly higher (P < 0.001) antioxidant capacities than the methanolic extract. Generally, the FRAP antioxidant values were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than the Folin antioxidant values. Although a significant correlation (P < 0.05) was obtained between the Folin phenol and the FRAP antioxidant, the trends of the antioxidant capacity of the samples were different for the Folin and FRAP methods. The leaves of the Piper species top the total antioxidant tables in both Folin and FRAP assay methods, respectively. Irvingia gabonensis tops the FRAP free antioxidant list, while Piper umbellatum leads the Folin free antioxidant followed by Thymus vulgaris. Thus, the antioxidant capacity of plant samples determined by different methods should be interpreted with caution. However, irrespective of the assay method used, the samples were rich in antioxidants. PMID:16104805

Agbor, Gabriel A; Oben, Julius E; Ngogang, Jeanne Y; Xinxing, Cai; Vinson, Joe A

2005-08-24

296

Echinacea: a Miracle Herb against Aging and Cancer? Evidence In vivo in Mice  

PubMed Central

Echinacea has been viewed as an immunoenhancing herb since it became commercially available several years ago. Indeed, its medicinal significance is responsible for billions of dollars in worldwide sales annually. Unfortunately, most of the ‘evidence’ for the purported medicinal efficacy of Echinacea has been anecdotal and, moreover, to this day, there is no formal proof on how to achieve the best results—whether it should be consumed daily throughout life as a prophylactic; consumed by either young or old; or consumed after diseases, such as cancer, have taken hold. Our work over the past 5 years has led to conclusive answers to some of these questions, at least in mice. Our results have shown that daily consumption of Echinacea is indeed prophylactic, extends the life span of aging mice, significantly abates leukemia and extends the life span of leukemic mice. Given that humans are 97% genetically common with mice and that virtually all our basic physiology is identical, it is neither unjustified to extrapolate these observations to humans nor would it be an arduous task to perform many of these studies in humans, thus establishing viable scientific evidence replacing the anecdotal. PMID:16136209

2005-01-01

297

Sexual dimorphism in intra- and interspecific competitive ability of the dioecious herb Mercurialis annua.  

PubMed

Males and females of dioecious plant species often show different responses to competition with individuals of the same or opposite gender, but almost no data are available on the outcome of competition with members of other species. Here, we show that male and female individuals of the wind-pollinated herb Mercurialis annua are sexually dimorphic in both their intraspecific and interspecific competitive abilities. In a controlled experiment, we found that both sexes of M. annua were negatively affected by interspecific competition, but the sensitivity of males and females depended on the identity of their competitor species, with females tending to suppress the aboveground growth of competitor species more than males. Further, we found that intrasexual and intersexual competition affected the aboveground growth of males but not that of females: only males showed a significant reduction in growth when growing with conspecific competitors (male or female). We discuss our results with reference to related studies that suggest that males and females of M. annua have different resource requirements for reproduction, which in turn affect their competitive abilities. PMID:21186695

Sánchez-Vilas, J; Turner, A; Pannell, J R

2011-01-01

298

Epigenetic variation predicts regional and local intraspecific functional diversity in a perennial herb.  

PubMed

The ecological significance of epigenetic variation has been generally inferred from studies on model plants under artificial conditions, but the importance of epigenetic differences between individuals as a source of intraspecific diversity in natural plant populations remains essentially unknown. This study investigates the relationship between epigenetic variation and functional plant diversity by conducting epigenetic (methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms, MSAP) and genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphisms, AFLP) marker-trait association analyses for 20 whole-plant, leaf and regenerative functional traits in a large sample of wild-growing plants of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus from ten sampling sites in south-eastern Spain. Plants differed widely in functional characteristics, and exhibited greater epigenetic than genetic diversity, as shown by per cent polymorphism of MSAP fragments (92%) or markers (69%) greatly exceeding that for AFLP ones (41%). After controlling for genetic structuring and possible cryptic relatedness, every functional trait considered exhibited a significant association with at least one AFLP or MSAP marker. A total of 27 MSAP (13.0% of total) and 12 AFLP (4.4%) markers were involved in significant associations, which explained on average 8.2% and 8.0% of trait variance, respectively. Individual MSAP markers were more likely to be associated with functional traits than AFLP markers. Between-site differences in multivariate functional diversity were directly related to variation in multilocus epigenetic diversity after multilocus genetic diversity was statistically accounted for. Results suggest that epigenetic variation can be an important source of intraspecific functional diversity in H. foetidus, possibly endowing this species with the capacity to exploit a broad range of ecological conditions despite its modest genetic diversity. PMID:25208110

Medrano, Mónica; Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

2014-10-01

299

Mating system in Mexican populations of the annual herb Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae).  

PubMed

Traditionally, annual colonising species are expected to have high rates of self-fertilisation, although recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that cross-fertilisation can be selected for under heterogeneous pollination environments. Solanum rostratum is a self-compatible annual herb that colonises disturbed habitats. Despite the lack of physiological mechanisms to prevent self-fertilisation, pollen transfer between individuals is expected to be favoured because of its complex floral morphology. In previous studies of S. rostratum it has been shown that anther dimorphism within flowers results in precise pollen placement on the pollinator's body, and the presence of mirror-image floral morphs within plants promotes outcrossing in experimental arrays. However, the mating system of natural populations of S. rostratum has never been assessed, and thus whether it is predominantly selfing or outcrossing remains unknown. We hypothesise that floral and inflorescence morphology of S. rostratum should facilitate cross-fertilisation, making it a predominantly outcrossing despite its lack of a self-incompatibility system. To test this hypothesis, we estimated outcrossing rates by genotyping 700 individuals at 13 microsatellite loci, sampled from four populations across a 690-km transect in the species' native range. We found that populations had mean outcrossing rates of 0.70 ± 0.03, with multiple sires contributing to paternity of each progeny array (average effective number of sires = 8.97 ± 0.57). This indicates that natural populations S. rostratum have relatively high levels of outcrossing, probably facilitated by its floral and inflorescence morphology. We speculate that partial selfing in this species may be an unavoidable consequence of displaying multiple flowers at the same time (geitonogamy), as well as the result of self-pollen transfer by illegitimate visitors. PMID:23294438

Vallejo-Marín, M; Solís-Montero, L; Souto Vilaros, D; Lee, M Y Q

2013-11-01

300

Predator satiation and recruitment in a mast fruiting monocarpic forest herb  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Cross-pollination and satiation of seed predators are often invoked to explain synchronous mast reproduction in long-lived plants. However, explanations for the synchronous death of parent plants are elusive. The roles of synchronous seeding and post-reproductive mortality were investigated in a perennial monocarpic herb (Isoglossa woodii) in coastal dune forest in South Africa. Methods Pre-dispersal seed predation and seed production were assessed by measuring fruit and seed set of inflorescences sprayed with insecticide or water and with no spray treatments. Seed predation was measured at different densities of I. woodii plants by monitoring removal rates of seed from the forest floor. The influence of adult plants on establishment of I. woodii seedlings was assessed by monitoring growth and survivorship of seedlings in caged and uncaged 1 × 1 m plots in understorey gaps and thickets. Key Results Fruit and seed set were similar between spray treatments. An I. woodii stem produced 767·8 ± 160·8 seeds (mean ± s.e.) on dune crests and 1359·0 ± 234·4 seeds on the foredune. Seed rain was greater on the foredune than in other topographic locations. Seed predation rates were 32 and 54 % on dune crests and in dune slacks, respectively, and decreased with seed abundance, number of inflorescences per stem and plant height. Seedling recruitment was greater beneath synchronously dying adult plants than in natural understorey gaps (no I. woodii). However, seedling growth rate beneath I. woodii mid-way through its life-cycle was less than in gaps, although survivorship was similar. Conclusions The selective advantage of masting in I. woodii derives from satiation of both pre- and post-dispersal seed predators. In addition, post-seeding mortality of adult plants facilitates seedling establishment. Satiation of seed predators and the benefits of seedling establishment are strong drivers of the evolution of synchronous monocarpy in I. woodii. PMID:21242197

Tsvuura, Zivanai; Griffiths, Megan E.; Gunton, Richard M.; Lawes, Michael J.

2011-01-01

301

Anthraquinone pharmacokinetics in Xiexin decoction and the different combinations of its constituent herbs.  

PubMed

Xiexin decoction (XXD), a classical pyretolytic formulation, is composed of Rhei rhizoma (DH) Radix scutellaria (HQ) and Coptis chinensis (HL), and commonly used in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic differences between the five anthraquinones it contains (aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) in rats after the oral administration of XXD and after the administration of the different combinations of its constituent herbs. Twenty rats were divided into four groups and randomly administered one of the four extracts: DH, DH and HQ (DH-HQ), DH and HL (DH-HL), and XXD (DH-HQ-HL) via intragastric gavage (i.g.). Anthraquinone concentrations in the plasma were determined by an HPLC technique. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the plasma concentration time data. Compared with DH alone, the DH-HL combination showed maximum plasma concentration decreased (Cmax) and area under curve (AUC) for the values anthraquinones, and a prolonged eliminatun half life (T(1/2)) for rhein, while the DH-HQ combination showed a decrease Cmax for rein and a prolonged T(1/2) for aloe-emodin and physcion. Finally, XXD (DH-HQ-HL) administration resulted in an increased AUC for all five anthraquinones compared to DH-HL, and increased the total of AUC for rhein, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion compared to DH alone. These results showed that the oral bioavailability of the five anthraquinones was significantly decreased by combining DH with HL, whereas HQ increased the amounts of absorbed anthraquinones (except for aloe-emodin), and weakened the effect of HL which inhibited the absorption of anthraquinones. PMID:18777942

Yan, Dong-Ming; Ma, Yue-Ming; Shi, Rong; Xu, De-Sheng; Zhang, Ning

2008-01-01

302

Screening of the anticoccidial effects of herb extracts against Eimeria tenella.  

PubMed

Ionophorous antibiotics have been popularly used in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. Tissue residue of these antibiotics may be found in poultry, we have sought safe alternative anticoccidial herbal materials for the control of avian coccidiosis. Efficacy of extracts from 15 different herbs, including Bupleurum chinese DC, Sophora flavescens Aiton, and Artemisia annua Linne was tested against Eimeria tenella. One-day-old broiler chicks were infected with a USDA reference book of E. tenella, and administered various herbal extracts. Survival rates, lesion scores, body weight gains, bloody diarrhea, and oocysts excretions were investigated at the first and the second week after infection. Bloody diarrhea in the S. flavescens and Sinomenium acutum treated groups was milder than that of the other infected groups. Survival rates in the groups treated with Ulmus macrocarpa (100%), Pulsatilla koreana, Torilis japonica, Artemisia asiatica and S. flavescens (90%) were higher than that of the infected control group (70%). Lesion scores in the groups treated with U. macrocarpa (1.40+/-1.14) or Pulsatilla koreana (1.60+/-1.82) were significantly lower than those of the infected control group (3.00+/-1.10). During the first week after infection, the weight gains in the groups treated with Quisqualis indica (232.9+/-43.5 g), S. flavescens (214.4+/-46.1 g) and S. acutum (211.3+/-29.4 g) were significantly higher than the infected control group (172.4+/-17.6 g). In conclusion, the data of the survival rates, bloody diarrhea symptoms, lesion scores, body weight gains and oocyst excretions indicate that the extract of S. flavescens was the most effective. P. koreana, S. acutum, U. macrocarpa and Q. indica were also effective. Further research on the above herbal materials will be carried out by the authors by chemical analysis of the extracts. PMID:11267752

Youn, H J; Noh, J W

2001-04-19

303

Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions  

PubMed Central

Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823?mg/100g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270?mg/100g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102?mg/100g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65?mg/100g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

2012-01-01

304

In Vitro Screening for the Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 ?g/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC50 = 31-490 ?g/mL) in order of the lowest LC50 Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced herbs: balm of gilead bud, frankincense and myrrh gum. PMID:18844256

Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

2009-01-01

305

The effects of large herbivores on the landscape dynamics of a perennial herb  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Models assessing the prospects of plant species at the landscape level often focus primarily on the relationship between species dynamics and landscape structure. However, the short-term prospects of species with slow responses to landscape changes depend on the factors affecting local population dynamics. In this study it is hypothesized that large herbivores may be a major factor affecting the short-term prospects of slow-responding species in the European landscape, because large herbivores have increased in number in this region in recent decades and can strongly influence local population dynamics. Methods The impact of browsing by large herbivores was simulated on the landscape-level dynamics of the dry grassland perennial polycarpic herb Scorzonera hispanica. A dynamic, spatially explicit model was used that incorporated information on the location of patches suitable for S. hispanica, local population dynamics (matrices including the impact of large herbivores), initial population sizes and dispersal rate of the species. Simulations were performed relating to the prospects of S. hispanica over the next 30 years under different rates of herbivory (browsing intensity) and varying frequencies of population destruction (e.g. by human activity). Key Results Although a high rate of herbivory was detected in most populations of S. hispanica, current landscape-level dynamics of S. hispanica were approximately in equilibrium. A decline or increase of over 20 % in the herbivory rate promoted rapid expansion or decline of S. hispanica, respectively. This effect was much stronger in the presence of population destruction. Conclusions Browsing by large herbivores can have a dramatic effect on the landscape dynamics of plant species. Changes in the density of large herbivores and the probability of population destruction should be incorporated into models predicting species abundance and distribution. PMID:22492260

Hemrova, Lucie; Cervenkova, Zita; Munzbergova, Zuzana

2012-01-01

306

In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically referenced herbs: balm of gilead bud, frankincense and myrrh gum. PMID:18844256

Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

2009-03-01

307

In vitro propagation of an endangered medicinal herb Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. through somatic embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Tuberous roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand. which are a source of steroidal saponins, possess immunomodulatory, adaptogenic, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, diuretic, hemostatic and anti-tumour properties. Poor seed setting and germination and slow growth in conventional vegetative propagation are major constraints in the large-scale cultivation of this commercially important medicinal plant. In the present study, a procedure for in vitro propagation of this endangered herb through somatic embryogenesis has been established. Seeds of Chlorophytum borivilianum were germinated on MS medium supplemented with 57.74 ?M gibberellic acid and hypocotyl portion from germinated seedling was used as explant for callus induction. Moderate to good callus induction was observed on MS medium containing 1.16 ?M kinetin and 1.13-2.26 ?M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Regular subculturing of callus on kinetin (1.16 ?M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1.13 ?M) supplemented medium induced somatic embryogenesis. In modified MS medium, 1.79 mM NH4NO3 and 10.72 mM KNO3 was optimal for somatic embryogenesis. 7.38 ?M 2-isopentenyladenine supplemented to modified MS medium, showed best response for somatic embryogenesis while proline (0.76 mM) as an amino acid supplement gave better response than glutamine. 30% germination of mature somatic embryos was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 15.54 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine. Multiplication of C. borivilianum through somatic embryogenesis may offer a better approach compared to organogenesis for developing scale-up technology employing bioreactors for its mass propagation. PMID:23572975

Rizvi, Mohd Zahid; Kukreja, Arun Kumar; Bisht, Narendra Singh

2010-07-01

308

[A study on protein metabolism in nephrotic patients treated with Chinese herbs].  

PubMed

It was found in our previous studies that two Chinese herbs Astragali and Angelica (A&A) together with high protein diet could ameliorate the lowering of serum albumin level and increase the synthesis rate of protein as shown by 15N-glicine tracer priming protein turnover study in nephrotic rats. Further experiment was designed to investigate the role of A&A and high protein intake in protein dynamic study and nitrogen balance in nephrotic patients. The level of serum total protein (STP), serum albumin (SA), urinary protein loss (UP), serum cholesterol (Cho) and index number of protein turnover and nitrogen balance in 7 patients were measured before and after treatment of 30 days with A&A. The results showed that after treatment the patients had significantly increased STA and SA (44.3 +/- 5.60 vs 49.7 +/- 6.80 P < 0.01; 22.6 +/- 0.42 vs. 29.4 +/- 7.40 P < 0.05), decreased UP and Cho (6.54 +/- 1.83 vs 4.63 +/- 1.33 P < 0.05; 9.69 +/- 2.31 vs. 7.82 +/- 1.95 P < 0.05) and increased net rates of total protein synthesis (1.06 +/- 0.03 vs 1.27 +/- 0.12 P < 0.05). It is concluded that A&A together with high protein intake could improve the disorder of protein metabolism and increase the level of serum protein by improving the net rate of protein synthesis in nephrotic patients. PMID:8731827

Li, L; Yu, H; Pan, J

1995-10-01

309

Habitat specialization through germination cueing: a comparative study of herbs from forests and open habitats  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently accompanied by specialization in their regeneration niche; and (2) species are thereby adapted to utilize different windows of opportunity in time (season) and space (habitat). Methods Seed germination response to temperature, light and stratification was tested for 17 congeneric pairs, each consisting of one forest species and one open-habitat species. A factorial design was used with temperature levels and diurnal temperature variation (10 °C constant, 15–5 °C fluctuating, 20 °C constant, 25–15 °C fluctuating), and two light levels (light and darkness) and a cold stratification treatment. The congeneric species pair design took phylogenetic dependence into account. Key Results Species from open habitats germinated better at high temperatures, whereas forest species performed equally well at low and high temperatures. Forest species tended to germinate only after a period of cold stratification that could break dormancy, while species from open habitats generally germinated without cold stratification. The empirically derived germination strategies correspond quite well with establishment opportunities for forest and open-habitat plant species in nature. Conclusions Annual changes in temperature and light regime in temperate forest delimit windows of opportunity for germination and establishment. Germination strategies of forest plants are adaptations to utilize such narrow windows in time. Conversely, lack of fit between germination ecology and environment may explain why species of open habitats generally fail to establish in forests. Germination strategy should be considered an important mechanism for habitat specialization in temperate herbs to forest habitats. The findings strongly suggest that phases in the plant life cycle other than the established phase should be considered important in adaptive specialization. PMID:23186835

ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen Pieter; Bruun, Hans Henrik

2013-01-01

310

Effects of stand age on the demography of a temperate forest herb in post-agricultural forests.  

PubMed

Changes in land use have been shown to have profound effects on forest plant community structure and diversity. Dispersal limitation has been invoked as a major factor hampering colonization of forest plant species, while seed-sowing experiments and performance observations have provided some evidence for recruitment limitation determining forest plant distribution in post-agricultural forests. However, most of these studies were relatively short-term, and very few studies have investigated long-term growth rates of populations occurring in recent and ancient forests. In this study, matrix models using demographic data collected for four consecutive years were used to study the effect of forest age on population dynamics of the temperate forest herb Primula elatior. A life table response experiment (LTRE) and elasticity analysis were used to analyze the effect of forest age on population growth rate (lambda) and to decompose the effect of forest age on lambda into contributions from each matrix element. Population growth increased logarithmically with increasing forest age. Bootstrap analyses showed that populations located in very recent forests (< 50-years-old) had growth rates that were significantly < 1, whereas populations located in forests > 150-years-old had growth rates that were significantly > 1. Summed elasticities for individual growth significantly decreased with increasing forest age, whereas summed elasticities for survival and fertility significantly increased with increasing forest age. The LTRE analysis showed that the increase in lambda with increasing forest age was mainly due to increased seedling and juvenile growth and increased juvenile and adult survival. Our results indicate that past agricultural land use has long-lasting effects on the demography of forest herbs and may provide an additional mechanistic explanation for the poor colonization capacity of many forest herbs in post-agricultural forests. PMID:19137953

Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein

2008-12-01

311

Effect of Red Clover on CYP Expression: An Investigation of Herb-Drug Interaction at Molecular Level.  

PubMed

Hormone replacement therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulator are the most common therapy for women going through menopause. These therapies though popular fail to relieve withdrawal symptoms such as hot flashes, fatigue, leg cramps and nausea. This scenario necessitates to herbal preparations as alternative which may lead to simultaneous intake of herbal preparations, containing flavonoids, as well as Selective estrogen receptor modulator hence creating a phenomenon of herb drug interaction. Here we investigate the effect of red clover on steady state mRNA levels of rat cytochrome P 450 enzymes. Further, red clover's effect on cytochrome P 450's expression has been investigated when co-administered with tamoxifen and raloxifene. Exposure to red clover resulted in significant down regulation of all the cytochrome P 450 isoform mRNA except cytochrome P 450 2C13 and cytochrome P 450 3A2. When red clover is given in combination with tamoxifen or raloxifene altered level of cytochrome P 450 enzyme mRNA is observed. Present results suggest that herbal medical preparations such red clover has potential for herb drug interaction. PMID:25035541

Tripathi, Anubhuti; Singh, S P; Raju, K S R; Wahajuddin; Gayen, J R

2014-05-01

312

[Study on the role of polysaccharide and flavone in Chinese herbs in protecting DNA with fluorescence probe].  

PubMed

The aim of the present work is to study the role of polyaccharide and flavone compounds of Flos lonicerae, Ganoderma lucidum etc. in protecting DNA with EB as a probe to determine the fluorescence integration intensity of DNA and EB mixture. D is defined as the interaction constant between different extracts from traditional Chinese herbs and DNA. The bigger the D, the stronger the interaction of drugs and DNA. According to the definition of D, the impact of polysaccharide and flavone compounds on the protection of DNA is discussed. The results show that all the extracts from traditional Chinese herbs can interact with DNA, but the degree of interaction is different. The order is as follows: folium hippophae rhamnosides > rhizoma anemarrhenae > radix acanthopanacis senticosi > Ganoderma lucidum > radix achyranthis bidentatae > fructus lycii > Flos lonicerae > rhizoma atractylodis > Astragalus membranaceus > Flos chrysanthemi in the presence of polysaccharide compounds, while folium hippophae rhamnosides > Flos lonicerae > fructus lycii > rhizoma atractylodis > Astragalus membranaceus > rhizoma anemarrhenae > radix acanthopanacis senticosi > Ganoderma lucidum > radix achyranthis bidentatae (Flos chrysanthemi, with no signals) in the presence of flavone compounds. PMID:17514973

Zhang, Hai-rong; Wu, Xiao-yan

2007-02-01

313

Chronic Cold-Water-Induced Hypothermia Impairs Memory Retrieval and Nepeta menthoides as a Traditional "Hot" Herb Reverses the Impairment  

PubMed Central

Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) describes a kind of dementia with similar signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It explains the pathology of dementia with cold intemperament of the brain, which means that the brain is colder than its healthy form. ITM strategy for treatment of dementia is to heat the brain up by medical “hot” herbs. Nepeta menthoides (NM) is one of these “hot” herbs. To evaluate the veracity of ITM concept about dementia and its treatment, we first try to examine if coldness of brain can make memory impairment. If so, can NM reverse memory impairment? Rats in cold-water-induced hypothermic (CWH) groups were immersed up to the neck in 3.5 °C water, for 5 min during 14 consecutive days. As a control, rats were forced to swim in warm water at the same conditions. To eliminate the impact of forced swimming stress, a group of intact rats was also added. After last swimming in day 14, some groups received drug (100 or 500 mg/ Kg aqueous extract of NM) or vehicle via i.p. injection. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze, and tau hyperphosphorylation was measured by western blotting. The results showed that CWH impairs learning and memory and induces tau hyperphosphorylation. 100 mg/Kg of NM reversed memory impairment as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. ITM theory about the relationship between brain hypothermia and dementia is in accordance with our findings. PMID:24711845

Ahmadian-Attar, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

314

Chronic Cold-Water-Induced Hypothermia Impairs Memory Retrieval and Nepeta menthoides as a Traditional "Hot" Herb Reverses the Impairment.  

PubMed

Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) describes a kind of dementia with similar signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It explains the pathology of dementia with cold intemperament of the brain, which means that the brain is colder than its healthy form. ITM strategy for treatment of dementia is to heat the brain up by medical "hot" herbs. Nepeta menthoides (NM) is one of these "hot" herbs. To evaluate the veracity of ITM concept about dementia and its treatment, we first try to examine if coldness of brain can make memory impairment. If so, can NM reverse memory impairment? Rats in cold-water-induced hypothermic (CWH) groups were immersed up to the neck in 3.5 °C water, for 5 min during 14 consecutive days. As a control, rats were forced to swim in warm water at the same conditions. To eliminate the impact of forced swimming stress, a group of intact rats was also added. After last swimming in day 14, some groups received drug (100 or 500 mg/ Kg aqueous extract of NM) or vehicle via i.p. injection. Learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze, and tau hyperphosphorylation was measured by western blotting. The results showed that CWH impairs learning and memory and induces tau hyperphosphorylation. 100 mg/Kg of NM reversed memory impairment as well as tau hyperphosphorylation. ITM theory about the relationship between brain hypothermia and dementia is in accordance with our findings. PMID:24711845

Ahmadian-Attar, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

315

Possible mechanism underlying the effect of Heshouwuyin, a tonifying kidney herb, on sperm quality in aging rats  

PubMed Central

Background Herb mixtures are used as alternatives to hormone therapy in China for the treatment of partial androgen deficiency in aging men. However, the compositions of these herb mixtures are complex and their mechanisms are often unknown. This study investigates the effect of Heshouwuyin, a Chinese herbal compound for invigorating the kidney, on the control of testosterone secretion and sperm function. Methods Aged Wistar rats were administered with Heshouwuyin. A Shouwu pill group and young group were used as controls. Results Morphology, chemiluminescence, fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and western blot showed that the epididymal sperm of naturally aged rats had intact plasma membranes. They also had abnormal mitochondrial function and DNA integrity, a significant decline in serum testosterone levels, and significant pathological changes in the structure of testicular tissues. Heshouwuyin significantly improved sperm function and serum testosterone levels, and improved testicular morphology. Moreover, the curative efficacy of Heshouwuyin after 60 days was better than that of Heshouwuyin after 30 days and the Shouwu pill group. Conclusion Heshouwuyin exerts an important role in controlling testosterone secretion and sperm function. PMID:25034094

2014-01-01

316

Effect of Red Clover on CYP Expression: An Investigation of Herb-Drug Interaction at Molecular Level  

PubMed Central

Hormone replacement therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulator are the most common therapy for women going through menopause. These therapies though popular fail to relieve withdrawal symptoms such as hot flashes, fatigue, leg cramps and nausea. This scenario necessitates to herbal preparations as alternative which may lead to simultaneous intake of herbal preparations, containing flavonoids, as well as Selective estrogen receptor modulator hence creating a phenomenon of herb drug interaction. Here we investigate the effect of red clover on steady state mRNA levels of rat cytochrome P 450 enzymes. Further, red clover's effect on cytochrome P 450's expression has been investigated when co-administered with tamoxifen and raloxifene. Exposure to red clover resulted in significant down regulation of all the cytochrome P 450 isoform mRNA except cytochrome P 450 2C13 and cytochrome P 450 3A2. When red clover is given in combination with tamoxifen or raloxifene altered level of cytochrome P 450 enzyme mRNA is observed. Present results suggest that herbal medical preparations such red clover has potential for herb drug interaction. PMID:25035541

Tripathi, Anubhuti; Singh, S. P.; Raju, K. S. R.; Wahajuddin; Gayen, J. R

2014-01-01

317

Herb induced liver injury presumably caused by black cohosh: a survey of initially purported cases and herbal quality specifications.  

PubMed

Herb induced liver injury (HILI) is a particular challenge that also applies to purported cases presumably caused by black cohosh (BC), an herb commonly used to treat menopausal symptoms. We analyzed and reviewed all published case reports and spontaneous reports of initially alleged BC hepatotoxicity regarding quality of case details and causality assessments. Shortcomings of data quality were more evident in spontaneous reports of regulatory agencies compared to published case reports, but assessments with the scale of CIOMS (Council for the International Organizations of Sciences) or its updated version revealed lack of causality for BC in all cases. The applied causality methods are structured, quantitative, and liver specific with clear preference over an ad hoc causality method or the liver unspecific Naranjo scale. Reviewing the case data and the reports dealing with quality specifications of herbal BC products, there is general lack of analysis with respect to authentication of BC in the BC products used by the patients. However, in one single regulatory study, there was a problem of BC authentication in the analysed BC products, and other reports addressed the question of impurities and adulterants in a few BC products. It is concluded that the use of BC may not exert an overt hepatotoxicity risk, but quality problems in a few BC products were evident that require additional regulatory quality specifications. PMID:21677326

Teschke, Rolf; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Wolff, Albrecht; Hennermann, Karl-Heinz

2011-01-01

318

Polysaccharides of St. John's Wort Herb Stimulate NHDF Proliferation and NEHK Differentiation via Influence on Extracellular Structures and Signal Pathways  

PubMed Central

St. John's Wort herb extracts often contain undesirable or volitional polysaccharides. As polysaccharides exhibit structure-dependent biological functions in the present study water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from herb material, fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into four main polysaccharide fractions (denominated as Hp1, Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4) and characterized by HPAEC-PAD, CE, IR and GC-MS. Biological activity on human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts was assessed by investigation of their effect on proliferation, metabolism, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and differentiation. The underlying mechanisms were investigated in gene expression studies. Polysaccharide fraction Hp1 was mainly composed of ?-D-glucose. Hp2, Hp3 and Hp4 contained pectic structures and arabinogalactan proteins varying in composition and quantity. Polysaccharides of Hp1 induced the keratinocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the epidermal growth factor and insulin receptor. While the collagen secretion of fibroblasts was stimulated by each polysaccharide fraction only Hp1 stimulated the synthesis. The fibroblast proliferation was reduced by Hp1 and increased by Hp4. This effect was related to the influence on genes that referred to oxidative stress, metabolism, transcription processes and extracellular proteins. In conclusion polysaccharides have been shown as biologically active ingredients of aqueous St. John's Wort extracts with a relation between their structural characteristics and function. PMID:22848211

Abakuks, S.; Deters, A. M.

2012-01-01

319

Synthesis of potential radioprotective components from Chinese herb drug Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. , umbelliferae)  

SciTech Connect

The ethanolic extracts of some Chinese traditional herb drugs, reported by Hong-Fu Wang et al. in China, could inhibit platelet aggregation as well as protect against radiation damage in mice, rat and rabbits. The inhibitory effects of the extracts of five Chinese drugs on the rate of platelet aggregation were observed in both in vitro and in vivo tests, averaging 23--53% in vitro and 46--69% in vivo. Antiradiation tests on mice vs. 7.5--8.0 Gy of [gamma]-radiation, using the herb drug extracts as protective agents, showed increasing survival rates by 8--50%. Based on Hong-Fu Wang's report, a search for the active constituents of these herb drugs in inhibiting platelet aggregation and protecting animals against radiation damage was started. In this research program, a Chinese traditional drug, Rhizoma Chuanxiong (rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.) was chosen. Three types of chemicals present in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, appeared promising for testing: 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole, 4-hydroxyl-3-butylidenephthalide and 5-hydroxyl-3-butylidenephthalide, and 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxycinnamyl 4-hydroxyl-3-methoxycinnamate. A total of 56 compounds of these derivatives has been synthesized and 30 were synthesized for the first time. The structure elucidation of these compounds was based on IR, [sup 1]H NMR and elemental analysis. From this research program, a very mild dehydrogenation method was developed. It was by using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone in acetonitrile at ice bath temperature to dehydrogenate 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole into 1-(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl)-9H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole. This project showed for the first time that harmanoid alkaloids have the activity of inhibition of plate aggregation by 4 to 23 times that of aspirin. These results aid in establishing a relation between radiation protection in animals and prevention of platelet hyperaggregation.

Wang, X.

1993-01-01

320

Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review of Da Chuanxiong Formula: A Famous Herb Pair Composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Gastrodiae Rhizoma for Headache  

PubMed Central

Chronic headache such as migraine and nervous headache has become one of the most common locations of pain and one of the most difficult diseases to recover due to its numerous causes and inconvenience to keep acesodyne administration for a long time. However, there are a series of treatment theories and herbal formulas for this disease in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in which Da Chuanxiong formula (DCXF), a herb pair composed of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR), Chuanxiong in Chinese, and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (GR) called as Tianma in China, is a greatly classic representative. This formula has been used for headaches via dispelling wind pathogen and dissipating blood stasis for many years in TCM. In recent years, the efficiency and representativeness of DCXF have garnered many researchers' attention. To reveal the compatibility mechanism and develop innovative Chinese herb, herein ethnopharmacological relevance, chemical characters, and pharmacological actions of DCXF are detailed. It is expected to give a comprehensive interpretation of DCXF, namely, Chuanxiong Tianma herb pair (CTHP), to inherit the essence of herb pair and innovate drug delivery system of this prescription. PMID:24066012

Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jinming; Feng, Yi; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

2013-01-01

321

Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LFB112 isolated from Chinese herbs, a strain of a broad inhibitory spectrum against domestic animal pathogens.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LFB112, isolated from Chinese herbs, displays a broad inhibitory activity against an array of pathogens involved in domestic animal diseases. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of B. amyloliquefaciens LFB112, providing insights into the genomic basis of its effects and facilitating its application in animal production. PMID:24463274

Cai, Jun; Liu, Fei; Liao, Xiudong; Zhang, Rijun

2014-04-10

322

Geographical Differentiation of the Floristic Composition and Structure of the Herb Layer of Forest Permanent Plots in East Germany, Poland, and Belarus 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of a geographical location on floristic composition, horizontal structure, and biomass of the herb layer in pine and mixed pine forest communities along climatic and pollution gradients in East Germany, Poland, and Belarus were determined. Phytosociological records were collected in permanent plots in May 1995. Each record covered an area of 400 m 2 . The floristic composition

Ewa Roo-Zielinska; Jerzy Solon

323

Identification of Flavonoid Content and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Moroccan Herbs: Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.), Rockrose (Cistus ladanifer L.) and Montpellier cistus (Cistus monspeliensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to determine the polyphenol content and chemical composition of the essential oils of some Moroccan herbs: myrtle (Myrtus communis L.), rockrose (Cistus ladanifer L.) and montpellier cistus (Cistus monspeliensis L.). The polyphenols were analyzed and identified by HPLC and the essential oils were chemically analyzed and identified by GC\\/MS. The principal components of myrtle

Manuel Viuda-Martos; Esther Sendra; José A. Pérez-Alvarez; Juana Fernández-López; Mahassine Amensour; Jamal Abrini

2011-01-01

324

Effects of single-tree and group selection harvesting on the diversity and abundance of spring forest herbs in deciduous forests in southwestern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection harvesting, by mimicking natural disturbance regimes of eastern deciduous hardwood forests, has been applied as a sustainable management practice that combines wood production with biodiversity conservation. However, the effects of this technique on understory herbs are unclear, particularly for spring ephemerals which have been suggested as sensitive to disturbance. Here, we experimentally assess the immediate effects of single-tree and

Karla J. Falk; Dawn M. Burke; Ken A. Elliott; Stephen B. Holmes

2008-01-01

325

Radionuclide concentrations in samples of medicinal herbs and effective dose from ingestion of Cs and natural radionuclides in herbal tea products from Serbian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate natural and artificial radioactivity levels in 18 different samples of medicinal herbs from Serbian market. The activity concentrations of U, Th, K, and Cs were measured using gamma spectroscopy system with a high-purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations of U, Th, K, and Cs were found to be in a range of

Milutin Jevremovic; Natasa Lazarevic; Snezana Pavlovic; Milan Orlic

2011-01-01

326

Differential effects of clonal integration on performance in the stoloniferous herb Duchesnea indica , as growing at two sites with different altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal integration may be adaptive and enhance the genet performance of clonal plants. Degree of clonal integration may differ between different environments . Here, a container experiment was used to determine how clonal integration affected the performance of the stoloniferous herb Duchesnea indica at two sites with different altitude along the transitional zone between the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and the Sichuan

Jin-Song Chen; Ning-Fei Lei; Dan Yu; Ming Dong

2006-01-01

327

Antagonistic effects of two herbs in Zuojin Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on catecholamine secretion in bovine adrenal medullary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to research the target of superior efficacy and lesser side effects, combination of herbal materials has been applied to phytotherapy for thousands of years in China and some other countries. Zuojin Wan (ZJW), a famous traditional Chinese medicine formula, is used in treating gastric diseases in China. It is composed of two herbs, Rhizoma Coptidis (RC) and Fructus

F.-R. Zhao; H.-P. Mao; H. Zhang; L.-M. Hu; H. Wang; Y.-F. Wang; N. Yanagihara; X.-M. Gao

2010-01-01

328

Effect of Cadmium on Growth, Bacoside A, and Bacopaside I of Bacopa monnieri (L.), a Memory Enhancing Herb  

PubMed Central

Bacopa monnieri (L.) is an important medicinal plant mainly known as a memory enhancing herb. It is important to see the effect of metal pollution on its active constituents. In this context, efforts have been made to observe the effect of Cd on the triterpenoid saponins bacoside A and bacopaside I in this plant. The influence of the metal on growth parameters like protein, chlorophyll content, and biomass has also been observed. It is interesting to note that the bacoside A and bacopaside I gradually increased by the Cd treatment up to 10??M and then decreased at higher concentrations, that is, 50 and 100??M, but the concentration of these components was more in all the treated plants as compared to control. On the contrary, protein, chlorophyll content, and biomass decreased with the increase in metal concentration and exposure duration due to metal toxicity. PMID:24672380

Gupta, Poonam; Khatoon, Sayyada; Tandon, P. K.

2014-01-01

329

Larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from commonly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius.  

PubMed

This study investigates the potential of essential oils from commonly used medical and culinary herbs in Lebanon as an environmentally safe measure to control the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius. The composition of essential oils extracted from parsley seeds and leaves, alpine thyme inflorescences, anis seeds, and coriander fruits were analyzed by GC-MS, and the major components of these oils were found to be thymol, sabinene, carvacrol, anethole, and linalool, respectively. Mosquito larvicidal assays were conducted to evaluate the LC(50) and LC(90) after 24 and 48h of the essential oils and their major constituents. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (LC(50): 15-156ppm) against Oc. caspius fourth instars, with the most potent oil being thyme inflorescence extract, followed by parsley seed oil, aniseed oil, and then coriander fruit oil. Toxicity of each oil major constituent was also estimated and compared to a reported larvicidal compound, eugenol. PMID:17368893

Knio, K M; Usta, J; Dagher, S; Zournajian, H; Kreydiyyeh, S

2008-03-01

330

Culinary Herbs and Spices: Their Bioactive Properties, the Contribution of Polyphenols and the Challenges in Deducing Their True Health Benefits  

PubMed Central

Herbs and spices have been used for both culinary and medicinal purposes for centuries. Over the last decade, research into their role as contributors of dietary polyphenols, known to possess a number of properties associated with reducing the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases, has increased. However, bearing in mind how these foods are consumed, normally in small quantities and in combination with other foods, it is unclear what their true benefit is from a health perspective. The aim of this review is to use the literature to discuss how preparative and digestive processes, bioavailability and interactions between foods may influence the bioactive properties of these foods, and whether or not polyphenols are responsible for these properties. Furthermore, this review aims to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed so as to determine the true benefits of these foods and the mechanisms of action that underpin their purported efficacy. PMID:25340982

Opara, Elizabeth I.; Chohan, Magali

2014-01-01

331

Anti-acne effects of Oriental herb extracts: a novel screening method to select anti-acne agents.  

PubMed

The acne-therapeutic effects of Oriental herb extracts were investigated in terms of antichemotactic effect on polymorphonuclear leucocytes, antilipogenic actions, antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes and resistance induction potency in the bacteria. The ethanol extract (0.01%) of Angelica dahurica markedly suppressed neutrophil chemotaxis, comparable to the effect of erythromycin (0.01%), whereas a strong antilipogenic effect was obtained with rhizoma coptidis (Coptis chinensis) extract (0.01%), leading to a higher efficacy than that of retinoic acid (0.01%). Interestingly, only Glycyrrhiza glabra showed a remarkable antibacterial activity against P. acnes, resulting in negligible induction of resistance, in comparison with a marked development of resistance in the bacteria treated with erythromycin. We suggest that an appropriate formulation containing A. dahurica, rhizoma coptidis and G. glabra could be helpful for the prevention and treatment of acne lesions. PMID:12637783

Nam, C; Kim, S; Sim, Y; Chang, I

2003-01-01

332

The influence of herbs, spices, and regular sausage and chicken consumption on liking of reduced fat breakfast and lunch items.  

PubMed

Adults often consume more fat than is recommended. We examined factors that may improve liking of reduced fat and reduced saturated fat foods, including the addition of herbs and spices and habitual consumption of different high-fat and low-fat food items. We randomized adults to taste 3 different conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of French toast, sausage and the overall meal, or chicken, vegetables, pasta, and the overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Overall liking of the RF breakfast and lunch meals were lower than the FF and RFS versions (breakfast: 6.50 RF compared with 6.84 FF, P = 0.0061; 6.50 RF compared with 6.82 RFS, P = 0.0030; lunch: 6.35 RF compared with 6.94 FF, P < 0.0001; 6.35 RF compared with 6.71 RFS, P = 0.0061). RFS and FF breakfast and lunch meals, French toast, chicken, and vegetable likings were similar. FF and RFS conditions were liked more than RF for the breakfast and lunch meals, French toast, chicken entrée, and vegetables. Liking of all 3 sausage conditions was similar. FF pasta was liked more than RFS and RF (7.47 FF compared with 6.42 RFS, P < 0.0001; 7.47 FF compared with 6.47 RF, P < 0.0001). Habitual consumption of roasted chicken was associated with reduced liking of FF chicken (r = -0.23, P = 0.004) and FF pasta (r = -0.23, P = 0.005). Herbs and spices may be useful for improving the liking of lower fat foods and helping Americans maintain a diet consistent with the U.S. Dietary Guidelines. PMID:25219391

Polsky, Sarit; Beck, Jimikaye; Stark, Rebecca A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Hill, James O; Peters, John C

2014-10-01

333

Fluorescent dye particles as pollen analogues for measuring pollen dispersal in an insect-pollinated forest herb.  

PubMed

In flowering plants, pollen dispersal is often the major contributing component to gene flow, hence a key parameter in conservation genetics and population biology. A cost-effective method to assess pollen dispersal consists of monitoring the dispersal of fluorescent dyes used as pollen analogues. However, few comparisons between dye dispersal and realized pollen dispersal have been performed to validate the method. We investigated pollen dispersal in two small populations of the insect-pollinated herb Primula elatior from urban forest fragments using direct (paternity analyses based on microsatellite DNA markers) and indirect (fluorescent dyes) methods. We compared these methods using two approaches, testing for the difference between the distance distributions of observed dispersal events and estimating parameters of a dispersal model, and related these results to dye dispersal patterns in three large populations. Dye and realized (based on paternity inference) pollen dispersal showed exponential decay distributions, with 74.2-94.8% of the depositions occurring at <50 m and a few longer distance dispersal events (up to 151 m). No significant difference in curve shape was found between dye and realized pollen dispersal distributions. The best-fitting parameters characterizing the dye dispersal model were consistent with those obtained for realized pollen dispersal. Hence, the fluorescent dye method may be considered as reliable to infer realized pollen dispersal for forest herbs such as P. elatior. However, our simulations reveal that large sample sizes are needed to detect moderate differences between dye and realized pollen dispersal patterns because the estimation of dispersal parameters suffers low precision. PMID:20703887

Van Rossum, Fabienne; Stiers, Iris; Van Geert, Anja; Triest, Ludwig; Hardy, Olivier J

2011-03-01

334

Ten-year growth response of young Douglas-fir to variable density varnishleaf ceanothus and herb competition  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of different densities of varnishleaf ceanothus (Ceanothus velutinus var. laevigatus) and herbaceous vegetation control on stem diameter, height, and volume of plantation Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) seedlings was examined during the 10 yr following planting. Initial densities of ceanothus ranged between 0 and 15,000 seedlings/ha and were obtained by interplanting ceanothus germinants or chemical thinning after clearcutting and broadcast-burning. Herbaceous vegetation control was achieved by a single application of glyphosate following planting, with shrub seedlings covered. Ceanothus density in the range of 0 to 6,750 plants/ha did not have an effect on Douglas-fir diameter, height, or volume at age 10; however, Douglas-fir growth was significantly decreased when ceanothus densities reached 15,000 plants/ha. Ten years after planting, Douglas-fir volume in the treatments with 6,750 ceanothus/ha or less was 1.7 times greater than that in the 15,000 ceanothus/ha treatment. On the other hand, removal of herbaceous vegetation after planting significantly increased tree diameter, height, and volume, regardless of ceanothus density. Even 10 yr after the application of the treatment, trees without early herb competition grew faster and had mean dbh, height, and volume that were 1.02 cm, 0.55 m, and 12.98 dm3/tree greater respectively than those with herbs. Thus, a treatment at plantation establishment to control herbaceous vegetation and to reduce ceanothus density to less than 7,000 plants/ha will ensure an increase in growth and stocking for at least 10 yr.

Monleon, V.J.; Newton, M.; Hooper, C.; Tappeiner, J. C., II

1999-01-01

335

Hepatotoxicity or Hepatoprotection? Pattern Recognition for the Paradoxical Effect of the Chinese Herb Rheum palmatum L. in Treating Rat Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

The hepatotoxicity of some Chinese herbs has been a cause for concern in recent years. However, some herbs, such as rhubarb, have been documented as having both therapeutic and toxic effects on the liver, leading to the complex problem of distinguishing the benefits from the risks of using this herb. To comparatively analyze the dose-response relationship between rhubarb and hepatic health, we administrated total rhubarb extract(RE) to normal and carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-treated rats for 12 weeks at 4 dosage levels(2.00, 5.40, 14.69 and 40.00 g·kg?1, measured as the quantity of crude material), followed by biochemical and histopathological tests of the rats' livers. A composite pattern was extracted by factor analysis, using all the biochemical indices as variables, into a visual representation of two mathematically obtained factors, which could be interpreted as the fibrosis factor and the cellular injury factor, according to the values of the variable loadings. The curative effect of administering the two lowest dosages of RE to CCl4-treated rats was mainly expressed as a decrease in the extent of cellular injury. The hepatoprotective mechanism of RE might be related to its antioxidant effect, the antagonism of the free radical damage to hepatocytes caused by CCl4. By contrast, the RE-induced liver damage was mainly expressed as a significant increase in the amount of fibrosis in both normal rats at all dosage levels and CCl4-treated rats at the two highest dosage levels. Therefore, the hepatotoxic potential of RE could be attributable to the liver cell fibrosis induced by high doses of the herb. This study illustrates the bidirectional potential of rhubarb and demonstrates the feasibility of using factor analysis to study the dose-response relationships between herbal medicines and hepatotoxicity or the healing effects of these herbs by extracting the underlying interrelationships among a number of functional bio-indices in a holistic manner. PMID:21915343

Zhao, Yan-ling; Jin, Cheng; Liu, Dao-jian; Kong, Wei-jun; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hong-juan; Xiao, Xiao-he

2011-01-01

336

Identification of common or distinct genes related to antitumor activities of a medicinal herb and its major component by oligonucleotide microarray.  

PubMed

Although the physiological actions of many herbs are gradually being elucidated at the molecular level, it remains unclear how individual components of herbs contribute to their biological activities. In the present study, the antiproliferative activity of Coptidis rhizoma, a medicinal herb, and the major component berberine was investigated in 8 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Gene expression patterns associated with sensitivities to each agent were analyzed with oligonucleotide arrays that comprised approximately 11,000 genes. We used a tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay to determine ID(50) values after the 8 cell lines were exposed to the 2 agents for 72 hr. The ID(50) value for berberine was correlated positively with that for C. rhizoma (r=0.725, p=0.0401). C. rhizoma killed tumor cells more effectively than purified berberine when normalized to the level of berberine present in the herb. From the oligonucleotide array data, we selected 20 and 13 genes with strong correlations (r(2)>0.81) to ID(50) values for berberine and C. rhizoma, respectively. Among these 33 genes, the levels of expression of 12 were correlated with the ID(50) values of both agents, suggesting that these genes are associated with tumor-killing activity of berberine in C. rhizoma. Expression of the remaining 21 genes was correlated with the ID(50) value of either purified berberine or C. rhizoma. Thus, we identified common and distinct genes responsible for anti-proliferative activities of purified berberine and C. rhizoma. This strategy may improve our understanding of the actions of herbs with antitumor activities. PMID:14520708

Iizuka, Norio; Oka, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Kotaro; Tangoku, Akira; Miyamoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Uchimura, Shunji; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Okita, Kiwamu

2003-11-20

337

Natural occurrence of fumonisins and ochratoxin A in some herbs and spices commercialized in Poland analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method.  

PubMed

Unsanitary conditions during harvesting, drying, packing and storage stages in production and processing of spices and herbs could introduce mycotoxin contamination. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and fumonisins in popular spices and herbs was studied, using liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, ergosterol as a factor indicating fungal development was also analysed. A total of 79 different samples commercialized in Poland were randomly purchased from popular markets were tested for mycotoxins. The frequency of samples with fumonisins was lower (31%) than ochratoxin A (49%). Free from mycotoxins were samples of bay leaf and white mustard. ERG content - in spice samples with high concentration level of mycotoxins - was also significantly higher than in samples with little to no mycotoxins. PMID:24010625

Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Bocianowski, Jan; Goli?ski, Piotr

2013-12-01

338

Recent Progress of Research on Herbal Products Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: the Herbs belonging to The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Sh?n N?ng B?n C?o J?ng)  

PubMed Central

This article will review selected herbal products from Chinese Materia Medica that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The herbs come from the upper, middle, and lower class medicines as listed in The Divine Husbandman's Herbal Foundation Canon (????? Shén Nóng B?n C?o J?ng). The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716110

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan; Qian, Keduo; Dong, Yizhou; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Ting; Belding, Eileen; Wu, Shou-Fang; Wada, Koji; Akiyama, Toshiyuki

2012-01-01

339

Prediction of changes in the occurrence of forest herbs in hedgerow networks along a climate gradient in north-western Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many herbaceous forest plant species are endangered and suffer from habitat loss and fragmentation, especially in agricultural\\u000a landscapes. Hedgerow networks represent a forested habitat that may serve as a refuge for forest herbs, even though also hedges\\u000a have recently been strongly reduced in number and size. It is yet disputed to which extent hedgerows offer a suitable environment\\u000a for forest

Stephan Wehling; Martin Diekmann

2010-01-01

340

Effect of antimicrobial spice and herb extract combinations on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and spoilage microflora growth on cooked ready-to-eat vacuum-packaged shrimp.  

PubMed

Two spice and herb extract combinations from galangal (Alpinia galanga), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and lemon iron bark (Eucalyptus staigerana) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of inoculated Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and naturally present spoilage microflora on cooked ready-to-eat shrimp stored for 16 days at 4 or 8 °C. A combination of galangal, rosemary, and lemon iron bark significantly reduced (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria at 4 °C on day 12 by 1.6 and 1.59 log CFU/g, respectively. By day 16, levels of these bacteria were equivalent to those of controls. The shrimp treated with this spice and herb extract combination had significantly lower (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation from day 4 to day 16. Similarly, a combination of galangal and rosemary extract significantly reduced (P < 0.05) levels of aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria at 8 °C on day 8 by 2.82 and 2.61 log CFU/g, respectively. By days 12 and 16, levels of these bacteria were equivalent to those of controls. The shrimp treated with this spice and herb combination had significantly lower (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation on days 4 and 16. None of the spice and herb extract combinations had an effect on levels of L. monocytogenes or S. aureus or changed the color or pH of the shrimp during storage. The results of this study indicate that combinations of galangal, rosemary, and lemon iron bark extracts can be used to control the growth of spoilage microflora on ready-to-eat shrimp. PMID:21740714

Weerakkody, Nimsha S; Caffin, Nola; Dykes, Gary A; Turner, Mark S

2011-07-01

341

Assessment of availability, ecological feature, and habitat preference of the medicinal herb Houttuynia cordata Thunb in the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is a rhizome-bearing aromatic medicinal herb and is restricted to specialized moist habitats. The plant is collected\\u000a from natural habitats for local consumption and trade. The status of the species and its variations in physiological performance\\u000a in different habitats were studied in selected sites of geographically different areas of Brahmaputra valley in eastern India.\\u000a The surveys were

N. Bhattacharyya; S. Sarma

2010-01-01

342

Negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation low-energy collision activation mass spectrometry for the characterisation of flavonoids in extracts of fresh herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavonoid composition of commonly eaten fresh herbs such as dill, oregano and parsley was analysed by combined LC, MS and low-energy collision induced dissociation (CID) MS–MS. Negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) MS and MS–MS were used to provide molecular mass information and product-ion spectra of the glycosyl compounds. The most prominent fragment was found to arise from the

Ulla Justesen

2000-01-01

343

Isotope dilution-GC-MS/MS analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in selected medicinal herbs used as health food additives.  

PubMed

Medicinal herbs have a very important role in health protection and disease control, and have been used in health foods. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have carcinogenic, biological and mutagenic effects. In this paper, the content of 16?PAHs as representative contaminants in nine Chinese medicinal herbs, as additives for health foods, was investigated in order to ensure food safety from this source. A highly sensitive isotope dilution-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-GC-MS/MS) method combined with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed. Calibration curves showed good linearity for all PAHs (R² > 0.999), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.42 to 2.7?µg?kg?¹. Average recoveries for these compounds were in the range of 52.5-117%, 52.6-119% and 81.4-108% at the concentrations of 10, 50 and 250?µg?kg?¹ with RSD of 1.8-15%, 0.9-15% and 1.0-15%, respectively. The proposed method was used for the analysis of nine Chinese medicinal herbs. Total levels of PAHs varied from 98.2?µg?kg?¹ (cassia seed) to 2245?µg?kg?¹ (eucommia bark). The highest level was found for phenanthrene (Phe) in liquorice root (631.3?µg?kg?¹), indigowoad leaf (551.0?µg?kg?¹), rose flower (435.2?µg?kg?¹) and eucommia bark (432.3?µg?kg?¹). The proposed method could provide a useful basis for safety monitoring of herbs and risk management for PAHs in the health food industry. PMID:22870881

Yu, L; Cao, Y; Zhang, J; Cui, Z; Sun, H

2012-01-01

344

EFFECTS OF SIX ANTI-INFLAMMATORY CHINESE HERBS ON LPS\\/IFN-?-INDUCED NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN RAW264.7 MACROPHAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to evaluate whether the six Chinese herbs (Davallia divaricata, Dd; Nothapodytes foetida, Nf; Orobanche caerulescens, Oc; Spiranthes sinensis, Ss; Taxillus liquidambaricolus, Tl; Viscum alniformosanae, Va) commonly used as anti-inflammatory drugs in traditional Chinese medicine, influence the induction of nitric oxide (NO), a mediator involved in inflammation. RAW264.7 cell was used as target cell and activated

Wen-Fei Chiou; Cheng-Jen Chou; Han-Chieh Ko; Chieh-Fu Chen

345

Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by Phenolic Phytochemicals of Selected Clonal Herbs Species of Lamiaceae Family and Likely Mode of Action through Proline Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive organism, is responsible for numerous infections ranging in severity from skin and soft tissue infections to endocarditis and septic arthritis. Further, Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) caused by enterotoxigenic staphylococci is one of the main food-borne diseases. In this study, several single-seed origin clonal lines of herbs from Lamiaceae family were screened for antimicrobial applications against S.

Y.-I. Kwon; E. Apostolidis; R. G. Labbe; K. Shetty

2007-01-01

346

The Effects of Selected Hot and Cold Temperament Herbs Based on Iranian Traditional Medicine on Some Metabolic Parameters in Normal Rats  

PubMed Central

This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of diets containing some hot and cold temperament herb seeds according to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) on some metabolic parameters in acute (24 h) and sub-acute (7 day) experiments that were performed on rats. For each experiment, effects of diets containing 10% herb seeds in category of hot (anise, fennel, ajowan) and cold (cucumber, watermelon, pumpkin) temperaments were analyzed on body weight gain, food intake, water consumption, urine output, serum glucose (SG) and insulin levels of rats. In the acute experiment, anise or fennel fed groups showed a significant decrease in food intake and there were not any changes in other parameters. The hot temperament groups in comparison with the cold temperament ones showed a significant decrease in food intake and a significant increase in SG level. In the sub-acute experiment, anise and fennel fed groups had a significant decrease in body weight gain on the 4thday. On the 7th day, the anise fed group experienced a significant decrease in body weight gain and a significant increase in SG levels. The groups that were fed hot temperament diets compared to the ones that consumed cold temperament diets showed a significant decrease in body weight gain and food intake rates and a considerable increase in SG levels. Considering the findings of this study, one can conclude that it is possible that hot temperament herbs such as anise and fennel be useful for humans for certain conditions such as weight control. PMID:24711844

Parvinroo, Shirin; Zahediasl, Saleh; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Naghibi, Farzaneh

2014-01-01

347

Publisher: Institute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade-Zemun UDC 636.085 DOI:10.2298/BAH1004203R HERBS IN A SUSTAINABLE ANIMAL NUTRITION  

E-print Network

Abstract: Animal has a direct impact on the quality of meat, milk and eggs in a positive and negative sense. Over the composition of a meal for animals can manipulate the quality of products of animal origin and can be achieved by a variety of nutritional, sensory, chemical, physical and physiological characteristics. The use of medicine in intensive and extensive farming is a big and risky to the quality of food and thus health. In organic farming of animals is not allowed to use medicines. Because are increasingly looking for natural healing resources. Herbs provides, in the manufacture of animal feed, a real opportunity to increase value through the use of different functional additions. Addition food for animals, really can improve its functionality in terms of a physiological effect. In developed countries in Europe is very strong trend of replacing synthetic antibiotic drugs based on medicinal herbal preparations. As herbal feed additives may be used drug (finely divided dry medicinal herbal raw materials), herbal extracts or herbal isolate (e.g. essential oil). The paper gives a short overview of the most important potential of herbal medicinal materials with antibacterial activity, antiinflammatory, digestion-stimulating, laxative, antidiarrhoeal, choleretic etc. activities that have an approved application in human medicine and which can be added to animal feed for use in different animal health disorders. The use of herbs is more current and all higher, in human and veterinary food industry. Key words: herbs in a sustainable animal nutrition, antibacterial activity, veterinary food industry.

D. Runjai?-anti?; S. Pavkov; J. Levi?

348

Comparative analysis of three Callicarpa herbs using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector and electrospray ionization-trap mass spectrometry method.  

PubMed

Three Callicarpa species, namely Callicarpa nudiflora Hook. et Arn., Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. and Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun. are astringency and hemostasis herbs in the traditional Chinese medical systems. Despite their wide use in Chinese medicine, no report on system comparison on their chemical constituents is available so far. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and electrospray ionization trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-Trap MS) technique was used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the three Callicarpa herbs. Phenylpropanoid glycosides, flavonoids and organic acids were identified by comparing with reference standards or according to their MS/MS fragmentation behaviors. A total of 33 compounds were identified identified or tentatively identified, and 23 of them were reported from these herbs for the first time. Phenylpropanoid glycosides were featured in the three species with their types and contents presenting significant differences. Furthermore, quantitative analysis was conducted by determining four marker phenylpropanoid glycosides (forsythoside B (14), acteoside (15), poliumoside (19), isoacteoside (21)) and two flavonoids (luteolin (30), apigenin (32)). Three flavonoid glucuronides (luteolin-diglucuronide-glucuronide (5), luteolin-diglucuronide (12), apigenin-7-O-?-glucuronide (24)) were semi-quantified according to their corresponding aglycones. The total contents of the nine major compounds in the three species varied significantly from 8.92 to 40.89 mg/g. PMID:23277156

Shi, Yatao; Wu, Chunyong; Chen, Yanhua; Liu, Wenyuan; Feng, Feng; Xie, Ning

2013-03-01

349

The effects of selected hot and cold temperament herbs based on Iranian traditional medicine on some metabolic parameters in normal rats.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of diets containing some hot and cold temperament herb seeds according to Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) on some metabolic parameters in acute (24 h) and sub-acute (7 day) experiments that were performed on rats. For each experiment, effects of diets containing 10% herb seeds in category of hot (anise, fennel, ajowan) and cold (cucumber, watermelon, pumpkin) temperaments were analyzed on body weight gain, food intake, water consumption, urine output, serum glucose (SG) and insulin levels of rats. In the acute experiment, anise or fennel fed groups showed a significant decrease in food intake and there were not any changes in other parameters. The hot temperament groups in comparison with the cold temperament ones showed a significant decrease in food intake and a significant increase in SG level. In the sub-acute experiment, anise and fennel fed groups had a significant decrease in body weight gain on the 4thday. On the 7th day, the anise fed group experienced a significant decrease in body weight gain and a significant increase in SG levels. The groups that were fed hot temperament diets compared to the ones that consumed cold temperament diets showed a significant decrease in body weight gain and food intake rates and a considerable increase in SG levels. Considering the findings of this study, one can conclude that it is possible that hot temperament herbs such as anise and fennel be useful for humans for certain conditions such as weight control. PMID:24711844

Parvinroo, Shirin; Zahediasl, Saleh; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Naghibi, Farzaneh

2014-01-01

350

Improvement of penile erection, sperm count and seminal fructose levels in vivo and nitric oxide release in vitro by ayurvedic herbs.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of four Vajikaran Rasayana herbs on penile erection, sperm count, seminal fructose content in vivo and nitric oxide (NO) release in vitro was assessed. Lyophilised aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus Willd. (AR), Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. F. (CB), Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (CO), and Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo (DH) were orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight to Wistar strain male albino rats. Penile erection index and sperm count were determined by visual observation; the seminal fructose concentration was measured spectrophotometrically using resorcinol reagent; and NO release was assessed in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264) spectrophotometrically using a commercial Griess reagent kit. Penile erection index, sperm count, seminal fructose concentration and in vitro NO release were the parameters measured. A significant effect on the sperm count, seminal fructose content and penile erection index was observed upon treatment with the extracts. The effect of extracts on inducible NO release in vitro directly correlated with the enhanced erectile function in vivo. The aphrodisiac claims attributed to the four Vajikaran Rasayana herbs were tested and a distinctive effect of all extracts tested was observed, with C. borivilianum showing a highly significant response for all parameters measured in vivo and in vitro. The present study also provides a good correlation between the in vivo improvement of penile erection and in vitro NO releasing activity of the extracts. Increase in seminal fructose levels and sperm count further validates the role of these herbs in improving reproductive function. PMID:21486409

Thakur, M; Thompson, D; Connellan, P; Deseo, M A; Morris, C; Dixit, V K

2011-08-01

351

Differential bud activation by a net positive root signal explains branching phenotype in prostrate clonal herbs: a model.  

PubMed

Regulation of branching within perennial prostrate clonal herbs differs from the annual orthotropic species, Arabidopsis and pea, as the dominant signal transported from roots is a branching promoter, not an inhibitor. Trifolium repens, an exemplar of such prostrate species, was used to investigate the interaction between roots and branch development. This study tests whether or not current knowledge when synthesized into a predictive model is sufficient to simulate the branching pattern developing on the shoot distal to a basal root. The major concepts underpinning the model are: (i) bud outgrowth (activation) is stimulated in a dose-dependent manner by branching promoter signals from roots, (ii) the distribution of this net root stimulus (NRS) is uniform throughout the shoot system distal to the basal root but declines geometrically in intensity upon continued enlargement of this shoot system, and (iii) each bud has an outgrowth potential, equal to the activation level of the apical bud in which it forms, that moderates its response to NRS. The validity of these concepts was further tested by running simulations of the branching of a phylogenetically-distanced prostrate perennial monocotyledonous species, Tradescantia fluminensis. For both species the model reasonably accounted for the observed pattern of branching. The outgrowth potential of buds plays an important role in limiting the number of hierarchies of branching that can develop on a plant. In conclusion, for both species, the model accounted for the major factors involved in the correlative regulation of branching and is possibly also pertinent for all prostrate clonal species. PMID:24399176

Thomas, R G; Li, F Y; Hay, M J M

2014-02-01

352

Paeoniflorin: a monomer from traditional Chinese medical herb ameliorates Schistosoma japonicum egg-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice.  

PubMed

Treatment of liver fibrosis associated with Schistosoma japonicum ova-induced granulomas remains a challenging proposition. There is a close relationship between high levels of interleukin-13 (IL-13) and the development of severe schistosome fibrosis. In contrast, IL-13 receptor (R) ?2 has an effective role in attenuation of profibrosis. Several Chinese herbs have significant beneficial effects in liver disease. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of Paeoniflorin (PAE) on liver fibrosis. A mouse model for liver fibrosis was established, using infection with S. japonicum cercariae via the skin. Liver tissue was used to examine the effect of PAE on hydroxyproline, collagen I and III, and IL-13 and IL-13R?2. The results showed that PAE has significant suppressive effect on the increase of both hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen I and III, which are the main components of extracellular matrix (ECM). Meanwhile, PAE not only inhibits IL-13 production, it also elevates IL-13R?2 in PAE-pretreated groups compared with controls. These results suggested that PAE can improve liver fibrosis due to S. japonicum infection. The effect of PAE appears to depend on a decrease of IL-13 and an increase of IL-13R?2. PMID:20929428

Li, Xiaoyue; Shen, Jilong; Zhong, Zhengrong; Wen, Huiqin; Luo, Qingli; Wei, Wei

2009-12-01

353

Control of reed canarygrass promotes wetland herb and tree seedling establishment in an upper Mississippi River Floodplain forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass) is recognized as a problematic invader of North American marshes, decreasing biodiversity and persisting in the face of control efforts. Less is known about its ecology or management in forested wetlands, providing an opportunity to apply information about factors critical to an invader's control in one wetland type to another. In a potted plant experiment and in the field, we documented strong competitive effects of reed canarygrass on the establishment and early growth of tree seedlings. In the field, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel restoration strategy, combining site scarification with late fall applications of pre-emergent herbicides. Treatments delayed reed canarygrass emergence the following spring, creating a window of opportunity for the early growth of native plants in the absence of competition from the grass. They also allowed for follow-up herbicide treatments during the growing season. We documented greater establishment of wetland herbs and tree seedlings in treated areas. Data from small exclosures suggest, however, that deer browsing can limit tree seedling height growth in floodplain restorations. Slower tree growth will delay canopy closure, potentially allowing reed canarygrass re-invasion. Thus, it may be necessary to protect tree seedlings from herbivory to assure forest regeneration.

Thomsen, Meredith; Brownell, Kurt; Groshek, Matthew; Kirsch, Eileen

2012-01-01

354

A Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) promotes hindlimb ischemia-induced neovascularization and wound healing of diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot ulcer is closely associated with peripheral vascular disease. Enhancement of tissue oxidative stress, reduction of nitric oxide (NO) and angiogenic growth factors, and abnormal matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity are pathophysiological factors in post-ischemic neovascularization and diabetic wound healing. Our previous study demonstrated that the Chinese 2-herb formula, NF3, showed significant wound healing effects on diabetic foot ulcer rats. A novel rat diabetic foot ulcer with hindlimb ischemia model was established in order to strengthen our claims on the diabetic wound healing and post-ischemic neovascularization effects of NF3. Our results demonstrate that NF3 can significantly reduce the wound area of the diabetic foot ulcer rat with hindlimb ischemia by 21.6% (p<0.05) compared with the control group. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that NF3 could boost circulating EPC levels for local wound vessel incorporation. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that NF3 could significantly augment blood vessel density, VEGF and eNOS expression, and attenuate tissue oxidative stress of ischemic muscles (p<0.001). NF3 significantly stimulated MMP activity involved in angiogenesis. Our study shows, for the first time, the beneficial effects of NF3 in wound healing and post-ischemic neovascularization in diabetes. PMID:24731763

Tam, Jacqueline Chor-Wing; Ko, Chun-Hay; Lau, Kit-Man; To, Ming-Ho; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Chan, Yuet-Wa; Siu, Wing-Sum; Etienne-Selloum, Nelly; Lau, Ching-Po; Chan, Wai-Yee; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B; Lau, Clara Bik-San

2014-01-01

355

Extension of lifespan and protection against oxidative stress by an antioxidant herb mixture complex (KPG-7) in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species within cells results in oxidative stress. Furthermore, accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been shown to reduce cell longevity. Many dietary supplements are believed to have anti-aging effects. The herb mixture KPG-7 contains several components with antioxidant activity. We aim to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of KPG-7 and to establish whether KPG-7 has an anti-aging effect. We examined whether dietary supplementation with KPG-7 could provide protection against oxidative stress, extend lifespan, and delay aging in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We found that KPG-7 extended lifespan and delayed aging in adult C. elegans. The expression of oxidation resistance 1 protein was induced by juglone and this effect was significantly suppressed in KPG-7-treated. In addition, the amount of oxidized protein was significantly lower in KPG-7-treated worms than untreated worms. Furthermore, locomotive activity was increased in C. elegans at 3 days of age following the treatment with KPG-7. On the other hand, the level of cellular ATP was lower at 3 days of age in worms treated with KPG-7 than in untreated worms. KPG-7 increases lifespan and delays aging in C. elegans, well corresponding to its activity to protect against oxidative stress. PMID:24062604

Moriwaki, Takahito; Kato, Seiji; Kato, Yuichi; Hosoki, Ayaka; Zhang-Akiyama, Qiu-Mei

2013-01-01

356

The shape of things to come: woodland herb niche contraction begins during recruitment in mesic forest microhabitat.  

PubMed

Natural abundance is shaped by the abiotic requirements and biotic interactions that shape a species' niche, yet these influences are rarely decoupled. Moreover, most plant mortality occurs during early life stages, making seed recruitment critical in structuring plant populations. We find that natural abundance of two woodland herbs, Hexastylis arifolia and Hepatica nobilis, peaks at intermediate resource levels, a pattern probably formed by concurrent abiotic and biotic interactions. To determine how this abundance patterning reflects intrinsic physiological optima and extrinsic biotic interactions, we translocate adults and seeds to novel locations across experimentally extended abiotic gradients. These experiments indicate that the plant distributions probably reflect biotic interactions as much as physiological requirements, and that adult abundance provides a poor indication of the underlying niche requirements. The positive response exhibited by adult transplants in the wettest conditions is offset by increased fungal attack on buried seeds consistent with peak natural abundance where soil moisture is intermediate. This contraction of niche space is best described by Connell's model--species are limited by physiological tolerances where resources are low and biotic interactions where resources are high. PMID:20961900

Warren, Robert J; Bradford, Mark A

2011-05-01

357

Differential bud activation by a net positive root signal explains branching phenotype in prostrate clonal herbs: a model  

PubMed Central

Regulation of branching within perennial prostrate clonal herbs differs from the annual orthotropic species, Arabidopsis and pea, as the dominant signal transported from roots is a branching promoter, not an inhibitor. Trifolium repens, an exemplar of such prostrate species, was used to investigate the interaction between roots and branch development. This study tests whether or not current knowledge when synthesized into a predictive model is sufficient to simulate the branching pattern developing on the shoot distal to a basal root. The major concepts underpinning the model are: (i) bud outgrowth (activation) is stimulated in a dose-dependent manner by branching promoter signals from roots, (ii) the distribution of this net root stimulus (NRS) is uniform throughout the shoot system distal to the basal root but declines geometrically in intensity upon continued enlargement of this shoot system, and (iii) each bud has an outgrowth potential, equal to the activation level of the apical bud in which it forms, that moderates its response to NRS. The validity of these concepts was further tested by running simulations of the branching of a phylogenetically-distanced prostrate perennial monocotyledonous species, Tradescantia fluminensis. For both species the model reasonably accounted for the observed pattern of branching. The outgrowth potential of buds plays an important role in limiting the number of hierarchies of branching that can develop on a plant. In conclusion, for both species, the model accounted for the major factors involved in the correlative regulation of branching and is possibly also pertinent for all prostrate clonal species. PMID:24399176

Hay, M. J. M.

2014-01-01

358

Drugs and herbs given to prevent hepatotoxicity of tuberculosis therapy: systematic review of ingredients and evaluation studies  

PubMed Central

Background Drugs to protect the liver are frequently prescribed in some countries as part of treatment for tuberculosis. The biological rationale is not clear, they are expensive and may do harm. We conducted a systematic review to a) describe the ingredients of "liver protection drugs"; and b) compare the evidence base for the policy against international standards. Methods We searched international medical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the specialised register of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group) and Chinese language databases (CNKI, VIP and WanFang) to April 2007. Our inclusion criteria were research papers that reported evaluating any liver protection drug or drugs for preventing liver damage in people taking anti-tuberculosis treatment. Two authors independently categorised and extracted data, and appraised the stated methods of evaluating their effectiveness. Results Eighty five research articles met our inclusion criteria, carried out in China (77), India (2), Russia (4), Ukraine (2). These articles evaluated 30 distinct types of liver protection compounds categorised as herbal preparations, manufactured herbal products, combinations of vitamins and other non-herbal substances and manufactured pharmaceutical preparations. Critical appraisal of these articles showed that all were small, poorly conducted studies, measuring intermediate outcomes. Four trials that were described as randomised controlled trials were small, had short follow up, and did not meet international standards. Conclusion There is no reliable evidence to support prescription of drugs or herbs to prevent liver damage in people on tuberculosis treatment. PMID:18939987

Liu, Qin; Garner, Paul; Wang, Yang; Huang, Binghua; Smith, Helen

2008-01-01

359

Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer.  

PubMed

Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) for 3 weeks (120 mg twice daily). Trough concentrations of drugs were measured before and after ginkgo biloba treatment using LC-MS/MS. Toxicities were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Trough concentrations before and after treatment with ginkgo biloba were not significantly different for tamoxifen (93.5 ± 29.0, 86.5 ± 25.3 ng/mL; p=0.16), letrozole (91.1 ± 50.4, 89.6 ± 52.14 ng/mL; p=0.60) or anastrozole (29.1 ± 8.6, 29.1 ± 7.6 ng/mL; p=0.97). Ginkgo biloba was well tolerated, with no difference in toxicity during ginkgo biloba. Co-administration of ginkgo biloba does not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole. There was no difference in the toxicity profile of hormone therapy with ginkgo biloba use in women with early stage breast cancer. PMID:23596562

Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M; Clarke, Stephen J; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; McLachlan, Andrew J

2013-12-01

360

Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in short-lived monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Adventitious sprouting from the hypocotyle and roots in monocarpic herbs has been confirmed in previous experimental studies as a means to avoid bud limitation after severe injury in annual and biennial plants. Data regarding the role of adventitious sprouting in natural populations, however, were lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations and how it is affected by plant size, plant injury, plant cover and environmental characteristics. Methods Data were sampled from 14 037 individual plants from 389 populations belonging to 22 annual and biennial species. Growth parameters were measured in individual plants, species composition and plant cover in communities were evaluated, and environmental characteristics were estimated using Ellenberg indicator values. Key Results It was confirmed that adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations of all but five species examined. Adventitious sprouting was positively affected by plant size and plant injury. Environmental factors including availability of soil nitrogen were not shown to affect adventitious sprouting. Annual and biennial plants did not differ in sprouting, but upright annuals had a lower number of and longer adventitious shoots than prostrate annuals. Conclusions Adventitious bud formation is used to overcome meristem limitation when stem parts are lost due to injury, and thus resprouting in short-lived monocarps should not be overlooked. PMID:20356953

Malikova, Lenka; Smilauer, Petr; Klimesova, Jitka

2010-01-01

361

Reproductive effort and herbivory timing in a perennial herb: fitness components at the individual and population levels.  

PubMed

We experimentally investigated how pollinator- and herbivore-induced changes influence the performance of the long-lived herb Primula veris. Eight treatments that corresponded to natural factors normally affecting this species were designed to enhance or reduce reproductive success and resource availability (flower removal, supplementary pollination, defoliation). During the experimental season and in the following year we quantified responses in terms of survival, growth, and seed production of reproductive plants. Matrix population models were used to calculate population growth rate using the demographic parameters recorded in permanent plots and respective treatment groups. Seed production was not limited by pollen availability, and we found no evidence of a cost of reproduction. Leaf removal had either no effect or a negative effect on future performance, depending on the timing of removal. Defoliation early in the season reduced current seed production and future growth, whereas removal during fruit development affected performance in the following year. Demographic models suggest that leaf damage has a smaller negative impact than flower removal on overall performance in this population. Our results suggest that the source-sink paths vary over the season and that the timing of herbivory may influence the extent to which effects are carried over to subsequent reproductive seasons. PMID:21665732

García, María B; Ehrlén, Johan

2002-08-01

362

An experimental test of well-described vegetation patterns across slope aspects using woodland herb transplants and manipulated abiotic drivers.  

PubMed

*The ubiquitous transition of plant communities across slope aspects is a well-described, but rarely tested, ecological dynamic. Aspect position is often used as a proxy for microclimate changes in moisture, light and temperature, but these abiotic drivers are seldom decoupled and very rarely manipulated across slope aspects. *To investigate the mechanisms and demographic stages driving the observed distribution patterns of two woodland herbs in the southeastern USA, seeds and adults were transplanted across north- and south-facing slopes, and moisture and light were experimentally manipulated. *Stage- and species-specific abiotic responses resulted in similar landscape-level patterning for Hexastylis arifolia and Hepatica nobilis, but the underlying abiotic drivers were unique. Adult rather than seed survival best explained the natural distributions across slope aspects, and Hexastylis arifolia was limited by higher temperature, whereas Hepatica nobilis was limited by lower soil moisture. *The stage- and species-specific responses indicated that the use of slope aspect to explain plant distributions not only obfuscates explanatory mechanisms, but probably undermines the portability of results. As abiotic drivers, not topographical proxies, are projected to shift with global climate change, distribution research requires direct abiotic data in association with key demographic stages rather than topographical proxies. PMID:20085622

Warren, Robert J

2010-03-01

363

Studies on Nepalese crude drugs. XXIX. Chemical constituents of Dronapuspi, the whole herb of Leucas cephalotes SPRENG.  

PubMed

From the whole herb of Leucas cephalotes SPRENG., new labdane-, norlabdane- and abietane-type diterpenes named leucasdins A (1), B (2) and C (3), respectively, and two protostane-type triterpenes named leucastrins A (4) and B (5) were isolated, together with a known triterpene, oleanolic acid, five sterols, 7-oxositosterol, 7-oxostigmasterol, 7alpha-hydroxysitosterol, 7alpha-hydroxystigmasterol and stigmasterol, and eight flavones, 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone, pillion, gonzalitosin I, tricin, cosmosin, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)glucopyranoside, anisofolin A and luteolin 4'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside. The structures of 1--5 were determined as (3S,6R,8R,9R,13S,16S)-9,13,15,16-bisepoxy-3,16-diacetoxy-6-formyloxylabdane, (3S,6R)-3-acetoxy-6-formyloxy-iso-ambreinolide, (4R,9S,12R,13R)-12,13-dihydroxyabiet-7-en-18-oic acid, (3S,17S,20S,24S)-3,20-dihydroxy-24-methylprotost-25-en, and (3S,17S,20S,24S)-3,20,24-trihydroxyprotost-25-en respectively, based on spectral and chemical data. PMID:17015972

Miyaichi, Yukinori; Segawa, Akiko; Tomimori, Tsuyoshi

2006-10-01

364

Seed size variation and its effect on germination and seedling performance in the clonal herb Convallaria majalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variation in seed size is common both within and among plant species. This study examined within-species variation in seed weight, and its implications for some components of fitness in the clonal herb Convallaria majalis. This species produces berries containing 4.1 seeds on average. The average seed weight was 16.5 mg, with a coefficient of variation of 32.7%. Seed packaging in fruits was on average 12.5%, and showed a slight tendency to increase with fruit weight. A trade-off was found between seed weight and seed number both within fruits and within ramets. The probability and timing of germination was not influenced by seed size. A field experiment and indirect evidence suggested that post-dispersal seed predation was not related to seed size. Increasing seed weight conferred an advantage to developing seedlings. This advantage was enhanced if a seedling was growing in the close vicinity of a seedling of another species. It is suggested that seed size variation in C. majalis primarily is the result of resource variation during fruit development. A conflict between parents and offspring may however contribute to increase seed size variation.

Eriksson, Ove

1999-02-01

365

Leaf fluctuating asymmetry, soil disturbance and plant stress: A multiple year comparison using two herbs, Ipomoea pandurata and Cnidoscolus stimulosus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied Cnidoscolus stimulosus and Ipomoea pandurata, two common herbs of the Fall Line Sandhills to assess their potential as ecosystem level stress indicators. We focused on plants because they are among the most persistent organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. We used developmental instability as an indicator of plant population stress. Developmental instability is usually measured as deviations from symmetry, in traits that normally develop symmetrically. Thus, symmetry represents an idealized a priori phenotype. Stress presumably causes perturbations during development that may exceed the capacity of the organism to buffer or correct, resulting in developmental instability, and hence deviations from this ideal. Soil disturbance imposed by different land use patterns at Fort Benning, Georgia provided a gradient of soil disturbance. In 2000-2002 we collected plants from nine different sites representing three levels of disturbance. In addition, in 2002 we collected microhabitat data in 1 m quadrats surrounding each plant whose developmental stability we also assessed. The developmental instability of both species was influenced by land use patterns, whether or not the sites had been previously burned, and microhabitat variables. Developmental instability increased with soil disturbance, burning in the prior year, and as the percentage of bare ground increased around the target individual. To some extent, favorable microhabitat conditions reduced developmental instability in sites with medium and high soil disturbance, whereas unfavorable conditions at low soil disturbance sites increased developmental instability. As an indicator of community level stress, developmental instability is best used in conjunction with other indices of environmental quality. ?? Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Freeman, D.C.; Brown, M.L.; Duda, J.J.; Graraham, J.H.; Emlen, J.M.; Krzysik, A.J.; Balbach, H.; Kovacic, D.A.; Zak, J.C.

2005-01-01

366

Reduction of vitrification in in vitro raised shoots of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. & Fernand., a rare potent medicinal herb.  

PubMed

Reduction of vitrification in in vitro raised shoots derived from shoot bases and immature floral buds along with inflorescence axis used as explants of C. borivilianum, a rare medicinal herb is described. Shoot multiplication was obtained on MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.1 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) kinetin (Kin) + 0.1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) from shoot bases and inflorescence axis respectively. Best multiplication rates were obtained from both the explants on MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) BAP. Vitrification of shoots in cultures appeared during the multiplication stage. Culture bottles with aerated caps reduced the vitrification to 80%. Reduction of BAP concentration from 2 mg l(-1) to zero during subsequent subcultures also minimized vitrification. Use of 0.5-2 mg l(-1) Kin produced healthy shoots when compared to BAP. In vitro raised shoots rooted on Knop salts containing iron and vitamins of MS medium, 2 mg l(-1) IBA and 0.1% activated charcoal. About 80% plantlets survived upon soil transfer. Scanning electron microscopic and image analyzer studies reveal the morphological structural differences between the leaves of normal and vitrified plantlets. PMID:16784122

Sharma, Urvashi; Mohan, J S S

2006-06-01

367

In silico and in vivo evaluation of flavonoid extracts on CYP2D6-mediated herb-drug interaction.  

PubMed

Flavonoid extracts are widely used for preventing and treating ischemic heart disease. However, because many flavonoid extracts have been verified to inhibit CYP2D6 the main metabolic enzyme for the majority of antiarrhythmics and beta-blockers, co-administration of flavonoid extracts with these drugs may cause adverse herb-drug interaction in clinic. Here, we evaluated 43 common flavonoids on CYP2D6 inhibition in sillico and four commercial flavonoid extracts in vivo on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol in rats. Surprisingly, we found that the core skeletons of flavonoids instead of their substituents determine the extent of inhibiting CYP2D6 by a flavonoid extract. Isoflavones are less likely to inhibit CYP2D6, compared with other categories of flavonoids. Consistently, co-administration of soy extract that mainly contains isoflavones did not significantly increase plasma concentration of metoprolol and alter the systolic blood pressure of rats. Our results have implication in rationally selecting flavonoid extracts for therapeutic application. PMID:22648787

Su, Zhe; Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Wenliang; Du, Zhimin

2012-10-01

368

Evaluation of repellency of some Chinese medicinal herbs essential oils against Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).  

PubMed

The screening for repellency against the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Badonnel), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), from 14 Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the essential oils of Curcuma longa L., Epimedium pubescens Maximouwicz, Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kostermans, Nardostachys chinensis Battandier, Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieber et Zuccarini, and Z. officinale Roscoe exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila and T. castaneum. A total of 35 components of the essential oil of E. pubescens were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Beta-Eudesmol (14.89%), alpha-pinene (13.38%), borneol (9.56%), (R)-carvone (7.89%), and menthol (7.45%) were the main components of the essential oil of E. pubescens. From the essential oil of E. pubescens, four monoterpenoids and one sesquiterpenoid were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified alpha-pinene, borneol, menthol, carvone, and beta-eudesmol. (R) -carvone, menthol, borneol, and beta-eudesmol were strongly repellent against L. bostrychophila at concentration of 8.5 nl/cm2 after 2 h exposure whereas alpha-pinene exhibited moderate repellency. (R)-carvone exhibited stronger repellency against the booklouse than the positive control, N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). Moreover, (R)-carvone also possessed stronger repellency against T. castaneum than DEET. The other four constituents, menthol, borneol, and beta-eudesmol also showed repellency against the red flour beetles but weaker than DEET at lower concentrations. PMID:23448068

Liang, Yan; Li, Jin Lu; Xu, Shuai; Zhao, Na Na; Zhou, Ligang; Cheng, Jun; Liu, Zhi Long

2013-02-01

369

Regulation of podocalyxin expression in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with Chinese herbs (Yishen capsule)  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic nephropathy is an emergent issue in China with increase in patients with type II diabetes. There are several successful Chinese herbal products for the treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy in China. However, the mechanisms mediating the biological activity of these products are still unclear. Podocalyxin is a sialoprotein critical to maintaining integrity of filtration function of glomerulus. Methods By employing streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and a Chinese herb formulation (Yishen capsule), we examined the regulation of podocalyxin expression in the kidney by Yishen capsule through immunofluorescent staining and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results After injection of STZ, there were significant increase in both blood glucose and urinary protein. Serum creatinine and BUN were also increased in rats with injection of STZ. Moreover, expression of podocalyxin in the glomerulus was gradually reduced after injection of STZ. There was also a loss of podocyte foot processes in the glomerular basement membrane. However, Yishen capsule or benazepril was able to restore the expression of podocalyxin and podocyte foot processes in the kidney. Although Yishen capsule could reduce urinary protein level, it has little effect on blood glucose level in the rats injected with STZ. Conclusions Yishen capsule could attenuate the loss of podocalyxin in the glomerulus of rats injected with STZ. PMID:23560927

2013-01-01

370

PXR-Mediated Upregulation of CYP3A Expression by Herb Compound Praeruptorin C from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that Praeruptorin C effectively transactivated the mRNA, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via the CAR-mediated pathway, but whether and how PC could affect the expression and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 via PXR pathway remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, the effect of PC on the CYP3A gene expression was investigated in mice primary hepatocytes after knockdown of PXR by transient transfection of PXR siRNA, and the gene expression, protein expression, and catalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the LS174T cells with PXR overexpression were determined by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and LC-MS/MS-based CYP3A4 substrate assay, respectively. We found that the level of CYP3a11 gene expression in mouse primary hepatocytes was significantly increased by praeruptorin C, but such an induction was suppressed after knockdown of pregnane X receptor by its siRNA. In PXR-overexpressed LS174T cells, PC significantly enhanced CYP3A4 mRNA, protein expression, and functional activity through PXR-mediated pathway; conversely, no such increase was found in the untransfected cells. These findings suggest that PC can significantly upregulate CYP3A level via the PXR-mediated pathway, and this should be taken into consideration to predict any potential herb-drug interactions between PC, Qianhu, and the other coadministered drugs. PMID:24379885

Huang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Li, Yu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Tao; Bi, Hui-Chang

2013-01-01

371

Standard Guide for Irradiation of Dried Spices, Herbs, and Vegetable Seasonings to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide covers procedures for irradiation of dried spices, herbs, and vegetable seasonings for microbiological control. Generally, these items have moisture content of 4.5 to 12 % and are available in whole, ground, chopped, or other finely divided forms, or as blends. The blends may contain sodium chloride and minor amounts of dry food materials ordinarily used in such blends. 1.2 This guide covers absorbed doses ranging from 3 to 30 kiloGray (kGy). Note 1—U.S. regulations permit a maximum dose of 30 kGy. (See 21CFR 179.26 Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food.) 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2004-01-01

372

Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features of each component. Tissue distribution results showed that ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin mostly distributed in liver and kidney both in herb couple and single herb distributed most in liver and kidney. Compared with single herb, RRHC could increase or decrease the concentrations of five components at different time points compared with the sing herb. The results indicated the method was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of different combination of RRHC in rats. The compatibility of two Chinese herbs could alter the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of major bio-active components in the single herb. The results might be helpful for further investigation of compatibility mechanism of RRHC. PMID:24927419

Luo, Niancui; Li, Zhenhao; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Guo, Jianming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Min

2014-07-15

373

Differences in fine-scale spatial genetic structure across the distribution range of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Geographical ranges of plants and their pollinators do not always entirely overlap and it has been suggested that the absence of specialized pollinators at range margins may induce changes in mating systems. Because a species’ mating system is known to have a considerable effect on within-population pollen movement, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) can be expected to differ between populations located at different parts of their geographical range. To test this prediction, we compared the fine-scale SGS between two core and two disjunct populations of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. Because in disjunct populations of this species the heteromorphic self-incompatibility system showed relaxation in the long-styled morph, but not in the short-styled morph, we also hypothesized that the extent of fine-scale SGS and clustering differed between morphs. Results Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed a significant decrease in genetic relatedness with spatial distance for both core and disjunct populations with the weakest SGS found in one of the core populations (Sp?=?0.0014). No evidence of stronger SGS in the long-styled morph was found in the center of the range whereas one disjunct population showed a significantly (P?=?0.029) higher SGS in the long-styled morph (SpL?=?0.0070) than in the short-styled morph (SpS?=?0.0044). Conclusions Consistent with previous analyses on distylous plant species, we found weak, but significant spatial genetic structure. However, the extent of SGS varied substantially between populations within regions, suggesting that population characteristics other than mating system (e.g. local pollinator assemblages, population history) may be as important in determining variation in SGS. PMID:24134743

2013-01-01

374

Purification and characterization of a flavonol 3-O-beta-heterodisaccharidase from the dried herb of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.  

PubMed

A flavonol-3-O-beta-heterodisaccharide glycosidase (FHG I) was isolated from dried aerial tissues of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Fagopyri herba). It has a specific enzyme activity of ca. 3.5 nkat mg(-1) protein in buffered extracts when rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) was used as substrate and an optimal enzyme activity was seen at around pH 4.8 and 30 degrees C. FHG I was purified about 156-fold to apparent homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange and size exclusion chromatographic steps. The apparent molecular mass of FHG I was 74.5+/-2 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and it is a monomeric glycoprotein with a carbohydrate content of 23%. The isoelectric point as determined by isoelectric focusing was 5.7 and the energy of activation was 32 kJ mol(-1). FHG I exhibits a high substrate specificity, preferring flavonol 3-O-glycosides comprising the disaccharide rutinose. The K(m) and V(max) values for the natural substrate rutin were calculated to be 0.561 microM and 745 nkat mg (-1) protein, respectively. Two oligopeptide fragments obtained after enzymatic digestion of FHG I were sequenced and showed similarities to sequences of beta-glucohydrolases from other plant species. Polyclonal antibodies were raised and their specificities determined. Another flavonol 3-O-beta-heterodisaccharide glycosidase (FHG II) could also be detected in buckwheat herb, having a molecular mass of 85.3+/-2 kDa and an isoelectric point between pH 6.0 and 6.5. PMID:12943757

Baumgertel, Andreas; Grimm, Rudi; Eisenbeiss, Wilhelm; Kreis, Wolfgang

2003-09-01

375

Comprehensive proteomic analysis of a Chinese 2-herb formula (Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix) on mature endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Endothelial cells are crucially involved in wound healing angiogenesis, restoring blood flow to wound tissues. Our previous study demonstrated that the Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) possesses significant wound healing effect in diabetic foot ulcer rats with promising in vitro proangiogenic effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Here, we present the comparative global proteome analysis of NF3-treated HUVEC in static or scratch conditions, screening the comprehensive molecular targets in governing the proangiogenic response in wound healing. Our results suggest plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, specifically down-regulated in static condition and Annexin A1 and Annexin A2, up-regulated in scratch condition, as principal proteins responsible for the proangiogenesis in wound healing. We also identified a panel of cytoskeleton regulatory proteins in static and scratch condition, mediating the migratory behavior of NF3-treated HUVEC. The key proteins in static state include myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9, SPAST, tropomyosin (TPM)2, and Vimentin while that in scratch state contained prelamin-A/C, TPM1, TPM2, and Vimentin. In addition, NF3 was shown to regulate transcription and translation, cell-cell interaction, and ROS defense in HUVEC. Proliferation and migration assays further confirmed the identified principal proteins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and Annexin A2 which are responsible for NF3-induced proangiogenesis of HUVEC in wound healing. This is the first study on the global proteome expression of NF3-treated HUVEC with the identification of the differences at the molecular level, between static and scratch conditions involved in wound healing angiogenesis. PMID:25044676

Tam, Jacqueline Chor Wing; Ko, Chun Hay; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Hua; Lau, Ching Po; Chan, Wai Yee; Leung, Ping Chung; Fung, Kwok Pui; Zhang, Jin Fang; Lau, Clara Bik San

2014-09-01

376

Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)  

PubMed Central

Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 ?g/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50) at 8/16 ?g/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA. PMID:22942699

Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

2012-01-01

377

Randomized Clinical Trial: The Clinical Effects of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion in Patients with Diarrhoea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore the efficacy of Herb-partitioned moxibustion in treating IBS-D patients. Method. 210 IBS-D patients were randomly assigned on a 3 : 3 : 2 basis to group HM, group FM, or group PB for 4-week treatment. The change of GSRS total score at weeks 4 and 8, the changes of GSRS specific scores, and adverse events were evaluated. Results. Patients in group HM and group FM had lower GSRS total score at week 4 (1.98 ± 0.303, 2.93 ± 0.302 versus 3.73 ± 0.449) and at week 8 (2.75 ± 0.306, 3.56 ± 0.329 versus 4.39 ± 2.48) as compared with patients' score in group PB. However, there was no significant difference of GSRS total score between group HM and group FM. The effect of HM was significantly greater than that of orally taking PB in ameliorating the symptoms of rugitus (0.38 versus 0.59, P < 0.05), abdominal pain (0.28 versus 0.57, P < 0.01), abdominal distension (0.4 versus 0.7, P < 0.01), and increased passage of stools (0.06 versus 0.25, P < 0.01) at the end of treatment period. In the follow-up period, patients' therapeutic effect in group HM remained greater than that in group FM (in abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and increased passage of stools) and that in group PB (in loose stools). Conclusions. HM appears to be a promising, efficacious, and well-tolerated treatment for patients with IBS-D. PMID:24454500

Ma, Yu-xia; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Cun-zhi; Wang, Lin-peng; Guo, Gang; Du, Dong-qing; Wang, Zhi-lei; Ma, Hong; Qi, Ping; Li, Zhao-feng; Guo, Yan-ping; Yi, Hua-qiang; Gao, Shu-zhong

2013-01-01

378

Mutualists and antagonists drive among-population variation in selection and evolution of floral display in a perennial herb.  

PubMed

Spatial variation in the direction of selection drives the evolution of adaptive differentiation. However, few experimental studies have examined the relative importance of different environmental factors for variation in selection and evolutionary trajectories in natural populations. Here, we combine 8 y of observational data and field experiments to assess the relative importance of mutualistic and antagonistic interactions for spatial variation in selection and short-term evolution of a genetically based floral display dimorphism in the short-lived perennial herb Primula farinosa. Natural populations of this species include two floral morphs: long-scaped plants that present their flowers well above the ground and short-scaped plants with flowers positioned close to the ground. The direction and magnitude of selection on scape morph varied among populations, and so did the frequency of the short morph (median 19%, range 0-100%; n = 69 populations). A field experiment replicated at four sites demonstrated that variation in the strength of interactions with grazers and pollinators were responsible for among-population differences in relative fitness of the two morphs. Selection exerted by grazers favored the short-scaped morph, whereas pollinator-mediated selection favored the long-scaped morph. Moreover, variation in selection among natural populations was associated with differences in morph frequency change, and the experimental removal of grazers at nine sites significantly reduced the frequency of the short-scaped morph over 8 y. The results demonstrate that spatial variation in intensity of grazing and pollination produces a selection mosaic, and that changes in biotic interactions can trigger rapid genetic changes in natural plant populations. PMID:24145439

Agren, Jon; Hellström, Frida; Toräng, Per; Ehrlén, Johan

2013-11-01

379

Impact of herbivory on flowering behaviour and life history trade-offs in a polycarpic herb: a 10-year experiment.  

PubMed

Herbivores can have strong deleterious effects on plant growth, reproduction, and even survival. Because these effects might be strongly interrelated, the direct consumptive effects of herbivores and a variety of indirect effects are difficult to untangle. Reductions in growth, for example, may strongly impact the flowering behaviour of plant species in the current season, but at the same time incur costs to survival, growth and reproduction in the next growing season(s). To get better insights in the effects of herbivory on the flowering behaviour of the long-lived polycarpic grassland herb Primula veris L., flowering patterns were monitored over ten consecutive years under two treatments (grazing and control mowing regimes). We tested the hypothesis that the size at flowering was affected by the presence of herbivores, and whether this translated into costs to future reproduction and survival. Overall, grazed plants were significantly smaller than control plants, and the size at which plants flowered was also significantly smaller when herbivores were present. The transition probability of flowering and of surviving into the next year was significantly smaller for all plants in the current year if they had been grazed than if they had been mown, indicating that herbivory incurred costs to both flowering and survival. Grazed plants also needed longer to start flowering, had fewer flowers and flowered less frequently, causing a significantly lower proportion of flowering adults in the population. These results suggest that the observed regression in plant size due to herbivory does not allow plants to capture enough resources to guarantee regular flowering in the longer run. PMID:21120670

Brys, Rein; Shefferson, Richard P; Jacquemyn, Hans

2011-06-01

380

Population Genetic Effects of Urban Habitat Fragmentation in the Perennial Herb Viola pubescens (Violaceae) using ISSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Fragmentation of natural habitats can negatively impact plant populations by leading to reduced genetic variation and increased genetic distance as populations become geographically and genetically isolated from one another. To test whether such detrimental effects occur within an urban landscape, the genetic structure of six populations of the perennial herb Viola pubescens was characterized in the metropolitan area of Greater Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio, USA. Methods Using three inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, 51 loci amplified across all urban populations. For reference, four previously examined agricultural populations in central/northern Ohio and a geographically distant population in Michigan were also included in the analysis. Key Results Urban populations retained high levels of genetic variation (percentage of polymorphic loci, Pp = 80·7 %) with similar genetic distances among populations and an absence of unique alleles. Geographic and genetic distances were correlated with one another, and all populations grouped according to region. Individuals from urban populations clustered together and away from individuals from agricultural populations and from the Michigan population in a principle coordinates analysis. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the genetic variability was partitioned within populations (69·1 %) and among groups (22·2 %) of southwestern Ohio, central/northern Ohio and Michigan groups. Mean Fst was 0·308, indicating substantial population differentiation. Conclusions It is concluded that urban fragmentation does not appear to impede gene flow in V. pubescens in southwestern Ohio. These results are consistent with life history traits of this species and the possibility of high insect abundance in urban habitats due to diverse floral resources and nesting sites. Combined with the cleistogamous breeding system of this species, pollinator availability in the urban matrix may buffer populations against detrimental effects of habitat fragmentation, at least in larger forest fragments. Consequently, it may be inappropriate to generalize about genetic effects of fragmentation across landscapes or even across plant species with different pollination systems. PMID:17556381

Culley, Theresa M.; Sbita, Sarah J.; Wick, Anne

2007-01-01

381

Pollen limitation and distance-dependent fecundity in females of the clonal gynodioecious herb Glechoma hederacea (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Pollen movement is often restricted in natural populations, and insufficient pollination is a potential constraint on sexual reproduction in outcrossing species. Seed-set should decrease with increased distance from the pollen source in outcrossing plants. This prediction was tested using females of the clonal, gynodioecious herb Glechoma hederacea in three natural populations. In controlled pollinations, both hermaphrodites and females had similar high percentages of fruit-set and seed-set. In a natural population where a female clone was isolated from the nearest hermaphroditic clone by c. 100 m, fruit-set was low (1%). In another population where hemaphroditic clones were rare and female clones had a patchy distribution, fruit-and seed-set in females were pollen-limited and decreased with increased distance from the nearest pollen source. The estimated mean pollen dispersal distance was 5.9 m when calculated on fruit-set and 5.3 m when calculated on seed-set. The most frequent pollinators were bumblebees. The mean and median distances moved by pollinators between ramets were 0.13 m and 0.05 m. In a third population where female clones were isolated from the nearest hermaphrodites by more than 200 m, fruit-set was 0%. After introduction of 16 hermaphroditic ramets in the center of the female clone, fruit-set varied between 0% and 100% in individual female ramets. Fruit-set decreased with increased distance from the pollen source. The mean and median pollen movement distances were 1.06 m and 0.54 m. PMID:22160110

Widén, B; Widén, M

1990-06-01

382

Low awareness of stroke guidelines and preference for Chinese herbs in community physicians: a national survey in China  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians’ adherence to stroke guidelines is becoming a critical part of public stroke care system. The objective of this national survey was to examine Chinese physicians’ awareness of the guidelines in secondary stroke prevention. Methods This is a non-commercial and no-incentive internet survey. Respondents were asked to perform a self-examination of 13 questions regarding their stroke practice. Their awareness of stroke guidelines, preference for Chinese traditional herbs (CTH), and patients’ expense for stroke treatment were surveyed and compared between physicians from community and from tertiary hospitals using univariate analysis and logistic regression. Results A total of 8,581 physicians (70.1% from community hospitals) responded to the survey. Only 32.1% physicians considered risk factors control necessary for stroke. For the treatments of symptomatic carotid stenosis, only 10.4% physicians selected carotid endarterectomy and anti-platelet plus controlling stroke risk factors. Only 21.45% physicians selected warfarin anticoagulation for stroke patients with atrial fibrillation. In contrast, a high percentage (64.56%) of physicians had positive attitude towards CTH. Compared with those from tertiary hospitals, community physicians were more likely unaware of the guidelines and preferred CTH. Those who prescribed CTH reported more patients’ cost (P<0.001, OR 1.78, 95% CI, 1.55-2.04) than who didn’t. Conclusions There is a very low awareness of stroke guidelines in Chinese community physicians. A well-organized continuing stroke-guidelines education should be an essential part of public stroke-care system in China. Also, more well-designed clinical trials are required to establish the safety and effectiveness of CTH. PMID:25333051

Niu, Jing-Wen; Yuan, Jing; Gao, Shan

2014-01-01

383

Adaptive survival mechanisms and growth limitations of small-stature herb species across a plant diversity gradient.  

PubMed

Several biodiversity experiments have shown positive effects of species richness on aboveground biomass production, but highly variable responses of individual species. The well-known fact that the competitive ability of plant species depends on size differences among species, raises the question of effects of community species richness on small-stature subordinate species. We used experimental grasslands differing in species richness (1-60 species) and functional group richness (one to four functional groups) to study biodiversity effects on biomass production and ecophysiological traits of five small-stature herbs (Bellis perennis, Plantago media, Glechoma hederacea, Ranunculus repens and Veronica chamaedrys). We found that ecophysiological adaptations, known as typical shade-tolerance strategies, played an important role with increasing species richness and in relation to a decrease in transmitted light. Specific leaf area and leaf area ratio increased, while area-based leaf nitrogen decreased with increasing community species richness. Community species richness did not affect daily leaf carbohydrate turnover of V. chamaedrys and P. media indicating that these species maintained efficiency of photosynthesis even in low-light environments. This suggests an important possible mechanism of complementarity in such grasslands, whereby smaller species contribute to a better overall efficiency of light use. Nevertheless, these species rarely contributed a large proportion to community biomass production or achieved higher yields in mixtures than expected from monocultures. It seems likely that the allocation to aboveground plant organs to optimise carbon assimilation limited the investment in belowground organs to acquire nutrients and thus hindered these species from increasing their performance in multi-species mixtures. PMID:18761496

Dassler, A; Roscher, C; Temperton, V M; Schumacher, J; Schulze, E-D

2008-09-01

384

Intraspecific competition and light effect on reproduction of Ligularia virgaurea, an invasive native alpine grassland clonal herb  

PubMed Central

The relationship between sexual reproduction and clonal growth in clonal plants often shows up at the ramet level. However, only a few studies focus on the relationship at the genet level, which could finally account for evolution. The sexual reproduction and clonal growth of Ligularia virgaurea, a perennial herb widely distributed in the alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China, were studied under different competition intensities and light conditions at the genet level through a potted experiment. The results showed that: (1) sexual reproduction did not depend on density or light, and increasing clonal growth with decreasing density and increasing light intensity indicated that intraspecific competition and light intensity may affect the clonal life history of L. virgaurea; (2) both sexual reproduction and clonal growth show a positive linear relationship with genet size under different densities and light conditions; (3) a threshold size is required for sexual reproduction and no evidence of a threshold size for clonal growth under different densities and light conditions; (4) light level affected the allocation of total biomass to clonal and sexual structures, with less allocation to clonal structures and more allocation to sexual structures in full sunlight than in shade; (5) light determined the onset of sexual reproduction, and the genets in the shade required a smaller threshold size for sexual reproduction to occur than the plants in full sunlight; and (6) no evidence was found of trade-offs between clonal growth and sexual reproduction under different densities and light conditions at the genet level, and the positive correlation between two reproductive modes indicated that these are two integrated processes. Clonal growth in this species may be viewed as a growth strategy that tends to maximize genet fitness. PMID:24683463

Xie, Tian-peng; Zhang, Ge-fei; Zhao, Zhi-gang; Du, Guo-zhen; He, Gui-yong

2014-01-01

385

Anticachectic effects of the natural herb Coptidis rhizoma and berberine on mice bearing colon 26/clone 20 adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

We previously showed that the natural herb Coptidis rhizoma has an anticachectic effect in nude mice bearing human esophageal cancer cells. We further investigated this phenomenon by examining the anticachectic effect of C. rhizoma in syngeneic mice bearing colon 26/clone 20 carcinoma cells, which cause IL-6-related cachexia after cell injection. We evaluated nutritional parameters such as serum glucose level and wasting of adipose tissue and muscle in tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing mice treated with C. rhizoma (CR) supplement or a normal diet. IL-6 levels in those mice were quantified by ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. CR supplementation significantly attenuated weight loss in tumor-bearing mice without changing food intake or tumor growth. Furthermore, these mice maintained good nutritional status. IL-6 mRNA levels in tumors and spleens and IL-6 protein levels in tumors and sera were significantly lower in tumor-bearing mice treated with CR supplement than in those treated with a normal diet. CR supplementation did not affect food intake, body weight, nutritional parameters and IL-6 levels in non-tumor-bearing mice. An in vitro study showed that C. rhizoma and its major component, berberine, inhibited IL-1-induced IL-6 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner in colon 26/clone 20 cells. Our results showed that C. rhizoma exerts an anticachectic effect on colon 26/clone 20-transplanted mice and that its effect is associated with tumor IL-6 production. We also suggest that its effect might be due to berberine. PMID:11979446

Iizuka, Norio; Hazama, Shoichi; Yoshimura, Kiyoshi; Yoshino, Shigefumi; Tangoku, Akira; Miyamoto, Koji; Okita, Kiwamu; Oka, Masaaki

2002-05-10

386

The extract of huanglian, a medicinal herb, induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis by upregulation of interferon-beta and TNF-alpha in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Huanglian (Coptidis rhizoma), a widely used herb in traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown recently to possess anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of the herb is poorly understood. Specifically, whether huanglian extract affects the expression of cancer-related genes has not been defined. This study used DNA microarray technology to examine the effect of the herbal extract on expression of the common genes involved in carcinogenesis in two human breast cancer cell lines, the ER-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Treatment of the cancer cells with huanglian extract markedly inhibited their proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effect was much more profound in MCF-7 cell line than that in MDA-MB-231 cells. DNA microarray assay revealed that treatment with huanglian dramatically increased the mRNA expression of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in MCF-7 cells. Quantitative analysis by real-time PCR or western blotting confirmed the upregulation of the two genes (especially IFN-beta) in MCF-7 cells, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Addition of neutralizing antibody against IFN-beta to culture medium markedly inhibited the huanglian-induced antiproliferative effect, confirming the involvement of IFN-beta in the huanglian's effect and also suggesting an autocrine pathway for the action of IFN-beta in this setting. Given that IFN-beta is among the most important anticancer cytokines, the upregulation of this gene by huanglian is, at least in part, responsible for its antiproliferative effect. The results of this study implicate huanglian as a promising herb for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of certain cancers. PMID:15958519

Kang, Jing X; Liu, Jing; Wang, Jingdong; He, Chengwei; Li, Frederick P

2005-11-01

387

Improvement of Intestinal Absorption of Forsythoside A and Chlorogenic Acid by Different Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Chito-oligosaccharide, Application to Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae Herb Couple Preparations  

PubMed Central

The current study aims to investigate the effect of chitosan derivatives on the intestinal absorption and bioavailabilities of forsythoside A (FTA) and Chlorogenic acid (CHA), the major active components in Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae herb couple. Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics properties of the two compounds have been characterized in vitro, in situ as well as in rats. Based on the identified biopharmaceutics characteristics of the two compounds, the effect of chitosan derivatives as an absorption enhancer on the intestinal absorption and pharmacokinetics of FTA and CHA in pure compound form as well as extract form were investigated in vitro, in situ and in vivo. Both FTA and CHA demonstrated very limited intestinal permeabilities, leading to oral bioavailabilities being only 0.50% and 0.13% in rats, respectively. Results from both in vitro, in situ as well as in vivo studies consistently indicated that Chito-oligosaccharide (COS) at dosage of 25 mg/kg could enhance intestinal permeabilities significantly as well as the in vivo bioavailabilities of both FTA and CHA than CMCs in Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations, and was safe for gastrointestine from morphological observation. Besides, treatment with Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations with COS at the dosage of 25 mg/kg prevented MDCK damage after influenza virus propagation, which was significantly better than control. The current findings not only identified the usefulness of COS for the improved delivery of Flos Lonicerae - Fructus Forsythiae preparations but also demonstrated the importance of biopharmaceutical characterization in the dosage form development of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23675483

Zhou, Wei; Wang, Haidan; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Shan, Jinjun; Yin, Ailing; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

2013-01-01

388

P-glycoprotein- and organic anion-transporting polypeptide-mediated transport of periplocin may lead to drug–herb/drug–drug interactions  

PubMed Central

Periplocin, an active and toxic component of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Periploca sepium Bge, is a cardiac glycoside compound that has been implicated in various clinical accidents. This study investigated the role of transporters in the intestinal absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin, as well as the possible metabolic mechanism of periplocin in liver S9. In a bidirectional transport assay using Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and MDCK multidrug-resistance protein (MRP)-1 cell monolayers, both in situ intestinal and liver-perfusion models were used to evaluate the role of efflux and uptake transporters on the absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin. In addition, in vitro metabolism of periplocin was investigated by incubating with human/rat liver S9 homogenate fractions to evaluate its metabolic mechanisms in liver metabolic enzymes. The results showed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was involved in the intestinal absorption of periplocin, whereas MRP2 and breast cancer-resistance protein were not. The efflux function of P-gp may be partly responsible for the low permeability and bioavailability of periplocin. Moreover, both inhibitors of P-gp and organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) increased periplocin biliary excretion. No obvious indications of metabolism were observed in the in vitro incubation system, which suggests that periplocin did not interact with the hepatic drug metabolic enzymes. The results of this study showed that the efflux and uptake transporters P-gp and OATPs were involved in the absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin, which may partially account for its low permeability and bioavailability. As a toxic compound, potential drug–herb/herb–herb interactions based on OATPs and P-gp should be taken into account when using P. sepium Bge in the clinic. PMID:24872678

Liang, Sheng; Deng, Fengchun; Xing, Haiyan; Wen, He; Shi, Xiaoyan; Martey, Orleans Nii; Koomson, Emmanuel; He, Xin

2014-01-01

389

Improvement of intestinal absorption of forsythoside A and chlorogenic acid by different carboxymethyl chitosan and chito-oligosaccharide, application to Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations.  

PubMed

The current study aims to investigate the effect of chitosan derivatives on the intestinal absorption and bioavailabilities of forsythoside A (FTA) and Chlorogenic acid (CHA), the major active components in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple. Biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics properties of the two compounds have been characterized in vitro, in situ as well as in rats. Based on the identified biopharmaceutics characteristics of the two compounds, the effect of chitosan derivatives as an absorption enhancer on the intestinal absorption and pharmacokinetics of FTA and CHA in pure compound form as well as extract form were investigated in vitro, in situ and in vivo. Both FTA and CHA demonstrated very limited intestinal permeabilities, leading to oral bioavailabilities being only 0.50% and 0.13% in rats, respectively. Results from both in vitro, in situ as well as in vivo studies consistently indicated that Chito-oligosaccharide (COS) at dosage of 25 mg/kg could enhance intestinal permeabilities significantly as well as the in vivo bioavailabilities of both FTA and CHA than CMCs in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations, and was safe for gastrointestine from morphological observation. Besides, treatment with Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple preparations with COS at the dosage of 25 mg/kg prevented MDCK damage after influenza virus propagation, which was significantly better than control. The current findings not only identified the usefulness of COS for the improved delivery of Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae preparations but also demonstrated the importance of biopharmaceutical characterization in the dosage form development of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23675483

Zhou, Wei; Wang, Haidan; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Shan, Jinjun; Yin, Ailing; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

2013-01-01

390

Synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of Radix Platycodon in combination with herbs for cleaning-heat and detoxification and its mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of Radix Platycodon in combination with herbs for cleaning-heat and detoxification and its mechanism for Fei (?)-targeting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (8 per group): the sham-operated group, model group, Radix Platycodon group, Flos Lonicera and Fructus Forsythia (LF) group, and Radix Platycodon, Flos Lonicera and Fructus Forsythia combination (PLF)

Yu-hang Li; Feng-jie Zheng; Ying Huang; Xiang-gen Zhong; Ming-zhang Guo

391

Preparative Isolation of Imperatorin, Oxypeucedanin and Isoimperatorin from a Traditional Chinese Herb Using a HSCCC Strategy Based on Optimization of Rapid Flow Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography has been used successfully for the isolation and purification of imperatorin,\\u000a oxypeucedanin and isoimperatorin from traditional Chinese herb “bai zhi”—Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm) Benth. et Hook using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). This was achieved in two stages.\\u000a The first stage used a high flow HSCCC protocol with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water

Yun Wei; Qianqian Xie; Derek Fisher; Ian A. Sutherland

2009-01-01

392

Education in the attic: an insight into the educational services of the Old Operating Theatre Museum and Herb Garret, London Bridge.  

PubMed

Hidden for almost a century in the attic of St Thomas' Church the oldest operating theatre in Britain is now part of a museum. This precious building now houses a collection of pre-anaesthetic tools, items relating to medicine in the home and various Apothecary displays. The museum aims to preserve the theatre and items relating to medicine, in order to contribute to the understanding of the development of medical knowledge, with particular reference to St Thomas' hospital. An independent museum with a long history of educational provision: this article explores some of the education services of The Old Operating Theatre Museum and Herb Garret at London Bridge. PMID:20481364

Edge, Stevie

2009-01-01

393

Amelioration of galactosamine-induced nephrotoxicity by a protein isolated from the leaves of the herb, Cajanus indicus L  

PubMed Central

Background Galactosamine (GalN), an established experimental toxin, mainly causes liver injury via the generation of free radicals and depletion of UTP nucleotides. Renal failure is often associated with end stage liver damage. GalN intoxication also induces renal dysfunction in connection with hepatic disorders. Present study was designed to find out the effect of a protein isolated from the leaves of the herb Cajanus indicus against GalN induced renal damage. Methods Both preventive as well as curative effect of the protein was investigated in the study. GalN was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 800 mg/kg body weight for 3 days pre and post to protein treatment at an intraperitoneal dose of 2 mg/kg body weight for 4 days. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), levels of cellular metabolites, reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and lipid peroxidation end products were determined to estimate the status of the antioxidative defense system. In addition, serum creatinine and urea nitrogen (UN) levels were also measured as a marker of nephrotoxicity. Results Results showed that GalN treatment significantly increased the serum creatinine and UN levels compared to the normal group of mice. The extent of lipid peroxidation and the level of GSSG were also enhanced by the GalN intoxication whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GR and GST as well as the levels of total thiols and GSH were decreased in the kidney tissue homogenates. Protein treatment both prior and post to the toxin administration successfully altered the effects in the experimental mice. Conclusion Our study revealed that GalN caused a severe oxidative insult in the kidney. Protein treatment both pre and post to the GalN intoxication could protect the kidney tissue against GalN induced oxidative stress. As GalN induced severe hepatotoxicity followed by renal failure, the protective role of the protein against GalN induced renal damages is likely to be an indirect effect. Since the protein possess hepatoprotective activity, it may first ameliorate GalN-induced liver damage and consequently the renal disorders are reduced. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first report describing GalN-induced oxidative stress in renal damages and the protective role of a plant protein molecule against it. PMID:17456244

Sinha, Mahua; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C

2007-01-01

394

Herbs, Vitamins, and Minerals  

MedlinePLUS

... that grows naturally in Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and many parts of South Africa. Green Tea ... in herbal remedies, particularly in China, India, and Indonesia. Valerian Valerian is a flowering plant native to ...

395

Growing Herbs in Texas  

E-print Network

(Aloysia triphylla) 24?60 Shrub with long leaves that smell like lemon at touch; flowers are small and white or purple Grow from stem cuttings in full sun; space 24 in. apart Harvest mature leaves Lemon-flavored leaves: drink, salad, jelly, tea... (Aloysia triphylla) 24?60 Shrub with long leaves that smell like lemon at touch; flowers are small and white or purple Grow from stem cuttings in full sun; space 24 in. apart Harvest mature leaves Lemon-flavored leaves: drink, salad, jelly, tea...

Masabni, Joseph

2009-04-08

396

Herbs at a Glance  

MedlinePLUS

... iBooks. For Nooks Plug your Nook into your computer, and it will show the folders on it ... directions below to download the eBook to your computer’s desktop . Download the ePub file and save it ...

397

Pharmacokinetic evidence on the contribution of intestinal bacterial conversion to beneficial effects of astragaloside IV, a marker compound of astragali radix, in traditional oral use of the herb.  

PubMed

Astragaloside IV (AIV) is the most abundant saponin and a marker compound in Astragali Radix, a Chinese herb notable for its anti-aging and immune-enhancing effects. The present study investigated the role of intestinal bacterial conversion in the in vivo fate of AIV administered through a traditional oral route for the first time. When incubated anaerobically with rat intestinal bacteria, AIV generated five metabolites with three [monoglycosides brachyoside B and cyclogaleginoside B, the aglycone cycloastragenol (CA)] via stepwise deglycosylation and two from further epimerization (CA-iso) and dehydrogenation (CA-2H). Hydrolytic removal of C-6 glucose was a rate-limiting step for formations of CA and its derivatives. When AIV was orally administered to the rat, CA and CA-iso presented as the main components in plasma following AIV, and the AUC(0-?) were 88.60 ± 9.66 (CA), 179.06 ± 28.53 (CA-iso) and 452.28 ± 43.33 nM·h (AIV). CA-2H was the predominant form in feces but was not detected in urine or plasma. This agreed well with in vitro data including rapid hepatic metabolism of CA-2H to form CA and CA-iso and reversible conversions between CA-2H and CA/CA-iso by intestinal bacteria. These findings support a crucial role of gut bacterial conversion of AIV in the traditional application of Astragali herb and warrant further investigational emphasis on CA and CA-iso. PMID:22673033

Zhou, Rui-Na; Song, Yue-Lin; Ruan, Jian-Qing; Wang, Yi-Tao; Yan, Ru

2012-01-01

398

Molecular matchmaking between the popular weight-loss herb Hoodia gordonii and GPR119, a potential drug target for metabolic disorder  

PubMed Central

African cactiform Hoodia gordonii (Asclepiadaceae) has been used for thousands of years by Xhomani Bushmen as an anorexant during hunting trips and has been proposed as a new agent for the management of body weight. However, its in vivo targets and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. GPR119, a G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in pancreatic ? cells and intestinal L cells, has been demonstrated to facilitate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and represents a novel and attractive target for the therapy of metabolic disorders. Here, we disclose that Gordonoside F (a steroid glycoside isolated from H. gordonii), but not the widely known P57, activates specifically GPR119. Successful synthesis of Gordonoside F facilitates further characterization of this compound. Gordonoside F promotes GSIS both in vitro and in vivo and reduces food intake in mice. These effects are mediated by GPR119 because GPR119 knockout prevents the therapeutic effects of Gordonoside F. Interestingly, the appetite-suppressing effect of Hoodia extract was also partially blocked by GPR119 knockout. Our results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that GPR119 is a direct target and one of the major mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of the popular “weight loss” herb H. gordonii. Given the long history of safe application of this herb in weight control, it is foreseeable that the novel scaffold of Gordonoside F provides a promising opportunity to develop new drugs in treating metabolic diseases. PMID:25246581

Zhang, Shuyong; Ma, Yuyong; Li, Jing; Ma, Junjun; Yu, Biao; Xie, Xin

2014-01-01

399

Evaluation of toxic metal (Hg, Cd, Pb), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), and pesticide (DDTs) levels in aromatic herbs collected in selected areas of Southern Italy.  

PubMed

This study provides, for the first time, data regarding levels of toxic metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and organochlorine compounds (PCBs and DDTs) in various aromatic herbs as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), laurel (Laurus nobilis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) collected in some towns of the Southern Italy with different anthropogenic and population pressure. Metal and organochlorine compound concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas-chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS), respectively. Pb emerged as the most abundant element, followed by Cd and Hg, while between organochlorine compounds, PCB concentrations were higher than those of DDTs. The pollutant concentrations were found to vary depending on the different herbs. The highest Pb levels were observed in rosemary (1.66 ?g g(-1) dry weight) and sage (1.41 ?g g(-1) dry weight), this latter showing also the highest Cd concentrations (0.75 ?g g(-1) dry weight). For PCBs, the major concentrations were found in rosemary (2.75 ng g(-1) dry weight) and oregano (2.39 ng g(-1) dry weight). The principal component analysis applied in order to evaluate possible similarities and/or differences in the contamination levels among sampling sites indicated differences area-specific contamination. PMID:23835585

Storelli, Maria Maddalena

2014-01-01

400

Molecular matchmaking between the popular weight-loss herb Hoodia gordonii and GPR119, a potential drug target for metabolic disorder.  

PubMed

African cactiform Hoodia gordonii (Asclepiadaceae) has been used for thousands of years by Xhomani Bushmen as an anorexant during hunting trips and has been proposed as a new agent for the management of body weight. However, its in vivo targets and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. GPR119, a G protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in pancreatic ? cells and intestinal L cells, has been demonstrated to facilitate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and represents a novel and attractive target for the therapy of metabolic disorders. Here, we disclose that Gordonoside F (a steroid glycoside isolated from H. gordonii), but not the widely known P57, activates specifically GPR119. Successful synthesis of Gordonoside F facilitates further characterization of this compound. Gordonoside F promotes GSIS both in vitro and in vivo and reduces food intake in mice. These effects are mediated by GPR119 because GPR119 knockout prevents the therapeutic effects of Gordonoside F. Interestingly, the appetite-suppressing effect of Hoodia extract was also partially blocked by GPR119 knockout. Our results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that GPR119 is a direct target and one of the major mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of the popular "weight loss" herb H. gordonii. Given the long history of safe application of this herb in weight control, it is foreseeable that the novel scaffold of Gordonoside F provides a promising opportunity to develop new drugs in treating metabolic diseases. PMID:25246581

Zhang, Shuyong; Ma, Yuyong; Li, Jing; Ma, Junjun; Yu, Biao; Xie, Xin

2014-10-01

401

In vitro clonal propagation of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. et Fernand., a rare medicinal herb from immature floral buds along with inflorescence axis.  

PubMed

A novel method of shoot regeneration from immature floral buds along with inflorescence axis in C. borivilianum, a rare medicinal herb is described. Using this explant, axenic cultures were established with very less contamination (10%). MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) kinetin and 0.1 mg l(-1) 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid proved to be the best for multiple shoot induction. Maximum number (35) of shoot production was achieved in MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) benzylaminopurine. Rooting of shoots (86.7%) with maximum fasciculated roots (5) occurred on Knops medium containing iron and vitamins of MS medium with 2 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid and 0.1% activated charcoal. Plant survival was 80% in four weeks after their removal from in vitro conditions. Per explant 34 hardened plants generated within 50 weeks. This protocol can be useful for large-scale clonal multiplication from immature floral buds with inflorescence axis and successfully used for germplasm conservation of this rare medicinal herb without destroying the mother plant. PMID:16430096

Sharma, Urvashi; Mohan, J S S

2006-01-01

402

Gauging the clinical significance of P-glycoprotein-mediated herb-drug interactions: Comparative effects of St. John's wort, echinacea, clarithromycin, and rifampin on digoxin pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

Concomitant administration of botanical supplements with drugs that are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates may produce clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study evaluated the effects of St. John's wort and Echinacea on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin, a recognized P-gp substrate. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized St. John's wort (300 mg three times daily) or Echinacea (267 mg three times daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (300 mg twice daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxin® 0.25 mg) was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin plasma concentrations were obtained over 24 hours and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of AUC(0-3), AUC(0-24), T1/2, and Cmax, were used to assess the effects of St. John's wort, Echinacea, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin disposition. St. John's wort and rifampin both produced significant reductions (p<0.05) in AUC(0-3), AUC(0-24), and Cmax, while clarithromycin increased these parameters significantly (p<0.05). Echinacea supplementation did not affect digoxin pharmacokinetics. Clinically significant P-gp-mediated herb-drug interactions are more likely to occur with St. John's wort than with Echinacea. PMID:18214850

Gurley, Bill J.; Swain, Ashley; Williams, D. Keith; Barone, Gary; Battu, Sunil Kumar

2007-01-01

403

Simultaneous analysis of protoberberine, indolequinoline and quinolone alkaloids in coptis–evodia herb couple and the Chinese herbal preparations by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and sensitive method has been developed for analysis of protoberberine, indolequinoline and quinolone alkaloids in coptis–evodia herb couple and the Chinese herbal preparations by using HPLC in combination with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Different LC and cone voltages have been optimized prior to this in order to obtain better results and sensitivity. The method was carried out by

Xubiao Luo; Bo Chen; Shouzhuo Yao

2005-01-01

404

A comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of a traditional Chinese herbal preparation with the single herb extracts in rats by LC-MS/MS method.  

PubMed

The Er-Mu preparation (EMP) is a well-known traditional Chinese prescription that has been clinically employed for the treatment of asthma and bronchial inflammation for hundreds of years. Neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine, peiminine, timosaponin BII and timosaponin AIII are the major active ingredients of EMP for their anti-inflammatory or anti-asthmatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the target compounds from the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge. (ARR) and Fritillariae cirrhosae D.Don (FCB), and the influence of compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredients. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups and orally administered with the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of ARR and FCB, respectively. The concentrations of the target compounds in rat plasma were determined by an optimal liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with a multi-switching monitoring mode coupled with simple protein precipitation method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine and peiminine between the single ARR or FCB extract and the combination treatment (p<0.05). The developed HPLC-ESI-MS method by switching positive and negative ESI sources in a single run was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of six compounds in SD rat, which was powerful in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, time savings and solvent consumption in the quantitative analysis of complex herbal medicines. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of EMP and our study has preliminarily elucidated the priority in the compatible administration of EMP based on pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23624157

Sun, Ying-guang; Du, Ying-feng; Yang, Kai; Chang, Lu; Cao, Liang; Ren, Yan-ping; Sun, Qian; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lan-tong; Lv, Pin-tian

2013-01-01

405

[Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].  

PubMed

The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa. PMID:25223017

Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

2014-06-01

406

A systematic approach to evaluate herb-drug interaction mechanisms: investigation of milk thistle extracts and eight isolated constituents as CYP3A inhibitors.  

PubMed

Despite increasing recognition of potential untoward interactions between herbal products and conventional medications, a standard system for prospective assessment of these interactions remains elusive. This information gap was addressed by evaluating the drug interaction liability of the model herbal product milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam. The inhibitory effects of commercially available milk thistle extracts and isolated constituents on midazolam 1'-hydroxylation were screened using human liver and intestinal microsomes. Relative to vehicle, the extract silymarin and constituents silybin A, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, and silychristin at 100 ?M demonstrated >50% inhibition of CYP3A activity with at least one microsomal preparation, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50s for isosilybin B and silychristin were ?60 and 90 ?M, respectively, whereas those for the remaining constituents were >100 ?M. Extracts and constituents that contained the 1,4-dioxane moiety demonstrated a >1.5-fold shift in IC50 when tested as potential mechanism-based inhibitors. The semipurified extract, silibinin, and the two associated constituents (silybin A and silybin B) demonstrated mechanism-based inhibition of recombinant CYP3A4 (KI, ?100 ?M; kinact, ?0.20 min(-1)) but not microsomal CYP3A activity. The maximum predicted increases in midazolam area under the curve using the static mechanistic equation and recombinant CYP3A4 data were 1.75-fold, which may necessitate clinical assessment. Evaluation of the interaction liability of single herbal product constituents, in addition to commercially available extracts, will enable elucidation of mechanisms underlying potential clinically significant herb-drug interactions. Application of this framework to other herbal products would permit predictions of herb-drug interactions and assist in prioritizing clinical evaluation. PMID:23801821

Brantley, Scott J; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

2013-09-01

407

Chloroplast DNA Phylogeography Reveals Repeated Range Expansion in a Widespread Aquatic Herb Hippuris vulgaris in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Adjacent Areas  

PubMed Central

Background The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is one of the most extensive habitats for alpine plants in the world. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary ice age had a dramatic effect on species ranges on the QTP and the adjacent areas. However, how the distribution ranges of aquatic plant species shifted on the QTP in response to Quaternary climatic changes remains almost unknown. Methodology and Principal Findings We studied the phylogeography and demographic history of the widespread aquatic herb Hippuris vulgaris from the QTP and adjacent areas. Our sampling included 385 individuals from 47 natural populations of H. vulgaris. Using sequences from four chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) non-coding regions, we distinguished eight different cpDNA haplotypes. From the cpDNA variation in H. vulgaris, we found a very high level of population differentiation (GST?=?0.819) but the phylogeographical structure remained obscure (NST?=?0.853>GST?=?0.819, P>0.05). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two main cpDNA haplotype lineages. The split between these two haplotype groups can be dated back to the mid-to-late Pleistocene (ca. 0.480 Myr). Mismatch distribution analyses showed that each of these had experienced a recent range expansion. These two expansions (ca. 0.12 and 0.17 Myr) might have begun from the different refugees before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Conclusions/Significance This study initiates a research on the phylogeography of aquatic herbs in the QTP and for the first time sheds light on the response of an alpine aquatic seed plant species in the QTP to Quaternary climate oscillations. PMID:23565290

Sun, Shan-Shan; Gituru, Robert Wahiti; Wang, Qing-Feng

2013-01-01

408

Evaluation of direct antiviral activity of the Deva-5 herb formulation and extracts of five Asian plants against influenza A virus H3N8  

PubMed Central

Background The herb formulation Deva-5 is used in traditional medicine to treat acute infectious diseases. Deva-5 is composed of five herbs: Gentiana decumbens L., Momordica cochinchinensis L., Hypecoum erectum L., Polygonum bistorta L., and Terminalia chebula Retz. Deva-5 and its five components were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against avian influenza A virus subtype H3N8. Methods The water extracts of the herbal parts of G. decumbens, H. erectum and P. bistorta, the seeds of T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis and Deva-5 were prepared by boiling and clarified by low-speed centrifugation and filtration. To assess the antiviral properties, avian influenza virus isolate A/Teal/Tunka/7/2010(H3N8) was incubated at 37°C for 30 min in the presence and absence of the extracts of five plants and DEVA-5 in various concentrations. Subsequently, the concentration of infectious virus in each sample was determined by plaque assays. Neutralisation indexes and 90% plaque reduction concentrations were estimated for each extract, and the significance of the data was evaluated using statistical methods. Results The extracts of G. decumbens, H. erectum, P. bistorta and Deva-5 demonstrated no significant toxicity at concentrations up to 2%, whereas extracts of T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis were well-tolerated by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells at concentrations up to 1%. The extracts of H. erectum, M. cochinchinensis and T. chebula reduced the titre of A/Teal/Tunka/7/2010 (H3N8) by approximately five-fold (p???0.05). The other three extracts did not significantly reduce the infectivity of the virus. The plaque reduction neutralisation tests revealed that none of the extracts tested were able to inhibit formation of plaques by 90%. However, three extracts, H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis, were able to inhibit formation of plaques by more than 50% at low dilutions from 1:3 to 1:14. The T. chebula extract had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect. Conclusions For the first time, the consistent direct antiviral action of the extracts of H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis was detected. These extracts significantly reduced the infectivity of influenza A virus H3N8 in vitro when used at high concentrations (0.5–1%). However, Deva-5 itself and the remainder of its components did not exhibit significant antiviral action. The results suggest that H. erectum, T. chebula and M. cochinchinensis plants contain substances with direct antiviral activity and could be promising sources of new antiviral drugs. PMID:25012588

2014-01-01

409

Chinese herbs and their active ingredients for activating?xue?(blood)?promote the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Some Chinese herbs are anti-thrombolysis, and anti-inflammatory, improves brain RNA content, promotes brain protein synthesis, enhances dopamine function, regulates brain hormones, and improves microcirculation in central nervous system that might improve, repair and rehabilitation from the stroke and brain injury. Specific Chinese herbs and their components, such as Acanthopanax, Angelica, could maintain the survival of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Ganoderma spore Polygala, Tetramethylpyrazine, Gardenia, Astragaloside and Ginsenoside Rg1 promoted proliferation of neural stem cells, and Rhodiola, Astragaloside promoted differentiation of neural stem cell into neuron and glia in vivo. Astragalus, Safflower, Musk, Baicalin, Geniposide, Ginkgolide B, Cili polysaccharide, Salidroside, Astragaloside, Antler polypeptides, Ginsenoside Rg1, Panax notoginseng saponins promoted proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro. Salvia, Astragalus, Ginsenoside Rg1, P. notoginseng saponins, Musk polypeptide, Muscone and Ginkgolide B promoted neural-directed differentiation of MSCs into nerve cells. These findings are encouraging further research into the Chinese herbs for developing drugs in treating patients of stroke and brain injury. PMID:24716802

Si, Yin-Chu; Li, Qiang; Xie, Chun-E; Niu, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Chang-Yuan

2014-01-01

410

Discrimination of the Thai rejuvenating herbs Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea), and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea) using PCR-RFLP.  

PubMed

The tuberous roots of Pueraria candollei (White Kwao Khruea), Butea superba (Red Kwao Khruea) and Mucuna collettii (Black Kwao Khruea), which belong to the family Leguminosae, are used as rejuvenating herbs in traditional Thai medicine. Although all of these species have an indication for rejuvenation, each differs in its medicinal properties. Two varieties of P. candollei, var. mirifica and var. candollei, affect females, whereas B. superba and M. collettii exhibit effects on males. However, the identification of these roots according to the name "Kwao Khruea" is confusing due to the similarity in their features. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was utilised to identify plant origin. The partial matK gene was amplified and subjected to restriction enzyme digestion with DdeI and TaqI. The restriction fragments generated differed in number and size. To test the reliability of the method, an admixture of the different Kwao Khruea species containing equal amounts of DNA was tested. The results showed combined restriction patterns, and each species could be detected in the background of the others. The method was also used to authenticate eight different crude drugs sold as various types of Kwao Khruea in Thai markets. The results showed that the misidentification of commercial drugs remains a problem in crude drug markets. The PCR-RFLP analysis developed here provides a simple and accurate discrimination of these rejuvenating "Kwao Khruea" species. PMID:23086155

Wiriyakarun, Suchaya; Yodpetch, Woraluk; Komatsu, Katsuko; Zhu, Shu; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Sukrong, Suchada

2013-07-01

411

Composition of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich fractions and in vitro inhibitory activities against key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Polyphenolic-rich fractions obtained from three native Australian herbs: Tasmannia pepper leaf, anise myrtle and lemon myrtle were characterised with regards to their composition, antioxidant capacities and inhibitory activities against ?-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase and angiotensin I-converting enzyme, using in vitro models. Ellagic acid and derivatives were the dominant compounds of anise myrtle and lemon myrtle fractions, accompanied by flavonoids (catechin, myricetin, hesperetin, and quercetin). Tasmannia pepper leaf fraction comprised chlorogenic acid and quercetin derivatives, exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity and effectively inhibited ?-glucosidase (IC(50): 0.83 mg/ml) and pancreatic lipase (IC(50): 0.60 mg/ml). Anise myrtle and lemon myrtle fractions had pronounced ?-glucosidase-inhibitory activities (IC(50): 0.30 and 0.13 mg/ml, respectively) and were less effective against lipase. Enzyme-inhibitory activities showed various levels of correlation with the levels of total phenolics and antioxidant capacities, indicating a specificity of individual phenolic compounds present in the isolated fractions to complex with proteins. PMID:23107721

Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Konczak, Izabela

2012-09-15

412

Inhibition of methyleugenol bioactivation by the herb-based constituent nevadensin and prediction of possible in vivo consequences using physiologically based kinetic modeling.  

PubMed

Methyleugenol (ME) occurs naturally in a variety of spices, herbs, including basil, and their essential oils. ME induces hepatomas in rodent bioassays following its conversion to a DNA reactive metabolite. In the present study, the basil constituent nevadensin was shown to be able to inhibit SULT-mediated DNA adduct formation in HepG2 cells exposed to the proximate carcinogen 1'-hydroxymethyleugenol in the presence of nevadensin. To investigate possible in vivo implications of SULT inhibition by nevadensin on ME bioactivation, the rat physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model developed in our previous work to describe the dose-dependent bioactivation and detoxification of ME in male rat was combined with the recently developed PBK model describing the dose-dependent kinetics of nevadensin in male rat. The resulting binary ME-nevadensin PBK model was used to predict the possible nevadensin mediated reduction in ME DNA adduct formation and resulting carcinogenicity at the doses of ME used by the NTP carcinogenicity study. Using these data an updated risk assessment using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach was performed. The results obtained point at a potential reduction of the cancer risk when rodents are orally exposed to ME within a relevant food matrix containing SULT inhibitors compared to exposure to pure ME. PMID:23831728

Al-Subeihi, Ala' A A; Alhusainy, Wasma; Paini, Alicia; Punt, Ans; Vervoort, Jacques; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

2013-09-01

413

Variation in DNA methylation transmissibility, genetic heterogeneity and fecundity-related traits in natural populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus.  

PubMed

Inferences about the role of epigenetics in plant ecology and evolution are mostly based on studies of cultivated or model plants conducted in artificial environments. Insights from natural populations, however, are essential to evaluate the possible consequences of epigenetic processes in biologically realistic scenarios with genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous populations. Here, we explore associations across individuals between DNA methylation transmissibility (proportion of methylation-sensitive loci whose methylation status persists unchanged after male gametogenesis), genetic characteristics (assessed with AFLP markers), seed size variability (within-plant seed mass variance), and realized maternal fecundity (number of recently recruited seedlings), in three populations of the perennial herb Helleborus foetidus along a natural ecological gradient in southeastern Spain. Plants (sporophytes) differed in the fidelity with which DNA methylation was transmitted to descendant pollen (gametophytes). This variation in methylation transmissibility was associated with genetic differences. Four AFLP loci were significantly associated with transmissibility and accounted collectively for ~40% of its sample-wide variance. Within-plant variance in seed mass was inversely related to individual transmissibility. The number of seedlings recruited by individual plants was significantly associated with transmissibility. The sign of the relationship varied between populations, which points to environment-specific, divergent phenotypic selection on epigenetic transmissibility. Results support the view that epigenetic transmissibility is itself a phenotypic trait whose evolution may be driven by natural selection, and suggest that in natural populations epigenetic and genetic variation are two intertwin