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1

Urinary Hippuric Acid Excretion as an Index of Toluene Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure is described for the analysis of hippuric acid in urine. The sample is extracted with an isopropyl alcohol-diethyl ether mixture, and the hippuric acid is measured in the extractant by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The excretion of hippuric acid in urine as a metabolic product of toluene was studied in relation to its usefulness in industrial exposures to toluene.

Leonard D. Pagnotto; Lionel M. Lieberman

1967-01-01

2

Hippuric acid excretion after benzylamine ingestion in man.  

PubMed Central

The fate of 14C-benzylamine after oral administration as the hydrochloride has been investigated in two male volunteers. Over 98% of the administered radiolabel was excreted in the urine as 14C-hippuric acid within 24 hours. The rate of urinary hippuric acid excretion was extremely rapid, with more than 90% of the dose excreted after three hours.

Wood, S G; Al-Ani, M R; Lawson, A

1978-01-01

3

Health consequences of catabolic synthesis of hippuric acid in humans.  

PubMed

Hippuric acid has been a major human metabolite for years. However, there is no well-known documented health benefit associated with it except for excretion of environmental-toxic exposures of aromatic compounds such as toluene, or from dietary protein degradation and re-synthesis by intestinal microflora metabolism of quinic acid via the shikimate pathway. Thus hippuric acid can appear in humans as an excretory product from natural or unnatural sources. It has been believed over the years that the major source of urinary hippuric acid levels in humans has come from environmental toxic solvent exposures. However, more recently it was been shown that approximately 1-2 mM hippuric acid is excreted daily in the urine, even in the absence of organic solvent exposure, signalling abundant metabolic dietary sources of hippuric acid are also apparent. One of these has been dietary proteins. The other is from the well-documented presence of quinic acid in healthy colored foodstuffs. Quinic acid is a key metabolite associated with the shikimate pathway existing only in plants, and it is responsible for essential amino acid biosynthesis such as tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Here we review the evidence that the human gastrointestinal tract microflora are responsible for quinic acid metabolism not only to hippuric acid, but more importantly to efficacious antioxidant amino acids and vitamins. PMID:19891605

Pero, Ronald W

2010-02-01

4

Urinary hippuric acid concentration after occupational exposure to toluene.  

PubMed Central

The results of industrial investigations have shown a correlation between the rate of hippuric acid excretion in a single urine sample collected after daily occupational exposure and the amount of toluene absorbed. The rate of hippuric acid excretion and the average concentration of toluene vapour during exposure time were also related. The quantitative range of the test has been limited to amounts exceeding 425 mg of toluene and concentrations exceeding 69 ppm of toluene in the air because of the physiological presence of hippuric acid in urine. The rate of hippuric acid excretion in urine depends on diuresis and is constant for urinary fractions with diuresis of 30 ml/h. The physiological excretion rate was 20 mg/h with a standard deviation +/- 4.3 mg/h, maximal physiological level 33 mg/h.

Wilczok, T; Bieniek, G

1978-01-01

5

Microwave assistance of labeling hippuric acid by I-131.  

PubMed

This work presents a novel approach for labeling hippuric acid with I-131 using microwaves. It utilizes copper(II) acetate as a catalyst of the labeling. The process involves the use of this catalytic copper(II) acetate at low dilutions that were nevertheless sufficient to produce labeled hippuric acid with high radiochemical purity in a short time. Therefore, the novel technique overcomes the limitations of previously reported conventional methods that involve heating. PMID:24589448

Sherlock Huang, Lin-Chiang; Wu, Kou-Hung; Ko, Pi-Wen; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Pao, Kuan-Chuan; Chou, Shih-Ching; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Sureshbabu, Radhakrishnan; Hsu, Ming-Hua

2014-07-01

6

Hippuric acid and methyl hippuric acid in rat hair: possible monitoring of xylene and toluene exposure.  

PubMed

Thinner is mainly composed of toluene and xylenes, and we studied the incorporation of the main metabolites of toluene and xylenes, hippuric acid (HA) and o-, m-, and p-methyl hippuric acids (o-, m-, p-MHA), in dark agouti rats' hair. Rat black hair was shaved before any exposure with an electric shaver designed for animals. Studies were performed in vivo with exposures of 30 min per day at three different concentrations (100, 300, and 1000 ppm) of toluene and o-, m-, and p-xylene for a total of 10 times over 2 weeks. Newly grown hair was tweezed out from the root with tweezers at seventh of the last exposure. Hair samples were then washed, extracted, derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HA and o-, m-, and p-MHA were not detected (ND) in the unexposed rat hair. After exposure, the metabolite concentration in the hair changed depending on the exposure concentration. Mean concentrations ranged from ND to 7.6 ng/mg, from ND to 13.8 ng/mg, from ND to 10.1 ng/mg, and from ND to 9.2 ng/ml hair for HA, o-, m-, and p-MHA, respectively. These results indicate that the metabolites concentrations in hair are effective indices of thinner exposure. PMID:12742703

Saito, Takeshi; Kusakabe, Takahiko; Takeichi, Sanae

2003-04-23

7

Reversible twisting during helical hippuric acid crystal growth.  

PubMed

Crystals grow in the mind's eye by the addition of small units to a monolith each part of which is in fixed translational relation to every other part. Here, it is shown that growth can induce reversible twisting and untwisting of macroscopic crystals of hippuric acid (N-benzoylglycine, C(9)H(9)NO(3)) on the scale of radians. Crystals growing in undercooled melts of hippuric acid twist about the axis of elongation. At the same time the twisting is undone by new elastic stresses that build up as the crystal thickens. The dynamic interplay of twisting and untwisting ultimately fixes the crystal morphology. A correspondence between the optical properties of hippuric acid single crystals and twisted needles measured with a Mueller matrix microscope is established. The measured crystalloptical properties are in complete accord with the optical indicatrix rotating helically along the axis of elongation at the growth front, or counter-rotating so as to unwind earlier growth. The reversible morphological changes captured here in situ are likely also found in banded spherulites of high molecular weight polymers, optically modulated chalcedony minerals, elements, proteins, and other molecular crystals for which there is evidence of helical twisting. The analysis of such systems is usually predicated on the relationship of crystalline helical pitch to a power law exponent. However, in the absence of previous considerations of untwisting, the mechanistic content of such relationships is questionable. PMID:20405919

Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Freudenthal, John; Kahr, Bart

2010-07-14

8

Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine  

PubMed Central

The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine.

Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

2014-01-01

9

Reliability of urinary excretion rate adjustment in measurements of hippuric Acid in urine.  

PubMed

The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

2014-01-01

10

Simple colorimetric semiquantitation method of hippuric acid in urine for demonstration of toluene abuse.  

PubMed

A semiquantitative method for hippuric acid in toluene sniffers' urine was explored by modifying the method by Tomokuni and Ogata. The color of sample urine mixed with pyridine and benzenesulfonyl chloride was yellow, and became reddish by addition of distilled water. Using the color chart, the concentration of hippuric acid could be semiquantitated in a few minutes. The values determined by this method were compared with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography, showing a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.8594. This colorimetric method is thus useful for rapid screening for hippuric acid in urine, or toluene sniffing. PMID:15847831

Yoshida, Manabu; Akane, Atsushi; Mitani, Tomoaki; Watabiki, Toshimitsu

2005-05-01

11

[A retrospective study analysis of urinary hippuric acid levels in occupational toxicology exams].  

PubMed

Hippuric acid is the primary metabolite of toluene, a solvent widely used in industrial processes with considerable toxic effects, a fact which justifies regularly monitoring individuals with occupational exposure to this solvent. This work aims at evaluating urinary hippuric acid levels found in workers subject to biological monitoring. A retrospective study was carried out with data referring from 2002 to 2005, in which exams results and employment status were analyzed (periodic, post-employment, and pre-employment exams). Results indicate a significant reduction in hippuric acid levels for 2005. Periodic exams presented higher results than pre-employment and post-employment exams. No significant difference was found in individuals grouped according to their status in each of the established intervals, their reference numbers, and maximum biological levels allowed. Hippuric acid levels detected indicate low risk of toluene exposure for the population under evaluation, probably due to a growing concern with the deployment of measures regarding occupational hygiene. PMID:20640325

Gonzalez, Kelly Cristina; Sagebin, Fernando Rodrigues; Oliveira, Paola Garcia; Glock, Luiz; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão

2010-06-01

12

Measurement of urinary hippuric and m-methylhippuric acids by gas chromatography  

PubMed Central

Buchet, J. P., and Lauwerys, R. R. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 125-128. Measurement of urinary hippuric and m-methylhippuric acids by gas chromatography. A gas chromatographic method for the determination of hippuric and m-methylhippuric acids in urine is described. A known amount of heptadecanoic acid (internal standard) is added to the urine before its extraction with ethyl acetate. After evaporation of the solvent, the acids are methylated with diazomethane. The residue is taken up in methanol and injected into the gas chromatograph. The ratio of the height of the hippuric or m-methylhippuric acid peak to the height of the heptadecanoic acid peak is calculated and by reference to a calibration curve prepared in the same conditions the urine concentration of the two acids is determined.

Buchet, J. P.; Lauwerys, R. R.

1973-01-01

13

Determination of hippuric acid in human urine by ion chromatography with conductivity detection.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid, precise and eco-friendly ion chromatography (IC) method for the determination of hippuric acid (HA) in human urine was proposed in this paper. The separation was carried out an anion exchange column with 2.0 mmol L?¹ Na?CO? + 2.0 mmol L?¹ NaHCO? as mobile phase at the flow-rate 0.7 mL min?¹. A suppressed conductivity detector was used and the detection limit was 1.0 ?g L?¹ (S/N=3) for hippuric acid. The analysis time for one run was 30 min under the optimized IC condition. The recovery of hippuric acid was 93.2-98.0% while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.4-2.3% by seven measurements. PMID:21236740

Zhao, Fuyong; Wang, Zonghua; Wang, Hui; Ding, Mingyu

2011-02-01

14

Thin-layer chromatography of hippuric and m-methylhippuric acid in urine after mixed exposure to toluene and xylene.  

PubMed Central

The separation of hippuric and m-methylhippuric acid as toluene and m-xylene metabolites present in urine of people exposed simultaneously to toluene and xylene is described. Chloroform was used for hippuric and m-methylhippuric acid extraction. Satisfactory separation of these metabolites was obtained on TLC plates covered with silica gels and developed in chloroform acetic acid-water (4:1:1);p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in acetic acid anhydride was applied to develop the colour. The sensitivity of the method was 6 micrograms hippuric acid per 1 ml urine and recovery was 100% (+/- 1).

Bieniek, G; Wilczok, T

1981-01-01

15

Effect of urea and thiourea on nonlinear optical hippuric acid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure, urea and thiourea doped hippuric acid (HA) single crystals have been grown in acetone using slow evaporation technique at a constant temperature, with the vision to improve the properties of the crystals. The crystal systems and the unit cell parameters of the grown crystals were identified from single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystalline nature of the grown crystals was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and the diffraction peaks were indexed. The variations in composition due to the addition of dopants were identified by CHNS analysis. FT-IR studies reveal the presence of different vibrational bands. The optical characteristics were assessed by UV-vis analysis and it indicates the transmission in the visible region. TGA and DSC studies indicate the thermal behavior of pure and doped crystals. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) has been tested using Kurtz Powder Technique for the pure and doped crystals. It is found that the thiourea doped hippuric acid crystals have SHG efficiency of 2.08 times higher than that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) single crystal. The dielectric studies were carried out, and the variations of dielectric constant and dielectric loss with temperature have been studied.

Krishna Mohan, M.; Jagannathan, K.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.

2011-11-01

16

Reaction of substituted furan-2-carboxaldehydes and furo[b]pyrrole type aldehydes with hippuric acid.  

PubMed

4-Heteroarylidene-2-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-ones were prepared by reactions of hippuric acid with substituted furan-2-carboxaldehydes or furo[b]pyrrole type aldehydes. The reactivity of various furan-2-carboxaldehyde derivatives in this reaction is discussed. The effect of microwave irradiation on some condensation reactions was compared with "classical" conditions. The results show that microwave irradiation shortens the reaction times while affording comparable yields. Elementary analysis, UV, IR and 1D NMR proved the structure of new synthesised compounds. 2D NMR spectroscopic measurements confirmed that the configuration at the carbon-carbon double bond corresponds to the pure E isomers of the products. PMID:18007407

Puterová, Zita; Sterk, Heinz; Krutosíková, Alzbeta

2004-01-01

17

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of dl-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium- d-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium- l-aspartate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of dl-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-d-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-l-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322)K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-d-gluconate.

Alexander Apelblat; Eli Korin

2008-01-01

18

A detailed perceptive on the growth and characterization studies of para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) single crystals.  

PubMed

Single crystals of para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) were grown by slow evaporation technique. The spectral and its structural properties of the crystals were studied by FT-IR, micro-Raman and factor group analysis. The optical transparency in the UV-Visible regions was found to be good for non-linear optics (NLO) applications. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) showed that the compound decomposes beyond 300°C. The dielectric behavior of the compound predicts low dielectric loss at high frequency applied whereas in the case of mechanical behavior of the specimen hardness increases with increasing applied load. After certain weight increase, hardness gets saturated in the region of ?110. Relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 1.8 times greater than that of potassium di-phosphate reference. PMID:24873892

Sathesh Kumar, K; Srinivasan, P; Mahadevan Pillai, V P

2014-11-11

19

Growth, structural and optical characterization of a new nonlinear optical crystal - hippuric acid doped potassium di hydrogen phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP) is an efficient nonlinear optical crystal employed in frequency conversion applications. 1 mol% hippuric acid doped potassium di hydrogen phosphate (HAKDP) crystals with the dimensions 35 × 8 × 4 mm3 were grown using the slow evaporation technique. The grown HAKDP crystal is iso-structural with pure KDP, but a variation in the crystallographic parameters was observed. The UV-VIS-NIR study suggests that the crystal is highly transparent in the region 340-1200 nm. The functional groups present in the grown crystal were observed in the FTIR analysis. The powder SHG test performed on the grown crystal revealed the NLO efficiency of the crystal has increased due to doping when compared with pure KDP crystal.

Kumaresh, A.; Arun Kumar, R.

2013-07-01

20

Biomarkers of toluene exposure in rats: mercapturic acids versus traditional indicators (urinary hippuric acid and o-cresol and blood toluene).  

PubMed

1. Toluene (TOL) is a neurotoxic, ototoxic and reprotoxic solvent which is metabolized via the glutathione pathway, producing benzylmercapturic, o-, m- and p-toluylmercapturic acids (MAs). These metabolites could be useful as biomarkers of TOL exposure. 2. The aims of this study were (1) to provide data on MAs excretion in rat urine following TOL exposure by inhalation, (2) to compare them to data from traditional TOL biomarkers, i.e. TOL in blood (Tol-B), and urinary hippuric acid (HA) and o-cresol (oCre) and (3) to establish a relationship between these different indicators and the airborne TOL concentration (Tol-A). 3. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a range of TOL concentrations. Blood and urine were collected and analyzed to determine biomarker levels. 4. Levels of the four MAs correlate strongly with Tol-A (comparable to the correlation with Tol-B). 5. MAs are thus clearly superior to oCre and HA as potential markers of exposure to TOL. PMID:23278281

Cosnier, Frédéric; Cossec, Benoît; Burgart, Manuella; Nunge, Hervé; Brochard, Céline; Décret, Marie-Josèphe; Rémy, Aurélie

2013-08-01

21

Detection of hippurate hydrolysis by Legionella spp. by using a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method.  

PubMed Central

A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to determine hippurate hydrolysis by Legionella spp. Benzoic acid, an end product of enzymatic activity, was directly detected by high-performance liquid chromatography after 1 and 24 h of incubation in 1% sodium hippurate. Because of its sensitivity, this procedure offers more precise identification of some Legionella spp.

Marmet, D; Bornstein, N; Fleurette, J

1990-01-01

22

Hippurate Hydrolysis in Klebsiella-Cloaca Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: 169 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 68 strains of Cloaca cloacae were used in an examination of Hajna & Damon's hippurate test and various modi- fications of it. The addition of a pH indicator (phenol red) to the medium enabled hydrolysis to be detected by a change of colour. Clear-cut distinction between K. pneumoniae and C. cloacae was not

MERIEL L. THIRST

1957-01-01

23

Preparation of hippurate-zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid and its synergistic effect with tamoxifen on HepG2 cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background A new simple preparation method for a hippurate-intercalated zinc-layered hydroxide (ZLH) nanohybrid has been established, which does not need an anion-exchange procedure to intercalate the hippurate anion into ZLH interlayers. Methods The hippuric acid nanohybrid (HAN) was prepared by direct reaction of an aqueous suspension of zinc oxide with a solution of hippuric acid via a one-step method. Results The basal spacing of the nanohybrid was 21.3 Å, indicating that the hippurate anion was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of ZLH, and arranged in a monolayer fashion with the carboxylate group pointing toward the ZLH inorganic interlayers. A Fourier transform infrared study confirmed the formation of the nanohybrid, while thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry analyses showed that the thermal stability of the nanohybrid was markedly enhanced. The loading of hippurate in the nanohybrid was estimated to be about 38.7% (w/w), and the release of hippurate from the nanohybrid was of a controlled manner, and therefore the resulting material was suitable for use as a controlled-release formulation. HAN has synergistic properties with tamoxifen toward a HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 0.35 compared with hippurate. In the antiproliferative assay, the ratio of viable cells account for cells treated by the combination tamoxifen with HAN to untreated cells was sharply reduced from 66% to 13% after 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Conclusion The release of hippuric acid anions from HAN occurred in a controlled manner, and the resulting material is suitable for a controlled-release formulation.

Ali, Samer Hasan Hussein Al; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul

2011-01-01

24

Rapid, colorimetric test for the determination of hippurate hydrolysis by group B Streptococcus.  

PubMed

A colorimetric test for the determination of hippurate hydrolysis was developed. Brain heart infusion broth made with 1% sodium hippurate served as the test medium. Hydrolysis was determined by the addition of two chemical developers, M (rhodamine B) and A (uranium acetate). A dark pink color indicated hydrolysis; no color change indicated no hydrolysis. The method was efficacious in either rapid or overnight incubation. One hundred twenty-five strains of group B, 44 strains of group A, 15 strains of group C, and 10 strains of group G Streptococcus were tested. By using the Lancefield method as the standard, there was 100% agreement with both the colorimetric and ferric chloride tests for hippurate hydrolysis, and 96% agreement with the CAMP test. PMID:767358

Edberg, S C; Samuels, S

1976-01-01

25

Benzoic acid as a natural compound in cultured dairy products and cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with the ‘state of the art’ of benzoic acid in cultured dairy products and cheese. During fermentation, benzoic acid is produced from hippuric acid, a component of milk naturally present at concentrations of up to 50 mg\\/kg. In smearripened cheese, however, higher benzoic acid concentrations have often been measured on the surface or even inside such cheeses.

R Sieber; U Bütikofer; J. O Bosset

1995-01-01

26

Diffusive EPR line width behaviour in two-dimensional Cu(Hippurate) 2 ? 4H 2O single crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-band EPR measurements were performed at room temperature on layered Cu(Hippurate) 2?4H 2O single crystals. Despite the dimeric molecular structure the EPR spectra are characteristic for individual Cu-complexes with square-pyramidal structure and g-factors: gx=2.045, gy=2.085 and gz=2.346. The anticipated zero-field splitting from dimers with S=1 is averaged out by interdimer exchange coupling within the layers. The dimers in adjacent layers are not exchange coupled as we determined from the two-component EPR spectra. Thus, the crystal is an ideal 2D magnetic system and shows a strong spin diffusion effect in the EPR line width. The spin diffusion contribution to the line width is described as P?(3 with P=3.03 mT which is much higher compared to other 2D copper(II) crystals. The background line width is due to dipolar coupling and non-resolved hyperfine structure. Exchange coupling was determined from the exchange narrowing effect as of about 0.1 cm -1.

Hoffmann, S. K.; Goslar, J.; Nowicka, A.; Wencka, M.

2008-06-01

27

The role of common urinary constituents in the precipitation of ammonium acid urate.  

PubMed

A high proportion of the inhibitory activity shown by urine toward precipitation of ammonium acid urate is ultrafilterable and most of this can be accounted for by the common, low molecular weight components of urine. The individual inhibitory effects of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium sulphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, citric acid, hippuric acid, creatinine and urea upon the precipitation of ammonium acid urate have been quantified in an aqueous test system. PMID:519860

Bowyer, R C; Brockis, J G; McCulloch, R K

1979-12-17

28

Determination of Organic Acids and Volatile Flavor Substances in Kefir during Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of organic acids and volatile flavor components was measured during kefir starter culture fermentation. Samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 22 h of fermentation (final pH=4.6). Samples were analyzed for orotic, citric, pyruvic, uric, lactic, acetic, butyric, propionic and hippuric acids by HPLC. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetoin and diacetyl production were monitored using GC equipped with

Z. B. Güzel-Seydim; A. C. Seydim; A. K. Greene; A. B. Bodine

2000-01-01

29

Metabolism of nonessential N-15-labeled amino acids and the measurement of human whole-body protein synthesis rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight N-15-labeled nonessential amino acids plus (N-15)H4Cl were administered over a 10-h period to four healthy adult males using a primed-constant dosage regimen. The amount of N-15 excreted in the urine and the urinary ammonia, hippuric acid, and plasma alanine N-15 enrichments were measured. There was a high degree of consistency across subjects in the ordering of the nine compounds based on the fraction of N-15 excreted.

Stein, T. P.; Settle, R. G.; Albina, J. A.; Melnick, G.; Dempsey, D. T.

1991-01-01

30

Benzoic acid metabolism reflects hepatic mitochondrial function in rats with long-term extrahepatic cholestasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzoic acid metabolism, which is primarily a function of liver mitochondria, depending on the concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), coenzyme A (CoA), and glycine in the mitochondrial matrix, was investigated in both rats with long-term cholestasis caused by bile duct ligation (BDL) and sham-operated control rats. In isolated liver mitochondria, hippurate production from benzoate in the presence of saturating glycine

L Krähenbühl; J Reichen; C Talos; S Krähenbühl

1997-01-01

31

Effects of 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate on portal plasma flow and net portal appearance of amino acids in piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether portal plasma flow (PPF) and net portal appearance of amino acids (AA) could be affected by 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate\\u000a (HMB), six barrows (35-day-old, 8.6 ± 1.4 kg), implanted with arterial, portal and mesenteric catheters, were fed a dl-methionine (as the control) or HMB-supplemented diet once hourly and infused intramesenterically with 1% p-amino hippurate. PPF was numerically 9% higher (P

Z. F. Fang; J. Luo; Z. L. Qi; F. R. Huang; S. J. Zhao; M. Y. Liu; S. W. Jiang; J. Peng

2009-01-01

32

Diet-derived phenolic acids regulate osteoblast and adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation in young mice.  

PubMed

A blueberry (BB)-supplemented diet has been previously shown to significantly stimulate bone formation in rapidly growing male and female rodents. Phenolic acids (PAs) are metabolites derived from polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables as a result of the actions of gut bacteria, and they were found in the serum of rats fed BB-containing diet. We conducted in vitro studies with PAs and demonstrated stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and proliferation. On the other hand, adipogenesis was inhibited. To more fully understand the mechanistic actions of PAs on bone formation, we administered hippuric acid, one of the major metabolites found in animal circulation after BB consumption, to prepubertal female mice for 2 weeks. We found that hippuric acid was able to stimulate bone-forming gene expression but suppress PPAR? expression, leading to increased bone mass dose-dependently. Cellular signaling studies further suggested that the skeletal effects of PAs appeared to be mediated through activation of G-protein-coupled receptor 109A and downstream p38 MAP kinase and osterix. In conclusion, PAs are capable of altering the mesenchymal stem cell differentiation program and merit investigation as potential dietary therapeutic alternatives to drugs for degenerative bone disorders. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:23832484

Chen, Jin-Ran; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Zhang, Jian; Blackburn, Michael L; Ronis, Martin J J; Badger, Thomas M

2014-05-01

33

Metabolism of Nonessential N15-Labeled Amino Acids and the Measurement of Human Whole-Body Protein Synthesis Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight N-15 labeled nonessential amino acids plus (15)NH4Cl were administered over a 10 h period to four healthy adult males using a primed-constant dosage regimen. The amount of N-15 excreted in the urine and the urinary ammonia, hippuric acid, and plasma alanine N-15 enrichments were measured. There was a high degree of consistency across subjects in the ordering of the nine compounds based on the fraction of N-15 excreted (Kendall coefficient of concordance W = 0.83, P is less than 0.01). Protein synthesis rates were calculated from the urinary ammonia plateau enrichment and the cumulative excretion of N-15. Glycine was one of the few amino acids that gave similar values by both methods.

Stein, T. P.; Settle, R. G.; Albina, J. A.; Dempsey, D. T.; Melnick, G.

1991-01-01

34

Metabolic profiling of phenolic acids and oxidative stress markers after consumption of Lonicera caerulea L. fruit.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of one-week consumption of 165 g/day fresh blue honeysuckle berries (208 mg/day anthocyanins) in 10 healthy volunteers. At the end of intervention, levels of benzoic (median 1782 vs 4156), protocatechuic (709 vs 2417), vanillic (2779 vs 4753), 3-hydroxycinnamic (143 vs 351), p-coumaric (182 vs 271), isoferulic (805 vs 1570), ferulic (1086 vs 2395), and hippuric (194833 vs 398711 ?g/mg creatinine) acids by LC/MS were significantly increased in the urine. Clinical chemistry safety markers were not altered. Oxidative stress markers, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (0.73 vs 0.88 U/g Hb) and catalase (2.5 vs 2.8 ?kat/g Hb) activities, and erythrocyte/plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (522 vs 612/33 vs 38 ?mol/g Hb/protein) levels were significantly increased, without change in plasma antioxidant status. Nonsignificant changes of advanced oxidation protein products and oxidized LDL were observed. The results provide a solid base for further study of metabolite excretion and antioxidant parameters after ingestion of anthocyanins. PMID:23581742

Heinrich, Jan; Valentová, Kate?ina; Vacek, Jan; Palíková, Irena; Zatloukalová, Martina; Kosina, Pavel; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vrbková, Jana; Šimánek, Vilím

2013-05-15

35

A study of ozone-induced edema in the isolated rat lung in relation to arachidonic acid metabolism, mixed-function oxidases and angiotensin converting enzyme activities.  

PubMed

In order to elucidate the role of arachidonic acid in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced pulmonary edema, isolated rat lungs were exposed to 14C-arachidonic acid in the presence or absence of ozone and the incorporation of radiolabelled arachidonate into pulmonary cell lipids was studied. The perfusates from these studies were also subjected to differential extraction and thin layer chromatography (t.l.c.) to determine synthesis of both cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase products. In the presence of an edemagenic concentration of ozone, isolated lungs incorporated significantly less exogenous arachidonic acid into phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine, whereas incorporation into phosphatidyl inositol or serine was not affected. The edemagenic concentration of ozone also increased production of a variety of arachidonic acid metabolites via cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. In separate studies, a similar ozone exposure did not affect 14CO2 production, resulting from the metabolism of 14C-antipyrine by mixed function oxidases (MFO). Similarly, an edemagenic concentration of ozone did not affect pulmonary angiotensin converting enzyme activity (ACE) as determined by the rate of formation of 14C-hippuric acid from 14C-hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (14C-HHL). Thus, acute ozone exposure is specifically associated with a reduced incorporation of arachidonate into phospholipids and with an increased conversion of arachidonate into bio-active metabolites. PMID:1966904

Dutta, S; Chatterjee, M; Teknos, T N; Carlson, R W

1990-01-01

36

Amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

37

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

38

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

39

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation is a global problem. The effects were first seen in Europe; it affects the Great Lakes and the Midwest because higher-than-normal levels of acidity in rain are found in these areas. Several bays of the Great Lakes are now known to receive substantial runoff from freshwater streams that have been made acidic by acid rains. These areas may

1979-01-01

40

Mefenamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

41

Aminocaproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

42

Ascorbic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops ...

43

Shikimic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The molecule for this month comes from the article Isolation of Shikimic Acid from Star Aniseed by Richard Payne and Michael Edmonds. Shikimic acid plays a key role in the biosynthesis of many important natural products including aromatic amino acids, alkaloids, phenolics, and phenylpropanoids. It plays such an important role that one of the key biosynthetic pathways is referred to as the shikimate pathway.

44

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

University Of Houston

45

Calcium acetate catalyzed synthesis of 4-arylidene-2-phenyl-5(4 H)-oxazolones under solvent-free conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight 4-arylidene-2-phenyl-5(4H)-oxazolones (azlactones) have been prepared via Erlenmeyer synthesis from aromatic aldehydes and hippuric acid using calcium acetate under solvent-free conditions with microwave irradiation.

Satya Paul; Puja Nanda; Rajive Gupta; André Loupy

2004-01-01

46

Acid clusters  

SciTech Connect

Molecular clusters can be considered to be the smallest size range of an aerosol particle size distribution. Nucleation from the gas phase to particles or droplets involves the formation of clusters in the initial stages. Consequently, knowledge of the properties and formation of clusters containing acids contribute to an understanding of acid rain. This paper presents an overview of results obtained in the laboratory on the formation and stability of both neutral and ionized acid clusters. With free jet expansion techniques, the authors have produced clusters of aqueous nitric acid, aqueous hydrochloric acid, aqueous sulfuric acid, acetic acid and aqueous sulfur dioxide. For analogy to buffering, the formation of clusters containing ammonia have also been examined. These have included ammonia with aqueous nitric acid, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. The basic experiment involves expansion of vapor through a nozzle, collimation of the jet with a skimmer to form a well-directed molecular beam, and detection of clusters via electron impact ionization and mass spectrometry. Some variations include the introduction of a reactive gas into vacuum near the expansion as described elsewhere and the implementation of an electrostatic quadrupolar field to examine the polarity of the neutral clusters.

Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.

1986-04-01

47

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online student report discusses the chemistry of domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Psuedo-nitzschia and associated with Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In addition to a descriptive summary and images, the report links to other areas of interest related to domoic acid poisoning including signs and symptoms, modes of action, and treatment.

Bailey, Christina; Kohlen, Corinne

2010-02-10

48

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes and effects of acid rain are detailed. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from anthropogenic sources are the primary causative agents. These emissions are transported over long distances and transformed into sulfates and nitrates and washed out of the atmosphere. Trends in acidity in precipitation water are reviewed for eastern portions of Canada and the U.S. Adverse effects

R. E. Ghelardi; B. L. Murphy

2009-01-01

49

Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

50

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

Elsworth, S.

1985-01-01

51

Usnic acid.  

PubMed

Since its first isolation in 1844, usnic acid [2,6-diacetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3(2H,9bH)-dibenzo-furandione] has become the most extensively studied lichen metabolite and one of the few that is commercially available. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens, and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Usnea, Lecanora, Ramalina and Evernia. Many lichens and extracts containing usnic acid have been utilized for medicinal, perfumery, cosmetic as well as ecological applications. Usnic acid as a pure substance has been formulated in creams, toothpaste, mouthwash, deodorants and sunscreen products, in some cases as an active principle, in others as a preservative. In addition to antimicrobial activity against human and plant pathogens, usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Ecological effects, such as antigrowth, antiherbivore and anti-insect properties, have also been demonstrated. A difference in biological activity has in some cases been observed between the two enantiomeric forms of usnic acid. Recently health food supplements containing usnic acid have been promoted for use in weight reduction, with little scientific support. The emphasis of the current review is on the chemistry and biological activity of usnic acid and its derivatives in addition to rational and ecologically acceptable methods for provision of this natural compound on a large scale. PMID:12453567

Ingólfsdóttir, K

2002-12-01

52

Acid test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking soda can be used as an indicator of how much acid a substance contains. Lemons and limes have more acid in them than grapefruits and oranges. Indophenol can be used as an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a substance.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

53

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

Sweet, W.

1980-06-20

54

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

Fox, Chris

55

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

56

ACID RAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

57

Acid Stomach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

Science Netlinks;

2003-08-07

58

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here.

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

59

Stearic Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

60

Amino Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard α-amino acids found in proteins and serve as background to the paper by Barone and Schmidt on the Nonfood Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.

61

Ethacrynic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... or any of the ingredients in ethacrynic acid tablets. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

62

Tranexamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... or any of the ingredients in tranexamic acid tablets. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. ...

63

Carbonate acidizing  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the first quantitative study and complete model of the wormholing phenomenon, leading to a means of predicting and optimizing carbonate acidizing treatments. Laboratory experiments on a gypsum model system and computer simulations show that for a given geometry, wormholes can be quantified by a unique parameter, their equivalent hydraulic length. The behavior of this quantifying parameter vs. all the system parameters is studied and allows the quantitative prediction of the efficiency of an acidizing treatment. This study highlights the fractal nature of the phenomenon, which is accounted for in the equations, and the strong effect of the sample geometry. Three types of etching can be obtained: compact, wormhole type, or homogeneous. The optimum conditions for achieving the best skin decrease correspond to the creation of wormholes and can then be defined in terms of fluid reactivity and injection rate.

Daccord, G.; Touboul, E.; Lenormand, R.

1989-02-01

64

Levulinic acid  

PubMed Central

The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxo­penta­noic acid), C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762?Å). In the crystal, the mol­ecules inter­act via O—H?O hydrogen bonds in which the hy­droxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent mol­ecules as acceptors, forming C(7) chains along [20-1].

Hachula, Barbara; Polasz, Anna; Dzida, Marzena; Nowak, Maria; Kusz, Joachim

2013-01-01

65

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

Inchem; Safety, International P.

66

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

67

Methylmalonic acid blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

68

Folic acid - test  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

69

New method of acidizing or acid fracturing: crosslinked acid gels  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from .0025 to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for proppants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provides effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better formation conductivity and practically a residue-free break for rapid clean-up of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show the acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low formation permeability.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1980-01-01

70

Automobiles and acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his editorial Acid rain Philip H. Abelson writes that everyone who drives an automobile is a contributor to acid rain. Examination of emissions data indicates that controlling automobile emissions will contribute little to solving acid precipitation problems. Of the strong acid anions associated with precipitation acidity, sulfate accounts for about 60% and nitrate for about 40%, on an equivalence

Hendrey

1985-01-01

71

Folic Acid and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ... well as tissue formation. Continue Getting Enough Folic Acid The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ...

72

Acid Lipase Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to jump ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease occurs when the ...

73

Uric acid test (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

74

Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic Acid decomposition.  

PubMed

Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications. PMID:24933150

Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

2014-07-10

75

Acid Rain Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid

Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

76

Acid-Base Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 9-page PDF document is part of an environmental geochemistry course taught by Dr. David Sherman at the University of Bristol. Topics include acid-base theories, aqueous systems, strong and weak acids and bases, acid-base properties of minerals, the pH of weak acid and buffered systems, and the calculation of titration curves.

Sherman, David W.; Bristol, University O.

77

Acid tolerance in amphibians  

SciTech Connect

Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

Pierce, B.A.

1985-04-01

78

Gas-phase Acidities of Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and their Amino Acid Amides.  

SciTech Connect

Gas-phase acidities (GA or ?Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage’s importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3–4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2? group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector A.; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

2007-02-14

79

Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

2007-09-01

80

Modulating the acidity: highly acidic Brønsted acids in asymmetric catalysis.  

PubMed

Recently, chiral highly acidic Brønsted acids have emerged as powerful catalysts for enantioselective C-C and C-X bond-forming reactions. Their strong acidity renders them valuable tools for the activation of imines, carbonyl compounds, and other weakly basic substrates. As a result, new perspectives are opened and highly stereoselective transformations based on the concept of chiral contact-ion-pair catalysis can be realized. This Minireview gives an overview of the design and application of these new organocatalysts and presents recent results in this rapidly growing field. PMID:21678531

Rueping, Magnus; Nachtsheim, Boris J; Ieawsuwan, Winai; Atodiresei, Iuliana

2011-07-18

81

Thin-Layer Separation of Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates, Lactic Acid, and the Amino Acid Taurine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric ...

R. T. Riley M. C. Mix

1979-01-01

82

Succinic Acid in Wines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following a brief discussion of methods which are currently employed to determine the succinic acid content of wines, as well as the shortcomings of those methods, procedures used for colorimetric evaluation of this particular acid are explained. The prin...

M. Castino

1969-01-01

83

Omega-3 fatty acids  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care.

Schwalfenberg, Gerry

2006-01-01

84

Acid Aerosols Issue Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been...

1988-01-01

85

Fatty acid analogs  

DOEpatents

In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

1985-01-01

86

Polymerization of Itaconic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Itaconic acid has various uses in chain copolymerization reactions, because of its two carboxylic groups and relatively good reactivity with different comonomers. As an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid it also has applications in grafting reactions and polyc...

J. Ahlgren

1990-01-01

87

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

88

Folic Acid Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... folic acid supplement d) eat a cup of broccoli 5. Spina bifida and anencephaly: Hint a) are ... acid every day. This question is tricky because broccoli is a natural source of food folate, however ...

89

Aminocaproic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

90

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

91

Facts about Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... of the baby's brain and spine ( anencephaly and spina bifida ). How much folic acid a woman needs 400 ... audiocast about folic acid. Related Pages Healthy Pregnancy spina bifida Birth Defects CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects ...

92

Uric acid - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in ... mackerel, dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

93

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Rheumatoid arthritis High or low concentrations of individual plasma amino acids must be interpreted along with other ...

94

Refining Lurgi tar acids  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

Greco, N.P.

1984-04-17

95

Nucleic acid molecule  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a polypeptide capable of producing a triterpenoid hydrocarbon. The invention also relates to the encoded polypeptide, a vector comprising the nucleic acid molecule, a recombinant non-human organism comprising the nucleic acid molecule, and to methods of producing a triterpenoid hydrocarbon or an intermediate of biofuel using the nucleic acid molecule, polypeptide or recombinant organism.

2011-10-11

96

Linolenic acid deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linolenic acid deficiency has not been demonstrated clearly in warm blooded animals, yet circumstantial evidence suggests\\u000a that n?3 fatty acids may have functions in these animals. The fact that several species of fish definitely require dietary\\u000a n?3 fatty acids indicates that n?3 fatty acids have important and specific functions in these animals and suggests that such\\u000a functions may also be

J. Tinoco; R. Babcock; I. Hincenbergs; B. Medwadowski; P. Miljanich; M. A. Williams

1979-01-01

97

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

98

Acid-fast stain  

MedlinePLUS

... The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria that hold onto the first dye are considered "acid-fast" because they resist the acid wash. This type of bacteria is associated with tuberculosis and other infections.

99

[alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

2010-01-01

100

Energy and acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is one of the foremost environmental issues of the 1980s and will be of continuining importance to energy policy for several reasons. First, the pollutants that cause acid rain are projected to increase through the end of the century as the demand for energy grows and as coal replaces oil. Second, many of the effects of acid rain

R R Gould

1984-01-01

101

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use red cabbage juice and pH indicator paper to test the acidity and basicity of household materials. The activity links this concept of acids and bases to acid rain and other pollutants. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise; Perez, Sharon

2004-01-01

102

Neutralizing Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. Use this as a follow-up activity to the related activity, "Color Changes with Acids and Bases."

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

103

The Acid Rain Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

104

Crystallization of uric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystals of uric acid have been grown in tetra methoxy silane and silica gel medium. Small winged, transparent, platy crystals of uric acid of about 0.5x0.5x0.1 mm were grown and were found to be hydrated uric acid.

Kalkura, S. Narayana; Vaidyan, V. K.; Kanakavel, M.; Ramasamy, P.

1993-09-01

105

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI; Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI; Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI; Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI; Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI

2008-08-05

106

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2000-01-01

107

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2010-11-09

108

Acid Rain: Students Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website introduces students to the concepts and issues surrounding acid rain. They will learn what acid rain is, how it forms, and what its effects are on humans, on the environment (lakes, rivers), and on infrastructure (buildings, monuments). There is also discussion of what is being done to reduce the presence of acid rain, and some suggestions for the students themselves to help reduce acid rain. A set of games, puzzles, and activities provides students with an opportunity to put their new knowledge of acid rain to use, and an animated slide show is provided to visually illustrate its causes and effects. A Spanish translation is available.

109

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2007-12-11

110

Amino acid analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

111

Demospongic Acids Revisited  

PubMed Central

The well-known fatty acids with a ?5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the ?5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between ?5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs.

Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

2010-01-01

112

[Biosynthesis of adipic acid].  

PubMed

Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production. PMID:24432653

Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

2013-10-01

113

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOEpatents

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02

114

NRPSs and amide ligases producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are capable of producing a wide variety of biopolymers. Homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s, which are made up of only a single type of amino acid, are relatively rare; in fact, only two homopoly(amino acid)s have been known to occur in nature: poly(?-L-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA). Bacterial enzymes that produce homooligo(amino acid)s, such as L-?-lysine-, L-valine-, L-leucine-, L-isoleucine-, L-methionine-, and L-glutamic acid-oligopeptides and poly(?-l-glutamic acid) (?-PGA) have recently been identified, as well as ?-PL synthetase and ?-PGA synthetase. This article reviews the current knowledge about these unique enzymes producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s. PMID:23817633

Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Arai, Toshinobu; Ashiuchi, Makoto; Kino, Kuniki

2013-08-01

115

HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR DETERMINATION OF URINARY METABOLITES OF TOLUENE, XYLENE AND STYRENE AND ITS APPLICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine mandelic, phenylglyoxylic, hippuric, o-, m- and p-methylhippuric acids, the six urinary metabolites of styrene, toluene and xylene by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These metabolites were extracted in an acid medium, transferred into a basic solution and back extracted again using ethyl acetate, and the organic phase was evaporated to dryness under

Chompunut Onchoi; Pornpimol Kongtip

116

Glycolic Acid 15% Plus Salicylic Acid 2%  

PubMed Central

Background: Facial flat warts are a contagious viral disease that can cause disturbing cosmetic problems. Topical glycolic acid has been reported to be effective in dermatological treatment depending on the exfoliant capacity, but has not often been reported to be effective in the treatment of facial flat warts. Objective: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glycolic acid 15% topical gel plus salicylic acid 2% in the treatment of recalcitrant facial flat warts. Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients 7 to 16 years of age with recalcitrant facial flat warts were enrolled in this study. Patients having warts by the eye and lip regions were excluded from the study. A fine layer of face gel was applied to the treatment area once daily. Most of the participants had tried different treatments with no success. Assessments for the response and the occurrence of side effects were performed every two weeks at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8. Results: All the patients were clinically cured within eight weeks. Seven patients cleared in four weeks, and 13 patients cleared in eight weeks. No noticeable adverse events were related to the skin. Conclusion: Topical gel of glycolic acid 15% plus salicylic acid 2% is safe and effective when applied to facial flat warts once daily until clearance and may be considered as first-line treatment.

Sanchez-Blanco, Elena

2011-01-01

117

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does...

2009-04-01

118

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does...

2010-01-01

119

21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and oils derived from edible sources: Capric acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The food additive meets the following specifications: (1) Unsaponifiable matter does...

2013-04-01

120

Kinetic acidity of cubane  

SciTech Connect

The authors have determined the kinetic acidity of cubane by the application of a {sup 3}H NMR spectroscopic approach. An earlier measurement of the acidity of cubane has been subject to some controversy. Kinetic acidities are a useful measure of the acidity of weak carbon acids and are obtained by measuring rates of base-catalyzed proton-exchange reactions. It has been found that one-bond {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H NMR coupling constants ({sup 1}J{sub CH}) correlate closely with kinetic acidities for cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons. This correlation holds even for strongly strained systems such as cyclopropane. Cubane, a strained polycycloalkane, would be anticipated to also fit this correlation.

Dixon, R.E.; Streitwieser, A. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); Williams, P.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Eaton, P.E. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-01-02

121

Acid Rain Learning Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

122

of natural amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the synthesis of protected N a -(ø-Y-alkyl) amino acids (Y is a thio, amino or carboxy group) and related compounds by reductive alkylation of natural amino acids is reported. These new amino acids serve as building units for the synthesis of backbone-cyclic peptides. They are orthogonally protected at the Æ-amino position by butoxycarbonyl (Boc) or 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl

Gal Bitan; Dan Muller; Ron Kasher; Evgenia V. Gluhov; Chaim Gilon

1997-01-01

123

Acid-Base Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do strong and weak acids differ? Use lab tools on your computer to find out! Dip the paper or the probe into solution to measure the pH, or put in the electrodes to measure the conductivity. Then see how concentration and strength affect pH. Can a weak acid solution have the same pH as a strong acid solution?

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Malley, Chris; Loeblein, Patricia; Parson, Robert; Perkins, Kathy

2010-09-01

124

Characterization of acid tars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS), inductively coupled plasma\\/optical emission spectrometry (ICP\\/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy\\/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM\\/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio

Sunday A. Leonard; Julia A. Stegemann; Amitava Roy

2010-01-01

125

THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

126

USGS Tracks Acid Rain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

1995-01-01

127

Automobiles and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

In his editorial Acid rain Philip H. Abelson writes that everyone who drives an automobile is a contributor to acid rain. Examination of emissions data indicates that controlling automobile emissions will contribute little to solving acid precipitation problems. Of the strong acid anions associated with precipitation acidity, sulfate accounts for about 60% and nitrate for about 40%, on an equivalence basis. The contribution to national SO/sub 2/ emissions by all forms of transportation is about 3%. The corresponding value for national NO/sub x/ emissions is about 44%. If ground-level emissions from highway vehicles contribute to long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants and to precipitation acidity on an equal basis with other sources, for example, power plant smokestacks, then the respective contributions to precipitation acidity can be approximated. The atmospheric chemistry of NO/sub x/ and its interaction with SO/sub 2/ is poorly known. However, it is likely that automobiles account for less than 14% of total equivalents of strong acid anions in either wet or dry deposition in the eastern US. The implication of these data for regulatory policies aimed at controlling acid precipitation by reducing SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions is obvious.

Hendrey, G.R.

1985-01-01

128

Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

2004-11-05

129

Structure of Acid phosphatases.  

PubMed

Acid phosphatases are enzymes that have been studied extensively due to the fact that their dysregulation is associated with pathophysiological conditions. This characteristic has been exploited for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. As an example, prostatic acid phosphatase was the first marker for metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis and the dysregulation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase is associated with abnormal bone resorption linked to osteoporosis. The pioneering crystallization studies on prostatic acid phosphatase and mammalian tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase conformed significant milestones towards the elucidation of the mechanisms followed by these enzymes (Schneider et al., EMBO J 12:2609-2615, 1993). Acid phosphatases are also found in nonmammalian species such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants, and most of them share structural similarities with mammalian acid phosphatase enzymes. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters following the general equation. Phosphate monoester + H2O -->/<-- alcohol + phosphate. The general classification "acid phosphatase" relies only on the optimum acidic pH for the enzymatic activity in assay conditions using non-physiological substrates. These enzymes accept a wide range of substrates in vitro, ranging from small organic molecules to phosphoproteins, constituting a heterogeneous group of enzymes from the structural point of view. These structural differences account for the divergence in cofactor dependences and behavior against substrates, inhibitors, and activators. In this group only the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a metallo-enzyme whereas the other members do not require metal-ion binding for their catalytic activity. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and erythrocytic acid phosphatase are not inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate ion while the prostatic acid phosphatase is tartrate-sensitive. This is an important difference that can be exploited in in vitro assays to differentiate between different kinds of phosphatase activity. The search for more sensitive and specific methods of detection in clinical laboratory applications led to the development of radioimmunoassays (RIA) for determination of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum. These methods permit the direct quantification of the enzyme regardless of its activity status. Therefore, an independent structural classification exists that helps to group these enzymes according to their structural features and mechanisms. Based on this we can distinguish the histidine acid phosphatases (Van Etten, Ann N Y Acad Sci 390:27-51, 1982), the low molecular weight protein tyrosine acid phosphatases and the metal-ion dependent phosphatases. A note of caution is worthwhile mentioning here. The nomenclature of acid phosphatases has not been particularly easy for those new to the subject. Unfortunately, the acronym PAP is very common in the literature about purple acid phosphatases and prostatic acid phosphatase. In addition, LPAP is the acronym chosen to refer to the lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase which is a different enzyme. It is important to bear in mind this distinction while reviewing the literature to avoid confusion. PMID:23860654

Araujo, César L; Vihko, Pirkko T

2013-01-01

130

Exocarpic acid inhibits mycolic acid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Exocarpic acid (13 E-octadecene-9,11-diynoic acid) from Exocarpos latifolius R.Br. (Santalaceae) was previously shown to have specific antimycobacterial activity. Microarray data suggested inhibition of fatty acid metabolism as a potential mode of action. Experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of action showed that exocarpic acid was effective at inhibition of mycolic acid biosynthesis and did not act by dissipating the proton gradient in treated M. tuberculosis. Amide derivatives of exocarpic acid displayed similar properties to exocarpic acid, while other polyacetylenic fatty acids varied in their effects on mycolic acid biosynthesis. PMID:20506078

Koch, Michael; Bugni, Tim S; Sondossi, Mohammad; Ireland, Chris M; Barrows, Louis R

2010-10-01

131

What Causes Acid Rain?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the formation of acid rain. The resource explains the chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air, mix and react with water and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants that dissolve very easily in water and can be carried long distances where they become part of rain, sleet, snow, and fog.

132

Iodinated humic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic acids are iodinated by elemental iodine and, if the iodine is present as iodide, by peroxidase-mediated reactions. It is demonstrated that iodination of humic acids leads to a product with a uniform distribution of iodine. It could not be unambiguously verified whether the enzymatically mediated iodination is a direct reaction between a peroxidase-iodine complex and the humic acid molecule or a two-step reaction in which the enzyme creates elemental iodine, which consecutively reacts with the humic acid. Based on a simple model of a reaction between sites in the humic acids available for iodination and the electrophilic iodinating species, it was concluded that the reaction should be described as an equilibrium with a logarithmic equilibrium constant of approximately 4. The number of sites available for iodination was, in the humic acids studied, determined to be approximately 4×10-4 per gram humic acid. The different parameters influencing the enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acids are discussed.

Christiansen, Jesper V.; Carlsen, Lars

133

Characterization of acid tars.  

PubMed

Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain. PMID:19857924

Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A; Roy, Amitava

2010-03-15

134

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

135

Acid rain options  

SciTech Connect

A number of contributions made to a series of seminars on acid rain options held by the Air Pollution Control Association are presented. They include statements on US and Canadian policy and legislation, and views from coal producers, electric utilities and motor vehicle manufacturers on measures to counteract or prevent the effects of acid rain.

Perhac, R.M.

1985-03-01

136

Analysis of Organic Acids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

1990-01-01

137

Altered retmoic acid receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structurally and functionally altered retinoic acid receptors have been associated with rare human neoplasms: acute promyelocytic leuke- mia and hepatoceilular carcinoma. Whereas the ret- inoic acid receptor 13 (RAR13) rearrangement in hepatocellular carcinoma is unique, in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), RARU fusion to the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene by the t(15;17) translocation is a general feature of the disease. APL

CNRS UPR; Service de Biochimie

138

Humus Acids of Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Humus acids are known to occur widely in soils, peats, and natural waters. Soil fertility, migration and accumulation of minerals in natural landscapes, and mineral nutrition of plants are all associated with these acids. In recent times they have been us...

D. S. Orlov

1985-01-01

139

Lead-acid cell  

SciTech Connect

A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

1980-12-09

140

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the differences between acids and bases and how to use indicators, such as pH paper and red cabbage juice, to distinguish between them. They learn why it is important for engineers to understand acids and bases.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

141

Acid in water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

Laszlo Ilyes (None;)

2007-05-16

142

Acids in Proteins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how amino acids build proteins in a person's body. Amino acids are the chemical building blocks for the structure of an organism. A link to a quiz is provided at the end of the lesson to check comprehension.

2012-06-19

143

Strong Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

144

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

145

Lead-acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of producing a lead-acid battery capable of activation by the addition of electrolyte thereto, comprises the steps of: starting with a battery container accommodating at least one pack of battery plate grids having insulating separators interposed between adjacent grids, each of said grids carrying the lead-acid battery paste required to produce a positive or a negative battery plate

J. A. Bant; V. J. Raban

1980-01-01

146

ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

147

Acid Rain Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2001-01-01

148

Energy and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain is one of the foremost environmental issues of the 1980s and will be of continuining importance to energy policy for several reasons. First, the pollutants that cause acid rain are projected to increase through the end of the century as the demand for energy grows and as coal replaces oil. Second, many of the effects of acid rain are cumulative, so that even at current levels of emissions the problem is expected to intensify and to spread geographically. Third, the transport of air pollutants across state and national boundaries has raised fundamental issues of equity that are likely to be disputed for some time. Finally, any serious program for reducing acid rain will exert a profound influence on the future development of energy supplies. This review summarizes the causes, effects, and transport of acid rain, and discusses possible strategies for mitigating the problem.

Gould, R.R.

1984-01-01

149

Airborne haloacetic acids.  

PubMed

Haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations were measured in air samples from a semi-rural and a highly urbanized site in southern Ontario throughout 2000 to investigate their sources and gas-particle partitioning behavior. Denuders were efficient for collection of gaseous HAAs, and the particle phase was collected on a downstream quartz filter with negligible breakthrough. Total HAA concentrations (i.e., gas + particles) ranged between <0.025 and 19 ng m(-3) for individual HAAs at both sites. The dominant airborne HAA was monochloroacetic acid (MCA), followed in decreasing order by dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), and trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Difluoroacetic acid (DFA), monofluoroacetic acid (MFA), and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA) were also frequently detected at lower concentrations. Between sites, TFA, DFA, MFA, and TCA concentrations were significantly higher in Toronto, while CDFA concentrations were higher in Guelph. HAAs were primarily in the gas phase all year; however, during colder months, particle-phase HAA concentrations increased relative to the gas phase. Trichloroacetic acid had the highest particle fraction (phi) for all detected HAAs, with a mean phi of 0.51 and 0.56 for Guelph and Toronto, respectively, and both vapor pressure and acid strength appeared to influence gas-particle partitioning. Temporal trends at both sites were partially explained by temperature, short-wave radiation, and particle mass (PM10), leading to indications of the respective sources. A simple deposition model indicated that dry deposition of TFA and TCA should not be neglected in temperate mid-latitude environments and that precipitation concentrations can be successfully predicted by the Henry's law constant. PMID:12875391

Martin, Jonathan W; Mabury, Scott A; Wong, Charles S; Noventa, Francis; Solomon, Keith R; Alaee, Mehran; Muir, Derek C G

2003-07-01

150

Contribution of organic acids to the acidity of Finnish lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the contribution of organic carbon and organic acids to the acid-base status of Finnish lakes, summarizing empirical organic acidity measurements (from 16 lakes) combined with the Finnish Lake Survey data ...

P. Kortelainen

1993-01-01

151

Acid recovery from waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of sulfuric acid production from pyrite, there is a lot of waste acid produced in fume washing with dilute\\u000a acid. Acid recovery from this sort of waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis is studied in the paper. The mass transfer\\u000a dialysis coefficient of sulfuric acid of the membrane AFX is measured, the effect of the flowrate of

Guiqing Zhang; Qixiu Zhang; Kanggen Zhou

1999-01-01

152

Trans Fatty Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

Doyle, Ellin

1997-09-01

153

Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles.

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

1985-01-01

154

Understanding acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

Budiansky, S.

1981-06-01

155

Nucleic acid-based matrixes  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Various nucleic acid-based matrixes are provided, comprising nucleic acid monomers as building blocks, as well as nucleic acids encoding proteins, so as to produce novel biomaterials. Methods of utilizing such biomaterials include cell-free protein synthesis.

2013-07-16

156

Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are ge...

T. M. Brouns T. L. Stewart

1988-01-01

157

WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

158

Hydroxy-Conjugated Fatty Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a method of producing hydroxy-conjugated octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid contained in vegetable oils and soap stocks from alkali-refined vegetable oils. Linoleic acid soaps are dispersed in an aqueous medium containing di...

E. A. Emkeu

1973-01-01

159

Nucleic Acid Cloning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides an improved system for linking nucleic acids to one another. In particular, the present invention provides techniques for producing DNA product molecules that may be easily and directly ligated to recipient molecules. The pr...

K. A. Jarrell V. W. Coljee W. Donahue S. Mikheeva

2001-01-01

160

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05

161

Aminolevulinic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

162

Acid-Base Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

2002-06-01

163

Stomach acid test  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after a period of not eating so that fluid is all that remains in the ... the stomach through the esophagus (food pipe). To test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

164

Amino Acids and Chirality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

Cook, Jamie E.

2012-01-01

165

Molecular Structure of Gallic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gallic acid is found in its free state and combined with the tannin molecule, from which it can be extracted by the hydrolysis of tannic acid with sulfuric acid. Since one molecule of gallic acid has a carboxylic acid group and hydroxyl groups, it can react with another molecule of gallic acid to form an ester, digallic acid. When heated above 200 degrees C, gallic acid loses carbon dioxide to form pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, C6H3(OH)3), which is used in the production of azo dyes, photographic developers, and in laboratories for absorbing oxygen.

2003-05-08

166

Acid Rain Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

167

Inflammation, acid and ulcers.  

PubMed Central

Chronic active type B gastritis is invariably the result of Helicobacter pylori infection and is an important factor in duodenal ulcer disease. The actions of mediators produced (a protein factor, a lipid soluble "pore-forming factor" and urease) or induced (immune/inflammatory cell mediators) by this bacterium on the control of gastric acid secretion are currently being investigated. These studies are reviewed in light of our current knowledge of the physiological control of gastric acid secretion.

Muller, M. J.; Hunt, R. H.

1994-01-01

168

Domoic Acid Fact Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online fact sheet illustrates the transfer of domoic acid through the food web. Domoic acid is a nerve toxin produced by a naturally occurring Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) usually (but not always) of the genus Pseudonitzchia. The sheet explains what to do if you find a sick or dead animal and includes contact information for injured/sick/entangled animal rescue networks in California.

Sanctuary, Channel I.

169

Effects of acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation, including dry deposition, is recognized as coming from pollution-caused strong acid precursors that result from the burning of fossil fuels. Recent studies suggest that ecosystems susceptible to acidification occur over the entire length of the Appalachian Mountains and certain other regions of the eastern U.S. This paper reviews a short-term assessment by the EPA to survey the extent

Norman R. Glass; Dean E. Arnold; James N. Galloway; George R. Hendrey; Jeffrey J. Lee; W. W. McFee; Stephen A. Norton; Charles F. Powers; Danny L. Rambo; Carl L. Schofield

1982-01-01

170

Acid-base chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

1985-01-01

171

High-performance liquid chromatography for the quantitative determination of the urinary metabolites of toluene, xylene, and styrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for simultaneous quantitative determination of the urinary metabolites of toluene, m-xylene, and styrene (hippuric acid, m-methylhippuric acid, phenylglyoxylic acid, mandelic acid) is described. The extraction procedure was performed on acidified urines, after addition of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as internal standard, using a butylchloride\\/isopropanol mixture and drying 0.5 ml of the organic layer under nitrogen

G. Poggi; M. Giusiani; U. Palagi; P. L. Paggiaro; A. M. Loi; F. Dazzi; C. Siclari; L. Baschieri

1982-01-01

172

Gas-phase acidities of the 20 protein amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-phase acidities of the 20 protein amino acids (PAAs) have been determined using an electrospray ionization-quadrupole ion trap instrument. Three different methods were used to determine both the absolute acidities and the relative acidity ordering of the PAAs. The extended kinetic method was used to determine absolute acidities for all 20 PAAs with substituted carboxylic acids and substituted phenols as reference acids. Acidities were obtained with an average uncertainty of ±10 kJ/mol, which is large compared to some of the differences between amino acids with similar acidities. To determine the relative acidity ordering, single-reference kinetic method experiments were performed using both the reference acids from the absolute acidity studies and tryptophan and threonine as reference acids. Additional ordering information was obtained from kinetic method experiments in which proton-bound dimer ions comprising pairs of amino acids were generated and dissociated in the ion trap. The recommended acidity ordering is Gly < Ala < Pro < Val < Leu < Ile < Lys < Trp < Phe < Tyr < Met < Ser < Thr < Cys < Gln < Gln < Arg < Asn < His < Glu < Asp. Isodesmic acidity values were also obtained at the B3LYP/6-311++G**//B3LYP/6-31+G* level of theory with acetic acid as the reference acid. The theoretical acidities are in excellent agreement with the absolute acidities obtained from the extended kinetic method studies. The calculations predict that the preferred isomer for protonated cysteine and tyrosine is not a carboxylate anion, but rather a thiolate anion and a phenoxide anion, respectively.

Jones, Christopher M.; Bernier, Matthew; Carson, Erin; Colyer, Kathryn Ee; Metz, Rachel; Pawlow, Anna; Wischow, Emily D.; Webb, Ian; Andriole, Erica J.; Poutsma, John C.

2007-11-01

173

[Studies on metabolism of a fungicide yekuling in rat].  

PubMed

The metabolism of a fungicide Yekuling was studied in rat after oral administration. Four metabolites were isolated and purified by means of reverse-phase HPLC and TLC. They were identified to be acetic acid, 1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidenehydrazide; pyruvic acid, 1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidenehydrazide; benzoic acid and hippuric acid with UV and MS. The latter was further confirmed by chemical synthesis. The experimental results showed that Yekuling was metabolized extensively in rat. Yekuling was hydrolyzed by amidase to produce benzoic acid and 1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidenehydrazide. The latter was further acetylated by N-acetyltransferase to form acetic acid, 1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidenehydrazide, or condensed spontaneously to form pyruvic acid, 1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidenehydrazide. Benzoic acid was further conjugated with glycine to produce hippuric acid. PMID:1451579

Gao, N

1992-03-01

174

Optimizing acid suppression for treatment of acid-related diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric acid is of central importance in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Pharmacological reduction of acid secretion is, therefore, the mainstay of current treatment, but the optimal degree of acid suppression remains incompletely understood. This paper considers the ideal ways of assessing and reporting the pharmacological effectiveness of acid-inhibiting drugs and relating such data

Richard H. Hunt; Christer Cederberg; John Dent; Fred Halter; Colin Howden; I. N. Solly Marks; Simon Rune; Robert P. Walt

1995-01-01

175

Thin-layer chromatography of gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six solvent systems of varying suitability are reported for the thin-layer chromatographic separation of simple phenolics and related compounds such as gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid. The solvent system chloroform-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (50:50:1) facilitated the separation of all the compounds except pyrogallol and ferulic acid;

Om Prakash Sharma; Tej Krishan Bhat; Bhupinder Singh

1998-01-01

176

Exposición ocupacional a solventes orgánicos en una fábrica de calzado en Valencia, Venezuela, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Potential health effects of organic solvents exposure were assessed. Thirty six workers of shoe manufacturer located in Valencia, Venezuela, were studied. They had a medical exam, and an occupational history. Biological indicators of exposure (toluene in blood; methylethy- ketone, methylisobuthylketone, acetone and hippuric acid in urine) and effect (creatinine in urine, hematologic analyses, bilirubin, transaminases and alkaline phoshatase-AP) were

Maritza Rodríguez; Guido Squillante; Maritza Rojas; TRABAJOS ORIGINALES

177

1H NMR spectroscopic identification of a glue sniffing biomarker.  

PubMed

Organic solvent abuse typically involves sniffing organic solvents to experience the mind-altering conditions they induce. In Republic of Korea, organic solvent abuse is a serious social problem, especially among teenagers. Several studies have addressed the effects of organic solvent abuse on mind and body, but there are no simple methods by which such abuse can be positively identified. In this report, we describe a method for analyzing toluene metabolites (toluene is the main ingredient of glue) in glue-sniffers' urine using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Toluene is a commonly used solvent in the rubber, paint, plastics, leather, printing, and chemical industries. Inhaled toluene is metabolized to hippuric acid in the liver and excreted in the urine. Hippuric acid is known as a good biomarker for biological monitoring of toluene exposure. We have scanned hippuric acid and other toluene metabolites by NMR spectroscopy and performed statistical multivariate analysis of the data. Based on this analysis, we sought to determine parameters by which glue-sniffing (toluene inhalation) behavior may be verified. We also demonstrate the use of a pattern recognition method for accurate and efficient analysis of NMR data. In comparison to conventional methods, such as mass spectroscopy coupled with liquid chromatography or gas chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has several advantages, including simple sample preparation, non-destructive sampling, accuracy, short acquisition time, and reproducibility in the determination of urinary hippuric acid. PMID:21316881

Kwon, Bobae; Kim, Siwon; Kim, Sosun; Lee, Dong-Kye; Park, Yu-Jin; Kim, Myung-Duck; Lee, Jae-Shin; Kim, Suhkmann

2011-06-15

178

Estimating amounts of toluene inhaled by workers with protective mask using biological indicators of toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal air samplers were attached to workers wearing protective masks to determine the levels of toluene vapor in the breathing zone. Concentrations of toluene in exhaled air, blood and urine; and hippuric acid and o-cresol concentrations in the urine of the workers were determined. Subsequently, toluene concentrations in the air inhaled by workers with and without gas masks were estimated

Masana Ogata; Hiromi Michitsuji; Yukio Fujiki

1999-01-01

179

Occupational exposure to solvent mixtures: effects on health and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure monitoring by personal diffusive samplers, biological monitoring of toluene exposure by urinary hippuric acid determination, haematology, serum biochemistry for liver function, and a subjective symptom survey by questionnaire were conducted on 303 male solvent workers. They were exposed to a mixture of solvents including toluene (geometric mean 18 ppm), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK; 16 ppm), isopropyl alcohol (IPA; 7

H Ukai; S Takada; S Inui; Y Imai; T Kawai; S Shimbo; M Ikeda

1994-01-01

180

Study by means of high-performance liquid chromatography of solutes that decrease theophylline\\/protein binding in the serum of uremic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial changes in protein binding of drugs occur during the progression of renal insufficiency. Protein-bound uremic solutes play a role in the inhibition of drug protein binding. We previously demonstrated that hippuric acid in uremic ultrafiltrate was an inhibitor of the theophylline protein binding. The present study was undertaken to extend the yield of protein-bound uremic solutes by displacing ligands

Rita De Smet; Pascale Vogeleere; Jacqueline Van Kaer; Norbert Lameire; Raymond Vanholder

1999-01-01

181

Levulinic acid in organic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data concerning the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and application of levulinic acid are analysed and generalised. The wide synthetic potential of levulinic acid, particularly as a key compound in the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems, saturated and unsaturated ketones and diketones, difficultly accessible acids and other compounds is demonstrated. The accessibility of levulinic acid from hexose-containing wood-processing and agricultural

Boris V Timokhin; V A Baransky; G D Eliseeva

1999-01-01

182

New look at sandstone acidizing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid mutual solvent (AMS) technique is a 3-step process which involves a preflush, a mixed HF-HCl stage, and an afterflush employing the mutual solvent. The preflush is normally regular hydrochloric acid (15% HCl). This step is designed to serve as a buffer between formation water and hydrofluoric acid. Normally an adequate preflush is 50 gal of regular acid per

Gidley

1973-01-01

183

Fungal production of citric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid is the principal organic acid found in citrus fruits. To meet increasing demands it is produced from carbohydrate feedstock by fermentation with the fungus Aspergillus niger and the yeasts of Candida spp. Effect of various fermentation conditions and the biochemistry of citric acid formation by A. niger have been discussed. Commercially citric acid is produced by surface, submerged

H. S. Grewal; K. L. Kalra

1995-01-01

184

Acid rain: a background report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to

L. Glustrom; J. Stolzenberg

1982-01-01

185

Molecular Structure of Malonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Propanedioic acid is a dibasic carboxylic acid that was first synthesized by oxidizing malic acid in 1858 by a scientist named Dessaigne. Naturally, propandioic acid is found in apples. This chemical is relatively unstable and has few uses, but its ester derivative, diethyl malonate, is used to synthesize useful compounds such as barbiturates, flavors, fragrances, and vitamins (B1 and B6).

2002-10-10

186

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22

187

Simultaneous LCMS\\/MS determination of phenylbutyrate, phenylacetate benzoate and their corresponding metabolites phenylacetylglutamine and hippurate in blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inborn errors of urea metabolism result in hyperammonemia. Treatment of urea cycle disorders can effectively lower plasma\\u000a ammonium levels and results in survival in the majority of patients. Available medications for treating urea cycle disorders\\u000a include sodium benzoate (BA), sodium phenylacetate (PAA), and sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) and are given to provide alternate\\u000a routes for disposition of waste nitrogen excretion. In

Maurice D. Laryea; Diran Herebian; Thomas Meissner; Ertan Mayatepek

188

Molecular Structure of Succinic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

2004-11-11

189

Exposures to acidic aerosols.  

PubMed Central

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m3 (approximately 27 micrograms/m3 H2SO4). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m3 for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H2SO4 exceeded 50 micrograms/m3.

Spengler, J D; Keeler, G J; Koutrakis, P; Ryan, P B; Raizenne, M; Franklin, C A

1989-01-01

190

Amino acid analysis.  

PubMed

Amino acid analysis (AAA) is one of the best methods to quantify peptides and proteins. Two general approaches to quantitative AAA exist, namely, classical postcolumn derivatization following ion-exchange chromatography and precolumn derivatization followed by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). Excellent instrumentation and several specific methodologies are available for both approaches, and both have advantages and disadvantages. This unit focuses on picomole-level AAA of peptides and proteins using the most popular precolumn-derivatization method, namely, phenylthiocarbamyl amino acid analysis (PTC-AAA). It is directed primarily toward those interested in establishing the technology with a modest budget. PTC derivatization and analysis conditions are described, and support and alternate protocols describe additional techniques necessary or useful for most any AAA method--e.g., sample preparation, hydrolysis, instrument calibration, data interpretation, and analysis of difficult or unusual residues such as cysteine, tryptophan, phosphoamino acids, and hydroxyproline. PMID:18429107

Crabb, J W; West, K A; Dodson, W S; Hulmes, J D

2001-05-01

191

Reducing acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The effects of acidic rainfall are most evident and highly publicized in Europe and the northeastern US. Greatest damage is done to lakes that are poorly buffered. The various strategies for reducing acid rain involve possible investments of billions of dollars annually. To minimize acid rain in a cost-effective manner, the authors must develop a better understanding of the chemistry of the oxides of nitrogen and sulfur as well as hydrogen peroxide, ozone, formaldehyde, and other species in cloud droplets and in the vapor state. The roles of reactive species, such as the radicals of OH, OOH, and NO/sub 3/, in oxidation reactions leading to scavenging of pollutants from the atmosphere need to be better understood in the heterogeneous atmosphere.

Not Available

1986-05-01

192

Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid  

PubMed Central

Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand.

Saldick, Jerome

1974-01-01

193

Coronary vasodilatation by fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fatty acids increase the coronary flow rate of rat hearts, perfused according to theLangendorff technique. Long-chain and medium-chain fatty acids are more effective vasodilators than short-chain fatty acids. The vasodilatation by fatty acids does not proceed through the intermediate formation of the vasodilator adenosine, nor by stimulation of adenylcyclase activity. Since at low Ca2+ concentrations fatty acids not only

W. C. Hülsmann

1976-01-01

194

Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

2002-08-13

195

Acid Deposition Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will design an apparatus and carry out tests of fossil fuels to determine their impact on acid deposition by placing a small amount of a fossil fuel on a cotton puff and burning it to measure if acidic compounds are given off. Students will provide a diagram of their collection device and describe how it should function. Students will then draw a map showing the location of their precipitation collector and develop a graph or chart based on the results they have collected.

196

Liposomal spherical nucleic acids.  

PubMed

A novel class of metal-free spherical nucleic acid nanostructures was synthesized from readily available starting components. These particles consist of 30 nm liposomal cores, composed of an FDA-approved 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid monomer. The surface of the liposomes was functionalized with DNA strands modified with a tocopherol tail that intercalates into the phospholipid layer of the liposomal core via hydrophobic interactions. The spherical nucleic acid architecture not only stabilizes these constructs but also facilitates cellular internalization and gene regulation in SKOV-3 cells. PMID:24983505

Banga, Resham J; Chernyak, Natalia; Narayan, Suguna P; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Mirkin, Chad A

2014-07-16

197

Polyvalent Nucleic Acid Nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Polyvalent oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates possess several unique emergent properties including enhanced cellular uptake, high antisense bioactivity, and nuclease resistance, which hypothetically originate from the dense packing and orientation of oligonucleotides on the surface of the nanoparticle. In this communication, we describe a new class of polyvalent nucleic acid nanostructures (PNANs), which comprise only crosslinked and oriented nucleic acids. We demonstrate that these particles are capable of effecting high cellular uptake and gene regulation without the need of a cationic polymer co-carrier. The PNANs also exhibit cooperative binding behavior and nuclease resistance properties.

Cutler, Joshua I.; Zhang, Ke; Zheng, Dan; Auyeung, Evelyn; Prigodich, Andrew E.

2011-01-01

198

Acid rain revisited  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews calculations of the estimates reported in this Newletter in 1983 on the contributions of nitric and sulfuric acids to deposition that may originate with motor vehicles. Previous estimates can now be updated, based on the recently released 1985 emissions inventory that was compiled by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). This inventory relied in turn on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National emissions Data System (NEDS), the 1985 version of which is the latest containing both point source and area source information in sufficient detail to be useful for this purpose.

Not Available

1990-06-01

199

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics  

PubMed Central

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented.

Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

2013-01-01

200

Bacterial Degradation of 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid and Homoprotocatechuic Acid  

PubMed Central

A species of Acinetobacter and two strains of Pseudomonas putida when grown with 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid gave cell extracts that converted 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (homoprotocatechuic acid) into carbon dioxide, pyruvate, and succinate. The sequence of enzyme-catalyzed steps was as follows: ring-fission by a 2,3-dioxygenase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent dehydrogenation, decarboxylation, hydration, aldol fission, and oxidation of succinic semialdehyde. Two new metabolites, 5-carboxymethyl-2-hydroxymuconic acid and 2-hydroxyhepta-2,4-diene-1,7-dioic acid, were isolated from reaction mixtures and a third, 4-hydroxy-2-ketopimelic acid, was shown to be cleaved by extracts to give pyruvate and succinic semialdehyde. Enzymes of this metabolic pathway were present in Acinetobacter grown with 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid but were effectively absent when 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid or phenylacetic acid served as sources of carbon.

Sparnins, Velta L.; Chapman, Peter J.; Dagley, Stanley

1974-01-01

201

The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

2012-01-01

202

The second acidic constant of salicylic acid.  

PubMed

The second dissociation constant of salicylic acid (H2L) has been determined, at 25 degrees C, in NaCl ionic media by UV spectrophotometric measurements. The investigated ionic strength values were 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 M. The protolysis constants calculated at the different ionic strengths yielded, with the Specific Interaction Theory, the infinite dilution constant, log beta1(0) = 13.62 +/- 0.03, for the equilibrium L2- + H+ <==> HL-. The interaction coefficient between Na+ and L2-, b(Na+, L2-) = 0.02 +/- 0.07, has been also calculated. PMID:16235788

Porto, Raffaella; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Furia, Emilia

2005-01-01

203

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

SciTech Connect

An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

2010-05-03

204

Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

1992-01-01

205

Production of conjugated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Conjugated fatty acids have attracted much attention as a novel type of biologically beneficial functional lipid. Some isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduce carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, and body fat. Considering the use of CLA for medicinal and nutraceutical purposes, a safe isomer-selective process is required. The introduction of biological reactions for CLA production could be an answer. We screened microbial reactions useful for CLA production, and found several unique reactions in lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria produced CLA from linoleic acid. The produced CLA comprised a mixture of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11-18:2. Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a was selected as a potential CLA producer. Using washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a as a catalyst, CLA production from linoleic acid reached 40 mg/ml under the optimized conditions. The CLA-producing reaction was found to consist of two successive reactions, i.e., hydration of linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid and dehydrating isomerization of the hydroxy fatty acid to CLA. On the basis of these results, the transformation of hydroxy fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria was investigated. Lactic acid bacteria transformed ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) to CLA (a mixture of cis-9,trans-11-18:2 and trans-9,trans-11-18:2). Castor oil, which is rich in the triacylglycerol form of ricinoleic acid, was also found to act as a substrate for CLA production by lactic acid bacteria with the aid of lipase-catalyzed triacylglycerol hydrolysis. L. plantarum AKU 1009a produced conjugated trienoic fatty acids from alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid. The trienoic fatty acids produced from alpha-linolenic acid were identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3) and trans-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3. Those produced from gamma-linolenic were cis-6,cis-9,trans-11-18:3 and cis-6,trans-9,trans-11-18:3. The conjugated trienoic fatty acids produced from alpha- and gamma-linolenic acid were further saturated by L. plantarum AKU 1009a to trans-10,cis-15-18:2 and cis-6,trans-10-18:2, respectively. PMID:16310724

Ogawa, Jun; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ando, Akinori; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Mihara, Kousuke; Shimizu, Sakayu

2005-10-01

206

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOEpatents

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24

207

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB; liquid ecstasy, sodium oxybate) is a drug of abuse which is increasingly used recreationally and has been implicated in cases of ‘drug rape’. GHB-intoxicated patients may appear sedated or may show paradoxical agitation. After ingestion of a toxic amount of GHB, rapid onset of respiratory depression and deep coma may occur, resolving spontaneously within 24 hours with

Ruben Thanacoody

2007-01-01

208

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related to the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

2000-02-22

209

Acid rain game II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we have developed a conceptual model of the issues connected to cooperative efforts in Europe to solve acid rains problems. The basic model is a simple game theoretic model with a unique equilibrium in dominant strategies. In order to illust...

K. G. Maeler

1993-01-01

210

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

N. Bhatti; D. G. Streets; W. K. Foell

2009-01-01

211

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

1992-01-01

212

Antimicrobial Fatty Acid Derivatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acetylthio amides and esters were prepared by the free radical addition of thiolacetic acid to the terminal and nonterminal double bonds of N-substituted fatty amides and fatty esters. These new sulfur or halogen-containing compounds were found to have an...

R. R. Mod J. A. Harris F. C. Magne G. Sumrell A. F. Novak

1978-01-01

213

Targeting tumor acidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

2012-02-01

214

Effects of acid precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsible for substantial adverse effects on the public welfare. Such effects include: the acidification of lakes and rivers, with resultant damage to fish and other components of aquatic ecosystems; acidification and demineralization of soils; and possible reductions in crop and forest productivity. Affected areas include Canada and the northeastern US.

Norman R. Glass; Gary E. Glass; Peter J. Rennie

1979-01-01

215

Ascorbic Acid in Oranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1934 Bacharach, Cook and Smith1 reported that the concentration of ascorbic acid in the peel of oranges was greater than that in the juice. This was the result of tests carried out on five bitter oranges and one sweet orange, and was afterwards confirmed by various workers2-6. In connexion with an investigation on methods of preparing orange juices for

L. H. Lampitt; L. C. Baker

1942-01-01

216

[Acid hydrolysis of mandioca].  

PubMed

The influence of time of hydrolysis, pression of the process, ratio of mass of flour and volume and concentration of the acid solution was studied in the hydrolytic processes for Cassava flour. The aim was to obtain fermentable sugars, and the results were submitted to variance analysis. PMID:1228838

Colombo, A J; Schneiderman, B; Baruffaldi, R; Nacco, R

1975-01-01

217

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01

218

Citric acid urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Urine - citric acid test ... to discontinue drugs that may interfere with the test. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. However, the ... performed while you are eating regularly. Ask your health care ...

219

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2010-07-01

220

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2012-07-01

221

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2011-07-01

222

Effect of protein-bound uraemic toxins on the thermodynamic characteristics of human albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of albumin to bind drugs and other lipophilic organic acids is decreased in chronic renal failure by the accumulation of albumin-bound uraemic toxins such as hippuric acid, indoxyl sulphate and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF). This furan acid is the most highly bound and is not removed by haemodialysis. The inhibitory effects of these three uraemic toxins on the interaction

Veronika V Sarnatskaya; W. Edward Lindup; Toshimitsu Niwa; Andrey I Ivanov; Larisa A Yushko; John Tjia; Vitaly N Maslenny; Ludmila N Korneeva; Vladimir G Nikolaev

2002-01-01

223

Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

2002-08-20

224

Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake  

PubMed Central

Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease.

Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

2012-01-01

225

Effects of acidic precipitation and acidity on soil microbial processes  

SciTech Connect

Effects of oil acidity on microbial decomposition of organic matter and transformation of nitrogen in an acid forest soil were investigated. In the oak-leaf-amended pH-adjusted acid soils, CO/sub 2/ production in 14- and 150-day preincubated samples decreased by about 6 and 37%, respectively. In the control (unamended) acidified soils, reductions in CO/sub 2/ production of 14% in 14-day preincubated samples and 52% in 150-day samples were observed. Ammonia formation in the pH-adjusted acid soil was about 50% less than in the naturally acid soil. Increased rates of ammonification and nitrification were observed in the pH-adjusted neutral soil. Little autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrifying activity was detected in naturally acid and acidified forest soils. The rate of denitrification was rather slow in acid soils, and at greater acidities N/sub 2/O was the predominant end product. The abundance of nitrogen-fixing free-living bacteria was very low in acidic and acidified forest soils, and nitrogen gains by asymbiotic bacterial fixation in an acid forest ecosystem may be insignificant. These results suggest that further acidification of acid forest soils by addition of sulfuric acid or by acid precipitation may lead to significant reductions in the leaf litter decomposition, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification and thus reduce nutrient recycling in the forest ecosystem.

Francis, A.J.

1981-01-01

226

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

DOEpatents

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31

227

[Clinical significance of bile acids].  

PubMed

During the last years bile acids have gained more and more clinical importance. They play a decisive part in intestinal fat resorption. Increased bile acid content in the colon will result in diarrhea. By determination of serum bile acids the liver function can be judged exactly. It seems probable that bile acids take part in the pathogenesis of gastritis gastric ulcer and colonic cancer. By administration of chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid dissolution of cholesterol stones within the gall bladder is possible. PMID:456969

Schmack, B

1979-04-19

228

Fatty Acids of Mycobacterium kansasii  

PubMed Central

The cellular fatty acids of 35 strains of Mycobacterium kansasii isolated from clinical material were analyzed to establish properties by which we could identify and characterize these acid-fast microorganisms. The fatty acids were extracted from cells grown in liquid synthetic media, and they were analyzed as methyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The fatty acid profiles of all strains were similar. They differed from fatty acid profiles of other mycobacteria by their content of a saturated fatty acid with a methyl group at C2. Images

Thoen, Charles O.; Karlson, Alfred G.; Ellefson, Ralph D.

1971-01-01

229

Process for Synthesis of Phosphonic Acids and Phosphinic Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process is claimed for the synthesis of phosphonic and phosphinic acids by hydrolysis of the corresponding esters. The phosphonic and phosphinic acids produced act as catalysts in the process, which is characterized by the fact that the hydrolysis proce...

H. D. Block H. Kohnen

1983-01-01

230

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health.

2009-01-01

231

Do trans Fatty Acids Impair Linoleic Acid Metabolism in Children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans isomeric fatty acids disturb themetabolism of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in animals and in premature infants. We assessed whether similar effects may also occur in healthy children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition was analysed in 53 apparently healthy children aged 1-15 years (mean 7.5 years). Trans fatty acids were found in all samples and contributed 1.78 ± 0.10% (w\\/w,

Tamås Decsi; Berthold Koletzko

1995-01-01

232

Prophylactic Tranexamic Acid and ?-Aminocaproic Acid for Primary Myocardial Revascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The efficacy of prophylactic ?-aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid to reduce transfusions after primary myocardial revascularization was evaluated in a teaching hospital context.Methods. Patients (n = 134) received either ?-aminocaproic acid (15-g bolus + infusion of 1 g\\/h), high-dose tranexamic acid (10-g bolus + placebo infusion), or normal saline solution in a double-blind fashion. Anticoagulation and conduct of cardiopulmonary

Jean-François Hardy; Sylvain Bélisle; Charles Dupont; François Harel; Danielle Robitaille; Micheline Roy; Lyne Gagnon

1998-01-01

233

Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.  

PubMed

The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain. PMID:19376463

Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

2009-06-01

234

An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described in mouse stomach parietal cells the expression of the system

Philipp Kirchhoff; Mital H. Dave; Christine Remy; Ortrud Kosiek; Stephanie M. Busque; Matthias Dufner; John P. Geibel; Francois Verrey; Carsten A. Wagner

2006-01-01

235

College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

2011-01-01

236

Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

McCormick, John

237

Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis

Line Robitaille; Orval A. Mamer; Wilson H. Miller Jr.; Mark Levine; Sarit Assouline; David Melnychuk; Caroline Rousseau; L. John Hoffer

2009-01-01

238

Molecular Structure of Sulfuric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H2SO4 was discovered by alchemists and made from heating a compound of iron sulfate. In 1740, sulfuric acid was produced for commercial sale. Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid which is used in car batteries. The acid disassociates in water to give two protons and sulfate. This acid can destroy flesh and cause blindness. It was discovered in the 19th century that adding sulfuric acid to soil produces phosphorus, which is beneficial to plants; hence, sulfuric acid is used as a fertilizer in the form of super phosphate and ammonium sulfate. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and process metals, and is found in paints and car batteries.

2002-08-15

239

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

240

Molecular Structure of Glutaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glutaric acid is a colorless liquid and white crystals as a solid occurring in plants and animal tissues. It is used in organic synthesis and as an intermediate for the manufacture of polymers such as polyamides and polyesters, ester plasticizers and corrosion inhibitors. It is also useful in the application of decreasing polymer elasticity and in a variety of industrial applications. In addition glutaric acid plays an important role as an intermediary in the Krebs cycle and is used in medication against a large number of viruses and in animal diabetes. Glutaric acid can be prepared from cyclopentanone by oxidative ring fission with nitric acid and in the presence of a catalyst. Glutaric acid has the lowest melting point among dicarboxylic acids (98 C); it is very soluble in water and the solution in water is a medium strong acid. Short-term exposure to glutaric acid may cause irritation to the eyes, skin and the respiratory tract.

2004-11-10

241

Ethylene Production from Linolenic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility that the ethylene that is evolved from plants arises from linolenic acid was investigated by determining the relationship between ethylene evolution and linolenic acid levels from a number of plants. The evidence indicates that linolenic a...

F. B. Abeles

1966-01-01

242

Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... a fat-like substance) in your blood. Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are in a class of ...

243

Omega-3 fatty acids (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

244

Ideas about Acids and Alkalis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates students' ideas, conceptions, and misconceptions about acids and alkalis before and after a teaching sequence in a small-scale research project. Concludes that student understanding of acids and alkalis is lacking. (DDR)

Toplis, Rob

1998-01-01

245

Antilisterial activity of selected phenolic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic acids are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a variety of micro-organisms. Their influence on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes, particularly in foods derived from plants, is not well understood. Several phenolic acids including chlorogenic acid and the hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, were screened for activity against five strains of L. monocytogenes using a

Aimin Wen; Pascal Delaquis; Kareen Stanich; Peter Toivonen

2003-01-01

246

(Radioiodinated free fatty acids)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1987-12-11

247

Acid rain abatement  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of obtaining acid rain abatement from a flue gas containing nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur oxides (SOX). It comprises the steps of treating the flue gas with a reducing agent to remove the remaining oxygen and produce an effluent, the reducing agent being selected from group consisting of natural gas, methane, a mixture of CO and hydrogen derived from steam, hydrocarbon, and hydrogen, passing effluent over a catalyst to simultaneously reduce the NOX to water and elemental nitrogen and the SOX to H{sub 2}S or elemental sulfur, the catalyst being selected from the group consisting of heteropoly acids and their salts, the reduction of the NOX and SOX taking place in a temperature range of 200{degrees} - 900{degrees} C., and removing the sulfur or sulfur compounds from the reduced flue gas to thereby remove essentially all of the NOX and SOX.

Stiles, A.B.

1991-06-11

248

Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".  

PubMed

The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent. PMID:3758667

Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

1986-01-01

249

Weak Acid Equilibrium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to calculate the pH of a weak acid aqueous solution. The problems involve a series of generic acids with assigned equilibrium constants (Ka) and total concentrations (Ct). Initially, students are required to hand calculate all problems by algebraic manipulation of the mathematical relationships of the system. The solution is a cubic equation. Through a series of assumptions, the solution is simplified. The assumptions are based on the chemistry of the system given the Ka and Ct for the problem. The problems are then graphically solved. Ultimately, the students develop an Excel worksheet to solve the problems and a Bjerrum plot to display the speciation as a function of pH.

Stapleton, Michael

250

An amino acid transporter involved in gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

Gastric acid secretion is regulated by a variety of stimuli, in particular histamine and acetyl choline. In addition, dietary factors such as the acute intake of a protein-rich diet and the subsequent increase in serum amino acids can stimulate gastric acid secretion only through partially characterized pathways. Recently, we described in mouse stomach parietal cells the expression of the system L heteromeric amino acid transporter comprised of the LAT2-4F2hc dimer. Here we address the potential role of the system L amino acid transporter in gastric acid secretion by parietal cells in freshly isolated rat gastric glands. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the expression of 4F2-LAT2 amino acid transporters in rat parietal cells. In addition, mRNA was detected for the B(0)AT1, ASCT2, and ATB(0+) amino acid transporters. Intracellular pH measurements in parietal cells showed histamine-induced and omeprazole-sensitive H+-extrusion which was enhanced by about 50% in the presence of glutamine or cysteine (1 mM), two substrates of system L amino acid transporters. BCH, a non-metabolizable substrate and a competitive inhibitor of system L amino acid transport, abolished the stimulation of acid secretion by glutamine or cysteine suggesting that this stimulation required the uptake of amino acids by system L. In the absence of histamine glutamine also stimulated H+-extrusion, whereas glutamate did not. Also, phenylalanine was effective in stimulating H+/K+-ATPase activity. Glutamine did not increase intracellular Ca2+ levels indicating that it did not act via the recently described amino acid modulated Ca2+-sensing receptor. These data suggest a novel role for heterodimeric amino acid transporters and may elucidate a pathway by which protein-rich diets stimulate gastric acid secretion. PMID:16308696

Kirchhoff, Philipp; Dave, Mital H; Remy, Christine; Kosiek, Ortrud; Busque, Stephanie M; Dufner, Matthias; Geibel, John P; Verrey, Francois; Wagner, Carsten A

2006-03-01

251

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

1992-01-01

252

Acid Deposition Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides students with the opportunity to use analytical meters and instruments and perform acid deposition sampling. Students will collect samples from various sources over a period of time, then measure pH and develop graphs or charts. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

2011-02-17

253

Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given single doses of 1500 and 3000 mg\\/kg; these effects persisted to varying degrees on post-treatment days 2,14,

Ralph E. Linder; Gary R. Klinefelter; Lillian F. Strader; Juan D. Suarez; Naomi L. Roberts

1997-01-01

254

Lipoic acid biosynthesis defects.  

PubMed

Lipoate is a covalently bound cofactor essential for five redox reactions in humans: in four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases and the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Two enzymes are from the energy metabolism, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase; and three are from the amino acid metabolism, branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase, and the GCS. All these enzymes consist of multiple subunits and share a similar architecture. Lipoate synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis up to octanoyl-acyl-carrier protein; and three lipoate-specific steps, including octanoic acid transfer to glycine cleavage H protein by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (putative) (LIPT2), lipoate synthesis by lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoate transfer by lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1), which is necessary to lipoylate the E2 subunits of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases. The reduced form dihydrolipoate is reactivated by dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD). Mutations in LIAS have been identified that result in a variant form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia with early-onset convulsions combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism with encephalopathy and cardiomyopathy. LIPT1 deficiency spares the GCS, and resulted in a combined 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase deficiency and early death in one patient and in a less severely affected individual with a Leigh-like phenotype. As LIAS is an iron-sulphur-cluster-dependent enzyme, a number of recently identified defects in mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster synthesis, including NFU1, BOLA3, IBA57, GLRX5 presented with deficiency of LIAS and a LIAS-like phenotype. As in DLD deficiency, a broader clinical spectrum can be anticipated for lipoate synthesis defects depending on which of the affected enzymes is most rate limiting. PMID:24777537

Mayr, Johannes A; Feichtinger, René G; Tort, Frederic; Ribes, Antonia; Sperl, Wolfgang

2014-07-01

255

Acid Rain Effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise

2004-01-01

256

Acid hydrolysis of chitosans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of the O-glycosidic linkages (depolymerization) and the N-acetyl linkage (de-N-acetylation) of partially N-acetylated chitosans were studied in dilute and concentrated HCl. The rate of hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages was found to be equal to the rate of de-N-acetylation in dilute acid, while the glycosidic linkages was hydrolysed more than 10 times faster than the N-acetyl linkage in

K. M. Vårum; M. H. Ottøy; O. Smidsrød

2001-01-01

257

Enviropedia: Introduction to Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about acid rain, a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation. The sources, nature, and chemistry of acid rain are discussed, along with its impact on buildings, soils, freshwater lakes, trees, and wildlife. Other topics include measuring, modeling, and monitoring acid rain; and vehicle and industrial emission controls. The problem of airborne pollutants migrating across international borders is also discussed.

258

Molecular Structure of Octanoic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caprylic acid is a colorless oil manufactured from 1-heptene or 1-octanol. Octanoic acid has an unpleasant rancid taste. When converted from the carboxlic acid to an ester, it has a pleasant taste. In addition, esters of caprylic acid are used in the preparation of dyes, perfumes, and food preservatives. This compound has also been found to have antifungal activity and is used to treat yeast infections.

2002-10-11

259

Fatty acid signaling in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derived signals have\\u000a established roles in the regulation of developmental and defense gene expression. Growing numbers of these compounds, mostly\\u000a derived from fatty acid hydroperoxides, are being characterized. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is serving a vital role in the discovery of fatty acid-derived signal

Edward E. Farmer; Hans Weber; Sabine Vollenweider

1998-01-01

260

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m/sup 3/ more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m/sup 3/ (approximately 27 micrograms/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m/sup 3/ for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exceeded 50 micrograms/m/sup 3/.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.; Franklin, C.A.

1989-02-01

261

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H(+) ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/cu m more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H(+) determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr (H+) concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/cu m (approximately 27 microgram/cu m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/cu m for H(+) ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H(+) ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} exceeded 50 microgram/cu m.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.

1989-01-01

262

Acid rain in Asia  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain has been an issue of widespread concern in North America and Europe for more than fifteen years. However, there is an emerging feeling that the problem in Europe and North America is nearing solution, largely as a result of existing and newly enacted legislation, decreased energy use due to conservation and efficiency improvements, and/or trends in energy policy away from fossil fuels. The situation in Asia appears much bleaker. Fossil fuels are already used in large quantities, such that local air pollution is becoming a serious problem and high deposition levels are being measured. Emission regulations in most countries (with the notable exception of Japan) are not very stringent. Energy plans in many countries (particularly PRC, India, Thailand, and South Korea) call for very large increases in coal combustion in the future. Finally, there is not presently a strong scientific or public constituency for action to mitigate the potential effects of acid deposition. These factors imply potentially serious problems in the future for long-range transport and deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species and consequent damage to ecosystems and materials. The political ramifications of transboundary environmental pollution in this region are also potentially serious. The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the acid deposition situation in Asia, with the intention of laying the foundation for the development of a possible research program for this region. 36 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Bhatti, N.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Foell, W.K. (Resource Management Associates, Madison, WI (USA))

1991-01-01

263

Acid rain in Asia  

SciTech Connect

In Asia, fossil fuels are used in large quantities, such that local air pollution is becoming a serious problem and high deposition levels are being measured. Emission regulations in most countries (with the exception of Japan) are not very stringent. Energy plans in many countries call for very large increases in coal combustion in the future. Finally, there is not presently a strong constituency for action to mitigate the potential effects of acid deposition. These factors imply potentially serious problems in the future for long-range transport and deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species and consequent damage to ecosystems and materials. The political ramifications of transboundary environmental pollution in this region are also potentially serious. A predictive tool could be built to help decision makers project future trends in emissions, estimate the regional consequences for acid deposition levels, evaluate the vulnerability of natural and man-made systems, and determine the costs and effectiveness of alternative mitigative actions that might be taken. Such a policy analysis exercise can start to raise environmental awareness in the region and begin a dialogue that could help ameliorate an environmental problem in its early stages. The purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the acid deposition situation in Asia, with the intention of laying the foundation for the design of a possible research program for this region. 41 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

Bhatti, N.; Streets, D.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Foell, W.K. (Resource Management Associates, Madison, WI (USA) Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

1989-01-01

264

Cannabinoid acids analysis.  

PubMed

The cannabinoid pattern of vegetable preparations from Cannabis sativa (hashish, marijuana) allows to recognize the phenotype of the plants, to be used as drug or for fiber. Cannabinoid determination by analytical point of view has represented some problems caused by the complex composition of the hexane extract. Capillary gas chromatography of the hexane extracts of vegetable samples, shows the presence of rather polar constituents that eluted, with noticeable interactions, only on polar phase. The compounds can be methylated by diazomethane and silanized (TMS) by silylating reagents. The methyl and methyl-TMS derivatives are analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identification of the compounds shows their nature of cannabinoid acids, which the main by quantitative point of view results the cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). It is known that the cannabinoid acids are thermally unstable and are transformed in the corresponding cannabinoids by decarboxilation. This is of interest in forensic analysis with the aim to establish the total amount of THC in the Cannabis preparations, as the active component. PMID:1503600

Lercker, G; Bocci, F; Frega, N; Bortolomeazzi, R

1992-03-01

265

Docosahexaenoic acid: A valuable nutraceutical?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain and retina is important for proper nervous system and visual functions. Although it is difficult to deplete the mammalian nervous system of its essential fatty acids, particularly in adults, a well-balanced intake of both w-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) appears to be necessary for the satisfactory development of

Y.-Y. Linko; K. Hayakawa

1996-01-01

266

Molecular Structure of Carbonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The hypothetical acid formed with carbon dioxide and water; it is only in the H2CO3 form when in solution. This acid is found in everyday products, the most prominent of which include carbonated beverages. The conversion of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide in sodas is the reason the beverage looses the bubbling.

2002-09-10

267

Factors Controlling Naphthenic Acid Corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to elucidate the influence of chemical and physical parameters on corrosion of type 1018 carbon steel (CS, UNS G10180) and 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel in oils containing naphthenic acids (NAs) for application to crude oil refinery systems. Effects of test duration, temperature, and acid concentration were assessed for a range of single acids of varying

Alan Turnbull; Evelina Slavcheva; Bryan Shone

1998-01-01

268

Uranium Extraction from Phosphoric Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped the authors to synthesize a phosphoric acid tha...

A. Lounis

1983-01-01

269

New politics of acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The acid rain problem is not nationwide across the USA but the politicians want to spread the cost of emission reductions. An overview of acid rain and its environmental impacts is given, and a cost-benefit analysis of acid rain control is outlined. USA policies are discussed. 6 references.

Trisko, E.M.

1983-07-01

270

Acid rain: the international response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain or technically “acid deposition” has far reaching environmental, economic, political and international implications. It has been blamed for large?scale damage to aquatic ecosystems and forests in Scandinavia, southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. A number of other countries have expressed concern about the possible affects of acid rain on water bodies, forests, agricultural crops and material structures.Never

Gordon L. Brady; Joseph C. Selle

1985-01-01

271

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Poole, Loree J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

1995-01-01

272

Acid rain. what is it  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain and its effects are difficult to measure. Even harder to determine is whether reducing sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions will reduce acid rain and, if so, where the effect will take place. A better understanding of atmospheric chemistry and the role of oxidizing agents and clouds in forming acids is needed. Several bills before Congress call for reductions

2009-01-01

273

Ethylene Production from Linolenic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility of linolenic acid serving as the precursor of ethylene in vivo was investigated. A comparison of the amount of linolenic acid present in plant tissues with the rates of ethylene production indicated that linolenic acid does not serve as th...

F. B. Abeles

1965-01-01

274

Acid rain: Reign of controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the

Kahan

1986-01-01

275

Determination of Mine Waste Acidity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pollution from acid mine drainage is a chronic problem. The current vigorous interest has led to a re-examination of the methods of measuring total acidity, which are clearly based on the limited laboratory capabilities of prior years. Defined acid-metal ...

B. V. Salotto E. F. Barth M. B. Ettinger W. E. Tolliver

1967-01-01

276

Scientists Puzzle Over Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a growing concern over increased acidity in atmospheric percipitation. Explores possible causes of the increased acidity, identifies chemical components of precipitation in various parts of the world, and presents environmental changes that might be attributed to the acidity. (GS)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

1975-01-01

277

Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent decomposition of 1-butene and formic acid generated a variety of short-chain (?C 4) hydrocarbons and moncarboxylic acids as well as CO 2. Valeric acid decomposition proceeded more rapidly (by a factor of 2) in the presence of hematite-magnetite-pyrite than with the other mineral assemblages, with the greater reaction rate apparently attributable to the effects of fluid chemistry. Valeric acid was observed to decompose at a substantially faster rate than acetic acid under similar conditions. The results suggest that decomposition of aqueous monocarboxylic acids may make a significant contribution to the conversion of petroleum to light hydrocarbons in natural gas and thermal fluids.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2003-10-01

278

Acid-hydrolysis of fish wastes for lactic acid fermentation.  

PubMed

In this study, two acid-hydrolysis processes, process A and process B, were proposed to produce low-cost nutrients for the production of lactic acid. Process A was a direct way to hydrolyze protein with diluted acid while process B was process A plus fish wastes pretreatment (an extraction by water). The two methods could both treat fish wastes to be suitable nutrient sources for promoting lactic acid production. As the pretreatment indicated some favorable effect on fish waste hydrolyzate (FWH), process B increased lactic acid productivity by 22%. Compared with 20 g/L yeast extract (YE), 6.8% FWH hydrolyzed by process B had more efficiency in lactic acid production, indicating that process B was suitable to produce high performance nutrients for lactic acid production and FWH hydrolyzed by process B would be an substitute for YE. PMID:16293413

Gao, Min-Tian; Hirata, Makoto; Toorisaka, Eiichi; Hano, Tadashi

2006-12-01

279

Composition for nucleic acid sequencing  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY) [Ithaca, NY; Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY) [Ithaca, NY; Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY) [Ithaca, NY; Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY) [Ithaca, NY; Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY) [Ithaca, NY; Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY) [Ithaca, NY

2008-08-26

280

Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration. PMID:19560175

Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

2009-01-01

281

Substituent effects on the acidity of weak acids. 2. Calculated gas-phase acidities of substituted benzoic acids.  

PubMed

To investigate the origin of substituent effects on the acidity of benzoic acids, the structures of a series of substituted benzoic acids and benzoates have been calculated at the B3LYP/6-311+G* and MP2/6-311+G* theoretical levels. The vibrational frequencies were calculated using B3LYP/6-311+G* and allowed corrections for the change in zero-point energies on ionization, and the change in energy on going from 0 K (corresponding to the calculations) to 298 K. A more satisfactory agreement with the experimental values was obtained by energy calculations at the MP2/ 6-311++G* level using the above structures. The resulting Delta H(acid) values agree very well with the experimental gas-phase acidities. The energies of compounds with pi-electron-accepting or -releasing substituents, rotated to give the transition state geometries, provided rotational barriers that could be compared with those found for the corresponding substituted benzenes. Isodesmic reactions allowed the separate examination of the substituent effects on the energies of the acids and on the anions. Electron-withdrawing groups stabilize the benzoate anions more than they destabilize the benzoic acids. Electron-donating groups stabilize the acids and destabilize the anions by approximately equal amounts. The gas-phase acidities of meta- and para-substituted benzoic acids are linearly related. This is also found for the acidities of substituted phenylacetic acids and benzoic acids. Since direct pi-electron interactions are not possible with the phenylacetic acids, this indicates that the acidities are mainly controlled by a field effect interaction between the charge distribution in the substituted benzene ring and the negative charge of the carboxylate group. The Hammett sigma(M) and sigma(P) values are also linearly related for many small substituents from NO(2) through the halogens and to OH and NH(2). Most of the other substituents fall on a line with a different slope PMID:12098290

Wiberg, Kenneth B

2002-07-12

282

Conjugated linoleic acid production from linoleic acid by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

After screening 14 genera of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a was selected as a potential strain for CLA production from linoleic acid. Washed cells of L. plantarum with high levels of CLA production were obtained by cultivation in a nutrient medium with 0.06% (wt\\/vol) linoleic acid (cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid). Under the optimal reaction conditions with the free form of

Shigenobu Kishino; Jun Ogawa; Yoriko Omura; Kenji Matsumura; Sakayu Shimizu

2002-01-01

283

Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2002-01-01

284

Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01

285

The politics of acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

Wilcher, M.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., New Kensington, PA (US))

1989-01-01

286

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

287

Liquid chromatographic determination of nitrilotriacetic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and related aminopolycarboxylic acids using an amperometric detector  

SciTech Connect

An amperometric detector employing a carbon-paste electrode is used to determine aminopolycarboxylic acids, including nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) to determine aminopolycarboxylic acids, including nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), after liquid chromatographic separation on a reversed-phase column with an aqueous trichloroacetic acid mobile phase at pH lower than 2. The aminopolycarboxylic acids are directly oxidized at the detector electrode without involving an intermediate species. Glycine, iminodiacetic acid, common amino acids, citric acid, and fulvic acids do not interfere with the determination of NTA and EDTA. The low mobile-phase pH limits interference from metal ions in natural waters. Where such interference occurs, a stronger chelating reagent (e.g. diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DPTA) can be used to suppress it. NTA and EDTA in aqueous samples, including waste water treatment plant influent and effluent, can be determined without prior sample preparation. The minimum detectable amounts are 0.1 ppm for NTA and 0.15 ppm for EDTA with a precision of less than 7% relative standard deviation.

Dai, J.; Helz, G.R.

1988-02-15

288

Metabolic diversity in biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria involving conjugated fatty acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a effectively transforms linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acids of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11–18:2. The transformation of various polyunsaturated fatty acids by washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a was investigated. Besides linoleic acid, ?-linolenic acid [cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3)], ?-linolenic acid (cis-6,cis-9,cis-12–18:3), columbinic acid (trans-5,cis-9,cis-12–18:3), and stearidonic acid [cis-6,cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4)] were found to be transformed.

Shigenobu Kishino; Jun Ogawa; Kenzo Yokozeki; Sakayu Shimizu

2009-01-01

289

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-11-01

290

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-07-01

291

Fungal metabolites of sorbic acid.  

PubMed

A number of fungal detoxification reactions of sorbic acid have been reviewed. These include decarboxylation to give trans-1,3-pentadiene, esterification to give ethyl sorbate, reduction to give 4-hexenol and 4-hexenoic acid. It was shown that seven Penicillium species could convert sorbic acid into 1,3-pentadiene whilst P. bilaii, P. fellutanum and P. glabrum did not. However, most Eurotium species were unable to bring about this conversion. Considerable differences in the resistance of two isolates of P. crustosum to sorbic acid were found. An isolate from coconut was more resistant than one isolated from hazelnuts. Both sorbic acid and caproic acid (hexanoic) brought about disorganization of the mitochondrial membranes in P. crustosum. It is suggested that these lipophilic acids inhibit growth by interfering with the electrochemical membrane potential across the mitochondrial membranes. PMID:2253810

Kinderlerer, J L; Hatton, P V

1990-01-01

292

Molecular Structure of Sorbic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sorbic acid is a colorless or white crystalline powder, with a weak characteristic odor and slightly acidic taste. It may be obtained from berries of the mountain ash or prepared synthetically by condensing crotonaldehyde and malonic acid in pyridine solution. Sorbic acid is a polyunsaturated fat used to inhibit molds and yeast, is a fungistatic agent for foods (especially cheeses, wine and baked goods). The main use of sorbic acid is as a preservative in foods, animal feeds, tobacco, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well in packing materials for these substances and in other products that come in contact with human or animal skin in some way. Sorbic acid is also used as an intermediate for plasticizers and lubricants. Sorbic acid reacts with potassium to make potassium sorbate and with calcium to make calcium sorbate.

2004-11-11

293

Molecular Structure of Picric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picric Acid was first discovered in 1771 by a British Chemist named Peter Woulfe by treatment of indigo with nitric acid. It is most commonly seen in its yellow, water-soluble, crystalline form. For this reason, picric acid first saw use as a dyeing agent in textiles. However, around 1849 it was discovered (for obvious reasons) that picric acid is a shock, heat, and friction-sensitive explosive. Its first use as an explosive material came in military weaponry: torpedoes in particular due to its shock-sensitive nature not requiring a detonator to explode on contact with a target. However, picric acid was found to be highly corrosive to metals, making the weapons very difficult to handle and the acid itself difficult to store. Today, picric acid is used more widely as an ingredient in the manufacture of inert dyes and stable explosives such as dynamite.

2002-09-23

294

Intradialytic removal of protein-bound uraemic toxins: role of solute characteristics and of dialyser membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

alterations characterizing the uraemic syndrome. Methods. In the present study, the total concentrations compounds. of four uraemic retention compounds (indoxyl sulphate, hippuric acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl- Key words: cellulose triacetate; dialysis membrane; 2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF ) and p-cresol ) and of haemodialysis; polysulphone; protein binding; removal; tryptophan, the only protein-bound amino acid and a tryptophan precursor of indoxyl sulphate, were compared with

Gerrit LesaVer; Rita De Smet; Norbert Lameire; Annemieke Dhondt; Philippe Duym; Raymond Vanholder

295

Cytenamide acetic acid solvate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound (systematic name: 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo­hepta­triene-5-carboxamide ethanoic acid solvate), C16H13NO·C2H4O2, the cytenamide and solvent mol­ecules form a hydrogen-bonded R 2 2(8) dimer motif, which is further connected to form a centrosymmetric double ring motif arrangement. The cycloheptene ring adopts a boat conformation and the dihedral angle between the least-squares planes through the two aromatic rings is 54.7?(2)°.

Johnston, Andrea; Florence, Alastair J.; Fabianni, Francesca J. A.; Shankland, Kenneth; Bedford, Colin T.

2008-01-01

296

Twinning of dodecanedicarboxylic acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twinning of 1,10-dodecanedicarboxyl acid (DDA) was observed in 0.1 mm thick films with a polarizing microscope. Twins originated from polycrystalline regions which tended to nucleate on twin faces, and terminated by intersection gone another. Twinning increased dramatically with addition of organic compounds with a similar molecular size and shape. Increasing the freezing rate, increasing the temperature gradient, and addition of silica particles increased twinning. It is proposed that twins nucleate with polycrystals and sometimes anneal out before they become observable. The impurities may enhance twinning either by lowering the twin energy or by adsorbing on growing faces.

Sen, R.; Wilcox, W. R.

1986-01-01

297

Corals on Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry-based lesson is for learners to gain an understanding of how increasing ocean acidity can affect the calcification of marine organisms. During this activity, learners: (1) design an experiment to quantify the CaCO3 concentration of two invertebrate skeletal samples, one that has been soaked in normal seawater and another in a low pH solution, and (2) use critical thinking and discussion to evaluate possible explanations for the difference in the skeletal CaCO3 compositions. This lesson plan includes a post-activity demonstration, which shows how the dissolution of CO2 into the ocean lowers pH.

Boleman, Casey L.; Gravinese, Philip M.; Muse, Ellen N.; Marston, Andrea E.; Windsor, John G.

2013-01-01

298

Microdetermination of citric acid in nervous tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation on a Dowex-1-acetate column of glutamic, aspartic, lactic, succinic, and malic acids was described. The “citric acid” (citric, cisaconitic and isocitric acids), fumaric, and oxaloacetic acids were separated.

H. Naruse; S.-C. Cheng; H. Waelsch

1966-01-01

299

21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...referred to as methanoic acid or hydrogen carboxylic acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is contained in the free acid state in a number of plants. Formic acid is prepared by the reaction of sodium...

2013-04-01

300

21 CFR 573.480 - Formic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...concerning formic acid (85 percent formic acid). (ii) Statements identifying formic acid (85 percent formic acid) as a corrosive and possible severe... (B) Contact address and telephone number for reporting adverse reactions or...

2013-04-01

301

21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...referred to as L-malic acid, occurs naturally in various foods. Racemic DL-malic acid does not occur naturally...commercially by hydration of fumaric acid or maleic acid. (b...specifications of the âFood Chemicals...

2009-04-01

302

21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is commercially prepared by hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid. It can also be produced...specifications of the âFood Chemicals...

2010-01-01

303

21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...referred to as L-malic acid, occurs naturally in various foods. Racemic DL-malic acid does not occur naturally...commercially by hydration of fumaric acid or maleic acid. (b...specifications of the âFood Chemicals...

2010-01-01

304

21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is commercially prepared by hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid. It can also be produced...specifications of the âFood Chemicals...

2009-04-01

305

21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2008-04-01 2008-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid...

2008-04-01

306

21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid...

2012-04-01

307

21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2004-04-01 2004-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid...

2004-04-01

308

21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid...

2011-04-01

309

21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2005-04-01 2005-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid...

2005-04-01

310

21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2006-04-01 2006-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid...

2006-04-01

311

21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2007-04-01 2007-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid...

2007-04-01

312

Solid-phase extraction of acidic herbicides.  

PubMed

A discussion of solid-phase extraction method development for acidic herbicides is presented that reviews sample matrix modification, extraction sorbent selection, derivatization procedures for gas chromatographic analysis, and clean-up procedures for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Acidic herbicides are families of compounds that include derivatives of phenol (dinoseb, dinoterb and pentachlorophenol), benzoic acid (acifluorfen, chloramben, dicamba, 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and dacthal--a dibenzoic acid derivative), acetic acid [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)], propanoic acid [dichlorprop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) and silvex], butanoic acid [4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic acid (2,4-DB) and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid (MCPB)], and other miscellaneous acids such as pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram) and thiadiazine dioxide (bentazon). PMID:10941675

Wells, M J; Yu, L Z

2000-07-14

313

21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is commercially prepared by hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid. It can also be produced by aqueous alkali or acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile....

2013-04-01

314

Lipid metabolism in the perfused chicken liver. The uptake and metabolism of oleic acid, elaidic acid, cis-vaccenic acid, trans-vaccenic acid and stearic acid  

PubMed Central

Comparative studies were made of the uptake and metabolism of cis- and trans-octadecenoic acids by the perfused chicken liver. No differences were observed in the rates of uptake of the isomers. There was considerable incorporation of radioactivity into triglycerides and phospholipids, and some release of labelled lipid into the perfusate was observed. The cis-fatty acids were more readily incorporated into triglycerides than phospholipids, the reverse being true of the trans-fatty acids. Examination of the intramolecular distribution of fatty acids in triglycerides showed that the trans-fatty acid and stearate mainly occupied the 1- and 3-positions, and cis-fatty acids the 2-position. In the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine the trans-fatty acids again behaved like stearic acid and favoured the 1-position. No evidence was obtained of atypical patterns of uptake or metabolism of the trans-fatty acids.

Bickerstaffe, R.; Annison, E. F.

1970-01-01

315

Determination of benzoic acid, chlorobenzoic acids and chlorendic acid in water  

SciTech Connect

To characterize and conduct treatment studies of a landfill leachate an analysis procedure was required to determine concentrations of benzoic acid, the three isomers of chlorobenzoic acid and chlorendic acid. The title compounds were isolated from acidified (pH 1) water by extraction with methyl t-butyl ether. Analytes were concentrated by back-extracting the ether with 0.1 N sodium hydroxide which was separated and acidified. This solution was analyzed by C[sub 18] reversed-phase HPLC with water/acetonitrile/acetic acid eluent and UV detection at 222 nm. The method has detection limits of 200 [mu]g/L for chlorendic acid and 100 [mu]g/L for benzoic acid and each isomer of chlorobenzoic acid. Validation studies with water which was fortified with the analytes at concentrations ranging from one to ten times detection limits resulted in average recoveries of >95%.

Dietz, E.A.; Cortellucci, N.J.; Singley, K.F. (Occidental Chemical Corp., Grand Island, NY (United States))

1993-01-01

316

New highly toxic bile acids derived from deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid.  

PubMed

We have prepared a new panel of 23 BA derivatives of DCA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) in order to study the effect of dual substitution with 3-azido and 24-amidation, features individually associated with cytotoxicity in our previous work. The effect of the compounds on cell viability of HT-1080 and Caco-2 was studied using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Compounds with high potency towards reduction of cell viability were further studied using flow cytometry in order to understand the mechanism of cell death. Several compounds were identified with low micromolar IC?? values for reducing cell viability in the Caco-2 and HT1080 cell lines, making them among the most potent BA apoptotic agents reported to date. There was no evidence of relationship between overall hydrophobicity and cytotoxicity supporting the idea that cell death induction by BAs may be structure-specific. Compounds derived from DCA caused cell death through apoptosis. There was some evidence of selectivity between the two cell lines studied which may be due to differing expression of CD95/FAS. The more toxic compounds increased ROS production in Caco-2 cells, and co-incubation with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blunted pro-apoptotic effects. The properties these compounds suggest that there may be specific mechanism(s) mediating BA induced cell death. Compound 8 could be useful for investigating this phenomenon. PMID:24332653

Májer, Ferenc; Sharma, Ruchika; Mullins, Claire; Keogh, Luke; Phipps, Sinead; Duggan, Shane; Kelleher, Dermot; Keely, Stephen; Long, Aideen; Radics, Gábor; Wang, Jun; Gilmer, John F

2014-01-01

317

Nucleic Acid Detection Methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

1998-05-19

318

Nucleic acid detection methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

1998-05-19

319

Esterification by the Plasma Acidic Water: Novel Application of Plasma Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work explores the possibility of plasma acid as acid catalyst in organic reactions. Plasma acidic water was prepared by dielectric barrier discharge and used to catalyze esterification of n-heptanioc acid with ethanol. It is found that the plasma acidic water has a stable and better performance than sulfuric acid, meaning that it is an excellent acid catalyst. The plasma acidic water would be a promising alternative for classic mineral acid as a more environment friendly acid.

Gu, Ling

2014-03-01

320

Acidizing: A well completion reference  

SciTech Connect

Acidizing removes near-wellbore formation damage by dissolving or bypassing drilling mud, completion fluid or other restrictions. These treatments include matrix pump rate jobs, washes and chemical injection. Matrix stimulation techniques are performed without fracturing reservoir rock. Acid is used to remove drilling, completion, workover or production damage. Solvents and surfactants like crude, condensate, diesel or mutual solvents are used to change pore fluid or formation wettability characteristics. Washes remove scale and other dispersible or soluble material from formations, perforations and casing. The purpose of the above methods is to improve well productivity by removing or mitigating formation damage. Hydrofluoric (HF) acid dissolves clay and fine particles in sandstones. Hydrochloric (HCl) acid etches wormholes that bypass damage in carbonates. Products are subdivided into groups that have similar function and performance. Where applicable, groups have been subdivided to reflect significant differences in additive chemical nature to emphasize uniqueness in the product lines of each company. Products and additives are grouped in 28 categories: water-base completion fluids; water-base polymers; friction reducers; fluid loss; diverting agents; polymer plugs; acid inhibitors; acid retarders; emulsifiers; clay stabilizers; surfactants; non-emulsifiers; fines suspender; anti-sludge agent; foamers; scale inhibitors; iron (Fe) control; oxygen scavenger; mutual solvents; corrosion inhibitors; paraffin control; miscellaneous products; acid systems; retarded acid system; mud acid plus surfactants; mud acid plus alcohol; SGMA; and retarded HF.

NONE

1997-11-01

321

Nonlinear fatty acid terminated polyanhydrides.  

PubMed

A systemic study on the synthesis, characterization, degradation, drug release, and stability of nonlinear fatty acid terminated poly(sebacic anhydride) (PSA) is reported. Ricinoleic acid was transformed into a nonlinear fatty acid by esterification with fatty acid chlorides of C8-C18 chain length in the presence of pyridine. Pure nonlinear fatty acids were obtained by purification of the reaction product using column chromatography. Poly(sebacic acid)s terminated with 30 wt % of various nonlinear fatty acids were synthesized by melt condensation to yield waxy off-white materials with molecular weights in the range of 5000-9000. The terminated polymers are soluble in common organic solvents and melt at temperatures between 70 and 79 degrees C, which allow their fabrication into microspheres and implants. These polymers degrade into their counterparts during a period of a few weeks while constantly releasing an incorporated drug. The incorporation of nonlinear fatty acid terminals to poly(sebacic anhydride) increased the polymer hydrophobicity and decreased polymer crystallinity when compared to PSA or to linear fatty acid terminated PSA. The hydrophobic nonlinear side chains retard water from penetrating into the polymer mass, which resulted in higher stability and surface erosion front mechanism of polymer degradation and drug release. PMID:11749153

Teomim, D; Domb, A J

2001-01-01

322

Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Stimulation of Microsomal Phosphatidic Acid Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) on two key steps of microsomal phosphatidic acid formation was examined. Rat liver microsomes were purified by size-exclusion chromatography to remove endogenous cytosolic fatty acid and fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins while recombinant FABPs were used to avoid cross-contamination with such proteins from native tissue. Neither rat liver (L-FABP) nor rat intestinal fatty

Christopher A. Jolly; Timothy Hubbell; William D. Behnke; Friedhelm Schroeder

1997-01-01

323

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

324

Citric acid production patent review.  

PubMed

Current Review article summarizes the developments in citric acid production technologies in East and West last 100 years. Citric acid is commercially produced by large scale fermentation mostly using selected fungal or yeast strains in aerobe bioreactors and still remains one of the runners in industrial production of biotechnological bulk metabolites obtained by microbial fermentation since about 100 years, reflecting the historical development of modern biotechnology and fermentation process technology in East and West. Citric acid fermentation was first found as a fungal product in cultures of Penicillium glaucum on sugar medium by Wehmer in 1893. Citric acid is an important multifunctional organic acid with a broad range of versatile uses in household and industrial applications that has been produced industrially since the beginning of 20(th) century. There is a great worldwide demand for citric acid consumption due to its low toxicity, mainly being used as acidulant in pharmaceutical and food industries. Global citric acid production has reached 1.4 million tones, increasing annually at 3.5-4.0% in demand and consumption. Citric acid production by fungal submerged fermentation is still dominating, however new perspectives like solid-state processes or continuous yeast processes can be attractive for producers to stand in today's strong competition in industry. Further perspectives aiming in the improvement of citric acid production are the improvement of citric acid producing strains by classical and modern mutagenesis and selection as well as downstream processes. Many inexpensive by-products and residues of the agro-industry (e.g. molasses, glycerin etc.) can be economically utilized as substrates in the production of citric acid, especially in solid-state fermentation, enormously reducing production costs and minimizing environmental problems. Alternatively, continuous processes utilizing yeasts which reach 200-250 g/l citric acid can stand in today's strong competition in citric acid industry and replace the traditional discontinuous fungi processes. PMID:19075859

Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Finogenova, Tatiana V

2008-01-01

325

Acid-Base Balance in Lake Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As expected, the acid-base content of lake water is composed of strong base or acid, weak acids (mainly fulvic acid) and carbonic acid. All of these may be determined by using a simple titration method. The concentration of undissociated carbonic acid som...

C. Brosset

1980-01-01

326

Acid rain: effects on fish and wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following questions concerning acid rain are discussed: what is acid rain; what causes acid rain; where do sulfur and nitrogen oxides originate; what areas in the U.S. are susceptible to acid rain; are there early warning signals of acidification to aquatic resources; how does acid rain affect fishery resources; does acid rain affect wildlife; and how can effects of

K. S. Mayer; E. P. Multer; R. K. Schreiber

1984-01-01

327

Clerodendranoic acid, a new phenolic acid from Clerodendranthus spicatus.  

PubMed

Phenolic acid derivatives are typical constituents of Clerodendranthus spicatus which were considered to the active principles of this medicinal plant. These chemical constituents with their interesting frameworks and biological significance attracted our attention. As part of our ongoing chemical investigation of C. spicatus using various column chromatography techniques, a new phenolic compound, named clerodendranoic acid (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of C. spicatus together with five known ones, including rosmarinic acid (2), methyl rosmarinate (3), caffeic acid (4), methyl caffeate (5), ethyl caffeate (6). Their structures, including stereochemical configurations, were completely established by extensive spectroscopic methods, mainly inclvolving 1D, 2D NMR, as well as HRESIMS. PMID:23165309

Zheng, Qingxia; Sun, Zhaocui; Zhang, Xiaopo; Yuan, Jinquan; Wu, Haifeng; Yang, Junshan; Xu, Xudong

2012-01-01

328

Butyric acid in functional constipation  

PubMed Central

Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid, is a major energy source for colonocytes. It occurs in small quantities in some foods, and in the human body, it is produced in the large intestine by intestinalkacteria. This production can be reduced in some cases, for which butyric acid supplementation may be useful. So far, the use of butyric acid in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders has been limited because of its specific characteristics such as its rancid smell and rapid absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the Polish market, sodium butyrate has been recently made available, produced by the modern technology of microencapsulation, which allows the active substance to reach the small and large intestines, where butyrate easily dissociates into butyric acid. This article presents the potential beneficial mechanisms of action of butyric acid in defecation disorders, which are primarily associated with reductions in pain during defecation and inflammation in the gut, among others.

Pituch, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

2013-01-01

329

Bioactive amides of fatty acids.  

PubMed

Amides of fatty acids are lipid bioregulators formed from long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids via amidation by the corresponding amines. Ethanolamides of fatty acids are the most well-studied species of this group; an alternative pathway for their biosynthesis includes hydrolysis of N-acylated phosphatidylethanolamines by phospholipase D. Ethanolamides of fatty acids bind to the cannabinoid receptors of the central nervous system (CB1) or peripheral tissues (CB2) and can be considered as endogenous ligands of these receptors. Their pharmacological properties are similar to that of cannabimimetics. Simple amides of fatty acids are also endogenous bioregulators acting like sleep-inducing (oleamide) or angiogenic factors (erucamide). A new group of bioregulators comprise the amides of fatty acids and biologically active amines (vanillinamine, dopamine, and serotonin). PMID:9526091

Bezuglov, V V; Bobrov MYu; Archakov, A V

1998-01-01

330

Shaping up nucleic acid computation  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances (abstract) Nucleic acid-based nanotechnology has always been perceived as novel, but has begun to move from theoretical demonstrations to practical applications. In particular, the large address spaces available to nucleic acids can be exploited to encode algorithms and/or act as circuits, and thereby process molecular information. In this review we revisit several milestones in the field of nucleic acid-based computation, but also highlight how the prospects for nucleic acid computation go beyond just a large address space. Functional nucleic acid elements (aptamers, ribozymes, and deoxyribozymes) can serve as inputs and outputs to the environment, and can act as logical elements. Into the future, the chemical dynamics of nucleic acids may prove as useful as hybridization for computation.

Chen, Xi

2010-01-01

331

Molecular Structure of (+-)-Malic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Malic acid, along with lots of other natural acids, was discovered by Karl Wilhem Scheele. Malic acid is a naturally occurring substance in many fruits and plants, however its richest source is apples, which is why it is sometimes referred to as apple acid . It is blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavors, and seasonings to create unique tastes in foods, beverages, and confections. It has also been found that Malic acid may help with reducing the effects of Alzheimer s disease by reducing the levels of aluminum and magnesium in the body. Also, it has been recommended as a supplement for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, as it is known to improve energy production.

2002-10-10

332

Molecular Structure of Salicylic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salicylic acid is a colorless to white crystalline powder with a sweetish acrid taste that occurs naturally in many microorganisms and plants in very small amounts. It is also made synthetically and used as preservative of food products in some countries and as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and toothpastes. This chemical is also used in the manufacture of methyl salicylates, acetylasalicylic acid (aspirin) and other salicylates. Salicylic acid is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of dyestuff, salicylate esters and salts. It is prepared commercially by heating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure to form sodium salicylate, which is treated with sulfuric acid to liberate salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is quite irritating to skin and mucosa and it destroys epithelial cells. Absorption of large amounts can cause vomiting, abdominal pain, acidosis and mental disturbances.

2004-11-11

333

Molecular Structure of Phosphoric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphoric acid was first made in 1774 by K.W. Scheele and J.G. Gahn from bone ash. Phosphoric acid is made by treating calcium phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, followed by filtration. It is by this process that almost 10 tons of phosphoric acid are produced in the United States each year. The compound is primarily used to manufacture some pharmaceutical products, fertilizers and as a flavoring agent in coca-cola. The steel industry uses it to clean and rust-proof their steel. Phosphoric acid is also used in the process of soil stabilization, and as a catalyst in the production of propylene and butene polymers, ethylbenzene, and cumene. In recent years though the industry has moved away from using phosphoric acid as a ingredient in detergents because of the harmful effect that Phosphates have on lakes a process called lake eutrophication.

2002-09-10

334

Production of polymalic acid and malic acid by Aureobasidium pullulans fermentation and acid hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry and also a potential C4 platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. However, microbial fermentation for direct malic acid production is limited by low product yield, titer, and productivity due to end-product inhibition. In this work, a novel process for malic acid production from polymalic acid (PMA) fermentation followed by acid hydrolysis was developed. First, a PMA-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain ZX-10 was screened and isolated. This microbe produced PMA as the major fermentation product at a high-titer equivalent to 87.6?g/L of malic acid and high-productivity of 0.61?g/L?h in free-cell fermentation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. Fed-batch fermentations with cells immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) achieved the highest product titer of 144.2?g/L and productivity of 0.74?g/L?h. The fermentation produced PMA was purified by adsorption with IRA-900 anion-exchange resins, achieving a ?100% purity and a high recovery rate of 84%. Pure malic acid was then produced from PMA by hydrolysis with 2?M sulfuric acid at 85°C, which followed the first-order reaction kinetics. This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application. PMID:23436475

Zou, Xiang; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-08-01

335

Fatty Acids and Brain Peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yehuda, S., S. Rabinovitz., R. L. Carasso and D. I. Mostofsky. Fatty acids and brain peptides. Peptides 19(2) 407–419, 1998.—The role of fatty acids (FA) as a mediator and modulator of central nervous system activity in general, and peptides in particular, is only recently becoming understood. This paper reviews numerous findings concerned with the activity of fatty acids, particularly with

Shlomo Yehuda; Sharon Rabinovitz; Ralph L Carasso; David I Mostofsky

1998-01-01

336

Acidity distribution on oxide surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Benesi or n-butylamine titration method for measuring acid strength distributions, the assumption that both the n-butylamine titrant and the indicators are in adsorption equilibrium with surface acid sites, is invalid. This casts serious doubts on the use of the amine titration method for assessing surface acidity of petroleum catalysts. A series of bases of varying pK\\/sub a\\/ dissolved

Debba

1978-01-01

337

[Folic acid treatment of epileptics].  

PubMed

The author describes the regimen of treatment with folic acid employed in 137 patients with epilepsy. The drug was given to 81 patients to control a complex of disturbances (psychic, neurologic, somatic) caused by folic acid hypovitaminosis secondary to a prolonged use of diphenin, phenobarbital and hexamidine and to another 56 patients to prevent its depletion and to improve the psychic condition. The author considers the questions of the theoretical justification of the pathogenetic treatment with folic acid of epileptic patients. PMID:3630498

Vaintrub, M Ia

1987-01-01

338

Acid rain and dry deposition  

SciTech Connect

This book provides information on the formation of acid rain and the long-range transport of air pollutants. The effects of acid precipitation on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are highlighted and technical and policy issues associated with the delineation and implementation of control strategies for acid rain and dry deposition are covered. Dry deposition is addressed, with emphasis given to precipitation metals and organics.

Canter, L.W.

1985-01-01

339

Organic Acids by Ion Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of increased levels of various organic acids in physiological fluids such as serum, plasma, and urine has been correlated with a variety of diseases (1). Although some are rare, others such as lactic acidosis and hyperoxaluria are more widespread (2, 3). The estimation of organic acids in biological fluids has long been an analytical problem owing to the nature of the samples and the hydrophilic behavior of the various acids.

Rich, William E.; Johnson, Edward; Lois, Louis; Stafford, Brian E.; Kabra, Pokar M.; Marton, Laurence J.

340

3-hydroxyisoxazole-5-hydroxamic acid.  

PubMed

The synthesis of the title compound, 3-hydroxyisoxazole-5-hydroxamic acid (4b), by two procedures is described. The first, involving the treatment of dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate with hydroxylamine, had previously been reported to give the 3-hydroxyisoxazole-5-carboxylic acid (4a). In the second, treatment of chlorofumaroyl dichloride with hydroxylamine also gave the intermediate chlorofumarodihydroxamic acid (6). Compound 6 was found to have some activity against P388 lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:874973

Hines, J W; Stammer, C H

1977-07-01

341

Acidity in methanol–water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different factors influencing acidity of solutes in methanol–water (acidity of the solute, basicity and dielectric constant of the solvent, and specific solute–solvent interactions) are discussed. General thermodynamic models and preferential solvation models are used to establish linear relationships between the acidity pK values of a family of compounds in any methanol–water mixture and the pK values of the compounds

Fernando Rived; Immaculada Canals; Elisabeth Bosch; Mart?? Rosés

2001-01-01

342

Piezoelectricity in protein amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric activity of protein amino acids and their compounds has been measured using the pulse method at a frequency of 10 MHz. It has been established that, at room temperature, the piezoelectric effect is not observed in ?-glycine (achiral amino acid) and protein amino acids of the L modification, namely, methionine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. An assumption has been made that this phenomenon is associated with the enhanced damping of elastic vibrations excited in samples due to the piezoelectric effect.

Lemanov, V. V.; Popov, S. N.; Pankova, G. A.

2011-06-01

343

A Simpler Nucleic Acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been supposed that for a nucleic acid analog to pair with RNA it must, like RNA, have a backbone with at least a sixatom repeat; a shorter backbone presumably would not stretch far enough to bind RNA properly. The Eschenmoser group has shown, however, that this first impression is incorrect.As they report in their new paper, Eschenmoser and co-workers ( I ) have now synthesized a substantial number of these polymers, which are called (L)-a-threofuranosyl oligonucleotides or TNAs. They are composed of bases linked to a threose sugar-phosphate backbone, with phosphodiester bonds connecting the nucleotides. The investigators discovered that pairs of complementary TNAs do indeed form stable Watson-Crick double helices and, perhaps more importantly, that TNAs form stable double helices with complementary RNAs and DNAs.

Orgel, Leslie

2000-01-01

344

Molecular Structure of Lauric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lauric acid was first discovered in lauraceae seeds by Marsson T in 1849. The highest content of lauric acid is found in a mother's breast milk and lauraceae seeds. It is used in foods such as vegetable shortenings as a defoaming agent and industrially as a booster for soaps and detergents. Also it is used in cosmetics, insecticides, and food additives. Additionally, Lauric acid is a medium chain fatty acid, which forms monolaurin in the human or animal body. This compound is an antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal monoglyceride that destroys lipid coated viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, and influenza.

2002-10-11

345

Cryoprotection from bacterial teichoic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies from our lab demonstrated that teichoic acid is surrounded by liquid water at -40 °C. The size and shape of the liquid water pockets has been visualized with fluorescence microscopy images of aqueous Rhodamine- B solutions. The long, thin channels surround ice crystals with a size of 5-20 microns. Subsequent studies show that B. subtilis Gram-positive bacteria are sequestered into large pockets without added teichoic acid. Here, the ice crystals are orders of manitude larger. When bacteria are mixed with teichoic acid solutions, the distribution of bacteria changes dramatically. The smaller ice crystals allow the bacteria to align in the thin channels of liquid water seen with teichoic acid only. The role of teichoic acid in the freeze tolerance was examined with live/dead fluorescence assays of bacteria mixed with teichoic acid. These quantitative assays were used to determine if teichoic acid acts in a synergetic fashion to enhance the survivability of E. coli, a gram-negative species which lacks teichoic acid. Additionally, we have obtained B. subtilis mutants lacking wall-associated teichoic acids to evaluate cryoprotection compared to the wild-type strain.

Rice, Charles V.; Harrison, William; Kirkpatrick, Karl; Brown, Eric D.

2009-08-01

346

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10

347

Uric acid and the kidney.  

PubMed

Uric acid, the end product of purine metabolism, is excreted predominantly by the proximal tubules. Abnormal serum levels of uric acid are due to alterations in production or excretion. Fractional excretion of uric acid is helpful in determining the underlying etiology of hypouricemia or hyperuricemia in children. Abnormalities in the molecular mechanisms that control renal uric acid tubular transport are implicated in various disorders associated with abnormal uric acid levels. Gout is rare in children; yet its presence necessitates evaluation for enzymatic defects in purine metabolism. Well-known effects of uric acid on the kidney include nephrolithiasis and acute kidney injury (AKI) in the setting of tumor lysis. However, recent data suggest that uric acid may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of AKI in general, as well as of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. Hence, uric acid may not only be a marker but also a potential therapeutic target in kidney disease. Nonetheless, because of confounders, more studies are needed to clarify the association between uric acid and multifactorial disorders of the kidney. PMID:23824181

Fathallah-Shaykh, Sahar A; Cramer, Monica T

2014-06-01

348

Identification of Uric Acid and Ascorbic Acid by Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

P. L. Kirk and E. L. Duggan1 have described the identification of various substances of clinical and biological importance, and we have published a quantitative micromethod for determination of urea2. In this communication we report on a colour reaction for uric acid and ascorbic acid in paper chromatography. It may be noted that F. Weygand3 and Z. Prochazka and S.

F. Bode; H. J. Hübener

1952-01-01

349

Peptidases and amino acid catabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of peptides to free amino acids and their subsequent utilization is a central metabolic activity in prokaryotes. At least 16 peptidases from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been characterized biochemically and\\/or genetically. Among LAB, the peptidase systems of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactococcus lactis have been examined in greatest detail. While there are homologous enzymes common to both systems,

Jeffrey E. Christensen; Edward G. Dudley; Jeffrey A. Pederson; James L. Steele

1999-01-01

350

Sulfuric acid as autocatalyst in the formation of sulfuric acid.  

PubMed

Sulfuric acid can act as a catalyst of its own formation. We have carried out a computational investigation on the gas-phase formation of H(2)SO(4) by hydrolysis of SO(3) involving one and two water molecules, and also in the presence of sulfuric acid and its complexes with one and two water molecules. The hydrolysis of SO(3) requires the concurrence of two water molecules, one of them acting as a catalyzer, and our results predict an important catalytic effect, ranging between 3 and 11 kcal·mol(-1) when the catalytic water molecule is substituted by a sulfuric acid molecule or one of its hydrates. In these cases, the reaction products are either bare sulfuric acid dimer or sulfuric acid dimer complexed with a water molecule. There are broad implications from these new findings. The results of the present investigation show that the catalytic effect of sulfuric acid in the SO(3) hydrolysis can be important in the Earth's stratosphere, in the heterogeneous formation of sulfuric acid and in the formation of aerosols, in H(2)SO(4) formation by aircraft engines, and also in understanding the formation of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere of Venus. PMID:23198746

Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Francisco, Joseph S; Anglada, Josep M

2012-12-26

351

A comparison of chromic acid and sulfuric acid anodizing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of federal and state mandates restricting the use of hexavalent chromium, it was deemed worthwhile to compare the corrosion protection afforded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy by both Type I chromic acid and Type II sulfuric acid anodizing per MIL-A-8625. Corrosion measurements were made on large, flat 2219-T87 aluminum alloy sheet material with an area of 1 cm(exp 2) exposed to a corrosive medium of 3.5-percent sodium chloride at pH 5.5. Both ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the dc polarization resistance techniques were employed. The results clearly indicate that the corrosion protection obtained by Type II sulfuric acid anodizing is superior, and no problems should result by substituting Type II sulfuric acid anodizing for Type I chromic acid anodizing.

Danford, M. D.

1992-01-01

352

Wettability of calcite and mica modified by different long-chain fatty acids (C 18 acids)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of long-chain fatty acid adsorption on the wetting states of calcite and mica powders is investigated. The selected long-chain fatty acids are saturated or unsaturated aliphatic acids (stearic acid and oleic acid, respectively) and naphthenic acids with saturated or unsaturated aromatic rings (18-cyclohexyloctadecanoic acid and 18-phenoloctadecanoic acid, respectively). The amount of irreversibly adsorbed acid is determined by thermogravimetric

K. A. Rezaei Gomari; R. Denoyel; A. A. Hamouda

2006-01-01

353

SOIL REACTION AND ACIDIC DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter discusses the major chemical processes by which acidic deposition interacts with soils. he focus is on forest soils, as the effects of acidic deposition on soils used for production of food and fiber are generally small compared to effects of agricultural practices s...

354

Concise Synthesis of Ximenynic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved synthesis of ximenynic acid (1) starting from castor oil has been developed with the direct chlorination of ricinstearolic acid as the key step. By this modification, the synthetic route was more concise and economic. The separation of geometric somers was achieved by repeated urea fractionation.Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go the publisher's online edition of Synthetic

Lutai Wang; Jiabin Li; Xiaowen Xue

2012-01-01

355

Acid Rain and Forest Productivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acid rain can cause increases or decreases in forest productivity depending on site nutrient status and the duration and rate of inputs. Some acid irrigation studies have shown short-term growth increases due to increased N availability, yet long-term gro...

D. W. Johnson

1981-01-01

356

Humic acid fouling during microfiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major factor limiting the use of microfiltration for surface water treatment is membrane fouling by natural organic matter. The extent and mechanisms of humic acid fouling during microfiltration have been examined using stirred cell filtration experiments and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of fouling was strongly dependent on both the source and preparation of the humic acid solutions. The

Wei Yuan; Andrew L Zydney

1999-01-01

357

Biopolymers: Protein and Nucleic Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work focuses on learning the principles that govern interactions between proteins and nucleic acids both DNA and RNA (specifically tRNA). With these principles as guides we are synthesizing peptides (of about 50 amino acids) that bind to specific regi...

J. H. Richards J. N. Abelson L. H. Hood M. I. Simon P. B. Dervan

1988-01-01

358

Individual Particle Morphology and Acidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological characterization of particles during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) suggests that particle shape and physical state depends on their acidity. The aerosol shape parameters measured by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) are statistically different in periods when atmospheric particles are neutral and when they are acidic. High concentrations of particles smaller than 500 nm with high sulfur

Esther Coz; Begoña Artíñano; Allen L. Robinson; Gary S. Casuccio; Traci L. Lersch; Spyros N. Pandis

2008-01-01

359

Molecular Structure of Formic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.

2003-05-08

360

Parasite sulphur amino acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current knowledge regarding the metabolism of the sulphur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine in parasitic protozoa and helminths. Particular emphasis is placed on the unusual aspects of parasite biochemistry which may present targets for rational design of anti-parasite drugs. In general, the basic pathways of sulphur amino acid metabolism in most parasites resemble those of their mammalian

John Walker; John Barrett

1997-01-01

361

Cinnamic Acid Hydroxylase in Spinach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An acetone precipitate from an extract of spinach leaves catalysed the hydroxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid. The enzyme was unstable and could not be purified. Crude preparations had a pH optimum of 4.6 and showed an absolute requiremen...

P. M. Nair L. C. Vining

1964-01-01

362

Heteropolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial exopolysaccharides are biothickeners that can be added to a wide variety of food products, where they serve as viscosifying, stabilizing, emulsifying or gelling agents. Numerous exopolysaccharides with different composition, size and structure are synthesized by lactic acid bacteria. The heteropolysaccharides from both mesophilic and thermophilic lactic acid bacteria have received renewed interest recently. Structural analysis combined with rheological studies

Luc De Vuyst; Bart Degeest

1999-01-01

363

Metabolism of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the hallucinogenic agent, lysergic acid diethylamide, has been the subject of numerous investigations, little is known about its biological fate. The development of a specific and sensitive method for the estimation of lysergic acid diethylamide in biological materials has enabled us to study its physiological disposition and metabolism.

Julius Axelrod; Roscoe O. Brady; Bernhard Witkop; Edward V. Evarts

1956-01-01

364

Acid-Base Titration Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid-Base titration applet that plots pH changes as student adds acid or base. Gives choice of indicators (only two right now). Compares plots for titration of traditional solution and a buffered solution (several choices for comparison). Can alter starting concentrations.

Usc

365

Hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan): a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high molecular weight biopolysacharide, discovered in 1934, by Karl Meyer and his assistant, John Palmer in the vitreous of bovine eyes. Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring biopolymer, which has important biological functions in bacteria and higher animals including humans. It is found in most connective tissues and is particularly concentrated in synovial fluid, the

J. Necas; L. Bartosikova; P. Brauner; J. Kolar

2008-01-01

366

Boswellic acids and protease activities.  

PubMed

The involvement of human leukocyte elastase (HLE) in several inflammatory processes and the reported inhibitory effect of ursolic acid on HLE has prompted the authors to start investigation on the effects of acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA) on serine proteinases including HLE. PMID:23194866

Rall, B; Ammon, H P; Safayhi, H

1996-05-01

367

Acid rain and forest productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain can cause increases or decreases in forest productivity depending on site nutrient status and the duration and rate of inputs. Some acid irrigation studies have shown short-term growth increases due to increased N availability, yet long-term growth reductions remain theoretically possible because of cation depletion and toxic aluminum accumulations in soils. It cannot be overemphasized that the problem

Johnson

1981-01-01

368

Impacts of acid rain legislation  

SciTech Connect

The author warns against hasty acid rain legislation that would involve billions of dollars and affect thousands of jobs. He recommends further study into the causes of high acidity in lakes and streams. He states that there are too many uncertainties of whether the problem would be solved by reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. (DMC)

Addison, E.L.

1983-01-01

369

Can crops tolerate acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of

1989-01-01

370

The Canadian acid rain strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 1994, Canadian Energy and Environment Ministers announced their intention to develop a long-term domestic acid rain strategy for post-2000. The strategy would address the need for further emission reductions within Canada as well as the need for further emission reductions in the United States for those sources and pollutants that result in continuing negative impacts from acid deposition

G Fenech

1998-01-01

371

Amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites.  

PubMed

For almost 20 years laboratory experiments have advanced the concepts of chemical evolution, particularly with regard to formation of the amino acids. What has been generally lacking is concrete natural evidence for this chemical evolution hypothesis. The recent development of sophisticated analytical techniques and availability of carbonaceous chondrites with a minimum of terrestrial contamination has resulted in the identification of amino acids which provide strong evidence for a natural extraterrestrial chemical synthesis. Since the initial find in the Murchison meteorite (a type II carbonaceous chondrite) of both protein and nonprotein amino acids with nearly equal abundances of D and L isomers, further studies have been carried out. These studies have revealed the presence of at least 35 amino acids; the population consists of a wide variety of linear, cyclic and polyfunctional amino acids which shows a trend of decreasing concentration with increasing carbon number. Investigations of the Murray meteorite (a type II carbonaceous chondrite) has produced similar results, but studies of the Orgueil meteorite (a type I carbonaceous chondrite) show only a limited suite of amino acids, some of which appear to be indigenous while others appear to be terrestrial contaminanats. A sample of the Murchison meteorite was extracted with D2O and in addition of 'free' amino acids, showing no deuterium incorporation, some amino acids showed the presence of deuterium suggesting either a 'precursor(s)' or hydrogen-deuterium exchange which require(s) formation of carbon-hydrogen bonds. PMID:1153189

Lawless, J G; Peterson, E

1975-01-01

372

Molecular Structure of Isophthalic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Isophthalic acid is one of the three simple aromatic dicarboxylic acids with the carboxyl groups in the meta postions. It is used to produce isophthalic polyester that together with other components is used in resin systems for flame retardants and in corrosion prevention.

2008-01-10

373

Vibrational Spectra of ?-Aminobutyric Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NIR-FT Raman, FT-IR spectral analysis of ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) a simple amino acid is carried out by density functional computations. The vibrational spectra confirm the existence of NH3+ in GABA. Hydroxyl groups H-bonded to the different extents are analysed, supported by computed results.

Suresh, D. M.; Sajan, D.; Laladas, K. P.; Joe, I. Hubert; Jayakumar, V. S.

2008-11-01

374

Fatty Acids and Atherosclerotic Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research concerning the effects of dietary fatty acids on atherosclerotic risk has focused on their effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, it is known that fatty acids also influence a number of other relevant mechanisms involved in atherosclerosis such as lipid peroxidation, inflammation and haemostasis. The most favourable distribution of cholesterol over the various lipoproteins is achieved when

M. A. Thijssen; R. P. Mensink

375

Dicarboxylic Acid-Urea Complexes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the reaction of several acids with urea resulted in a series of compounds of varying stoichiometry and structure. The acids having the structure HO2C(CH2)nCO2H produced saltlike compounds with urea when n = 0 and 1 and H-bonded complexes for n ...

J. Radell B. W. Brodman J. J. Domanski

1966-01-01

376

Learning About Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The chemistry of acids and bases is a fundamental area of study in the physical sciences. The following activity is really two exercises in one. First, students learn to distinguish between acids and bases using various color-changing indicator solutions.

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

377

BOTANICAL ASPECTS OF ACIDIC PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Acidic precipitation can be characterized as wet or frozen atmospheric deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than 2.5 microequivalents liter-1. Acidic precipitation is perceived as a significant air pollution problem derived chiefly from combustion of fossil fuels,...

378

Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

2011-03-01

379

TLC of Selected Bile Acids: Detection and Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selected bile acids such as: cholic acid (C), glycocholic acid (GC), glycolithocholic acid (GLC), deoxycholic acid (DC), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC), glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), lithocholic acid (LC) were separated by using thin layer chromatography on glass plates precoated with silica gel 60 with a concentrating zone. A robust and sensitive detection procedure for selected bile acids using the sulphuric acid

A. Pyka

2008-01-01

380

Molecular Structure of Galacturonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Galacturonic acid is the monobasic acid resulting from oxidation of the primary alcohol group of D-galactose to carboxyl. It is widely distributed as a constituent of pectins (compounds with heterogeneous grouping of acidic structural polysaccharides, found in fruit and vegetables), many plant gums, and mucilages (gummy substances obtained from certain plants, which are used as food stabilizers). Gums tend to be used as thickening and bulking agents in pharmaceutics, and they play a less obvious part in most plants. Once swallowed, their actions are no different from those of the mucilages. D-Galacturonic acid prepared from pectin can be used to synthesize vitamin C. Native pectin is a mixture of polysaccharides, with the major component a polymer of -D-galacturonic acid. Pectin has numerous other medical and pharmaceutical uses, for example in combination with plant hemicelluloses and lignin, may be useful dietary constituents in preventing coronary heart disease, diverticular disease, ulcerative colitis, and a variety of other Western diseases.

2003-05-08

381

Molecular Structure of Linoleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid occurring widely in plant glycerides or fats. Common sources include many vegetable oils such as flax seed, safflower, soybean, peanut, and corn; some margarines; and dairy fats. It is a colorless to straw-colored liquid, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether. Linoleic acid is easily oxidized by air and is combustible. It also appears as an aluminum salt, in the form of yellow lumps or powder, that is practically insoluble in water but soluble in oils and fixed alkalai hydroxides. Linoleic acid is essential in human nutrition and is used also for soaps, animal feeds, paints, drying protective coatings, emulsifying or smoothing and wetting agents, and in biochemical research. The conjugated form of linoleic acid or CLA has been associated with health benefits such as lowered risk of cancer and atherosclerosis. Prepared CLA is available as a supplement. However, foods high in CLA content could be used.

2003-05-08

382

Fumaric acid production by fermentation  

PubMed Central

The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations.

Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

2008-01-01

383

Direct formic acid fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of formic acid fuel oxidation on a solid PEM fuel cell at 60 °C is reported. We find that formic acid is an excellent fuel for a fuel cell. A model cell, using a proprietary anode catalyst produced currents up to 134 mA/cm 2 and power outputs up to 48.8 mW/cm 2. Open circuit potentials (OCPs) are about 0.72 V. The fuel cell runs successfully over formic acid concentrations between 5 and 20 M with little crossover or degradation in performance. The anodic polarization potential of formic acid is approximately 0.1 V lower than that for methanol on a standard Pt/Ru catalyst. These results show that formic acid fuel cells are attractive alternatives for small portable fuel cell applications.

Rice, C.; Ha, S.; Masel, R. I.; Waszczuk, P.; Wieckowski, A.; Barnard, Tom

384

Molecular Structure of Acroleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acrylic acid is a colorless liquid that has an irritating bitter odor and was discovered by Josef Redtenbacher, a German chemist. This substance is miscible with water and most organic solvents. Known also as 2-propeonic acid, this plant molecule occurs naturally in marine algae and has been found in the rumen fluid of sheep. Acrylic acid has been found to polymerize easily when exposed to heat, light, or metals so, therefore a polymerization inhibitor is added to commercial for storage. The acid is used in the manufacture of plastics, floor polish, paint formulations, leather finishings, and paper coatings. Exposure to the liquid occurs primarily in the workplace and can irritate the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes of humans. Acrylic acid has not been classified as a carcinogen.

2003-05-08

385

Formation of acrylic acid from lactic acid in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical (SC) water is an unusual medium in which fast and specific heterolytic reactions can be conducted at temperatures as high as 400{degree}C. In supercritical water, lactic acid decomposes into gaseous and liquid products via three primary reaction pathways. Products of the acid-catalyzed heterolytic decarbonylation pathway are carbon monoxide, water, and acetaldehyde. Products of the homolytic, decarboxylation pathway are carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and acetaldehyde. Products of the heterolytic, dehydration pathway are acrylic acid and water. The intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of the {alpha}-hydroxyl by the carbonyl group of lactic acid, producing {alpha}-propiolactone as an unstable intermediate which subsequently rearranges to become the unsaturated acid, is a likely mechanism for acrylic acid formation, although an intramolecular E2 elimination initiated by attack of the carbonyl oxygen on a methyl hydrogen cannot be ruled out. Support for the former mechanism comes in part from the observed 100% relative yield of acrylic acid from {beta}-propiolactone in SC water.

Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Jones, M. Jr. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA))

1989-09-15

386

Kinetics of aluminum-fulvic acid complexation in acidic waters  

SciTech Connect

A fluorescence technique has been used to study the complex formation kinetics of aluminum with a single metal-free fulvic acid isolated from an Adirondack Mountain forest soil. In the pH range of 3.0-4.5, two kinetically distinguishable components of the fulvic acid mixture have been identified, which define two types of average aluminum binding sites. Both fulvic acid average sites conform to a bidentate chelating binding site kinetic analysis, from which rate and equilibrium parameters have been obtained. From comparison of rate and equilibrium constants of aluminum-salicyclic acid complexation, the authors conclude that the faster reacting component of fulvic acid probably contains salicyclic acid type aluminum binding sites. Results are also compared with those of an aluminum-fluoride kinetic study. Fulvic acid and fluoride react with aluminum by the same mechanism and therefore have the same pH dependence. The dependence of the rate on temperature is, however, quite different for the two reactions. The environmental implications of these findings are discussed. 45 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

Plankey, B.J.; Patterson, H.H.

1987-06-01

387

Gibberellic acid in plant  

PubMed Central

Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development, is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound. GAs stimulate seed germination, trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, determines sex expression and grain development along with an interaction of different environmental factors viz., light, temperature and water. The major site of bioactive GA is stamens that influence male flower production and pedicel growth. However, this opens up the question of how female flowers regulate growth and development, since regulatory mechanisms/organs other than those in male flowers are mandatory. Although GAs are thought to act occasionally like paracrine signals do, it is still a mystery to understand the GA biosynthesis and its movement. It has not yet confirmed the appropriate site of bioactive GA in plants or which tissues targeted by bioactive GAs to initiate their action. Presently, it is a great challenge for scientific community to understand the appropriate mechanism of GA movement in plant’s growth, floral development, sex expression, grain development and seed germination. The appropriate elucidation of GA transport mechanism is essential for the survival of plant species and successful crop production.

Gupta, Ramwant; Chakrabarty, S K

2013-01-01

388

Role of titratable acidity in acid aerosol-induced bronchoconstriction  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated the importance of pH, titratable acidity, and specific chemical composition in acid aerosol-induced bronchoconstriction in 8 asthmatic subjects. We administered aerosols of HCl and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at pH 2.0 in an unbuffered state and buffered with glycine. The buffered acids were given in order of increasing titratable acidity (defined as the number of ml of 1 N NaOH required to neutralize 100 ml of acid solution to pH 7.0). Each set of buffered or unbuffered acid aerosols was given on a separate day and each aerosol was inhaled through a mouthpiece during 3 min of tidal breathing. Bronchoconstriction was assessed by measurement of specific airway resistance (SRaw) before and after inhalation of each aerosol. SRaw increased by more than 50% above baseline in 1 of 8 subjects after inhalation of unbuffered HCl and in no subjects after inhalation of unbuffered H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, even at pH 2.0. In contrast, SRaw increased by greater than 50% in all 8 subjects after inhalation of HCl and glycine at pH 2.0 and 7 of 8 subjects after inhalation of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and glycine at pH 2.0. The mean titratable acidity required to increase SRaw by 50% above baseline was calculated for each challenge by linear interpolation; these values for H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and glycine (5.1 ml of 1 N NaOH) and HCl and glycine (2.2 ml of 1 N NaOH) were slightly, but significantly, different (p = 0.01) and were considerably higher than the titratable acidity of the unbuffered acids at pH 2 (1.0 ml of 1 N NaOH).

Fine, J.M.; Gordon, T.; Thompson, J.E.; Sheppard, D.

1987-04-01

389

Amino acid transport in Lactobacillus helveticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid transport in Lactobacillus helveticus was analyzed. Strain specificity of amino acid transport was speculated between L. helveticus NCDO2712 and SBT2171. Glucose energized L. helveticus NCDO2712 actively transported and accumulated the essential and growth stimulating amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, tyrosine, arginine, and histidine). Uptake of proline, phenylalanine and tryptophan was not observed.

Hadjime Nakajima; Edmund R. S. Kunji; Bert Poolman; Wil N. Konings

1998-01-01

390

Amino acid transport in podocytes.  

PubMed

It has recently been shown that formation of podocyte foot processes is dependent on a constant source of lipids and proteins (Simons M, Saffrich R, Reiser J, and Mundel P. J Am Soc Nephrol 10: 1633-1639, 1999). Here we characterize amino acid transport mechanisms in differentiated cultured podocytes and investigate whether it may be disturbed during podocyte injury. RT-PCR studies detected mRNA for transporters of neutral amino acids (ASCT1, ASCT2, and B(0/+)), cationic AA (CAT1 and CAT3), and anionic AA (EAAT2 and EAAT3). Alanine (Ala), asparagine, cysteine (Cys), glutamine (Gln), glycine (Gly), leucine (Leu), methionine (Met), phenylalanine (Phe), proline (Pro), serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), glutamic acid (Glu), arginine (Arg), and histidine (His) depolarized podocytes and increased their whole cell conductances. Depletion of extracellular Na(+) completely inhibited the depolarization induced by Ala, Gln, Glu, Gly, Leu, and Pro and decreased the depolarization induced by Arg and His, indicating the presence of Na(+)-dependent amino acid transport. Incubation of podocytes with 100 microg/ml puromycin aminonucleoside for 24 h significantly attenuated the effects induced by the various amino acids by approximately 70%. The data indicate the existence of different amino acid transporter systems in podocytes. Alteration of amino acid transport may participate in podocyte injury and disturbed foot process formation. PMID:10836988

Gloy, J; Reitinger, S; Fischer, K G; Schreiber, R; Boucherot, A; Kunzelmann, K; Mundel, P; Pavenstädt, H

2000-06-01

391

Microbial oxidation of oleic acid.  

PubMed Central

Resting cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast, type II; Sigma) were used to convert oleic acid into 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid with a 45% yield. Nocardia aurantia (ATCC 12674), Nocardia sp. (NRRL 5646), and Mycobacterium fortuitum (UI 53378) all converted oleic acid into 10-oxo-octadecanoic acid with 65, 55, and 80% yields, respectively. Structures of all metabolites were suggested by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and by infrared and mass spectrometry. Structures of isomeric hydroxystearate and oxostearate derivatives and the stereochemical purity of hydroxystearates are difficult to prove unambiguously unless authentic standard compounds are available for spectral comparison. We describe the use of the chemical Baeyer-Villiger oxidation technique with 10-oxo-octadecanoic acid followed by mass spectral analysis of neutral extracts as a simple method to confirm the position of oxo-functional groups in the structures of fatty acid ketones. We further introduce a simple method based on 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of diastereomeric S-(+)-O-acetylmandelate esters of hydroxystearates as a means of ascertaining stereochemical purities of hydroxy fatty acids.

el-Sharkawy, S H; Yang, W; Dostal, L; Rosazza, J P

1992-01-01

392

Phytic acid in green leaves.  

PubMed

Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

2014-07-01

393

Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10?years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

2011-01-01

394

Antioxidation mechanisms of uric acid  

SciTech Connect

One-electron oxidation of uric acid generates the urate radical, which was studied in aqueous solution by pulse radiolysis and oxygen-uptake measurements. Acid-base properties of the uric acid radical were determined, i.e., pK{sub a1} = 3.1 {plus minus} 0.1 and pK{sub a2} = 9.5 {plus minus} 0.1. The reaction of the radical with oxygen was too slow to be measured, k < 10{sup {minus}2} dm{sup 3} mol{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The one-electron-redox potential vs NHE, E{sub 7} = 0.59 V, was derived from the pH dependence of the redox potential, which was fitted through the values measured at pH 7 and 8.9 and those previously determined at pH 13. Rapid reactions of uric acid with oxidizing species and peroxy radicals were indicative of uric acid as a possible water-soluble physiological antioxidant. Rapid reaction of uric acid with the guanyl radical indicates that uric acid may also act as a repair agent of oxidative damage to DNA bases.

Simic, M.G. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Jovanovic, S.V. (Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

1989-07-19

395

Determination of Monochloroacetic Acid and Dichloroacetic Acid for Quality Control of Acetic Acid Chlorination Industry by Ion Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion chromatographic method is described for the purpose of quality control in the process of monochloroacetic acid production. Using 2.5 mM NaOH–10% methanol as eluent, the simultaneous determination of acetic acid, monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and Cl? was obtained in a single run. Monochloroacetic acid and dichloroacetic acid showed good linearity in the range 0.1–20 and 0.15–20 ?g\\/ml and

Feng Qu; Shifen Mou

1999-01-01

396

Behavior of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in the Thiobarbituric Acid Test after Radiolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Irradiation of linolenic acid and arachidonic acid results in production of several chromatographically distinguishable thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-active compounds. The ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidation of the fatty acids is also characterized by inc...

L. D. Saslaw V. S. Waravdekar

1964-01-01

397

[Extraction and stripping of H acid and DSD acid wastewater].  

PubMed

H acid and DSD acid are two important substrate of dyes, which wastewater is treated more difficulty because of containing multi-component, with high chroma value and nonbiodegradability. A treatment way of this wastewater by extraction based on chemical association was carried out. Trialkylamine (Alamine 336) and chlorinated quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat 336) were used as reacting agent with n-octanol, kerosene as modifier and diluent respectively. Results showed that the extraction efficiency depended on solution pH. Alamine 336 could be used to treat waste water with low pH while Aliquat 336 was high efficiency for waste water with pH > 6. Recovery yield of H acid and DSD acid was greater than 99% and the chroma value of wastewater was reduced effectively by simulating multi-stages cross-flow extraction. Back-extraction is quite easy and the solvent could be regenerated. PMID:11855182

Li, Z; Qin, W; Yang, Y; Dai, Y

2001-11-01

398

Metabolism of Cinnamic Acid in Plants: Chlorogenic Acid Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapid, efficient synthesis of chlorogenic acid from cinnamate was observed in leaves of plants of several genera. Use of labelled cinnamate,p-coumarate and caffeate showed two pathways were operative in this synthesis in tobacco. Trapping experiments indi...

W. Steck

1968-01-01

399

Renal handling of terephthalic acid  

SciTech Connect

By use of the Sperber in vivo chicken preparation method, infusion of radiolabeled terephthalic acid ((/sup 14/C)TPA) into the renal portal circulation revealed a first-pass excretion of the unchanged compound into the urine. This model was utilized further to characterize the excretory transport of (/sup 14/C)TPA and provide information on the structural specificity in the secretion of dicarboxylic acids. At an infusion rate of 0.4 nmol/min. 60% of the (/sup 14/C)TPA which reached the kidney was directly excreted. An infusion rate of 3 or 6 mumol/min resulted in complete removal of (/sup 14/C)TPA by the kidney. These results indicate that TPA is both actively secreted and actively reabsorbed when infused at 0.4 nmol/min and that active reabsorption is saturated with the infusion of TPA at higher concentrations. The secretory process was saturated with the infusion of TPA at 40 mumol/mn. The excretory transport of TPA was inhibited by the infusion of probenecid, salicylate, and m-hydroxybenzoic acid, indicating that these organic acids share the same organic anion excretory transport process. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid did not alter the simultaneously measured excretory transport of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), suggesting that there are different systems involved in the secretion of TPA and PAH. The structural specificity for renal secretion of dicarboxylic acids was revealed by the use of o-phthalic acid and m-phthalic acid as possible inhibitors of TPA secretion.

Tremaine, L.M.; Quebbemann, A.J.

1985-01-01

400

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] Torr H[sub 2]O and 1-2.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] Torr HNO[sub 3]) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to

Laura T. Iraci; Ann M. Middlebrook; Margaret A. Wilson; Margaret A. Tolbert

1994-01-01

401

Sedimentary humic acid and fulvic acid as fluorescent organic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence and absorption spectra of sedimentary humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA), with molecular weights ranging from 300,000, were measured at 20°C and pH 8. The maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of HA were longer than those of FA, being independent of molecular weight. The excitation and emission maxima can be utilized to differentiate between sedimentary HA and FA.

Kohji Hayase; Hiroyuki Tsubota

1985-01-01

402

Therapeutic effects of glycyrrhizic acid.  

PubMed

Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), belonging to a class of triterpenes, is a conjugate of two molecules, namely glucuronic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid. It is naturally extracted from the roots of licorice plants. With its more common uses in the confectionery and cosmetics industry, GA extends its applications as a herbal medicine for a wide range of ailments. At low appropriate doses, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-tumor, antimicrobial and anti-viral properties have been reported by researchers worldwide. This review summarizes the effects of GA on metabolic syndrome, tumorigenesis, microbes and viruses, oxidative stress, and inflammation, as well as the reported side effects of the drug. PMID:23678825

Ming, Lee Jia; Yin, Adeline Chia Yoke

2013-03-01

403

Solid acids for green chemistry.  

PubMed

Solid acids and especially those based on micelle-templated silicas and other mesoporous high surface area support materials are beginning to play a significant role in the greening of fine and specialty chemicals manufacturing processes. A wide range of important organic reactions can be efficiently catalyzed by these materials, which can be designed to provide different types of acidity as well as high degrees of reaction selectivity. The solid acids generally have high turnover numbers and can be easily separated from the organic components. The combination of this chemistry with innovative reaction engineering offers exciting opportunities for innovative green chemical manufacturing in the future. PMID:12234209

Clark, James H

2002-09-01

404

Be an acid rain detective  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain is discussed in a question and answer format. The article is aimed at educating sport fishermen on the subject, and also to encourage them to write their congressmen, senators, and the President about the acid rain problem. The article also announces the availability of an acid rain test kit available through the magazine, ''Sports Afield.'' The kit consists of pH-test paper that turns different shades of pink and blue according to the pH of the water tested. The color of the test paper is then compared to a color chart furnished in the kit and an approximate pH can be determined.

Atwill, L.

1982-07-01

405

Can crops tolerate acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

Kaplan, J.K.

1989-11-01

406

Environmental Protection Agency: Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) acid rain portal. It consists of links to information on the causes and effects of acid rain, how it is measured, and some suggestions for ways to reduce its occurrence. There are also links to information for users about the problem in their areas, and to a selection of educational resources, including activities and science experiments, for students in all grades. Another set of links provides access to information on state and national data and statistics, acid rain legislation, and U.S. and international initiatives.

407

Chemiluminescent measurement of atmospheric acid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and construction of a gas phase acid sensitive analyzer are reported. These studies showed that the chemical system was a practical analytical method. A complete instrument was developed and prepared for field testing. A Titan 3-C rocket was scheduled for launching on February 11, 1974. Through preparations made by NASA Langley the instrument was set up to monitor the acid concentration in the rocket exhaust. Due to adverse wind conditions no acid was detected. This entire trip is described in detail.

Stedman, D. H.; Kok, G. L.

1974-01-01

408

Amino Acids from a Comet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

Cook, Jamie Elisla

2009-01-01

409

Determination of 2Keto Acids and Amino Acids in Plant Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-keto acids and amino acids were extracted using liquid nitrogen and 0.25 N HCl. The keto acids and amino acids were seperated by cation exchange chromatography on AG50W-X8 resin. The cation exchange chromatography is vital for the determination of keto acids. The keto acids were derivatized with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene (DMB), a specific derivatizing agent for 2-keto acids. The derivatized keto acids

Bijay K. Singh; Berhane Tecle; Dale L. Shaner

1994-01-01

410

Amino acid catabolic pathways of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) constitute a diverse group of Gram positive obligately fermentative microorganisms which include both beneficial and pathogenic strains. LAB generally have complex nutritional requirements and therefore they are usually associated with nutrient-rich environments such as animal bodies, plants and foodstuffs. Amino acids represent an important resource for LAB and their utilization serves a number of physiological roles such as intracellular pH control, generation of metabolic energy or redox power, and resistance to stress. As a consequence, the regulation of amino acid catabolism involves a wide set of both general and specific regulators and shows significant differences among LAB. Moreover, due to their fermentative metabolism, LAB amino acid catabolic pathways in some cases differ significantly from those described in best studied prokaryotic model organisms such as Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis. Thus, LAB amino acid catabolism constitutes an interesting case for the study of metabolic pathways. Furthermore, LAB are involved in the production of a great variety of fermented products so that the products of amino acid catabolism are also relevant for the safety and the quality of fermented products. PMID:16893752

Fernández, María; Zúñiga, Manuel

2006-01-01

411

21 CFR 582.5013 - Ascorbic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5013 Ascorbic acid. (a) Product. Ascorbic acid. 1 Amino acids listed in this subpart may be free hydrochloride salt, hydrated, or anhydrous form,...

2013-04-01

412

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332keV. Experimental values

G. K Sandhu; Kulwant Singh; B. S Lark; L Gerward

2002-01-01

413

Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

2002-10-01

414

Acid Rain Program. 2003 Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Acid Rain Program Progress Report is published annually by EPA to update the public on compliance with the Acid Rain Program, the status of implementation, and progress toward achieving environmental goals. The Acid Rain Program 2003 Progress Report u...

2004-01-01

415

Nucleic acid encoding human thyrotropin receptor  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Nucleic acids encoding human thyrotropin receptor and related methods are disclosed. The nucleic acids may have nucleotides deleted and/or replaced to modify the amino acid sequence of human thyrotropin receptor.

2004-06-08

416

Folic Acid Helps Prevent Neural Tube Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Folic Acid Helps Prevent Neural Tube Defects Language: English Español ( ... day before and during pregnancy. What Is Folic Acid? Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

417

Genetics Home Reference: Sialic acid storage disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Sialic acid storage disease On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2008 What is sialic acid storage disease? Sialic acid storage disease is an ...

418

Study on Amino Acid Metabolism and Uremia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Histidine supplementation to either low protein diet or essential amino acid diet stimulates positivity of nitrogen balance in a group of 7 uremic patients each one studied for a period of 6 weeks. Imidazoleacetic acid, imidazolepyruvic acid and formimino...

C. Giordano

1970-01-01

419

Effects of water on the esterification of free fatty acids by acid catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maximize the production of biodiesel from soybean soapstock, the effects of water on the esterification of high-FFA (free fatty acid) oils were investigated. Oleic acid and high acid acid oil (HAAO) were esterified by reaction with methanol in the presence of Amberlyst-15 as a heterogeneous catalyst or sulfuric acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The yield of fatty acid methyl

Ji-Yeon Park; Zhong-Ming Wang; Deog-Keun Kim; Jin-Suk Lee

2010-01-01

420

Chiral mono boronic acid as fluorescent enantioselective sensor for mono alpha-hydroxyl carboxylic acids.  

PubMed

New mono boronic acid was found to be an enantioselective fluorescent chemosensor for mono alpha-hydroxyl carboxylic acids, such as mandelic acid and lactic acid. The chiral sensor shows lower background fluorescence, higher fluorescence enhancement, and enantioselective recognition kinetics toward mandelic acids and lactic acids. PMID:18507445

Chi, Lina; Zhao, Jianzhang; James, Tony D

2008-06-20

421

Chiral mono boronic acid as fluorescent enantioselective sensor for mono alpha-hydroxyl carboxylic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

New mono boronic acid was found to be an enantioselective fluorescent chemosensor for mono alpha-hydroxyl carboxylic acids, such as mandelic acid and lactic acid. The chiral sensor shows lower background fluorescence, higher fluorescence enhancement, and enantioselective recognition kinetics toward mandelic acids and lactic acids.

J. Z. Zhao; L. Chi; T. D. James

2008-01-01

422

Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis  

DOEpatents

The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

Sabanayagam, Chandran R. (Allston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Needham, MA); Misasi, John (Syracuse, NY); Hatch, Anson (Seattle, WA); Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA)

2001-01-01

423

Humic acid protein complexation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl concentrations. It is also measured for two mixtures of PAHA-LSZ and compared with theoretically calculated proton binding assuming no mutual interaction. The charge adaptation due to PAHA-LSZ interaction is relatively small and only significant at low and high pH. Next to the proton binding, the mass ratio PAHA/LSZ at the iso-electric point (IEP) of the complex at given solution conditions is measured together with the pH using the Mütek particle charge detector. From the pH changes the charge adaptation due to the interaction can be found. Also these measurements show that the net charge adaptation is weak for PAHA-LSZ complexes at their IEP. PAHA/LSZ mass ratios in the complexes at the IEP are measured at pH 5 and 7. At pH 5 and 50 mmol/L KCl the charge of the complex is compensated for 30-40% by K +; at pH 7, where LSZ has a rather low positive charge, this is 45-55%. At pH 5 and 5 mmol/L KCl the PAHA/LSZ mass ratio at the IEP of the complex depends on the order of addition. When LSZ is added to PAHA about 25% K + is included in the complex, but no K + is incorporated when PAHA is added to LSZ. The flocculation behavior of the complexes is also different. After LSZ addition to PAHA slow precipitation occurs (6-24 h) in the IEP, but after addition of PAHA to LSZ no precipitation can be seen after 12 h. Clearly, PAHA/LSZ complexation and the colloidal stability of PAHA-LSZ aggregates depend on the order of addition. Some implications of the observed behavior are discussed.

Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.

2008-04-01

424

Folic Acid: Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Data and Statistics On This Page In the United States Hispanic/ ... Questions & Answers Cereals with Folic Acid Data and Statistics Research Birth Defects COUNT Articles & Key Findings Recommendations ...

425

Abiotic synthesis of fatty acids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of fatty acids by Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis was investigated with ferric oxide, ammonium carbonate, potassium carbonate, powdered Pueblito de Allende carbonaceous chondrite, and filings from the Canyon Diablo meteorite used as catalysts. Products were separated and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Iron oxide, Pueblito de Allende chondrite, and Canyon Diablo filings in an oxidized catalyst form yielded no fatty acids. Canyon Diablo filings heated overnight at 500 C while undergoing slow purging by deuterium produced fatty acids only when potassium carbonate was admixed; potassium carbonate alone also produced these compounds. The active catalytic combinations gave relatively high yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; substantial amounts of n-alkenes were almost invariably observed when fatty acids were produced; the latter were in the range C6 to C18, with maximum yield in C9 or 10.

Leach, W. W.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

1978-01-01

426

Fusidic acid-induced hyperbilirubinemia.  

PubMed

A 72-year old man developed jaundice while on fusidic acid therapy for suspected osteomyelitis. Hyperbilirubinemia was predominantly of the conjugated variety and elevation in liver enzymes was mild and transient. Although serum bilirubin fell rapidly after fusidic acid was stopped, complete resolution of the hyperbilirubinemia took nearly a month. Other possible causes of jaundice were excluded. Light microscopy of a needle liver biopsy showed focal hepatocyte feathery degeneration, intracellular bile retention, and canalicular bile plugging, most prominent in perivenous regions. Electron microscopy revealed varying degrees of canalicular dilatation, loss of microvilli, and disruption of the canalicular membrane with vesicular bleb formation as well as canalicular bile plugs. Widening of the pericanalicular ectoplasmic zone with accumulation of cytoskeletal filaments was also noted. These findings are similar to those reported in experimental cholestasis induced by bile acids. Possible mechanisms of jaundice caused by fusidic acid are discussed. PMID:3608735

Kutty, K P; Nath, I V; Kothandaraman, K R; Barrowman, J A; Perkins, P G; Ra, M U; Huang, S N

1987-08-01

427

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1995-01-01

428

EXPOSURE MODELING OF ACID AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting an intensive characterization and human exposure monitoring program of acid species and related air pollutants in an urban environment. he EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) in coopera...

429

Low acid producing solid propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

Bennett, Robert R.

1995-01-01

430

Low Acid Producing Solid Propellants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studi...

R. R. Bennett

1995-01-01

431

Acid Strong Base Titrations Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Acid Strong Base Titrations model show how to estimate the concentration of the acid in a given sample. If one follows the titration by a visual indicator, the neutralization is detected through a sudden change of that indicator color. This model shows the titration curve as a strong monofunctional base (sodium hydroxide, for example), is added to an aqueous solution of a monoprotic acid. The Acid Strong Base Titrations model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item.

Fernandes, Fernando S.

2012-10-03

432

Formulation of Boronic Acid Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to the formulation of pharmaceutical compounds. More particularly, the invention provides stable, pharmaceutically acceptable compositions prepared from boronic acid compounds and methods for preparing the compositions. The invention...

L. Plamondon L. Grenier J. Adams S. L. Gupta

2005-01-01

433

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1995-09-12

434

Biotechnological production of citric acid  

PubMed Central

This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

Max, Belen; Salgado, Jose Manuel; Rodriguez, Noelia; Cortes, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Dominguez, Jose Manuel

2010-01-01

435

An efficient total synthesis of trilepisiumic acid.  

PubMed

Total synthesis of trilepisiumic acid (4-((3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acryloyl)oxy)-3-hydroxybenzoic acid) isolated from Trilepisium madagascariense was carried out. Doebner condensation of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde with malonic acid yielded 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (2). Esterification of the latter with vanillin afforded 4-formyl-2-methoxyphenyl-3-(3,4-dimethoxy phenyl)acrylate (3) followed by permanganate oxidation in acidic medium provided the corresponding acid 4. Finally, demethylation of 4 was achieved by refluxing in hydrobromic acid to unveil the trilepisiumic acid (1). PMID:24841593

Saeed, Aamer; Qasim, Muhammad

2014-07-01

436

Effects of acids on gravels and proppants  

SciTech Connect

The effects of acids on the integrity of gravels and proppants should be considered in acid treatments. This paper reports on the influence of acid type, acid concentration, and contact duration on the acid solubility of five sands and bauxitic materials. The effects of the acids on the mechanical strength and the size distribution of the solids are determined. The authors found that intermediate-density and low-density bauxites (IDB and LDB) are very soluble in HF acid and that sintered bauxite is weakened by HF acid.

Cheung, S.K.

1988-05-01

437

Profiling the chlorogenic acids and other caffeic acid derivatives of herbal chrysanthemum by LC-MSn.  

PubMed

Four samples of herbal chrysanthemum have been profiled qualitatively by LC-MS5 to identify their component chlorogenic acids and partially characterize other caffeic acid derivatives. The chlorogenic acids were minor components, and the four samples varied markedly in profile. Three p-coumaroylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, four caffeoylquinic acids, six dicaffeoylquinic acids, and two tricaffeoylquinic acids were detected, 13 for the first time from this source. Partial characterization of minor components suggested the presence of five caffeoyl-hexose esters and caffeic acid-4-beta-d-glucose that have not previously been reported from this source, and eight caffeoylquinic acid glycosides and 16 dicaffeoylquinic acid glycosides that have not previously been reported in nature. Succinic acid-containing chlorogenic acids and chlorogenic acids based on epi-quinic acid, previously reported in Chrysanthemum spp., were not detected in these samples. PMID:17263495

Clifford, Michael N; Wu, Weiguo; Kirkpatrick, Jo; Kuhnert, Nikolai

2007-02-01

438

Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a 1. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) contains conjugated double bonds and is known as a family of isomers of linoleic acid that\\u000a can be found in the meat and dairy products.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. In vitro studies have shown that CLA can inhibit the growth of mammary, colon, colorectal, gastric, prostate, and malignant\\u000a liver cell lines and has also been shown to induce

Kent L. Erickson; Neil E. Hubbard; Alexander D. Borowsky; Patrizia Damonte

439

BranchedChain Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are synthesized by bacteria,\\u000a fungi, and plants, but are essential for vertebrates including humans, who must receive them from their\\u000a diet. The interest to construct overproducing industrial strains therefore stems from the need to supplement\\u000a the food or feed with these amino acids to use them in medical treatment and as

Miroslav Pátek

440

Factors controlling naphthenic acid corrosion  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory study was conducted to elucidate the influence of chemical and physical parameters on corrosion of type 1018 carbon steel (CS, UNS G10180) and 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel in oils containing naphthenic acids (NAs) for application to crude oil refinery systems. Effects of test duration, temperature, and acid concentration were assessed for a range of single acids of varying carbon numbers and for NA mixtures in mineral oil (MO) and in heavy vacuum gas oil (HGVO). In addition, a limited study of the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) addition to the acid-oil mixture was conducted. Use of the total acid number (TAN) as a measure of corrosiveness of a crude oil was discredited further. For the same TAN value, molecular size and structure of the acid were shown to have an important influence. Tests conducted in HGVO showed lower corrosion rates than in MO, suggesting inhibition caused by S species in the oil or the steric hindrance of naphtheno-aromatic acids. In oil containing the mixture of NAs, the corrosion rate of type 1018 CS was lower than that for 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel. The 0.1% H{sub 2}S that passed through the acid-oil mixtures had an inhibiting effect on corrosion. Predicting corrosiveness of a crude oil from the measurement of TAN, distribution of NA composition, and S content and form was particularly challenging. The simple tests used were informative, but further work will be required to establish a standard test method that can provide an adequate ranking of crudes.

Turnbull, A. [National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom); Slavcheva, E. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Shone, B. [Ty Isa, Nr Mold (United Kingdom)

1998-11-01

441

Neonatal polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of n?6 and n?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in neonatal development, particularly with respect to the\\u000a developing brain and retina, is well known. This review combines recent information from basic science and clinical studies\\u000a to highlight recent advances in knowledge on PUFA metabolism and areas where research is still needed on infant n?6 and n?3\\u000a fatty acid requirements.

Sheila M. Innis; Howard Sprecher; David Hachey; John Edmond; Robert E. Anderson

1999-01-01

442

Molecular Structure of Glucuronic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glucuronic acid is a substance derived from uronic acid, and is found in both plants and animals, usually in combination with phenols or alcohols. It is primarily used in detoxifying drugs and toxins to ensure easy elimination from the body. This substance is soluble in water and alcohol and has a melting point of 165 degrees Celsius. It exhibits mutarotation in the crystal form or its specific rotation of light changes depending on the way the crystals were prepared.

2003-05-08

443

Amino Acids and the Mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes some of the important physiological functions of amino acids in the mitochondria and the alterations\\u000a caused by specific pathologies. To some extent all of the featured items are dependent upon the movement of amino acids across\\u000a the highly selective permeability barrier that is the inner mitochondrial membrane. The performance of this transport by specific\\u000a carriers is the

Nicola King

444

Dilute acid hydrolysis of softwoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole tree chips obtained from softwood forest thinnings were converted to ethanol via a two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis\\u000a followed by yeast fermentation. The chips were first impregnated with dilute sulfuric acid, then pretreated in a steam explosion\\u000a reactor to hydrolyze, more than 90% of the hemicellulose and approx 10% of the cellulose. The hydrolysate was filtered and\\u000a washed with water

Quang A. Nguyen; Melvin P. Tucker; Fred A. Keller; Delicia A. Beaty; Kevin M. Connors; Fannie P. Eddy

1999-01-01

445

Lactic acid fermentation of onions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid fermentation was conducted on sweet, white, and yellow storage onions to produce souronion. The onions were sliced to 0.3cm thick, salt was added at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5g\\/100g without or with sugar at 1.0 and 2.0g\\/100g, and the fermentation temperature was 18°C. Since onions do not have the necessary lactic acid bacteria for the anaerobic fermentation, onions were

J. S. Roberts; D. R. Kidd

2005-01-01

446

Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was discovered as the predominant inhibitory central nervous sys- tem (CNS) neurotransmitter in 1956. This prompted a search for a GABA analog that would cross the blood-brain barrier for possible therapeutic use. During this search, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) was found in the brain and subsequently synthesized in the laboratory in 1964. 1,2 Since its discovery, GHB has

Phillip E. Mason; William P. Kerns II

2002-01-01

447

Radiolysis of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid monohydrate, and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate and its relevance to Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report laboratory studies on the 0.8MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4·H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4·4H2O) between 10 and 180K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4-, and SO42-. At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that

M. J. Loeffler; R. L. Hudson; M. H. Moore; R. W. Carlson

2011-01-01

448

Biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.  

PubMed

An increasing demand for non-petroleum-based products is envisaged in the near future. Carboxylic acids such as citric acid, succinic acid, fatty acids, and many others are available in abundance from renewable resources and they could serve as economic precursors for bio-based products such as polymers, aldehyde building blocks, and alcohols. However, we are confronted with the problem that carboxylic acid reduction requires a high level of energy for activation due to the carboxylate's thermodynamic stability. Catalytic processes are scarce and often their chemoselectivity is insufficient. This review points at bio-alternatives: currently known enzyme classes and organisms that catalyze the reduction of carboxylic acids are summarized. Two totally distinct biocatalyst lines have evolved to catalyze the same reaction: aldehyde oxidoreductases from anaerobic bacteria and archea, and carboxylate reductases from aerobic sources such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. The majority of these enzymes remain to be identified and isolated from their natural background in order to evaluate their potential as industrial biocatalysts. PMID:24737783

Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Winkler, Margit

2014-06-01

449

Acidic extracellular microenvironment and cancer  

PubMed Central

Acidic extracellular pH is a major feature of tumor tissue, extracellular acidification being primarily considered to be due to lactate secretion from anaerobic glycolysis. Clinicopathological evidence shows that transporters and pumps contribute to H+ secretion, such as the Na+/H+ exchanger, the H+-lactate co-transporter, monocarboxylate transporters, and the proton pump (H+-ATPase); these may also be associated with tumor metastasis. An acidic extracellular pH not only activates secreted lysosomal enzymes that have an optimal pH in the acidic range, but induces the expression of certain genes of pro-metastatic factors through an intracellular signaling cascade that is different from hypoxia. In addition to lactate, CO2 from the pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative source of acidity, showing that hypoxia and extracellular acidity are, while being independent from each other, deeply associated with the cellular microenvironment. In this article, the importance of an acidic extracellular pH as a microenvironmental factor participating in tumor progression is reviewed.

2013-01-01

450

Management of uric acid stone.  

PubMed

Uric acid stones are the most readily dissolvable of all types of urinary stones. By maintaining urinary pH between 6.2-6.8 with the use of sodium acid citrate or uralyt-U and reducing serum uric acid by allopurinol, we tried to dissolve 107 stones in 67 patients. Ninety three (86.9%) stones were dissolved and 6 (5.6%) passed spontaneously within a period of one year. Eight (7.5%) stones were removed surgically or with ESWL. Five (7.5%) patients had stone recurrence over a period of 3 years follow-up. Serum uric acid was raised in 19 (28.5%) and urinary uric acid in 12 (18%) patients while urinary pH was low in 46 (69%) patients. For uncomplicated uric acid stones oral chemolysis on an out-patient basis is the treatment of choice. It is simple, safe and inexpensive. However, it requires rigid compliance by the patient and strict follow-up by ultrasonography (JPMA 42: 153, 1992). PMID:1404830

Chugtai, M N; Khan, F A; Kaleem, M; Ahmed, M

1992-07-01

451

Molecular Structure of Oxalic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oxalic acid is an odorless, colorless powder or granular solid. It is used as a scouring agent in textiles for finishing, stripping, cleaning, and as a bleaching agent for stain removal. Oxalic acid is also used as a rust remover as well as a grease and wax removing agent in metal cleaning. It is also used to clean and sterilize equipment, slso as a purifying agent in the pharmaceutical industry, in the waste water treatment industry and is also used to remove calcium from water. Oxalic acid is found in many plants and in many vegetables, for example sorrel, spinach and rhubarb, usually as its calcium or potassium salts. Oxalic acid is produced commercially by nitric acid oxidation of starch. It also can be made by fusing sawdust (or other forms of cellulose) with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Oxalic acid may be released to the environment in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, rendering, in waste streams from pulp bleaching, and by photochemical oxidations of anthropogenic compounds during long range transport.

2004-11-10

452

Potentiometric study on critical micellization concentrations (CMC) of sodium salts of bile acids and their amino acid derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical micellization concentration (CMC)s of a group of sodium salts of bile acids, i.e., cholic acid (abbreviated as C), deoxycholic acid (DC), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDC), glycocholic acid (GC), glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), and some amino acid derivatives of C and DC were determined by potentiometric titration. An automatic titration system has been established to

Toshio Nakashima; Tomoyuki Anno; Hiroshi Kanda; Yuka Sato; Tatsuaki Kuroi; Hironari Fujii; Shigemi Nagadome; Gohsuke Sugihara

2002-01-01

453

Polypyrrole based strong acid catalyst for acetalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel polypyrrole based acid catalyst has been synthesized through the neutralization reaction of polypyrrole and sulfuric acid. The polypyrrole based acid owned the acidity as high as 6.0 mmol/g, which was much higher than that of the traditional solid acids such as Nafion and Amberlyst-15 (0.8 mmol/g). The catalytic activities of the novel solid acid were investigated through the acetalization. The results showed that the novel solid acid held high activities for the reactions. Furthermore, the recycled activities of the catalyst indicated that the solid acid owned high stability during the catalytic process and little acid sites dropped from polypyrrole. The high acidity and stability made the novel polypyrrole based acid hold great potential for the green chemical processes.

Liang, Xuezheng; Cheng, Yuxiao; Qi, Chenze

2011-09-01

454

The essentiality of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this review is to correlate the clinical finding that patients receiving parenteral nutrition with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion do not develop essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) with an experimental murine model, thus showing that arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are likely to be the essential fatty acids. Background Conventional belief is that linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) are the essential fatty acids (EFAs). We have shown that a fish oil-based lipid emulsion containing AA (omega-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, omega-3) and insignificant quantities of LA and ALA is efficacious in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD), a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The prospect of using a fish oil-based lipid emulsion as monotherapy has raised concerns of EFAD development, hindering its adoption into clinical practice. Design Data from patients in our institution who received PN with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion was reviewed for clinical and biochemical evidence of EFAD, defined as an elevated triene-tetraene ratio (Mead acid/AA >0.2). We also investigated the minimum amount of fish oil required to prevent EFAD in a murine model and determined whether DHA and AA alone can prevent EFAD. Results No patients receiving PN with a fish oil-based lipid emulsion in our institution have developed biochemical or clinical evidence of EFAD such as an elevated triene-tetraene ratio, growth retardation or dermatitis. This observation parallels our previously published animal studies, which demonstrated prevention of EFAD when thirteen percent of total calories were from fish oil. Moreover, current work in our laboratory shows that AA and DHA provision alone is sufficient to prevent biochemical and physiologic evidence of EFAD in a murine model. Conclusions When dosed appropriately, fish oil-based lipid emulsions contain sufficient EFAs to prevent EFAD. Furthermore, AA and DHA alone may be the true EFAs.

Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Puder, Mark

2012-01-01

455

Dietary Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Are More Effective than Alpha-Linolenic Acid in Improving Insulin Sensitivity in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated whether long-term administration of high dose of ?-linolenic acid (ALA) is able to mimic the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or a mixture of both with respect to insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats. Furthermore, we intended to test whether these n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reveal differential effects on glucose

Gaby Andersen; Kerstin Harnack; Helmut F. Erbersdobler; Veronika Somoza

2008-01-01

456

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10Hydroxy12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or

JUN OGAWA; KENJI MATSUMURA; SHIGENOBU KISHINO; YORIKO OMURA; SAKAYU SHIMIZU

2001-01-01

457

History of retinoic Acid receptors.  

PubMed

The discovery of retinoic acid receptors arose from research into how vitamins are essential for life. Early studies indicated that Vitamin A was metabolized into an active factor, retinoic acid (RA), which regulates RNA and protein expression in cells. Each step forward in our understanding of retinoic acid in human health was accomplished by the development and application of new technologies. Development cDNA cloning techniques and discovery of nuclear receptors for steroid hormones provided the basis for identification of two classes of retinoic acid receptors, RARs and RXRs, each of which has three isoforms, ?, ? and ?. DNA manipulation and crystallographic studies revealed that the receptors contain discrete functional domains responsible for binding to DNA, ligands and cofactors. Ligand binding was shown to induce conformational changes in the receptors that cause release of corepressors and recruitment of coactivators to create functional complexes that are bound to consensus promoter DNA sequences called retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) and that cause opening of chromatin and transcription of adjacent genes. Homologous recombination technology allowed the development of mice lacking expression of retinoic acid receptors, individually or in various combinations, which demonstrated that the receptors exhibit vital, but redundant, functions in fetal development and in vision, reproduction, and other functions required for maintenance of adult life. More recent advancements in sequencing and proteomic technologies reveal the complexity of retinoic acid receptor involvement in cellular function through regulation of gene expression and kinase activity. Future directions will require systems biology approaches to decipher how these integrated networks affect human stem cells, health, and disease. PMID:24962878

Benbrook, Doris M; Chambon, Pierre; Rochette-Egly, Cécile; Asson-Batres, Mary Ann

2014-01-01

458

Total synthesis of (?)-halichlorine, (?)-pinnaic acid, and (?)-tauropinnaic acid  

PubMed Central

The related marine natural products halichlorine, pinnaic acid, and tauropinnaic acid have been synthesized. The described route provided access to all three compounds from a common, late-stage intermediate. The synthesis began with 1-pyrrolidino-1-cyclopentene from which an intermediate possessing the three contiguous stereocenters of the natural products was synthesized in just four steps. Olefin cross metathesis followed by a hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis reaction stereoselectively formed the piperidine ring. Use of a ?-lactam group provided internal protection for the highly congested nitrogen atom during side-chain elaboration. The ?-lactam was subsequently reduced directly to an amino aldehyde, which after the Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reaction was elaborated to pinnaic acid. The same amino aldehyde was also transformed into halichlorine after a thiol-mediated cyclization sequence to form the dehydroquinolizidine ring system.

Christie, Hamish S.; Heathcock, Clayton H.

2004-01-01

459

Nucleotide Composition of Nucleic Acids of Fungi II. Deoxyribonucleic Acids  

PubMed Central

Storck, Roger (The University of Texas, Austin). Nucleotide composition of nucleic acids from fungi. II. Deoxyribonucleic acids. J. Bacteriol. 91:227–230. 1966.—The nucleotide composition of the deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) present in extracts of 30 species of fungi was determined. The results were analyzed, together with those in the literature. It was found that the content, in moles per cent of guanine plus cytosine (GC content), varied from 38 to 63% in a distribution composed of 9 species of zygomycetes, 14 of ascomycetes, and 9 each of deuteromycetes and basidiomycetes. The GC content ranges were: 38 to 48% for the zygomycetes, 38 to 54% for the ascomycetes, 47 to 62% for the deuteromycetes, and 44 to 63% for the basidiomycetes. The GC content ranged from 38 to 40% for four Mucor species. The base composition of fungal DNA appears, therefore, to have a taxonomic and phylogenetic significance.

Storck, Roger

1966-01-01

460

The rotational spectrum of formic acid⋯fluoroacetic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pure rotational spectrum of formic acid-fluoroacetic acid complex was measured in the range 6-18 GHz using a cavity-based pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. In all, 73 transitions were measured for four isotopologues of the complex where the fluoroacetic acid is in trans form. The conformational stabilities, structures and spectroscopic parameters were determined with ab initio calculations at MP2 levels of theory with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The deuterations of the carboxylic groups generate an increase of the distance between the two subunits of the complex. This phenomenon (Ubbelohde effect) has been quantified using the changes of the Paa planar moment of inertia upon OH ? OD substitutions.

Evangelisti, Luca; Feng, Gang; Gou, Qian; Caminati, Walther

2014-05-01

461

Anaerobic biotransformation of organoarsenical pesticides monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monomethylarsonic acid (MMAV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) are extensively utilized as pesticides, introducing large quantities of arsenic into the environment. Once released into the environment, these organoarsenicals are subject to microbial reactions. Aerobic biodegradation of MMAV and DMAV has been evaluated, but little is known about their fate in anaerobic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biotransformation of MMAV and DMAV in anaerobic sludge. Biologically mediated conversion occurred under methanogenic or sulfate-reducing conditions but not in the presence of nitrate. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) was consistently observed as an important metabolite of MMAV degradation, and it was recovered in molar yields ranging from 5 to 47%. The main biotransformation product identified from DMAV metabolism was MMAV, which was recovered in molar yields ranging from 8 to 65%. The metabolites indicate that reduction and demethylation are important steps in the anaerobic bioconversion of MMAV and DMAV, respectively. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Yenal, U.; Feld, J. A.; Kopplin, M.; Gandolfi, A. J.; Garbarino, J. R.

2006-01-01

462

Fatty Acid Composition and Trans Fatty Acids in Crisps and Cakes in Turkey's Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, trans fatty acid and fatty acid composition of 57 crisps and 50 cakes sold in the markets in Turkey were determined. C 18:1, oleic acid, was the major fatty acid in all crisps and cake samples. The percentages of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ranged between 27.98–46.57, 35.73–47.57, and

Yavuz S. Cakmak; Gokalp O. Guler; Sakir Yigit; Gokhan Caglav; Abdurrahman Aktumsek

2011-01-01

463

A review of the role of acid-base balance in amino acid nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Acid-base balance and amino acid metabolism are intimately related. Changes in acid-base balance influence the metabolic fate of many amino acids. Also, acid-base homeostasis is achieved in part by alteration of amino acid metabolism, not only in the kidney, but also in liver, muscle and splanchnic tissue. Glutamine is the primary amino acid involved in renal ammonia- genesis, a

J. F. Patience; J. E Patience

2010-01-01

464

Comparative inter-species pharmacokinetics of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides and related organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenoxyacetic acids including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) are widely utilized organic acid herbicides that have undergone extensive toxicity and pharmacokinetic analyses. The dog is particularly susceptible to the toxicity of phenoxyacetic acids and related organic acids relative to other species. Active renal clearance mechanisms for organic acids are ubiquitous in mammalian species, and thus a likely mechanism

Charles Timchalk

2004-01-01

465

Evaluation of acidity of strong acid catalysts. 1. Derivation of an acidity function from carbon-13 NMR measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limitations of the Hammett indicator method for acidity measurements of liquid acid catalysts of practical importance and the inapplicability in principle of the Hammett acidity concept to solid acid catalysts are discussed. Evaluation of acidities from the hydronation equilibrium of two simple alcohols, methanol and ethanol, and an α,β-unsaturated detone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one (mesityl oxide, I), by carbon-13 NMR is demonstrated

D. Farcasiu; A. Ghenciu; G. Miller

1992-01-01

466

Biosynthesis of poly(?-glutamic acid) from l -glutamic acid, citric acid, and ammonium sulfate in Bacillus subtilis IFO3335  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(?-glutamic acid) (PGA) production in Bacillus subtilis IFO3335 was studied. When l-glutamic acid, citric acid, and ammonium sulfate were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, a large amount of PGA without a by-product such as a polysaccharide was produced. The time courses of cell growth, PGA, glutamic acid, and citric acid concentrations during cultivation were investigated. It was found that

Masao Kunioka; Atsuo Goto

1994-01-01

467

Co-production of caffeic acid and p -hydroxybenzoic acid from p -coumaric acid by Streptomyces caeruleus MTCC 6638  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a culture medium of Streptomyces caeruleus MTCC 6638 grown with p-coumaric acid (5 mM) as the sole source of carbon, co-production of caffeic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid was observed. Both caffeic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid are important phenolic compounds with pharmaceutical importance. These biotransformed products were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Obtained data suggest that

Ashish Sachan; Shashwati Ghosh; Sukanta Kumar Sen; Adinpunya Mitra

2006-01-01

468

Acidic properties of aqueous phosphoric acid solutions: a microscopic view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on new neutron and x-ray diffraction data on D2O:D3PO4 solutions at two concentrations, 1:1 and 3:1. The experimental datasets were modelled simultaneously by the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method. From the resulting models, partial radial distribution functions (prdf) and coordination numbers were obtained. The acidity was found to decrease with increasing D3PO4 concentration. The ratio of dissociated acidic protons was estimated by dedicated simulation runs using average coordination number constraints. It was found that in the saturated solution the ratio of dissociated protons cannot exceed 20%.

Harsányi, I.; Pusztai, L.; Jóvári, P.; Beuneu, B.

2013-11-01

469

Arterial blood carbonic Acid inversely determines lactic and organic acids.  

PubMed

Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. Study Design: Over 5 years, lactate was measured on all blood gases taken from neonatal admissions, as well as organic acid whenever electrolytes were required. Results: Arterial blood gases from 63 infants given high calcium TPN were analyzed. Twenty two needed continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) only and 31 intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and surfactant followed by CPAP to treat respiratory distress syndrome in 51 and meconium aspiration syndrome in 2. All survived and were free of infection. Excluded gases were those with high and falling lactate soon after delivery representing perinatal asphyxia, and those on dexamethasone. Strong inverse relations between carbonic and lactic acids were found at all gestational ages and, independent of glomerular filtration, between carbonic and organic acids. Lactate (mmol/L) = 62.53 X PCO2 (-0.96)(mmHg) r(2) 0.315, n 1232, p <0.001. Sixty divided by PCO2 is a convenient measure of physiological lactate at any given PCO2. In the first week, 9.13 ± 2.57% of arterial gases from infants on IPPV had lactates above 120/PCO2, significantly more than 4.74 ± 2.73% on CPAP (p<0.05) and 2.47 ± 2.39% on no support. Conclusion: Changes in arterial blood carbonic acid cause immediate inverse changes in lactic acid, because their anions interchange across cell membranes according to the Gibbs -Donnan equilibrium. Increasing PCO2 from 40 to 120 mmHg decreased lactate from 1.5 mmol/L to 0.5 mmol/L, so that the sum of carbonic and lactic acids increased from 2.72 mmol/L to only 4.17 mmol/L. This helps explain the neuroprotective effect of hypercapnoea and highlights the importance of avoiding any degree of hypocapnoea in infants on IPPV. PMID:24392387

Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

2013-11-01

470

Gallic Acid, Ellagic Acid and Pyrogallol Reaction with Metallic Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction between gallic acid, ellagic acid and pyrogallol with metallic iron was studied using infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Most hydrolysable tannins with interesting anticorrosive or inhibition properties are structurally related to these compounds, thus they may be used as models for the study of hydrolysable tannins and related polyphenols. The interaction was followed up to 3 months. Results indicated two different behaviors. At polyphenol concentrations higher than 1% iron converts to sparingly soluble and amorphous ferric (and ferrous) polyphenolate complexes. At lower concentrations (0.1%), the hydrolysis reactions are dominant, resulting in the formation of oxyhydroxides, which can be further reduced to compounds like magnetite by the polyphenols.

Jaén, J. A.; González, L.; Vargas, A.; Olave, G.

2003-06-01

471

Bacterial ABC transporters of amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two subfamilies of ABC uptake systems for amino acids in bacteria, the polar amino acid transport family and the hydrophobic amino acid transport family. We consider the general properties of these families and we examine the specific transporters. Focusing on some of the best-studied ATP binding cassette transporters we also examine the mechanism of amino acid uptake, paying

Arthur H. F. Hosie; Philip S. Poole

2001-01-01

472

New Acid Etched Titanium Dental Implant Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this investigation was to create an acid etched implant surface that results in a surface similar to that gained by using sandblasting combined with acid etching and to compare it with surfaces of commercially available screw-type implants. Titanium grade V discs were machined in preparation for acid etching. Tests were carried out using different acids and

Gintaras Juodzbalys; Marija Sapragoniene; Ann Wennerberg

473

Sulfuric acid leaching of Turkish chromite concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a high grade chromite concentrate obtained from Pinarbasi–Kayseri district of Turkey was reacted with a solution of sulfuric acid and perchloric acid. The effect of sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, duration, and perchloric acid addition on leach recovery was studied. At the end of leach reaction chromium appeared in the solution as Cr3+ and it did not change

A. Geveci; Y. Topkaya; E. Ayhan

2002-01-01

474

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01

475

Pollen selection under acid rain stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether acid rain stress induces pollen selection in nature, three different approaches were used, based on the assumption that the response of pollen grains to acid rain is controlled by an acid sensitive gene product. Germination of pollen from homozygous and heterozygous individuals under acid rain stress was examined to detect any differences in rate of germination between

Zhang

1994-01-01

476

21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7...

2009-04-01

477

21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7...

2010-01-01

478

Sulfuric acid in the Venus clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine, produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

Sill, G. T.

1972-01-01

479

Prostatic Contribution to Normal Serum Acid Phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total and tartrate-labile serum acid phosphatase levels were compared in patients with and without prostates, and in 12 patients before and after cystoprostatectomy. Absence of the prostate seems to make no significant difference to the levels of serum acid phosphatase. There is no justification for referring to the tartrate-labile serum acid phosphatase as “prostatic acid phosphatase.” A substantial incidence of

Donald Dow; Robert H. Whitaker

1970-01-01

480

21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (C17 H31 COOH) (CAS Reg. No. 60-33-3)), a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.5, is a...

2013-04-01

481

Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes  

PubMed Central

All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties.

Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

2011-01-01

482

21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Docosahexanoic acid, eicosapentanoic acid, linoleic acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and stearic acid, and lesser amounts of the associated acid esters. (b) The food additive meets the following...

2009-04-01

483

21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Docosahexanoic acid, eicosapentanoic acid, linoleic acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and stearic acid, and lesser amounts of the associated acid esters. (b) The food additive meets the following...

2010-04-01

484

Nonprotein Amino Acids in the Murchison Meteorite  

PubMed Central

Twelve nonprotein amino acids appear to be present in the Murchison meteorite. The identity of eight of them has been conclusively established as N-methylglycine, ?-alanine, 2-methylalanine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, ?-amino-n-butyric acid, isovaline, and pipecolic acid. Tentative evidence is presented for the presence of N-methylalanine, N-ethylglycine, ?-aminoisobutyric acid, and norvaline. These amino acids appear to be extraterrestrial in origin and may provide new evidence for the hypothesis of chemical evolution.

Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Lawless, James G.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

1971-01-01

485

(International conference on acidic deposition)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler took the opportunity to participate in a mini-sabbatical at the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) in Edinburgh, Scotland, as a part of planned travel to Glasgow, Scotland, to attend the International Conference on Acidic Precipitation. The purpose of the sabbatical was to provide quality time for study and interchange of ideas with scientists at ITE working on physiological effects of acidic deposition and to allocate significant time for writing and synthesizing of results of physiological studies from the National Forest Response Program's Spruce/Fir Research Cooperative. The study focused on the very significant cytological and physiological effects of calcium deficiency in trees, a response that appears to be amplified in spruce by acidic deposition.

McLaughlin, S.B. Jr.

1990-10-05

486

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 82-212-1553, Screen Printing Shops, Boston, Massachusetts and Denton, Maryland areas  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and breathing zone samples were analyzed for organic solvents at five small printing shops (SIC-2751) in the Boston, Massachusetts and Denton, Maryland areas. The evaluation was requested by the union because of complaints of headache, nausea, dizziness, and other symptoms among silk screen printing workers. Nineteen exposed and four unexposed workers were interviewed. Urine samples were obtained and analyzed for methyl-hippuric-acid (2198643) and hippuric-acid (495692), metabolites of xylene (1330207) and toluene (108883). Exposed workers reported a prevalence of symptoms such as headache, trouble remembering, and disorientation. These did not differ significantly, however, from the prevalence of such symptoms among the unexposed workers. The authors conclude that a potential health hazard due to solvent exposures at the facilities exists. Recommendations include using gloves to reduce skin exposure and performing environmental and medical monitoring.

Baker, E.; Smith, T.; Quinn, M.

1985-01-01

487

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

488

Polyaniline nanotubes doped with polymeric acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-assembled polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes were prepared in the presence of three different polymeric acids as dopants, namely poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSA), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) (PMVEA) by oxidative polymerization using ammonium persulfate as the oxidant. The molecular structure of polymeric acids had a significant effect on the morphology and size of the polyaniline nanotubes as determined by

Lijuan Zhang; Hui Peng; Jing Sui; Paul A. Kilmartin; Jadranka Travas-Sejdic

2008-01-01

489

Gelled acidic well treating composition and process  

SciTech Connect

Gelled acidic compositions suitable for either matrix-acidizing or fracture-acidizing of subterranean formations comprising water , a water-dispersible polymer selected from cellulose ethers and polymers of acrylamides, an acid, an aldehyde, and a phenolic compound capable of causing gelation of an aqueous dispersion of the polymer, acid, aldehyde, and phenolic compound are provided. In another embodiment, guar gum, polyvinylpyrrolidone and biopolysaccharides can also be used as the polymeric component in said compositions.

Swanson, B.L.

1981-01-13

490

Pathophysiologic basis for normouricosuric uric acid nephrolithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathophysiologic basis for normouricosuric uric acid nephrolithiasis.Background:Low urinary pH is the commonest and by far the most important factor in uric acid nephrolithiasis but the reason(s) for this defect is (are) unknown. Patients with uric acid nephrolithaisis have normal acid-base parameters according conventional clinical tests.Methods:We studied steady-state plasma and urinary parameters of acid-base balance in subjects with normouricosuric pure uric

Khashayar Sakhaee; Beverley Adams-Huet; Orson W. Moe; Charles Y. C. Pak

2002-01-01

491

Hydroxamic acids in asymmetric synthesis.  

PubMed

Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst's center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Because of their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, which uses the titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities. PMID:23157425

Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

2013-02-19

492

Hydroxamic Acids in Asymmetric Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Metal-catalyzed stereoselective reactions are a central theme in organic chemistry research. In these reactions, the stereoselection is achieved predominantly by introducing chiral ligands at the metal catalyst’s center. For decades, researchers have sought better chiral ligands for asymmetric catalysis and have made great progress. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal stereoselectivity and to catalyze new reactions, new chiral ligands are needed. Due to their high metal affinity, hydroxamic acids play major roles across a broad spectrum of fields from biochemistry to metal extraction. Dr. K. Barry Sharpless first revealed their potential as chiral ligands for asymmetric synthesis in 1977: He published the chiral vanadium-hydroxamic-acid-catalyzed, enantioselective epoxidation of allylic alcohols before his discovery of Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation, which uses titanium-tartrate complex as the chiral reagent. However, researchers have reported few highly enantioselective reactions using metal-hydroxamic acid as catalysts since then. This Account summarizes our research on metal-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation using hydroxamic acids as chiral ligands. We designed and synthesized a series of new hydroxamic acids, most notably the C2-symmetric bis-hydroxamic acid (BHA) family. V-BHA-catalyzed epoxidation of allylic and homoallylic alcohols achieved higher activity and stereoselectivity than Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation in many cases. Changing the metal species led to a series of unprecedented asymmetric epoxidation reactions, such as (i) single olefins and sulfides with Mo-BHA, (ii) homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols with Zr- and Hf-BHA, and (iii) N-alkenyl sulfonamides and N-sulfonyl imines with Hf-BHA. These reactions produce uniquely functionalized chiral epoxides with good yields and enantioselectivities.

Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

2012-01-01

493

Molecular Structure of Oleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A mono-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid is a component of almost all natural fats. It is obtained from any of various vegetable and animal oils and fats, particularly the seeds of castor, sunflower, safflower, parsley, soybean, flax, perilla, and celery. A colorless or yellow-to-red oily liquid with a lard-like odor, it solidifies to a crystalline mass at four degrees Celsius. When exposed to air it oxidizes and acquires a yellow to brown color and rancid odor; for this reason it should be kept sealed in a container and away from sunlight. It is almost completely insoluble in water but is soluble in alcohol, benzene chloroform, ether, and fixed and volatile oils. Although oleic acid has a low level of toxicity when absorbed orally, it is mildly irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. It also is combustible. Oleic acid is used as a soap base and in the production of food-grade additives, ointments, cosmetics, fragrance products, polishing compounds, surface coatings, and manufacturing driers. It is used for waterproofing textiles and for thickening lubricating oils. It also is used as a solvent in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. It contributes to the flavor of foods and is found in sweet cider apples. One of the "good" or unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid has proven helpful to cell and heart function. It has shown anti-inflammatory effects in the body and has been used to treat arthritis, asthma, allergies, and skin conditions. Its inclusion in the diet has improved cases of diabetes, depression, menopausal problems, obesity, memory and learning disabilities, eye problems, and digestive disorders. It is considered to lower the incidence of cancer (as an antioxidant), multiple sclerosis, and lupus as well.

2003-05-08

494

Thia fatty acids, metabolism and metabolic effects.  

PubMed

(1) The chemical properties of thia fatty acids are similar to normal fatty acids, but their metabolism (see below: points 2-6) and metabolic effects (see below: points 7-15) differ greatly from these and are dependent upon the position of the sulfur atom. (2) Long-chain thia fatty acids and alkylthioacrylic acids are activated to their CoA esters in endoplasmatic reticulum. (3) 3-Thia fatty acids cannot be beta-oxidized. They are metabolized by extramitochondrial omega-oxidation and sulfur oxidation in the endoplasmatic reticulum followed by peroxisomal beta-oxidation to short sulfoxy dicarboxylic acids. (4) 4-Thia fatty acids are beta-oxidized mainly in mitochondria to alkylthioacryloyl-CoA esters which accumulate and are slowly converted to 2-hydroxy-4-thia acyl-CoA which splits spontaneously to an alkylthiol and malonic acid semialdehyde-CoA ester. The latter presumably is hydrolyzed and metabolized to acetyl-CoA and CO2. (5) Both 3- and 4-thiastearic acid are desaturated to the corresponding thia oleic acids. (6) Long-chain 3- and 4-thia fatty acids are incorporated into phospholipids in vivo, particularly in heart, and in hepatocytes and other cells in culture. (7) Long-chain 3-thia fatty acids change the fatty acid composition of the phospholipids: in heart, the content of n-3 fatty acids increases and n-6 fatty acids decreases. (8) 3-Thia fatty acids increase fatty acid oxidation in liver through inhibition of malonyl-CoA synthesis, activation of CPT I, and induction of CPT-II and enzymes of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Activation of fatty acid oxidation is the key to the hypolipidemic effect of 3-thia fatty acids. Also other lipid metabolizing enzymes are induced. (9) Fatty acid- and cholesterol synthesis is inhibited in hepatocytes. (10) The nuclear receptors PPAR alpha and RXR alpha are induced by 3-thia fatty acids. (11) The induction of enzymes and of PPAR alpha and RXR alpha are increased by dexamethasone and counteracted by insulin. (12) 4-Thia fatty acids inhibit fatty acid oxidation and induce fatty liver in vivo. The inhibition presumably is explained by accumulation of alkylthioacryloyl-CoA in the mitochondria. This metabolite is a strong inhibitor of CPT-II. (13) Alkylthioacrylic acids inhibits both fatty acid oxidation and esterification. Inhibition of esterification presumably follows accumulation of extramitochondrial alkylthioacryloyl-CoA, an inhibitor of microsomal glycerophosphate acyltransferase. (14) 9-Thia stearate is a strong inhibitor of the delta 9-desaturase in liver and 10-thia stearate of dihydrosterculic acid synthesis in trypanosomes. (15) Some attempts to develop thia fatty acids as drugs are also reviewed. PMID:9030189

Skrede, S; Sørensen, H N; Larsen, L N; Steineger, H H; Høvik, K; Spydevold, O S; Horn, R; Bremer, J

1997-01-21

495

Separation of Selected Bile Acids by TLC. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven of the selected bile acids were investigated: cholic acid (C), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC), deoxycholic acid (DC), lithocholic acid (LC), glycocholic acid (GC), glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), and glycolithocholic acid (GLC). The retardation factor (RF), ?RF values, the separation factors (?), resolution factors (RS), as well as the constants of the pair separation (RF ), indicate that the mobile phase n?heptane–ethyl

A. Pyka; M. Do?owy

2003-01-01

496

Acid soil and acid rain, 2nd edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the basic chemical processes involved in acidification in order to better assess their long-term effects on the status of soils, the health of plants and other living species that depend on them. It also discusses acidity, pH and protons their significance in bioenergetics and the consequent role of autotrophic organisms in acidifying ecosystems. This edition incorporates and

1992-01-01

497

Influence of amino acids on okadaic acid production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Okadaic acid (OA) (1)) was the first example of a group of polyether toxins known to be produced by marine microalgae, which are responsible for the natural phenomena known as Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) red tides. It is also a highly selective inhibitor of protein phosphatases type 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), as well as being a potent tumour promoter.

M. L. Souto; J. J. Fernández; M. Norte; M. L. Fernández; A. Mart??nez

2001-01-01

498

Acid rain and electricity conservation  

SciTech Connect

Conservation directly lowers the emissions of SO/sub 2/ and other pollutants by reducing the amount of coal and other fuels that must be burned to meet electricity demand. This book is the first report to provide an integrated analysis of electricity supply, acid raid abatement, and conservation opportunities. The authors use a utility simulation model to examine SO/sub 2/ emissions, electric rates, and overall costs to consumers for different load growth and emissions control scenarios. The study also suggests how acid rain legislation can be designed to encourage electricity conservation.

Geller, H.; Miller, E.; Ledbetter, M.; Miller, P.

1987-01-01

499

The Nucleic Acid Database (NDB)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed by John Westbrook, and housed at Rutgers University, the goal of the NDB is to assemble and distribute structural information about nucleic acids. The database contains the coordinates of nucleic acid-containing crystal structures, including a searchable atlas of structures, Protein Finder, a search-engine for locating protein structures in the PDB database, a macromolecular crystallographic information file, and archived reports about the structures contained in the database. This site provides information of general interest to researchers in the field, and develops and distributes standard geometry information for use in refinement and molecular modeling programs. Users can also subscribe to the NDB electronic newsletter.

1998-01-01

500