Science.gov

Sample records for hirntumoren beim kind

  1. Two Kinds of Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Two Kinds of Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table ... minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ...

  2. Verbesserung der Prozessbedingungen beim Einlippentiefbohren durch unterschiedliche Formen der Vorschubmodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisseler, Rocco

    Das Tiefbohren mit Einlippenwerkzeugen ist bei vielen Anwendungen das Verfahren der ersten Wahl, vor allem wenn kleine und kleinste Bohrungsdurchmesser, ein sehr großes Verhältnis zwischen Bohrtiefe und Durchmesser (l/D) und eine hohe Bearbeitungsqualität gefordert werden. Der erreichbare Durchmesserbereich des Verfahrens liegt zwischen D = 0,5 mm und 40 mm, wobei die möglichen Bohrtiefen von l = 3 x D bis 250 x D reichen. Diese Werte beziehen sich auf das Vollbohren, beim Aufbohren können noch größere Durchmesser erreicht werden [1]. Die erreichbare Oberflächenqualität ist so hoch, dass in den meisten Fällen auf eine nachfolgende Feinbearbeitung verzichtet werden kann.

  3. Two Kinds of Argument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Kane distinguishes between two kinds of argument: the interpretation/use argument and the validity argument. This commentary considers whether there really are two kinds of argument, two arguments, or just one. It concludes that there is just one argument: the validity argument. (Contains 2 figures and 5 notes.)

  4. Two Kinds of Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Two Kinds of Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... are often a warning sign for future strokes. Stroke Can Affect Anyone Award-winning actress Julie Harris ...

  5. Causal essentialism in kinds.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Taylor, Eric G; Kato, Daniel; Marsh, Jessecae K; Bloom, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The current study examines causal essentialism, derived from psychological essentialism of concepts. We examine whether people believe that members of a category share some underlying essence that is both necessary and sufficient for category membership and that also causes surface features. The main claim is that causal essentialism is restricted to categories that correspond to our intuitive notions of existing kinds and hence is more attenuated for categories that are based on arbitrary criteria. Experiments 1 and 3 found that people overtly endorse causal essences in nonarbitrary kinds but are less likely to do so for arbitrary categories. Experiments 2 and 4 found that people were more willing to generalize a member's known causal relations (or lack thereof) when dealing with a kind than when dealing with an arbitrary category. These differences between kinds and arbitrary categories were found across various domains-not only for categories of living things, but also for artefacts. These findings have certain real-world implications, including how people make sense of mental disorders that are treated as real kinds. PMID:23098315

  6. Can Kindness Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    There's no doubt that children's home environments have a huge impact on the kind of people they become. But so do their educational environments. A number of schools are beginning to realize it's worth it to spend the time on "soft" skills such as empathy. Even forgetting the recent scary headlines about bullying, teachers know that a classroom…

  7. Two Kinds of Electron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s physicists were confronted by two conflicting values for the charge of the electron as measured with great precision by two different methods. Could it be that there are two kinds of (negative) electrons, differing in charge by a fraction of a percent? The experiments were reconciled when a small systematic error in one of the…

  8. Teaching Repayment of Parents' Kindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bum Jung; Sung, Kyu-taik

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a Buddhist Sutra about the deep kindness of mothers and ways of repaying mothers' kindness. The Sutra has been used to teach children about mothers' kindness and the obligation to repay to their mothers in their old age. It contains discourses about 10 types of kindness that a mother bestows on her child and how to repay…

  9. Kinds of Knowledge in Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Clayton

    Solving equations in elementary algebra requires knowledge of the permitted operations, and knowledge of what operation to use at a given point in the solution process. While just these kinds of knowledge would be adequate for an ideal solver, human solvers appear to need and use other kinds of knowledge. First, many errors seem to indicate that…

  10. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  11. [Are Mental Disorders Natural Kinds?].

    PubMed

    Flórez Quintero, Daian Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    A problem for both philosophers of Psychiatry and Psychiatrists within the domain of nosology is to determine which could be the more appropriate model to classify mental illnesses. Such an endeavor also requires questioning the very nature of mental illness. While trying to cope with the philosophical challenges of such a task, Peter Zachar purports to show that the nosological work in Psychiatry should not adhere to the model of natural kinds. He even considers that it is mistaken to treat mental disorders as natural kinds. Nonetheless, Zachar's view on the existence of natural kinds-even in domains where there is little room for doubting about their existence, like Chemistry-is very unstable. In 2001 he holds that there are no natural kinds, but in 2008 he argues that his objections to the model of natural kinds are more the manifestation of his skepticism against a tradition. Although the problem of the existence of natural kinds shall not be dealt with in this article, a brief description on how deflated is Zachar's view on this matter in 2008 is presented, with the central part of the article devoted to reconstruct and examine his rationale for the thesis that mental disorders are not natural kinds. In the critical section of this paper, it is suggested that, although Zachar's thesis may be right, the arguments he gives to support it are quite flawed. PMID:26578221

  12. The KIND Workshop Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirch, Willow Ann

    The National Association for Humane and Environmental Education (NAHEE) produces this workshop guide which offers a scripted workshop with handouts for elementary educators interested in sharing curriculum-based activities dedicated to helping young people develop values of kindness and respect toward people, animals, and the Earth. This guide…

  13. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  14. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  15. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  16. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  17. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  18. The Young Learner: Encouraging Kindness in Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1988-01-01

    Contains two motivational tools, a Kind Award and a Pass-It-On poem, which are designed to encourage children to be kind to animals. Includes examples on how to use the tools, and reproducible masters to be used in both instances. (TW)

  19. Online Literacy Is a Lesser Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Web skimming may be a kind of literacy but it's not the kind that matters most. In this article, the author contends that web skimming indicates a decline of literacy. The author discusses research conducted by Jakob Nielsen, a Web researcher, on how users skim web pages. He shows how the web is damaging the right way to read.

  20. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  1. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  2. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  3. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 381.163 Section 381.163 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  4. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 381.163 Section 381.163 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  5. Not-so Random Acts of Kindness: A Guide to Intentional Kindness in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binfet, John-Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about random acts of kindness- acts performed spontaneously and often to strangers. The topic of kindness and the benefits arising from performing kind acts holds both empirical and applied interest in the fields of education and psychology. Encouraging students to reflect upon and perform intentional acts of kindness…

  6. Diversity in Classrooms: Teaching Kindness through Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieman, Barry B.; Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of folktales from India to teach kindness to kindergarten and primary school children. Notes that the "King of the Banyan Deer Tale" is particularly effective in early childhood, whereas the "Dooth Tale" is effective with older children. Supplemental activities are briefly described, such as food preparation, games and music, and…

  7. Evidence for a Distinct Kind of Noun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the spontaneous speech of four children and their parents for use of determiners with NP-type nouns and count nouns. Found that the parents made a clear distinction between the two kinds of nouns, omitting determiners with the NP-type nouns but not with the count nouns. The children all made the same distinction by four years of age. (HTH)

  8. Identifying Kinds of Reasoning in Collective Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, AnnaMarie; Singletary, Laura M.; Smith, Ryan C.; Wagner, Patty Anne; Francisco, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Peirce's rule, case, and result with Toulmin's data, claim, and warrant to differentiate between deductive, inductive, abductive, and analogical reasoning within collective argumentation. In this theoretical article, we illustrate these kinds of reasoning in episodes of collective argumentation using examples from one…

  9. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Senior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the senior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense) Teacher."…

  10. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Junior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the junior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense) Teacher."…

  11. Methodological Encounters with the Phenomenal Kind

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Block’s well-known distinction between phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness has generated a large philosophical literature about putative conceptual connections between the two. The scientific literature about whether they come apart in any actual cases is rather smaller. Empirical evidence gathered to date has not settled the issue. Some put this down to a fundamental methodological obstacle to the empirical study of the relation between phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness. Block (2007) has drawn attention to the methodological puzzle and attempted to answer it. While the evidence Block points to is relevant and important, this paper puts forward a more systematic framework for addressing the puzzle. To give it a label, the approach is to study phenomenal consciousness as a natural kind. The approach allows consciousness studies to move beyond initial means of identifying instances of the kind like verbal report, and to find its underlying nature. It is well-recognised that facts about an underlying kind may allow identification of instances of the kind that do not match the initial means of identification (cp. non-liquid samples of water). This paper shows that the same method can be deployed to investigate phenomenal consciousness independently of access consciousness. PMID:22654148

  12. Polynomial Asymptotes of the Second Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This note uses the analytic notion of asymptotic functions to study when a function is asymptotic to a polynomial function. Along with associated existence and uniqueness results, this kind of asymptotic behaviour is related to the type of asymptote that was recently defined in a more geometric way. Applications are given to rational functions and…

  13. Measuring Kindness at School: Psychometric Properties of a School Kindness Scale for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binfet, John Tyler; Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to create and validate a brief measure to assess students' perceptions of kindness in school. Participants included 1,753 students in Grades 4 to 8 attending public schools in a large school district in southern British Columbia. The School Kindness Scale (SKS) demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure and adequate…

  14. Software evolution. What kind of evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Carbonell, J. J.; Parets-Llorca, J.

    2001-06-01

    Most Software Systems capable of adapting to the environment or of performing some kind of adaptive activity (such as pattern learning, behavior simulations and the like) use concepts and models from Biology. Nevertheless, such approaches are based on the Modern Synthesis, i.e., Darwinism plus Mendelism, and this implies preadaptive mutations in, and subsequent selection of the better adapted individuals. These pre-adaptive changes usually do not produce the desired effect, are virtually useless and require some kind of backtracking for the system to obtain profit from adaptation. It is our contention that an evolutionary approach in Software Systems development cannot be based on pre-adaptive mutations, but rather on post-adaptive ones, that is, anticipatory mutations and modifications (Lamarkism). A novel way of understanding evolution in Software Systems based on applied Lamarkism is presented and a framework that allows the incorporation of modifications according to the necessities of the system and the will of the modeller is proposed.

  15. Kind of images in printed photo books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fageth, Reiner; Schütz, Peter; Wagner, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the usage of images in tangible products as a function of its origin, coming from digital still cameras (DSC) or mobile devices. It is also shown, that pictures from mobile devices are mainly used to complete story telling in photo books, they are currently not a driver for generating this kind of high value products. Images taken from mobile devices generate to a great extent only prints mainly ordered via kiosk systems.

  16. Studying the teaching of kindness: A conceptual model for evaluating kindness education programs in schools.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Deanna M; deBlois, Madeleine; Dominguez, Violeta; Walsh, Michele E

    2016-10-01

    Recent research suggests that school-based kindness education programs may benefit the learning and social-emotional development of youth and may improve school climate and school safety outcomes. However, how and to what extent kindness education programming influences positive outcomes in schools is poorly understood, and such programs are difficult to evaluate in the absence of a conceptual model for studying their effectiveness. In partnership with Kind Campus, a widely adopted school-based kindness education program that uses a bottom-up program framework, a methodology called concept mapping was used to develop a conceptual model for evaluating school-based kindness education programs from the input of 123 middle school students and approximately 150 educators, school professionals, and academic scholars. From the basis of this model, recommendations for processes and outcomes that would be useful to assess in evaluations of kindness education programs are made, and areas where additional instrument development may be necessary are highlighted. The utility of the concept mapping method as an initial step in evaluating other grassroots or non-traditional educational programming is also discussed. PMID:27376750

  17. Nanoglasses: a new kind of noncrystalline materials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Nanoglasses are a new class of noncrystalline solids. They differ from today’s glasses due to their microstructure that resembles the microstructure of polycrystals. They consist of regions with a melt-quenched glassy structure connected by interfacial regions, the structure of which is characterized (in comparison to the corresponding melt-quenched glass) by (1) a reduced (up to about 10%) density, (2) a reduced (up to about 20%) number of nearest-neighbor atoms and (3) a different electronic structure. Due to their new kind of atomic and electronic structure, the properties of nanoglasses may be modified by (1) controlling the size of the glassy regions (i.e., the volume fraction of the interfacial regions) and/or (2) by varying their chemical composition. Nanoglasses exhibit new properties, e.g., a Fe90Sc10 nanoglass is (at 300 K) a strong ferromagnet whereas the corresponding melt-quenched glass is paramagnetic. Moreover, nanoglasses were noted to be more ductile, more biocompatible, and catalytically more active than the corresponding melt-quenched glasses. Hence, this new class of noncrystalline materials may open the way to technologies utilizing the new properties. PMID:24062978

  18. What kind of discipline is psychoanalysis?

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Current controversies involving clinical, conceptual and empirical research shed light on how psychoanalysis confronts its nature and its future. Some relevant debates in which Wallerstein, Green, Hoffman, Eagle and Wolitzky, Safran, Stern, Blass and Carmeli, and Panksepp have participated are examined regarding the characteristics of their argumentation. Agreements and disagreements are explored to find ways that could have allowed the discussion to progress. Two foci are highlighted in these debates: (a) whether a clinical common ground exists in psychoanalysis and what kind of procedure could contribute to further clarification; (b) complementation of in-clinical and extra-clinical evidence. Both aspects are scrutinized: the possibility of complementing diverse methodologies, and the nature of the shared clinical evidence examined in clinical discussion groups such as those promoted by the IPA Clinical Observation Committee. The importance of triangulation and consilience is brought to bear regarding their contribution to the robustness of psychoanalysis. So as to strengthen a critical perspective that enhances the discipline's argumentative field, psychoanalysis should take into account arguments from different sources according to their specific merits. By doing this, psychoanalysis increases its relevance within the current interdisciplinary dialogue. PMID:26173887

  19. KIND Clubs: A Humane Education Innovation That's Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Patty

    1990-01-01

    The Kids in Nature's Defense (KIND) Club and the "adopt" a teacher program are described. The importance of animals and the environment is emphasized. Information on how to start a KIND Club is provided. (KR)

  20. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  1. Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, John S.

    2013-02-01

    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in A System of Logic. However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have always employed, of kinds as being types that need not have necessary and sufficient characters and properties, or essences. These competing views employ different approaches to scientific methodologies: Mill's class-kinds are not formed by induction but by deduction, while Whewell's type-kinds are inductive. More recently, phylogenetic kinds (clades, or monophyletic-kinds) are inductively projectible, and escape Mill's strictures. Mill's version represents a shift in the notions of kinds from the biological to the physical sciences.

  2. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  3. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  4. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  5. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  6. What kind of computation is intelligence. A framework for integrating different kinds of expertise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekaran, B.

    1989-01-01

    The view that the deliberative aspect of intelligent behavior is a distinct type of algorithm; in particular, a goal-seeking exploratory process using qualitative representations of knowledge and inference is elaborated. There are other kinds of algorithms that also embody expertise in domains. The different types of expertise and how they can and should be integrated to give full account of expert behavior are discussed.

  7. Levels and kinds of explanation: lessons from neuropsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Sam

    2014-01-01

    I use an example from neuropsychiatry, namely delusional misidentification, to show a distinction between levels of explanation and kinds of explanation. Building on a pragmatic view of explanation, different kinds of explanation arise because we have different kinds of explanatory concerns. One important kind of explanatory concern involves asking a certain kind of “why” question. Answering such questions provides a personal explanation, namely, renders intelligible the beliefs and actions of other persons. I use contrasting theories of delusional misidentification to highlight how different facts about the phenomenon that is being explained impose constraints on the availability of personal explanation. PMID:24808882

  8. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  9. A criterion for two kinds of Peierls transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, Wang; C, Wu; X, Sun

    1985-03-01

    Two different kinds of Peierls transitions can exist depending on the anisotropic ratio γ of intrachain and interchain coupling. γ has a critical value γo if γ>γo, the Peierls transition will exhibit a CDW accompanied by a metal-semiconductor transition (kind I); if γ > γo, only CDW and superlattice occur at Peierls transition (kind II). Some experimental evidences are discussed.

  10. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  11. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  12. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  13. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  14. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  15. Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in "A System of Logic." However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have…

  16. 14 CFR 77.5 - Kinds of objects affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kinds of objects affected. 77.5 Section 77...) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE (Eff. until 1-18-11) General § 77.5 Kinds of objects affected. This part applies to: (a) Any object of natural growth, terrain, or permanent or temporary...

  17. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  18. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  19. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (PIK) Program § 1435.503 In-kind payments. (a) CCC will, through such methods as CCC deems appropriate, make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC will use its inventory in making an in-kind payment based on the following priority: (1)...

  20. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (PIK) Program § 1435.503 In-kind payments. (a) CCC will, through such methods as CCC deems appropriate, make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC will use its inventory in making an in-kind payment based on the following priority: (1)...

  1. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  2. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  3. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  4. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  5. 14 CFR 77.5 - Kinds of objects affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kinds of objects affected. 77.5 Section 77.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE General § 77.5 Kinds of objects affected. This part applies to: (a) Any object of natural growth,...

  6. Small Modular Reactor: First of a Kind (FOAK) and Nth of a Kind (NOAK) Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lauren M. Boldon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-08-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) refer to any reactor design in which the electricity generated is less than 300 MWe. Often medium sized reactors with power less than 700 MWe are also grouped into this category. Internationally, the development of a variety of designs for SMRs is booming with many designs approaching maturity and even in or nearing the licensing stage. It is for this reason that a generalized yet comprehensive economic model for first of a kind (FOAK) through nth of a kind (NOAK) SMRs based upon rated power, plant configuration, and the fiscal environment was developed. In the model, a particular project’s feasibility is assessed with regards to market conditions and by commonly utilized capital budgeting techniques, such as the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), Payback, and more importantly, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for comparison to other energy production technologies. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of changing debt, equity, interest rate, and conditions on the LCOE. The economic model is primarily applied to the near future water cooled SMR designs in the United States. Other gas cooled and liquid metal cooled SMR designs have been briefly outlined in terms of how the economic model would change. FOAK and NOAK SMR costs were determined for a site containing seven 180 MWe water cooled SMRs and compared to a site containing one 1260 MWe reactor. With an equal share of debt and equity and a 10% cost of debt and equity, the LCOE was determined to be $79 $84/MWh and $80/MWh for the SMR and large reactor sites, respectively. With a cost of equity of 15%, the SMR LCOE increased substantially to $103 $109/MWh. Finally, an increase in the equity share to 70% at the 15% cost of equity resulted in an even higher LCOE, demonstrating the large variation in results due to financial and market factors. The NPV and IRR both decreased with increasing LCOE. Unless the price of electricity

  7. Conceptual and linguistic representations of kinds and classes

    PubMed Central

    Prasada, Sandeep; Hennefield, Laura; Otap, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that our conceptual systems provide two formally distinct ways of representing categories by investigating the manner in which lexical nominals (e.g., tree, picnic table) and phrasal nominals (e.g., black bird, birds that like rice) are interpreted. Four experiments found that lexical nominals may be mapped onto kind representations whereas phrasal nominals map onto class representations but not kind representations. Experiment 1 found that phrasal nominals, unlike lexical nominals, are mapped onto categories whose members need not be of a single kind. Experiments 2 and 3 found that categories named by lexical nominals enter into both class inclusion and kind hierarchies and thus support both class inclusion (is a) and kind specification (kind of) relations, whereas phrasal nominals map onto class representations which support only class inclusion relations. Experiment 4 showed that the two types of nominals represent hierarchical relations in different ways. Phrasal nominals (e.g., white bear) are mapped onto classes that have criteria of membership in addition to those specified by the class picked out by the head noun of the phrase (e.g., bear). In contrast, lexical nominals (e.g., polar bear) specify one way to meet the criteria specified by the more general kind concept (e.g., bear). Implications for the language-conceptual system interface, representation of hierarchical relations, lexicalization, and theories of conceptual combination are discussed. PMID:22671567

  8. Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Kathryn E; Bardi, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to establish the effects of acts of kindness and acts of novelty on life satisfaction. Participants aged 18-60 took part on a voluntary basis. They were randomly assigned to perform either acts of kindness, acts of novelty, or no acts on a daily basis for 10 days. Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction. PMID:20575332

  9. How Natural a Kind Is “Eukaryote?”

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, W. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Systematics balances uneasily between realism and nominalism, uncommitted as to whether biological taxa are discoveries or inventions. If the former, they might be taken as natural kinds. I briefly review some philosophers’ concepts of natural kinds and then argue that several of these apply well enough to “eukaryote.” Although there are some sticky issues around genomic chimerism and when eukaryotes first appeared, if we allow for degrees in the naturalness of kinds, existing eukaryotes rank highly, higher than prokaryotes. Most biologists feel this intuitively: All I attempt to do here is provide some conceptual justification. PMID:24890508

  10. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... their greatest dimension and there shall be no bone particles larger than 2.0 mm in their greatest dimension. (c) “Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry)” shall not have a calcium content exceeding...

  11. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from the mechanical separation process that fails to meet the bone particle size or calcium content... “Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry) “ shall have a maximum size no greater than 1.5 mm (millimeter)...

  12. On two kinds of intermediate orbits for asteroid explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengxian; Hou, Xiyun; Liu, Lin

    2013-07-01

    In the paper, two kinds of intermediate orbits for asteroid explorations are proposed. One is around the collinear libration points of the Sun-asteroid restricted three-body problem. The other is around the asteroid itself. The first kind of intermediate orbit is applicable to asteroids with known masses, while the second is suitable for asteroids with unknown or negligible masses. Analytical solutions of these two intermediate orbits in the simplified models are introduced first, and then numerical algorithms are used to refine them to obtain the true orbits in the real force model. At last, the problem of station-keeping is addressed. The linear optimal feedback control law is used, and numerical simulations are made to both kinds of intermediate orbits. The results show that both kinds of orbits are feasible. The cost is reasonable and mainly depends on the initial insertion error.

  13. Inequalities involving modified Bessel functions of the first kind II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricz, Arpad; Neuman, Edward

    2007-08-01

    The intrinsic properties, including logarithmic convexity (concavity), of the modified Bessel functions of the first kind and some other related functions are obtained. Several inequalities involving functions under discussion are established.

  14. BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2014-05-01

    Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as "may all beings be happy," to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. Furthermore, meditators showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas novices showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and other cortical midline regions of the default mode network, the bilateral posterior insula lobe, and the bilateral parahippocampus/hippocampus. These novel findings suggest that loving kindness meditation involves a present-centered, selfless focus for meditators as compared to novices. PMID:24944863

  15. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of four kinds of vitamins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Cunlin

    2009-11-01

    The terahertz spectra of four kinds of vitamins are presented. The refractive index and absorption spectra of these vitamins are obtained by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The full-geometry optimizations and frequency calculations using the density functional theory are applied to obtain the structure and vibration frequencies of these vitamin molecules. The calculated vibration frequencies are compared with the experimental data. The results show that there are terahertz fingerprint absorptions for all of four kinds of vitamins. The terahertz absorbance spectra of vitamins result from not only the intramolecular vibration modes, but also the intermolecular interaction or phonon modes.

  16. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  17. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  18. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  19. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  20. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  1. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... standards. Class, grade, and other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle,...

  2. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... standards. Class, grade, and other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle,...

  3. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... standards. Class, grade, and other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle,...

  4. Book Talk. Books About All Kinds of Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Judy

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated listing of books about all kinds of heroes for elementary school students. Stories include the young King Arthur; an assertive, baseball-playing heroine who becomes a princess; an older brother dealing with his younger brother; a Christmas story; civil rights icon Rosa Parks; and the cow who jumped over the moon. (SM)

  5. Robots and Rodents: Children's Inferences about Living and Nonliving Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jipson, Jennifer L.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tests the firm distinction children are said to make between living and nonliving kinds. Three, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults reasoned about whether items that varied on 3 dimensions (alive, face, behavior) had a range of properties (biological, psychological, perceptual, artifact, novel, proper names). Findings demonstrate…

  6. 7 CFR 868.31 - Kinds of inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kinds of inspection services. 868.31 Section 868.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND...

  7. 7 CFR 868.31 - Kinds of inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kinds of inspection services. 868.31 Section 868.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND...

  8. Design Principles for Online Instruction: A New Kind of Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toporski, Neil; Foley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    In the 1900s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or "canned" broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed distance education (DE) to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb) model, where content was…

  9. [Character identification of 12 kinds of pilose antler medicinal materials].

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Guo, Y; Ren, W

    1999-09-01

    In this paper, commercial medicinal materials of 12 kinds of pilose antler, Cervus nippon, C. elaphus, C. albirostris, C. unicolor, C. eldihainanus, C. timorensis C. porinus, Dama dama, Rangifer farandus, Alces alces, Elaphurus davidianus, Capreolus capreolus were compared and identified. A key and simple character illustration were listed. PMID:12571919

  10. The 3 Kinds of School Safety since 9/11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrow, John

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the three kinds of school safety: (1) physical; (2) emotional; and (3) intellectual, and details how to determine if a school is safe. Excellence in schools demands that schools be physically, emotionally, and intellectually safe for students, while "good enough" schools are simply physically safe. Here, the author…

  11. 32 CFR 701.11 - Processing specific kinds of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Processing specific kinds of records. 701.11 Section 701.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING...

  12. The Kind of Schools We Need: Personal Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot W.

    This book of essays sets forth Eisner's theories of aesthetic intelligence, or theories that rethink the connections among art, literacy, research, and evaluation. The book is divided into four sections of four essays each. The first section, "Cognition and Representation," explains how the process of education expands and deepens the kinds of…

  13. What Kind of Learning Environment Do Newly Qualified Teachers Create?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Tarja; Kaikkonen, Pauli

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of recent studies, language teaching has educational, cultural, and social objectives. The purpose of this study was firstly to investigate whether the new objectives of foreign language learning and teaching are put into effect, and secondly to examine what kind of learning environments teachers create. The main research data…

  14. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a) Grading service under the regulations shall consist of the determination and certification and other... information received from the inspection system having jurisdiction over the products involved. (c)...

  15. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a) Grading service under the regulations shall consist of the determination and certification and other... information received from the inspection system having jurisdiction over the products involved. (c)...

  16. What Kinds of Errors Are Salient in Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuz, Roger J.; Roberts, Richard M.

    The flow of normal conversation is often impeded by error. These errors can be divided into at least three categories: phonological, lexical, and pragmatic. A study was designed to assess whether different kinds of errors affect conversation in different ways. Forty-four subjects listened to tapes of conversations. Each conversation contained…

  17. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor...

  19. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor...

  20. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  1. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  2. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  3. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  4. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  5. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” and “Mechanically Separated Turkey.” (b) “Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry)” shall not have a... percent when made from mature chickens or from turkeys as defined in § 381.170(a)(l)(vi) and (vii) and...

  6. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...” and “Mechanically Separated Turkey.” (b) “Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry)” shall not have a... percent when made from mature chickens or from turkeys as defined in § 381.170(a)(l)(vi) and (vii) and...

  7. Movie Review: "It's Kind of a Funny Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Frankie

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal disconnections, social withdrawal, and loneliness are often precursors to depression and suicidal ideation. In the film "It's Kind of a Funny Story", the plot describes a protagonist who has become so relationally desolate among family, friends, and peers that he has taken delight in the thought of ending his life. The main character…

  8. Electron topological transitions of 3½ kind in beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikitik, G. P.; Sharlai, Yu. V.

    2015-12-01

    An analysis of known experimental literature data on the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility of beryllium. It is shown that this dependence can be explained if we take into account that beryllium has an electron topological transition of 3½ kind near the Fermi level.

  9. Engagement and Kindness in Digitally Mediated Learning with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramp, Andy; Lamond, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of designing online learning led by the principle of direct and meaningful participant engagement. It considers the notion of kindness as a crucial value contributing to pedagogy and the development of meaningful learning relationships. The paper challenges the "delivery" approach to online learning,…

  10. Electron Topological Transitions of 31/2 Kind in Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikitik, G. P.; Sharlai, Yu. V.

    2016-06-01

    We consider electron topological transitions associated with certain points of band-contact lines in metals. These transitions are 31/2 kind according to the classification of Lifshits and are widespread in metals with inversion symmetry and a weak spin-orbit interaction. The 31/2 -order transitions can be detected with the magnetic susceptibility. As an example, we consider these transitions in graphite.

  11. Estimating design costs for first-of-a-kind projects

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    Modern scientific facilities are often outcomes of projects that are first-of-a-kind, that is, minimal historical data are available for project costs and schedules. However, at Fermilab, there was an opportunity to execute two similar projects consecutively. In this paper, a comparative study of the design costs for these two projects is presented using earned value methodology. This study provides some insights into how to estimate the cost of a replicated project.

  12. A new kind of monitor for ophthalmic operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Jiang, W.; C-Y Lu, Stephen; Besio, Walter G.

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of the vision channel is often checked using VEP in order to avoiding damaging important tissue during an ophthalmic operation. But the measurement of before operations has strong side effects, it may damage the eyeball. We will introduce a new kind for monitoring ophthalmic operations in this paper. It uses visual electrical evoked potential to check the integrity of the vision access and it can monitor ophthalmic operations and avoid damaging any tissue, so it ensures the safety of the operation.

  13. Generalizations and kinds in natural science: the case of species.

    PubMed

    Reydon, Thomas A C

    2006-06-01

    Species in biology are traditionally perceived as kinds of organisms about which explanatory and predictive generalizations can be made, and biologists commonly use species in this manner. This perception of species is, however, in stark contrast with the currently accepted view that species are not kinds or classes at all, but individuals. In this paper I investigate the conditions under which the two views of species might be held simultaneously. Specifically, I ask whether upon acceptance of an ontology of species as diachronic segments of the tree of life (this is one version of the species as individuals ontology) species can perform the epistemic role of kinds of organisms to which explanatory and predictive generalizations apply. I show that, for species-level segments of the tree of life, several requirements have to be met before the performance of this epistemic role is possible, and I argue that these requirements can be met by defining species according to the Composite Species Concept proposed by Kornet and McAllister in the 1990s. PMID:16769557

  14. The methane monooxygenase intrinsic activity of kinds of methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingxin; Xin, Jiaying; Chen, Linlin; Xia, Chungu

    2009-06-01

    Methanotrophs have promising applications in the epoxidation of some alkenes and some chlorinated hydrocarbons and in the production of a biopolymer, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHB). In contrast with methane monooxygenase (MMO) activity and ability of PHB synthesis of four kinds of methanotrophic bacteria Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, M. trichosporium IMV3011, Methylococcus capsulatus HD6T, Methylomonas sp. GYJ3, and the mixture of the four kinds of strains, M. trichosporium OB3b is the highest of the four in the activity of propene epoxidation (10.72 nmol/min mg dry weight of cell [dwc]), the activity of naphthalene oxidation (22.7 mmol/mg dwc), and ability in synthesis of PHB(11% PHB content in per gram dry weight of cell in 84 h). It could be feasible to improve the MMO activity by mixing four kinds of methanotrophs. The MMO activity dramatically decreased when the cellular PHB accumulated in the second stage. The reason for this may be the dilution of the MMO system in the cells with increasing PHB contents. It has been found that the PHB contents at the level of 1-5% are beneficial to the cells for maintenance of MMO epoxidation activity when enough PHB have been accumulated. Moreover, it was also found that high particulate methane monooxygenase activity may contribute to the synthesis of PHB in the cell, which could be used to improve the yield of PHB in methanotrophs. PMID:19052919

  15. Test chips for custom ICs - Six kinds of test structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Griswold, T. W.; Pina, C. A.; Timoc, C.

    1982-01-01

    Microelectronic test chips contain a number of test structures that are used for a variety of purposes in fabricating integrated circuits. For convenience, their use is divided into six groups: layout-rule evaluating, process-parameter extraction, device-parameter extraction, circuit-parameter extraction, initial-fabrication failure analysis, and reliability failure analysis. A given test structure can be used to gather information in a number of these groups. Examples are given here of the kinds of parameters that can be obtained in each of these groups. A table is included summarizing various device failures common to bulk CMOS and indicating failure mechanisms appearing after wafer fabrication and after stress.

  16. Reforming the culture of healthcare: the case for intelligent kindness

    PubMed Central

    Campling, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the culture of healthcare in the light of the two reports by Robert Francis into the care at Mid Staffordshire. This editorial encourages a comprehensive exploration of the conditions that promote a benign caring culture and make outbreaks of cruel neglect and abuse of patients less likely. Creating and sustaining such a culture is dependent on being honest and realistic about the forces that threaten to undermine it. The editorial argues that being able to confidently articulate the positive values that should define healthcare culture is particularly important at this time. The case is made for a conscious focus on the concept of intelligent kindness. PMID:26191415

  17. Simple formulas for Stirling numbers of the second kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, A. A.; Ho, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    For large values of k, especially those closer to n, the expression for S(n, k), the Stirling numbers (of the second kind) can become quite cumbersome to deal with. In this paper, we obtained simple formulas for S(n, n - r) for small values of r. Our formulas contain only a combination of r combinatorial terms. As a consequence, our results revealed the fact that our values of S(n, n - r) are indeed far lower than the upper bounds given by Rennie and Dobson.

  18. Loving-Kindness and Compassion Meditation: Potential for Psychological Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Grossman, Paul; Hinton, Devon E.

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness-based meditation interventions have become increasingly popular in contemporary psychology. Other closely related meditation practices include loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion meditation (CM), exercises oriented toward enhancing unconditional, positive emotional states of kindness and compassion. This article provides a review of the background, the techniques, and the empirical contemporary literature of LKM and CM. The literature suggests that LKM and CM are associated with an increase in positive affect and a decrease in negative affect. Preliminary findings from neuroendocrine studies indicate that CM may reduce stress-induced subjective distress and immune response. Neuroimaging studies suggest that LKM and CM may enhance activation of brain areas that are involved in emotional processing and empathy. Finally, preliminary intervention studies support application of these strategies in clinical populations. It is concluded that, when combined with empirically supported treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, LKM and CM may provide potentially useful strategies for targeting a variety of different psychological problems that involve interpersonal processes, such as social anxiety, marital conflict, anger, and coping with the strains of long-term caregiving. PMID:21840289

  19. The Spanish in-kind contribution to ESO - Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bilbao, L.; Ballester, P.

    2011-11-01

    Ever since entering ESO in 2006, Spain has made an in-kind contribution invarious fields. In the Pipeline Systems Department (PSD), this contribution hasbeen made to a number of projects, in particular to the CPL (Common Pipeline Library), to the pipelines of the instruments ISAAC, SofI and FORS, and to theintegration of the pipeline for the new VISTA telescope into the DFS (Data FlowSystem) at Paranal. Some of these projects started with the VLT a decade ago, and have experiencedan evolution since, as a consequence of standardization processes, of thesearch of elements in common and, especially in the last couple of years, ofthe efforts to provide the astronomy community with 'science-ready' dataproducts. At the same time, the PSD faces new challenges today, as the dramatic increase in the data volume of the Paranal Observatory since the start of operations of VISTA, or the needs of the pipelines of the future instruments of the E-ELT. In the latter, more concretely, the current status of the CPL is being analyzed, with the goal of establishing the necessary changes to meet those future needs.In this article we introduce briefly these projects and detail the Spanish in-kind contribution to them.

  20. A new kind of uncertainty for a new kind of modernity? Expertise in an age of risk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, A.

    2009-04-01

    Modernity is not what it used to be (see for example Giddens 1991, Beck 1992, Bauman 2000, Luhman 2005). It has, so the sociologists tell us, mutated in order to thrive in a new age of risk and uncertainty. Some might say that it is not quite thriving yet. Whereas old modernity relied on experts to evaluate the problems opposing society and devise solutions for them - savoir pour prevoir, prevoir pour pouvoir - new modernity can no longer indulge in such straightforwardness. The hazards facing us have become so undeniably complex and in multiple ways produced by the very social activities they threaten, that uncontroversial fixes based on indisputable evidence can no longer be assumed. What role for expertise, then, in this increasingly complicated social landscape? As a starting point for thinking about this question, the paper sets out to explore the concept of uncertainty. After all, when it comes to hazards, this is what experts are expected to handle. Has it mutated as well? Does it make sense to speak of a new kind of uncertainty for a new kind of modernity? In its first modernity setting, uncertainty was what had to be transformed into some sort of certainty (see for example Latour 1999). In the case of the inherent uncertainties related to hazards and risk this task was accomplished with the emergence of probability theory and actuarial science (see for example Hacking 1979, 1990). Expertise in old modernity thus acquired a lot of its straightforwardness from its belief in uncomplicating uncertainty by transforming it into certainty. So, why is it still complicated? A crucial point in Latour's argument is that expertise works by reducing complexity in order to amplify facts (certainties). This requires a sense of direction and an agreement as to what is deemed important. Markets, for example, possess this. So do scientific communities and political institutions. But do the combined constituencies implicated by the complex risks facing society possess it

  1. Zuschauer beim Berlin-Marathon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hougardy, Stefan; Kirchner, Stefan; Zelke, Mariano

    Jedes Computerprogramm, sei es ein Betriebssystem, eine Textverarbeitung oder ein Computerspiel, ist aus einer Vielzahl von Algorithmen zusammen gesetzt. Ein Algorithmus ist eine Art Rechenvorschrift, die Daten als Eingabe entgegennimmt und daraus ein Ergebnis berechnet. Um beispielsweise die Anzeige desMauszeigers auf dem Bildschirm zu steuern, erhält der dafür zuständige Algorithmus die letzte Position des Mauszeigers und die Bewegung der Maus auf dem Schreibtisch als Eingabe. Daraus wird die neue Position des Mauszeigers berechnet, sie bildet die Ausgabe des Algorithmus.

  2. Superluminal Neutrinos: The Good Kind of Science Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucibella, Michael

    2012-03-01

    After OPERA released results indicating neutrinos were traveling faster than the speed of light, a number of vocal of scientists said that they shouldn't have prematurely engaged in ``science by press release.'' However, controversial claims like this, if handled right, can actually be a boon to science. Getting the public interested in cutting edge physics is notoriously difficult, but the public is always interested in hearing about a controversy. The press conference and following debate becomes a great teaching moment that offers the public a unique opportunity to get an inside and have an in-depth look at how science works. Scientists willing to publicly engage in this kind of civil controversy are important because when other scientific controversies arise, ones with major public policy implications, the public starts out with a better understanding of how science works, and scientists have better practice managing questions from the public.

  3. Combating terrorism - a response in kind. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, T.

    1987-05-13

    Outside of armed conflicts representing nations with forces in uniforms, another kind of war has emerged waged by terrorists. For the past twenty years terrorists have waged war against nations for a variety of reasons. No rules of war govern their conduct nor do they observe any. Methods of combatting terrorism vary from nation to nation. Few nations agree totally on how to combat this form of lawlessness. This essay examines one approach and suggests another. President Reagan's ultimate decision to bomb Libya is examined through a discussion of the events, repercussions of these events, and world opinion of these events that preceded his decision. A harsher, more-controlled and personal approach to combatting terrorism is suggested and discussed.

  4. Spectrum of Volterra integral operator of the second kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amangaliyeva, Meiramkul; Jenaliyev, Muvasharkhan; Ergaliev, Madi; Ramazanov, Murat

    2016-08-01

    The article addresses the singular Volterra integral equation of the second kind, which has the 'incompressible' kernel. It is shown that the corresponding homogeneous equation on |λ| ≥ exp{|arg λ|}, arg λ ∈ [-π,π] has a continuous spectrum, and the multiplicity of the characteristic numbers grows with increasing |λ|. We use the Carleman-Vekua regularization method. We introduce the characteristic integral equation. We prove that the initial integral equation has eigen-functions, the multiplicity of which depends on the value of the spectral parameter λ. We prove the solvability theorem of the nonhomogeneous equation in a case when the right-hand side of the equation belongs to a certain class.

  5. Topological properties of the interaction between focusing regions kind cusped.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Niconoff, G; Santos-García, S I De Los; Torres-Rodríguez, M A; Xique, R Suárez; Vargas-Morales, M; Vara, P Martinez; Carbajal-Domínguez, A

    2016-06-27

    We study here the cusped-cusped interaction between two kinds of Pearcey optical fields by analyzing its topological structure. We do it in two steps; the first one is an irradiance interaction that allows us to identify organization regions. The second one is an amplitude interaction, where it is shown that the interference fringes are organized around the irradiance distribution. The topological behavior of the optical field is analyzed identifying regions with different phase functions, one of them, corresponds with a catastrophe function which has associated a focusing region, the other region can be approximated by a quadratic function. The main consequence heritage from the phase structure is interference fringes emerge from focusing regions having similar features like a topological charges. We show computational and experimental results which are in very well agreement with the theoretical model. PMID:27410617

  6. What Kind of Animal is the “Three Rs”?

    PubMed Central

    Hobson-West, Pru

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fifty years after the publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by Russell and Burch, this paper explores the contemporary role of the Three Rs. This is illustrated by reference to a recent social scientific study, which involved a total of 50 in-depth interviews with scientists who use animals and with other stakeholders in the debate. The data analysis shows how the Three Rs are conceptualised in at least three ways: firstly, as an ethical animal, either as a shorthand for a moral imperative, or as a route to managing an ethical dilemma; secondly, as a scientific animal, internal to the scientific method; and finally, as a political animal, with some stakeholders referring to the Three Rs as a way to promote consensus in a controversial domain. Pushing the metaphor a little further, the paper concludes that the Three Rs concept has become a kind of hybrid animal. PMID:20105021

  7. Einstein's idealism and a new kind of space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, M. A.

    In 1935, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen made an attempt to imagine quantum experimental nonsense or some impossible experiment (EPR-experiment) in order to justify their local realism in physics. However, in the mid-1960s, John Bell showed that it is possible to realize this kind of nonsense in laboratory. Today, when EPR-refutation of local realism is routine in modern experimental physics (Clauser and Freedman [1972]; Aspect, Dalibard and Roger [1982]; Zeilinger et al. [1998]), we must; nevertheless, remark that Albert Einstein was not always a realist. As is known, in his Special Relativitz A. Einstein introduced some pure idealistic principle which K. Godel developed in famous "Remark about the relationship between Relativity theorz and Idealistic Philosophy" (1949). Kurt Godel for the first time showed an existence of special-relativistic solipsism, assuming that objective simultaneity in experimental science "loses its objective meaning". Correspondingly, there is only subjective simultaneity, that is provable by calculations with the finite velocity of light and astronomical observations. In particular, this space solipsism means that when we observe the sun, we can see only what happend on Sun 8.33 minutes ago; in other words, we percieve only certain sensations or a certain collections of ideas of the past, but not the present. Similarly, when astronomers observe galaxies estimated to be two billion light years from the Earth, they see these galaxies as they were two billion light years ago not as they are Now. Thus, in accordance with this, we may await that in this context for some pairs of astronomical objects we cannot prove they exist NOW. Moreover, this new kind of space research could be connected with introduction of the Cognitive Dark Matter, or, what is associated with manifold of the large-scale events of the Universe as a whole which are realizing Now, beyond consciousness of the observers-humans. Because we cannot know

  8. Driving behavior and control in traffic system with two kinds of signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Hino, Yuki

    2014-06-01

    We study the vehicular traffic controlled by two kinds of signals which are positioned with a periodic configuration. We propose a microscopic model to explore the driving behavior in the traffic system with two kinds of signals. The control method of traffic flow by the combination of two kinds of signals is proposed. The dynamic model is described by the nonlinear map model and the CA model. The driving behavior is clarified for the traffic system controlled by two kinds of signals. The fundamental diagrams are derived for various combinations of two kinds of signals. The traffic flow through two kinds of signals is compared with that of a single kind of signals. The traffic flow displays the complex behavior different from the conventional traffic with a single kind of signals.

  9. 7 CFR 800.75 - Kinds of official inspection and weighing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kinds of official inspection and weighing services. 800.75 Section 800.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Kinds of Official Services § 800.75 Kinds of official inspection and...

  10. 7 CFR 800.75 - Kinds of official inspection and weighing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kinds of official inspection and weighing services. 800.75 Section 800.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Kinds of Official Services § 800.75 Kinds of official inspection and...

  11. 7 CFR 800.75 - Kinds of official inspection and weighing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kinds of official inspection and weighing services. 800.75 Section 800.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Kinds of Official Services § 800.75 Kinds of official inspection and...

  12. 45 CFR 263.6 - What kinds of expenditures do not count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What kinds of expenditures do not count? 263.6... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.6 What kinds of expenditures do not count? The following kinds of expenditures do not count: (a)...

  13. Radon anomalies on three kinds of faults in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, C.-Y.; Zhang, W.; King, B.-S.

    1993-01-01

    Radon emanation is known to be anomalously high along active faults in many parts of the world. We tested this relationship in California during July and early August 1992, using a portable radonmeter to conduct soil-air radon surveys at 5 sites across three kinds of faults: Creeping, locked, and freshly broken. Along a 350-m long survey line across a creeping segment of the San Andreas fault at Nyland Ranch in San Juan Bautista, we found anomalous radon concentrations not in the creep zone itself as determined by a creepmeter, but on the adjacent sides, 10 and 30 meters from the center line of the fault. The anomalous values were 5 times higher than the background values measured farther away from the fault. A similar radon anomaly was observed along a 420-m long survey line across a creeping segment of the Calaveras fault near 7th Street in Hollister. There, the anomalous values were about 6 to 11 times the background values and about 40 and 50 m from the center line of the fault. The double-peaked featire of the anomalies may be indicative of a relatively low gas permeability of the fault-gouge materials in the creeping zones and high permeability of fractured rocks in the adjacent shear zones. Along a 144-m survey line across the currently locked segment of the San Andreas fault at the Earthquake Trail near Olema, the radon concentration was indeed anomalously high in the fault zone, by a factor of two above background values. However, the maximum values (3 to 6 times background) again were recorded about 10 meters from the center line. Three weeks after the magnitude 7.5 Landers earthquake of 28 June 1992, we conducted a survey along a 300-m line across the earthquake fault alongside Encantado Road in the epicenter area. The radon values measured at the two main fault breaks were an order of magnitude higher than the background values. A similar result was found along a 420-m line alongside Reche Road about 1.7 km south of Encantado Road. ?? 1993 Birkha

  14. Immersion freezing of different kinds of combustion ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Grawe, Sarah; Hellner, Lisa; Wex, Heike; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Stratmann, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Ice particles in the atmosphere influence both, weather and climate. Therefore it is important to know which kind of particles can act as ice nucleating particles (INP) under atmospheric conditions. In the last years, a lot of effort has been made to investigate the freezing abilities of natural INPs such as dusts and biological particles (Murray et al., 2012, Hoose and Möhler, 2012). However, there are only a few investigations concerning the ice nucleation ability of combustion ashes, which are the remains of fossil fuel and wood combustion and thus a possible source for anthropogenic INPs. Ash particles have similar compositions as mineral dust particles. However, the actual contribution of combustion ash particles to the atmospheric ice nucleation is rather unclear. A recent study by Umo et al. (2014) showed that combustion ashes could have a significant impact on the ice nucleation in clouds and thus should be the focus of further research. Ash particles can be lifted to the atmosphere by wind (bottom ashes) or directly during the combustion process (fly ashes). In the present study we investigated the freezing behavior of bottom ash particles which originated from wood as well as from coal. Additionally we investigated particles from fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. Particles were generated by dry dispersion and afterwards size selected with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA). The immersion freezing ability of the different ash particles was quantified utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS, Hartmann et al., 2011), where exactly one size segregated ash particle is immersed in a droplet. We found significant differences between the freezing abilities of the different ash types. Particles from wood bottom ashes initiate freezing at rather low temperatures near the homogenous freezing point (around -36°C). Particles from coal bottom ashes show significant higher ice nucleation abilities than the wood bottom ash, with

  15. Giant Radio Jet Coming From Wrong Kind of Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant jets of subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light have been found coming from thousands of galaxies across the Universe, but always from elliptical galaxies or galaxies in the process of merging -- until now. Using the combined power of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Very Large Array (VLA) and the 8-meter Gemini-South Telescope, astronomers have discovered a huge jet coming from a spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way. Radio-optical view of galaxy Combined HST and VLA image of the galaxy 0313-192. Optical HST image shows the galaxy edge-on; VLA image, shown in red, reveals giant jet of speeding particles. For more images, see this link below. CREDIT: Keel, Ledlow & Owen; STScI,NRAO/AUI/NSF, NASA "We've always thought spirals were the wrong kind of galaxy to generate these huge jets, but now we're going to have to re-think some of our ideas on what produces these jets," said William Keel, a University of Alabama astronomer who led the research team. Keel worked with Michael Ledlow of Gemini Observatory and Frazer Owen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The scientists reported their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. "Further study of this galaxy may provide unique insights on just what needs to happen in a galaxy to produce these powerful jets of particles," Keel said. In addition, Owen said, "The loose-knit nature of the cluster of galaxies in which this galaxy resides may play a part in allowing this particular spiral to produce jets." Astronomers believe such jets originate at the cores of galaxies, where supermassive black holes provide the tremendous gravitational energy to accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light. Magnetic fields twisted tightly by spinning disks of material being sucked into the black hole are presumed to narrow the speeding particles into thin jets, like a nozzle on a garden hose. Both elliptical and spiral galaxies are believed to harbor supermassive

  16. Children show heightened knew-it-all-along errors when learning new facts about kinds: Evidence for the power of kind representations in children's thinking.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about kinds of things in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this claim. Specifically, if the early cognitive system privileges kind (or generic) information in the proposed ways, then learning new facts about kinds should be so seamless that it is often accompanied by an impression that these facts were known all along. To test this prediction, we presented 4- to 7-year-old children with novel kind-wide and individual-specific facts, and we then asked children whether they had prior knowledge of these facts. As predicted, children were under the impression that they had known the kind-wide facts more often than the individual-specific facts, even though in reality they had just learned both (Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5). Importantly, learning facts about (nongeneric) plural sets of individuals was not similarly accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors (Experiment 4), highlighting the privileged status of kind information per se. Finally, we found that young children were able to correctly recognize their previous ignorance of newly learned generic facts when this ignorance was made salient before the learning event (Experiment 6), suggesting that children's frequent knew-it-all-along impressions about such facts truly stem from metacognitive difficulties rather than being a methodological artifact. In sum, these 6 studies indicate that learning information about kinds is accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors. More broadly, this evidence supports the view that early cognition privileges kind representations. PMID:26147777

  17. Tell me about Pangolins! Evidence that children are motivated to learn about kinds.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Park, JoAnn J

    2014-02-01

    We propose that conceptual development is facilitated by an early emerging bias that leads children to privilege learning about kinds of things in the world (e.g., dogs, chairs). Three studies (N = 144) provided evidence consistent with this proposal. When given a choice between finding out about a kind or about a concrete individual from that kind, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to find out about the kind. This preference was broad in scope, extending to both familiar (Experiment 3) and unfamiliar (Experiments 1 and 2) kinds. Children's desire to learn about kinds was also expressed flexibly rather than being automatically cued by superficial features of the task: Children who talked to an ostensibly ignorant experimenter did not favor the facts about kinds (Experiments 1 and 3). Moreover, children's preference was specific to kinds rather than extending to plural sets more generally: Children who chose between facts about a single individual and facts about multiple individuals did not favor the latter (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that conceptual development may be driven in part by a heightened motivation to learn about kinds. PMID:23379716

  18. 25 CFR 26.18 - What kinds of supportive services are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kinds of supportive services are available? 26.18 Section 26.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.18 What kinds of supportive services are available? The BIA or tribal service provider may...

  19. 25 CFR 26.18 - What kinds of supportive services are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kinds of supportive services are available? 26.18 Section 26.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.18 What kinds of supportive services are available? The BIA or tribal service provider may...

  20. 25 CFR 26.18 - What kinds of supportive services are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of supportive services are available? 26.18 Section 26.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.18 What kinds of supportive services are available? The BIA or tribal service provider may...

  1. 25 CFR 26.18 - What kinds of supportive services are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of supportive services are available? 26.18 Section 26.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.18 What kinds of supportive services are available? The BIA or tribal service provider may...

  2. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  3. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  4. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  5. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds...

  6. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds...

  7. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds...

  8. 20 CFR 10.800 - What kind of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of medical records must providers...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Information for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 10.800 What kind of medical records must providers keep? Agency medical officers, private physicians and hospitals...

  9. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  10. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  11. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  12. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  13. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  14. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  15. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  16. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  17. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  18. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support...

  19. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support...

  20. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  1. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  2. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  3. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  4. Loving-kindness meditation for posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kearney, David J; Malte, Carol A; McManus, Carolyn; Martinez, Michelle E; Felleman, Ben; Simpson, Tracy L

    2013-08-01

    Loving-kindness meditation is a practice designed to enhance feelings of kindness and compassion for self and others. Loving-kindness meditation involves repetition of phrases of positive intention for self and others. We undertook an open pilot trial of loving-kindness meditation for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Measures of PTSD, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were obtained at baseline, after a 12-week loving-kindness meditation course, and 3 months later. Effect sizes were calculated from baseline to each follow-up point, and self-compassion was assessed as a mediator. Attendance was high; 74% attended 9-12 classes. Self-compassion increased with large effect sizes and mindfulness increased with medium to large effect sizes. A large effect size was found for PTSD symptoms at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.89), and a medium effect size was found for depression at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.49). There was evidence of mediation of reductions in PTSD symptoms and depression by enhanced self-compassion. Overall, loving-kindness meditation appeared safe and acceptable and was associated with reduced symptoms of PTSD and depression. Additional study of loving-kindness meditation for PTSD is warranted to determine whether the changes seen are due to the loving-kindness meditation intervention versus other influences, including concurrent receipt of other treatments. PMID:23893519

  5. 45 CFR 681.12 - What kind of hearing is contemplated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What kind of hearing is contemplated? 681.12 Section 681.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.12 What kind of hearing is contemplated? The hearing is a formal...

  6. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  7. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine....515 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  8. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine... Licensing Policy § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services....

  9. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of archival... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a) The... chapter. (d) The majority of our archival materials are 30 years old or older. (e) Records...

  10. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions. 1.168(i)-6 Section 1.168(i)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(i)-6 Like-kind exchanges...

  11. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.48 Kind...

  12. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... date received. Each in-kind contribution shall be reported as a contribution in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind contribution shall also be... schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art objects, and...

  13. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  14. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  15. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  16. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  17. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? Service...

  18. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  19. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  20. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  1. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  2. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  3. 20 CFR 10.800 - What kind of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kind of medical records must providers...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Information for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 10.800 What kind of medical records must providers keep? Agency medical officers, private physicians and hospitals...

  4. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  5. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  6. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  7. 75 FR 51467 - ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN Challenges for Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN Challenges for Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN...

  8. 48 CFR 1516.303-74 - Determining the value of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services does not exceed fair market values. (c) The value of any services or the use of personal or real... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Determining the value of in... Contracts 1516.303-74 Determining the value of in-kind contributions. In-kind contributions accepted from...

  9. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind..., and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  10. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind..., and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  11. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind..., and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  12. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind..., and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  13. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind..., and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  14. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  15. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.48 Kind...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.275 What kind of maintenance programs... will develop maintenance programs for GSA Fleet vehicles. The scheduled maintenance program must: (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kind of...

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.275 What kind of maintenance programs... will develop maintenance programs for GSA Fleet vehicles. The scheduled maintenance program must: (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kind of...

  18. To the theory of volterra integral equations of the first kind with discontinuous kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apartsin, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    A nonclassical Volterra linear integral equation of the first kind describing the dynamics of an developing system with allowance for its age structure is considered. The connection of this equation with the classical Volterra linear integral equation of the first kind with a piecewise-smooth kernel is studied. For solving such equations, the quadrature method is applied.

  19. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  20. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  1. Character Education: Students Develop "The Kindness Company" to Benefit Local Charities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    One can develop a family and consumer sciences (FCS) course that teaches character education, and allows students to experience the good feelings that come from helping others through The Kindness Company. The Kindness Company is a simulated company that produces items for donation to local charitable organizations. Students get management…

  2. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management system... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?...

  3. Evidence for Kind Representations in the Absence of Language: Experiments with Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Santos, Laurie R.

    2007-01-01

    How do we come to recognize and represent different kinds of objects in the world? Some developmental psychologists have hypothesized that learning language plays a crucial role in this capacity. If this hypothesis were correct, then non-linguistic animals should lack the capacity to represent objects as kinds. Previous research with rhesus…

  4. 7 CFR 201.36b - Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to color, shape, size, habit of growth, disease-resistance, or other characteristics of the kind or... such terms are not misleading. (e) Brand names and terms taken from trademarks may be associated with... clearly identified as being other than a part of the name of the kind or variety; for example, Ox...

  5. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management...

  6. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management...

  7. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management...

  8. Natural and Artifactual Kinds: Are Children Realists or Relativists about Categories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Four studies assessed whether children and adults saw categorization decisions as objective matters of fact or as invented conventions. Found that preschoolers treated basic-level animal and human-made artifact category decisions as objective, with kinds of animals treated as more objective than kinds of artifacts. Adults' judgments were similar…

  9. 34 CFR 413.3 - What kinds of activities are carried out?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of activities are carried out? 413.3 Section 413.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL CENTER OR CENTERS FOR RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION General § 413.3 What kinds...

  10. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching about environmental conservation. Topics of these games, puzzles include pollution, rainforests, endangered species, habitat destruction, and solid waste. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  11. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching the care of and humane treatment of animals. Topics of these games and puzzles include state animal trivia, domestic pets and wild animals. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  12. Children Show Heightened Knew-It-All-Along Errors When Learning New Facts about Kinds: Evidence for the Power of Kind Representations in Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about "kinds of things" in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this…

  13. WomanKind: an innovative model of health care response to domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Hadley, S M; Short, L M; Lezin, N; Zook, E

    1995-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of the WomanKind program in creating opportunities for discussing domestic violence and training health professionals. The WomanKind program is based on the belief that without such discussion, health care providers will continue to treat the medical and mental health problems that bring women to their doors without addressing the underlying pattern of abuse that is the root cause. WomanKind has evolved to integrate case management/advocacy services for victims of domestic abuse, in addition to education and consultation for health professionals. It also provides case management and advocacy services, including crisis intervention, assessment and evaluation, and ongoing assistance to battered women who suffer from physical, emotional, or sexual abuse by a current or former partner. The WomanKind staff consists of a director who oversees the program, including marketing and public relations, education and training, as well as assisting the full-time program coordinators at each of the three hospital sites. An intensive 40-hour training program provides the new WomanKind volunteers with an understanding of the issues of domestic abuse and violence, as well as knowledge of community resources. The program goals are elaborated in this article as well as the program marketing techniques. PMID:8574114

  14. Remembering kinds: new evidence that categories are privileged in children's thinking.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Erickson, Lucy C

    2012-05-01

    What are the representations and learning mechanisms that underlie conceptual development? The present research provides evidence in favor of the claim that this process is guided by an early-emerging predisposition to think and learn about abstract kinds. Specifically, three studies (N=192) demonstrated that 4- to 7-year-old children have better recall for novel information about kinds (e.g., that dogs catch a bug called "fep") than for similar information about individuals (e.g., that a particular dog catches a bug called "fep"). By showing that children are particularly likely to retain information about kinds, this work not only provides a first empirical demonstration of a phenomenon that may be key to conceptual development but also makes it apparent that young children's thinking is suffused with abstractions rather than being perceptually-based and concrete. PMID:22197798

  15. NONVERBAL GENERICS: Human Infants Interpret Objects as Symbols of Object Kinds

    PubMed Central

    Csibra, Gergely; Shamsudheen, Rubeena

    2015-01-01

    Human infants are involved in communicative interactions with others well before they start to speak or understand language. It is generally thought that this communication is useful for establishing interpersonal relations and supporting joint activities, but, in the absence of symbolic functions that language provides, these early communicative contexts do not allow infants to learn about the world. However, recent studies suggest that when someone demonstrates something using an object as the medium of instruction, infants can conceive the object as an exemplar of the whole class of objects of the same kind. Thus, an object, just like a word, can play the role of a symbol that stands for something else than itself, and infants can learn generic knowledge about a kind of object from nonverbal communication about a single item of that kind. This rudimentary symbolic capacity may be one of the roots of the development of symbolic understanding in children. PMID:25251493

  16. Nonverbal generics: human infants interpret objects as symbols of object kinds.

    PubMed

    Csibra, Gergely; Shamsudheen, Rubeena

    2015-01-01

    Human infants are involved in communicative interactions with others well before they start to speak or understand language. It is generally thought that this communication is useful for establishing interpersonal relations and supporting joint activities, but, in the absence of symbolic functions that language provides, these early communicative contexts do not allow infants to learn about the world. However, recent studies suggest that when someone demonstrates something using an object as the medium of instruction, infants can conceive the object as an exemplar of the whole class of objects of the same kind. Thus, an object, just like a word, can play the role of a symbol that stands for something else than itself, and infants can learn general knowledge about a kind of object from nonverbal communication about a single item of that kind. This rudimentary symbolic capacity may be one of the roots of the development of symbolic understanding in children. PMID:25251493

  17. Orbifold singularities, Lie algebras of the third kind (LATKes), and pure Yang-Mills with matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedmann, Tamar

    2011-02-01

    We discover the unique, simple Lie algebra of the third kind, or LATKe, that stems from codimension 6 orbifold singularities and gives rise to a new kind of Yang-Mills theory which simultaneously is pure and contains matter. The root space of the LATKe is one-dimensional and its Dynkin diagram consists of one point. The uniqueness of the LATKe is a vacuum selection mechanism. [ {c} {The World in a Point?}{Blow-up of} C^3/Z_3| {Dynkin diagram of the LATKe}bullet {Pure Yang-Mills with matter}

  18. Fragments and absences: language and loss in Miriam Toews's A complicated kindness.

    PubMed

    Steffler, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Miriam Toews resists the conventional narrative of the adolescent leaving the small town, proposing instead that the community deserts Nomi Nickel. Nomi, facing maternal absence and the loss of her mother tongue, attempts to use linguistic and material fragments to connect word and world. Suffering from multiple and inexplicable desertions, she rejects the community's intolerance but values its kindness. Her contradictory responses to Plautdietsch, which is both deserting her and being rejected by her, complicate and challenge the concrete words and signs of adolescent protest and rebellion. Binaries separating word and world, kindness and judgement, margin and centre are challenged and collapsed in the course of Nomi's narrative. PMID:20715328

  19. College Students' Preferences for Various Kinds of Information about Educational Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillooly, William B.; Curcio, Ronald P.

    This report investigated which of seven kinds of information would be most valuable in helping students make a decision concerning personal adoption of a new educational practice. Three hundred education and noneducation majors from the University of New Hampshire completed questionnaires containing seven information sources: a) personal…

  20. How to Make Decisions with Different Kinds of Student Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this book, best-selling author Susan M. Brookhart helps teachers and administrators understand the critical elements and nuances of assessment data and how that information can best be used to inform improvement efforts in the school or district. Readers will learn: (1) What different kinds of data can--and cannot--tell us about student…

  1. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  2. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  3. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What kind of maintenance programs must we have? 102-34.275 Section 102-34.275 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... must we have? You must have a scheduled maintenance program for each motor vehicle you own or...

  5. Understanding Students' Experiments--What Kind of Support Do They Need in Inquiry Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Julia Caroline; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry learning is a widely recognized method for fostering inquiry competence in science education. Nevertheless, there is discussion about how to best support students while working on inquiry tasks (in this case: experiments on causal relationships). To identify the kind of support students need in order to design experiments in upper grades,…

  6. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  7. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  8. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  9. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  10. Machine-Aided Indexing in Practice: An Encounter with Automatic Indexing of the Third Kind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    This three-part report includes a brief history of the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) with a description of the collections and their accessibility; categorization of automatic indexing into three kinds with a brief description of the DDC system of machine-aided indexing; and an indication of some operational experiences with the system.…

  11. 20 CFR 10.625 - What kinds of decisions may be appealed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What kinds of decisions may be appealed? 10.625 Section 10.625 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., AS AMENDED Appeals Process Review by the Employees' Compensation Appeals Board (ecab) § 10.625...

  12. 20 CFR 10.625 - What kinds of decisions may be appealed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of decisions may be appealed? 10.625 Section 10.625 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., AS AMENDED Appeals Process Review by the Employees' Compensation Appeals Board (ecab) § 10.625...

  13. 20 CFR 10.625 - What kinds of decisions may be appealed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kinds of decisions may be appealed? 10.625 Section 10.625 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., AS AMENDED Appeals Process Review by the Employees' Compensation Appeals Board (ecab) § 10.625...

  14. The Continuing Education Unit: A New Kind of Credit for Higher Education Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Grover J.

    The Continuing Education Unit (CEU) has come into the American higher educational scene as a relevant response to public needs. The need for some kind of measurement for noncredit continuing education was established at a nationwide conference. The CEU--10 contact hours of participation in an organized continuing education experience under…

  15. On a kind of Noether symmetries and conservation laws in k-cosymplectic field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, Juan Carlos; Roman-Roy, Narciso; Salgado, Modesto; Vilarino, Silvia

    2011-02-15

    This paper is devoted to studying symmetries of certain kinds of k-cosymplectic Hamiltonian systems in first-order classical field theories. Thus, we introduce a particular class of symmetries and study the problem of associating conservation laws to them by means of a suitable generalization of Noether's theorem.

  16. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such...

  18. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  19. Remembering Kinds: New Evidence that Categories are Privileged in Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Andrei; Erickson, Lucy C.

    2012-01-01

    What are the representations and learning mechanisms that underlie conceptual development? The present research provides evidence in favor of the claim that this process is guided by an early-emerging predisposition to think and learn about abstract kinds. Specifically, three studies (N=192) demonstrated that 4- to 7-year-old children have better…

  20. What Kinds of Collaboration Do You Engage in for the Benefit of Your Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Betsy; Oxford, Janelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share what kinds of collaboration they engage in for the benefit of their students. The first author introduces the Bread Loaf Teacher Network which connects classes across the world--urban and rural, East Coast and West Coast, American, African, Indian, and European. The second author encourages teachers to consider…

  1. 45 CFR 681.12 - What kind of hearing is contemplated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What kind of hearing is contemplated? 681.12 Section 681.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... contemplated? The hearing is a formal proceeding conducted by the ALJ during which a defendant will have...

  2. Object Manipulation Facilitates Kind-Based Object Individuation of Shape-Similar Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were partially replicated, showing that infants were…

  3. 12 CFR 792.11 - What kind of records are exempt from public disclosure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... assure effective performance of the functions and activities for which NCUA is responsible and which do... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What kind of records are exempt from public disclosure? 792.11 Section 792.11 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. 107.1580 Section 107.1580 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580...

  5. 34 CFR 655.10 - What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS-GENERAL... Secretary assist? Subpart A of 34 CFR parts 656, 657, and 669 and subpart B of 34 CFR parts 658, 660, 661 describe the kinds of projects that the Secretary assists under the International Education...

  6. First kind symmetric periodic solutions of the generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Angelo; Vidal, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove the existence of a new symmetric family of periodic solutions of the generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian. In fact, we prove the existence of several families of first kind symmetric periodic solutions as continuation of circular orbits of the Kepler problem in the spatial case.

  7. What Kinds of Advising Are Important to Community College Pre- and Posttransfer Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Janine M.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Muehleck, Jeanette K.

    2013-01-01

    Educators assert that academic advising before and after transferring enhances the success of baccalaureate degree-seeking students who begin at community colleges. Yet, there is little research that investigates the kinds of advising that are differentially important to pre- versus posttransfer students. In this study, we examined the importance…

  8. Polysemy and the Taxonomic Constraint: Children's Representation of Words That Label Multiple Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    How do children resolve the problem of indeterminacy when learning a new word? By one account, children adopt a "taxonomic assumption" and expect the word to denote only members of a particular taxonomic category. According to one version of this constraint, young children should represent polysemous words that label multiple kinds--for…

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What kind of maintenance programs must we have? 102-34.275 Section 102-34.275 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT...

  10. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance Managing Your...

  11. First Arkansas Mill of its kind turns sawdust into stove pellets

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This article describes a new mill in Arkansas that converts waste sawdust into pellets for use in a new kind of stove like the ones two Resource Conservation and Development Districts placed in 20 districts as a demonstration project. A review of the wood pellet industry and of this particular project is provided.

  12. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind... appropriate expenditure schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of...

  13. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind... appropriate expenditure schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of...

  14. Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are about Kinds Rather than Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Generic statements (e.g., "Lions have manes") make claims about kinds (e.g., lions as a category) and, for adults, are distinct from quantificational statements (e.g., "Most lions have manes"), which make claims about how many individuals have a given property. This article examined whether young children also understand that generics do not…

  15. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Darcher, Alana; Negi, Lobsang T; Raison, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here, we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another's affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work. PMID:25729374

  16. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Darcher, Alana; Negi, Lobsang T.; Raison, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here, we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another’s affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work. PMID:25729374

  17. 9 CFR 381.170 - Standards for kinds and classes, and for cuts of raw poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standards for kinds and classes, and for cuts of raw poultry. 381.170 Section 381.170 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  18. 27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... State of distillation may not be shown, except as part of the name and address required by 27 CFR 5.36(a... name and kind, as set out in 27 CFR part 5. (b) Alcohol content—(1) Mandatory statement. The label of... content, and State of distillation. 19.643 Section 19.643 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...

  19. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 201.34, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... agricultural or vegetable seeds and names of any treatment substance are properly stated shall include the... insure the kind, variety, or type of seed or any treatment substance on the seed is that which is...

  20. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  1. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  3. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  5. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a) The... information about records and we make them available to the public for research unless they have...

  6. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance Managing Your...

  7. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance Managing Your...

  8. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance Managing Your...

  9. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance Managing Your...

  10. Comparison of the Relative Effectiveness of Different Kinds of Reinforcers: A PEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Hsen-Hsing

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to apply the percentage of data points exceeding the median of baseline phase (PEM) approach for a meta-analysis of single-case experiments to compare the relative effectiveness of different kinds of reinforcers used in behavior modification. Altogether 153 studies were located, which produced 1091 effect…

  11. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. 189.3 Section 189.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... communication systems any messages concerning international or overseas aircraft operations described...

  12. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. 189.3 Section 189.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... communication systems any messages concerning international or overseas aircraft operations described...

  13. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. 189.3 Section 189.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... communication systems any messages concerning international or overseas aircraft operations described...

  14. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. 189.3 Section 189.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... communication systems any messages concerning international or overseas aircraft operations described...

  15. The Distributional Impact of In-Kind Public Benefits in European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Alari; Sutherland, Holly; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2010-01-01

    International comparisons of inequality based on measures of disposable income may not be valid if the size and incidence of publicly provided in-kind benefits differ across the countries considered. The benefits that are financed by taxation in one country may need to be purchased out of disposable income in another. We estimate the size and…

  16. The Emergence of Kind Concepts: A Rejoinder to Needham and Baillargeon (2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Carey, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Responds to Needham and Baillargeon's criticisms and offers an alternative resolution of the conflicting results between the laboratories regarding abilities of infants less than 12 months to use property/featural information for object individuation. Maintains that kind concepts are acquired as infants approach their first birthday and that…

  17. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  18. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  19. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind... appropriate expenditure schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of...

  20. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind... appropriate expenditure schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of...

  1. A New Kind of Laser Microphone Using High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chen-Chia; Trivedi, Sudhir; Jin, Feng; Swaminathan, V.; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a new kind of laser microphone using a highly sensitive pulsed laser vibrometer. By using the photo-electromotive-force (photo-EMF) sensors, we present data indicating the real-time detection of surface displacements as small as 4 pm.

  2. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? 900.53 Section 900.53 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards...

  3. What Kind of Citizen? An Analysis of the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The social studies curriculum was recently revised in Turkey, running in a pilot scheme in the school year 2004-05. It was then implemented in primary schools all over Turkey from 2006. This study describes the kind of citizen it aims to form by analysing all of the documents relating to social studies teaching. The social studies curriculum for…

  4. Artifacts and Natural Kinds: Children's Judgments about Whether Objects Are Owned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Karen R.; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    People's behavior in relation to objects depends on whether they are owned. But how do people judge whether objects are owned? We propose that people expect human-made objects (artifacts) to be more likely to be owned than naturally occurring objects (natural kinds), and we examine the development of these expectations in young children.…

  5. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 201.34, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances..., variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid. (a) Indistinguishable seed and...

  6. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 201.34, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances..., variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid. (a) Indistinguishable seed and...

  7. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 201.34, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances..., variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid. (a) Indistinguishable seed and...

  8. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  9. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  10. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  11. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  12. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  13. Children with Their Dreams--What Kind of Reveries Are Accepted in School Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokinen, Kimmo; Pohjola, Kirsi Anneli

    2011-01-01

    The media and the contemporary consumer culture are central categories in modern childhood. They have opened new kinds of experiences and learning situations for children. In this article we are interested in the role of the media and consumption in schoolchildren's daily life. The data consist of writings and drawings of 7-12-year-old…

  14. 15 CFR 296.10 - Third party in-kind contribution of research services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget... party contributor of in-kind research has been executed by both parties and approved by NIST....

  15. 15 CFR 296.10 - Third party in-kind contribution of research services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget... party contributor of in-kind research has been executed by both parties and approved by NIST....

  16. 15 CFR 296.10 - Third party in-kind contribution of research services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget... party contributor of in-kind research has been executed by both parties and approved by NIST....

  17. 15 CFR 296.10 - Third party in-kind contribution of research services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget... party contributor of in-kind research has been executed by both parties and approved by NIST....

  18. 15 CFR 296.10 - Third party in-kind contribution of research services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget... party contributor of in-kind research has been executed by both parties and approved by NIST....

  19. Kinds of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2000-01-01

    Examines the perceptions of Israeli school counselors regarding their own and their students' expectations during counseling and their perceptions of the kinds of support both sides expect the counselor to provide. Findings reveal that: counselors attribute higher expectations to their students; students strongly expect to receive instrumental…

  20. One Kind of Human Being: MACOS, the Human Sciences, and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivens, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary reform movements have roots in post-World War II changes. Back then, social reformers in the United States targeted education as a field for the human sciences to intervene and impart a new kind of knowledge into daily life. These experts developed Man: A Course of Study (MACOS), a science-based curriculum, steeped in biological and…

  1. Using Current Literature Selections to Nurture the Development of Kindness in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    2009-01-01

    Learning to display kindness and compassion for others is a critical and ongoing developmental process and an important part of young children's evolving social competence (Han and Kemple in "Early Child Educ J" 34(3):241-246, 2006; Moore in "Early Child Educ Today" 19(3):36-44, 2004). The capacity to care emanates from physical and psychological…

  2. Artifacts Are Not Ascribed Essences, Not Are They Treated as Belonging to Kinds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloman, Steven A.; Malt, Barbara C.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates three theories of categorization in the domain of artifacts. Two are versions of psychological essentialism, positing that artifact categorization is a matter of judging membership in a kind by appealing to a belief about the underlying nature of the object. The third is called "minimalism," and it states that judgments of kind…

  3. Riding the Information Highway--Towards a New Kind of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Mikko; Olkinuora, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    In the modern world, skimming through information quickly and finding the important nuggets of knowledge from amongst the information overload is an essential skill. One way to train oneself for this kind of literacy is reading on the internet, which requires continuous assessment of search results and specifying searches. In this article a…

  4. 34 CFR 664.10 - What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM... does the Secretary assist? The Secretary assists projects designed to develop or improve programs in... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist?...

  5. 48 CFR 1516.303-74 - Determining the value of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determining the value of in-kind contributions. 1516.303-74 Section 1516.303-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1516.303-74 Determining the value...

  6. Time to Get a New Mountain? The Role of Function in Children's Conceptions of Natural Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiYanni, Cara; Kelemen, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Prior research indicates that young children are promiscuously teleological, attributing purpose not only to artifacts, but also to living and non-living natural entities. This study further examines the role of function in children's reasoning about different object kinds by indirectly probing children's intuitions about what types of entities…

  7. Coherence Formation when Learning from Text and Pictures: What Kind of Support for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholome, Tobias; Bromme, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how 2 kinds of help when learning from text and pictures (mapping support and instructional guidance through prompts) influence the coherence formation process of integrating information into a mental model. It also explored spatial abilities and working memory span as potential moderators. In a computer-based setting, 84…

  8. Analysis of competition among the kinds of energy at the era of complexed energy: General review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-12-01

    Present situation of competition among kinds of energy was analyzed, and energy industries and national policy for energy at the era of complexed energy. Possibilities of progress were reviewed and explained under the guiding principle of fair competition among the kinds of energy. Energy industries were classified into petroleum, town gas, and electricity. It was explained that decisive factors of competition among them were not only purchasing price but characteristics of application equipment. Problems involved in them were discussed. Competitive feature in the fields of industry and public welfare was explained in detail with review of future features. National policy for energy was discussed from the view points of holding of security, cost reduction, and adaptation to demands. Explanations of the present situation in Europe and America are mentioned.

  9. Measurement of Olfactory Characteristics for Two Kinds of Scent in a Single Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsu, Kaori; Sato, Junta; Bannai, Yuichi; Okada, Kenichi

    This study describes a presentation technique of scent designed for users to recognize multiple scents during a very short time period. We measured the olfactory characteristics of subjects when two kinds of scents were presented in a single breath. We defined and measured the minimum ejection interval in which subjects could discriminate the two individually emitted pulses of scent, which we term “separable detection threshold”, and the minimum ejection interval in which they could specify both kinds of scents, “separable recognition threshold”. Further, “response time” and “duration of scent perception” were measured. As a result, we found the duration of scent perception and the separable recognition threshold were positively correlated. Knowledge of this olfactory characteristic brings us closer to being able to provide a greater sense of realism in multimedia environments, by describing more than one object by scent at the same time as the objects are seen on screen.

  10. The mind, the lab, and the field: Three kinds of populations in scientific practice.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt; Giordano, Ryan; Edge, Michael D; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-08-01

    Scientists use models to understand the natural world, and it is important not to conflate model and nature. As an illustration, we distinguish three different kinds of populations in studies of ecology and evolution: theoretical, laboratory, and natural populations, exemplified by the work of R. A. Fisher, Thomas Park, and David Lack, respectively. Biologists are rightly concerned with all three types of populations. We examine the interplay between these different kinds of populations, and their pertinent models, in three examples: the notion of "effective" population size, the work of Thomas Park on Tribolium populations, and model-based clustering algorithms such as Structure. Finally, we discuss ways to move safely between three distinct population types while avoiding confusing models and reality. PMID:25753677

  11. Random Search Algorithm for Solving the Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations of the Second Kind

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhimin; Yan, Zaizai; Yan, Jiao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a randomized numerical approach is used to obtain approximate solutions for a class of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. The proposed approach contains two steps: at first, we define a discretized form of the integral equation by quadrature formula methods and solution of this discretized form converges to the exact solution of the integral equation by considering some conditions on the kernel of the integral equation. And then we convert the problem to an optimal control problem by introducing an artificial control function. Following that, in the next step, solution of the discretized form is approximated by a kind of Monte Carlo (MC) random search algorithm. Finally, some examples are given to show the efficiency of the proposed approach. PMID:25072373

  12. Comparison of two kinds of cutaneous ureterostomy using in radical cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian-Hua; Lu, Jing-Yi; Yao, Xu-Dong; Peng, Bo; Wang, Guang-Chun; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the merits and 10 year follow-up results of two kinds of cutaneous ureterostomy operation in patients with the radical cystectomy. Methods: We retrospective analyzed the information of patients underwent radical cystectomy in the past 10 years, comparing and analyzing the consequence of application value, early and long-term follow-up results using two kinds of cutaneous ureterostomy in patients with radical cystectomy. Results: Unilateral ureteral cutaneous ureterostomy didn’t increase patients’ early and long-term complications, and improved the patient’s life satisfaction. Conclusion: The unilateral cutaneous ureterostomy didn’t increase postoperative complications in patients, while improving the patient’s life satisfaction. Unilateral ureteral cutaneous ureterostomy is an important complement to urinary diversion after radical cystectomy and the best choice for cutaneous ureterostomy. PMID:26550423

  13. [GC-MS analysis of volatile constituents from five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood].

    PubMed

    Mei, Wen-Li; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Jun; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Volatile oils of five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood were extracted with aether at room temperature. The chemical constituents and relative contents of the volatile oils were analysed by GC-MS. It showed that all the five volatile oils were mainly composed of sesquiterpenes, aromatic constituents and fatty acids. Several sesquiterpenes, such as hinesol, nootkatone, valerenic acid, velleral, guaiol, gamma-gurjunene, gamma-selinene, viridiflorol, isoaromadendrene epoxide, valencene, alpha-costol et. al., together with several aromatic constituents, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol,4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, phenylpropionic acid, 1-(benzyloxy)-8-naphthol, anisylacetone, et. al. were found in the volatile oils of Chinese eaglewood for the first time. The samilarities and differences of the volatile oils from the five kinds of Chinese eaglewood were compared. It suggested that the quality of Chinese eaglewood could be evaluated by GC-MS analyse of the volatile oil. PMID:17727060

  14. Two kinds of autism: a comparison of distinct understandings of psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I argue that the history and philosophy of autism need to account for two kinds of autism. Contemporary autism research and practice is structured, directed and connected by an 'ontological understanding of disease'. This implies that autism is understood as a disease like any other medical disease, existing independently of its particular manifestations in individual patients. In contrast, autism in the 1950s and 1960s was structured by a psychoanalytical framework and an 'individual understanding of disease'. This implied that autism was not a distinct disease but an idiosyncratic and meaningful response of the child to a disturbed development of the ego. These two kinds of autism are embedded in and reveal two very different 'styles of psychiatric thought'. PMID:26122535

  15. Kinds of well-being: A conceptual framework that provides direction for caring

    PubMed Central

    Todres, Les

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a conceptual framework by which different kinds and levels of well-being can be named, and as such, provides a foundation for a resource-oriented approach in situations of illness and vulnerability (rather than a deficit-oriented approach). Building on a previous paper that articulated the philosophical foundations of an existential theory of well-being (“Dwelling-mobility”), we show here how the theory can be further developed towards practice-relevant concerns. We introduce 18 kinds of well-being that are intertwined and inter-related, and consider how each emphasis can lead to the formulation of resources that have the potential to give rise to well-being as a felt experience. By focusing on a much wider range of well-being possibilities, practitioners may find new directions for care that are not just literal but also at an existential level. PMID:22171222

  16. The interventional effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions and interpersonal interactions

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoli; Shi, Wendian; Han, Xiangxiang; Wang, Nana; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions, intragroup interactions, and complex understanding of others. A total of 50 freshmen not receiving any training in meditation intervention were randomly divided into the meditation group (25 subjects) and the control group (25 subjects). The meditation group was implemented with group meditation intervention for 4 weeks, three times a week, about 30 minutes each time. The results revealed that the effect sizes in interpersonal interaction and complex understanding of others in the meditation group were both above 0.8, indicating strong effects. It was concluded that loving-kindness meditation can effectively improve positive emotions, interpersonal interactions, and complex understanding of others in college students. PMID:26060402

  17. Multicolour photochromism of colloidal solutions of niobate nanosheets intercalated with several kinds of metal ions.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Kai; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tokunaga, Motoko; Ueda, Taro; Hyodo, Takeo; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-25

    Colourless and transparent colloidal solutions of niobate nanosheets intercalated with some kinds of metal ions (M-NNS, M: metal) showed quasi-reversible photochromism. Ultraviolet light irradiation of the solutions induced a change in color while maintaining the transparency, and the color change was dependent on the metal ions. The coloured solutions were bleached by exposure to an oxidizing atmosphere. This cycle could be repeated several times. PMID:26821602

  18. The rational Chebyshev of second kind collocation method for solving a class of astrophysics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parand, K.; Khaleqi, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Lane-Emden equation has been used to model several phenomena in theoretical physics, mathematical physics and astrophysics such as the theory of stellar structure. This study is an attempt to utilize the collocation method with the rational Chebyshev function of Second kind (RCS) to solve the Lane-Emden equation over the semi-infinite interval [0,+∞[ . According to well-known results and comparing with previous methods, it can be said that this method is efficient and applicable.

  19. Characterization of Greenbeard Genes Involved in Long-Distance Kind Discrimination in a Microbial Eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Heller, Jens; Zhao, Jiuhai; Rosenfield, Gabriel; Kowbel, David J; Gladieux, Pierre; Glass, N Louise

    2016-04-01

    Microorganisms are capable of communication and cooperation to perform social activities. Cooperation can be enforced using kind discrimination mechanisms in which individuals preferentially help or punish others, depending on genetic relatedness only at certain loci. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, genetically identical asexual spores (germlings) communicate and fuse in a highly regulated process, which is associated with fitness benefits during colony establishment. Recognition and chemotropic interactions between isogenic germlings requires oscillation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction protein complex (NRC-1, MEK-2, MAK-2, and the scaffold protein HAM-5) to specialized cell fusion structures termed conidial anastomosis tubes. Using a population of 110 wild N. crassa isolates, we investigated germling fusion between genetically unrelated individuals and discovered that chemotropic interactions are regulated by kind discrimination. Distinct communication groups were identified, in which germlings within one communication group interacted at high frequency, while germlings from different communication groups avoided each other. Bulk segregant analysis followed by whole genome resequencing identified three linked genes (doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3), which were associated with communication group phenotype. Alleles at doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 fell into five haplotypes that showed transspecies polymorphism. Swapping doc-1 and doc-2 alleles from different communication group strains was necessary and sufficient to confer communication group affiliation. During chemotropic interactions, DOC-1 oscillated with MAK-2 to the tips of conidial anastomosis tubes, while DOC-2 was statically localized to the plasma membrane. Our data indicate that doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 function as "greenbeard" genes, involved in mediating long-distance kind recognition that involves actively searching for one's own type, resulting in cooperation between

  20. Use of kind information for object individuation in young domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we studied the ability of newborn chicks to use kind information (sortal objects) provided by social and food attractors to determine the number of distinct objects present in an event (object individuation). Newly hatched chicks were reared with five imprinting objects and were fed mealworms. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of items was exploited. At test, on day 2 post-hatching, chicks observed two events in which objects, differing in kind, were each hidden behind one of two identical screens. Approaching either screen was considered a preferential choice. In Experiment 1, chicks presented with two social versus two food attractors did not exhibit any preference. In contrast, in Experiment 2, when chicks saw two different attractors (one social and one food) hidden behind a screen and one attractor hidden twice (i.e. moved back and forth two times) behind the other screen, they spontaneously approached the two different attractors rather than the single one seen twice. An explanation based on the preference for the more varied set was ruled out in Experiment 3: chicks did not preferentially choose between two different versus two identical objects when both groups were simultaneously presented. Results suggest for the first time that a non-human species uses kind information for individuating objects in a cross-basic-level contrast (i.e. food and social items) with minimal experience. As social and food stimuli differ in property as well as in kind information, the alternative explanation accounting for use of property information alone is also discussed. PMID:24368707

  1. Characterization of Greenbeard Genes Involved in Long-Distance Kind Discrimination in a Microbial Eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Jens; Zhao, Jiuhai; Rosenfield, Gabriel; Kowbel, David J.; Gladieux, Pierre; Glass, N. Louise

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms are capable of communication and cooperation to perform social activities. Cooperation can be enforced using kind discrimination mechanisms in which individuals preferentially help or punish others, depending on genetic relatedness only at certain loci. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, genetically identical asexual spores (germlings) communicate and fuse in a highly regulated process, which is associated with fitness benefits during colony establishment. Recognition and chemotropic interactions between isogenic germlings requires oscillation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction protein complex (NRC-1, MEK-2, MAK-2, and the scaffold protein HAM-5) to specialized cell fusion structures termed conidial anastomosis tubes. Using a population of 110 wild N. crassa isolates, we investigated germling fusion between genetically unrelated individuals and discovered that chemotropic interactions are regulated by kind discrimination. Distinct communication groups were identified, in which germlings within one communication group interacted at high frequency, while germlings from different communication groups avoided each other. Bulk segregant analysis followed by whole genome resequencing identified three linked genes (doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3), which were associated with communication group phenotype. Alleles at doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 fell into five haplotypes that showed transspecies polymorphism. Swapping doc-1 and doc-2 alleles from different communication group strains was necessary and sufficient to confer communication group affiliation. During chemotropic interactions, DOC-1 oscillated with MAK-2 to the tips of conidial anastomosis tubes, while DOC-2 was statically localized to the plasma membrane. Our data indicate that doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 function as “greenbeard” genes, involved in mediating long-distance kind recognition that involves actively searching for one’s own type, resulting in cooperation

  2. Parameter estimation for boundary value problems by integral equations of the second kind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the parameter estimation for boundary integral equations of the second kind. The parameter estimation technique through use of the spline collocation method is proposed. Based on the compactness assumption imposed on the parameter space, the convergence analysis for the numerical method of parameter estimation is discussed. The results obtained here are applied to a boundary parameter estimation for 2-D elliptic systems.

  3. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo; Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of 137Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account.

  4. The Traits One Can Trust: Dissecting Reciprocity and Kindness as Determinants of Trustworthy Behavior.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, Isabel; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2015-11-01

    Trustworthiness is a vital pillar of various social interactions hinging upon trust. However, the underlying determinants of trustworthiness-especially in terms of (basic) personality traits-are insufficiently understood. Specifically, three mechanisms underlying trustworthiness have been proposed: unconditional kindness, positive reciprocity, and negative reciprocity. The present research aims to disentangle these mechanisms using a trait-based approach, relying on the HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience) model of personality. In three studies, participants acted as the trustee in the trust game. All studies revealed consistent support for the unconditional kindness mechanism, showing an exclusive link between Honesty-Humility and trustworthiness, irrespective of the level of prior trust. In turn, positive and negative reciprocity could not account for the pattern of results. In addition, our results reconcile the inconsistent evidence on the relation between Big Five-Agreeableness and trustworthiness: Unconditional kindness only refers to one component of the broad Big Five-Agreeableness factor (which subsumes various cooperative tendencies). PMID:26330455

  5. Two New Sliding DTFT Algorithms for Phase Difference Measurement Based on a New Kind of Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yaqing; Shen, Ting'ao; Zhang, Haitao; Li, Ming

    2014-12-01

    For the ultra-low frequency signals or adjacent Nyquist frequency signals, which exist in the vibration engineering domain, the traditional DTFT-based algorithm shows serious bias for phase difference measurement. It is indicated that the spectrum leakage and negative frequency contribution are the essential causes of the bias. In order to improve the phase difference measurement accuracy of the DTFT-based algorithm, two new sliding DTFT algorithms for phase difference measurement based on a new kind of windows are proposed, respectively. Firstly, the new kind of windows developed by convolving conventional rectangular windows is introduced, which obtains a stronger inhibition of spectrum leakage. Then, with negative frequency contribution considered, two new formulas for phase difference calculation under the new kind of windows are derived in detail. Finally, the idea of sliding recursive is proposed to decrease the computational load. The proposed algorithms are easy to be realized and have a higher accuracy than the traditional DTFT-based algorithm. Simulations and engineering applications verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  6. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Chao

    2015-12-15

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of {sup 137}Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account.

  7. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo; Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of (137)Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account. PMID:26724019

  8. Kinds versus continua: a review of psychometric approaches to uncover the structure of psychiatric constructs.

    PubMed

    Borsboom, D; Rhemtulla, M; Cramer, A O J; van der Maas, H L J; Scheffer, M; Dolan, C V

    2016-06-01

    The question of whether psychopathology constructs are discrete kinds or continuous dimensions represents an important issue in clinical psychology and psychiatry. The present paper reviews psychometric modelling approaches that can be used to investigate this question through the application of statistical models. The relation between constructs and indicator variables in models with categorical and continuous latent variables is discussed, as are techniques specifically designed to address the distinction between latent categories as opposed to continua (taxometrics). In addition, we examine latent variable models that allow latent structures to have both continuous and categorical characteristics, such as factor mixture models and grade-of-membership models. Finally, we discuss recent alternative approaches based on network analysis and dynamical systems theory, which entail that the structure of constructs may be continuous for some individuals but categorical for others. Our evaluation of the psychometric literature shows that the kinds-continua distinction is considerably more subtle than is often presupposed in research; in particular, the hypotheses of kinds and continua are not mutually exclusive or exhaustive. We discuss opportunities to go beyond current research on the issue by using dynamical systems models, intra-individual time series and experimental manipulations. PMID:26997244

  9. [Comparison and correlative analysis of trace elements in five kinds of radix curcumae].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-mei; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Cun-gui

    2008-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine materials (TCM) contained abundant trace elements needed in human body. Mixed acid (HNO3:HClO4) was added into samples treated by microwave digestion, and a systematic study was carried out by selection of the most appropriate working conditions and optimization of the sample mass. Some inorganic elements in 5 kinds of radix curcumae (Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling, Curcuma longa L., Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang, Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. and Curcuma chuanyujin C. K Hsieh et H. Zhang) necessary to lives were determined by flames atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Elements, such as K, Ca, Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were detected. The results show that there are similar elements in the five kinds of radix curcumae, while differences only exist in a few elements contents. The correlative analysis of trace elements in samples was carried out by cluster analysis of the 4 kinds of radix curcumae (Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling, Curcuma longa L., Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang and Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. ) in codex populations in a cluster, different from the unofficial sample (Curcuma chuanyujin C. K. Hsieh et H. Zhang). The cluster analysis results are consistent with the morphological characteristics of the traditional taxonomy results. The results showed that the analytic method is advisable. This paper provides scientific basis for deeply studing the relation between trace elements and drug effect of radix curcumae. PMID:19093592

  10. Three kinds of psychological determinants for hand-washing behaviour in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Aunger, Robert; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Ranpura, Ashish; Coombes, Yolande; Maina, Peninnah Mukiri; Matiko, Carol Nkatha; Curtis, Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Washing hands with soap at the right times - primarily after contact with faeces, but also before handling food or feeding an infant - can significantly reduce the incidence of childhood infectious disease. Here, we present empirical results which substantiate a recent claim that washing hands can be the consequence of different kinds of psychological causes. Such causes can be divided into three kinds of control over behaviour: automatic or habitual responses, motivated or goal-driven behaviour to satisfy needs, and cognitive causes which reflect conscious concerns. Empirical results are based on 3-h-long structured observations of hand-washing behaviour in 802 nationally representative Kenyan households with children under five, and structured interviews with the primary female caretaker in these households, collected in March 2007. Factor analysis of questionnaire responses identified three psychological factors which are also significant predictors of observed hand-washing behaviour: having the habit of hand-washing at particular junctures during the day, the motivated need for personal or household cleanliness, and a lack of cognitive concern about the cost of soap use. These factors each represent a different kind of psychological cause. A perceived link between clean hands and sexual attractiveness also appeared in the factor analysis, but was not a determinant of actual behaviour. We also report evidence that those who express concern about the cost of soap use are those with relatively few economic resources. We suggest that those developing hygiene promotion programmes should consider the possible existence of multiple types of strategies for increasing hand-washing behaviour. PMID:19914758

  11. [Analysis of nine kinds of sweeteners in foods by LC/MS].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masamichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Uchibori, Nobutake; Wada, Ichirou; Akiyama, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Tamami

    2005-06-01

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of nine kinds of sweeteners (acesulfame potassium, AK; sucralose, SUC; saccharin, SA; cyclamate, CYC; aspartame, APM; dulcin, DU; glycyrrhizic acid, GA; stevioside, STV; rebaudioside A, REB) in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) was developed. The LC separation was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 (2.1 mm x 150 mm) with a mobile phase of 5 mmol/L dibutylammonium acetate (DBAA) and acetonitrile-water (8: 2). Mass spectral acquisition was done in the negative ion mode by applying selected ion monitoring (SIM). The sweeteners were extracted from foods with 0.08 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)- ethanol (1:1), and the extract was cleaned up on a Sep-pak Vac C18 cartridge after the addition of tetrabutylammonium bromide and phosphate buffer (pH 3.0). The recovery of the nine kinds of sweeteners from five kinds of foods fortified at the level 0.01 g/kg, 0.05 g/kg and 0.20 g/kg was 75.7-109.2%, and the between-day SD values were 0.5-10.9%. The quantification limits of AK, SA, CYC, APM and STV were 0.001 g/kg, and those of SUC, DU, GA and REB were 0.005 g/kg. A recovery test from each cleaned-up sample solution was necessary to detect ionization suppression. PMID:16042292

  12. On Calculations of Legendre Functions and Associated Legendre Functions of the First Kind of Complex Degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylwe, Karl-Erik; McCabe, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Formulas for calculating Legendre functions and associated Legendre functions of the first kind of complex degree using an Ermakov-Lewis invariant are presented. These formulas are straight-forward to implement numerically and are motivated by the lack of computational routines in standard university tools like those of MatLab and Maple. Angular waves propagating in opposite directions are also obtained. The results are particularly useful in complex angular momentum theories and nearside/farside analysis of spin-dependent angular scattering from central potentials.

  13. Mixed convection nanofluid flow in a vertical channel with boundary conditions of the third kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhatar, Nur Asiah Mohd; Siddheshwar, P. G.; Saleh, Habibis; Hashim, Ishak

    2015-09-01

    A numerical investigation is carried out into the heat transfer within a fully-developed mixed convection flow of Al2O3 - water, CuO - water and TiO2 - water nanoliquids in a vertical channel with boundary condition of third kind. The effects of Brinkman number, Br and mixed convection parameter, GR on the velocity distribution and temperature distribution are the focus of this study. The built-in routine, dsolve in MAPLE is applied for the numerical computation. It was found that, greater value of GR and lower value of Br greatly affected the heat transfer performance and resulted the occurrence of reversal flow.

  14. UQ for Decision Making: How (at least five) Kinds of Probability Might Come Into Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    In 1959 IJ Good published the discussion "Kinds of Probability" in Science. Good identified (at least) five kinds. The need for (at least) a sixth kind of probability when quantifying uncertainty in the context of climate science is discussed. This discussion brings out the differences in weather-like forecasting tasks and climate-links tasks, with a focus on the effective use both of science and of modelling in support of decision making. Good also introduced the idea of a "Dynamic probability" a probability one expects to change without any additional empirical evidence; the probabilities assigned by a chess playing program when it is only half thorough its analysis being an example. This case is contrasted with the case of "Mature probabilities" where a forecast algorithm (or model) has converged on its asymptotic probabilities and the question hinges in whether or not those probabilities are expected to change significantly before the event in question occurs, even in the absence of new empirical evidence. If so, then how might one report and deploy such immature probabilities in scientific-support of decision-making rationally? Mature Probability is suggested as a useful sixth kind, although Good would doubtlessly argue that we can get by with just one, effective communication with decision makers may be enhanced by speaking as if the others existed. This again highlights the distinction between weather-like contexts and climate-like contexts. In the former context one has access to a relevant climatology (a relevant, arguably informative distribution prior to any model simulations), in the latter context that information is not available although one can fall back on the scientific basis upon which the model itself rests, and estimate the probability that the model output is in fact misinformative. This subjective "probability of a big surprise" is one way to communicate the probability of model-based information holding in practice, the probability that the

  15. On infinite series concerning zeros of Bessel functions of the first kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Andrea; Mainardi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    A relevant result independently obtained by Rayleigh and Sneddon on an identity on series involving the zeros of Bessel functions of the first kind is derived by an alternative method based on Laplace transforms. Our method leads to a Bernstein function of time, expressed by Dirichlet series, that allows us to recover the Rayleigh-Sneddon sum. We also consider another method arriving at the same result based on a relevant formula by Calogero. Moreover, we also provide an electrical example in which this sum results to be extremely useful in order to recover the analytical expression for the response of the system to a certain external input.

  16. A new kind of splines and their use for fast ray-tracing in reflective cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelic, Dejan V.; Janevski, Zoran D.

    1989-08-01

    In this paper we are presenting a new kind of splines that are very effective in ray-tracing applications. They are designed in such a way to enable the fast and efficient computation of line-spline intersections (line representing the light ray, and spline representing the reflective cavity). These splines are piecewise parabolic polynomials, but with additional degrees of freedom. Polynomial sections of the spline can be rotated to a certain angle (each section has its own angle of rotation), enabling thus the continuity of the first derivative.

  17. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  18. Remote monitoring of environmental particulate pollution - A problem in inversion of first-kind integral equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    The determination of the microstructure, chemical nature, and dynamical evolution of scattering particulates in the atmosphere is considered. A description is given of indirect sampling techniques which can circumvent most of the difficulties associated with direct sampling techniques, taking into account methods based on scattering, extinction, and diffraction of an incident light beam. Approaches for reconstructing the particulate size distribution from the direct and the scattered radiation are discussed. A new method is proposed for determining the chemical composition of the particulates and attention is given to the relevance of methods of solution involving first kind Fredholm integral equations.

  19. Development and Implementation of Kumamoto Technopolis Regional Database T-KIND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Noriaki

    T-KIND (Techno-Kumamoto Information Network for Data-Base) is a system for effectively searching information of technology, human resources and industries which are necessary to realize Kumamoto Technopolis. It is composed of coded database, image database and LAN inside technoresearch park which is the center of R & D in the Technopolis. It constructs on-line system by networking general-purposed computers, minicomputers, optical disk file systems and so on, and provides the service through public telephone line. Two databases are now available on enterprise information and human resource information. The former covers about 4,000 enterprises, and the latter does about 2,000 persons.

  20. A theorem regarding roots of the zero-order Bessel function of the first kind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, X.-A.; Agrawal, O. P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates a problem on the steady-state, conduction-convection heat transfer process in cylindrical porous heat exchangers. The governing partial differential equations for the system are obtained using the energy conservation law. Solution of these equations and the concept of enthalpy lead to a new approach to prove a theorem that the sum of inverse squares of all the positive roots of the zero order Bessel function of the first kind equals to one-forth. As a corollary, it is shown that the sum of one over pth power (p greater than or equal to 2) of the roots converges to some constant.

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  2. 43 CFR 3195.31 - What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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    ... Crude Helium Sales Contract? 3195.31 Section 3195.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.31 What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? A BLM helium In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract requires you to:...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.412 What kinds of evidence of age...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 745.110 Section 745.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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  19. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P K; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P S; Leung, Freedom Y K

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations. PMID:26579061

  20. Capacitive mixing with electrodes of the same kind for energy production from salinity differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, M.; Kozynchenko, O.; Tennison, S.; Brogioli, D.

    2016-03-01

    The capacitive mixing technique is aimed at producing renewable energy from salinity differences, for example between sea and river water. The technique makes use of two electrodes that modify their potential in opposite directions when the concentration of the solution in which they are immersed is changed, as a consequence of the dynamics of the electric double layer which forms in the ionic solution. Unfortunately, it is difficult to find two electrodes presenting both optimal performances and opposite potential variations. In order to overcome this problem, we present here a cell scheme with electrodes of the same kind (and thus identical dependence of potential on concentration) which can be operated with a CapMix cycle; it is based on a concentration cell with identical electrodes dipped into two compartments separated by a non-perm-selective porous diaphragm. Thanks to the cyclic operation, the actual cell voltage rise and the power production are close to the values obtained with the traditional scheme, or even higher, depending on the features of the ion transport in the liquid junction region. We present an experimental demonstration of the working principles and we study the power production and energy efficiency in the light of the theory of ion transport in fluids. We show that our technique is competitive with respect to the other CapMix techniques, with the relevant advantage that we make use of only one kind of electrode.

  1. Physical activity among adolescents: The role of various kinds of parental support.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M; Holstein, B E

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data came from the Aarhus School Survey that included 2100 schoolchildren at 11, 13, and 15 years of age. Parental social support for PA was measured by items about encouragement to do PA, doing joint PA, parents watching PA, and talking about PA. PA was measured as at least 4 h of vigorous PA per week during leisure time. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations for girls and boys separately, adjusted by age group, parents' occupational social class, family structure, and migration status. There were significant and graded associations between adolescents' PA and all four dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not. PMID:26346509

  2. The impacts of different kinds of dust events on PM 10 pollution in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shigong; Yuan, Wei; Shang, Kezheng

    In this study the frequencies of PM 10 (as key urban pollutant) in 14 key environmental protection cities in northern China were analyzed. It follows that the PM 10 concentration in the high-frequency period is higher with an extent 0.009-0.066 mg m -3 than in the low-frequency period of 2001-2002. Further the impacts of three kinds of dust events on the PM 10 concentration in four cities (Beijing, Hohhot, Xi'an and Lanzhou) were explored. The results showed that different kinds of dust events have different influences on variation of PM 10 concentration in these four cities. In Lanzhou and Hohhot, which are near the source areas of dust events, the contribution degree of these three dust events to the PM 10 is: floating dust>dust storm>blowing dust. Whereas, in Beijing and Xi'an situated in dust event passing areas, the mean value of PM 10 concentration is higher in blowing dust than in floating dust (no dust storm). In addition, the influences of dust events on PM 10 concentration are different in the cities on different dust event paths. In Beijing and Hohhot (on the northern path), the high PM 10 concentration is usually caused by blowing dust. But in both Lanzhou and Xi'an (on the western/northwestern path) the high PM 10 pollution concentration is usually caused by floating dust.

  3. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Petrocchi, Nicola; Steinberg, James; Lin, Muyu; Arimitsu, Kohki; Kind, Shelley; Mendes, Adriana; Stangier, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10), and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8), to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90), negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92), and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94). Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation. PMID:26136807

  4. The fibrillar structure of the cemento-dentinal junction in different kinds of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Domon, T; Takahashi, S; Islam, M N; Suzuki, R

    2001-10-01

    The cemento-dentinal junction was examined in human maxillary incisors, canines and premolars by scanning electron microscopy combined with NaOH maceration. The NaOH maceration was used to remove interfibrillar substances and to observe details of the fibrillar architecture. The teeth were half-sectioned longitudinally, demineralized and macerated for 3-4 days or for 10-14 days. In the 3-4 day-macerated specimens, longitudinal sections of the cemento-dentinal junction were examined. In the 10-14 day-macerated specimens, the cementum was detached and the inner cementum surface facing the cemento-dentinal junction was examined. Observations suggested that cemental fibrils intermingle with dentinal fibrils only in places at the cemento-dentinal junction in both acellular and cellular cementum. These structural features were consistent in all kinds of teeth investigated here. Using human molars, we have previously proposed that the adhesion of proteoglycans is a main factor for the cemento-dentinal attachment and that the fibril intermingling between dentin and cementum is an accessory or secondary factor. The present study suggests that this applies to other kinds of human teeth. PMID:11585119

  5. Loving-Kindness Meditation practice associated with longer telomeres in women.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Chen, Maxine M; Orr, Esther; Metcalf, Christina A; Fischer, Laura E; Pollack, Mark H; De Vivo, Immaculata; Simon, Naomi M

    2013-08-01

    Relatively short telomere length may serve as a marker of accelerated aging, and shorter telomeres have been linked to chronic stress. Specific lifestyle behaviors that can mitigate the effects of stress might be associated with longer telomere lengths. Previous research suggests a link between behaviors that focus on the well-being of others, such as volunteering and caregiving, and overall health and longevity. We examined relative telomere length in a group of individuals experienced in Loving-Kindness Meditation (LKM), a practice derived from the Buddhist tradition which utilizes a focus on unselfish kindness and warmth towards all people, and control participants who had done no meditation. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure relative telomere length (RTL) (Cawthon, 2002) in fifteen LKM practitioners and 22 control participants. There were no significant differences in age, gender, race, education, or exposure to trauma, but the control group had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of past depression. The LKM practitioners had longer RTL than controls at the trend level (p=.083); among women, the LKM practitioners had significantly longer RTL than controls, (p=.007), which remained significant even after controlling for BMI and past depression. Although limited by small sample size, these results offer the intriguing possibility that LKM practice, especially in women, might alter RTL, a biomarker associated with longevity. PMID:23602876

  6. Capacitive mixing with electrodes of the same kind for energy production from salinity differences.

    PubMed

    Marino, M; Kozynchenko, O; Tennison, S; Brogioli, D

    2016-03-23

    The capacitive mixing technique is aimed at producing renewable energy from salinity differences, for example between sea and river water. The technique makes use of two electrodes that modify their potential in opposite directions when the concentration of the solution in which they are immersed is changed, as a consequence of the dynamics of the electric double layer which forms in the ionic solution. Unfortunately, it is difficult to find two electrodes presenting both optimal performances and opposite potential variations. In order to overcome this problem, we present here a cell scheme with electrodes of the same kind (and thus identical dependence of potential on concentration) which can be operated with a CapMix cycle; it is based on a concentration cell with identical electrodes dipped into two compartments separated by a non-perm-selective porous diaphragm. Thanks to the cyclic operation, the actual cell voltage rise and the power production are close to the values obtained with the traditional scheme, or even higher, depending on the features of the ion transport in the liquid junction region. We present an experimental demonstration of the working principles and we study the power production and energy efficiency in the light of the theory of ion transport in fluids. We show that our technique is competitive with respect to the other CapMix techniques, with the relevant advantage that we make use of only one kind of electrode. PMID:26902918

  7. Open Hearts Build Lives: Positive Emotions, Induced Through Loving-Kindness Meditation, Build Consequential Personal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Cohn, Michael A.; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Pek, Jolynn; Finkel, Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    B. L. Fredrickson’s (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions asserts that people’s daily experiences of positive emotions compound over time to build a variety of consequential personal resources. The authors tested this build hypothesis in a field experiment with working adults (n = 139), half of whom were randomly-assigned to begin a practice of loving-kindness meditation. Results showed that this meditation practice produced increases over time in daily experiences of positive emotions, which, in turn, produced increases in a wide range of personal resources (e.g., increased mindfulness, purpose in life, social support, decreased illness symptoms). In turn, these increments in personal resources predicted increased life satisfaction and reduced depressive symptoms. Discussion centers on how positive emotions are the mechanism of change for the type of mind-training practice studied here and how loving-kindness meditation is an intervention strategy that produces positive emotions in a way that outpaces the hedonic treadmill effect. PMID:18954193

  8. Influence of heterogeneity on second-kind self-similar solutions for viscous gravity currents

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zheng, Zhong; Christov, Ivan  C.; Stone, Howard  A.

    2014-04-16

    We report experimental, theoretical and numerical results on the effects of horizontal heterogeneities on the propagation of viscous gravity currents. We use two geometries to highlight these effects: (a) a horizontal channel (or crack) whose gap thickness varies as a power-law function of the streamwise coordinate; (b) a heterogeneous porous medium whose permeability and porosity have power-law variations. We demonstrate that two types of self-similar behaviours emerge as a result of horizontal heterogeneity: (a) a first-kind self-similar solution is found using dimensional analysis (scaling) for viscous gravity currents that propagate away from the origin (a point of zero permeability); (b)more » a second-kind self-similar solution is found using a phase-plane analysis for viscous gravity currents that propagate toward the origin. These theoretical predictions, obtained using the ideas of self-similar intermediate asymptotics, are compared with experimental results and numerical solutions of the governing partial differential equation developed under the lubrication approximation. All three results are found to be in good agreement.« less

  9. Influence of heterogeneity on second-kind self-similar solutions for viscous gravity currents

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhong; Christov, Ivan  C.; Stone, Howard  A.

    2014-04-16

    We report experimental, theoretical and numerical results on the effects of horizontal heterogeneities on the propagation of viscous gravity currents. We use two geometries to highlight these effects: (a) a horizontal channel (or crack) whose gap thickness varies as a power-law function of the streamwise coordinate; (b) a heterogeneous porous medium whose permeability and porosity have power-law variations. We demonstrate that two types of self-similar behaviours emerge as a result of horizontal heterogeneity: (a) a first-kind self-similar solution is found using dimensional analysis (scaling) for viscous gravity currents that propagate away from the origin (a point of zero permeability); (b) a second-kind self-similar solution is found using a phase-plane analysis for viscous gravity currents that propagate toward the origin. These theoretical predictions, obtained using the ideas of self-similar intermediate asymptotics, are compared with experimental results and numerical solutions of the governing partial differential equation developed under the lubrication approximation. All three results are found to be in good agreement.

  10. ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2010-06-01

    The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

  11. Reproductive capacity and longevity of stable flies maintained on different kinds of blood.

    PubMed

    DuToit, G D

    1975-12-01

    An investigation was made into some lesser known aspects of the biology of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in order to find a basis for possible means of natural control of the pest on dairy farms. The reaction of adults to different kinds of blood was tested. Diets investigated were bovine blood alternated with ovine blood, bovine blood alternated with pig's blood, bovine blood alternated with manure filtrate, bovine blood alone, ovine blood alone, pig's blood alone and manure filtrate alone. Adults could not servive on manure filtrate alone. Flies in the other treatments exhibited no marked differences as regards duration of pre-mating-, pre-oviposition- and oviposition periods. There were, however, differences in the number of eggs laid. Females maintained on bovine blood alone produced most eggs i.e. 2,3 times as many as those laid by females fed on pig's blood alone. The latter were the poorest producers. Viability and incubation period of eggs did not appear to be affected by the kind of blood fed to the adults. Flies, however, lived longer when supplied with bovine blood and died sooner when maintained on pig's blood. PMID:1223286

  12. Exploring new kinds of relationships using generative music-making software.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Steve; Jones, Anita

    2009-08-01

    This project focuses upon the use of jam2jam, a generative computer system, to increase access to improvization experiences for children and to facilitate new kinds of relationships with artists. The network jamming system uses visual and audio cultural materials to enable communities to be expressive with artistic materials that they value as a community. As the system is part of a network, performances can be shared between communities at great distances and recordings of performances can be uploaded to a digital social network (http://www.jam2jam.com/) and shared both locally and with the wider community. This paper examines a preliminary project where artwork made by Indigenous mental health clients in Far North Queensland was digitized and given to a group of 8-12-year-old urban Indigenous children to 'improvize' with and make music/video clips using the jam2jam instrument. It seeks to generate a discussion and identify applications within creative arts-led community health settings to facilitate new kinds of relationships with self, peers, local community, culture and artists through collaborative improvization. PMID:19579134

  13. [Evaluation of zinc deficiency tolerance in different kinds of apple rootstocks].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao-dan; Liu, Fei; Wang, Yan-an; Fu, Chun-xia; Yan, Yu-jing; Sha, Guang-li; Shu, Huai-rui

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to screen and evaluate the zinc deficiency tolerance among eight apple rootstocks, i.e., Malus baccata, M. rockii, M. xiaojinensis, M. sikkimensis, M. sieversii, M. robusta, M. hupehensis and Malus 'Flame'. The experiment took these 8 kinds of root-stocks as the research materials to observe and analyze the index of the rootstock's height, dry biomass, root architecture and zinc concentration, and with help of the fuzzy membership function to work out a comprehensive evaluation on their zinc deficiency tolerance. The result showed that several obvious zinc deficiency symptoms were observed in three kinds of rootstocks (M. rockii, M. sikkimensis and M. sieversii), such as dwarfed plant and newborn small leaves, while such symptoms were not obvious in M. xiaojinensis and M. 'Flame'. The plant biomass, height and zinc accumulation of aerial part greatly decreased under zinc deficiency stress, while smaller reduction was observed in M. xiaojinensis than in other rootstocks. M. xiaojinensis and M. baccata had higher zinc concentrations in leaves than others. According to the fuzzy membership function and cluster analysis, the resistance of the eight apple rootstocks to zinc deficiency was ranked: M. xiaojinensis was the highest one; M. 'Flame' was the second; M. baccata, M. sikkimensis, M. robusta and M. hupehensis were rather weaker; M. rockii and M. sieversii demonstrated the highest sensitivity to zinc deficiency. PMID:26995912

  14. New kind of type 3 chondrite with a graphite-magnetite matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Rubin, A. E.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1981-01-01

    Four clasts in three ordinary-chondrite regolith breccias are discovered which are a new kind of type 3 chondrite. As with ordinary and carbonaceous type 3 chondrites, they have distinct chondrules, some of which contain glass, highly heterogeneous olivines and pyroxenes, and predominantly monoclinic low-Ca pyroxenes. Instead of the usual, fine-grained, Fe-rich silicate matrix, however, the clasts have a matrix composed largely of aggregates of micron- and submicron-sized graphite and magnetite. The bulk compositions of the clasts, as well as the types of chondrules (largely porphyritic), are characteristic of type 3 ordinary chondrites, although chondrules in the clasts are somewhat smaller (0.1-0.5 mm). A close relationship with ordinary chondrites is also suggested by the presence of similar graphite-magnetite aggregates in seven type 3 ordinary chondrites. It is thought that this new kind of chondrite is probably the source of the abundant graphite-magnetite inclusions in ordinary-chondrite regolith breccias and that it may be more common than indicated by the absence of whole meteorites made of chondrules and graphite-magnetite.

  15. "A Shrinking Kind of Life": Gay Men's Experience of Aging With HIV.

    PubMed

    Masten, James

    2015-01-01

    More people are living with HIV into midlife and older age. Although increased longevity brings new hope, it also raises unanticipated challenges--especially for gay men who never thought they would live into middle and older age. Middle-aged and older people are more likely to face multiple comorbidities, yet many lack the necessary supports to help them adapt to the challenges of aging with HIV. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study developed to explore gay men's experience of aging with HIV. Multiple in-depth exploratory interviews were conducted with 15 gay-identified men living with HIV/AIDS over an 18-month period. A systematic strategy data analysis consistent with grounded theory revealed a pattern of subtle adjustments to living with HIV that resulted in diminishing circles of social support and social involvement. This dynamic is referred to as "a shrinking kind of life," an in-vivo code built from the participant's own words. Four themes from the research (physical challenges, a magnitude of loss, internal changes, & stigma) are discussed. Conclusions include recommendations for future research and implications for practice in the field. Practitioners knowledgeable of the factors that impact their social involvement can empower gay men through individual and group interventions to confront a shrinking kind of life and define for themselves what it means to optimally age with HIV. PMID:25590461

  16. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P. K.; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P. S.; Leung, Freedom Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations. PMID:26579061

  17. Artifactual kinds and functional design features: what a primate understands without language.

    PubMed

    Hauser, M D

    1997-09-01

    Of several domains of knowledge, humans appear to be born with an innately structured representational system for making sense of objects, what properties individuate them, how they move in space, and what causes them to move from one location to another. They also appear to make simple conceptual cuts between artifactual kinds and living kinds. The basis for this distinction seems to be a combination of crucial functional properties, together with a teleological (i.e., historical/intentional) stance, one that asks 'What was this object designed for?'. Although non-human primates also appear to have considerable understanding of objects, and often use objects as tools, it is not clear whether they draw a distinction between artifactual and living kinds, and if so, what factors guide this distinction. As a step in addressing this problem, I present experiments on a small New World monkey, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), designed to reveal their understanding of the functional properties of tools using a procedure associated with minimal training. Specifically, the experiments explored whether tamarins distinguish between relevant and irrelevant properties of a tool, and further, understand that some features can be transformed with little cost to functionality. The first experiment was a means-end task and involved using a cane-like object (a tool) to access a piece of food. In this experiment, there were always two choices: either the food was immediately accessible because it was located on the inside of the cane's hook or less readily accessible because it was located on the outside of the hook. Most of the tamarins reached criterion on this task within a few sessions, consistently picking the cane with the most accessible food. Subsequent experiments (2-4) involved property changes (i.e., its color, texture, size and shape) that had either significant or relatively insignificant effects on the tool's function. In general, the tamarins appeared

  18. [Effect of five kinds of vegetable seed oil on serum lipid and lipid peroxidation in rats].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Cai, X; Zhao, X; Shi, R

    2001-01-01

    The effects of vegetable seed oil on hyperlipidemia induced by high lipid diet in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed on the test diet containing 94% high lipid diet and 6% lard pinon seed oil, perilla seed oil, blackcurrent seed oil, borage seed oil and evening primrose seed oil respectively for 3 weeks. The results showed that the vale of trilyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C(high density lipoprotein cholesterol) ratio increased and the vale of HDL-C/TC ratio and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) activity decreased in the groups with vegetable seed oil were less than that of the control group. The results suggested that all the five kinds of vegetable seed oil had the effect of regulating lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats to some extent. Pinon seed oil and borage seed oil may be well suited for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:11255765

  19. A Padé approximant approach to two kinds of transcendental equations with applications in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiang; Wang, Zhidan; Han, Jiurong

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we obtain the analytical solutions of two kinds of transcendental equations with numerous applications in college physics by means of the Lagrange inversion theorem. Afterwards we rewrite them in the form of a ratio of rational polynomials by a second-order Padé approximant from a practical and instructional perspective. Our method is illustrated in a pedagogical manner for the benefit of students at the undergraduate level. The approximate formulas introduced in the paper can be applied to abundant examples in physics textbooks, such as Fraunhofer single-slit diffraction, Wien’s displacement law, and the Schrödinger equation with single- or double-δ potential. These formulas, consequently, can reach considerable accuracies according to the numerical results; therefore, they promise to act as valuable ingredients in the standard teaching curriculum.

  20. Validation Study for Analytical Method of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisons in 9 Kinds of Shellfish.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Okihashi, Masahiro; Kajimura, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 in shellfish using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Shellfish poisons in spiked samples were extracted with methanol and 90% methanol, and were hydrolyzed with 2.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution. Purification was done on an HLB solid-phase extraction column. This method was validated in accordance with the notification of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. As a result of the validation study in nine kinds of shellfish, the trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility were 79-101%, less than 12 and 16%, respectively. The trueness and precision met the target values of notification. PMID:26936305

  1. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Renyuan; Zhu, Zhencai; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect. PMID:25679522

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Rope-Guided Conveyances in Two Typical Kinds of Shaft Layouts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Renyuan; Zhu, Zhencai; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn’t been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect. PMID:25679522

  3. Flexural properties of three kinds of experimental fiber-reinforced composite posts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Joo; Jung, Won-Chang; Oh, Seunghan; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka; Bae, Ji-Myung

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the flexural properties of three kinds of experimental fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and to evaluate their potential use as posts. Experimental FRC posts were fabricated with glass, aramid, and UHMWP fibers. Commercial FRC posts were used for comparison. A three-point bending test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Experimental glass fiber posts showed significantly higher flexural strengths and moduli than aramid and UHMWP posts. Experimental UHMWP posts demonstrated superior toughness to the commercial posts. The glass fiber posts displayed stiff, strong and brittle features, while the UHMWP posts were flexible, weak and ductile. The flexural properties of the aramid posts fell between those of the glass and UHMWP posts. In conclusion, the glass fiber posts proved excellent in flexural strengths and moduli. However, the superior toughness of UHMWP fibers suggests the possibility of their use as posts in combination with glass fibers. PMID:21282890

  4. A New Kind of Shift Operators for Infinite Circular and Spherical Wells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Guo-Hua; Launey, K. D.; Dytrych, T.; Dong, Shi-Hai; Draayer, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    A new kind of smore » hift operators for infinite circular and spherical wells is identified. These shift operators depend on all spatial variables of quantum systems and connect some eigenstates of confined systems of different radii R sharing energy levels with a common eigenvalue. In circular well, the momentum operators P ± = P x ± i P y play the role of shift operators. The P x and P y operators, the third projection of the orbital angular momentum operator L z , and the Hamiltonian H form a complete set of commuting operators with the SO(2) symmetry. In spherical well, the shift operators establish a novel relation between ψ l m ( r ) and ψ ( l ± 1 ) ( m ± 1 ) ( r ) .« less

  5. A kind of wavefront curvature sensor with diffraction grating and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hongbin; Li, Gang; Huang, Fuyu; Liu, Jie; Wang, Yuanbo

    2009-11-01

    The basic principle of wavefront curvature sensor (WFS) is described, and the strongpoints and shortcomings of traditional schemes are analyzed. As a novel WFS, the wavefront curvature sensor comprising a diffraction grating (DGWFS), which consist a defocus grating and lens, and can measure the light intensity distribution at the two defocused spots simultaneity, has the advantage of realization easily, adjustment expediently, low cost, and so on. The DGWFS has a wide application in astronomy, measurement, laser, optical component testing etc. Its principle is analyzed. Two kinds of phase retrieval arithmetics of wavefront curvature sensor are analyzed by comparison. Besides, the latest applications of wavefront curvature sensor are generally presented. Finally a novel method for measurement on solid-state laser thermal lens utilizing DGWFS is presented.

  6. A new kind of topological quantum order: A dimensional hierarchy of quasiparticles built from stationary excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan; Fu, Liang

    2015-12-01

    We introduce exactly solvable models of interacting (Majorana) fermions in d ≥3 spatial dimensions that realize a new kind of fermion topological quantum order, building on a model presented by S. Vijay, T. H. Hsieh, and L. Fu [Phys. Rev. X 5, 041038 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.041038]. These models have extensive topological ground-state degeneracy and a hierarchy of pointlike, topological excitations that are only free to move within submanifolds of the lattice. In particular, one of our models has fundamental excitations that are completely stationary. To demonstrate these results, we introduce a powerful polynomial representation of commuting Majorana Hamiltonians. Remarkably, the physical properties of the topologically ordered state are encoded in an algebraic variety, defined by the common zeros of a set of polynomials over a finite field. This provides a "geometric" framework for the emergence of topological order.

  7. Observation of the mechanisms causing two kinds of undercut during laser hybrid arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Jan; Norman, Peter; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.; Rubin, Per; Lamas, Javier; Yañez, Armando

    2011-06-01

    Two different kinds of undercut were identified when laser hybrid welding hot rolled HSLA-steel in either the as-rolled condition or with the top surface mill scale removed. The presence of mill scale on the steel surface was found to give a sharp angled undercut combined with a sharp oxide inclusion at the edge of the weld which would have the same mechanical effect as a crack in this position. Removal of the surface oxides before welding resulted in the elimination of the oxide inclusions and a more rounded undercut geometry indicative of superior mechanical properties, particularly fatigue life. The mechanisms of the formation of both types of undercut have been analysed by high speed photography and SEM.

  8. [Theoretical study on fluorescence spectra of four kinds of p-substituted curcumin analogues].

    PubMed

    Jia, Fei-Yun; Su, Yu; Ran, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Four kinds of p-substituted curcumin analogues were optimized at B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level. On this basis, the excited states geometry structure was optimized by the CIS method, and finally the fluorescence emission spectra were calculated through the TD-DFT method. The results showed that: the four compounds, a large conjugated system, is preferably coplanar structure. Because of introducing hydroxyl and halogen atom on the benzene ring, the molecular pi-electron conjugation is relatively larger, emission wavelength is relatively longer, and fluorescence spectra show different degrees of red shift. As the electron donating group is hydroxy, the fluorescence phenomenon is more obviously red shifted. PMID:25007617

  9. Individual Responsibility for Promoting Global Health: The Case for a New Kind of Socially Conscious Consumption.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    The problems of global health are truly terrible. Millions suffer and die from diseases like tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. One way of addressing these problems is via a Global Health Impact labeling campaign (http://global-health-impact.org/). If even a small percentage of consumers promote global health by purchasing Global Health Impact products, the incentive to use this label will be substantial. One might wonder, however, whether consumers are morally obligation to purchase any these goods or whether doing so is even morally permissible. This paper suggests that if the proposal is implemented, purchasing Global Health Impact labelled goods is at least morally permissible, if not morally required. Its argument should, moreover, be of much more general interest to those considering different kinds of ethical consumption. PMID:27338607

  10. Preconditioning first and second kind integral formulations of the capacitance problem

    SciTech Connect

    Tausch, J.; White, J.

    1996-12-31

    Engineering programs which compute electrostatic capacitances for complicated arrangements of conductors commonly set up the electrostatic potential u as a superposition of surface carges {sigma} u(x) = {integral}{sub s}G(x, y){sigma}(y) dS(y). Where G(x, y) = {1/4}{pi}{vert_bar}x - y{vert_bar} is the Green`s function for the Laplacian in the three-space. For a specified potential on the conductor surface(s) S, this approach leads to an integral equation of the first kind on S for the charge density {sigma}. The capacitance is the net-charge on the conductors and is given by the surface integral of {sigma}.

  11. Glycaemic index of different kinds of carbohydrates in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Donduran, S; Hamulu, F; Cetinkalp, S; Colak, B; Horozoğlu, N; Tüzün, M

    1999-12-01

    An adequate diet provides good metabolic control in diabetics. Since 1981 when Jenkins showed that complex carbohydrates are digested more slowly and raise blood glucose less than simple sugars, many studies have been performed in this field. In this study, seven kinds of carbohydrate-rich food were compared with glucose in 52 Type 2 diabetic patients and 31 normal volunteers. The subject consumed either macaroni, white rice, potatoes, tarhana soup (tarhana includes wheat flour, yoghurt, tomato and green pepper), noodle soup, white or whole wheat bread, or glucose at one-week intervals after an overnight fast. The glycaemic index (GI) of each food was calculated from the area under its glycaemic response curve (AUC) expressed as a percentage of the mean response to glucose. The results showed that the foods ranked from the highest to the lowest GI as follows: white bread; whole wheat bread; macaroni; tarhana soup; white rice; potatoes; noodle soup. PMID:10728183

  12. [Electronmicroscopic detection of a special kind of cytoplasmic vesicle in Micrasterias denticulata].

    PubMed

    Kiermayer, O

    1971-03-01

    Electronmicroscopic studies of growing and non-growing cells of Micrasterias denticulata Bréb., fixed with glutaraldehyde-OsO4, showed a special kind of cytoplasmic vesicle which has so far not been found in other cells. These particles (1000-1200 Å in diameter) are characterized, by an unusual, multilayered membrane and a rod-like content of high electronoptic density. The vesicles are found to be accumulated in the vicinity of the nucleus and in a positional relationship to the nuclear pores. Although no evidence could be found either for a direct passage of the vesicles through the pores or for a "blebbing"-process from the nuclear membrane, the rod-containing vesicles could be functional in the process of nuclearcytoplasmic exchange. PMID:24493044

  13. Kind-Making, objectivity, and political neutrality; the case of Solastalgia.

    PubMed

    Glackin, Shane Nicholas

    2012-03-01

    Politics and science, it is customarily and broadly assumed, should not mix. I investigate a purported "new mental illness" arising from psychological stress associated with environmental damage. Previous assessments have concluded that the diagnosis of "solastalgia", which is clearly intended to advance a political agenda, may thereby lack scientific validity. Building on work by Ian Hacking and Nelson Goodman, and drawing comparisons with the history of "political medicine"--in particular, the scientific study of Child Abuse and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome--I argue that the political consequences of such a diagnosis may plausibly help to justify it as a distinct objective scientific kind, by demarcating it from alternative classifications. That science should be objective, then, does not require that it be politically neutral. PMID:22326090

  14. A kind of integrated method discuss of fOG signal processing circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Pan, Xin; Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In view of the circuit miniaturization need in project application of fiber optic gyroscope(FOG), a new integrated technical scheme adopting system in package(SIP) for signal processing circuit of FOG was put forward. At first, the principle on signal processing circuit of FOG was analyzed, and the technical scheme adopting SIP based on low-temperature co-fired substrate technology was presented according to circuit characteristic and actual condition. Secondly, under the prerequisite of the concept introduction of SIP and LTCC, the SIP prototype of signal processing circuit of FOG was trialed produced,and it passed through the debug test. This SIP modular is an overall circuit complete integrated the signal processing circuit of FOG, and only a potentiometer and EPROM do not case outside. The testing results indicate that SIP is a kind of feasible scheme that carries out miniaturization for signal processing circuit of FOG.

  15. Building A New Kind of Graded-Z Shield for Swift's Burst Alert Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.

    2002-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift has a graded-Z Shield that closes out the volume between the coded aperture mask and the Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detector array. The purpose of the 37 kilogram shield is to attenuate gamma rays that have not penetrated the coded aperture mask of the BAT instrument and are therefore a major source of noise on the detector array. Unlike previous shields made from plates and panels, this shield consists of multiple layers of thin metal foils (lead, tantalum, tin, and copper) that are stitched together much like standard multi-layer insulation blankets. The shield sections are fastened around BAT, forming a curtain around the instrument aperture. Strength tests were performed to validate and improve the design, and the shield will be vibration tested along with BAT in late 2002. Practical aspects such as the layup design, methods of manufacture, and testing of this new kind of graded-Z Shield are presented.

  16. A new kind of oscillation in the persistent emission of the Rapid Burster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Lori M.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Van Paradijs, Jan; Van Der Klis, Michiel; Stella, Luigi

    1992-01-01

    We present a study of a new kind of oscillation found in the persistent emission after some type II bursts from the Rapid Burster observed during 1985 August with EXOSAT. All 95 bursts observed were longer than 30 s. Ten of them were followed by these oscillations. The frequency of the oscillations ranged from 39 to 56 mHz. A period decrease (by 30-50 percent) over a time-scale of about 100 s was observed in seven cases. The fractional rms variation of the oscillations ranged from 5 to 15 percent. In eight cases, about 4-Hz quasi-periodic oscillations with fractional rms values from 6 to 19 percent were observed simultaneously with the new oscillations. There is a high probability that the two forms of oscillation are related to one another.

  17. The Second Stellar Spectrum and the non-LTE Problem of the 2nd Kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the radiative transfer problem of calculating the spectral line intensity and polarization that emerges from a (generally magnetized) astrophysical plasma composed of atoms and molecules whose excitation state is significantly influenced by radiative transitions produced by an anisotropic radiation field. The numerical solution of this non-LTE problem of the 2nd kind is facilitating the physical understanding of the second solar spectrum and the exploration of the complex magnetism of the extended solar atmosphere, but much more could be learned if high-sensitivity polarimeters were developed also for the present generation of night-time telescopes. Interestingly, I find that the population ratio between the levels of some resonance line transitions can be efficiently modulated by the inclination of a weak magnetic field when the anisotropy of the incident radiation is significant, something that could provide a new diagnostic tool in astrophysics.

  18. The study and application of four kinds of organic ion-selective microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bi; Zheng, Xiao; Feng, Chu; Hong, Wen-Bing; Liu, Jun-Tao; Wang, Ru-Jiang

    1991-09-01

    Four kinds of organic ion-selective microelectrodes (two barrels, tip diameter 0.1-0.5 micron) have been developed for the measurement of acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin, and bile acid. Physiological and pathological models on the cellular or sub-cellular level have been established for the purpose of basic and clinical pharmacological research, treatment or diagnosis of certain diseases. The acetylcholine sensitive microelectrode has been applied to the study of acetylcholine activity in single erythrocytes of normal human subjects and patients suffering from manic depressive disorders. The bile acid selective microelectrode has been used for the direct measurement of intracellular bile acid activities both in colorectal cancer and colorectal mucosa in living condition.

  19. [Effects of different microhabitas on growth and four kinds of volatile oil components of Atractylodes lancea].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Miki, Sakurai; Yang, Guang; Takeda, Xiu-ji; Chen, Mei-lan; Zhu, Shou-dong; Wang, Ling; Guo, Lan-ping

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the suitable site environment for Atractylodes lancea, field trials in different niches was carried out, and the seedling growth, biomass and volatile oil components in different microhabitas was studied. The study found that the survival rate, plant height, volatile oil content of those which growing under the bamboo were significantly higher than those exposed in the open field. The survival rate understory was (76 ± 15.1) %, plant height understory was (77 ± 14. 8) cm and the summation of the four kinds of volatile oil content understory reached up to 4.09%; The same evaluation values of these indicators of the four faces in the open field respectively: survival rate is 30%, plant height was (77 ± 14.8) cm and the summation of the four kinds of volatile oil content was 2.24%. But, the yield of the understory (41 ± 22.3) g was significantly lower than those four faces in the open field (104.5 g) on the contrary. For the four open field towards, the yield of the east facing, which organic matter and other nutritional conditions were better than others, was significantly higher than those in the other facings. A. lancea was found to be an anti-poor and shading-like or growing in east facing slope herb through the correlation analysis of light, temperature, soil and leaf nutrients with seedling growth, biomass and volatile oil components. It also reminds us that the understory herb with high survival rate, low incidence, low management costs, and high medicinal ingredients, although it's production is not so high, but it can be improved by increased organic fertilizer. So the ecological planting patterns which can intercropping herbs with the forest was proposed. PMID:27071246

  20. Training Emotion Cultivates Morality: How Loving-Kindness Meditation Hones Compassion and Increases Prosocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Bankard, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Traditional moral philosophy has long focused on rationality, principled thinking, and good old-fashioned willpower, but recent evidence strongly suggests that moral judgments and prosocial behavior are more heavily influenced by emotion and intuition. As the evidence mounts, rational traditions emphasizing deliberative analysis and conscious decision making are called into question. The first section highlights some compelling evidence supporting the primacy of affective states in motivating moral judgments and behavior. The real challenge is finding a way to align intuition with desired behavior. In cool reflective states, one may desire to be a kind and loving person. But when it is time to act, the moment is often accompanied by strong affect-laden intuitions. I argue that if affective states are the primary motivators of behavior, then moral sentiments must be trained through habituation in order to increase prosocial behavior. The second section provides empirical evidence linking emotional training with increased prosociality. To highlight this connection, focus is placed on the relationship between habitual meditation training, compassion, and prosocial behavior. Recent studies by Antoine Lutz, Richard Davidson, Susanne Leiberg, and others show that various meditation practices can dramatically affect the human person at various levels, i.e., increased physical health, neural restructuring, regulation and development of emotions, and increased helping behavior, to name a few. The current article focuses on the impact the habit of loving-kindness meditation (LKM) has on compassion and prosocial behavior. Recent studies strongly support the conclusion that LKM training hones compassion and ultimately leads to an increase in compassionate behavior. PMID:25633082

  1. Neural responses to kindness and malevolence differ in illness and recovery in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Carrie J; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P Read

    2015-12-01

    In anorexia nervosa, problems with social relationships contribute to illness, and improvements in social support are associated with recovery. Using the multiround trust game and 3T MRI, we compare neural responses in a social relationship in three groups of women: women with anorexia nervosa, women in long-term weight recovery from anorexia nervosa, and healthy comparison women. Surrogate markers related to social signals in the game were computed each round to assess whether the relationship was improving (benevolence) or deteriorating (malevolence) for each subject. Compared with healthy women, neural responses to benevolence were diminished in the precuneus and right angular gyrus in both currently-ill and weight-recovered subjects with anorexia, but neural responses to malevolence differed in the left fusiform only in currently-ill subjects. Next, using a whole-brain regression, we identified an office assessment, the positive personalizing bias, that was inversely correlated with neural activity in the occipital lobe, the precuneus and posterior cingulate, the bilateral temporoparietal junctions, and dorsal anterior cingulate, during benevolence for all groups of subjects. The positive personalizing bias is a self-report measure that assesses the degree with which a person attributes positive experiences to other people. These data suggest that problems in perceiving kindness may be a consistent trait related to the development of anorexia nervosa, whereas recognizing malevolence may be related to recovery. Future work on social brain function, in both healthy and psychiatric populations, should consider positive personalizing biases as a possible marker of neural differences related to kindness perception. PMID:26416161

  2. Cell responses to two kinds of nanohydroxyapatite with different sizes and crystallinities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaochen; Zhao, Minzhi; Lu, Jingxiong; Ma, Jian; Wei, Jie; Wei, Shicheng

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the principal inorganic constituent of human bone. Due to its good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, all kinds of HA particles were prepared by different methods. Numerous reports demonstrated that the properties of HA affected its biological effects. Methods Two kinds of nanohydroxyapatite with different sizes and crystallinities were obtained via a hydrothermal treatment method under different temperatures. It was found that at a temperature of 140°C, a rod-like crystal (n-HA1) with a diameter of 23 ± 5 nm, a length of 47 ± 14 nm, and crystallinity of 85% ± 5% was produced, while at a temperature of 80°C, a rod-like crystal (n-HA2) with a diameter of 16 ± 3 nm, a length of 40 ± 10 nm, and crystallinity of 65% ± 3% was produced. The influence of nanohydroxyapatite size and crystallinity on osteoblast viability was studied by MTT, scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Results n-HA1 gave a better biological response than n-HA2 in promoting cell growth and inhibiting cell apoptosis, and also exhibited much more active cell morphology. Alkaline phosphatase activity for both n-HA2 and n-HA1 was obviously higher than for the control, and no significant difference was found between n-HA1 and n-HA2. The same trend was observed on Western blotting for expression of type I collagen and osteopontin. In addition, it was found by transmission electron microscopy that large quantities of n-HA2 entered into the cell and damaged the cellular morphology. Release of tumor necrosis factor alpha from n-HA2 was markedly higher than from n-HA1, indicating that n-HA2 might trigger a severe inflammatory response. Conclusion This work indicates that not all nanohydroxyapatite should be considered a good biomaterial in future clinical applications. PMID:22419871

  3. Two Kinds of "Elements" and the Dialectic between Synthetic-deductive and Analytic-genetic Approaches in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Hans-Georg

    1988-01-01

    Describes two kinds of elements in mathematics: Euclid's and Bourbaki's. Discusses some criticisms on the two concepts of elements from a philosophical, methodological, and didactical point of view. Suggests a complementarist view and several implications for mathematics education. (YP)

  4. Determining that a label is kind-referring: Factors that influence children’s and adults’ novel word extensions

    PubMed Central

    Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies examined factors that influence children’s and adults’ interpretation of a novel word. Four factors are hypothesized to emphasize that a label refers to a richly structured category (also known as a ‘kind’): generic language, internal property attributions, familiar kind labels, and absence of a target photograph. In Study 1, for college students (N = 125), internal property attributions resulted in more taxonomic and fewer shape responses. In Study 2, for 4-year-olds (N = 126), the presence of generic language and familiar kind labels resulted in more taxonomic choices. Further, the presence of familiar kind labels resulted in fewer shape choices. The results suggest that, when learning new words, children and adults are sensitive to factors that imply kind reference. PMID:19874640

  5. How Much In-Kind Support Do Low-Income Nonresident Fathers Provide? A Mixed-Method Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Past child support research has largely focused on cash payments made through the courts (formal support) or given directly to the mother (informal support), almost to the exclusion of a third type: non-cash goods (in-kind support). Drawing on repeated, semistructured interviews with nearly 400 low-income noncustodial fathers, the authors found that in-kind support constitutes about one quarter of total support. Children in receipt of some in-kind support receive, on average, $60 per month worth of goods. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that children who are younger and have more hours of visitation, as well as those whose father has a high school education and no current substance abuse problem, receive in-kind support of greater value. Yet children whose fathers lack stable employment, or are Black, receive a greater proportion of their total support in kind. A subsequent qualitative analysis revealed that fathers' logic for providing in-kind support is primarily relational, and not financial. PMID:26052162

  6. A new kind of relativity: Compensated delays as phenomenal blind spots.

    PubMed

    Vrobel, Susie

    2015-12-01

    cones which display a new kind of (Δtlength-Δtdepth-) relativity. This new kind of relativity arises from the oberpants' inability to spot the systemic blindness that manifests itself in anticipated, i.e. compensated, delays. PMID:26141000

  7. [Analysis of leave FTIR of nine kinds of plants from Rosaceae with genetic relationship].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lu; Li, Xiao-Yong; Liu, Peng; Fan, Shu-Guo; Xie, Mei-Hua; Liu, Ren-Ming; Zhou, Lin-Zong; Wang, Jing

    2014-02-01

    Leaves of nine kinds of plants from three subfamily of Rosaceae were used as materials. Genetic relationship was analyzed and species were identified through studying FTIR of nine kinds of plants. Leaves mainly contain large amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and other substances. The peaks of carbohydrates are mainly between 1440 and 775 cm(-1). The vibration peaks of the cellulose and lignin are between 1440 and 1337 cm(-1). The peaks between 1000 and 775 cm(-1) are stretching vibration of ribose. The vibration peaks of protein are between 1620 and 1235 cm(-1). The peak at 1620 cm(-1) is sensitive to C=O stretching vibration of protein amide I. The peak at 1523 cm(-1) is assigned to N-H and C-N stretching vibration of protein amide II. Peaks of lipids mainly appeared between 2930 and 1380 cm(-1). The peak at 2922 cm(-1) is CH2 stretching vibration of fat. The peak at 1732 cm(-1) is C=O stretching vibration of fatty acids. The mark peak of the nucleic acid appears in the region between 1250 and 1000 cm(-1). The peak at 1068 cm(-1) is due to the symmetric stretching vibration of PO(2-) group of the phosphodiester-deoxyribose backbone, and the peak at 1246 cm(-1) is associated to the asymmetric stretch vibration of PO(2-) group. The results showed that the cluster model is established by smoothing, standardizing, the second derivative, principal component analysis and Hierarchical cluster analysis. It is accordant with the traditional classification. The result of cluster shows that Prunus armeniaca L. and Prunus seudocerasus Lindl. were clustered into one (Prunoideae). Potentilla fulgens Wall. Rosa chinensis Jacd and Fragaria ananassa Duchesne var. were clustered into the second (Rosoideae). Pyracantha fortuneana Li, Malus pumila Mill. Eriobotrya bengalensis Hook. f. and Malus hallianna Koehne were clustered into the third (Pomoideae). The correct rate of cluster at subfamily is 100%. The correct rate of cluster at genus is 55.56%. The

  8. NO X fluxes from three kinds of agricultural lands in the Yangtze Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuangxi; Mu, Yujing

    Static chamber method was adopted to measure the surface exchanges of NO and NO 2 between three kinds of agricultural lands and the atmosphere during spring-summer period in the Yangtze Delta, China. The average NO fluxes were 20.9, 27.4 and 21.4 ng N m -2 s -1, respectively, for cabbage (CA, cultivation of celery occurred along with cabbage), potato (PO) and soybean (SY) fields. The average NO 2 fluxes were -1.12, 0.93 and -0.68 ng N m -2 s -1, respectively, for the cabbage, potato and soybean fields. Apparently, negative linear correlation was found between the NO 2 fluxes from the CK plot (tilled conventionally but did not cultivate any seeds) and its ambient concentrations, and the compensation point was calculated to be 0.92 ppbv. The total NO emission from the vegetable lands and SY land in this region during spring-summer period was roughly estimated to be 15.9 Gg N, which accounted for about 11.2% of the estimated value of total NO emissions in the July of 1999 from Chinese agricultural fields.

  9. [Inhibitory effects of fifteen kinds of Chinese herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on SOS response].

    PubMed

    Jin, Z C; Qian, J

    1994-05-01

    Effects of 15 kinds of herbal drugs, vegetables and chemicals on lex-dependent sfi-SOS response were determined by micropersistent and/or pulse models induced by 4-Nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) and Mitomycin C (MMC) in Escherichia coli(E. coli) PQ37 and PQ35, respectively. Results showed the water extract of Rhizoma Polygonati (RP), Fructus Chebulae (FC), Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM), Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL), Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (BFT), shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice, and solutions of 5-Fluorouracil, Tannic acid and garlicin could inhibit SOS responses with a dose-response relationship and suggested the inhibitory effects took place both inside and outside E. coli cells. Water extract of FC, FLL, BFT, shell of water chestnut with a pedicle, Chinese chives juice and solution of 5-Fluorouracil and Tannic acid could intracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by MMC in E. coli PQ35, and acetone extract of Grifola Frondosa (GF) could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses in E. coli PQ37 and intracellularly in PQ35 induced by 4NQO or MMC. Water extract of raw hawthorn. Radix Angelicae Duhuricae (RAD), Radix Ophiopogonis (RO), and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine could extracellularly inhibit SOS responses induced by 4NQO in E coli PQ37. The possible mechanisms of intracellular inhibition and antidamage repair were discussed in the paper. PMID:7842869

  10. Radiation absorption in different kinds of tissue analysis: ex vivo study with supercontinuum laser source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Selleri, Stefano; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2016-03-01

    With the introduction of more and more new wavelengths, one of the main problems of medical laser users was centered on the study of laser-tissue interactions with the aim of determining the ideal wavelength for their treatments. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine, by means of the utilization of a supercontinuum source, the amount of transmitted energy of different wavelengths in different organ samples obtained by Sprague Dawley rats. Supercontinuum light is generated by exploiting high optical non-linearity in a material and it combines the broadband attributes of a lamp with the spatial coherence and high brightness of laser. Even if the single transmission measurement does not allow us to separate out the respective contribution of scattering and absorption, it gives us an evaluation of the wavelengths not interacting with the tissue. In this way, being possible to determine what of the laser wavelengths are not useful or active in the different kinds of tissue, physicians may choose the proper device for his clinical treatments.

  11. Enhancement effects of two kinds of carbon black on piezoelectricity of PVDF-HFP composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Hu, Ning; Wu, Liangke; Cui, Hao; Ying, Ji

    2015-12-01

    Two kinds of carbon black (CB) (i.e., CB#300 and CB#3350) were added into poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), respectively, to improve its piezoelectricity. The results revealed that when 0.5 wt.% CB was added, the best performance of the PVDF-HFP/CB composite films was obtained. The calibrated open circuit voltage and the density of harvested power of 0.5 wt.% CB#3350 contained composite films were 204%, and 464% (AC) and 561% (DC) of those of neat PVDF-HFP films. Similarly, for 0.5 wt.% CB#300 contained films, they were 211%, and 475% (AC) and 624% (DC), respectively. The enhancement mechanisms of piezoelectricity were clarified by the observation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). We found that the added CBs act as nucleate agents to promote the formation of elongated, oriented and fibrillar β-phase crystals during the fabrication process, which increase the piezoelectricity. Overdosed CBs lead to a lower crystallinity degree, resulting in the lower piezoelectricity. Compared with CB#3350, CB#300 performs slightly better, which may be ascribed to its higher specific surface area.

  12. Analysis of concrete targets with different kinds of reinforcements subjected to blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oña, M.; Morales-Alonso, G.; Gálvez, F.; Sánchez-Gálvez, V.; Cendón, D.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental campaign carried out to study and analyse the behaviour of concrete slabs when subjected to blast loading. Four different types of concrete have been tested: normal strength concrete with steel rebar, normal strength concrete with steel rebar retrofitted with Kevlar coating, steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) and polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete (PFRC). The major asset of the experimental setup used is that it allows to subject up to four specimens to the same blast load what, besides being cost effective, makes possible to have a measure of the experimental scatter. The results of SFRC and PFRC concretes have been analysed by using a previously developed material model for the numerical simulation of concrete elements subjected to blast. The experimental campaign and preliminary results of this numerical analysis show how the high strain rates, in spite of improving the mechanical properties of these kinds of fibre reinforced concretes, lead to an embrittlement of the material, which may be dangerous from the point of view of the structural behaviour.

  13. A special kind of local structure in the CMB intensity maps: duel peak structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Li, Ti-Pei

    2009-03-01

    We study the local structure of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature maps released by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team, and find a new kind of structure, which can be described as follows: a peak (or valley) of average temperature is often followed by a peak of temperature fluctuation that is 4° away. This structure is important for the following reasons: both the well known cold spot detected by Cruz et al. and the hot spot detected by Vielva et al. with the same technology (the third spot in their article) have such structure; more spots that are similar to them can be found on CMB maps and they also tend to be significant cold/hot spots; if we change the 4° characteristic into an artificial one, such as 3° or 5°, there will be less 'similar spots', and the temperature peaks or valleys will be less significant. The presented 'similar spots' have passed a strict consistency test which requires them to be significant on at least three different CMB temperature maps. We hope that this article could arouse some interest in the relationship of average temperature with temperature fluctuation in local areas; meanwhile, we are also trying to find an explanation for it which might be important to CMB observation and theory.

  14. What kinds of policies to reduce health inequalities in the UK do researchers support?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine E.; Kandlik Eltanani, Mor

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a wealth of research and policy initiatives, progress in tackling the UK's health inequalities has been limited. This article explores whether there appears to be consensus among researchers about the kinds of policies likely to reduce health inequalities. Methods Ninety-nine proposals for addressing health inequalities were identified from multiple sources. Forty-one researchers participated in a survey assessing the extent to which they believed each proposal would reduce health inequalities, based on three criteria. The 20 proposals generating most support were employed in a second stage, in which 92 researchers indicated which proposals they felt would have the greatest impact on reducing health inequalities. Results Some consensus exists among researchers about the policy approaches likely to reduce UK health inequalities: a more progressive distribution of income/wealth, greater investment in services for deprived communities, plus regulatory policies to limit the impact of lifestyle-behavioural risks. However, researchers' support for proposals varies depending whether they are asked to express their expert opinion or to comment on the strength of the available evidence. Conclusions When consulting researchers about health inequalities, policymakers need to consider whether they are seeking research-informed expertise or assessments of the available evidence; these questions are likely to yield different responses. PMID:25174045

  15. A new kind of low-inductance transformer type magnetic switch (TTMS) with coaxial cylindrical conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-02-01

    As important devices for voltage boosting and switching, respectively, pulse transformer and magnetic switch are widely used in pulsed power technology. In this paper, a new kind of transformer type magnetic switch (TTMS) with coaxial cylindrical conductors is put forward to combine the functions of voltage boosting and switching in one power device. As a compact combination device of discrete pulse transformer and magnetic switch, the compact TTMS decreases the required volume of magnetic cores in a large scale. The primary windings of the TTMS have a parallel combination structure so that the TTMS which only has 3 turns of secondary windings has a step-up ratio at 1:9. Before the magnetic core saturates, the TTMS has low unsaturated inductances of windings and good pulse response characteristics, so it can be used to substitute the Marx generator to charge the pulse forming line (PFL) at the ranges of several hundred kV and several hundred ns. After the core saturates, the cylindrical conductors can decrease the saturated inductance of the secondary windings of TTMS to a level less than 400 nH. As a result, the proposed TTMS can be used as the boosting transformer and main switch of helical Blumlein PFL to form the quasi-square voltage pulse on the 160 Ω load with a short pulse rise time only at 60 ns.

  16. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Aroma Compounds Analysis from Different Kinds of Tartary Buckwheat Tea.

    PubMed

    Peng, L X; Zou, L; Wang, J B; Zhao, J L; Xiang, D B; Zhao, G

    2015-01-01

    The rutin, quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds in different commercial tartary buckwheat tea were analyzed in our study. Results revealed that the materials and the processing protocol affected the chemical composition and activity of tartary buckwheat tea. Rutin and quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity were significantly different in various kinds of tartary buckwheat tea, where the whole bran tea and the whole plant tea had the lower rutin, but higher quercetin concentrations and higher antioxidant activity. The whole embryo tea had the converse results. There was strong correlation between quercetin concentration and antioxidant activity (r>0.98, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Twenty eight different aroma compounds in tartary buckwheat tea were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Those compounds were mainly composed of pyrazine, aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones. The main type of aroma compounds in different tartary buckwheat tea were similar, but their relative contents were different. The implications to the quality control of buckwheat tea were extensively discussed. PMID:26997692

  17. Possible hydraulic significance of two kinds of potholes: Examples from the paleo-Potomac River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, E.-An; Prestegaard, Karen L.

    1994-01-01

    Potholes preserved along abandoned sections of bedrock-bounded rivers should provide significant paleohydraulic data if the conditions for pothole formation are understood. In a prototype study, we recognize two kinds of potholes along the paleo-Potomac River near Great Falls, Virginia. Vertical potholes, drilled into the strath floor, are circular in plan and are interpreted to form at sites of small stream depths and high flow velocity. Lateral potholes, noncircular with overhanging roofs, are found on flanks of rock obstacles. They are interpreted to be eroded by sediment-laden vertical flow near the air-water interface. The vortices circulate water in the horizontal plane, and begin to form near the free surface in flow separation zones downstream of the obstacles. The geometry of flow separation zones and thus the location of the lateral potholes are scaled by flow Reynolds number. Therefore, lateral potholes could be used to reconstruct paleoflow depths and velocities if parts of the channel bed adjacent to the flow obstruction are preserved.

  18. Neural Basis of Two Kinds of Social Influence: Obedience and Conformity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying; Chen, Mingliang; Lai, Hongxia; Zhang, Wuke; Zhao, Zhen; Anwar, Ch Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used in this study to explore the neural mechanism of obedience and conformity on the model of online book purchasing. Participants were asked to decide as quickly as possible whether to buy a book based on limited information including its title, keywords and number of positive and negative reviews. Obedience was induced by forcing participants to buy books which received mostly negative reviews. In contrast, conformity was aroused by majority influence (caused by positive and negative comments). P3 and N2, two kinds of ERP components related to social cognitive process, were measured and recorded with electroencephalogram (EEG) test. The results show that compared with conformity decisions, obedience decisions induced greater cognitive conflicts. In ERP measurements, greater amplitudes of N2 component were observed in the context of obedience. However, consistency level did not make a difference on P3 peak latency for both conformity and obedience. This shows that classification process is implicit in both conformity and obedience decision-making. In addition, for both conformity and obedience decisions, augmented P3 was observed when the reviews consistency (either negative or positive) was higher. PMID:26941632

  19. A new kind of low-inductance transformer type magnetic switch (TTMS) with coaxial cylindrical conductors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-02-01

    As important devices for voltage boosting and switching, respectively, pulse transformer and magnetic switch are widely used in pulsed power technology. In this paper, a new kind of transformer type magnetic switch (TTMS) with coaxial cylindrical conductors is put forward to combine the functions of voltage boosting and switching in one power device. As a compact combination device of discrete pulse transformer and magnetic switch, the compact TTMS decreases the required volume of magnetic cores in a large scale. The primary windings of the TTMS have a parallel combination structure so that the TTMS which only has 3 turns of secondary windings has a step-up ratio at 1:9. Before the magnetic core saturates, the TTMS has low unsaturated inductances of windings and good pulse response characteristics, so it can be used to substitute the Marx generator to charge the pulse forming line (PFL) at the ranges of several hundred kV and several hundred ns. After the core saturates, the cylindrical conductors can decrease the saturated inductance of the secondary windings of TTMS to a level less than 400 nH. As a result, the proposed TTMS can be used as the boosting transformer and main switch of helical Blumlein PFL to form the quasi-square voltage pulse on the 160 Ω load with a short pulse rise time only at 60 ns. PMID:23464203

  20. Towards a new kind of experimental psycho-aesthetics? Reflections on the Parallellepipeda project

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Experimental psycho-aesthetics—the science aimed at understanding the factors that determine aesthetic experience—is reviewed briefly as background to describe the Parallellepipeda project, a cross-over project between artists and scientists in Leuven. In particular, I sketch how it started and developed further, with close interactions between the participating artists and scientists. A few examples of specific research projects are mentioned to illustrate the kind of research questions we address and the methodological approach we have taken. We often found an effect of providing participants with additional information, a difference between novice and expert participants, and a shift with increasing experience with an artwork, in the direction of tolerating more complexity and acquiring more order from it. By establishing more connections between parts of an artwork and more associations to the artwork, it becomes a stronger Gestalt, which is more easily mastered by the viewer and leads to increased appreciation. In the final part of the paper, I extract some general lessons from the project regarding a possible new way of doing psycho-aesthetics research, which is able to solve some of the problems of traditional experimental psycho-aesthetics (eg, trade-off between experimental control and ecological validity). PMID:23145251

  1. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health. PMID:20839056

  2. Method to solve integral equations of the first kind with an approximate input.

    PubMed

    Efros, Victor D

    2012-07-01

    Techniques are proposed for solving integral equations of the first kind with an input known not precisely. The requirement that the solution sought for includes a given number of maxima and minima is imposed. It is shown that when the deviation of the approximate input from the true one is sufficiently small and some additional conditions are fulfilled the method leads to an approximate solution that is necessarily close to the true solution. No regularization is required in the present approach. Requirements on features of the solution at integration limits are also imposed. The problem is treated with the help of an ansatz proposed for the derivative of the solution. The ansatz is the most general one compatible with the above mentioned requirements. The techniques are tested with exactly solvable examples. Inversions of the Lorentz, Stieltjes, and Laplace integral transforms are performed, and very satisfactory results are obtained. The method is useful, in particular, for the calculation of quantum-mechanical reaction amplitudes and inclusive spectra of perturbation-induced reactions in the framework of the integral transform approach. PMID:23005560

  3. Understanding Students' Experiments—What kind of support do they need in inquiry tasks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Julia Caroline; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-11-01

    Inquiry learning is a widely recognized method for fostering inquiry competence in science education. Nevertheless, there is discussion about how to best support students while working on inquiry tasks (in this case: experiments on causal relationships). To identify the kind of support students need in order to design experiments in upper grades, an empirical study consisting of two parts was conducted. The first part, a quantitative test (N = 96), tested students' competences in designing an experiment. It was found that students need scaffolding in basic aspects of designing (like dependent and independent variables), to reach higher levels, since only about thirty percent reach levels II or III out of three levels. On more reflective aspects (like confounding variables, test times and repetitions), only a maximum of twenty-five percent reached level I or higher; therefore, even more support is needed on these aspects. The second part of the study was a qualitative video-analysis of students' discussions, designs and implementations of an experiment. It was found that support is needed on procedural knowledge and understanding. Possible implications for inquiry support are discussed.

  4. Ballooning theory of the second kind-two dimensional tokamak modes

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, T.; Wang, A. K.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Mahajan, S. M.

    2012-07-15

    The 2-D ballooning transform, devised to study local high toroidal number (n) fluctuations in axisymmetric toroidal system (like tokamaks), yields a well-defined partial differential equation for the linear eigenmodes. In this paper, such a ballooning equation of the second kind is set up for ion temperature gradient driven modes pertinent to a 2-D non-dissipative fluid plasma; the resulting partial differential equation is numerically solved, to calculate the global eigenvalues, and the 2-D mode structure is presented graphically along with analytical companions. The radial localization of the mode results from translational symmetry breaking for growing modes and is a vivid manifestation of spontaneous symmetry breaking in tokamak physics. The eigenmode, poloidally ballooned at {theta}={+-}{pi}/2, is radially shifted from associated rational surface. The global eigenvalue is found to be very close to the value obtained in 1-D parameterized ({lambda}={+-}{pi}/2) case. The 2-D eigenmode theory is applied to estimate the toroidal seed Reynolds stress [Y. Z. Zhang, Nucl. Fusion Plasma Phys. 30, 193 (2010)]. The solution obtained from the relatively simplified ballooning theory is compared to the solution of the basic equation in original coordinate system (evaluated via FFTs); the agreement is rather good.

  5. Generics license 30-month-olds' inferences about the atypical properties of novel kinds.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan A; Gelman, Susan A; Clarke, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    We examined whether the distinction between generic and nongeneric language provides toddlers with a rapid and efficient means to learn about kinds. In Experiment 1, we examined 30-month-olds' willingness to extend atypical properties to members of an unfamiliar category when the properties were introduced in 1 of 3 ways: (a) using a generic noun phrase ("Blicks drink ketchup"); (b) using a nongeneric noun phrase ("These blicks drink ketchup"); and (c) using an attentional phrase ("Look at this"). Hearing a generic noun phrase boosted toddlers' extension of properties to both the model exemplars and to novel members of the same category, relative to when a property had been introduced with a nongeneric noun phrase or an attentional phrase. In Experiment 2, properties were introduced with a generic noun phrase, and toddlers extended novel properties to members of the same-category, but not to an out-of-category object. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that generics highlight the stability of a feature and foster generalization of the property to novel within-category exemplars. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505699

  6. Combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass and their blends with lignite.

    PubMed

    Toptas, Asli; Yildirim, Yeliz; Duman, Gozde; Yanik, Jale

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass (lignocellulosic and animal wastes) and their blends with lignite was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric method under air atmosphere. For comparison, combustion characteristics of raw biomasses were also determined. Torrefaction process improved the reactivity of char combustion step of biomasses. Characteristic combustion parameters for blends showed non-additivity behavior. It was found that the mixture of torrefied biomasses and lignite at a ratio of 1:1 had a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Although no interactions were observed between the lignite and torrefied biomass at initial step of combustion, a certain degree of interaction between the components occurred at char combustion step. Kinetic parameters of combustion were calculated by using the Coats Redfern model. Overall, this study showed that poultry litters can be used as a substitute fuel in coal/biomass co-firing systems by blending with lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:25496955

  7. Hot Compression Behavior of One Kind of Meta-Stable β Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Liying; Ge, Peng; Mao, Xiaonan; Zhao, Yongqing; Zhou, Lian

    One kind of meta-stable β titanium alloy with grain sizes less than 1µm was developed using conventional plastic deformation process in Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN). The so called Ti-B19 alloy (Ti-Al-Mo-V-Cr-Zr) possesses excellent strength and toughness. In order to excavate the potential workability of the alloy, isothermal compression tests were carried out on the Gleeble-1500 thermal simulator at the temperature from 750°C to 1000°C and strain rate from 0.001 s-1 to 10s-1. The results indicate that the flow stresses of the alloy will be heavily influenced by the strain rates and deformation temperature. The flow stress decrease with the increase of deformation temperature, and increase with the increment of strain rates. A constitutive equation for the flow stress has been defined and the test conditions for a homogeneous deformation evaluated, and the material constants including activation energy Q, stress exponent n and constant ln (A) were also obtained.

  8. Anammox process for synthetic and practical wastewater treatment using a novel kind of biomass carriers.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Sen; Kawakubo, Yuki; Cheng, Yingjun; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Takao; Furukawa, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    The anammox process, as an alternative to conventional nitrogen removal technologies, has abstracted much attention in recent years. In this study, one column-type reactor using a novel support material--net type acrylic fiber (Biofix)--was used for anammox treatment. The Biofix reactor was operated at 25 degrees C (peak summer temperature, 31.5 degrees C). Over 330 days of operation for synthetic wastewater treatment, the nitrogen loading rates of the reactor were increased to 3.6 kg-N/m3/d and T-N removal efficiencies reached to 81.3%. For the practical anaerobic sludge digester liquor treatment, the average TN removal efficiency of 72% was obtained. A protein substance was shown to be the most abundant extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the granular sludge with almost two times more in the attached sludge of the Biofix reactor. Considering the EPS levels and observation by scanning electron microscopy, the anammox granules in the Biofix reactor were showing dense state. Results of DNA analyses indicated that the KSU-1 strain might prefer relatively low nutrient levels, while the KU2 strain might be better suited for the high media concentration. Other kinds of bacteria were also identified with the potentials for consuming the dissolved oxygen in the influent and facilitating anammox bacteria surviving under aerobic conditions. PMID:18845875

  9. Effects of Various Kinds of Salt on the Quality and Storage Characteristics of Tteokgalbi

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of various kinds of salt on the quality and storage characteristics of tteokgalbi. The tteokgalbi was prepared using four types of salt: 1.5% purified salt (control, C), 1.5% five-year-old solar salt (FS), 1.5% Topan solar salt (TS), and 1.5% French Guérande solar salt (GS). The moisture, crude lipid, crude ash, crude protein and calorie contents, water holding capacity, and cooking loss were not significantly different between control and all other treatments. As for the textural characteristics, the use of GS increased the hardness of the tteokgalbi. According to the sensory evaluation, the use of TS had the best score in springiness. Tteokgalbi made with TS and GS had the two highest scores in flavor and total acceptability. During 15 d of storage, the contents of 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and the total microbial counts increased, while the pH decreased. The TBA values of the tteokgalbi containing TS and GS were lower than that of C. Lightness (L) and yellowness (b) values decreased during storage, but redness (a) displayed no significant difference during storage. Overall, the best results, in terms of TBA value and sensory attributes, were obtained for the tteokgalbi containing TS and GS. PMID:26761494

  10. A novel accelerometer based on the first kind of ferrofluid levitation principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Chen, Yibiao; Li, Zhenkun; Zhang, Tianqi; Li, Decai

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel accelerometer exploiting the first kind of ferrofluid levitation principle is presented. The device consists of a piston-shaped container filled with ferrofluid surrounding a nonmagnetic insulating rod, which has the same shape as the container and is regarded as an inertial mass. Two annular magnets outside the container are used to create a non-uniform magnetic field which generates a powerful restoring force acting on the nonmagnetic rod. Under the influence of the external acceleration, two coils can detect the change of the volume distribution of the ferrofluid and transmit the voltage signal, which is proportional to the displacement of the nonmagnetic rod. The determination of the working range, linearity and sensitivity depends on the restoring force, thus these factors affecting the restoring force are sufficiently investigated by calculation and experiment. Furthermore, the comparison between numerical calculations and experimental measurements shows a good agreement. The static characteristics of the accelerometer are obtained by using an optimized structure.

  11. Characteristics and Stability of Mercury Vapor Adsorption over Two Kinds of Modified Semicoke

    PubMed Central

    Huawei, Zhang; Xiuli, Liu; Li, Wang; Peng, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to produce effective and lower price gaseous Hg0 adsorbents, two methods of HCl and KMnO4/heat treatment were used respectively for the surface modification of liginite semicoke from inner Mongolia. The different effects of modification process on the surface physical and chemical properties were analyzed. The characteristics and stability of mercury vapor adsorption over two kinds of modified semicoke were investigated. The results indicated that modification process caused lower micropore quantity and volume capacity of semicoke; the C-Cl functional groups, C=O bond and delocalized electron π on the surface of Cl-SC, the amorphous higher valency Mnx+, and O=C–OH functional groups on the surface of Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg0. Modification process led to higher mercury removal efficiency of semicoke at 140°C and reduced the stability of adsorbed mercury of semicoke in simulated water circumstance simultaneously. PMID:25309948

  12. The Social Practice of Harm Reduction in Argentina: A “Latin” Kind of Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shana

    2016-01-01

    “Harm reduction” is a public health model that places emphasis on reducing the negative effects of drug use rather than on eliminating drug use or ensuring abstinence. Based on sixteen months of ethnographic research, this article examines how harm reduction in Argentina is both envisioned and observed as a social practice by analyzing how local harm reductionists position their work in relation to “social context.” My informants consider this social emphasis to be characteristic of a “Latin” kind of intervention, which they differentiate from an “Anglo-Saxon” approach focused on individual behavior change. Differentiating between these “cultural” models of intervention helps Argentine harm reductionists guide their social orientation to drug use, risk, and harm by situating interventions in the contexts in which users live and operate. It also allows them to distinguish their social form of harm reduction from a neoliberal one that they associate with the global north. The construction of these distinct cultural models of intervention is a means of critiquing neoliberal approaches to health that advocate technical solutions to changing individual behavior. Ultimately, this construct acts as a political commentary on the limits of an individual-oriented harm reduction project when applied to the “Argentine context.” PMID:27182076

  13. Two kinds of graphene-based composites for photoanode applying in dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bo; Hu, Guoxin

    2012-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene modified TiO2 composites are synthesized by hydrothermal method and layer-by-layer self-assembly technology. Graphene/titanate nanotubes (GTNTs) films have great light-harvesting efficiencies, and the amount of graphene does not obviously influence their optical performance. Alternating graphene/TiO2 (prepared by supercritical treatment, GSCT) multilayer films possess superior electron transport ability, and the number of bi-layers plays as a central role for their electrical property. The outstanding light scattering and carrier transport properties of these promising films promote the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The power conversion efficiencies (η) of the DSSCs reach 6.46% and 7.54% under AM-1.5G by using GSCT-P25 (10 μm) and P25-GTNTs (15 μm) photoanodes, and the increases are 33.8% and 20.6% compared with that of by using a P25 photoanode with same thickness. The η reaches 8.67% when a preliminarily optimized GSCT-P25-GTNTs (15 μm) photoanode is adopted, which is far better than employing a pure P25 photoanode (6.25%).

  14. Sustained Release of Naproxen in a New Kind Delivery System of Carbon Nanotubes Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiahui; Zhuang, Qiang; Peng, Dongming; Dong, Qiuli; Tan, Lini; Jiao, Feipeng; Liu, Linqi; Liu, jingyu; Zhao, Chenxi; Wang, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added into chitosan (CS) hydrogels in the form of chitosan modified CNTs (CS-CNTs) composites to prepare carbon nanotubes hydrogels (CNTs-GEL). The products, named CS-MWCNTs, were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Swelling properties and effect of pH on controlled release performance of the two kinds of hydrogels, CNTs- GEL and pure chitosan hydrogels without CNTs (GEL), were investigated respectively. The results showed that CNTs-GEL possess better controlled release performance than GEL. The releasing equilibrium time of CNTs-GEL was longer than that of GEL in both pH = w7.4 and pH=1.2 conditions, although the release ratios of the model drug are similar in the same pH buffer solutions. It is found that release kinetics is better fitted Ritger-Peppas empirical model indicating a fick-diffusion process in pH = 1.2, while in pH = 7.4 it was non-fick diffusion involving surface diffusion and corrosion diffusion processes. PMID:24523738

  15. A new kind of storage hierarchy: volume holographic universal storage cache

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dongjian; Xie, Changsheng; Han, Dezhi; Huang, Jianzhong; Zhang, Chengfeng

    2006-01-01

    The access time of Disk/RAID has not been improved as fast as the memory performance whose rate of improvement has been 25% per year and hence the disk access penalty is considerably increasing with each enhancement in the memory architecture. To solve the problem, a new kind of storage hierarchy, Volume Holographic Universal Storage Cache (short for VHUSC) is proposed. VHUSC acts as a layer between main memory and disk or disk array. VHUSC can lower the disk access latency, provide much higher I/O bandwidth and throughput, it thus greatly improve the I/O performance of computer system. In this paper, an application independent model based on queuing theory is proposed for the VHUSC performance evaluation. Based on this model, VHUSC and traditional disk/RAID performance is analyzed and compared. Result shows that in most cases VHUSC can improve the disk read/write performance by 1 order of magnitude, especially when the hit rate is larger than 99%, the performance can reach 2 orders of magnitude.

  16. [Application of ICP-MS to detecting ten kinds of heavy metals in KCl fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Fu-suo; Yan, Yun; Jing, Jing-ying; Meng, Qing-feng

    2008-10-01

    With the rapid development of society, more and more attention has been focused on environmental safety, especially on the pollutions of heavy metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants and deleterious microorganism. Heavy metals are difficult to metabolize in human body are quite harmful, so research on the pollution of heavy metals is increasingly important. There are many pollution sources of heavy metals, including waste residue, waste water and exhaust gas from industry and automobile, and garbage from human life. The contents of 10 kinds of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb) in potassium fertilizer (KCl) from Russia were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results showed that potassium fertilizer (KCl) contained less heavy metals than organic-inorganic compound fertilizer; the content of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb is 0.00, 65.54, 238.85, 190.60, 0.98, 14.98, 2.97, 10.04, 1.28 and 97.42 ng x g(-1), respectively, which accords with the correlative standards. All the data showed that if potassium fertilizer (KCl) is manufactured through normal channel, the content of heavy metals should be little and safe. PMID:19123423

  17. Prevalence of Different Kinds of Maxillofacial Fractures and Their Associated Factors Are Surveyed in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays maxillofacial fractures have increased. In this study prevalence of different kinds of maxillofacial fractures and their associated factors are surveyed in patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Urmia in 2011. Methods: The study was across-sectional observational study. 637cases of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of maxillofacial fractures in 2011 referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Urmia and their data records were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square tests. Results: In this study, 457 patients were male and 178 were female and the mean age was 14.47±26.68 years. Falling was the most common cause of fractures after accidents and assaults were the most common causes. The most common site of nasal fractures was about 66.4% and then fractures in several places about 14.9% and mandibular 7.1%. Conclusions: Based on the results obtained in the present study with other studies in this area it is concluded that maxillofacial fractures in males and in 20 to 30 years of age is prevalent and is mostly due to falling and road accidents and are further seen in nasal bone and mandible. PMID:25363181

  18. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Aroma Compounds Analysis from Different Kinds of Tartary Buckwheat Tea

    PubMed Central

    Peng, L. X.; Zou, L.; Wang, J. B.; Zhao, J. L.; Xiang, D. B.; Zhao, G.

    2015-01-01

    The rutin, quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity, and aroma compounds in different commercial tartary buckwheat tea were analyzed in our study. Results revealed that the materials and the processing protocol affected the chemical composition and activity of tartary buckwheat tea. Rutin and quercetin concentrations, antioxidant activity were significantly different in various kinds of tartary buckwheat tea, where the whole bran tea and the whole plant tea had the lower rutin, but higher quercetin concentrations and higher antioxidant activity. The whole embryo tea had the converse results. There was strong correlation between quercetin concentration and antioxidant activity (r>0.98, P<0.05). Meanwhile, Twenty eight different aroma compounds in tartary buckwheat tea were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Those compounds were mainly composed of pyrazine, aldehydes, fatty acids and ketones. The main type of aroma compounds in different tartary buckwheat tea were similar, but their relative contents were different. The implications to the quality control of buckwheat tea were extensively discussed. PMID:26997692

  19. Absorption of gaseous toluene in aqueous solutions of some kinds of fluorocarbon surfactant.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Yan, Bo; Fu, Jiamo; Xiao, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    A self-designed device was applied to treat a simulated exhaust gas loaded with toluene by aqueous solutions of five kinds of fluorocarbon surfactant (FS-3100, FS-22, FSN-100, FSO-100 and FSG) under the controlled laboratory conditions. The simulated exhaust gas is generated by a mixture of clean air and toluene vapor, and its toluene concentration can be controlled by changing the volume ratio of the inlet air to the vapor. Two mass transfer methods: liquid-liquid transfer and gas-liquid transfer, were compared for their toluene saturation capacities of these absorbent solutions, and it was found that more toluene was dissolved by the liquid-liquid transfer than by the gas-liquid transfer. According to the saturation capacities of these absorbent solutions and their Henry's Constants, FSO-100 is the best absorbent to treat the simulated exhaust gas and was selected for further experiments. The FSO-100 absorbent solution with a concentration of 0.1 % shows an efficient absorption to the simulated exhaust gas, with a toluene saturation capacity of 4.2 mg/g. Heating distillation (90- 95 oC) is highly efficient to recover toluene from the FSO-100 absorbent solution as well as regenerate it. A toluene recovery of about 85 % was achieved. The regenerated absorption solution can keep its initial toluene absorption capacity during the reuse. PMID:25946961

  20. [Deep eutectic solvent: a new kind of mobile phase modifier for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ting; Qiao, Xin; Wan, Yiqun; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as a new kind of mobile phase modifier in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). In our experiment, a SiO2 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 µm) was selected to separate several nucleobases and nucleosides by using the mixed solution of acetonitrile and DES (choline chloride-ethylene glycol (1:3, mol/mol) ) as mobile phase. Subsequently, the concentrations of DESs in acetonitrile and the column temperature on the effect of separation were investigated. According to the experimental results, better separation of nucleobases and nucleosides was obtained by using acetonitrile and DESs mixed solution as mobile phase than that using traditional water-based solution. For example, a baseline separation between cytosine and cytidine cannot be achieved by HILIC with water-based mobile phase, however, greater improvement was gained by HILIC with modified DES-acetonitrile mobile phase. Meanwhile, the retention times of nucleobases and nucleosides decreased as the proportion of DESs in acetonitrile increased, the most significant decrease of which was with cytidine. Similar retention behavior took place with the effect of column temperature. Decreased retention times of the analytes were observed as column temperature increased. The experimental results indicated that this new method may solve some separation difficulties in traditional water-based HILIC, which also successfully verify the feasibility of DESs as mobile phase modifiers. PMID:26753279

  1. Neural Basis of Two Kinds of Social Influence: Obedience and Conformity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ying; Chen, Mingliang; Lai, Hongxia; Zhang, Wuke; Zhao, Zhen; Anwar, Ch. Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used in this study to explore the neural mechanism of obedience and conformity on the model of online book purchasing. Participants were asked to decide as quickly as possible whether to buy a book based on limited information including its title, keywords and number of positive and negative reviews. Obedience was induced by forcing participants to buy books which received mostly negative reviews. In contrast, conformity was aroused by majority influence (caused by positive and negative comments). P3 and N2, two kinds of ERP components related to social cognitive process, were measured and recorded with electroencephalogram (EEG) test. The results show that compared with conformity decisions, obedience decisions induced greater cognitive conflicts. In ERP measurements, greater amplitudes of N2 component were observed in the context of obedience. However, consistency level did not make a difference on P3 peak latency for both conformity and obedience. This shows that classification process is implicit in both conformity and obedience decision-making. In addition, for both conformity and obedience decisions, augmented P3 was observed when the reviews consistency (either negative or positive) was higher. PMID:26941632

  2. [Correlation of gene expression related to amount of ginseng saponin in 15 tissues and 6 kinds of ginseng saponin biosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang-yu; Zhang, Mei-ping; Li, Chuang; Jiang, Shi-cui; Yin, Rui; Sun, Chun-yu; Wang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Fifteen tissues of 4-year-old fruit repining stage Jilin ginseng were chosen as materials, six kinds of monomer saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd) content in 15 tissues was measured by HPLC and vanillin-sulfuric acid method. The relative expression of FPS, SQS, SQE, OSC, β-AS and P450 genes in 15 tissues was analyzed by real-time PCR. The correlations between ginseng saponin content in 15 tissues of Jilin ginseng and biosynthetic pathway -related genes were obtained. The results showed that was a synergistic increase and decrease trend of positive linear correlation among six kinds of monomer saponin content, and there was a significantly (P < 0.01) positive correlation between monomer saponin content and total saponins content. Monomer saponin content and 6 kinds of enzyme gene correlation were different. Biosynthesis of ginseng total saponins and monomer saponin were regulated by six kinds of participation ginsenoside biosynthesis enzyme genes, the expression of these six kinds of genes in different tissues of ginseng showed collaborative increase and decrease trend, and regulated biosynthesis of ginseng ginsenoside by group coordinative manner. PMID:26790286

  3. Phosphorylation of Spo0A by the Histidine Kinase KinD Requires the Lipoprotein Med in Bacillus subtilis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Banse, Allison V.; Hobbs, Errett C.; Losick, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The response regulatory protein Spo0A of Bacillus subtilis is activated by phosphorylation by multiple histidine kinases via a multicomponent phosphorelay. Here we present evidence that the activity of one of the kinases, KinD, depends on the lipoprotein Med, a mutant of which has been known to cause a cannibalism phenotype. We show that the absence of Med impaired and the overproduction of Med stimulated the transcription of two operons (sdp and skf) involved in cannibalism whose transcription is known to depend on Spo0A in its phosphorylated state (Spo0A∼P). Further, these effects of Med were dependent on KinD but not on kinases KinA, KinB, and KinC. Additionally, we show that deletion or overproduction of Med impaired or enhanced, respectively, biofilm formation and that these effects, too, depended specifically on KinD. Finally, we report that overproduction of Med bypassed the dominant negative effect on transcription of sdp of a truncated KinD retaining the transmembrane segments but lacking the kinase domain. We propose that Med directly or indirectly interacts with KinD in the cytoplasmic membrane and that this interaction is required for KinD-dependent phosphorylation of Spo0A. PMID:21622736

  4. Phosphorylation of Spo0A by the histidine kinase KinD requires the lipoprotein med in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Banse, Allison V; Hobbs, Errett C; Losick, Richard

    2011-08-01

    The response regulatory protein Spo0A of Bacillus subtilis is activated by phosphorylation by multiple histidine kinases via a multicomponent phosphorelay. Here we present evidence that the activity of one of the kinases, KinD, depends on the lipoprotein Med, a mutant of which has been known to cause a cannibalism phenotype. We show that the absence of Med impaired and the overproduction of Med stimulated the transcription of two operons (sdp and skf) involved in cannibalism whose transcription is known to depend on Spo0A in its phosphorylated state (Spo0A∼P). Further, these effects of Med were dependent on KinD but not on kinases KinA, KinB, and KinC. Additionally, we show that deletion or overproduction of Med impaired or enhanced, respectively, biofilm formation and that these effects, too, depended specifically on KinD. Finally, we report that overproduction of Med bypassed the dominant negative effect on transcription of sdp of a truncated KinD retaining the transmembrane segments but lacking the kinase domain. We propose that Med directly or indirectly interacts with KinD in the cytoplasmic membrane and that this interaction is required for KinD-dependent phosphorylation of Spo0A. PMID:21622736

  5. Nonlinear parameters of surface EMG in schizophrenia patients depend on kind of antipsychotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Meigal, Alexander Yu.; Miroshnichenko, German G.; Kuzmina, Anna P.; Rissanen, Saara M.; Georgiadis, Stefanos D.; Karjalainen, Pasi A.

    2015-01-01

    We compared a set of surface EMG (sEMG) parameters in several groups of schizophrenia (SZ, n = 74) patients and healthy controls (n = 11) and coupled them with the clinical data. sEMG records were quantified with spectral, mutual information (MI) based and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) parameters, and with approximate and sample entropies (ApEn and SampEn). Psychotic deterioration was estimated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and with the positive subscale of PANSS. Neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism (NIP) motor symptoms were estimated with Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS). Dyskinesia was measured with Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). We found that there was no difference in values of sEMG parameters between healthy controls and drug-naïve SZ patients. The most specific group was formed of SZ patients who were administered both typical and atypical antipsychotics (AP). Their sEMG parameters were significantly different from those of SZ patients taking either typical or atypical AP or taking no AP. This may represent a kind of synergistic effect of these two classes of AP. For the clinical data we found that PANSS, SAS, and AIMS were not correlated to any of the sEMG parameters. Conclusion: with nonlinear parameters of sEMG it is possible to reveal NIP in SZ patients, and it may help to discriminate between different clinical groups of SZ patients. Combined typical and atypical AP therapy has stronger effect on sEMG than a therapy with AP of only one class. PMID:26217236

  6. Radiofrequency ablation without the use of fluoroscopy – in what kind of patients is it feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Gawrysiak, Marcin; Piątkowska, Agnieszka; Lodziński, Piotr; Kiliszek, Marek; Małkowska, Sylwia; Zaczek, Rajmund; Piątkowski, Radosław; Opolski, Grzegorz; Kozłowski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to describe the experience in performing ablation without fluoroscopy. Material and methods From 575 ablation procedures with CARTO performed in the period 2003–2008, 108 (42 M; age 40 ±16 years) were done without fluoroscopy. One patient had ablation using the Localisa system. There was one man with thrombocytopenia and two pregnant women. Results Right ventricular (RV) outflow tract arrhythmias and other RV arrhythmias were noted in 38 patients (35%) and 17 patients (15%), respectively. There were 5 (4.6%) left ventricular (LV) outflow tract arrhythmias and 19 (17.5%) other LV tachycardias; right accessory pathways in 17 patients (20%), in the middle cardiac vein in 1, Mahaim fibres in 1, and 3 cases of permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardias. One patient with CRT had AV node ablation (Localisa). In 3 patients there were also other arrhythmias treated: slow AV nodal pathway, typical flutter isthmus and right atrial tachycardia. In 2004, 1/96 CARTO procedures was done without fluoroscopy, in 2006 2/97, in 2007 19 (2 in LV) of 93, in 2008 87 (22 in LV) of 204. The percentage of ablations without fluoroscopy in every hundred CARTO procedures was: 1%, 1%, 8%, 23%, 46%, 28% (mean 18%). There were no procedure-related complications. Conclusions It is feasible to perform ablations within both right and left sides of the heart without fluoroscopy. The number and type of non-fluoroscopic procedures depends on the operator's experience. Pregnant patients, with malignant history or with hematologic diseases should be ablated without fluoroscopy in centres that specialise in these kinds of procedures. PMID:24273563

  7. Mechanosensitivity of the 2nd Kind: TGF-β Mechanism of Cell Sensing the Substrate Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Cockerill, Max; Rigozzi, Michelle K.; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells can sense forces applied to them, but also the stiffness of their environment. These are two different phenomena, and here we investigate the mechanosensitivity of the 2nd kind: how the cell can measure an elastic modulus at a single point of adhesion—and how the cell can receive and interpret the chemical signal released from the sensor. Our model uses the example of large latent complex of TGF-β as a sensor. Stochastic theory gives the rate of breaking of latent complex, which initiates the signaling feedback loop after the active TGF-β release and leads to a change of cell phenotype driven by the α-smooth muscle actin. We investigate the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of the model, comparing them with experiments. In particular, we analyse the timescale of approach to the steady state, the stability of the non-linear dynamical system, and how the steady-state concentrations of the key markers vary depending on the elasticity of the substrate. We discover a crossover region for values of substrate elasticity closely corresponding to that of the fibroblast to myofibroblast transition. We suggest that the cell could actively vary the parameters of its dynamic feedback loop to ‘choose’ the position of the transition region and the range of substrate elasticity that it can detect. In this way, the theory offers the unifying mechanism for a variety of phenomena, such as the myofibroblast conversion in fibrosis of wounds and lungs and smooth muscle cell dysfunction in cardiac disease. PMID:26448620

  8. Comparison Between Structures and Properties of ABS Nanocomposites Derived from Two Different Kinds of OMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yibing; Huang, Fenglin; Xia, Xin; Wei, Qufu; Tong, Xutao; Wei, Anfang; Gao, Weidong

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, the hexadecyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide (P16) and cetyl pyridium chloride (CPC) were used to modify montmorillonite (MMT) based on the structural characteristic of the engineering thermoplastic acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) and the principle of “like dissolves like”, and then used to prepare the ABS/organic-modified montmorillonite (OMT) nanocomposites by melt-intercalation method. The influences of two different kinds of OMT on the structures and properties of the ABS nanocomposites were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), Cone calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA), respectively. The increased basal spacing showed that ABS intercalated into the gallery of the OMT. The morphology indicated that the OMT dispersed well in the ABS resin and the intercalated structure for ABS/OMT-P16 nanocomposites and intercalated-exfoliated structure for ABS/OMT-CPC nanocomposites were respectively formed. The TGA results revealed that onset temperature of thermal degradation and charred residue at 700 °C of the ABS nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced compared to the pure ABS. It was also found from the Cone calorimetry tests that the peak of heat release rate (PHRR) decreased significantly, contributing to the reduced flammability. The DMA measurements indicated that the loading of silicate clays improved the storage modulus of the ABS resin. The partial exfoliation of the OMT-CPC within ABS nanocomposites was advantageous to increasing thermal stability properties, decreasing flammability properties, and improving mechanical properties.

  9. Four ways to compute the inverse of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, John P.

    2015-11-01

    The complete elliptic integral of the first kind arises in many applications. This article furnishes four different ways to compute the inverse of the elliptic integral. One motive for this study is simply that the author needed to compute the inverse integral for an application. Another is to develop a case study comparing different options for solving transcendental equations like those in the author's book (Boyd, 2014). A third motive is to develop analytical approximations, more useful to theorists than mere numbers. A fourth motive is to provide robust "black box" software for computing this function. The first solution strategy is "polynomialization" which replaces the elliptic integral by an exponentially convergent series of Chebyshev polynomials. The transcendental equation becomes a polynomial equation which is easily solved by finding the eigenvalues of the Chebyshev companion matrix. (The numerically ill-conditioned step of converting from the Chebyshev to monomial basis is never necessary). The second approximation is a regular perturbation series, accurate where the modulus is small. The third is a power-and-exponential series that converges over the entire range parameter range, albeit only sub-exponentially in the limit of zero modulus. Lastly, Newton's iteration is promoted from a local iteration to a global method by a Never-Failing Newton's Iteration (NFNI) in the form of the exponential of the ratio of a linear function divided by another linear polynomial. A short Matlab implementation is provided, easily translatable into other languages. The Matlab/Newton code is recommended for numerical purposes. The other methods are presented because (i) all are broadly applicable strategies useful for other rootfinding and inversion problems (ii) series and substitutions are often much more useful to theorists than numerical software and (iii) the Never-Failing Newton's Iteration was discovered only after a great deal of messing about with power series

  10. Insight into the sporulation phosphorelay: crystal structure of the sensor domain of Bacillus subtilis histidine kinase, KinD.

    PubMed

    Wu, R; Gu, M; Wilton, R; Babnigg, G; Kim, Y; Pokkuluri, P R; Szurmant, H; Joachimiak, A; Schiffer, M

    2013-05-01

    The Bacillus subtilis KinD signal-transducing histidine kinase is a part of the sporulation phosphorelay known to regulate important developmental decisions such as sporulation and biofilm formation. We have determined crystal structures of the extracytoplasmic sensing domain of KinD, which was copurified and crystallized with a pyruvate ligand. The structure of a ligand-binding site mutant was also determined; it was copurified and crystallized with an acetate ligand. The structure of the KinD extracytoplasmic segment is similar to that of several other sensing domains of signal transduction proteins and is composed of tandem Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS)-like domains. The KinD ligand-binding site is located on the membrane distal PAS-like domain and appears to be highly selective; a single mutation, R131A, abolishes pyruvate binding and the mutant binds acetate instead. Differential scanning fluorimetry, using a variety of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, identified pyruvate, propionate, and butyrate but not lactate, acetate, or malate as KinD ligands. A recent report found that malate induces biofilm formation in a KinD-dependent manner. It was suggested that malate might induce a metabolic shift and increased secretion of the KinD ligand of unknown identity. The structure and binding assays now suggests that this ligand is pyruvate and/or other small monocarboxylic acids. In summary, this study gives a first insight into the identity of a molecular ligand for one of the five phosphorelay kinases of B. subtilis. PMID:23436677

  11. 30 CFR 1218.306 - May I receive a credit against production royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government... for in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government? (a) You may receive a credit against royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity you provide...

  12. 30 CFR 1218.306 - May I receive a credit against production royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government... in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government? (a) You may receive a credit against royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity you provide...

  13. 30 CFR 1218.306 - May I receive a credit against production royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government... in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government? (a) You may receive a credit against royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity you provide...

  14. 30 CFR 1218.306 - May I receive a credit against production royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government... in-kind deliveries of electricity I provide under contract to a State or county government? (a) You may receive a credit against royalties for in-kind deliveries of electricity you provide...

  15. Verification of difference of ion-induced nucleation rate for kinds of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Masuda, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; Matsumi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Ueda, S.; Miura, K.; Kusano, K.

    2014-12-01

    Correlation between the global cloud cover and the galactic cosmic rays intensity has been pointed out. So as one of hypotheses, the promotion of creation of cloud condensation nuclei by cosmic rays can be considered. In this study, we have carried out verification experiment of this hypothesis using an atmospheric reaction chamber at room temperature focusing on the kind of ionizing radiation. We introduced pure air, a trace of water vapor, ozone and sulfur dioxide gas in a chamber with a volume of 75[L]. The sulfur dioxide reacts chemically in the chamber to form sulfate aerosol. After introducing the mixed gas into the chamber, it was irradiated with ultraviolet light, which simulate solar ultraviolet radiation and with anthropogenic ionizing radiation for cosmic rays, particles and new particle formation due to ion-induced nucleation was observed by measuring and recording the densities of ions and aerosol particles, the particle size distribution, the concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide, the temperature and the relative humidity. Here, the experimental results of aerosol nucleation rate for different types of radiation are reported. In this experiment, we conducted experiments of irradiation with heavy ions and β-rays. For ionizing radiation Sr-90 β-rays with an average energy of about 1[MeV] and a heavy ion beam from a particle accelerator facility of HIMAC at NIRS (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, National Institute of Radiological Sciences) were used. The utilized heavy ion was 14N ions of 180[MeV/n] with intensities from 200[particles/spill] to 10000[particles/spill]. In this experimental run the chamber was irradiated for 10 hours and, the relationship between aerosol particle density for the particle size of > of 2.5[nm] and the generated ion density was verified. In the middle, the chamber was irradiated with β-rays for comparison. Increases in the ion density with the increase of the beam intensity were confirmed. Also, a rise in the

  16. Thermal Entanglement Properties in two Kinds of Two-qubit Spin Squeezing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo-Hui, Yang

    2016-07-01

    Using the concurrence (C) criterion, we investigate the thermal entanglement properties in two-qubit spin squeezing model for two kinds of squeezing interaction: one-axis twisting model (OATM) and two-axis countertwisting model (TACM) with a transverse field. To the OATM, in the limit case of T→0, the ground state entanglement is initially increased from zero to the maximum value, then decreased in a period of time and suddenly disappeared finally with further enhancing the external magnetic field Ω. One interesting thing is that instead of decaying slowly to zero the entanglement is sudden disappeared with further enhancing Ω or μ (the spin squeezing interaction in X direction), and decreasing the parameter μ or Ω can obviously broaden the scope of entanglement exists. For the finite temperature case, a novelty point is the sudden birth phenomenon occured in the behaviors of entanglement, it is initially to be zero (persists for some time), with further improving Ω and μ the entanglement will be suddenly appeared, and the time interval (persists to be zero) before sudden birth is obviously prolonged with decreasing two parameters. The temperature range of entanglement exists can be extended evidently with increasing μ or Ω, and one can obtain entanglement at higher temperature through changing them. When to the TACM, the ground state entanglement is initially decreased from the maximum value and then suddenly disappeared with increasing Ω. While increasing γ the ground state entanglement is increased initially from zero to the maximum value and then sudden disappeared with further improving γ (the spin squeezing interaction in XY plane), proper tuing γ or Ω can prolong the lives of entanglement evidently. For the finite temperature case, the sudden birth phenomenon also occured in the the evoluted concurrence, the variation of parameters Ω and γ can reduce the time interval before sudden birth. The influence of the temperature T on thermal

  17. Seasonal changes of apparent thermal diffusivity of different kinds of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Safanda, Jan; Correia, Antonio; Rajver, Dusan; Cermak, Vladimir; Kresl, Milan

    2013-04-01

    The paper addresses the problem of seasonal changes of apparent thermal diffusivity (ATD) in different types of soils in different climatic conditions. The long-term (several years) temperature series recorded at observatories in Czechia, Slovenia and Portugal were processed using a program based on the error function solution of the heat conduction equation for a semi-infinite solid. The program simulates penetration of temperature changes represented by the observed time-temperature series in differently wide time floating intervals, and in different depth levels of the soil profile. Synthetic temperature series for different values of thermal diffusivity (with a step of 1E-8 m2/s) are automatically compared with measured temperature time series in a given depth. The ATD value minimizing the standard deviation of difference between the measured and computed temperature series is considered as the best approximation of reality. The method has been applied to the temperature series from (i) observatory in Prague, where the temperature monitoring in different kinds of soil (sand, bare clayey soil, grassy soil) and asphalt is running from 2002, (ii) Evora - Portugal (gravelly sand, running from 2005), and finally (iii) Malence - Slovenia (grassy clayey soil, running from 2003). The soil temperature is measured at the depths of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cm at each of the observatories. Results have shown a gradual increase of the ATD with depth caused by the soil density gradient in case of Malence and Prague (excluding asphalt). The ATD of the upper part of sand (2 - 5 cm), contrary to grassy surface, is quite sensitive to weather pattern (e.g. periods of rain or drought), when the strong convective heat transport in soil can occur. The ATD values in Evora show an annual run connected with a long dry summer season. The seasonal pattern is characterized, especially in the upper part of soil, by a rapid decrease from 7*E-7 to 4*E-7 m2/s in June and a return to higher values

  18. Statistical thermodynamics of quantum Brownian motion: construction of perpetuum mobile of the second kind.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuizen, Th M; Allahverdyan, A E

    2002-09-01

    The Brownian motion of a quantum particle in a harmonic confining potential and coupled to harmonic quantum thermal bath is exactly solvable. Though this system presents at high temperatures a pedagogic example to explain the laws of thermodynamics, it is shown that at low enough temperatures the stationary state is non-Gibbsian due to an entanglement with the bath. In physical terms, this happens when the cloud of bath modes around the particle starts to play a nontrivial role, namely, when the bath temperature T is smaller than the coupling energy. Indeed, equilibrium thermodynamics of the total system, particle plus bath, does not imply standard equilibrium thermodynamics for the particle itself at low T. Various formulations of the second law are found to be invalid at low T. First, the Clausius inequality can be violated, because heat can be extracted from the zero point energy of the cloud of bath modes. Second, when the width of the confining potential is suddenly changed, there occurs a relaxation to equilibrium during which the entropy production is partly negative. In this process the energy put on the particle does not relax monotonically, but oscillates between particle and bath, even in the limit of strong damping. Third, for nonadiabatic changes of system parameters the rate of energy dissipation can be negative, and, out of equilibrium, cyclic processes are possible which extract work from the bath. Conditions are put forward under which perpetuum mobility of the second kind, having one or several work extraction cycles, enter the realm of condensed matter physics. Fourth, it follows that the equivalence between different formulations of the second law (e.g., those by Clausius and Thomson) can be violated at low temperatures. These effects are the consequence of quantum entanglement in the presence of the slightly off-equilibrium nature of the thermal bath, and become important when the characteristic quantum time scale variant Planck's over 2pi /k

  19. 34 CFR 658.10 - For what kinds of projects does the Secretary assist institutions of higher education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... institutions of higher education? 658.10 Section 658.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... Program? § 658.10 For what kinds of projects does the Secretary assist institutions of higher education? (a) The Secretary may provide assistance to an institution of higher education, a consortium...

  20. 34 CFR 658.10 - For what kinds of projects does the Secretary assist institutions of higher education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... institutions of higher education? 658.10 Section 658.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... Program? § 658.10 For what kinds of projects does the Secretary assist institutions of higher education? (a) The Secretary may provide assistance to an institution of higher education, a consortium...

  1. 40 CFR 26.1110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 26.1110 Section 26.1110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements...

  2. 38 CFR 16.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 16.110 Section 16.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS §...

  3. 45 CFR 46.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 46.110 Section 46.110 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for...

  4. 15 CFR 27.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 27.110 Section 27.110 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.110 Expedited...

  5. 40 CFR 26.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 26.110 Section 26.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for...

  6. 22 CFR 225.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 225.110 Section 225.110 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.110 Expedited review procedures for...

  7. 32 CFR 219.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 219.110 Section 219.110 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF...

  8. 20 CFR 703.306 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations issued by the Secretary of the Treasury. (See 31 CFR part 225.) The approval, valuation... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kinds of negotiable securities that may be... negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. A self-insurer...

  9. Cross-Linguistic Influence, Transfer and Other Kinds of Language Interaction: Evidence for Modularity from the Study of Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Norbert

    This paper discusses research on bilingualism, describing how language development proceeds under exceptional circumstances (for example, when processing must be shifted to another modality, and in abnormal development of one kind or another). It examines exceptional bilingualism, focusing on research on deafness (e.g., hearing children of deaf…

  10. Two-Year-Olds Use the Generic/Nongeneric Distinction to Guide Their Inferences about Novel Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Susan A.; Nayer, Samantha L.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    These studies investigated two hundred and forty-four 24- and 30-month-olds' sensitivity to generic versus nongeneric language when acquiring knowledge about novel kinds. Toddlers were administered an inductive inference task, during which they heard a generic noun phrase (e.g., "Blicks drink milk") or a nongeneric noun phrase (e.g., "This blick…

  11. 28 CFR 46.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 46.110 Section 46.110 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF...

  12. Of Mice and Men: Natural Kinds of Emotions in the Mammalian Brain? A Response to Panksepp and Izard

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Duncan, Seth; Gendron, Maria; Mize, Jennifer; Brennan, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    For almost 5 decades, the scientific study of emotion has been guided by the assumption that categories such as anger, sadness, and fear cut nature at its joints. Barrett (2006a) provided a comprehensive review of the empirical evidence from the study of emotion in humans and concluded that this assumption has outlived its usefulness. Panksepp and Izard have written lengthy papers (published in this issue) containing complementary but largely nonoverlapping criticisms of Barrett (2006a). In our response, we address three of their concerns. First, we discuss the value of correlational versus experimental studies for evaluating the natural-kind model of emotion and refute the claim that the evidence offered in Barrett (2006a) was merely correlational. Second, we take up the issue of whether or not there is evidence for “coherently organized neural circuits” for natural kinds of emotions in the mammalian brain and counter the claim that Barrett (2006a) ignored crucial evidence for existence of discrete emotions as natural kinds. Third, we address Panksepp and Izard’s misconceptions of an alternative view, the conceptual act model of emotion, that was briefly discussed in Barrett (2006a). Finally, we end the article with some thoughts on how to move the scientific study of emotion beyond the debate over whether or not emotions are natural kinds. PMID:19079552

  13. 34 CFR 658.12 - For what kinds of projects does the Secretary assist associations and organizations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false For what kinds of projects does the Secretary assist associations and organizations? 658.12 Section 658.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE...

  14. 20 CFR 408.432 - What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us? 408.432 Section 408.432 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Other Benefit Income §...

  15. 20 CFR 408.432 - What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us? 408.432 Section 408.432 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Other Benefit Income §...

  16. 20 CFR 408.432 - What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us? 408.432 Section 408.432 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Other Benefit Income §...

  17. 20 CFR 408.432 - What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us? 408.432 Section 408.432 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Other Benefit Income §...

  18. 28 CFR 46.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 46.110 Section 46.110 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.110 Expedited review procedures...

  19. 40 CFR 26.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 26.110 Section 26.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for...

  20. 40 CFR 26.1110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 26.1110 Section 26.1110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements...

  1. 40 CFR 26.1110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 26.1110 Section 26.1110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements...

  2. 16 CFR 1028.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 1028.110 Section 1028.110 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.110 Expedited...

  3. 49 CFR 11.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 11.110 Section 11.110 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.110 Expedited review procedures for...

  4. 21 CFR 56.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 56.110 Section 56.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions...

  5. 14 CFR 1230.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 1230.110 Section 1230.110 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) §...

  6. 38 CFR 16.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 16.110 Section 16.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS §...

  7. 22 CFR 225.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 225.110 Section 225.110 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.110 Expedited review procedures for...

  8. 45 CFR 46.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 46.110 Section 46.110 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for...

  9. 38 CFR 16.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 16.110 Section 16.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS §...

  10. 40 CFR 26.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 26.110 Section 26.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for...

  11. 16 CFR 1028.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 1028.110 Section 1028.110 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.110 Expedited...

  12. 34 CFR 97.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 97.110 Section 97.110 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects...

  13. 21 CFR 56.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 56.110 Section 56.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions...

  14. 21 CFR 56.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 56.110 Section 56.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions...

  15. 38 CFR 16.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 16.110 Section 16.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS §...

  16. 26 CFR 1.168(h)-1 - Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... property. 1.168(h)-1 Section 1.168(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.168(h)-1 Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property. (a) Scope. (1... property (as defined in section 168(h)) at the time of the transfer; and (ii) Property that does not...

  17. 26 CFR 1.168(h)-1 - Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... property. 1.168(h)-1 Section 1.168(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.168(h)-1 Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property. (a) Scope. (1... property (as defined in section 168(h)) at the time of the transfer; and (ii) Property that does not...

  18. 26 CFR 1.168(h)-1 - Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... property. 1.168(h)-1 Section 1.168(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.168(h)-1 Like-kind exchanges involving tax-exempt use property. (a) Scope. (1... property (as defined in section 168(h)) at the time of the transfer; and (ii) Property that does not...

  19. Kinds of Participation: Teacher and Special Education Perceptions and Practices of "Inclusion" in Early Childhood and Primary School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macartney, Bernadette; Morton, Missy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents narratives from two parents about the exclusion of their disabled children within early childhood and primary school settings. Interpretations of particular "kinds of participation" that appear to be accepted as inclusive are explored. We argue that these interpretations have disabling effects on the children's…

  20. The Hundred-Year Emotion War: Are Emotions Natural Kinds or Psychological Constructions? Comment on Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Siegel, Erika H.; Quigley, Karen S.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-01-01

    For the last century, there has been a continuing debate about the nature of emotion. In the most recent offering in this scientific dialogue, Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011) reported a meta-analysis of emotion induction research and claimed support for the natural kind hypothesis that discrete emotions (e.g., happiness, sadness, anger, and…