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Modes of active deformation in Eastern Hispaniola  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico Island are the emerged part of a doubly vergent thrust wedge formed by oblique arc-continent collision with subduction and underthrusting of the North America Plate in the Puerto Rico trench and underthrusting of the Caribbean crust in The Muertos trough (Dolan et al. 1998, Mann et al., 2002, ten Brink et al. 2010). In the relatively small area of Eastern Hispaniola several types of active crustal deformation have been recognized: 1) At the prowedge of the orogene, the rear of the accretionary prism is cut by the strike-slip Septentrional Fault, bounding a sliver plate (Mann et al, 2002). Recent detailed mapping and aeromagnetic surveys in the onshore part of the prism (Samaná Peninsula and Septentrional Cordillera, Sysmin Team) revealed that the internal structure of the sliver is made of parallel bands of sigmoidal, left-lateral, NW-SE thrust splays, bounded by steep strike-slip faults. We interpreted these structures as transpressional strike-slip duplex. It is worth to note the similarity between the strike and dip of the thrust splays and the 303, 62, 74 focal mechanism calculated by Russo and Villaseñor (1995) for the thrust event of the August 4, 1946 Hispaniola earthquake. 2) The uplifted core of the orogen extends between the accretionary prism and the beginning of the Muertos retrowedge. Half of this area is occupied by the Oriental Cordillera, a recent uplift of cretaceous island-arc rocks arching the Late Neogene reef. The rest of the territory is the Caribbean Coastal Plain modelled on the Late Neogene reef. The Oriental Cordillera is made of two en echelon left-stepping uplifts: the domal-shaped Haitises and the rhombohedral-shaped Seibo (García-Senz et al, 2007); the latter share structural similarities and scaling relations with the 90° neutral stepover model of McClay and Bonora (2001). Therefore we interpret it as a restraining stepover developed over a blind splay of the Septentrional Fault, and the main active fault at surface, the Yabón fault, as a trans pop-up strike-slip fault. 3) The contractive faults and folds that form the Oriental Cordillera disappear to the east replaced by a field of NW-SE to WNW-ESE trending normal faults with fresh scarps up to 75 m high depressing the Late Neogene reef (Punta Cana extended area). In plan form, the faults show multiple relays and transverse ramps at the overlaps. A NE-SW section coast to coast across the Punta Cana area show the Late Neogene reef gently arched and cut by normal faults bounding half-grabens, with the main throw directed to the NE. The amount of extension exceeds 3 km (5% of stretching). A very similar system of normal faults has been documented in seismic lines across the Mona Passage (eg. van Gestel et al., 1998, Mondziel, 2007, Chaytor and ten Brink, 2010) and onshore western Puerto Rico (Hippolyte et al., 2005), which are interpreted by a pinning extension model (Dolan et al., 1998, Mann et al., 2002) or by oblique extension (Chaytor and ten Brink, 2010). Whatever the tectonic model may be, our data places an onshore boundary between transpressional and extensional domains. 4) The retrowedge at the southern margin of Hispaniola form an imbricate of E-W segmented thrusts overriding the Muertos trough (ten Brink et al., 2010). These authors suggest that the transport direction within the Muertos thrust system is southward perpendicular to the regional trend of the belt.

García-Senz, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.



Tertiary serpentinite tectonics in northern Hispaniola  

SciTech Connect

At least 4 types of serpentinite bodies are found in N. Hispaniola, by different inclusion and Tertiary deformation styles: (1) Narrow slivers occurring on Tertiary faults, rarely containing inclusions, which occur throughout the region. (2) Massive fractured serpentinites associated with a Cretaceous volcanic plutonic and metamorphic basement, and containing rodingite dikes, occurs in the Puerto Plata region. (3) Massive, fractured, but coherent bodies containing Tertiary limestone clasts which apparently the same as nearby limestone overlying the serpentinite occur west of Puerto Plata. (4) Diapirically emplaced bodies in the Gaspar Hernandez region containing both brecciated and massive zones and containing a variety of inclusions. Type 4 bodies protrude into the clastic Upper Eocene Altamira Fm. The most common tectonic inclusions in these bodies are rounded cobbles of diorite and gabbro. Amphibolites are also common, but friable greenschists and blueschists are rare, as are blocks of clastic sediments. The authors suggest that large blocks of the Altamira Fm. were incorporated into the serpentinite during their past Eocene diapirism and that these blocks were deformed in a brittle manner into gouge zones by internal movements in the diapir. Type 4 serpentinites may therefore have incorporated inclusions at high crustal levels by brittle processes. Type 2 bodies, in contrast, may have incorporated inclusions by ductile flow of serpentinite at lower crustal levels. Type 33 bodies are the most enigmatic. They may be sedimentary, but alternatively may have incorporated limestone in a gouge (as for type 4), which has later healed to a coherent mass.

Nagle, F.; Draper, G.




E-print Network

Moscosoa 2(1), 1983, pp. 77-89 THE JUNIPERS (JUNIPERUS; CUPRESSACEAE) OF HISPANIOLA: COMPARISONS.S.A.) The junipers (Juniperus; Cupressaceae) of Hispaniola:. comparisons with other Caribbean species and amongcollections from Hispaniola. Moscosoa 2(1), 77-89, 1983. Samples from four populations of Juniperus were

Adams, Robert P.


Introduction The island of Hispaniola has reduced its malaria burden,  

E-print Network

Introduction The island of Hispaniola has reduced its malaria burden, with parasite prevalence governments are cooperating on a bi-national strategy for malaria elimination by 2020. An in-depth feasibility assessment with a focus on Haiti--which carries most of the malaria burden--was conducted in 2013 to provide

Klein, Ophir


Complementary areas for conserving avian diversity on Hispaniola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hispaniola has been identified as a global priority for avian conservation. However, little quantitative information has been available to help guide optimal strategies for conservation action on the island. Here, the first broad-scale look has been assembled of the distribution of species of conservation concern among protected areas in Haiti and the Dominican Republic and their occurrences have been analysed

Steven C. Latta



Mercury concentrations in tropical resident and migrant songbirds on Hispaniola.  


Despite growing concerns over mercury (Hg) exposure to humans and wildlife on a global scale, little is known about Hg bioaccumulation in the New World tropics. From 2005 to 2011, we monitored Hg concentrations in blood of nine avian species occupying a geographic range of tropical wet broadleaf sites on the island of Hispaniola, including eight passerines (two Nearctic-Neotropical migrant and six resident species) and one top order predatory accipiter. Invertivorous songbirds were further differentiated by foraging guild, with six species of ground-foragers and two species of foliage-gleaners. Blood Hg concentrations were orders of magnitude higher in birds sampled in central and southern cloud forest sites (1,000-1,800 m elevation) than in northern and northeastern rainforest sites (50-500 m elevation), with migratory and resident species both showing 2-20× greater blood Hg concentrations in cloud forests than in rainforests. Within cloud forest sites, ground-foraging species had higher Hg concentrations than foliage-gleaning species. Top order predatory sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) had the highest blood Hg concentrations among all species, suggesting that Hg biomagnification is occurring in terrestrial forests of Hispaniola. Two migrant songbird species overwintering on the island had higher blood Hg concentrations than have been recorded on their North American breeding grounds. Future studies should seek to elucidate sources of variation in atmospheric Hg deposition on Hispaniola and to quantify the dynamics of Hg cycling in tropical forest ecosystems, which may differ in important ways from patterns documented in temperate forest ecosystems. PMID:23076839

Townsend, Jason M; Rimmer, Christopher C; Driscoll, Charles T; McFarland, Kent P; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo



Satellite Sees Tropical Storm Chantal Move Over Hispaniola - Duration: 0:09.  

NASA Video Gallery

This NOAA GOES-East satellite animation from July 6 to July 10 shows the development of Tropical Storm Chantal in the Atlantic Ocean and movement over Hispaniola by July 10. TRT 0:06 Credit: NASA/N...


Neotectonics of Hispaniola - Plate motion, sedimentation, and seismicity at a restraining bend  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question as to the extent to which earthquake mechanisms define plate motion is addressed in view of the pattern of Neogene faulting, volcanism, and sedimentation in Hispaniola. The structure of two fault systems that approximately define the northern and southern coasts of the island suggest an east-west trend in relative plate motion, which is consistent with previous findings. The

P. Mann; T. Matumoto; K. Burke



Significant earthquakes on the Enriquillo fault system, Hispaniola, 1500-2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the 2010 Haiti earthquake came as a surprise to many, historical records indicate frequent seismic activity along the northeast Caribbean plate boundary over the past 500 years, particularly on the island of Hispaniola. Here we show that a series of devastating earthquakes on the Enriquillo fault system in the 18th century started with an intensity magnitude (MI) of 6.8

W. Bakun; C. H. Flores



Provenance of middle to late Miocene clastic sedimentary rocks in the central to eastern Cibao basin, northern Hispaniola  

E-print Network

The provenance of middle to late Miocene clastic sediments of Cibao basin in northern Hispaniola has been assessed via integrated methods including detrital framework modes, clay mineral assemblages and ratios, the composition of individual feldspar...

Yao, Meng



GPS estimates of microplate motions, northern Caribbean: evidence for a Hispaniola microplate and implications for earthquake hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use elastic block modelling of 126 GPS site velocities from Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and other islands in the northern Caribbean to test for the existence of a Hispaniola microplate and estimate angular velocities for the Gônave, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands and two smaller microplates relative to each other and the Caribbean and North America plates. A model in which the Gônave microplate spans the whole plate boundary between the Cayman spreading centre and Mona Passage west of Puerto Rico is rejected at a high confidence level. The data instead require an independently moving Hispaniola microplate between the Mona Passage and a likely diffuse boundary within or offshore from western Hispaniola. Our updated angular velocities predict 6.8 ± 1.0 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip along the seismically hazardous Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone of southwest Hispaniola, 9.8 ± 2.0 mm yr-1 of slip along the Septentrional fault of northern Hispaniola and ˜14-15 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip along the Oriente fault south of Cuba. They also predict 5.7 ± 1 mm yr-1 of fault-normal motion in the vicinity of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone, faster than previously estimated and possibly accommodated by folds and faults in the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone borderlands. Our new and a previous estimate of Gônave-Caribbean plate motion suggest that enough elastic strain accumulates to generate one to two Mw˜ 7 earthquakes per century along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and nearby faults of southwest Hispaniola. That the 2010 M= 7.0 Haiti earthquake ended a 240-yr-long period of seismic quiescence in this region raises concerns that it could mark the onset of a new earthquake sequence that will relieve elastic strain that has accumulated since the late 18th century.

Benford, B.; DeMets, C.; Calais, E.



Historical perspective on seismic hazard to Hispaniola and the northeast Caribbean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the long-term seismic activity of the North-American/Caribbean plate boundary from 500 years of historical earthquake damage reports. The 2010 Haiti earthquakes and other earthquakes were used to derive regional attenuation relationships between earthquake intensity, magnitude, and distance from the reported damage to the epicenter, for Hispaniola and for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The attenuation relationship for Hispaniola earthquakes and northern Lesser Antilles earthquakes is similar to that for California earthquakes, indicating a relatively rapid attenuation of damage intensity with distance. Intensities in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands decrease less rapidly with distance. We use the intensity-magnitude relationships to systematically search for the location and intensity magnitude MI which best fit all the reported damage for historical earthquakes. Many events occurred in the 20th-century along the plate-boundary segment from central Hispaniola to the NW tip of Puerto Rico, but earlier events from this segment were not identified. The remaining plate boundary to the east to Guadeloupe is probably not associated with M > 8 historical subduction-zone earthquakes. The May 2, 1787 earthquake, previously assigned an M 8-8.25, is probably only MI 6.9 and could be located north, west or SW of Puerto Rico. An MI 6.9 earthquake on July 11, 1785 was probably located north or east of the Virgin Islands. We located MI < 8 historical earthquakes on April 5, 1690, February 8, 1843, and October 8, 1974 in the northern Lesser Antilles within the arc. We speculate that the December 2, 1562 (MI 7.7) and May 7, 1842 (MI 7.6) earthquakes ruptured the Septentrional Fault in northern Hispaniola. If so, the recurrence interval on the central Septentrional Fault is ˜300 years, and only 170 years has elapsed since the last event. The recurrence interval of large earthquakes along the Hispaniola subduction segment is likely longer than the historical record. Intra-arc M ? 7.0 earthquakes may occur every 75-100 years in the 410-km-long segment between the Virgin Islands and Guadeloupe.

ten Brink, Uri S.; Bakun, William H.; Flores, Claudia H.



Neotectonics of Hispaniola - Plate motion, sedimentation, and seismicity at a restraining bend  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question as to the extent to which earthquake mechanisms define plate motion is addressed in view of the pattern of Neogene faulting, volcanism, and sedimentation in Hispaniola. The structure of two fault systems that approximately define the northern and southern coasts of the island suggest an east-west trend in relative plate motion, which is consistent with previous findings. The intervening area consists of en echelon mountain ranges thrust up at the restraining bend from the early Miocene. A Pleistocene volcanic province within this area is interpreted as defining a diffuse extensional fault termination of the southern strike-slip fault zone.

Mann, P.; Matumoto, T.; Burke, K.



Morphostructure at the junction between the Beata ridge and the Greater Antilles island arc (offshore Hispaniola southern slope)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oblique convergence between the Caribbean plate's interior and the inactive Greater Antilles island arc has resulted in the collision and impingement of the thickened crust of the Beata ridge into southern Hispaniola Island. Deformation resulting from this convergence changes from a low-angle southward-verging thrust south of eastern Hispaniola, to collision and uplift in south-central Hispaniola, and to left-lateral transpression along the Southern peninsula of Haiti in western Hispaniola. Using new swath bathymetry and a dense seismic reflection grid, we mapped the morphological, structural and sedimentological elements of offshore southern Hispaniola. We have identified four morphotectonic provinces: the Dominican sub-basin, the Muertos margin, the Beata ridge and the Haiti sub-basin. The lower slope of the Muertos margin is occupied by the active Muertos thrust belt, which includes several active out-of-sequence thrust faults that, were they to rupture along their entire length, could generate large-magnitude earthquakes. The interaction of the thrust belt with the Beata ridge yields a huge recess and the imbricate system disappears. The upper slope of the Muertos margin shows thick slope deposits where the extensional tectonics and slumping processes predominate. The northern Beata ridge consists of an asymmetrically uplifted and faulted block of oceanic crust. Our results suggest that the shallower structure and morphology of the northern Beata ridge can be mainly explained by a mechanism of extensional unloading from the Upper Cretaceous onward that is still active residually along the summit of the ridge. The tectonic models for the northern Beata ridge involving active reverse strike-slip faults and transpression caused by the oblique convergence between the Beata ridge and the island arc are not supported by the structural interpretation. The eastern Bahoruco slope an old normal fault that acts as a passive tear fault accommodating the sharp along-strike transition from low-angle thrusting to collision and uplifting.

Granja Bruña, J. L.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Llanes Estrada, P.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, U. S.; Gómez Ballesteros, M.; Druet, M.; Pazos, A.



New Evaluation of Seismic Hazard in Cental America and la Hispaniola  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results from seismic hazard studies carried out in two seismic scenarios, Central America Region (CA) and La Hispaniola Island, are presented here. Both cases follow the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology and they are developed in terms of PGA, and SA (T), for T of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2s. In both anaysis, hybrid zonation models are considered, integrated by seismogenic zones and faults where data of slip rate and recurrence time are available. First, we present a new evaluation of seismic hazard in CA, starting with the results of a previous study by Benito et al (2011). Some improvements are now included, such as: updated catalogue till 2011, corrections in the zonning model in particular for subduction regime taken into account the variation of the dip in Costa Rica and Panama, and modelization of some faults as independent units for the hazard estimation. The results allow us to carry out a sensitivity analysis comparing the ones obtained with and without faults. In a second part we present the results of the PSHA in La Hispaniola, carried out as part of the cooperative project SISMO-HAITI supported by UPM and developed in cooperation with ONEV. It started a few months after the 2010 event, as an answer to a required help from the Haitian government to UPM. The study was aimed at obtaining results suitable for seismic design purposes and started with the elaboration of a seismic catalogue for the Hispaniola, requiring an exhaustive revision of data reported by around 30 seismic agencies, apart from these from Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic Seismic Networks. Seismotectonic models for the region were reviewed and a new regional zonation was proposed, taking into account different geophysical data. Attenuation models for subduction and crustal zones were also reviewed and the more suitable were calibrated with data recorded inside the Caribbean plate. As a result of the PSHA, different maps were generated for the quoted parameters, together with the UHS for the main cities in the country. The obtained values for PGA and return peridod of 475 y. are comparable to the ones of the Dominican Republic Building Code, with maximun PGA around 400 cm/s2 (in rock sites). However, the morphology of the map is quite similar to the previous one by Frankel et al (2011), althought ours presents lower PGA values. The results are available as a basis for the the first Haitian building code.

Benito, B.; Camacho, E. I.; Rojas, W.; Climent, A.; Alvarado-Induni, G.; Marroquin, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Belizaire, D.; Pierristal, G.; Torres, Y.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; García, R.; Zevallos, F.



New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha, new genus) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria, new species) a...


Accretionary margin of north-western Hispaniola: morphology, structure and development of part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Broad-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) images and single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that the margin of north-western Hispaniola has experienced compression as a consequence of oblique North American-Caribbean plate convergence. Two principal morphological or structural types of accretionary wedges are observed along this margin. The first type is characterized by a gently sloping (???4??) sea floor and generally margin-parallel linear sets of sea-floor ridges that gradually deepen towards the flat Hispaniola Basin floor to the north. The ridges are caused by an internal structure consisting of broad anticlines bounded by thrust faults that dip southwards beneath Hispaniola. Anticlines form at the base of the slope and are eventually sheared and underthrust beneath the slope. In contrast, the second type of accretionary wedge exhibits a steeper (???6-16??) sea-floor slope characterized by local slumping and a more abrupt morphological transition to the adjacent basin. The internal structure appears chaotic on seismic reflection profiles and probably consists of tight folds and closely spaced faults. We suggest that changes in sea-floor declivity and internal structure may result from variations in the dip or frictional resistance of the de??collement, or possibly from changes in the cohesive strength of the wedge sediments. The observed pattern of thickening of Hispaniola Basin turbidites towards the insular margin suggests differential southwards tilting of the Hispaniola Basin strata, probably in response to North America-Caribbean plate interactions since the Early Tertiary. Based upon indirect age control from adjacent parts of the northern caribbean plate boundary, we infer a Late Eocene to Early Miocene episode of transcurrent motion (i.e. little or no tilting), an Early Miocene to Late Pliocene period of oblique convergence (i.e. increased tilt) during which the accretionary wedge began to be constructed, and a Late Pliocene to Recent episode of increased convergence (i.e. twice the Miocene to Pliocene tilt), which has led to rapid uplift and erosion of sediment sources on the margin and on Hispaniola, generating a submarine fan at the base of the insular slope. ?? 1992.

Dillon, William P.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Scanlon, K.M.; Terence, Edgar N.; Parson, L.M.



Anomalous Alkali-Olivine Basalts Associated with Arc-related Late Cenozoic Volcanism in Southern Hispaniola  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several eruptive centers of Pliocene-Quaternary age occur across southern Hispaniola that constitutes the youngest land-based magmatic activity in the Greater Antilles. Two main rock suites can be delineated based on petrography, geochemistry and location. The older larger centers in the Dominican Republic (DR) consist of basalts (45.81-53% SiO2 with TiO2 <1.2%), basaltic andesites and trachybasalts (54-55% SiO2) and trachyandesites (56-62% SiO2). These constitute a consanguineous high-K calc-alkaline (CA) series. Younger centers of Quaternary age (all probably < 1.0 Ma) occur to the west in Haiti, at San Juan de la Maguana (DR) and two small centers to the south of Yayas de Viajama (DR). The rocks are alkali-olivine basalts, limburgites and nephelenites (38.6-47.6% SiO2 with TiO2 >1.7 at MgO<12%) and are termed the mafic alkaline (MA) series. Although there is an overall similarity in the trace and minor element patterns of normalized multi-element plots of the rocks samples the CA series shows distinct depletions in the HFS elements Ta, Nb, Hf, Zr, and Ti compared to lavas in the MA series. MA series samples exhibit strong enrichment in LREE (Ce/Ybn = > 30) compared to the CA series basalts (Ce/Ybn = < 30) and greater HREE depletions. The CA suite has higher 143Nd/144Nd (0.51286 ? 0.5126) and lower 87Sr/86Sr (0.7040 ? 0.7053) than the MA suite (0.5126-0.51196; 0.7063- 0.7078). MA series lavas have unusually non-radiogenic Pb isotopic values (206Pb/204Pb < 17.9) whereas the CA suite has low but values more typical of the Greater Antilles. Incompatible trace element ratios such as Ba/Nb, Sr/Nd, Ce/Yb and Ba/La are well correlated with isotopes but the data form near continuous arrays suggesting mixing between sources. The data suggest the young alkaline lavas are derived from enriched mantle source similar to EM1 but that they are also mixing with a component reflected in the composition of the CA series that is related to previous subduction- related enrichment of the sub-arc mantle beneath Hispaniola. The presence of an EM1 component in the Greater Antilles has not been previously recognized and is unusual for an arc environment.

Lewis, J.; Perfit, M. R.; Kamenov, G.



True subduction vs. underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath Hispaniola, northern Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico) is bounded by a north-verging accretionary prism on its north side and a south-verging thrust belt (Muertos thrust belt) on its south side. This bivergent geometry has been attributed for the last 30 years to opposing subduction of the North American plate and the Caribbean oceanic interior beneath the island arc at the Muertos margin. Recent observations of seafloor and shallow sub-seafloor deformational features at the Muertos compressive margin together with sandbox kinematic and gravity modeling question the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc. To further test the subduction hypothesis, we carried out in 2009 a wide-angle seismic transect across the widest part of the Muertos compressive margin at longitude 69°W. A 2-D forward ray-tracing model of the wide-angle transect outlines the broad-scale crustal structure across the Muertos margin. The Caribbean oceanic slab is imaged beneath the Muertos margin to about 50 km north of the deformation front and down to 19 km depth. A change in crustal p-wave velocity at ~60 km from the deformation front is interpreted as the boundary between the compressive deformed belt and the arc crust. The Caribbean oceanic crust is not seen extending farther north or penetrating the upper mantle. Modeling of ship's gravity data, acquired along the seismic profile, corroborates the seismic results. Any subduction model imply the existence of a regional mass deficit generated by the subducted Caribbean slab beneath the island arc and that variations in the geometry of the subduction angle and the depth are not able to compensate it. Earthquake hypocenter distribution in the Muertos Margin shows diffuse seismicity beneath the island arc, being very hard to identify different clusters and to assign them to different subducted slabs. The diffuse seismicity may be related to the transition between subduction to strike-slip/collision regimes that takes places in the northeastern Caribbean. Vertical cross-sections from p-wave global tomography Hispaniola do not show a northward-dipping fast velocity layer suggesting that the Caribbean plate's interior does not subduct in the upper mantle under the Muertos margin. The Eastern Greater Antilles arc is therefore likely a crustal-scale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedge formed during unidirectional subduction. Other examples of island arcs in which a crustal-scale thrust belt develops in the back-arc region with a vergence opposite to that of the accretionary prism, include Banda, Vanuatu and Panama.

Llanes Estrada, P.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Granja Bruna, J.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Flores, C. H.; Villasenor, A.; Pazos, A.; Martin Davila, J. M.



Investigating the relationship between deforestation and changes in hydrology across the island of Hispaniola  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over recent decades, Haiti and the Dominican Republic have reported changes in reservoir water levels - while some areas have experienced increases others have seen decreasing trends, especially reservoirs located in the Dominican Republic - leading to, among other things, regional flooding and shortages in hydroelectricity output. We investigate whether extensive deforestation, particularly in the western part of Hispaniola - shared by the two nations - is driving these changes by affecting the regional water balance. Due to a lack of available spatiotemporal environmental data, remotely sensed vegetation and precipitation information is used along with estimated evapotranspiration rates to study regional hydro-climatologic fluctuations over three decades. Changes in vegetative cover, precipitation, and evapotranspiration across the island are investigated using 25 years of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, historical satellite and gauge precipitation records, and estimated surface temperature and solar radiation. NDVI values are derived from imagery obtained by NOAA's 8 km resolution AVHRR instrument. Monthly precipitation is collected from several different sources, including NASA and NOAA precipitation satellites, as well as local rain gauges. Evapotranspiration is estimated using an energy balance approach. Preliminary results indicate a general decrease in rainfall over the eastern part of the island during the past three decades, with little change observed across the western half. NDVI and precipitation anomalies across the island are not well correlated, suggesting that deforestation is likely not the cause of regional changes in precipitation. The results of this work hold potentially important implications for future land-use and water infrastructure planning for both nations.

Hakimdavar, R.



Egg rejection behavior in a population exposed to parasitism: Village Weavers on Hispaniola  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In contrast to African Village Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus) that are parasitized by Diederik Cuckoos (Chrysococcyx caprius), introduced weavers on Hispaniola existed without parasitism for at least 2 centuries until the arrival of the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) in the 1970s. Cruz and Wiley (1989) found that Hispaniolan weavers had a lower rejection rate of foreign eggs than African populations. Subsequently, Robert and Sorci (1999) and Lahti (2005, 2006) found that acceptance of dissimilar eggs is not characteristic of the species throughout its Hispaniolan range. In 1999-2002, we studied egg rejection in Hispaniolan weavers on a broad regional scale. Rejection increased as experimental eggs became increasingly different from the host eggs. Rejection rates for mimetic eggs, different color eggs, different-spotting eggs, and cowbird eggs was 23.2%, 33.3%, 61.5%, and 85.3%, respectively, with higher rejection of cowbird eggs in areas where cowbirds were observed. Although rejection is likely to have a genetic component, the differences could be due to phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity in egg rejection may be expected, given the potential cost of rejection and the spatiotemporal distribution of cowbirds. Thus, egg rejection has not necessarily decreased in Hispaniolan weavers, but it may act in a plastic manner, increasing where cowbirds are present. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

Cruz, A.; Prather, J.W.; Wiley, J.W.; Weaver, P.F.



New records of Caribbomerus from Hispaniola with redescription of C. elongatus (Fisher) and a key to the genus in the West Indies (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Graciliini)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three species of Caribbomerus Vitali are newly recorded for the Dominican Republic: C. decoratus (Zayas), C. elongatus (Fisher), and C. asperatus (Fisher). The first two also represent first records for Hispaniola. Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher) is redescribed based on additional material, includi...


North Caribbean neotectonic events: The Trans-Haitian fault system. Tertiary record of an oblique transcurrent shear zone uplifted in Hispaniola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pubellier, M., Vila, J.-M. and Boisson, D., 1991. North Caribbean neotectonic events: The Tram-Haitian fault system. Tertiary record of an oblique shear zone uplifted in Hispaniola. In: J. Fourniguet and G. Pierre (Editors). Neotectonics. Tectonophysics, 194: 217-236. The left-lateral relative motion between the Caribbean and the North American plates has previously been inferred as occurring along a fault zone located

M. Pubellier; J.-M. Vila; D. Boisson



Influence of salinity and temperature on the physiology of Limia melanonotata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae): A search for abiotic factors limiting insular distribution in Hispaniola  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated salinity and temperature effects on routine metabolic rate (RMR), temperature tolerance (CTMax, critical thermal maximum), and salinity tolerance of Limia melanonotata, a poecliid fish that occurs in west-central inland waters of Hispaniola. Routine metabolic rate and CTMax were measured in fish acclimated to three salinities (0, 30, and 60 ppt) and temperatures (25??, 30??, and 35??C) for nine temperature-salinity combinations. Salinity and temperature did not significantly interact in their effect on RMR. For combined salinity acclimations, adjusted RMR (ANCOVA) was significantly lower at 25??C than either 30?? or 35??C. For combined temperature acclimations, mean RMR was significantly lower at 60 ppt than either 0 or 30 ppt. Salinity and temperature had a significant interactive effect on temperature tolerance. Mean CTMax was significantly higher at 30?? than 25??C at all salinities, but at 35??C was significantly higher than at 25?? or 30??C only among fish acclimated in fresh water. Fish exposed to a chronic increase in salinity experienced most mortality in a salinity range of 70-107 ppt, with females exhibiting greater salinity tolerance than males. Limia melanonotata approaches the upper extreme in salinity and temperature tolerances known for poeciliids. Our results also suggest that L. melanonotata may reduce energy expenditures at environmental extremes to tolerate harsh conditions for extended periods. Despite its curythermal and euryhaline adaptations, L. melanonotata has a relatively restricted inland range in Hispaniola and is unknown from inshore brackish or marine habitats. The present distribution of this species and congeners may be the result of a combination of factors that include historical zoogeography and ecological requirements.

Haney, D.C.; Walsh, S.J.



New records of Caribbomerus from Hispaniola and Dominica with redescription of C. elongatus (Fisher) and a key to species of the genus in the West Indies (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Graciliini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Three species of Caribbomerus Vitali are newly recorded for the Dominican Republic: Caribbomerus decoratus (Zayas), Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher), and Caribbomerus asperatus (Fisher). The first two also represent first records for Hispaniola. Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher) is redescribed based on additional material, including the first known males. Caribbomerus similis (Fisher) is newly recorded for Dominica. A key to the species of the genus from the West Indies is provided. PMID:21594096

Lingafelter, Steven W.



Caribbean island-arc rifting and back-arc basin development in the Late Cretaceous: Geochemical, isotopic and geochronological evidence from Central Hispaniola  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new regional petrologic, geochemical, Sr-Nd isotopic, and U-Pb geochronological data on the Turonian-Campanian mafic igneous rocks of Central Hispaniola that provide important clues on the development of the Caribbean island-arc. Central Hispaniola is made up of three main tectonic blocks—Jicomé, Jarabacoa and Bonao—that include four broad geochemical groups of Late Cretaceous mafic igneous rocks: group I, tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts and andesites; group II, low-Ti high-Mg andesites and basalts; group III, tholeiitic basalts and gabbros/dolerites; and group IV, tholeiitic to transitional and alkalic basalts. These igneous rocks show significant differences in time and space, from arc-like to non-arc-like characteristics, suggesting that they were derived from different mantle sources. We interpret these groups as the record of Caribbean arc-rifting and back-arc basin development in the Late Cretaceous. The> 90 Ma group I volcanic rocks and associated cumulate complexes preserved in the Jicomé and Jarabacoa blocks represent the Albian to Cenomanian Caribbean island-arc material. The arc rift stage magmatism in these blocks took place during the deposition of the Restauración Formation from the Turonian-Coniacian transition (~ 90 Ma) to Santonian/Lower Campanian, particularly in its lower part with extrusion at 90-88 Ma of group II low-Ti, high-Mg andesites/basalts. During this time or slightly afterwards adakitic rhyolites erupted in the Jarabacoa block. Group III tholeiitic lavas represent the initiation of Coniacian-Lower Campanian back-arc spreading. In the Bonao block, this stage is represented by back-arc basin-like basalts, gabbros and dolerite/diorite dykes intruded into the Loma Caribe peridotite, as well as the Peralvillo Sur Formation basalts, capped by tuffs, shales and Campanian cherts. This dismembered ophiolitic stratigraphy indicates that the Bonao block is a fragment of an ensimatic back-arc basin. In the Jicomé and Jarabacoa blocks, the mainly Campanian group IV basalts of the Peña Blanca, Siete Cabezas and Pelona-Pico Duarte Formation, represent the subsequent stage of back-arc spreading and off-axis non-arc-like magmatism, caused by migration of the arc toward the northeast. These basalts have geochemical affinities with the mantle domain influenced by the Caribbean plume, suggesting that mantle was flowing toward the NE, beneath the extended Caribbean island-arc, in response to rollback of the subducting proto-Caribbean slab.

Escuder Viruete, J.; Joubert, M.; Urien, P.; Friedman, R.; Weis, D.; Ullrich, T.; Pérez-Estaún, A.



Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene shallow-water mixed siliciclastics and carbonates (Yanigua and Los Haitises formations) in eastern Hispaniola (Dominican Republic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The virtually unfolded sedimentary cover of the Cordilleras Central and Oriental in the eastern Dominican Republic (eastern Hispaniola, tropical North Atlantic) largely consists of Pliocene to Early Pleistocene mixed siliciclastics and carbonates. These deposits have been grouped into two laterally interfingering mapping units, the Yanigua and Los Haitises formations. The former (mainly siliciclastics) comprises marl, marly limestone, and minor conglomerate, sandstone, lignite, and carbonaceous clay and crops out closest to the basement. The Los Haitises Formation mainly consists of limestone and intercalating beds of marly limestone and marl. Lithological mapping at the 1:50,000 scale and facies analysis of twelve measured sections and of additional fourteen outcrops suggest that these deposits mainly formed on a shallow-water marine platform fringing the precursor reliefs of the Cordillera Oriental and the southeastern end of the Cordillera Central. Only a limited proportion of sediment formed in floodplains and marshes. Marl and marly limestone dominated the inner platform sediments. Terrigenous mud decreased away from the emergent basement and carbonate sedimentation dominated the more external platform. Corals, molluscs, echinoids, foraminifers, bryozoans, coralline algae, and Halimeda are the main components with varying amounts of carbonate mud. The platform was generally a low-energy environment with seagrass patches. In the inner platform, corals grew as isolated colonies or as small patch reefs dominated by Porites in marly and bioclastic substrates. Branching corals (Stylophora and Acropora) grew in extensive carpets in more distal areas. At least in the last stage of its development (Early Pleistocene), the platform was rimmed by a reef barrier similar to the Holocene Caribbean barrier reefs, with Acropora gr. palmata, A. cervicornis, Porites, Montastrea, Siderastrea, and Diploria as the main reef builders.

Braga, Juan C.; Díaz de Neira, Alberto; Lasseur, Eric; Mediato, José; Aguirre, Julio; Abad, Manuel; Hernaiz-Huerta, Pedro P.; Monthel, Jacques; Pérez-Valera, Fernando; Lopera, Eusebio




Microsoft Academic Search

We used morphological measurements and plumage characteristics to identify a Dendroica warbler mist netted and photographed in the Dominican Republic as a possible hybrid between D. kirtlandii (Kirtland's Warbler) and D. fusca (Blackburnian Warbler). We present a detailed description of the individual which is the first presumed hybrid of D. kirtlandii and one of only a few possible hybrids involving



The genus Leptostylopsis of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The generic differences and similarities between Leptostylus LeConte and Leptostylopsis Dillon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini) are discussed. Leptostylopsis is redescribed and the following species are transferred from Leptostylus to Leptostylopsis: Leptostylopsis annulipes (Fisher 1942)...


Significant Earthquakes on the Enriquillo Fault System, Hispaniola, 15002010: Implications for Seismic Hazard  

E-print Network

and the intensity assignments for the 2010 Haiti earthquakes to derive an intensity attenuation relation in 1701 occurred near the location of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and the accounts of the shak- ing near Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and the 3 June 1770 MI 7.5 earthquake west of the 2010 earth- quake rupture

ten Brink, Uri S.


A new species of Derancistrus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae) from Dominican Republic with notes on other species of Prioninae of Hispaniola  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Derancistrus hovorei is described from Dominican Republic. A diagnosis is provided to discriminate it from related taxa, in particular Derancistrodes vittatus (Olivier) and Derancistrus elegans (Palisot de Beauvois). Biological, distributional, and/or taxonomic notes are provided for other Hispani...


Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America Significant Earthquakes on the Enriquillo Fault System, Hispaniola, 1500-2010  

E-print Network

to assign intensities, and intensity assignments for the 2010 Haiti earthquakes to derive an intensity magnitude MI6.6 earthquake in 1701 occurred near the location of the 2010 Haiti earthquake and the accounts near Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and the June 3, 1770 MI7.5 earthquake west of the 2010 earthquake rupture

ten Brink, Uri S.


Seven New Species of Elaphidiini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Dominican Republic with Taxonomic Notes, New Country Records, and a Key to Elaphidion Audinet-Serville from Hispaniola  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven new species, two new combinations, two new synonyms, and four new country records of Elaphidiini longhorned woodborers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Dominican Republic are presented. Elaphidion compressipenne Fisher is transferred to Ceresium Newman as C. compressipenne (Fisher), new c...


The tectonics of eastern Hispaniola: an investigation into the formation and episodic uplift of the Beata Ridge and the geologic and velocity structure of the Cibao basin  

E-print Network

Basalts and Diabase A" B" Seismic Reflectors km 3 / / / / %V% / / / / / / B" A /////// //////// // //// /// //// ///// ///// / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /////// ///////// / /// Vertical Exa eration 25...

Boucher, Paul James



The effect of sociocultural factors on the quality of relations of the United States with Hispaniola: analysis of the American military occupation of Haiti and the Dominican Republic (1915-1934)  

E-print Network

are described. In addition, some general background information concerning Haiti and the Dominican Republic is provided, with particular emphasis on their social and cultural characteristics. Also, a brief overview of the relevant literature (particularly... solution for it at home. (1970:2) In the next section, an overview of the main social and cultural characteristics of these two countries is provided, while more detailed information, especially historical, will be offered in the next chapter. Haiti...

Alvarez, Fausto B.



New records of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) from Mona Island, Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

), approximately 60 km east of Hispaniola and 68 km west of Puerto Rico. The 2 island forms a kidney "stepping stone" islands in the Greater Antilles. The climate is semi-arid and the perforated limestone

Franz, Nico M.


60 FR 49627 - Notice of Availability of a Technical/Agency Draft Recovery Plan for ``Stahlia monosperma'' for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...monotypic Genus endemic to Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, and...wetlands in association with mangrove communities. The only wild populations in Puerto Rico are known from Cabo Rojo...Box 491, Boqueron, Puerto Rico 00622. Comments...



An extinct monkey from Haiti and the origins of the Greater Antillean primates  

E-print Network

primate dentition yet recorded, demonstrating the likely coexistence of two primate species on Hispaniola 114714 (Florida Museum of Natural History) is a nearly complete dentition including a dP4, examples

Rosenberger, Alfred H.


The Life of Hurricane Irene from Caribbean to Canada - Duration: 1:30.  

NASA Video Gallery

An animation of satellite observations from August 21 through August 29 showing the birth of Hurricane Irene in the Caribbean and her track over Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, the Bahamas, the U.S. East ...


Satellite Movie Shows Bertha Becoming Second Atlantic Hurricane - Duration: 0:48.  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from August 2 through 4 shows the movement of Tropical Storm Bertha over Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and the Bahamas. It became a hurricane on Augus...


OUP UNCORRECTED PROOF Bookname-Chapter 00-Stage 347 September 23, 2011 7:28 PM  

E-print Network

with the plains, although cer- tainly buffalo jumps, tipi rings, and medicine wheels are part of a broader knowl Wyoming and south central Montana. #12;Plains and Upper Midwest348 OUP UNCORRECTED PROOF Bookname on the shores of Hispaniola. Townships in Wyoming and Montana were not founded until the early 1900s, long after

Scheiber, Laura L.


Haitian CreoleHaitian Creole Western part of the  

E-print Network

Haitian CreoleHaitian Creole #12;Haiti Western part of the Hispaniola island Shared;Haiti - History 1791 Haitian revolution in which black slaves rebelled and eventually succeeded #12;Haitian - Facts Spoken by about 12 million Haitians and by people of Haitian origin Became

Dershowitz, Nachum


Geologic evidence for the prolongation of active normal faults of the Mona Rift into northwestern Puerto Rico  

E-print Network

Puerto Rico J.-C. Hippolyte1 , P. Mann2 and N. Grindlay3 1 UMR CNRS 5025 Laboratoire de Géodynamique des (eastern Hispaniola) from a subducting area (northwestern Puerto Rico). Near the city of Aguadilla in northwestern Puerto Rico, paleostress reconstruction through fault slip analysis demonstrates that the Mona

Boyer, Edmond


Reflection Profiling in and around the Puerto Rico Trench  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous seismic reflection profiles were recorded across the Dominican trench (south of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola), the Puerto Rico trench, and the outer ridge. These profiles show details of the structure in the upper layers which could not be measured by the refraction techniques heretofore employed. In the Caribbean there are several layers (uncon- solidated and consolidated sediments) which dip

John Ewing; Maurice Ewing




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An African species of Pentatomidae, Agonoscelis puberula Stal, is reported for the first time from Mexico, the southern United States, and the Islands of Jamaica and Hispaniola, where it has now established. The oldest western hemisphere record dates from 1985. This species has gone unrecognized p...


nature geoscience | VOL 3 | NOVEMBER 2010 | 737 Nine months have passed since the  

E-print Network

dream, particularly for women. It is impossible to imagine the suffering caused by a death toll of 230 are not the only type of natural disaster likely to strike the island of Hispaniola that hosts Haiti earthquake. But if the next disaster happens to be caused by a hurricane, building cheaply and lightly

Cai, Long


Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...


Conservation and management of the American crocodile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American crocodile is a rare and endangered species, the range of which has contracted to disjunct locations such as Hispaniola, Jamaica, Cuba, Panama, and southern Florida. In an attempt to determine what factors might be limiting population growth, an extensive collaborative research program was conducted in 1978–82 in southern Florida. Limiting factors explicitly studied included climate, hurricanes, population dispersion,

James A. Kushlan



New Seafloor Map of the Puerto Rico Trench Helps Assess Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure 1). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an

Uri ten Brink; William Danforth; Christopher Polloni; Brian Andrews; Pilar Llanes; Shepard Smith; Eugene Parker; Toshihiko Uozumi



BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE, 75(3): 481485, 2004 481Bulletin of Marine Science  

E-print Network

of the western Atlantic from North Carolina to Florida, in- cluding the Gulf of Mexico, Cuba, Hispaniola lies between 19º00­17º30 N and 78º30­76º00 W (Arden, 1975). Relatively little is known about the sharks inhabiting the Barlett Deep, thus this study aimed to capture and identify elasmobranches off the north coast

Morrissey, John F.


Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1996. 27:163-96 Copyright 1996 by Annual Reviews Inc. All rights reserved  

E-print Network

fauna ofthe West Indies (1262 species) exhibits high levels of en- demism and has a taxonomic standpoint, the West Indies includes the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico), Lesser (11). Among the plants and animals of the West Indies, the vertebrates (1262 species) exhibit some

Hedges, Blair



Microsoft Academic Search

The Columbus Caravels Project is a multi-phase research program designed to locate and excavate from St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica the remains of Columbus' last two ships, Capitana and Santiago de Palos. After an enforced exile of a year and five days, Columbus and his marooned crew were finally rescued on 29 June 1504. They departed for Hispaniola and Spain, leaving

Stephan A. Schwartzi; Randall J. De Matteiii; Roger C. Smithiii


Sweet drinks are made of this: Conservation genetics of an endemic palm species from the Dominican Republic  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudophoenix ekmanii is a threatened palm species restricted to the Parque Nacional of Jaragua in the southernmost region of Hispaniola. Sap from individual trees is commonly extracted to make a local drink; once they are tapped the plant usually dies. Additionally, adult plants are harvested for...


Demise at the Edge of Empire: Native Depopulation in Dominica, 1493-1647  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic studies of the Island Caribbean during aboriginal and early contact times are still decidedly scarce. While some of the Greater Antilles have received attention, Hispaniola foremost of all, the islands of the Lesser Antilles have been virtually ignored. For one of the latter, Dominica, an attempt is made to estimate how many people may have inhabited the island on

Wayne Burke; W. George Lovell


Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus was described by Carl Linnaeus as Curculio abbreviatus in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 from specimens collected in the West Indies. D. abbreviatus is found on Puerto Rico and Hispaniola and in the Lesser Antilles from Grenada and Bar...



E-print Network

of an unmapped fault during the 2010 Haiti earthquake Eric Calais1 *, Andrew Freed1 , Glen Mattioli2,3 , Falk and Roberte Momplaisir7 On 12 January 2010, a Mw 7.0 earthquake struck the Port-au-Prince region of Haiti.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 is the largest event to strike the southern part of Hispaniola since

Freed, Andrew


NASA Imagery of Haiti  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page includes a collection of NASA images surrounding the Haiti Earthquake. Images include landslide risk maps, photos from the Terra Spacecraft, post-earthquake Port au Prince, Hispaniola topography map, anaglyph (3-D) map of southern Haiti, and 3-D topography of Port au Prince.



Fan-delta uplift and mountain subsidence during the Haiti 2010 earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates is accommodated by several active faults around Hispaniola Island. The Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault in southern Haiti is one of these structures. Strain equivalent to a magnitude 7.2 earthquake is estimated to have accumulated along this fault since its last significant activity. The Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 was initially

Manabu Hashimoto; Yo Fukushima; Yukitoshi Fukahata



The neotectonics of western Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico is located in a tectonic environment associated with the oblique subduction of a buoyant marine ridge, the Bahama Bank. A reconstruction of the tectonic history of Puerto Rico shows that the effects of this oblique subduction have been complex. In the Eocene to the Middle Oligocene, compression created a suture zone between island blocks and strike-slip faults were also developed in the island. The Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene was a period of quiescence. After this period, from the Late Miocene to the Pliocene, the passage of the Bahama Bank underneath the Puerto Rico microplate induced the island to rotate. It is suggested that during this time, from the Miocene through the Pliocene, Puerto Rico and eastern and central Hispaniola were part of the same microplate. Rotation of this microplate around a single rotation pole, located in the Caribbean Plate south of western Puerto Rico, generated the opening of the Anegada Passage together with a zone of extension in southern Puerto Rico, the formation of the Muertos Trough, and a zone of compression in central Hispaniola. Recent GPS vectors show that Puerto Rico and Hispaniola are now moving apart at about 9 mm/yr. This separation has created a extensional seismotectonic regime, affecting the eastern portion of Hispaniola, the Mona Passage and western Puerto Rico, within a boundary zone between the North American and Caribbean Plates. The zone of extension between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola can be explained by the recent attachment of Puerto Rico to the Caribbean Plate, which is moving to the east at about 23 mm/yr. Thus, the former Puerto Rico microplate has partitioned into two smaller microplates; the new Puerto Rico microplate (Puerto Rico) and the El Seibo microplate (eastern Hispaniola). Their separation has resulted from the release of the Puerto Rico microplate by the Bahama Bank and the recent locking of Hispaniola by this buoyant feature. Paleoseismic information on tsunami deposits and paleoliquefaction show the importance of the seismic hazards in western Puerto Rico associated with this extension. Structural, geologic, and geomorphologic information from two faults located in western Puerto Rico, the Cordillera-Mayaguez Fault System and the Joyuda Fault, suggest that after Miocene to Pliocene rotation, Plio-Quaternary strike-slip fault movements related to the new extensional regime modified the regional geomorphology of western Puerto Rico. These reactivated and new faults represent an important seismic risk for western Puerto Rico.

Moya, Juan-Carlos



Tsunamis triggered by the 12 January 2010 Earthquake in Haiti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 12 January 2010 a magnitude Mw 7.0 earthquake occurred 25 km west-southwest of Haiti’s Capital of Port-au-Prince, which resulted in more than 230,000 fatalities. In addition tsunami waves triggered by the earthquake caused at least 3 fatalities at Petit Paradis. Unfortunately, the people of Haiti had neither ancestral knowledge nor educational awareness of tsunami hazards despite the 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami at Hispaniola’s northeast coast. In sharp contrast Sri Lankan UN-soldiers on duty at Jacmel self-evacuated given the memory of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, and performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 31 January to 7 February 2010 ITST covered the greater Bay of Port-au-Prince and more than 100 km of Hispaniola’s south coast between Pedernales, Dominican Republic and Jacmel, Haiti. The Hispaniola survey data includes more than 20 runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum flow depths exceeding 3 m both at Petit Paradis inside the Bay of Grand Goâve located 45 km west-southwest of Port-au-Prince and at Jacmel on Haiti’s south coast. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed on Hispaniola and tsunami runup of more than 1 m was still observed at Pedernales in the Dominican Republic. Jacmel, which is near the center of the south coast, represents an unfortunate example of a village and harbor that was located for protection from storm waves but is vulnerable to tsunami waves with runup doubling from the entrance to the head of the bay. Inundation and damage was limited to less than 100 m inland at both Jacmel and Petit Paradis. Differences in wave period were documented between the tsunami waves at Petit Paradis and Jacmel. The Petit Paradis tsunami is attributed to a coastal submarine landslide. Field observations, video recordings, satellite imagery and numerical modelling are presented. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard. Community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis. Petit Paradis landslide scar with tree located 70m offshore

Fritz, H. M.; Hillaire, J. V.; Molière, E.; Mohammed, F.; Wei, Y.



Plant mites of the Dominican Republic, with a description of a new species of Petrobia (Tetranychina) Wainstein, 1960 (Acari, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae) and a key to the species of this subgenus.  


Fourteen mite species of plant-associated mites of the suborder Prostigmata are reported from the Dominican Republic. Four of these refer to new findings for the country, including Petrobia (Tetranychina) hispaniola n. sp. Sánchez & Flechtmann, described from specimens collected from leaves of Citrus sp. (Rutaceae) and Rosa sp. (Rosaceae). A key for the separation of the world species of Petrobia (Tetranychina) is presented.  PMID:25112265

Martínez, Leocadia Sánchez; Flechtmann, Carlos H W; De Moraes, Gilberto J



Oblique collision in the northeastern Caribbean from GPS measurements and geological observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous Caribbean GPS studies have shown that the rigid interior of the Caribbean plate is moving east-northeastward (070°) at a rate of 18-20 +\\/- 3 mm\\/yr relative to North America. This direction implies maximum oblique convergence between the island of Hispaniola on the Caribbean plate and the 22-27-km-thick crust of the Bahama carbonate platform on the adjacent North America plate.

Paul Mann; Eric Calais; Jean-Claude Ruegg; Charles DeMets; Pamela E. Jansma; Glen S. Mattioli



Columbus's Method of Determining Longitude: An Analytical View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 14 September 1494, Christopher Columbus observed a lunar eclipse while at the island of Saona near the eastern tip of Hispaniola. He later recorded in his Libro de las Profecias that, from his timing of the eclipse, he determined his longitude to be west of Cape San Vicente. His actual longitude was three hours and 59 minutes west of Cape San Vicente, so Columbus was off by over an hour and a half, some 23 degrees of longitude.

Pickering, Keith


The 12 Jan 2010, Haiti earthquake affected by aseismic fault creep  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 12 2010, a destructive strike-slip earthquake (Mw 7.1) occurred in the oblique convergence zone of Hispaniola. Over 222,000 people were killed, most in the capital city of Port-au-Prince in Haiti, which lies about 80 km east of the mainshock. The earthquake ruptured a 50-km fault trace along (or sub-parallel to) the much larger Enriquillo Fault Zone (EFZ) that

M. Shirzaei; T. R. Walter



Re-emergence of Cholera in the Americas: Risks, Susceptibility, and Ecology  

PubMed Central

Background: The re-emergence of cholera in Haiti has established a new reservoir for the seventh cholera pandemic which threatens to spread to other countries in the Americas. Materials and Methods: Statistics from this new epidemic are compared to the 1991 Peru epidemic, which demonstrated the speed and complexity with which this disease can spread from country to country. Environmental factors implicated in the spread of Vibrio cholerae such as ocean currents and temperatures, as well as biotic factors from zooplankton to waterfowl pose a risk for many countries in the Americas. Results: The movement of people and goods from Hispaniola are mostly destined for North America, but occur to some degree throughout the Americas. These modes of transmission, and the probability of uncontrolled community spread beyond Hispaniola, however, are completely dependent upon risk factors within these countries such as water quality and availability of sanitation. Although North America has excellent coverage of these deterrents to the spread of infectious gastrointestinal diseases, many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean lack these basic services and infrastructures. Conclusions: In order to curb the immediate spread of cholera in Hispaniola, treatment availability should be expanded to all parts of the island and phase II epidemic management initiatives must be developed. PMID:23055647

Poirier, Mathieu JP; Izurieta, Ricardo; Malavade, Sharad S; McDonald, Michael D



Seismological Insights into the Structure of the Lesser Antilles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to an overall eastwards drift of the Caribbean plate of around 2cm/year relative to the Atlantic plate, the type of the subduction along the eastern part of the Caribbean changes. Compared to the simple subduction of the Atlantic plate in the east, the northern plate boundary zone is far more complex, predominantly characterised by a left-lateral east-west strike-slip motion that includes an oblique convergence of the Bahamas carbonate banks and a pull apart basin in the Mona Passage, the sea gate between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The island of Hispaniola is decoupled from the Caribbean plate, which leads to a second subduction zone south of Hispaniola where the Caribbean plate subducts beneath the Hispaniola micro plate. Strictly speaking, the arc only extends to the east of the island of Puerto Rico but since most of the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone is directly linked to it the results become more directly comparable. Fed by the Orinoco River the southern part of the Lesser Antilles is a sediment-rich subduction zone, which becomes sediment-poor towards the north as the sediments get blocked by several banks, including the accretionary prism containing the island of Barbados. Here we investigate the crustal and mantle structure variation along the Antilles Arc using measurements of seismic anisotropy and receiver functions. We use data from three component broadband stations that are located from the southern end of the arc to Hispaniola in the north. Seismic anisotropy refers to directional variations in wave speeds and their polarisations. The observation of two independently propagating shear waves (splitting) is the least ambiguous indication of anisotropy. Such observations can be used to constrain mantle flow beneath subduction regions, offering insights into slab dynamics. We generally observed trench parallel orientations around the plate boundary. However, we see significant local deviations in the inferred flow pattern, for example, in the shallow mantle beneath the Mona Passage. Significant variations in sediment load, petrology and volcanism are observed along the arc. We investigate whether there is any correlation with crustal structure using receiver functions to determine Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratio. The receiver functions are computed using the extended-time multitaper frequency domain cross-correlation receiver-function (ETMTRF) by Helffrich (2006). This method has the advantage of resistance to noise, which is helpful since most of the data around the arc will have been collected by stations close to the ocean, thus containing a large amount of noise. Our preliminary results show clear variations in these measurements. There are also regions where the Moho is not very sharp.

Schlaphorst, D.; Kendall, J.; Bastow, I. D.; Baptie, B.



Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Dissemination of Non-Pandemic HIV-1 Subtype B Clades in the Caribbean Region  

PubMed Central

The Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) epidemic in the Caribbean region is mostly driven by subtype B; but information about the pattern of viral spread in this geographic region is scarce and different studies point to quite divergent models of viral dissemination. In this study, we reconstructed the spatiotemporal and population dynamics of the HIV-1 subtype B epidemic in the Caribbean. A total of 1,806 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences collected from 17 different Caribbean islands between 1996 and 2011 were analyzed together with sequences from the United States (n?=?525) and France (n?=?340) included as control. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that HIV-1 subtype B infections in the Caribbean are driven by dissemination of the pandemic clade (BPANDEMIC) responsible for most subtype B infections across the world, and older non-pandemic lineages (BCAR) characteristics of the Caribbean region. The non-pandemic BCAR strains account for >40% of HIV-1 infections in most Caribbean islands; with exception of Cuba and Puerto Rico. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses indicate that BCAR strains probably arose in the island of Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic) around the middle 1960s and were later disseminated to Trinidad and Tobago and to Jamaica between the late 1960s and the early 1970s. In the following years, the BCAR strains were also disseminated from Hispaniola and Trinidad and Tobago to other Lesser Antilles islands at multiple times. The BCAR clades circulating in Hispaniola, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago appear to have experienced an initial phase of exponential growth, with mean estimated growth rates of 0.35–0.45 year?1, followed by a more recent stabilization since the middle 1990s. These results demonstrate that non-pandemic subtype B lineages have been widely disseminated through the Caribbean since the late 1960s and account for an important fraction of current HIV-1 infections in the region. PMID:25148215

Cabello, Marina; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Bello, Gonzalo



The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum: An Integrated, End-to-end Forecast and Warning System for Mountainous Islands in the Tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 10 days of 21-30 September 1998, Hurricane Georges left a trail of destruction in the Caribbean region and U.S. Gulf Coast. Subsequently, in the same year, Hurricane Mitch caused widespread destruction and loss of life in four Central American nations, and in December,1999 a tropical disturbance impacted the north coast of Venezuela causing hundreds of deaths and several million dollars of property loss. More recently, an off-season disturbance in the Central Caribbean dumped nearly 250 mm rainfall over Hispaniola during the 24-hr period on May 23, 2004. Resultant flash floods and debris flows in the Dominican Republic and Haiti killed at least 1400 people. In each instance, the tropical system served as the catalyst for major flooding and landslides at landfall. Our goal is to develop and transfer an end-to-end warning system for a prototype region in the Central Caribbean, specifically the islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, which experience frequent tropical cyclones and other disturbances. The envisioned system would include satellite and surface-based observations to track and nowcast dangerous levels of precipitation, atmospheric and hydrological models to predict short-term runoff and streamflow changes, geological models to warn when and where landslides and debris flows are imminent, and the capability to communicate forecast guidance products via satellite to vital government offices in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. In this paper, we shall present a preliminary proof-of-concept study for the May 21-24, 2004 floods and debris-flows over Hispaniola to show that the envisaged flow of data, models and graphical products can produce the desired warning outputs. The multidisciplinary research and technology transfer effort will require blending the talents of hydrometeorologists, geologists, remote sensing and GIS experts, and social scientists to ensure timely delivery of tailored graphical products to both weather offices and local emergency managers.

Golden, J.; Updike, R. G.; Verdin, J. P.; Larsen, M. C.; Negri, A. J.; McGinley, J. A.



Currents and waters of the upper 1200 m of the eastern Caribbean Sea during winter  

E-print Network

', e. ser Antilles from St Ducia to the south. The Subtropical ~~iater witn a high- salinity core near 2)0 cl/t enters mainly through pas- sages ia the lesser Antilles from Dominica north ard. at Anegada and Mon Passages. Some also may enter between... enter the Caribbean through the Lesser Antilles, particularly between Guadeloupe and Dominica, and through Mona Passage. The acceleration potential indicates in- flow between Jamaica and Hispaniola where the eddy cen- tered south of the passage apps...

Febres Ortega, German Antonio



STS-65 Earth observation of Port-Au-Prince, Haiti, was taken aboard OV-102  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of Port-Au-Prince, Haiti. This view, centered at approximately 18.5 degrees north and 72.5 degrees west, shows the location of the city of Port-Au-Prince. It is located at the head of Port-Au-Prince Bay in a valley. The Eastern edge of Saumatre Lake, visible in the photograph, forms the boundary with the Dominican Republic. The Haitian Republic occupies the western portion of the Island of Hispaniola.



[Labor force mobility in an area of periphery: three cases from the Caribbean].  


"This article deals tentatively with the issue of [labor] migration within an area of the periphery, the Caribbean. Over approximately the last century migration within this area has coexisted with emigration towards North America and the former 'mother countries' in Europe. The focus is on three specific cases: Aruba in the Dutch Antilles, Suriname (former Dutch Guyana) and the island of Hispaniola ([Dominican Republic] and Haiti). These three cases bear evidence to a number of developments in legal and illegal migration today." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12285253

Sansone, L



VIROLOGY: Poliomyelitis Eradication--a Dangerous Endgame  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Efforts to eradicate poliovirus from the face of the Earth have been very successful, thanks in large part to the oral poliovirus vaccine developed by Albert Sabin. However, as Nathanson and Fine explain in their Perspective, maintaining a world free from poliomyelitis will not be easy. They discuss the implications of a recent outbreak of paralytic poliomyelitis on the island of Hispaniola from which wild poliovirus was eliminated 10 years previously (Kew et al.).

Neal Nathanson (University of Pennsylvania; Departments of Microbiology and Neurology)



Multilocus phylogenetic analyses of Hispaniolan and Bahamian trunk anoles (distichus species group).  


The distichus species group includes six species and 21 subspecies of trunk ecomorph anoles distributed across Hispaniola and its satellite islands as well as the northern Bahamas. Although this group has long served as a model system for studies of reproductive character displacement, adaptation, behavior and speciation, it has never been the subject of a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Our goal here is to generate a multilocus phylogenetic dataset (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci) and to use this dataset to infer phylogenetic relationships among the majority of the taxa assigned to the distichus species group. We use these phylogenetic trees to address three topics about the group's evolution. First, we consider longstanding taxonomic controversies about the status of several species and subspecies assigned to the distichus species group. Second, we investigate the biogeographic history of the group and specifically test the hypotheses that historical division of Hispaniola into two paleo-islands contributed to the group's diversification and that Bahamian and Hispaniolan satellite island populations are derived from colonists from the main Hispaniolan landmass. Finally, third, we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to test the hypothesis that divergence between pale yellow and darkly pigmented orange or red dewlap coloration has occurred repeatedly across the distichus species group. PMID:25772800

Geneva, Anthony J; Hilton, Jared; Noll, Sabina; Glor, Richard E



Extinction and biogeography in the Caribbean: new evidence from a fossil riodinid butterfly in Dominican amber.  

PubMed Central

We describe a new species of extinct riodinid butterfly, Voltinia dramba, from Oligo-Miocene Dominican amber (15-25 Myr ago). This appears to be the first butterfly to be taxonomically described from amber, and the first adult riodinid fossil. The series of five specimens represents probably the best-preserved fossil record for any lepidopteran. The phenomenon of extant Voltinia females ovipositing on arboreal epiphytes probably explains the discovery of multiple female V. dramba specimens in amber. Voltinia dramba appears to be one of many extinct butterfly species on Hispaniola. The northwestern Mexican distribution of the explicitly hypothesized sister species, the extant V. danforthi, supports the hypothesis that V. dramba reached Hispaniola by the 'proto-Greater Antillean arc', dating the divergence of V. dramba and V. danforthi to 40-50 Myr ago. This date is contemporaneous with the oldest known butterfly fossils, and implies a more ancient date of origin for many of the higher-level butterfly taxa than is often conceded. PMID:15255097

Hall, Jason P. W.; Robbins, Robert K.; Harvey, Donald J.



Collisional zones in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collisional events along the North American-Caribbean plate boundary are complex and not completely understood. Structures and metamorphism in rocks exposed in Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico suggest that the margin has undergone at least three main contractional events in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and in the Late Eocene. The Eocene event is more evident in the transpressional structures preserved in Eocene rocks and may be related to the oblique collision of the northern margin of the Caribbean Plate with continental crust of the Bahamas in the North American Plate. In Puerto Rico, the Late Eocene collisional event is best exposed in the Northern Puerto Rico Fault Zone (NPRFZ) and the Southern Puerto Rico Fault Zone (SPRFZ). These fault zones show transpression in Eocene rocks that suggest contraction and left-lateral shear. The NPRFZ is the boundary between the Northeast and Southwest blocks. Its main fault is the Cerro Mula Fault, a WNW-ESE striking left-lateral fault. The SPRFZ separates the Central and Southwest blocks and strikes NW-SE in the western part of the island. The origin and extent of the Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous events are less clear. Recent structural and stratigraphic studies in the Southwest block of Puerto Rico suggest that deformation of Late Cretaceous folded and faulted sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and thrust emplacement of mantle rocks (serpentinized-peridotite) onto the crust are related to Maastrichtian to Paleocene contraction along the plate boundary. In Puerto Rico, there is no metamorphism associated to this event. This deformation constitutes a Late Cretaceous collisional event that is also recognized in Hispaniola and Cuba. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene serpentinite emplacement is attributed to the collision of the subduction zone with the hypothesized Caribeana submerged platform to the north. In Puerto Rico there is a volcanic hiatus in Early Paleocene that may be related to the proposed collision. Reactivation of these structures occurred during Late Eocene-Early Oligocene. The Early Cretaceous tectonic event in Puerto Rico is deduced from stratigraphic relationships of the serpentinite and Late Cretaceous rocks. Early contraction in Cuba and Hispaniola may be related to increased convergence along a subduction zone. However, the characteristics of the tectonic event are not understood. In spite of the temporal similarities of deformation in the northern Caribbean, there are noted differences in the type of deformation that may be related to variations in shape and orientation of pre-existing zones of weaknesses and geographic locations along the Caribbean-North American plate boundary.

Lao Davila, D. A.



Accounts of damage from historical earthquakes in the northeastern Caribbean to aid in the determination of their location and intensity magnitudes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Documentation of an event in the past depended on the population and political trends of the island, and the availability of historical documents is limited by the physical resource digitization schedule and by the copyright laws of each archive. Examples of documents accessed are governors' letters, newspapers, and other circulars published within the Caribbean, North America, and Western Europe. Key words were used to search for publications that contain eyewitness accounts of various large earthquakes. Finally, this catalog provides descriptions of damage to buildings used in previous studies for the estimation of moment intensity (MI) and location of significantly damaging or felt earthquakes in Hispaniola and in the northeastern Caribbean, all of which have been described in other studies.

Flores, Claudia H.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Bakun, William H.



New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico Trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure l). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al., 2004]. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918 [Mercado and McCann, 1998]. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico [Mercado et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 1991],although their ages are unknown.

ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian D.; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko



An extinct monkey from Haiti and the origins of the Greater Antillean primates  

PubMed Central

A new extinct Late Quaternary platyrrhine from Haiti, Insulacebus toussaintiana, is described here from the most complete Caribbean subfossil primate dentition yet recorded, demonstrating the likely coexistence of two primate species on Hispaniola. Like other Caribbean platyrrhines, I. toussaintiana exhibits primitive features resembling early Middle Miocene Patagonian fossils, reflecting an early derivation before the Amazonian community of modern New World anthropoids was configured. This, in combination with the young age of the fossils, provides a unique opportunity to examine a different parallel radiation of platyrrhines that survived into modern times, but is only distantly related to extant mainland forms. Their ecological novelty is indicated by their unique dental proportions, and by their relatively large estimated body weights, possibly an island effect, which places the group in a size class not exploited by mainland South American monkeys. Several features tie the new species to the extinct Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori, perhaps providing additional evidence for an inter-Antillean clade. PMID:21282603

Cooke, Siobhán B.; Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Turvey, Samuel



Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe–Sagua–Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300–400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the “Pico Cristal” National Park in the West and the “Alexander von Humbolt” National Park in the East. PMID:24146561

Aguila, Rayner Núñez



Haiti and the Dominican Republic - same island - different climate adaptation strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two Caribbean states, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, have experienced similar natural forces since the 18th century, such as for instance, hurricanes and earthquakes. Despite this fact, Haiti tends to be more vulnerable to natural forces than the Dominican Republic, while environmental management strategies have been very different in both countries throughout the 19th century. Research findings show that neither atmospheric nor seismic hazards, which directly hit the territory of Haiti, have significant impacts on long-term population densities and growth rates. Conversely, uncontrolled and unregulated urbanization in Haiti between 1850 and 2009 has systematically exposed more people to natural forces. Thus, Haiti is willing to take increasing human security risks, because, it finally matters where people settle. Population growth versus storm occurrence/frequency in different departments/provinces on Hispaniola island between 1850 and 2009.

Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.



Petroleum in the Caribbean Basin: Further exploration justified?  

SciTech Connect

After more than half a century of exploration for petroleum in that part of the Caribbean Basin covered by this review, the prospects for substantial discoveries remain low. Only Barbados has had modest but sustained production of oil and gas. In Hispaniola minor production from small prospects lasted briefly. Exploration in the northeast Caribbean has not resulted in discoveries. Similar exploration in Puerto Rico and, on a more extensive scale, in Jamaica, has also failed to show positive results. On the Nicaragua Rise (Mosquitia, Tela Basins) drilling has produced shows but no production, a situation also evident in Belize. Nevertheless, examination of these results, in the context of the regional geology of the Caribbean Basin, suggests there are areas where further exploration is justified.

Robinson, E. [Univ. of the West Indies, Kingston (Jamaica)



Seismic hazard maps for Haiti  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer



Twin Tsunamis Triggered by the 12 January 2010 Haiti Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 12 January 2010, a magnitude M w 7.0 earthquake occurred 25 km west-southwest of Haiti's capital Port-au-Prince causing an estimated 316,000 fatalities, thereby exceeding any previous loss of life from a similar size earthquake. In addition, tsunami waves triggered by the earthquake caused at least three fatalities at Petit Paradis due to a complete lack of tsunami awareness. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) was deployed within weeks of the event and covered the greater Bay of Port-au-Prince and more than 100 km of Hispaniola's southern coastline. The collected survey data include more than 21 tsunami heights along with observations of coastal land level change. Maximum tsunami heights of 3 m have been measured for two independently triggered tsunamis.

Fritz, Hermann M.; Hillaire, Jean Vilmond; Molière, Emanuel; Wei, Yong; Mohammed, Fahad



Collisional zones in Puerto Rico and the northern Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puerto Rico is an amalgamation of island arc terranes that has recorded the deformational and tectonic history of the North American-Caribbean Plate boundary. Four collisional zones indicate the contractional events that have occurred at the plate boundary. Metamorphism and deformation of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere during the Early Cretaceous indicate the earliest collisional event. Then, an ophiolitic mélange, mostly comprised of blocks of the metamorphosed oceanic lithosphere, was formed and emplaced in the backarc region during the Turonian-Coniacian deformational event. A possible collision with a buoyant block in the North American Plate caused late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene contraction that created fold-and-thrust belts and the remobilization and uplift of serpentinite bodies in the Southwest Block. Late Eocene-early Oligocene transpression was localized along the Southern and Northern Puerto Rico fault zones, which occur north and south of large granodiorite intrusions in the strong Central Block. The deformation was accommodated in pure shear domains of fold-and-thrust belts and conjugate strike-slip faults, and simple shear domains of large mostly left-lateral faults. In addition, it reactivated faults in the weak Southwest Block. This island-wide transpression is the result of a Greater Antilles arc and continental North American collision. The kinematic model of the structures described in Puerto Rico correlate with some structures in Hispaniola and Cuba, and shows how the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate was shortened by collisions with continental lithosphere of the North American Plate throughout its history. The tectonic evolution of the Greater Antilles shows a history of collisions, in which the latest collision accretes Cuba to the North American Plate, reorganizes the plate boundary, and deforms with transpression Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The latest collision in Puerto Rico shows the case in which an arc collides obliquely with buoyant crust producing left-lateral transpression and converges obliquely with dense oceanic lithosphere.

Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.



Population history of the Hispaniolan hutia Plagiodontia aedium (Rodentia: Capromyidae): testing the model of ancient differentiation on a geotectonically complex Caribbean island.  


Hispaniola is a geotectonically complex island consisting of two palaeo-islands that docked c. 10 Ma, with a further geological boundary subdividing the southern palaeo-island into eastern and western regions. All three regions have been isolated by marine barriers during the late Cenozoic and possess biogeographically distinct terrestrial biotas. However, there is currently little evidence to indicate whether Hispaniolan mammals show distributional patterns reflecting this geotectonic history, as the island's endemic land mammal fauna is now almost entirely extinct. We obtained samples of Hispaniolan hutia (Plagiodontia aedium), one of the two surviving Hispaniolan land mammal species, through fieldwork and historical museum collections from seven localities distributed across all three of the island's biogeographic regions. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b) reveals a pattern of historical allopatric lineage divergence in this species, with the spatial distribution of three distinct hutia lineages biogeographically consistent with the island's geotectonic history. Coalescent modelling, approximate Bayesian computation and approximate Bayes factor analyses support our phylogenetic inferences, indicating near-complete genetic isolation of these biogeographically separate populations and differing estimates of their effective population sizes. Spatial congruence of hutia lineage divergence is not however matched by temporal congruence with divergences in other Hispaniolan taxa or major events in Hispaniola's geotectonic history; divergence between northern and southern hutia lineages dates to c. 0.6 Ma, significantly later than the unification of the palaeo-islands. The three allopatric Plagiodontia populations should all be treated as distinct management units for conservation, with particular attention required for the northern population (low haplotype diversity) and the south-western population (high haplotype diversity but highly threatened). PMID:22404699

Brace, Selina; Barnes, Ian; Powell, Adam; Pearson, Rebecca; Woolaver, Lance G; Thomas, Mark G; Turvey, Samuel T



Actively evolving microplate formation by oblique collision and sideways motion along strike-slip faults: An example from the northeastern Caribbean plate margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pattern of folding, faulting, and late Quaternary coral-reef uplift rates in western and central Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) suggest that the elongate Gonave microplate, a 190,000-km 2 area of the northeastern Caribbean plate, is in the process of shearing off the Caribbean plate and accreting to the North American plate. Late Cenozoic transpression between the southeastern Bahama Platform and the Caribbean plate in Hispaniola has inhibited the eastward motion of the northeastern corner of the plate. Transpression is manifested in western and central Hispaniola by the formation of regional scale folds that correspond to present-day, anticlinal topographic mountain chains continuous with offshore anticlinal ridges. Areas of most rapid Quaternary uplift determined from onland coral reefs 125 ka and younger, coincide with the axial traces of these folds. Offshore data suggest recent folding and faulting of the seafloor. Onshore reef data do not conclusively require late Quaternary folding, but demonstrate that tectonic uplift rates of the axial areas of the anticlines decrease from the Northwest Peninsula of Haiti (0.37 mm/yr) to to the central part of the coast of western Haiti (0.19 mm/yr) to the south-central part of western Haiti (0 mm/yr). Formation of the 1200-km-long Enriquillo-Plantain Garden-Walton fault zone as a 'bypass' strike-slip fault has isolated the southern edge of the Gonave microplate and is allowing continued, unimpeded eastward motion of a smaller Caribbean plate past the zone of late Neogene convergence and Quaternary uplift of coral reefs in Hispaniola. Offshore seismic reflection data from the Jamaica Passage, the marine strait separating Jamaica and Haiti, show that the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone forms a narrow but deep, active fault-bounded trough beneath the passage. The active fault is continuous with active faults mapped onshore in western Haiti and eastern Jamaica; the bathymetric deep is present because the Jamaica Passage fault segment represents a 50-km-wide, transtensional left-step of the fault trace between Haiti and Jamaica. Onshore satellite imagery and field observations suggest that the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault forms a continuous trace extending from central Hispaniola east of Lake Enriquillo, Dominican Republic, to the westernmost end of the southern peninsula of Haiti. The regional lineament corresponds to a recent fault scarp in Quaternary alluvium of the Clonard pull-apart basin in the central part of the southern peninsula of Haiti and suggests that at least this part of the lineament has undergone recent slip. Calmus (1983) has suggested a total offset of 30-50 km of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone in the southern peninsula of Haiti using the apparent offset of lithologic units. Seismic reflection data from Lake Enriquillo document recent deformation of Quaternary lake sediments where the lineament crosses the lake. Leveling of the crest of a late Holocene coral reef and associated algal tufa around Lake Enriquillo demonstrate late Holocene vertical movement and tilting in a 1500-m-wide zone parallel to the fault trend. Lateral offset is difficult to show in the Enriquillo Valley area because of rapid recent sedimentation into the valley. The pattern of inactive strike-slip faults and fold belts of Cenozoic age in Cuba and the Yucatan basin suggest that two elongate microplates were sheared off the proto-Caribbean plate and accreted to the North American plate by a similar process in Paleocene and Eocene times. Age of terminal deformation in western, central and eastern Cuba is consistent with southeastward younging and migration of arc collision. The similarity of the size and sequence of events in Cuba suggests that the process of oblique collision and sideways motion of the plate along a new strike-slip fault towards a free face may be an important process of microplate formation and interplate transfer in other areas.

Mann, Paul; Taylor, F. W.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Ku, Teh-Lung



Documentation for Initial Seismic Hazard Maps for Haiti  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to the urgent need for earthquake-hazard information after the tragic disaster caused by the moment magnitude (M) 7.0 January 12, 2010, earthquake, we have constructed initial probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Haiti. These maps are based on the current information we have on fault slip rates and historical and instrumental seismicity. These initial maps will be revised and improved as more data become available. In the short term, more extensive logic trees will be developed to better capture the uncertainty in key parameters. In the longer term, we will incorporate new information on fault parameters and previous large earthquakes obtained from geologic fieldwork. These seismic hazard maps are important for the management of the current crisis and the development of building codes and standards for the rebuilding effort. The boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates in the Hispaniola region is a complex zone of deformation. The highly oblique ~20 mm/yr convergence between the two plates (DeMets and others, 2000) is partitioned between subduction zones off of the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola and strike-slip faults that transect the northern and southern portions of the island. There are also thrust faults within the island that reflect the compressional component of motion caused by the geometry of the plate boundary. We follow the general methodology developed for the 1996 U.S. national seismic hazard maps and also as implemented in the 2002 and 2008 updates. This procedure consists of adding the seismic hazard calculated from crustal faults, subduction zones, and spatially smoothed seismicity for shallow earthquakes and Wadati-Benioff-zone earthquakes. Each one of these source classes will be described below. The lack of information on faults in Haiti requires many assumptions to be made. These assumptions will need to be revisited and reevaluated as more fieldwork and research are accomplished. We made two sets of maps using different assumptions about site conditions. One set of maps is for a firm-rock site condition (30-m averaged shear-wave velocity, Vs30, of 760 m/s). We also developed hazard maps that contain site amplification based on a grid of Vs30 values estimated from topographic slope. These maps take into account amplification from soils. We stress that these new maps are designed to quantify the hazard for Haiti; they do not consider all the sources of earthquake hazard that affect the Dominican Republic and therefore should not be considered as complete hazard maps for eastern Hispaniola. For example, we have not included hazard from earthquakes in the Mona Passage nor from large earthquakes on the subduction zone interface north of Puerto Rico. Furthermore, they do not capture all the earthquake hazards for eastern Cuba.

Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer



Terrain Classification of Aster gDEM for Seismic Microzonation of Port-Au Haiti, Using - and - Based Analytic Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aftermath of the M7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 witnessed an impressive scientific response from the international community. In addition to conventional post-earthquake investigations, there was also an unprecedented reliance on remote-sensing technologies for scientific investigation and damage assessment. These technologies include sensors from both aerial and space-borne observational platforms. As part of the Haiti earthquake response and recovery effort, we develop a seismic zonation map of Port-au-Prince based on high-resolution satellite imagery as well as data from traditional seismographic monitoring stations and geotechnical site characterizations. Our imagery consists of a global digital elevation model (gDEM) of Hispaniola derived from data recorded by NASA-JPL's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the multi-platform satellite Terra. To develop our model we also consider recorded waveforms from portable seismographic stations (Hough et al., in review) and 36 geotechnical shear-wave velocity surveys (Cox et al., in review). Following a similar approach developed by Yong et al. (2008; Bull. Seism Soc. Am.), we use both pixel- and object- based imaging analytic methods to systematically identify and extract local terrain features that are expected to amplify seismic ground motion. Using histogram-stretching techniques applied to the rDEM values, followed by multi-resolution, segmentations of the imagery into terrain types, we systematically classify the terrains of Hispaniola. By associating available Vs30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meter depth) calculated from the MASW (Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave) survey method, we develop a first-order site characterization map. Our results indicate that the terrain-based Vs30 estimates are significantly associated with amplitudes recorded at station sites. We also find that the damage distribution inferred from UNOSAT (UNITAR Operational Satellite Applications Program) data matches our estimates. However, the strongest amplifications are observed at two stations on a foothill ridge, where Vs30 values indicate that amplification should be relatively lower. Hough et al. (2010, this session) conclude that the observations can be explained by topographic amplification along a steep, narrow ridge. On the basis of these preliminary results, we conclude that the terrain-based framework, which characterizes topographic amplification as well as sediment-induced amplification, is needed to develop a microzonation map for Port-au-Prince.

Yong, A.; Hough, S. E.; Cox, B. R.; Rathje, E. M.; Bachhuber, J.; Hulslander, D.; Christiansen, L.; Abrams, M.



Genetic introgression and hybridization in Antillean freshwater turtles (Trachemys) revealed by coalescent analyses of mitochondrial and cloned nuclear markers.  


Determining whether a conflict between gene trees and species trees represents incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) or hybridization involving native and/or invasive species has implications for reconstructing evolutionary relationships and guiding conservation decisions. Among vertebrates, turtles represent an exceptional case for exploring these issues because of the propensity for even distantly related lineages to hybridize. In this study we investigate a group of freshwater turtles (Trachemys) from a part of its range (the Greater Antilles) where it is purported to have undergone reticulation events from both natural and anthropogenic processes. We sequenced mtDNA for 83 samples, sequenced three nuDNA markers for 45 samples, and cloned 29 polymorphic sequences, to identify species boundaries, hybridization, and intergrade zones for Antillean Trachemys and nearby mainland populations. Initial coalescent analyses of phased nuclear alleles (using (*)BEAST) recovered a Bayesian species tree that strongly conflicted with the mtDNA phylogeny and traditional taxonomy, and appeared to be confounded by hybridization. Therefore, we undertook exploratory phylogenetic analyses of mismatched alleles from the "coestimated" gene trees (Heled and Drummond, 2010) in order to identify potential hybrid origins. The geography, morphology, and sampling context of most samples with potential introgressed alleles suggest hybridization over ILS. We identify contact zones between different species on Jamaica (T. decussata × T. terrapen), on Hispaniola (T. decorata × T. stejnegeri), and in Central America (T. emolli × T. venusta). We are unable to determine whether the distribution of T. decussata on Jamaica is natural or the result of prehistoric introduction by Native Americans. This uncertainty means that the conservation status of the Jamaican T. decussata populations and contact zone with T. terrapen are unresolved. Human-mediated dispersal events were more conclusively implicated for the prehistoric translocation of T. stejnegeri between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, as well as the more recent genetic pollution of native species by an invasive pet turtle native to the USA (T. scripta elegans). Finally, we test the impact of introgressed alleles using the multispecies coalescent in a Bayesian framework and show that studies that do not phase heterozygote sequences of hybrid individuals may recover the correct species tree, but overall support for clades that include hybrid individuals may be reduced. PMID:23353072

Parham, James F; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Dijk, Peter Paul van; Wilson, Byron S; Marte, Cristian; Schettino, Lourdes Rodriguez; Brian Simison, W



Airborne Radar Observations of Hurricane Georges during Landfall over the Dominican Republic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 22 September 1998 hurricane Georges made landfall on the Dominican Republic (DR). Georges cost the DR at least 500 lives, made more than 155,000 people homeless and caused extensive damage to the country's main industries, tourism and agriculture. There was considerable wind damage, with wind gusts up to 58 m/s in Santa Domingo on the south coast, but most of the damage and deaths resulted from mudslides and the flooding of rivers. While this may have been the worst natural disaster to strike the DR, the sustained rapid storm movement saved the island from worse damage. Georges had previously affected several islands in the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico, but it had retained much of its circulation strength. Forty raingauge stations across the DR measured rainfall totals from Georges between 0.7 and 41 cm, the latter at the capital Santo Domingo, located on the south coast. At Herrera the maximum 1 h rainfall rate was 72 mm/h. It is suspected that much higher rain rates occurred in DR's mountainous interior. Before landfall the eye was clearly evident in satellite imagery. When the eye moved over southeastern DR, it filled rapidly, and the cloud top height decreased in all storm sectors except in the southern inflow sector, where a long-lived MCS, with a diameter larger than that of the eyewall, slowly became enwrapped in the hurricane circulation. The eye closure was most rapid between 16-18 UTC, when the eyewall circulation felt the mountainous terrain of the Cordillera Central, which rises up to 3,093 m. The estimated central pressure increased from 962 hPa at 15 UTC to 986 hPa at 03Z on 23 Sept, and the maximum sustained surface wind speed decreased from 54 to 36 in s-1 during the same period. The island of Hispaniola has a cross-track width of about 250 km, much wider than the diameter of the eyewall anvil (about 100 km before landfall). So the event can truly be considered to be a landfalling case, even though Georges recovered after crossing Hispaniola, albeit never to the same strength. This talk will summarize satellite and ground observations of Georges, as it passed the DR, and it will focus on EDOP data. In particular, we will try to estimate the rainfall rate over the mountainous terrain of the DR. And we will use detailed sounding data to explain the presence and characteristics of the massive MCS to the south, as well as the upper-level updrafts apparent over this MCS and over the mountains of the DR.

Geerts, B.; Heymsfield, G.; Tian, L.



Evolutionary stasis and lability in thermal physiology in a group of tropical lizards  

PubMed Central

Understanding how quickly physiological traits evolve is a topic of great interest, particularly in the context of how organisms can adapt in response to climate warming. Adjustment to novel thermal habitats may occur either through behavioural adjustments, physiological adaptation or both. Here, we test whether rates of evolution differ among physiological traits in the cybotoids, a clade of tropical Anolis lizards distributed in markedly different thermal environments on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. We find that cold tolerance evolves considerably faster than heat tolerance, a difference that results because behavioural thermoregulation more effectively shields these organisms from selection on upper than lower temperature tolerances. Specifically, because lizards in very different environments behaviourally thermoregulate during the day to similar body temperatures, divergent selection on body temperature and heat tolerance is precluded, whereas night-time temperatures can only be partially buffered by behaviour, thereby exposing organisms to selection on cold tolerance. We discuss how exposure to selection on physiology influences divergence among tropical organisms and its implications for adaptive evolutionary response to climate warming. PMID:24430845

Muñoz, Martha M.; Stimola, Maureen A.; Algar, Adam C.; Conover, Asa; Rodriguez, Anthony J.; Landestoy, Miguel A.; Bakken, George S.; Losos, Jonathan B.



Annotated list of the flora of the Bisley Area, luquillo experimental forest, Puerto Rico 1987 to 1992. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

The plant species of the Bisley area were surveyed for several years, mostly as a result of studies conducted under the Long-Term Ecological Research Program of the National Science Foundation. A list was prepared that contains a total of 336 plant species in 255 genera and 102 families of bryophytes and vascular plants. Within these species there are 107 tree species, 20 shrub species, 28 dicotyledonous vines, 86 herbs, 52 bryophytes, and 43 ferns. There are 22 introduced and 314 native species (of the later, 30 are endemic to Puerto Rico). Nine families account for 39 percent of all species found in the Bisley area. Forests of the Bisley area have been classified as subtropical wet forests, lower montane rain forests, and single-dominant forests. The Bisley watersheds are covered by a secondary forest of the tabonuco type (Dacryodes excelsa). This forest type is part of the Dacryodes-Sloanea association of Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and higher elevation islands of the Lesser Antilles.

Chinea, J.D.; Beymer, R.J.; Sastre de Jesus, I.; Scatena, F.N.



Genomic and phenotypic characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolates from a US Gulf Coast cholera outbreak.  


Between November 2010, and May 2011, eleven cases of cholera, unrelated to a concurrent outbreak on the island of Hispaniola, were recorded, and the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75, was traced to oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. From the 11 diagnosed cases, eight isolates of V. cholerae were isolated and their genomes were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of a suite of mobile elements previously shown to be involved in the disease process of cholera (ctxAB, VPI-1 and -2, and a VSP-II like variant) and a phylogenomic analysis showed the isolates to be sister taxa to toxigenic V. cholerae V51 serogroup O141, a clinical strain isolated 23 years earlier. Toxigenic V. cholerae O75 has been repeatedly isolated from clinical cases in the southeastern United States and toxigenic V. cholerae O141 isolates have been isolated globally from clinical cases over several decades. Comparative genomics, phenotypic analyses, and a Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection for the isolates were conducted. This analysis coupled with isolation data of V. cholerae O75 and O141 suggests these strains may represent an underappreciated clade of cholera-causing strains responsible for significant disease burden globally. PMID:24699521

Haley, Bradd J; Choi, Seon Young; Grim, Christopher J; Onifade, Tiffiani J; Cinar, Hediye N; Tall, Ben D; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A; Abdullah, Abdulshakur H; Carter, Laurenda; Sahu, Surasri N; Kothary, Mahendra H; Chen, Arlene; Baker, Ron; Hutchinson, Richard; Blackmore, Carina; Cebula, Thomas A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R



Rio Soliette (haiti): AN International Initiative for Flood-Hazard Assessment and Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural catastrophic events are one of most critical aspects for health and economy all around the world. However, the impact in a poor region can impact more dramatically than in others countries. Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), one of the poorest regions of the planet, has repeatedly been hit by catastrophic natural disasters that caused incalculable human and economic losses. After the catastrophic flood event occurred in the basin of River Soliette on May 24th, 2004, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded an international cooperation initiative (ICI) coordinated by the University of Bologna, that involved Haitian and Dominican institutions.Main purpose of the ICI was hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures. In this contest, a topographic survey was necessary to realize the hydrological model and to improve the knowledge in some areas candidates to be site for mitigation measures.To overcome the difficulties arising from the narrowness of funds, surveyors and limited time available for the survey, only GPS technique have been used, both for framing aspects (using PPP approach), and for geometrical survey of the river by means of river cross-sections and detailed surveys in two areas (RTK technique). This allowed us to reconstruct both the river geometry and the DTM's of two expansion areas (useful for design hydraulic solutions for mitigate flood-hazard risk).

Gandolfi, S.; Castellarin, A.; Barbarella, M.; Brath, A.; Domeneghetti, A.; Brandimarte, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.



Colonization of islands in the Mona Passage by endemic dwarf geckoes (genus Sphaerodactylus) reconstructed with mitochondrial phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the natural history of the Sphaerodactylus species endemic to the three islands located in the Mona Passage separating the Greater Antillean islands of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. In this study, parts of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA, were sequenced to determine the relationships between the sphaerodactylids that live in the Mona Passage and other Caribbean species from the same genus. While the main goal was to identify the biogeographical origin of these species, we also identified a genetically distinct type of dwarf gecko that warrants future evaluation as a possible new species. According to the reconstructed phylogenies, we propose a stepwise model of colonization wherein S. nicholsi from southwestern Puerto Rico or a very close ancestor gave rise through a founder event to Sphaerodactylus monensis on Mona Island. In a similar fashion, S. monensis or a very close ancestor on Mona Island gave rise to S. levinsi on Desecheo Island. This study also suggests that the most recent common ancestor between the species from the islands in the Mona Passage and Puerto Rico existed approximately 3 MYA. PMID:24340189

Díaz-Lameiro, Alondra M; Oleksyk, Taras K; Bird-Picó, Fernando J; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos



Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 Isolates from a US Gulf Coast Cholera Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Between November 2010, and May 2011, eleven cases of cholera, unrelated to a concurrent outbreak on the island of Hispaniola, were recorded, and the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75, was traced to oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. From the 11 diagnosed cases, eight isolates of V. cholerae were isolated and their genomes were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of a suite of mobile elements previously shown to be involved in the disease process of cholera (ctxAB, VPI-1 and -2, and a VSP-II like variant) and a phylogenomic analysis showed the isolates to be sister taxa to toxigenic V. cholerae V51 serogroup O141, a clinical strain isolated 23 years earlier. Toxigenic V. cholerae O75 has been repeatedly isolated from clinical cases in the southeastern United States and toxigenic V. cholerae O141 isolates have been isolated globally from clinical cases over several decades. Comparative genomics, phenotypic analyses, and a Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection for the isolates were conducted. This analysis coupled with isolation data of V. cholerae O75 and O141 suggests these strains may represent an underappreciated clade of cholera-causing strains responsible for significant disease burden globally. PMID:24699521

Grim, Christopher J.; Onifade, Tiffiani J.; Cinar, Hediye N.; Tall, Ben D.; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A.; Abdullah, AbdulShakur H.; Carter, Laurenda; Sahu, Surasri N.; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Chen, Arlene; Baker, Ron; Hutchinson, Richard; Blackmore, Carina; Cebula, Thomas A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.



Studies in Neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the Middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation of Cuba.  


An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacán Formation, Camagüey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleoclimate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacán flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America. PMID:11034928

Graham, A; Cozadd, D; Areces-Mallea, A; Frederiksen, N O



Conservation and management of the American crocodile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American crocodile is a rare and endangered species, the range of which has contracted to disjunct locations such as Hispaniola, Jamaica, Cuba, Panama, and southern Florida. In an attempt to determine what factors might be limiting population growth, an extensive collaborative research program was conducted in 1978 82 in southern Florida. Limiting factors explicitly studied included climate, hurricanes, population dispersion, nesting habitat, fertility, predation, nest chamber environment, juvenile survivorship, artificial mortality, disturbance, and environmental contamination. No single natural factor limits the population, although in concert various factors result in low adult recruitment rates. Such natural limitations explain the natural rarity of this tropical species at the temperate limits of its range. Two artificial sources of mortality are death of adults on roads and the flooding of nests by high groundwater tables. These sources of mortality are potentially controllable by the appropriate management agencies. Active management, by such means as protection of individuals, habitat preservation and enhancement, nest site protection, and captive breeding, is also appropriate for assuring the survival of a rare species. The American crocodile has survived in southern Florida in face of extensive human occupancy of parts of its former nesting habitat, demonstrating the resilience of a threatened species. This case history illustrates the efficacy of conducting research aimed at testing specific management hypotheses, the importance of considering biographical constraints limiting population status in peripheral populations, the need for active management of rare species, and the role of multiple reserves in a conservation and management strategy.

Kushlan, James A.



Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the middle Eocene Saramaguacan formation of Cuba  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.



Seismic zonation of Port-Au-Prince using pixel- and object-based imaging analysis methods on ASTER GDEM  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, VS30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available VS30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data.

Yong, Alan; Hough, Susan E.; Cox, Brady R.; Rathje, Ellen M.; Bachhuber, Jeff; Dulberg, Ranon; Hulslander, David; Christiansen, Lisa; and Abrams, Michael J.



Seismic-zonation of Port-au-Prince using pixel- and object-based imaging analysis methods on ASTER GDEM  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, Vs30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available Vs30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data. ?? 2011 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

Yong, A.; Hough, S.E.; Cox, B.R.; Rathje, E.M.; Bachhuber, J.; Dulberg, R.; Hulslander, D.; Christiansen, L.; Abrams, M.J.



Migration of Neogene marine environments, southwestern Dominican Republic  

SciTech Connect

The Azua Basin contains a 4000-m-thick regressive Neogene sedimentary sequence that records the effects of neotectonic activity along the northern bounary of the Caribbean plate. Shifts of benthic foraminiferal depth zone boundaries between stratigraphic sections demonstrate a southeastward migration of paleoenvironments in the Miocene and early Pliocene which suggest that the Hispaniola restraining bend was activated near the beginning of the late Miocene. In the morthwestern part of the Azua basin, the boundary between the middle and upper bathyal biofacies is in the uppermost Miocene Globorotalia humerosa Zone; the bathyal-neritic boundary is near the top of the same zone. In contrast, toward the southeastern (i.e., seaward) end of the basin, the middle bathyal/upper bathyal boundary is just above the base of the lower Pliocene Globorotalia margaritae margaritae Subzone, and the bathyal-neritic transition falls within the upper part of the same zone or in the overlying Globorotalia margaritae evoluta Subzone. The diachroneity of biofacies boundaries spans a time interval of ca. 1 m.y. The foraminiferal trends are corroborated by the disposition of time-transgressive lithofacies.

McLaughlin, P.P. Jr. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, Texas (USA)); Sen Gupta, B.K. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))



[Chikungunya: a challenge for the Dominican Republic's health services].  


The Region of the Americas has been affected since December 2013 by a chikungunya epidemic for the first time. Although the first cases were recorded in the French Caribbean, the epidemic quickly spread to the Dominican Republic due to trade and people movements. The Dominican Republic, which shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti, has a population of 10 million. This article contains information from a range of different publications and official documents about the chikungunya virus infection and epidemic. These papers were extremely helpful for guiding the response to the epidemic in the Dominican Republic and may also be useful for enhancing knowledge of the virus and responses among health workers elsewhere in the region. Particular attention is drawn to the important research undertaken in countries and territories affected by the epidemic in the Indian Ocean area. This is the case, for example, of the island of La Réunion, where the epidemic had an attack rate of more than 30% between 2005 and 2007. Researchers were able to identify risk groups, severe and atypical forms of the infection, cases of vertical transmission, chronic disease causing recurrent pain over three years, and directly- or indirectly-related deaths from the virus. Given its high attack rate, the chikungunya virus has emerged as an exceptional challenge for health ministries and calls for appropriate organized responses from the health services, prioritization of care for risk groups and patients exhibiting severe forms of the disease, and effective social communication and intersectoral actions. PMID:25604103

Moya, José; Pimentel, Raquel; Puello, José



Plate interaction in the NE Caribbean subduction zone from continuous GPS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinematic similarities between the Sumatra and Puerto Rico Trenches highlight the potential for a mega-earthquake along the Puerto Rico Trench and the generation of local and trans-Atlantic tsunamis. We used the horizontal components of continuous GPS (cGPS) measurements from 10 sites on NE Caribbean islands to evaluate strain accumulation along the North American (NA) - Caribbean (CA) plate boundary. These sites move westward and slightly northward relative to CA interior at rates ?2.5 mm/y. Provided this motion originates in the subduction interface, the northward motion suggests little or no trench-perpendicular thrust accumulation and may in fact indicate divergence north of Puerto Rico, where abnormal subsidence, bathymetry, and gravity are observed. The Puerto Rico Trench, thus, appears unable to generate mega-earthquakes, but damaging smaller earthquakes cannot be discounted. The westward motion, characterized by decreasing rate with distance from the trench, is probably due to eastward motion of CA plate impeded at the plate boundary by the Bahamas platform. Two additional cGPS sites in Mona Passage and SW Puerto Rico move to the SW similar to Hispaniola and unlike the other 10 sites. That motion relative to the rest of Puerto Rico may have given rise to seismicity and normal faults in Mona Rift, Mona Passage, and SW Puerto Rico.

ten Brink, Uri S.; López-Venegas, Alberto M.



Rain from Tropical Storm Noel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Though not the most powerful storm of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane season, Tropical Storm Noel was among the most deadly. Only Category 5 Hurricane Felix and its associated flooding had a higher toll. The slow-moving Tropical Storm Noel inundated the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas with heavy rain between October 28 and November 1, 2007. The resulting floods and mudslides left at least 115 dead and thousands homeless throughout the Caribbean, reported the Associated Press on November 2, 2007. This image shows the distribution of the rainfall that made Noel a deadly storm. The image shows rainfall totals as measured by the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from October 26 through November 1, 2007. The analysis is based on measurements taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The heaviest rainfall fell in the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas, northeast of Noel's center. Areas of dark red show that rainfall totals over the south-central Dominican Republic and parts of the Bahamas were over 551 millimeters (21 inches). Much of eastern Hispaniola, including both the Dominican Republic and Haiti received at least 200 mm (about 8 inches) of rain, shown in yellow. Rainfall totals over Haiti and Cuba were less, with a range of at least 50 mm (2 inches) to over 200 mm (8 inches).



Earthquake Shakes ``Big Bend'' Region of North America-Caribbean Boundary Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At 12:45 pm on 22 September, a M6.5 earthquake severely shook the northern Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola. The earthquake caused extensive damage to buildings in the major cities of Puerto Plata and Santiago, along with landslides in outlying areas. The main shock was followed by a large aftershock of M5.1 1 hr and 45 min later. Unfortunately, one person died due to collapse of a building during the main shock, two elderly people died of heart attacks, and one person jumped out of a building and later died of injuries. Fortunately, two partially collapsed school buildings and several office buildings in Puerto Plata that were severely damaged were unoccupied at the time of the early morning main shock. Aftershocks ranging up to nearly M5 continued for over a month, alarming local inhabitants. The M6.5 earthquake is the strongest shock to affect the northern Dominican Republic since a series of thrust events ranging from M6.1-8.1 occurred offshore and northeast of the Dominican Republic between 1943 and 1953 [Dolan and Wald, 1998]. This article summarizes the tectonic setting of the recent earthquake, its focal mechanism and inferred fault plane, damage, and ongoing research.

Mann, Paul; Calais, Eric; Huerfano, Victor



The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: Key Contributing Factors.  


This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries. As in other Caribbean and Latin American countries, reported HIV transmission in the Dominican Republic is predominantly due to unprotected heterosexual sex and the infection rate has been increasing disproportionally among women. The Dominican Republic represents two thirds of the Hispaniola island; the western one third is occupied by Haiti, the nation with the highest HIV prevalence in the western hemisphere. Although data is limited, it shows important differences in seroprevalence and incidence between these two countries, but commonalities such as poverty, gender inequalities, and stigma appear to be pivotal factors driving the epidemic. This article will discuss these and other factors that may contribute to the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic, as well as highlight the gaps in the literature and provide recommendations to guide further work in this area, particularly in the role of governance in sustainable HIV prevention. PMID:21368008

Rojas, Patria; Malow, Robert; Ruffin, Beverly; Rothe, Eugenio M; Rosenberg, Rhonda



First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades. PMID:20659936

Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Cooke, Siobhán B.; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis



First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic.  


The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades. PMID:20659936

Rosenberger, Alfred L; Cooke, Siobhán B; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis



Tectonic events recorded in the sediments and crust of the Caribbean sea floor  

SciTech Connect

A reconnaissance review of reflection-seismic sections from the Caribbean, together with limited information derived from dredged rocks, sediment cores, and drillholes, yields or contributes to first-order conclusions regarding the tectonic history of the water-covered Caribbean. Broadly speaking, tectonic episodes for which there is some evidence are: (1) late Cenozoic convergence and accretion along deformed continental or island margins off Panama, Colombia/Venezuela, and Hispaniola/Puerto Rico; (2) late Cenozoic generation of oceanic crust within the Cayman Trough; (3) late Cenozoic secondary deformation along the Caribbean-North American plate boundary zone, in the form of small pull-apart basins, transcurrent faults, tensional rift basins, and compressional features; (4) late Cenozoic slow disintegration of the western part of the Caribbean plate; (5) Cenozoic rift-basin formation on the upper Nicaraguan rise; (6) early Cenozoic or late Cretaceous opening of the Yucatan Basin; (7) late Cretaceous through early Cenozoic island arc formation; and (8) late Cretaceous and earlier emplacement of flow basalts in the northwestern Venezuelan Basin and possibly beneath large areas of the Caribbean. There is no evidence that except along their active margins, the Venezuelan Basin, Beata Ridge, Colombian Basin, and Nicaraguan rise areas have been sites for large-scale relative movements which created or destroyed plate material since late Cretaceous time - or earlier.

Holcombe, T.L.



"Darwin's butterflies"? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).  


The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin's finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA 'barcodes' (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI) from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa Calisto confusa Lathy, 1899 and Calisto confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz & Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824) (including its subspecies Calisto hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n.), and its former subspecies Calisto batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%) and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/Calisto crypta Gali, 1985/Calisto franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%), confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma González, 1987, Calisto grannus amazona González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus micrommata Schwartz & Gali, 1984, stat. n., Calisto grannus dystacta González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus phoinix González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus sommeri Schwartz & Gali, 1984, stat. n., and Calisto grannus micheneri Clench, 1944, stat. n.) should be treated as a single polytypic species, as genetic divergence among sampled populations representing these taxa is low (and stable morphological apomorphies are absent). A widely-distributed pest of sugar cane, Calisto pulchella Lathy, 1899 showed higher diversification among isolated populations (3.5%) than expected, hence supporting former separation of this species into two taxa (pulchella and darlingtoni Clench, 1943), of which the latter might prove to be a separate species rather than subspecies. The taxonomic revisions presented here result in Calisto now containing 34 species and 17 subspecies. Three species endemic to islands other than Hispaniola appear to be derived lineages of various Hispaniolan clades, indicating ancient dispersal events from Hispaniola to Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica. Overall, the degree of intrageneric and intraspecific divergence within Calisto suggests a long and continuous diversification period of 4-8 Myr. The maximum divergence within the genus (ca. 13.3%) is almost equivalent to the maximum divergence of Calisto from the distant pronophiline relative Auca Hayward, 1953 from the southern Andes (14.1%) and from the presumed closest relative Eretris Thieme, 1905 (14.4%), suggesting that the genus began to diversify soon after its split from its continental sister taxon. In general, this 'barcode' divergence corresponds to the high degree of morphological and ecological variation found among major lineages within the genus. PMID:24260629

Sourakov, Andrei; Zakharov, Evgeny V



Faith based aviation: An ethnographic study of missionary flights international  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of faith-based missionary aviation is a post-World War II phenomenon. The war effort demonstrated the value, utility, and global reach of aviation to remote, underdeveloped areas of the world. With the beginnings of a worldwide infrastructure for aviation, Christian aviators realized aviation could increase the range and effectiveness of their efforts to reach the world for Christ (Mellis, 2006). Although individual organizations provide statistical information and data about flight operations there is a lack of external evidence and relevant research literature confirming the scope and value of these faith based aviation organizations and operations. A qualitative, ethnographic study was conducted to document the activities of one faith-based aviation organization to gain an understanding of this little known aspect of civilian aviation. The study was conducted with Missionary Flights International (MFI) of Fort Pierce, FL which has been involved in faith-based, missionary aviation since its inception in 1964. As an aviation organization "MFI strives to offer affiliated missions the kind of efficient service and professionalism expected of an airline operation" (Missionary Flights International, 2013, p.1). MFI is a lifeline for missionaries to Haiti and the Dominican Republic, fulfilling their motto of "Standing in the Gap". MFI provides twice a week service to the island of Hispaniola and the Republic of Haiti. In this in-depth study insight and understanding was gained into the purpose of MFI, their daily routines and operations, and the challenges they face in maintaining their flight services to Haiti. This study provided documentation of the value and utility of such aviation efforts and of the individuals involved in this endeavor.

Cooper, Joseph H.


Jurassic hydrocarbon exploration of southern Florida  

SciTech Connect

South Florida Jurassic exploration has been overlooked as a viable exploration target due to lack of data and plate-tectonics application. In Florida, {open_quotes}basement{close_quotes} is defined as crystalline, igneous, metamorphic, and unmetamorphosed sediments of Paleozoic age. Age-dating of zircons has proven that the Florida lower Paleozoic terrane is not akin to that of North America but is part of the West African Guinean shield. Previous published reconstructions of late Paleozoic fits of crustal plates and continents have failed to account for the differences in peninsula Florida basement and the geologic and tectonic continuities of peninsula Florida, Yucatan, Cuba, Hispaniola, and Bahamas. Pre-Atlantic reconstruction of the Gulf of Mexico in this study proposes that there was a Florida connection to Yucatan-Cuba-Africa during the Triassic. This reconstruction also shows that the Jurassic sediments that are well known in the northern Gulf Coast should have been deposited in similar depositional environments in southern Florida. Deep drilling on the Florida peninsula has confirmed this hypothesis. By using plate tectonic reconstruction based on the rising of the North Atlantic Ocean and evidence from petrology of basement samples from deep wells together with petrographic analyses of Jurassic sediments, a Smackover-equivalent exploration play can be developed. Petrographic and petrophysical analysis of these wells that have encountered Jurassic marine shales, anhydrite, dolomite, carbonate, and elastic sediments has determined that these sediments are from shallow-water subtidal, tidal, intertidal, and supratidal environments. Excellent gas shows, oil stain in the pores and high TOC values in the marine shales, indicate that large accumulations of hydrocarbon are present.

Mitchell-Tapping, H.J. [Retog, Inc., DeSoto, TX (United States)



Tsunami hazard in the Caribbean: Regional exposure derived from credible worst case scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study documents a high tsunami hazard in the Caribbean region, with several thousands of lives lost in tsunamis and associated earthquakes since the XIXth century. Since then, the coastal population of the Caribbean and the Central West Atlantic region has grown significantly and is still growing. Understanding this hazard is therefore essential for the development of efficient mitigation measures. To this end, we report a regional tsunami exposure assessment based on potential and credible seismic and non-seismic tsunamigenic sources. Regional tsunami databases have been compiled and reviewed, and on this basis five main scenarios have been selected to estimate the exposure. The scenarios comprise two Mw8 earthquake tsunamis (north of Hispaniola and east of Lesser Antilles), two subaerial/submarine volcano flank collapse tsunamis (Montserrat and Saint Lucia), and one tsunami resulting from a landslide on the flanks of the Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano (north of Grenada). Offshore tsunami water surface elevations as well as maximum water level distributions along the shore lines are computed and discussed for each of the scenarios. The number of exposed people has been estimated in each case, together with a summary of the tsunami exposure for the earthquake and the landslide tsunami scenarios. For the earthquake scenarios, the highest tsunami exposure relative to the population is found for Guadeloupe (6.5%) and Antigua (7.5%), while Saint Lucia (4.5%) and Antigua (5%) have been found to have the highest tsunami exposure relative to the population for the landslide scenarios. Such high exposure levels clearly warrant more attention on dedicated mitigation measures in the Caribbean region.

Harbitz, C. B.; Glimsdal, S.; Bazin, S.; Zamora, N.; Løvholt, F.; Bungum, H.; Smebye, H.; Gauer, P.; Kjekstad, O.



Mélanges and olistostromes in the Puerto Plata area (northern Dominican Republic) as a record of subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North-American plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cordillera Septentrional records the oblique subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North American plates during Late Cretaceous to early Palaeogene times. The Puerto Plata basement complex of this range is considered to represent a fragment of the frontal part of the Great Arc of the Caribbean in Hispaniola that originated during thrusting of the Caribbean plate onto the North American shelf. This paper describes and interprets mélange-type formations spatially related to this basement complex and its associated sedimentary cover, the Imbert Fm. Such formations include the San Marcos olistostromic Fm and a unit of Serpentinic Breccias located at the base and interbedded in the lower section of the former. Both units are Eocene in age, have been mainly deposited by syntectonic subaqueous mass-transport processes and typically host a varied mixture of blocks of known and unknown origin, including high-P metamorphic rocks (knockers). Cartoon models of palaeotectonic reconstructions depicting the final stages of subduction and the onset of collisional process in Early and Middle Eocene times respectively, are proposed in order to show the original relationships among all geological units involved in the study area. The Serpentinic Breccias are interpreted as being the result of extensive sedimentary recycling of peridotite and serpentinite massive bodies or subduction related mélanges when exposed at the surface by return flow during early exhumation stages of the accretionary complex, coevally with the end of island-arc volcanism. This process is inferred to be the triggering mechanism for the feeding of originally deep-sited knockers, probably in combination with strike-slip tectonics and associated mud diapirism The slightly younger San Marcos Fm records the collision event and main exhumation stage, while displaying the typical features present in olistostromes and other mass-wasting, gravitationally-driven deposits recognized in extensive areas of forearc and accretionary complexes involved in arc-continent collisional processes.

Hernaiz Huerta, P. P.; Pérez-Valera, F.; Abad, M.; Monthel, J.; Diaz de Neira, A.



New Kinematic Block Model for the Caribbean Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left- and right-lateral strike slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip faulting along major plate boundaries. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling along the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction zone whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. Previous studies used GPS data and a block modeling approach to infer coupling at the plate interface and strain partitioning at the transition with strike-slip fault in the northeastern Caribbean (Manaker et al., 2008; Benford et al., 2013), with three main findings: (1) a correlation between strong interplate coupling and strain partitioning, (2) low coupling of the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico subduction, and, (3) internal deformation within the upper plate in Hispaniola. These studies were however based on a sparse and inhomogeneous GPS data set. Here we use a much updated geodetic GPS data set (~300 stations, 50% continuous) and earthquake slip vectors to expand these previous studies to the entire Caribbean region (excluding Central America, except to define the stable Caribbean plate). We use the block modeling approach described in McCaffrey et al. (2002) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solve for variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries, estimate angular velocities for each block/plate, and determine strain accumulation rates for all major faults in the region.

Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.



Initiatives of Application of the Bakun-Wentworth's Method for the Estimation of Macroseismic Parameters in the Northern South America and the Caribbean Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of location, magnitude and uncertainties of great historical earthquakes is a key issue for understanding the seismic potential and PSHA of a region. In the last years independent techniques using only macrosesismic data points have been developed as, for example, the approach of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) or BW. This method has been largely applied in different tectonic contexts (Bindi et al., 2013), in different UE international projects and in estimations of location, magnitude and epistemic uncertainties (Bakun et al., 2011). We focus on some regional calibration initiatives in Northern South America and areas of the Caribbean Region. BW has been calibrated by Palme et al. (2005) and Choy et al. (2012) for earthquakes of the Mérida Andes and the Venezuela Central Regions. As well, BW calibrations have been proposed for the interandean Valley in Ecuador (Beauval et al., 2010), in the Hispaniola (Bakun et al, 2012) and for the northeastern Caribbean region (ten Brink et al., 2011). Preliminary BW calibration for the southeastern region of Cuba has been proposed by Gómez-Capera et al. (2012). Applications to historical earthquakes in Cuba have given encouraging results mainly for offshore events and are presented in the present study. We also present preliminary results for some earthquakes that have been recently studied in literature as for example the historical earthquakes of 1743 (Salcedo Hurtado and Gómez-Capera in press) and 1785 (Salcedo Hurtado and Castaño Castaño, 2011) which occurred close to Bogotá, BW method and intensity relationship of the literature were used. We present comparisons and sensibility analysis of the different relationships obtained in the region as well as uncertainty assessment. We also note that the magnitude parameter depends strongly on the regional calibration. Because of the availability of new macroseismic studies in Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano y Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2013; available online inórica/), Venezuela ( and Caribbean Region, in the future it is expected to propose models for macroseismic intensity attenuations of regional character especially in Colombia and in Venezuela in the Cumaná region. This region has a rich earthquake history. In this topic of the regional calibration of intensity attenuation relationships, the situation is challenging because several historical and recent earthquakes in this region are attributed to subduction zones. It is therefore necessary to involve focal depth. This is still an open problem.

Gomez Capera, A.; Bindi, D.; Cifuentes, H.; Choy, J.; Chuy Rodriguez, T.; Garcia, J.; Massa, M.; Palme, C.; Pierristal, G.; Salcedo Hurtado, E.; Sanchez Vasquez, A.



Changes in Late Cretaceous-Quaternary Caribbean plate motion directions inferred from paleostress measurements from striated fault planes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compiled paleostress analyses from previous research works collected at 591 localities of striated fault planes in rocks ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Quaternary in the circum-Caribbean and Mexico. The purpose of the study is to quantify a progressive clockwise rotation of the Caribbean plate during its Late Cretaceous to recent subduction of the Proto-Caribbean seaway. Paleostress analysis is based on the assumption that slickenside lineations indicate both the direction and sense of maximum resolved shear stress on that fault plane. We have plotted directions of maximum horizontal stress onto plate tectonic reconstructions of the circum-Caribbean plate boundaries and infer that these directions are proxies for paleo-plate motion directions of the Caribbean plate. Plotting these stress directions onto reconstructions provided a better visualization of the relation of stress directions to blocks at their time of Late Cretaceous to recent deformation. Older, more deformed rocks of Late Cretaceous to Eocene ages yield a greater scatter in derived paleostress directions as these rocks have steeper dips, more pervasive faulting, and were likely affected by large rotations as known from previous paleomagnetic studies of Caribbean plate margins. Despite more scatter in measurements from older rock units, four major events that affected the Caribbean plate and the Great Arc of the Caribbean (GAC) are recognizable from changing orientations of stress directions: 1) Late Cretaceous collision of the GAC with southern Mexico and Colombia is consistent with NE directions of maximum compression in rocks of this age range in southern Mexico and EW directions in Colombia as the GAC approached the Proto-Caribbean seaway; 2) Paleocene-Eocene collision of the GAC with the Bahamas platform in Cuba and Hispaniola and with the South American plate in Venezuela is consistent with CW rotations of stress directions in rocks of these ages in the northern Caribbean and CCW rotations of these rocks in the southern Caribbean ; 3) Late Miocene collision and indentation of the Panama arc with northwestern South America is consistent with EW directions in rocks of these ages; and 4) Oligocene to recent strike-slip faulting along the northern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean shows consistent directions for the northern (NE) and southern (NW) Caribbean. Stress directions document the progressive clockwise rotation of the Caribbean plate and the GAC motion from NE in the Late Cretaceous, to ENE in the Paleogene, to EW in the Neogene.

Batbayar, K.; Mann, P.; Hippolyte, J.



Ophiolite and Tectonic Development of the East Pacific Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-preserved ophiolites represent oceanic crust and mantle formed at a spreading center and emplaced by collision of a mantle-rooted thrust fault (subduction zone) with a continental margin or island arc. Ophiolite nappes thus represent remnants of lithospheric plates; their basal thrusts (fossil subduction zones) intrinscally cannot be balanced; their displacements are unknown but very large. Many environments of formation are possible for ophiolites: mid-ocean ridge, back-arc, forearc, or intra-arc spreading vrnyrtd, but geochemistry alone is inadequate to differentiate between the possibilities; geologic field evidence is needed, as well. Mesozoic ophiolites in western North America are associated either with the Stikine-Intermontane superterrane (e.g. Sierra Nevada, Klamath Mountains, California. Guerrero terrane, Mexico?), or lie west of it (e.g. Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and correlatives to north and south.). The "Great Arc" of the Caribbean (Burke, 1988), including ophiolitic rocks in Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Colombia, may also correlate with the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and/or with ophiolites in the Sierra Nevada. The Wrangellia/Insular superterrane may have extended to the south and at times may have included parts of the Chortis-Choco blocks of Central America, as well as the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia and Ecuador). These relations suggest the hypothesis that in mid-late Mesozoic time, a separate intra-oceanic plate similar to the present Philippine plate, herein informally called "Americordilleria" was separated by active island arc complexes from the American andFarallon/Kula plates to the east and west, respectively. Basement rocks of the Colombian, Venezuelan, and Yucatan basins, as well as the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite, may represent remnants of "Americordilleria". Convergence and collision of "Americordilleria" and its island arc margins with the American continents were major factors in western American and Caribbean orogenic development. Direct contact between the Kula/Farallon plates and North America may not have occurred until late Cretaceous time.

Moores, E. M.



Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history of Middle American geographic components, negates rotations of the Maya and Chortis blocks required by Pacific models and shows that the Caribbean Plate formed in place. Regional geologic and seismic data indicate that much of "oceanic" Middle America is in fact underpinned by extended continental crust. Salt is present, and probably Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary source rocks also. Oil is seen on Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Cuba, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Prolific hydrocarbon provinces exist in the Gulf of Mexico and along northern S America. The submarine areas in between have significant hydrocarbon potential.

James, K. H.



Role of the offshore Pedro Banks left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in the plate tectonic evolution of the northern Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous workers, mainly mapping onland active faults on Caribbean islands, defined the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone as a 200-km-wide bounded by two active and parallel strike-slip faults: the Oriente fault along the northern edge of the Cayman trough with a GPS rate of 14 mm/yr, and and the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) with a rate of 5-7 mm/yr. In this study we use 5,000 km of industry and academic data from the Nicaraguan Rise south and southwest of the EPGFZ in the maritime areas of Jamaica, Honduras, and Colombia to define an offshore, 700-km-long, active, left-lateral strike-slip fault in what has previously been considered the stable interior of the Caribbean plate as determined from plate-wide GPS studies. The fault was named by previous workers as the Pedro Banks fault zone because a 100-km-long segment of the fault forms an escarpment along the Pedro carbonate bank of the Nicaraguan Rise. Two fault segments of the PBFZ are defined: the 400-km-long eastern segment that exhibits large negative flower structures 10-50 km in width, with faults segments rupturing the sea floor as defined by high resolution 2D seismic data, and a 300-km-long western segment that is defined by a narrow zone of anomalous seismicity first observed by previous workers. The western end of the PBFZ terminates on a Quaternary rift structure, the San Andres rift, associated with Plio-Pleistocene volcanism and thickening trends indicating initial rifting in the Late Miocene. The southern end of the San Andreas rift terminates on the western Hess fault which also exhibits active strands consistent with left-lateral, strike-slip faults. The total length of the PBFZ-San Andres rift-Southern Hess escarpment fault is 1,200 km and traverses the entire western end of the Caribbean plate. Our interpretation is similar to previous models that have proposed the "stable" western Caribbean plate is broken by this fault whose rate of displacement is less than the threshold recognizable from the current GPS network (~3 mm/yr). The Late Miocene age of the fault indicates it may have activated during the Late Miocene to recent Hispaniola-Bahamas oblique collision event.

Ott, B.; Mann, P.; Saunders, M.



From 2012 HAITI-SIS Survey: thick-skin versus thin-skin tectonics partitioned along offshore strike-slip Faults-Haïti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of the deformation along large strike-slip fault-systems like transpressive boundaries between N. Caribbean/N America is a challenging topic, which requires a multi-scale approach. Thanks to Haiti-sis new data, the precise description of the fault segmentation pattern, the sedimentogical distribution, the uplift/subsidence rates, the along-fault and intra-basin fluids circulations, allows to actualize the evolution of the deformation history up to present-day . All the co-seismic surface to near-surface events, have to be also identified in order to integrate geophysical solutions for the earthquake, within the present-day geological and structural pattern. These two approaches, ranging from geological to instantaneous time-scales have been used during multi-tools Haiti-Sis oceanographic survey, allowing to document and image these different aspects at a large scale. The complex strike-slip North Caribbean boundary registered significative stress partitioning. Oblique convergence is expressed by along-strike evolution; from rifted segments (Cayman Through) to transpressive ones (Haiti, Dominican Rep.), to subduction (Porto Rico). In the Haiti-Sis survey, we acquired new offshore data surrounding the active fault areas, in the Gonâve Bay, the Jamaica Channel and along Southern Peninsula. Mapping the sea-floor, and HR seismic acquisition were our main objectives, in order to characterize the fault and fold architecture, with a new delineation of active segments. Offshore piston cores, have been used as representative of the modern basin sedimentation, and to document the catastrophic events (earthquakes, massive flood or sudden destabilization of the platform ) represented by turbiditic or mass-flow sequences, with the objective to track the time recurrence of seismic events by dating some of these catastrophic sediment deposition. At surface, the other markers of the fault activity are linked with along-fault permeability and fluid circulation pathway changes. Geochemical signature and temperature of the fluids and gas, change drastically depending on location and depth provenance. Our first results show that 1) the present-day EPGF geometry results from oblique shortening processes along different segments of the fault. Deep basins previously localized south and north of the fault are inverted at different degrees, 2) the Gonâve Island is only the emerged part of a NW-SE, either growing large " anti-formal stack" or basement inversion responsible for the large present-day fold amplitude, or both of them successively. It separates two sub-basins South and North Gonâve with independant sedimentary and deformation evolution 3) the Jeremie Basin probably has a specific long-living evolution, allowing to precise the geodynamic evolution of the Western Hispaniola Margin.

Ellouz, N.; Leroy, S. D.; Momplaisir, R.; Mercier de Lepinay, B.



Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together with ONEV and BME, installed 4 seismic stations with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank and the Haitian Government. The 4 stations include strong motion and broad-band sensors, complementing the 8 sensors initially installed. The stations communicate via SATMEX5 with the Canadian HUB, which sends the data back to Haiti with minimum delay. In the immediate future, data transfer will be improved with the installation of a main antenna for data reception and the Seismic Warning Center of Port-au-Prince. A bidirectional satellite communication is considered of fundamental importance for robust real-time data transmission that is not affected in the case of a catastrophic event.

Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.



Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the variation of the gravitational field may be related to the proposed faults. More extensive surveys are expected to be conducted in January, 2014. Figure 1 a- digital elevation map of Hispaniola, b- zoomed view of Léogâne fan and Lake Enriquillo with gravity stations, c- surveys over Léogâne area, d- chirp surveys over Lake Enriquillo

Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.



Potential of high resolution satellite imagery, remote weather data and 1D hydraulic modeling to evaluate flood areas in Gonaives, Haiti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a feasibility study to explore potential of high-resolution imagery, coupled with hydraulic flood modeling to predict flooding risks, applied to the case study of Gonaives basins (585 km²), Haiti. We propose a methodology working at different scales, providing accurate results and a faster intervention during extreme flood events. The 'Hispaniola' island, in the Caribbean tropical zone, is often affected by extreme floods events. Floods are caused by tropical springs and hurricanes, and may lead to several damages, including cholera epidemics, as recently occurred, in the wake of the earthquake upon January 12th 2010 (magnitude 7.0). Floods studies based upon hydrological and hydraulic modeling are hampered by almost complete lack of ground data. Thenceforth, and given the noticeable cost involved in the organization of field measurement campaigns, the need for exploitation of remote sensing images data. HEC-RAS 1D modeling is carried out under different scenarios of available Digital Elevation Models. The DEMs are generated using optical remote sensing satellite (WorldView-1) and SRTM, combined with information from an open source database (Open Street Map). We study two recent flood episodes, where flood maps from remote sensing were available. Flood extent and land use have been assessed by way of data from SPOT-5 satellite, after hurricane Jeanne in 2004 and hurricane Hanna in 2008. A semi-distributed, DEM based hydrological model is used to simulate flood flows during the hurricanes. Precipitation input is taken from daily rainfall data derived from TRMM satellite, plus proper downscaling. The hydraulic model is calibrated using floodplain friction as tuning parameters against the observed flooded area. We compare different scenarios of flood simulation, and the predictive power of model calibration. The method provide acceptable results in depicting flooded areas, especially considering the tremendous lack of ground data, and show the potential of remote sensing information in prediction of flood events in this area, for the purpose of risk assessment and land use planning, and possibly for flood forecast during extreme events.

Bozza, Andrea; Durand, Arnaud; Allenbach, Bernard; Confortola, Gabriele; Bocchiola, Daniele



Evolution of type 2 vaccine derived poliovirus lineages. Evidence for codon-specific positive selection at three distinct locations on capsid wall.  


Partial sequences of 110 type 2 poliovirus strains isolated from sewage in Slovakia in 2003-2005, and most probably originating from a single dose of oral poliovirus vaccine, were subjected to a detailed genetic analysis. Evolutionary patterns of these vaccine derived poliovirus strains (SVK-aVDPV2) were compared to those of type 1 and type 3 wild poliovirus (WPV) lineages considered to have a single seed strain origin, respectively. The 102 unique SVK-aVDPV VP1 sequences were monophyletic differing from that of the most likely parental poliovirus type 2/Sabin (PV2 Sabin) by 12.5-15.6%. Judging from this difference and from the rate of accumulation of synonymous transversions during the 22 month observation period, the relevant oral poliovirus vaccine dose had been administered to an unknown recipient more than 12 years earlier. The patterns of nucleotide substitution during the observation period differed from those found in the studied lineages of WPV1 or 3, including a lower transition/transversion (Ts/Tv) bias and strikingly lower Ts/Tv rate ratios at the 2(nd) codon position for both purines and pyrimidines. A relatively low preference of transitions at the 2(nd) codon position was also found in the large set of VP1 sequences of Nigerian circulating (c)VDPV2, as well as in the smaller sets from the Hispaniola cVDPV1 and Egypt cVDPV2 outbreaks, and among aVDPV1and aVDPV2 strains recently isolated from sewage in Finland. Codon-wise analysis of synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates in the VP1 sequences suggested that in five codons, those coding for amino acids at sites 24, 144, 147, 221 and 222, there may have been positive selection during the observation period. We conclude that pattern of poliovirus VP1 evolution in prolonged infection may differ from that found in WPV epidemics. Further studies on sufficiently large independent datasets are needed to confirm this suggestion and to reveal its potential significance. PMID:23840537

Hovi, Tapani; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Al-Hello, Haider; Roivainen, Merja



Biogeography in deep time - What do phylogenetics, geology, and paleoclimate tell us about early platyrrhine evolution?  


Molecular data have converged on a consensus about the genus-level phylogeny of extant platyrrhine monkeys, but for most extinct taxa and certainly for those older than the Pleistocene we must rely upon morphological evidence from fossils. This raises the question as to how well anatomical data mirror molecular phylogenies and how best to deal with discrepancies between the molecular and morphological data as we seek to extend our phylogenies to the placement of fossil taxa. Here I present parsimony-based phylogenetic analyses of extant and fossil platyrrhines based on an anatomical dataset of 399 dental characters and osteological features of the cranium and postcranium. I sample 16 extant taxa (one from each platyrrhine genus) and 20 extinct taxa of platyrrhines. The tree structure is constrained with a "molecular scaffold" of extant species as implemented in maximum parsimony using PAUP with the molecular-based 'backbone' approach. The data set encompasses most of the known extinct species of platyrrhines, ranging in age from latest Oligocene (?26 Ma) to the Recent. The tree is rooted with extant catarrhines, and Late Eocene and Early Oligocene African anthropoids. Among the more interesting patterns to emerge are: (1) known early platyrrhines from the Late Oligocene through Early Miocene (26-16.5Ma) represent only stem platyrrhine taxa; (2) representatives of the three living platyrrhine families first occur between 15.7 Ma and 13.5 Ma; and (3) recently extinct primates from the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola) are sister to the clade of extant platyrrhines and may have diverged in the Early Miocene. It is probable that the crown platyrrhine clade did not originate before about 20-24 Ma, a conclusion consistent with the phylogenetic analysis of fossil taxa presented here and with recent molecular clock estimates. The following biogeographic scenario is consistent with the phylogenetic findings and climatic and geologic evidence: Tropical South America has been a center for platyrrhine diversification since platyrrhines arrived on the continent in the middle Cenozoic. Platyrrhines dispersed from tropical South America to Patagonia at ?25-24 Ma via a "Paraná Portal" through eastern South America across a retreating Paranense Sea. Phylogenetic bracketing suggests Antillean primates arrived via a sweepstakes route or island chain from northern South America in the Early Miocene, not via a proposed land bridge or island chain (GAARlandia) in the Early Oligocene (?34 Ma). Patagonian and Antillean platyrrhines went extinct without leaving living descendants, the former at the end of the Early Miocene and the latter within the past six thousand years. Molecular evidence suggests crown platyrrhines arrived in Central America by crossing an intermittent connection through the Isthmus of Panama at or after 3.5Ma. Any more ancient Central American primates, should they be discovered, are unlikely to have given rise to the extant Central American taxa in situ. PMID:24333920

Kay, Richard F



The Role of Science and Engineering in Rebuilding a More Resilient Haiti (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rebuilding a more disaster-resilient Haiti is the defining challenge in the wake of the devastating magnitude-7 earthquake that struck in January. The contrasting experience of Chile, which weathered a magnitude-8.8 earthquake in April with casualties in the hundreds, teaches us that building resilience is an achievable and desirable goal given suitable investments and governance. Scientists and engineers have much to contribute, but doing so requires effective mechanisms to enable them to inform the rebuilding process. The international donor community has been a key point of engagement since their funds provide the opportunity to build new schools, hospitals, critical infrastructure and housing that will not fail in the next disaster. In advance of a gathering of international donors at the end of March, the U.S. National Science and Technology Council’s interagency Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction convened a workshop that brought together over 100 scientists, engineers, planners, and policymakers, including a delegation of Haitian government officials and academics. Hosted by the University of Miami and organized by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, the workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction with support from NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Key findings from the workshop covered the need to adopt and enforce international building codes, to use hazard assessments for earthquakes, inland flooding, and landslides in the planning process, and the central importance of long-term capacity building. As an example of one science agency’s contributions, the USGS informed the initial response by rapidly characterizing the earthquake and delivering estimates of population exposure to strong shaking that were used by humanitarian organizations, aid agencies, and the Haitians themselves. In the ensuing weeks, the USGS tracked aftershocks and issued statements with probabilities of future earthquakes. Early on, the U.S. Southern Command made it possible to put an advance team of engineers and a USGS seismologist on the ground in Haiti. That initial team was followed by the first major deployment of a USGS/USAID Earthquake Disaster Assistance Team, which evolved from the long-standing partnership between these two agencies. EDAT activities included field assessment of faulting, coastal uplift, and landslides; seismometer deployments for aftershock recording and characterization of ground shaking amplification; and development of a probabilistic seismic hazard map for Haiti and the whole island of Hispaniola. The team’s efforts benefited greatly from collaboration with Haitian colleagues with knowledge transfer occurring in both directions. The effort also benefited from significant remote sensing acquisitions, which helped to target field activities and constrain fault rupture patterns. Although the products have been put to use in Haiti, it still remains to turn hazard assessments into tools that can be used for effective planning, building code development and land-use decisions.

Applegate, D.



Rapid Detection of Coseismic Displacements with PALSAR ScanSAR-ScanSAR Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On large earthquake disasters, researchers and disaster managers eager to grasp the over-all image of the event immediately with as high resolution as possible. The rapid detection of coseismic deformation enables us to discriminate co- and postseismic deformations and estimate fault parameters, which definitely contributes to the evaluation of stress transfer which leads to aftershock forecast. The ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferometry is one of techniques that can provide information on coseismic displacement field in a wide region. Phased Array-type L-band SAR (PALSAR) onboard Japan’s Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) is capable to make an observation with ScanSAR mode with as wide swath as 350km. Owing to its long wavelength, coherence is high enough to perform interferometry in vegetated areas and steep mountains. We have applied this technique to images acquired before and after 4 events that occurred this year. We use the full-aperture algorithm to produce single look complex images for each swath and apply usual 2-pass interferometry to SLC’s. It is quite important to synchronize bursts of two ScanSAR images for interferometry, but this could be done only by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Our first trial was the Haiti earthquake of January, 2010. After its occurrence, we requested JAXA to acquire a ScanSAR image of the western Hispaniola Island. On February 11, the acquisition was made. JAXA synchronized its bursts to the image acquired on Sept. 26, 2009. We observed coseismic fringes near the epicenter along the Enriquillo fault similar to those obtained from strip-map mode images. On the other hand, no notable deformation was found near the Septentrional fault, northern Haiti. The second example was the Chile earthquake of February 27, 2010. Post-earthquake observation was made on March 1, 2010. The observed area was as wide as 350km, from the Pacific coast to the eastern frank of the Andes, and as long as 1000km. This image was synchronized to that acquired on April 10, 2008. We found maximum 3m range increases in parallel to the coast line from Valparaiso to the south of Concepcion. Since the acquisition was made from the descending track, this observation implies large oceanward shift or subsidence in this region. We also notify that there are two centers of concentric fringes at 35S and 37S, which suggests there are two asperities. We also analyzed images of consecutive acquisition and detected postseismic deformation as well as coseismic deformation from the largest aftershock during one and half month. We also analyzed images from Baja California, Mexico, and Quinghai, China. These results are also presented in association with necessary conditions on successful interferometry.

Hashimoto, M.; Ozawa, T.; Tobita, M.; Miyawaki, M.; Shimada, M.



Near-field tsunami inferred from numerical modeling of medieval overwash at Anegada, British Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a comparison among numerical models of storms and tsunamis, only tsunami waves of nearby origin manage to wash over an area where coral heads of medieval age are scattered hundreds of meters inland from the north shore of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. This low-lying island faces the Puerto Rico Trench 120 km to the north. The island's north shore, fringed by a coral reef 100-1200 m offshore, displays geological evidence for two levels of overwash. The medieval overwash, dated to AD 1200-1450, was the higher one. It is evidenced by scores of coral boulders scattered hundreds of meters inland. Some of them crossed the area of the modern storm berm at Soldier Wash, continued across a broad limestone rise 3-4 m above sea level, and came to rest on lower ground farther inland. Coral heads in four other areas, also medieval or older, came to rest hundreds of meters inland from beach ridges now 2-4 m above sea level. The later, lower-elevation overwash, dated to AD 1650-1800, laid down a sheet of sand and shell that extends as much as 1.5 km inland. The hypothetical causes for each event, tested by numerical modeling, include (1) category IV and V hurricanes that differ in surge and wave heights; (2) the 1755 Lisbon earthquake or hypothetical medieval predecessor, at M 8.7 and M 9.0; (3) M 8.4 thrust earthquake along the Puerto Rico Trench between Hispaniola and Anegada; (4) M 8.7 thrust along the Puerto Rico Trench between Tortola and Antigua; (5) M 8.0 earthquake from normal faulting on the outer rise north of Anegada. The model output includes extent of onshore flooding, depth and velocity of overland flow, and energy lost by tsunami and hurricane waves as they cross the reef and continue across a shallow subtidal flat to Anegada's north shore. For the medieval overwash, the modeling is most conclusive in testing various explanations for the coral boulders inland of Soldier Wash. The simulated hurricane waves do not wash inland of the storm berm; the height of storm surge level is limited by deep water offshore, and the waves lose energy by breaking on the reef. As for the hypothesized tsunami sources, the Soldier Wash evidence is explained only by the M 8.7 interplate-thrust source along the eastern Puerto Rico Trench (4) or the outer-rise source north of Anegada (5). The M 8.7 interplate-thrust source may be inconsistent with recent GPS measurements [1], in which case the likely source is normal faulting on the outer rise (L = 132 km, W = 45 km, depth = 7.5 km, dip = 60°, strike = 110°, rake = -90°, slip = 7.1 m). The 1755 Lisbon tsunami may explain the sand-and-shell sheet from 1650-1800, with two caveats: (1) the sheet extends farther inland than does the modeled inundation from a Lisbon source smaller than M 9.0; and (2) neither of the Lisbon sources tested corresponds to mapped faults offshore Iberia (the modeled Lisbon sources strike NNW-SSE to account for flooding and damage elsewhere in the Caribbean [2]). In the hurricane models, the reef and the subtidal flats behind it dissipate too much wave energy from the storms to explain even the low-elevation overwash of 1650-1800. COMPANION ABSTRACTS: Geological evidence overview (Atwater), coral-boulder ages (Weil Accardo). REFERENCES: [1] GRL 39 (2012), L10304. [2] Marine Geology (2009), 264, 109-122.

Wei, Y.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Atwater, B. F.; Tuttle, M. P.; Robert, H.; Feuillet, N.; Jennifer, W.; Fuentes, Z.



Radar Observations of Convective Systems from a High-Altitude Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectivity data collected by the precipitation radar on board the tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, orbiting at 350 km altitude, are compared to reflectivity data collected nearly simultaneously by a doppler radar aboard the NASA ER-2 flying at 19-20 km altitude, i.e. above even the deepest convection. The TRMM precipitation radar is a scanning device with a ground swath width of 215 km, and has a resolution of about a4.4 km in the horizontal and 250 m in the vertical (125 m in the core swath 48 km wide). The TRMM radar has a wavelength of 217 cm (13.8 GHz) and the Nadir mirror echo below the surface is used to correct reflectivity for loss by attenuation. The ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) has two antennas, one pointing to the nadir, 34 degrees forward. The forward pointing beam receives both the normal and the cross-polarized echos, so the linear polarization ratio field can be monitored. EDOP has a wavelength of 3.12 cm (9.6 GHz), a vertical resolution of 37.5 m and a horizontal along-track resolution of about 100 m. The 2-D along track airflow field can be synthesized from the radial velocities of both beams, if a reflectivity-based hydrometer fall speed relation can be assumed. It is primarily the superb vertical resolution that distinguishes EDOP from other ground-based or airborne radars. Two experiments were conducted during 1998 into validate TRMM reflectivity data over convection and convectively-generated stratiform precipitation regions. The Teflun-A (TEXAS-Florida Underflight) experiment, was conducted in April and May and focused on mesoscale convective systems mainly in southeast Texas. TEFLUN-B was conducted in August-September in central Florida, in coordination with CAMEX-3 (Convection and Moisture Experiment). The latter was focused on hurricanes, especially during landfall, whereas TEFLUN-B concentrated on central; Florida convection, which is largely driven and organized by surface heating and ensuing sea breeze circulations. Both TEFLUN-A and B were amply supported by surface data, in particular a dense raingauge network, a polarization radar, wind profilers, a mobile radiosonde system, a cloud physics aircraft penetrating the overflown storms, and a network of 10 cm Doppler radars(WSR-88D). This presentation will show some preliminary comparisons between TRMM, EDOP, and WSR-88D reflectivity fields in the case of an MCS, a hurricane, and less organized convection in central Florida. A validation of TRMM reflectivity is important, because TRMM's primary objective is to estimate the rainfall climatology with 35 degrees of the equator. Rainfall is estimated from the radar reflectivity, as well from TRMM's Microwave Imager, which measures at 10.7, 19.4, 21.3, 37, and 85.5 GHz over a broader swath (78 km). While the experiments lasted about three months the cumulative period of near simultaneous observations of storms by ground-based, airborne and space borne radars is only about an hour long. Therefore the comparison is case-study-based, not climatological. We will highlight fundamental differences in the typical reflectivity profiles in stratiform regions of MCS's, Florida convection and hurricanes and will explain why Z-R relationships based on ground-based radar data for convective systems over land should be different from those for hurricanes. These catastrophically intense rainfall from hurricane Georges in Hispaniola and from Mitch in Honduras highlights the importance of accurate Z-R relationships, It will be shown that a Z-R relationship that uses the entire reflectivity profile (rather than just a 1 level) works much better in a variety of cases, making an adjustment of the constants for different precipitation system categories redundant.

Heymsfield, G.; Geerts, B.; Tian, L.



On the Changes of the Hydrological Balance of Caribbean Lakes - Modeling and Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Enriquillo and Sumatra are saltwater lakes located in a rift valley that is a former marine strait created around 1 million years ago when the water level fell and the strait was filled in by river sediments, they are the largest lakes in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, respectively, with Lake Enriquillo being the lowest point in the Caribbean. The lakes, part of the Enriquillo closed water basin in the southwestern region of the island of La Hispaniola, have been experiencing dramatic changes in total lake-surface area coverage during the period 1980-2012. The size of the lakes was determined using remote sensing images (NASA-LANDSAT) analyzed with geographic information system (GIS) at different times during the available record. The size calculation for Lake Enriquillo shows a lake surface area of approximately 276 km2 in 1984 that gradually decreased to 172 km2 in 1996. After a period of fluctuations between 1996 and 2001, the surface area of the lake reaches its lowest point in 2004, at 165 km2. Beginning in 2004, the recent growth of the lake begins and reaches its 1984 size in 2006. Based on surface area measurement for December 2009, the lake size is 333 km2, 17% larger than in 1984 and almost double than in 2004. Sumatra sizes at both ends of the record are 115.96 km2 in 1984 and 134.26 km2 in 2011, an overall 15.8% increase in 27 years. Because the lakes are mostly latitudinally restricted by topography, most of the size changes occur on the southeastern side of Lake Enriquillo, with some growth on the western tip. Determining the causes of lake surface area changes is of extreme importance due to the environmental, social, and economic consequences. The goal of this study is to quantify the changing water balance in these lakes using satellite and ground observations and regional atmospheric modeling. Analyses of environmental variables in the region reflect a hydrological unbalance of the lakes due to changing regional hydro-climatic conditions. Historical data show precipitation, land surface temperature and humidity, and sea surface temperature (SST), increasing all over the past decades. Salinity levels have also been decreasing by more than 30% from baseline levels. We hypothesized that the increases in SSTs may be leading to increases in regional moisture content which leads to decreases in evaporation capacity from the lakes, and simultaneously to increases in fresh water production in the neighboring sierras. A network of rain and fog gauges along the high sierras reflects growing cloud montane forests, with significant increase in water production. Results from a high-resolution mesoscale atmospheric modeling clearly reflect increases in the amount of liquid water content in the vertical column as function of changing regional climate conditions.

Comarazamy, D.; Gonzalez, J.; Glenn, E.; Leon, Y.; Brito, D. R.



Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first time during the Lisbon(?) event. (3) A storm berm of coral rubble lies seaward of a field of coral boulders that marks the medieval overwash. The berm rises as much as 3 m above fair-weather high tides along Anegada's north shore at Soldier Wash, a sand-free stretch of coast 100 m from the fringing reef. The berm consists of imbricated, well-rounded fragments 15-30 cm in diameter on average. This rubble differs in preservation, size, and distribution from the brain-coral heads 1 m in diameter that the medieval overwash scattered hundreds of meters inland from Soldier Wash. *REFERENCES; 2012 fall AGU abs OS32A-05 T41A-2562, and T41A-2566.

Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.



Seismic Hazard in Haiti: A Geologic Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catastrophic M 7.0 earthquake that occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010 highlighted the hazard associated with the Caribbean-North American plate boundary in Hispaniola. Detailed analysis and modeling of geologic, geodetic, and seismologic data showed that most of the moment release occurred on a previously unidentified, north-dipping, blind thrust fault (now named the Léogâne fault), which is north of the plate-bounding, left-lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF). The result that the Léogâne fault was the source of the 2010 earthquake implies that the EPGF remains a significant hazard and raises the question of other potential seismic sources near Port-au-Prince (PaP). Following the earthquake, we mapped Quaternary traces of the EPGF in the field using satellite imagery, aerial photography, and LiDAR data. We identified three paleoseismic study sites along the EPGF: the Jean-Jean and Marianne sites southwest of PaP along the Momance section of the EPGF and the Riviére Grise site southeast of PaP along the Dumay section. Trenches at the Jean-Jean site show fault strands breaking nearly to the ground surface, but that did not move in the 2010 earthquake. We collected radiocarbon samples from faulted strata that we anticipate will provide constraints on the age of the most recent surface rupture. We also identified a buried channel deposit that is left-laterally offset a minimum of 3 m, and collected radiocarbon samples to constrain its age. In a natural stream cut at the Marianne site, we documented three colluvial wedges, and collected samples for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating that we anticipate will provide age constraints on the three most recent earthquakes. At Riviére Grise we documented evidence for three surface ruptures in a fluvial terrace deposit, and collected OSL samples to constrain their ages. Our preliminary geomorphic analysis of a belt of low hills north of the EPGF and east of PaP suggests that these hills are young folds likely underlain by blind thrust faults. Reconnaissance field observations show that the hills are cored by folded alluvial-fan deposits of probable Quaternary age and that the folding defeated north-flowing drainages and ponded lacustrine sediment on the south flank of the folds. Radiocarbon analyses of charcoal samples collected from ponded sediments will help to constrain the age of recent deformation. These blind thrust faults are potentially additional earthquake sources that should be included in seismic hazard assessments for PaP. In our reconnaissance along the Matheux-Neiba fault north of PaP we found only weak evidence of recent deformation, and while this fault system may also be a potential earthquake source, its rate of activity is much lower than the rate on the EPGF. Because the EPGF adjacent to PaP did not rupture in 2010, and has not ruptured in at least 240 years, considerable strain remains to be released in a future earthquake, and this fault still poses a major hazard to densely populated parts of Haiti, including Port-au-Prince.

Prentice, C. S.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Narcisse, R.



Latest Pleistocene to Holocene Evolution of the Baie de Port au Prince, Haiti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baie de Port au Prince (BPP) is adjacent a restraining segment of the sinistral Caribbean-North America plate boundary and is therefore situated between converging high-relief thrust systems, the Massif Selle (Peninsula Range) to the south and the Chaine de Matheux (Hispaniola highlands) to the north. To evaluate neotectonic deformation, seismic hazards and sedimentation patterns for the BPP, six gravity cores were studied within the framework of chirp profiles collected from the R/V Endeavor in 2010. The cores were recovered from 76 m to 148 m of water depth sampling sediment from the carbonate platform that rims the BPP and from the slope. We studied the biostratigraphy (foraminifers, nannoplankton), geochemical elemental composition and physical properties of the sediment. An age model from the last glacial to the present (~20 ka BP) was derived from radiocarbon. Nannoplankton biostratigraphy provide constraints on the late Pleistocene. The BPP is 150 m maximum water depth and is rimmed by an ~30 m deep carbonate platform that has undergone dissolution. Terraces characterize the sub-bottom topography to the NE. This topography was covered by sediment during at least one relative sea-level cycle. Sediment progradation and mass-wasting on the northern and southern flanks of the BPP respectively, occurred during the latest Pleistocene low stand (~20 ka BP). Increased sedimentation from 0.2 mm/year to 0.8 mm/year occurred from 14.2 ka BP to 9.5 ka BP. This period also corresponds with a global rapid rate in sea-level rise from -94 m to -37 m. A basin wide acoustically transparent layer of sediment ~10 m thick covered the BPP. Mass-wasting, microfaulting, fluidization and turbidites caused by erosion triggered by pre-historic earthquakes possibly associated with EPG transform fault are found in the cores. One such deposit is possibly associated to the 2010 earthquake and another to an unconformable surface that separates early- from late-Holocene sediment on the slope. The late Pleistocene sediment is laminated and microfossils assemblages reveal sediment reworking and shallow water depths. Normal marine sedimentation resumed from ~14 ka BP to the present. The climate was characterized by wet or high discharge intervals noted by an influx of wood fragments and sediment most likely derived from land (>Si weight %, Al%, Fe% and Cu ppm). Wet periods were less frequent in the Holocene. The late Holocene trend is to dryer climate consistent with previous studies of the region. Evaporation is manifested by an increase in subhedral gypsum coated in calcite. Limited chirp profiles across the BPP suggest subsidence to the south. Ages from the base of the cores will verify this possibility. Coseismic 2010 uplift was documented in the southwestern part of the Leogane delta, an area that has no evidence of long-term uplift. Chirp profiles and multibeam bathymetry close to this uplift, show a deepening of the sea-floor suggestive of ongoing subsidence. More studies are needed to better understand the long-term patterns of subsidence and uplift in this region.

Rios, J. K.; McHugh, C. M.; Seeber, L.; Blair, S.; Sorlien, C. C.



Seismic rupture process of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Mw7.0) inferred from seismic and SAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On January 12th 2010 at 21:53, the Port-au-Prince - Haiti region was struck by an Mw7 earthquake, the second most deadly of the history. The last seismic significant events in the region occurred in November 1751 and June 1770 [1]. Geodetic and geological studies, previous to the 2010 earthquake [2] have warned to the potential of the destructive seismic events in that region and this event has confirmed those warnings. Some aspects of the source of this earthquake are nonconsensual. There is no agreement in the mechanism of rupture or correlation with the fault that should have it generated [3]. In order to better understand the complexity of this rupture, we combined several techniques and data of different nature. We used teleseismic body-wave and Synthetic Aperture Radar data (SAR) based on the following methodology: 1) analysis of the rupture process directivity [4] to determine the velocity and direction of rupture; 2) teleseismic body-wave inversion to obtain the spatiotemporal fault slip distribution and a detailed rupture model; 3) near field surface deformation modeling using the calculated seismic rupture model and compared with the measured deformation field using SAR data of sensor Advanced Land Observing Satellite - Phased Array L-band SAR (ALOS-PALSAR). The combined application of seismic and geodetic data reveals a complex rupture that spread during approximately 12s mainly from WNW to ESE with average velocity of 2,5km/s, on a north-dipping fault plane. Two main asperities are obtained: the first (and largest) occurs within the first ~ 5sec and extends for approximately 6km around the hypocenter; the second one, that happens in the remaining 6s, covers a near surface rectangular strip with about 12km long by 3km wide. The first asperity is compatible with a left lateral strike-slip motion with a small reverse component; the mechanism of second asperity is predominantly reverse. The obtained rupture process allows modeling a coseismic deformation which is in agreement with the deformation field measured by InSAR. [1] Bakun W, Flores C, Brink U, 2012 Significant Earthquakes on the Enriquillo Fault System, Hispaniola, 1500-2010: Implications for Seismic Hazard. Bul. Seis. Soc. of America, 102(1):18-30. [2] Dixon, T. et al., 1998. Relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates and related boundary zone deformation based on a decade of GPS observations. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 15157-15182. [3] Mercier de Lépinay, B., Deschamps, A., Klingelhoefer, F., Mazabraud, Y., Delouis, B., Clouard, V., Hello Y., Crozon, J., Marcaillou, B., Graindorge, D., Vallée M., Perrot, J., Bouin, M., Saurel, J., Charvis, Philippe, C. and St-Louis, 2011. The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained by seismologic and tectonic observations, Geoph. Res. Let., 30, L22305 [4] Caldeira B, Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF., 2009 DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J. of Seis.. 2009;14(3):565-600.

Santos, Rúben; Caldeira, Bento; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad



Recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haiti, because of his seismicity associated with plate boundary and several faults that cross the island of Hispaniola (Haiti-Dominican Republic), has been affected in the past by major earthquakes, which have caused loss of life and damage or considerable structural collapses (ex. 1771, 1842), sometimes the destruction of the cities. The recent earthquake of January 12, 2010, was the most destructive earthquake that any country has experienced in modern times, when we measure the number of people killed with respect to the population of a country (Cavallo et al. 2010). It's obvious that the major causes of theses losses are the lack of awareness of the population about the earthquakes, the absence of seismic code and quality control of the building. In this paper, we propose some recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti in order to decrease physical and social impacts of earthquakes in the future. First of all, we present a theoretical part of concepts and fundamental elements to establish a seismic code, such as: description of the methodology for seismic hazard's assessment, presentation of the results in terms of acceleration maps for the whole country (in rock sites) and Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) in the cities, and the criteria for soil classification and amplification factors for including site's effects, equivalent forces, etc. Then, we include a practical part where calculations and comparisons of five seismic codes of different countries (Eurocode 8, Spain, Canada, United States and Dominican Republic) are included, in order to have criteria for making the proposals for Haiti. Using the results of Benito et al (presented in this session S10) we compare the UHS in different cities of Haiti with the response spectrum derived from the application of the spectral shapes given by the aforementioned codes. Furthermore, the classification of soils and buildings have been also analyzed and contrasted with local data in order to propose the more suitable classification for Haiti. Finally, we have proposed a methodology for the forces estimation providing the values of the relevant coefficients. References: EN 1998-1:2004 (E): Eurocode 8, Design of structures for earthquake resistance, Part 1(General Rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings), 2004. -MTPTC, (2011). Règles de calcul intérimaires pour les bâtiments en Haïti, Ministère des Travaux Publics, Transports et Communications, Février 2011, Haïti. -NBCC 2005: National Building Code of Canada, vol1, National Research Council of Canada 2005. -NCSE-02: Norma de construcción sismorresistente de España. BOE num.244, Viernes 11 Octubre 2002. -NEHRP, 2009. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for new Buildings and Other Structures, FEMA P-750, February, Part 1 (Provisions) and Part 2 (Commentary). -R-001 (2011): Reglamento para el análisis y diseño sísmico de estructuras de República Dominicana. Decreto No. 201-11. Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Comunicaciones.

Pierristal, G.; Benito, B.; Cervera, J.; Belizaire, D.



MOTION UNDER THE OCEAN: Determining mantle flow of the Northeast Caribbean with seismic anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active plate boundaries in the Northeast Caribbean have formed a complex tectonic environment which includes transform and subduction zones. The Caribbean-North America plate boundary is one such active margin, where subduction transitions from arc- to oblique-type off the northeast coast of Puerto Rico. Several lines of evidence support the notion of a slab tear within the subducting North American plate at this transition zone, including the counter-clockwise rotation of the Puerto Rico microplate over the past 10 Ma and clusters of small seismic events. Understanding mantle flow in this region will not only help determine the nature of tectonic activity controlling these margins, but will also aid our understanding of anomalies, such as slab tears. Mantle flow and crustal deformation are believed to be the main controls of anisotropy in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. When a shear-wave passes through an anisotropic medium, it is split into a fast and slow component, with the fast shear-wave polarized along the fast direction of that medium. Shear-wave splitting is a tool used to determine the strength and direction of such anisotropy. Previous studies in the Caribbean have generally shown fast shear-wave polarization directions parallel to trenches and/or plate boundaries, indicating mantle flow around the plate (Growdon et al. 2009; Masy et al. 2011; Piñero-Feliciangeli and Kendall 2008). We have focused a detailed investigation of seismic anisotropy from 31 stations across six networks in the Northeast Caribbean to better constrain mantle flow in this region. Shear-wave splitting measurements of teleseismic core phases (e.g., SKS and SKKS) were completed using SplitLab, a Matlab° based environment created by Wüstefeld et al. (2008). This program enables the user to compare the quality of results from three splitting methods: rotation correlation (Bowman and Ando, 1987), minimum energy (Silver and Chan, 1991) and eigenvalue (Silver and Chan, 1991). Noisy seismic data is common to these island-based stations due to energy generated by ocean wave action. To overcome this limitation, we stacked error diagrams obtained from our split analyses to produce more robust solutions (Wolfe and Silver, 1998; Monteiller and Chevrot, 2010). A regional synthesis of our results reveals fast shear-wave polarizations that are generally oriented parallel to the plate boundary with intermediate to high split times. For example, polarization directions are oriented roughly N-S along the bulk of the Lesser Antilles, E-W along the Puerto Rico Trench and the northern Lesser Antilles, and NW-SE beneath Hispaniola. Beneath the U.S. and British Virgin Islands, however, the fast polarization direction differs markedly from the regional pattern, becoming almost perpendicular to the plate boundary. Stations on Anegada and St. Croix show a fast polarization direction that is oriented nearly N-S and smaller delay times than surrounding stations. These results suggest that mantle flow is redirected N-S at this location through a gap in the subducted lithosphere of the North American plate. This new understanding of plate geometries and mantle flow provides insight into the controls of Northeast Caribbean tectonism and to other regions around the world with proposed slab tears and gaps.

Mintz, H. E.; Pulliam, J.