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Sample records for hispaniola

  1. Cenozoic basin development in Hispaniola

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-04-01

    Four distinct generations of Cenozoic basins have developed in Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) as a result of collisional or strike-slip interactions between the North America and Caribbean plates. First generation basins formed when the north-facing Hispaniola arc collided with the Bahama platform in the middle Eocene; because of large post-Eocene vertical movements, these basins are preserved locally in widely separated areas but contain several kilometers of arc and ophiolite-derived clastic marine sediments, probably deposited in thrust-loaded, flexure-type basins. Second generation basins, of which only one is exposed at the surface, formed during west-northwesterly strike-slip displacement of southern Cuba and northern Hispaniola relative to central Hispaniola during the middle to late Oligocene; deposition occurred along a 5-km (3-mi) wide fault-angle depression and consisted of about 2 km (1 mi) of submarine fan deposits. Third generation basins developed during post-Oligocene convergent strike-slip displacement across a restraining bend formed in central Hispaniola; the southern 2 basins are fairly symmetrical, thrust-bounded ramp valleys, and the third is an asymmetrical fault-angle basin. Fourth generation basins are pull-aparts formed during post-Miocene divergent strike-slip motion along a fault zone across southern Hispaniola. As in other Caribbean areas, good source rocks are present in all generations of basins, but suitable reservoir rocks are scarce. Proven reservoirs are late Neogene shallow marine and fluvial sandstones in third generation basins.

  2. Methiini and Oemini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Methiini (Tessaropa hispaniolae Lingafelter, Methia dolichoptera) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Hispaniola are diagnosed, described, and illustrated. The Dominican Republic represents a New Country Record for Malacopterus tenellus (Fabricius) (Oemini), and all hispaniolan local...

  3. Cholera in United States Associated with Epidemic in Hispaniola

    PubMed Central

    Heiman, Katherine E.; Schmitz, Ann; Török, Tom; Apostolou, Andria; Hanson, Heather; Gounder, Prabhu; Bohm, Susan; Kurkjian, Katie; Parsons, Michele; Talkington, Deborah; Stroika, Steven; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Elson, Franny; Sweat, David; Cantu, Venessa; Akwari, Okey; Mahon, Barbara E.; Mintz, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Cholera is rare in the United States (annual average 6 cases). Since epidemic cholera began in Hispaniola in 2010, a total of 23 cholera cases caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 have been confirmed in the United States. Twenty-two case-patients reported travel to Hispaniola and 1 reported consumption of seafood from Haiti. PMID:22204035

  4. Tertiary serpentinite tectonics in northern Hispaniola

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, F.; Draper, G.

    1985-01-01

    At least 4 types of serpentinite bodies are found in N. Hispaniola, by different inclusion and Tertiary deformation styles: (1) Narrow slivers occurring on Tertiary faults, rarely containing inclusions, which occur throughout the region. (2) Massive fractured serpentinites associated with a Cretaceous volcanic plutonic and metamorphic basement, and containing rodingite dikes, occurs in the Puerto Plata region. (3) Massive, fractured, but coherent bodies containing Tertiary limestone clasts which apparently the same as nearby limestone overlying the serpentinite occur west of Puerto Plata. (4) Diapirically emplaced bodies in the Gaspar Hernandez region containing both brecciated and massive zones and containing a variety of inclusions. Type 4 bodies protrude into the clastic Upper Eocene Altamira Fm. The most common tectonic inclusions in these bodies are rounded cobbles of diorite and gabbro. Amphibolites are also common, but friable greenschists and blueschists are rare, as are blocks of clastic sediments. The authors suggest that large blocks of the Altamira Fm. were incorporated into the serpentinite during their past Eocene diapirism and that these blocks were deformed in a brittle manner into gouge zones by internal movements in the diapir. Type 4 serpentinites may therefore have incorporated inclusions at high crustal levels by brittle processes. Type 2 bodies, in contrast, may have incorporated inclusions by ductile flow of serpentinite at lower crustal levels. Type 33 bodies are the most enigmatic. They may be sedimentary, but alternatively may have incorporated limestone in a gouge (as for type 4), which has later healed to a coherent mass.

  5. Cenozoic tectonics of central Hispaniola and adjacent Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, J.W.; Shih, T.C.; Tsai, C.J.

    1981-03-01

    The southern margin of Hispaniola east of the Beata Ridge is similar structurally to active margins of the Pacific Ocean. Just offshore south of eastern Hispaniola lies a deep topographic and sediment basin which has been accumulating sediments throughout the Tertiary and which the authors have named San Pedro Basin. San Pedro Basin may be an offshore continuation of San Cristobal Basin which has been mapped onshore and contains an Upper Cretaceous through Tertiary section. Tentative correlations of unconformities mapped in San Cristobal Basin with unconformities mapped in San Pedro Basin indicate a Late Cretaceous through Tertiary history for San Pedro Basin as well. The depositional and structural axis of San Pedro Basin has migrated northward through time with the development of the southern boundary anticlinal high. Early in the Tertiary the depocenter was centered over the region that would later become the anticlinal high. As the high developed throughout the Tertiary, the depocenter moved northward. (JMT)

  6. Mercury concentrations in tropical resident and migrant songbirds on Hispaniola.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Jason M; Rimmer, Christopher C; Driscoll, Charles T; McFarland, Kent P; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing concerns over mercury (Hg) exposure to humans and wildlife on a global scale, little is known about Hg bioaccumulation in the New World tropics. From 2005 to 2011, we monitored Hg concentrations in blood of nine avian species occupying a geographic range of tropical wet broadleaf sites on the island of Hispaniola, including eight passerines (two Nearctic-Neotropical migrant and six resident species) and one top order predatory accipiter. Invertivorous songbirds were further differentiated by foraging guild, with six species of ground-foragers and two species of foliage-gleaners. Blood Hg concentrations were orders of magnitude higher in birds sampled in central and southern cloud forest sites (1,000-1,800 m elevation) than in northern and northeastern rainforest sites (50-500 m elevation), with migratory and resident species both showing 2-20× greater blood Hg concentrations in cloud forests than in rainforests. Within cloud forest sites, ground-foraging species had higher Hg concentrations than foliage-gleaning species. Top order predatory sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) had the highest blood Hg concentrations among all species, suggesting that Hg biomagnification is occurring in terrestrial forests of Hispaniola. Two migrant songbird species overwintering on the island had higher blood Hg concentrations than have been recorded on their North American breeding grounds. Future studies should seek to elucidate sources of variation in atmospheric Hg deposition on Hispaniola and to quantify the dynamics of Hg cycling in tropical forest ecosystems, which may differ in important ways from patterns documented in temperate forest ecosystems. PMID:23076839

  7. Prospects for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Sócrates; Ochoa-Orozco, Sergio Andrés; González, Iveth J.; Peinado, Lucrecia; Quiñones, Martha L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains endemic in 21 countries of the American continent with an estimated 427,000 cases per year. Approximately 10% of these occur in the Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions. During the last decade, malaria transmission in Mesoamerica showed a decrease of ~85%; whereas, in the Caribbean region, Hispaniola (comprising the Dominican Republic [DR] and Haiti) presented an overall rise in malaria transmission, primarily due to a steady increase in Haiti, while DR experienced a significant transmission decrease in this period. The significant malaria reduction observed recently in the region prompted the launch of an initiative for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola (EMMIE) with the active involvement of the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) of nine countries, the Regional Coordination Mechanism (RCM) for Mesoamerica, and the Council of Health Ministries of Central America and Dominican Republic (COMISCA). The EMMIE initiative is supported by the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) with active participation of multiple partners including Ministries of Health, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as research centers. EMMIE’s main goal is to achieve elimination of malaria transmission in the region by 2020. Here we discuss the prospects, challenges, and research needs associated with this initiative that, if successful, could represent a paradigm for other malaria-affected regions. PMID:25973753

  8. Satellite Sees Tropical Storm Chantal Move Over Hispaniola - Duration: 9 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This NOAA GOES-East satellite animation from July 6 to July 10 shows the development of Tropical Storm Chantal in the Atlantic Ocean and movement over Hispaniola by July 10. TRT 0:06 Credit: NASA/N...

  9. Carbonate platforms along the Bahama-Hispaniola collision zone

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, H.T.; Andersen, B.C. ); Dolan, J.F. ); Breen, N.A. )

    1990-05-01

    During July 1989 a SEAMARC II seismic reflection profile survey was conducted around the deep-water margins of carbonate platforms along the North American-Caribbean plate boundary where the southeast Bahamas are actively colliding with Hispaniola. Results indicate that the small, isolated carbonate banks of the southeast Bahamas are clearly remnants of once-larger platforms. A variety of processes appear to be responsible for the retreat of these platforms. Backstepping has resulted in the majority of retreat producing a single, large deep-water plateau along the northern margin of the southeast Bahamas and a series of deepwater, steplike terraces to the south that may be fault related. SEAMARC side-scan images have also defined spectacular, large-scale scalloped margins as well as well-developed upper gullied slopes which appear to be responsible for continued gradual retreat. Well-defined avalanche chutes, which may be the result of periodic collapse, extend down the deep margin of northern Silver Bank, funneling large volumes of debris over the Bahama Escarpment. The retreating nature of the isolated southeast Bahama Banks, located in a tectonicaily active setting, contrast sharply with the large, coalesced banks of the more passive northwest Bahamas.

  10. Ancient islands and modern invasions: disparate phylogeographic histories among Hispaniola's endemic birds.

    PubMed

    Sly, Nicholas D; Townsend, Andrea K; Rimmer, Christopher C; Townsend, Jason M; Latta, Steven C; Lovette, Irby J

    2011-12-01

    With its large size, complex topography and high number of avian endemics, Hispaniola appears to be a likely candidate for the in situ speciation of its avifauna, despite the worldwide rarity of avian speciation within single islands. We used multilocus comparative phylogeography techniques to examine the pattern and history of divergence in 11 endemic birds representing potential within-island speciation events. Haplotype and allele networks from mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear intron loci reveal a consistent pattern: phylogeographic divergence within or between closely related species is correlated with the likely distribution of ancient sea barriers that once divided Hispaniola into several smaller paleo-islands. Coalescent and mitochondrial clock dating of divergences indicate species-specific response to different geological events over the wide span of the island's history. We found no evidence that ecological or topographical complexity generated diversity, either by creating open niches or by restricting long-term gene flow. Thus, no true within-island speciation appears to have occurred among the species sampled on Hispaniola. Divergence events predating the merging of Hispaniola's paleo-island blocks cannot be considered in situ divergence, and postmerging divergence in response to episodic island segmentation by marine flooding probably represents in situ vicariance or interarchipelago speciation by dispersal. Our work highlights the necessity of considering island geologic history while investigating the speciation-area relationship in birds and other taxa. PMID:21449896

  11. Historical perspective on seismic hazard to Hispaniola and the northeast Caribbean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, U.S.; Bakun, W.H.; Flores, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the long-term seismic activity of the North-American/Caribbean plate boundary from 500 years of historical earthquake damage reports. The 2010 Haiti earthquakes and other earthquakes were used to derive regional attenuation relationships between earthquake intensity, magnitude, and distance from the reported damage to the epicenter, for Hispaniola and for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The attenuation relationship for Hispaniola earthquakes and northern Lesser Antilles earthquakes is similar to that for California earthquakes, indicating a relatively rapid attenuation of damage intensity with distance. Intensities in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands decrease less rapidly with distance. We use the intensity-magnitude relationships to systematically search for the location and intensity magnitude MI which best fit all the reported damage for historical earthquakes. Many events occurred in the 20th-century along the plate-boundary segment from central Hispaniola to the NW tip of Puerto Rico, but earlier events from this segment were not identified. The remaining plate boundary to the east to Guadeloupe is probably not associated with M > 8 historical subduction-zone earthquakes. The May 2, 1787 earthquake, previously assigned an M 8–8.25, is probably only MI 6.9 and could be located north, west or SW of Puerto Rico. An MI 6.9 earthquake on July 11, 1785 was probably located north or east of the Virgin Islands. We located MI I 7.7) and May 7, 1842 (MI 7.6) earthquakes ruptured the Septentrional Fault in northern Hispaniola. If so, the recurrence interval on the central Septentrional Fault is ~300 years, and only 170 years has elapsed since the last event. The recurrence interval of large earthquakes along the Hispaniola subduction segment is likely longer than the historical record. Intra-arc M ? 7.0 earthquakes may occur every 75–100 years in the 410-km-long segment between the Virgin Islands and Guadeloupe.

  12. The Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Offshore Hispaniola: Strike-slip and Compressive Tectonic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S. D.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Meyer, B.; Ellouz, N.

    2014-12-01

    The boundary between the Caribbean plate and the North American plate is transpressive due to the oblique collision between these two plates. The transpressive movement is partitioned and accommodated in the Hispaniola region along two left-lateral strike-slip structures surrounding a fold-and-thrust belt. New multibeam bathymetry data and multichannel seismic reflection profiles have been recently collected during the Haiti-SIS and Haiti-SIS 2 cruises, along part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary between Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola. From the north to the south, three types of deformations are observed. In the Windward Passage, the analysis of the data set reveals that the movement on the Oriente fault between Cuba and Hispaniola is purely left-lateral strike-slip according to the GPS measurements. In the Gonave basin, west of Hispaniola, the deformation is compressive. A series of folds is identified and moves toward the southwest. The Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault (EPGF) is localized in the Jamaica Passage, between Jamaica and Hispaniola. The analysis of the data set reveals that the left-lateral EPGF recently intersects inherited basins from the eastern Cayman Trough margin. The study of the actual EPGF active trace shows that this fault moves with a pure strike-slip component, at least in its western part: the presence of a little push-up structure and a set of three en echelon folds is highlighting in the western part of the Jamaica Passage. The shortening rate in the inherited basins crossed by the EPGF increases from west to east (5.8% to 8.5%), indicating that a thrusting component is also accommodated around the EPGF.

  13. Taxonomic Revision of Hispaniola Tiger Beetles in the Genus Brasiella Rivalier 1954 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Acciavatti, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Brasiella tiger beetle fauna on Hispaniola, the second largest island of the Greater Antilles, has more species diversity than currently recognized as all populations previously have been assigned to the insular endemic Brasiella dominicana (Mandl). A comparative study of adult morphology, particularly male genitalic and female abdominal characters, for available Brasiella specimens from populations on Hispaniola, proposes eight additional new species also endemic to this island. Except for three sympatric species in the Sierra de Baoruco in southern Dominican Republic occurring in different habitats, all the Brasiella on Hispaniola appear to be allopatric. Most species occur in the major mountainous regions of Hispaniola. Two species, however, are known only from river floodplains in the southern coastal plain of the Dominican Republic. Brasiella dominicana (Mandl) and Brasiella ocoa, new species, occur along river floodplains emanating from the eastern end of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. Two new Brasiella species, Brasiella bellorum, and Brasiella philipi, occur in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, the former species from central portions, and the latter species from north slopes of this mountain range, respectively. Three new Brasiella species, Brasiella rawlinsi, Brasiella iviei, and Brasiella youngi, are isolated in the Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic, where each occupies a different habitat along an altitudinal gradient. The two new Brasiella species in Haiti are Brasiella darlingtoniana, in the Massif de la Selle, and Brasiella davidsoni, in the Massif de la Hotte. All nine Brasiella species on Hispaniola, along with Brasiella viridicollis (Dejean) and its two subspecies on Cuba, belong to the viridicollis species group of the genus Brasiella based on criteria presented in earlier published phylogenetic studies of Brazilian and West Indian tiger beetles. The subspecies Brasiella viridicollis fernandozayasi (Kippenhan, Ivie and Hopp) may represent a distinct species within this species group, whereas removal of Brasiella wickhami (W. Horn) from this species group seems warranted based on evidence presented. A general overview of species relationships for the Brasiella on Hispaniola are discussed, along with the current and ancestral geographic distributions of the Brasiella viridicollis species group in the West Indies. PMID:22371664

  14. GPS estimates of microplate motions, northern Caribbean: evidence for a Hispaniola microplate and implications for earthquake hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, B.; DeMets, C.; Calais, E.

    2012-09-01

    We use elastic block modelling of 126 GPS site velocities from Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and other islands in the northern Caribbean to test for the existence of a Hispaniola microplate and estimate angular velocities for the Gônave, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands and two smaller microplates relative to each other and the Caribbean and North America plates. A model in which the Gônave microplate spans the whole plate boundary between the Cayman spreading centre and Mona Passage west of Puerto Rico is rejected at a high confidence level. The data instead require an independently moving Hispaniola microplate between the Mona Passage and a likely diffuse boundary within or offshore from western Hispaniola. Our updated angular velocities predict 6.8 ± 1.0 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip along the seismically hazardous Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone of southwest Hispaniola, 9.8 ± 2.0 mm yr-1 of slip along the Septentrional fault of northern Hispaniola and ˜14-15 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip along the Oriente fault south of Cuba. They also predict 5.7 ± 1 mm yr-1 of fault-normal motion in the vicinity of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone, faster than previously estimated and possibly accommodated by folds and faults in the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone borderlands. Our new and a previous estimate of Gônave-Caribbean plate motion suggest that enough elastic strain accumulates to generate one to two Mw˜ 7 earthquakes per century along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and nearby faults of southwest Hispaniola. That the 2010 M= 7.0 Haiti earthquake ended a 240-yr-long period of seismic quiescence in this region raises concerns that it could mark the onset of a new earthquake sequence that will relieve elastic strain that has accumulated since the late 18th century.

  15. A new subspecies of hutia (Plagiodontia, Capromyidae, Rodentia) from southern Hispaniola.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Samuel T; Hansford, James; Kennerley, Rosalind J; Nuñez-Miño, José M; Brocca, Jorge L; Young, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Continued uncertainty persists over the taxonomic status of many threatened Caribbean mammal populations. Recent molecular analysis has identified three genetically isolated allopatric hutia populations on Hispaniola that diverged during the Middle Pleistocene, with observed levels of sequence divergence interpreted as representing subspecies-level differentiation through comparison with genetic data for other capromyids. Subsequent analysis of existing museum specimens has demonstrated biogeographically congruent morphometric differentiation for two of these three populations, Plagiodontia aedium aedium (southwestern population) and P. aedium hylaeum (northern population). We report the first craniodental material for the southeastern Hispaniolan hutia population, and demonstrate that this population can also be differentiated using quantitative morphometric analysis from other Hispaniolan hutia subspecies. The holotype skull of P. aedium aedium, of unknown geographic provenance within Hispaniola, clusters morphometrically with the southwestern population. The southeastern Hispaniolan subspecies is described as Plagiodontia aedium bondi subsp. nov., and is assessed as Endangered under Criterion B1a,biii,v on the IUCN Red List. PMID:26249066

  16. Historical perspective on seismic hazard in Hispaniola and the NE Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brink, U. S.; Bakun, W.; Flores, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    We use 500 years of historical earthquake damages reports from Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and islands to the east to quantitatively constrain the long-term seismic activity and vulnerability of these islands. A training set of instrumentally-recorded earthquakes with damage reports, was used to derive regional relationships between earthquake intensity, magnitude, and distance from the reported damage to the epicenter. The regional relationship in Hispaniola, the Virgin Islands, and the northern Lesser Antilles is similar to that previously derived for California indicating a relatively rapid attenuation of damage intensity with distance. In Puerto Rico, however, we find higher intensities for a given magnitude and distance. These relationships were applied to historical earthquakes with location, magnitude, and errors evaluated quantitatively. The Septentrional Fault in northern Hispaniola appears to have a 306±26 year recurrence interval based on published paleo-seismic evidence for a 1230 AD earthquake and our determination of additional earthquakes in 1562 (MI 7.7± 0.5) and in 1842 (MI 7.6± 0.2). Earthquakes with these magnitudes and recurrence interval are capable of relieving the accumulated slip rate (12.3 mm/y) on the fault, provided that the rupture length is at least 160 km. The recurrence interval is similar to the 310-year recurrence interval for the Enriquillo Fault in southern Hispaniola. Earthquakes in the Puerto Rico Trench appear to be rare, in agreement with the small convergent component of this oblique subduction zone, and they are not very large. We determined an intensity magnitude of MI7.8 for the Ms7.8-8.1 1946 earthquake in the Dominican Republic and a location close to the consequent tsunami. This location is 90 km NW of the epicenter and likely represents the moment centroid. The 1787 earthquake north of Puerto Rico, which previously was assigned M8, is only MI7.2. Considering that damage was only reported from Puerto Rico, where damage from a given magnitude earthquake is greater than in other islands, the moment magnitude of the 1787 earthquake may have been as small as M5.8. Two large historical earthquakes took place in the northern Lesser Antilles in 1690 and 1843, but it is difficult to determine if they occurred on the subduction interface east of the islands or within the arc. Their respective magnitudes would have been MI7.9 and 8.25 if subduction events or MI7.5 and 7.9 if crustal arc events. No events could be unequivocally placed in the Muertos Trough south of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, where the arc thrusts over the Caribbean plate interior.

  17. Marine geophysical research helps to assess the seismic hazard at the Hispaniola Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Granja Bruña, J.; Llanes Estrada, M.; Munoz Martin, A.; Gómez Ballesteros, M.; Druet, M.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalan, M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Hernaiz-Huerta, P.; Olaiz, A. J.; Torres, R.; Brothers, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Detailed swath bathymetry mapping of complete geological provinces together with high-resolution seismic profiles provide critical perspective for the detection and study of active faults and their seismic and tsunami hazard. Since 2003 the Universidad Complutense de Madrid has been leading an international research group to study the north-eastern Caribbean, from the Lesser Antilles to Jamaica. This area comprises the 200 km-wide boundary zone between the North American and the Caribbean plates, where the relative plate motion is 18-20 ±3 mm/year towards 070-075. The highly-oblique convergence between the plates in Hispaniola is accommodated by strain partitioning on seismic fault systems sub-parallel to the plate boundary: strike-slip (the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and the Septentrional fault zones) and the compressive deformed belts (the Muertos thrust belt and the North Hispaniola thrust belt). Results from several research cruises offshore Hispaniola have identified and characterized zones of active deformation that were not observed onshore, such as the Muertos out-of-sequence thrust or the Beata Ridge crest fault zone. The Muertos out-of-sequence thrust could be related to the M≈8 event occurred the 18th of October in 1751 that shook central and south-eastern Hispaniola. In other seismic fault zones, such as the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and the Septentrional fault zones, knowledge of their offshore continuity is limited. Future research cruises will target the offshore continuity of these strike-slip seismic fault zones in the vicinity of Southern Peninsula of Haiti, in the Jamaica Passage and in the Gonave Bay. As part of the NORCARIBE project, a research cruise will be taking place in the spring of 2012 aboard the Spanish R/V Hespérides. Multichannel, high-resolution and wide-angle seismic profiles will be acquired together with swath bathymetry, magnetic and gravity data. The scientific and social interest in studying this region has greatly increased after the January 2010 M7.0 event in Haiti. After two centuries without significant earthquakes in southern Hispaniola, the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system was responsible for the seismic crisis of January 2010 in Haiti. A review of the original historical records located in the Archivo General de Indias and the Archivo General de la Marina (Spain), and the archives of the Dominican Republic will provide new constraints for the epicenters and intensities of the main events from the 16th century, and will help to assess seismic and tsunami hazard in the region.

  18. Neotectonics of Hispaniola - Plate motion, sedimentation, and seismicity at a restraining bend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, P.; Matumoto, T.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    The question as to the extent to which earthquake mechanisms define plate motion is addressed in view of the pattern of Neogene faulting, volcanism, and sedimentation in Hispaniola. The structure of two fault systems that approximately define the northern and southern coasts of the island suggest an east-west trend in relative plate motion, which is consistent with previous findings. The intervening area consists of en echelon mountain ranges thrust up at the restraining bend from the early Miocene. A Pleistocene volcanic province within this area is interpreted as defining a diffuse extensional fault termination of the southern strike-slip fault zone.

  19. The Prioninae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of Hispaniola with diagnoses, descriptions of new species, distribution records, and key for identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Prioninae (Cerambycidae) of Hispaniola are reviewed. Tweny-seven species are known from the island, including five new ones and a new genus described herein: Elateropsis dichroma Lingafelter, new species, Elateropsis woodleyi Lingafelter, new species, Solenoptera tomentosa Lingafelter, new spec...

  20. Morphostructure at the junction between the Beata ridge and the Greater Antilles island arc (offshore Hispaniola southern slope)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja Bruña, J. L.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Llanes Estrada, P.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, U. S.; Gómez Ballesteros, M.; Druet, M.; Pazos, A.

    2014-03-01

    Oblique convergence between the Caribbean plate's interior and the inactive Greater Antilles island arc has resulted in the collision and impingement of the thickened crust of the Beata ridge into southern Hispaniola Island. Deformation resulting from this convergence changes from a low-angle southward-verging thrust south of eastern Hispaniola, to collision and uplift in south-central Hispaniola, and to left-lateral transpression along the Southern peninsula of Haiti in western Hispaniola. Using new swath bathymetry and a dense seismic reflection grid, we mapped the morphological, structural and sedimentological elements of offshore southern Hispaniola. We have identified four morphotectonic provinces: the Dominican sub-basin, the Muertos margin, the Beata ridge and the Haiti sub-basin. The lower slope of the Muertos margin is occupied by the active Muertos thrust belt, which includes several active out-of-sequence thrust faults that, were they to rupture along their entire length, could generate large-magnitude earthquakes. The interaction of the thrust belt with the Beata ridge yields a huge recess and the imbricate system disappears. The upper slope of the Muertos margin shows thick slope deposits where the extensional tectonics and slumping processes predominate. The northern Beata ridge consists of an asymmetrically uplifted and faulted block of oceanic crust. Our results suggest that the shallower structure and morphology of the northern Beata ridge can be mainly explained by a mechanism of extensional unloading from the Upper Cretaceous onward that is still active residually along the summit of the ridge. The tectonic models for the northern Beata ridge involving active reverse strike-slip faults and transpression caused by the oblique convergence between the Beata ridge and the island arc are not supported by the structural interpretation. The eastern Bahoruco slope an old normal fault that acts as a passive tear fault accommodating the sharp along-strike transition from low-angle thrusting to collision and uplifting.

  1. New Evaluation of Seismic Hazard in Cental America and la Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, B.; Camacho, E. I.; Rojas, W.; Climent, A.; Alvarado-Induni, G.; Marroquin, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Belizaire, D.; Pierristal, G.; Torres, Y.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; García, R.; Zevallos, F.

    2013-05-01

    The results from seismic hazard studies carried out in two seismic scenarios, Central America Region (CA) and La Hispaniola Island, are presented here. Both cases follow the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology and they are developed in terms of PGA, and SA (T), for T of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2s. In both anaysis, hybrid zonation models are considered, integrated by seismogenic zones and faults where data of slip rate and recurrence time are available. First, we present a new evaluation of seismic hazard in CA, starting with the results of a previous study by Benito et al (2011). Some improvements are now included, such as: updated catalogue till 2011, corrections in the zonning model in particular for subduction regime taken into account the variation of the dip in Costa Rica and Panama, and modelization of some faults as independent units for the hazard estimation. The results allow us to carry out a sensitivity analysis comparing the ones obtained with and without faults. In a second part we present the results of the PSHA in La Hispaniola, carried out as part of the cooperative project SISMO-HAITI supported by UPM and developed in cooperation with ONEV. It started a few months after the 2010 event, as an answer to a required help from the Haitian government to UPM. The study was aimed at obtaining results suitable for seismic design purposes and started with the elaboration of a seismic catalogue for the Hispaniola, requiring an exhaustive revision of data reported by around 30 seismic agencies, apart from these from Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic Seismic Networks. Seismotectonic models for the region were reviewed and a new regional zonation was proposed, taking into account different geophysical data. Attenuation models for subduction and crustal zones were also reviewed and the more suitable were calibrated with data recorded inside the Caribbean plate. As a result of the PSHA, different maps were generated for the quoted parameters, together with the UHS for the main cities in the country. The obtained values for PGA and return peridod of 475 y. are comparable to the ones of the Dominican Republic Building Code, with maximun PGA around 400 cm/s2 (in rock sites). However, the morphology of the map is quite similar to the previous one by Frankel et al (2011), althought ours presents lower PGA values. The results are available as a basis for the the first Haitian building code.

  2. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha, new genus) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria, new species) a...

  3. Accretionary margin of north-western Hispaniola: morphology, structure and development of part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Scanlon, K.M.; Terence, Edgar N.; Parson, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Broad-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) images and single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that the margin of north-western Hispaniola has experienced compression as a consequence of oblique North American-Caribbean plate convergence. Two principal morphological or structural types of accretionary wedges are observed along this margin. The first type is characterized by a gently sloping (???4??) sea floor and generally margin-parallel linear sets of sea-floor ridges that gradually deepen towards the flat Hispaniola Basin floor to the north. The ridges are caused by an internal structure consisting of broad anticlines bounded by thrust faults that dip southwards beneath Hispaniola. Anticlines form at the base of the slope and are eventually sheared and underthrust beneath the slope. In contrast, the second type of accretionary wedge exhibits a steeper (???6-16??) sea-floor slope characterized by local slumping and a more abrupt morphological transition to the adjacent basin. The internal structure appears chaotic on seismic reflection profiles and probably consists of tight folds and closely spaced faults. We suggest that changes in sea-floor declivity and internal structure may result from variations in the dip or frictional resistance of the de??collement, or possibly from changes in the cohesive strength of the wedge sediments. The observed pattern of thickening of Hispaniola Basin turbidites towards the insular margin suggests differential southwards tilting of the Hispaniola Basin strata, probably in response to North America-Caribbean plate interactions since the Early Tertiary. Based upon indirect age control from adjacent parts of the northern caribbean plate boundary, we infer a Late Eocene to Early Miocene episode of transcurrent motion (i.e. little or no tilting), an Early Miocene to Late Pliocene period of oblique convergence (i.e. increased tilt) during which the accretionary wedge began to be constructed, and a Late Pliocene to Recent episode of increased convergence (i.e. twice the Miocene to Pliocene tilt), which has led to rapid uplift and erosion of sediment sources on the margin and on Hispaniola, generating a submarine fan at the base of the insular slope. ?? 1992.

  4. Egg rejection behavior in a population exposed to parasitism: Village Weavers on Hispaniola

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, A.; Prather, J.W.; Wiley, J.W.; Weaver, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to African Village Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus) that are parasitized by Diederik Cuckoos (Chrysococcyx caprius), introduced weavers on Hispaniola existed without parasitism for at least 2 centuries until the arrival of the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) in the 1970s. Cruz and Wiley (1989) found that Hispaniolan weavers had a lower rejection rate of foreign eggs than African populations. Subsequently, Robert and Sorci (1999) and Lahti (2005, 2006) found that acceptance of dissimilar eggs is not characteristic of the species throughout its Hispaniolan range. In 1999-2002, we studied egg rejection in Hispaniolan weavers on a broad regional scale. Rejection increased as experimental eggs became increasingly different from the host eggs. Rejection rates for mimetic eggs, different color eggs, different-spotting eggs, and cowbird eggs was 23.2%, 33.3%, 61.5%, and 85.3%, respectively, with higher rejection of cowbird eggs in areas where cowbirds were observed. Although rejection is likely to have a genetic component, the differences could be due to phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity in egg rejection may be expected, given the potential cost of rejection and the spatiotemporal distribution of cowbirds. Thus, egg rejection has not necessarily decreased in Hispaniolan weavers, but it may act in a plastic manner, increasing where cowbirds are present. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  5. Significant earthquakes on the Enriquillo fault system, Hispaniola, 1500-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakun, W.; Flores, C. H.; ten Brink, U. S.

    2010-12-01

    Although the 2010 Haiti earthquake came as a surprise to many, historical records indicate frequent seismic activity along the northeast Caribbean plate boundary over the past 500 years, particularly on the island of Hispaniola. Here we show that a series of devastating earthquakes on the Enriquillo fault system in the 18th century started with an intensity magnitude (MI) of 6.8 earthquake in 1701 near the location of the 2010 Haiti earthquake and that the accounts of the shaking in the 1701 earthquake are similar to those of the 2010 earthquake. A series of large earthquakes migrating from east to west started with the October 18, 1751 MI7.6 earthquake near the eastern end of the fault in the Dominican Republic, followed by the November 21, 1751 MI6.7 earthquake near Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and the June 3, 1770 MI7.7 earthquake west of the 2010 earthquake rupture. We associate no other significant events since 1500 with the Enriquillo fault system. The 2010 Haiti earthquake may mark the beginning of a new cycle of large earthquakes on the Enriquillo fault system after 240 years of quiescence. Future devastating earthquakes should be expected.

  6. Frequency-dependent attenuation of the Hispaniola Island region of the Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.; Meremonte, M.; Maharrey, J.Z.; Mildore, S-L.; Altidore, J.R.; Anglade, D.; Hough, S.E.; Given, D.; Benz, H.; Gee, L.; Frankel, A.

    2012-01-01

    We determine frequency-dependent attenuation 1/Q(f) for the Hispaniola region using direct S and Lg waves over five distinct passbands from 0.5 to 16 Hz. Data consist of 832 high-quality vertical and horizontal component waveforms recorded on short-period and broadband seismometers from the devastating 12 January 2010 M 7.0 Haiti earthquake and the rich sequence of aftershocks. For the distance range 250–700 km, we estimate an average frequency-dependent Q(f)=224(±27)f0.64(±0.073) using horizontal components of motion and note that Q(f) estimated with Lg at regional distances is very consistent across vertical and horizontal components. We also determine a Q(f)=142(±21)f0.71(±0.11) for direct S waves at local distances, ?100 km. The strong attenuation observed on both vertical and horizontal components of motion is consistent with expectations for a tectonically active region.

  7. Investigating the relationship between deforestation and changes in hydrology across the island of Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimdavar, R.

    2013-05-01

    Over recent decades, Haiti and the Dominican Republic have reported changes in reservoir water levels - while some areas have experienced increases others have seen decreasing trends, especially reservoirs located in the Dominican Republic - leading to, among other things, regional flooding and shortages in hydroelectricity output. We investigate whether extensive deforestation, particularly in the western part of Hispaniola - shared by the two nations - is driving these changes by affecting the regional water balance. Due to a lack of available spatiotemporal environmental data, remotely sensed vegetation and precipitation information is used along with estimated evapotranspiration rates to study regional hydro-climatologic fluctuations over three decades. Changes in vegetative cover, precipitation, and evapotranspiration across the island are investigated using 25 years of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, historical satellite and gauge precipitation records, and estimated surface temperature and solar radiation. NDVI values are derived from imagery obtained by NOAA's 8 km resolution AVHRR instrument. Monthly precipitation is collected from several different sources, including NASA and NOAA precipitation satellites, as well as local rain gauges. Evapotranspiration is estimated using an energy balance approach. Preliminary results indicate a general decrease in rainfall over the eastern part of the island during the past three decades, with little change observed across the western half. NDVI and precipitation anomalies across the island are not well correlated, suggesting that deforestation is likely not the cause of regional changes in precipitation. The results of this work hold potentially important implications for future land-use and water infrastructure planning for both nations.

  8. Review of the genus Urgleptes Dillon (1956) of Hispaniola (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Acanthocinini): descriptions of five new species and one new synonymy

    PubMed Central

    Ravin, Ian S.; Lingafelter, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Urgleptes Dillon (1956) is reviewed for Hispaniola. Five new species of Urgleptes from the Dominican Republic are described herein: Urgleptes charynae Ravin & Lingafelter, sp. n. (La Vega province), Urgleptes conjunctus Ravin & Lingafelter, sp. n. (Peravia Prov.), Urgleptes curtipennis Ravin & Lingafelter, sp. n. (Independencia Prov.), Urgleptes marionae Ravin & Lingafelter, sp. n. (Monseñor Nouel Prov.), and Urgleptes obliteratus Ravin & Lingafelter, sp. n. (Pedernales Prov.). Two additional, previously described species are newly recorded for Hispaniola: Urgleptes puertoricensis Gilmour and Urgleptes sandersoni Gilmour. It is established that Urgleptes haitiensis Gilmour is a new synonym of Urgleptes sandersoni. Thus there are seven species of Urgleptes recorded for Hispaniola. For all species photographs, illustrations, full descriptions, distribution maps, and a dichotomous key are included for their identification. PMID:26692806

  9. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; Stanley, T.; Simmons, J.

    2015-04-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real-time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a regional susceptibility map and satellite-based rainfall estimates into a binary decision tree, considering both daily and antecedent rainfall. Using a regionally distributed, percentile-based threshold approach, the model outputs a pixel-by-pixel nowcast in near real-time at a resolution of 30 arcsec to identify areas of moderate and high landslide hazard. The daily and antecedent rainfall thresholds in the model are calibrated using a subset of the Global Landslide Catalog in Central America available for 2007-2013. The model was then evaluated with data for 2014. Results suggest reasonable model skill over Central America and poorer performance over Hispaniola, due primarily to the limited availability of calibration and validation data. The landslide model framework presented here demonstrates the capability to utilize globally available satellite products for regional landslide hazard assessment. It also provides a flexible framework to interchange the indiviual model components and adjust or calibrate thresholds based on access to new data and calibration sources. The availability of free, satellite-based near real-time rainfall data allows the creation of similar models for any study area with a spatiotemporal record of landslide events. This method may also incorporate other hydrological or atmospheric variables such as numerical weather forecasts or satellite-based soil moisture estimates within this decision tree approach for improved hazard analysis.

  10. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; Stanley, T.; Simmons, J.

    2015-10-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a regional susceptibility map and satellite-based rainfall estimates into a binary decision tree, considering both daily and antecedent rainfall. Using a regionally distributed, percentile-based threshold approach, the model outputs a pixel-by-pixel nowcast in near real time at a resolution of 30 arcsec to identify areas of moderate and high landslide hazard. The daily and antecedent rainfall thresholds in the model are calibrated using a subset of the Global Landslide Catalog in Central America available for 2007-2013. The model was then evaluated with data for 2014. Results suggest reasonable model skill over Central America and poorer performance over Hispaniola due primarily to the limited availability of calibration and validation data. The landslide model framework presented here demonstrates the capability to utilize globally available satellite products for regional landslide hazard assessment. It also provides a flexible framework to interchange the individual model components and adjust or calibrate thresholds based on access to new data and calibration sources. The availability of free satellite-based near real-time rainfall data allows the creation of similar models for any study area with a spatiotemporal record of landslide events. This method may also incorporate other hydrological or atmospheric variables such as numerical weather forecasts or satellite-based soil moisture estimates within this decision tree approach for improved hazard analysis.

  11. Circulation of high pressure blocks in subduction complexes: some insights from northern Hispaniola

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, G.; Nagle, F.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed mapping in the Rio San Juan Complex (RSJC) and reconnaissance investigations in the Samana peninsula, in North Hispaniola, have determined the characteristics of a Cretaceous blueschist/eclogite melange. In the RSJC, the melange has a mafic greenschist matrix which appears to be part of a larger, coherent greenschist terrane, which varies in composition and includes mafic and quartz feldspathic types interbedded in a sedimentary protolith. Of the many lithologies present in the melange, the most common are original gt-px and gt-hbl schist, both of which have been strongly overprinted by a blueschist facies metamorphism. The blocks also have a rind of coarse grained actinolite surrounded a second rind of actinolite + chlorite + fuchsitic (cr-rich) mica. The authors follow Moore in suggesting that the rind formed by contact with serpentinite at depth. They suggest instead that rind formation and block exhumation were by diapirism and/or corner flow of serpentinite. Limited isotopic evidence suggests that the blocks area about 90 m.y. old. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that the deeper levels of the coherent metamorphic terrane was eroded by Paleocene time (65 m.y. b.p.). Thus, the complete cycle of exhumation of blocks from greater than 30km., their incorporation into trench-fill sediments, burial of the coherent terrane and subsequent erosion of this terrane took place in about 25 m.y.. Since the erosion of the coherent terrane must have occupied the greater part of this time period (about 20 m.y.), then both burial and exumation took place in only a few million years.

  12. Assessing conservation status of resident and migrant birds on Hispaniola with mist-netting.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John D; Rimmer, Christopher C; McFarland, Kent P

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal trends in mist-net capture rates of resident (n = 8) and overwintering Nearctic-Neotropical migrant (n = 3) bird species at two sites in montane broadleaf forest of the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic, with the goal of providing quantitative information on population trends that could inform conservation assessments. We conducted sampling at least once annually during the winter months of January-March from 1997 to 2010. We found evidence of declines in capture rates for three resident species, including one species endemic to Hispaniola. Capture rate of Rufous-throated Solitaire (Myadestes genibarbis) declined by 3.9% per year (95% CL = 0%, 7.3%), Green-tailed Ground-Tanager (Microligea palustris) by 6.8% (95% CL = 3.9%, 8.8%), and Greater Antillean Bullfinch (Loxigilla violacea) by 4.9% (95% CL = 0.9%, 9.2%). Two rare and threatened endemics, Hispaniolan Highland-Tanager (Xenoligea montana) and Western Chat-Tanager (Calyptophilus tertius), showed statistically significant declines, but we have low confidence in these findings because trends were driven by exceptionally high capture rates in 1997 and varied between sites. Analyses that excluded data from 1997 revealed no trend in capture rate over the course of the study. We found no evidence of temporal trends in capture rates for any other residents or Nearctic-Neotropical migrants. We do not know the causes of the observed declines, nor can we conclude that these declines are not a purely local phenomenon. However, our findings, along with other recent reports of declines in these same species, suggest that a closer examination of their conservation status is warranted. Given the difficulty in obtaining spatially extensive, long-term estimates of population change for Hispaniolan birds, we suggest focusing on other metrics of vulnerability that are more easily quantified yet remain poorly described, such as extent of occurrence. PMID:26844015

  13. Assessing conservation status of resident and migrant birds on Hispaniola with mist-netting

    PubMed Central

    Rimmer, Christopher C.; McFarland, Kent P.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed temporal trends in mist-net capture rates of resident (n = 8) and overwintering Nearctic-Neotropical migrant (n = 3) bird species at two sites in montane broadleaf forest of the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic, with the goal of providing quantitative information on population trends that could inform conservation assessments. We conducted sampling at least once annually during the winter months of January–March from 1997 to 2010. We found evidence of declines in capture rates for three resident species, including one species endemic to Hispaniola. Capture rate of Rufous-throated Solitaire (Myadestes genibarbis) declined by 3.9% per year (95% CL = 0%, 7.3%), Green-tailed Ground-Tanager (Microligea palustris) by 6.8% (95% CL = 3.9%, 8.8%), and Greater Antillean Bullfinch (Loxigilla violacea) by 4.9% (95% CL = 0.9%, 9.2%). Two rare and threatened endemics, Hispaniolan Highland-Tanager (Xenoligea montana) and Western Chat-Tanager (Calyptophilus tertius), showed statistically significant declines, but we have low confidence in these findings because trends were driven by exceptionally high capture rates in 1997 and varied between sites. Analyses that excluded data from 1997 revealed no trend in capture rate over the course of the study. We found no evidence of temporal trends in capture rates for any other residents or Nearctic-Neotropical migrants. We do not know the causes of the observed declines, nor can we conclude that these declines are not a purely local phenomenon. However, our findings, along with other recent reports of declines in these same species, suggest that a closer examination of their conservation status is warranted. Given the difficulty in obtaining spatially extensive, long-term estimates of population change for Hispaniolan birds, we suggest focusing on other metrics of vulnerability that are more easily quantified yet remain poorly described, such as extent of occurrence. PMID:26844015

  14. Three new phylogenetic and biological Neurospora species: N. hispaniola, N. metzenbergii and N. perkinsii.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Christopher F; Jacobson, David J; Taylor, John W

    2009-01-01

    The recent recognition of provisional Neurospora phylogenetic species (PS) 1-3 gave us the opportunity to compare genetic isolation, which underlies phylogenetic species recognition (PSR), with reproductive isolation as criteria for recognizing new species. This investigation involved first finding new individuals of PS 1-3 from a search of the Perkins culture collection, then assessing genetic isolation by PSR for old and new members of PS 1-3 and finally comparing species recognition by genetic isolation as determined by PSR to species recognition by reproductive isolation as determined by biological species recognition (BSR) and geographic distribution. To aid the search for additional members of the PS we used the genetic variation originally used to discover Neurospora PS 1-3 to easily distinguish members of Neurospora PS 1-3 from the closely related species N. crassa and N. intermedia. To increase our chance of success the analysis was performed on N. crassa and N. intermedia isolates that were either not clearly assignable to species by BSR using tester strains or were from the same geographic locations as the known members of PS1-3. Eleven new members of Neurospora PS 1-3 were identified: one new PS1, nine new PS2 and one new PS3. To complement PSR we investigated reproductive isolation with BSR in PS1-3 and the two other most closely related species, N. intermedia and N. crassa, with intraspecific and interspecific crosses. PS1 and PS2 appear reproductively isolated because they successfully mated intraspecifically and not interspecifically. PS3 isolates successfully crossed with other PS3 isolates, however they also successfully crossed with N. crassa, as previously reported, indicating that genetic isolation can precede reproductive isolation. We compared phylogenetic, mating and geographical data to challenge the use of PSR as the main criterion in the formal description of species and, having failed to discredit the approach, describe the new species, N. hispaniola (PS1), N. metzenbergii (PS2) and N. perkinsii (PS3). PMID:19927744

  15. New records of Caribbomerus from Hispaniola with redescription of C. elongatus (Fisher) and a key to the genus in the West Indies (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Graciliini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three species of Caribbomerus Vitali are newly recorded for the Dominican Republic: C. decoratus (Zayas), C. elongatus (Fisher), and C. asperatus (Fisher). The first two also represent first records for Hispaniola. Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher) is redescribed based on additional material, includi...

  16. Faulting and strain partitioning in Jamaica from GPS and structural data: Implications for Gonave and Hispaniola microplate kinematics, northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, Bryn

    A series of small microplates separate the Caribbean and North America plates in the northern Caribbean. My dissertation focuses on understanding the structural evolution and neotectonic deformation of Jamaica, and how it relates to the overall microplates and tectonics of the northern Caribbean. Jamaica, which lies along the same seismically active plate boundary as Haiti, has had twelve earthquakes with Modified Mercalli intensities of VII to X since 1667. However, remarkably little is known about which faults presently constitute the most significant seismic hazards. This research provides insight into tectonic processes and facilitates mitigation of geological hazards in the region. Two chapters focus on characterizing deformation in Jamaica through modeling GPS velocities and through field mapping. The best-fitting models based on GPS velocities place most strike-slip motion on faults in central Jamaica and suggest that faults in northern Jamaica have minimal motion. I estimate 4--5 mm yr-1 of slip for faults near the capital city of Kingston of southeastern Jamaica, implying significant seismic hazard. Field mapping combined with present-day topography, focal mechanisms, geology, gravity, and well and borehole data indicate that east-west contraction is accommodated by reactivated, NNW-striking reverse faults, which are bound by E-striking strike-slip faults in southern Jamaica. The other two chapters of my thesis focuses on understanding the behavior of the microplates along the Caribbean-North America plate boundary: I model GPS velocities and use shear-wave splitting to understand the crustal and mantle behaviors, respectively of the microplates. The GPS data require an independently moving Hispaniola microplate between the Mona Passage and a likely diffuse boundary just west of or within western Hispaniola. The new microplate angular velocities predict 6.8+/-1.0 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip and 5.7+/-1 mm yr-1 of convergent motion surrounding the seismically hazardous Enriquillo fault of western Hispaniola, suggesting that one to two M=7 earthquakes are expected for Haiti each century. Using shear-wave splitting analyses, I document fast axis of polarization parallel to the Gonave microplate boundaries along its northern, southern, and eastern boundaries. In the interior of the microplates, weak/no fabric is documented suggesting that the microplate boundaries continue into the upper mantle.

  17. New observations of the active deformation along the oblique collision/subduction boundary zone between the North American and Caribbean plates (northern Hispaniola offshore margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Granja Bruña, José Luis; Rodríguez Zurrunero, Álvaro; Gómez de la Peña, Laura; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Gómez Ballesteros, María; Gorosabel Araus, José Miguel; Espinosa, Salvador; Pazos, Anatonio; Catalán, Manuel; Yamil Rodríguez Asilis, Hector; Nuñez, José Luis; Muñoz, Santiago; ten Brink, Uri S.; Quijano, Jesús; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Martín Dávila, José; Druet, María

    2015-04-01

    The Caribbean plate is moving relative to the North American plate at a rate of 20.0 ± 0.4 mm/y towards 074° ± 1°. This eastward motion has been taking place during most of the Cenozoic developing a 250 km-wide band of deformation, in which microplate and block tectonics take place. The eastward motion of the Hispaniola block is being impeded relative to the motion of the Caribbean plate's interior due to the collision with the Bahamas banks. This collision has resulted in the development of the Northern Hispaniola deformed belt along the northern Hispaniola offshore margin. A series of large (M6.2-M8.1) thrust earthquakes from 1943-1953, and two significant events in 1994 (M5.6) and 2003 (M6.4) occurred close to the city of Puerto Plata have been attributed to oblique collision/subduction of the North America plate and Bahamas banks beneath the northern Hispaniola. 300 km of 2D multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data and approximately 15000 km2 of high-resolution, systematic swath bathymetry data were recorded in the northern Hispaniola offshore margin as part of a larger survey carried out in November-December of 2013 aboard the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa. MCS profiles were collected shooting a GI gun array (GGUN-II®) of 1750 ci. every 37.5 m and the signal recorded in a 3000 m-long streamer with 240 channels (Sentinel Sercel®). Differential GPS navigated high-resolution bathymetry data were collected using the hull-mounted Hydrosweep ATLAS DS echo-sounder system. Using new high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and MCS data, combined with previous 2D seismic data, we have studied the along- and across-strike variations of the geomorphology and shallower structure of the northern Hispaniola offshore margin. Here we present preliminary results focused on the identification and characterization of recent tectonic features in the region and provide well-defined targets to carry out future studies for seismic and tsunamigenic hazard assessment.

  18. On the role of the Beata Ridge in the structure of southern Hispaniola: new constrains from the correlation between offshore and onshore structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja Bruña, J.; Hernaiz-Huerta, P.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Llanes Estrada, M.; Pérez-Valera, F.; Abad, M.; Gómez Ballesteros, M.; Druet, M.; Munoz Martin, A.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalan, M.; ten Brink, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Beata Ridge is a thickened aseismic crust block that forms a NNE-SSW trending bathymetric high located in the interior of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). This ridge is impinging into the Greater Antilles island arc in south-central Hispaniola Island. The impingement has resulted into the following main consequences for the southern region of Hispaniola: uplifting and accretion of part of the CLIP to the island arc, an associated localized strain partitioning and a sharp structural change between both sides of the ridge, with frontal thrusting in the Los Muertos convergent margin (to the east) against dominant left-lateral strike-slip tectonics in the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (to the west). Two hypotheses have been suggested to explain the impingement as a result of: 1) the continuous motion of the aseismic ridge toward the NE against the Greater Antilles, at least from the Miocene; or 2) the thickened ridge acting as a fixed obstacle in the foreland area impeding the overthrusting of the island arc over the Caribbean plateau. Several works have tried to restore the situation prior to the impingement of the Beata Ridge into the island arc and to correlate the tectonic units observed on both sides of the region of impingement: the offshore imbricate structures observed in Los Muertos convergent margin with the onshore Peralta fold-and-thrust belt and/or the E-W transcurrent Enriquillo fault system in southern Hispaniola. However as a result of the huge lateral and vertical offset caused by the impingement of the aseismic ridge there is not a tectonic model which can successfully explain this transition. A detailed interpretation of the deep and shallow structure of western Los Muertos convergent margin and northern Beata Ridge has been made using the new data obtained from the CARIBENORTE research cruise carried out in the spring of 2009 in the southern insular slope of Hispaniola. On the other hand a complete geothematic survey of the whole Dominican Republic funded by the EU Sysmin Program has been recently performed including (among others) a detailed 1:50.000 geological and 1:100.000 geomorphological and active processes mappings. The integration and correlation of the onshore and offshore structural data of southern Hispaniola presented here provides valuable information to constrain and evaluate the consequences of the impingement of the Beata Ridge into the island arc and to help understand how the present day sharp transition between frontal thrusting and strike-slip tectonics may take place. These results can be further implemented into the evaluation and assessment of seismic hazard in the densely populated Hispaniola island, and especially, the eastern termination of the Enriquillo-fault zone, that in Haiti was responsible for the deadly event on 12 January 2010.

  19. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lingafelter, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of a highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha gen. n.) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria sp. n.) and provisionally assigned to Tillomorphini. Three other new species of ant mimic longhorned beetles are described and illustrated: Calliclytus macoris sp. n. (Tillomorphini), Tilloclytus baoruco sp. n., and Tilloclytus neiba sp. n. (Anaglyptini). An identification key and distribution map to all known Hispaniolan species of these two tribes are presented. PMID:21852922

  20. Influence of salinity and temperature on the physiology of Limia melanonotata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae): A search for abiotic factors limiting insular distribution in Hispaniola

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, D.C.; Walsh, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated salinity and temperature effects on routine metabolic rate (RMR), temperature tolerance (CTMax, critical thermal maximum), and salinity tolerance of Limia melanonotata, a poecliid fish that occurs in west-central inland waters of Hispaniola. Routine metabolic rate and CTMax were measured in fish acclimated to three salinities (0, 30, and 60 ppt) and temperatures (25??, 30??, and 35??C) for nine temperature-salinity combinations. Salinity and temperature did not significantly interact in their effect on RMR. For combined salinity acclimations, adjusted RMR (ANCOVA) was significantly lower at 25??C than either 30?? or 35??C. For combined temperature acclimations, mean RMR was significantly lower at 60 ppt than either 0 or 30 ppt. Salinity and temperature had a significant interactive effect on temperature tolerance. Mean CTMax was significantly higher at 30?? than 25??C at all salinities, but at 35??C was significantly higher than at 25?? or 30??C only among fish acclimated in fresh water. Fish exposed to a chronic increase in salinity experienced most mortality in a salinity range of 70-107 ppt, with females exhibiting greater salinity tolerance than males. Limia melanonotata approaches the upper extreme in salinity and temperature tolerances known for poeciliids. Our results also suggest that L. melanonotata may reduce energy expenditures at environmental extremes to tolerate harsh conditions for extended periods. Despite its curythermal and euryhaline adaptations, L. melanonotata has a relatively restricted inland range in Hispaniola and is unknown from inshore brackish or marine habitats. The present distribution of this species and congeners may be the result of a combination of factors that include historical zoogeography and ecological requirements.

  1. New records of Caribbomerus from Hispaniola and Dominica with redescription of C. elongatus (Fisher) and a key to species of the genus in the West Indies (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Graciliini)

    PubMed Central

    Lingafelter, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Three species of Caribbomerus Vitali are newly recorded for the Dominican Republic: Caribbomerus decoratus (Zayas), Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher), and Caribbomerus asperatus (Fisher). The first two also represent first records for Hispaniola. Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher) is redescribed based on additional material, including the first known males. Caribbomerus similis (Fisher) is newly recorded for Dominica. A key to the species of the genus from the West Indies is provided. PMID:21594096

  2. The Imbert Formation of northern Hispaniola: a tectono-sedimentary record of arc-continent collision and ophiolite emplacement in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, J.; Suárez-Rodríguez, A.; Gabites, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2015-06-01

    In northern Hispaniola, the Imbert Formation (Fm) has been interpreted as an orogenic "mélange" originally deposited as trench-fill sediments, an accretionary (subduction) complex formed above a SW-dipping subduction zone, or the sedimentary result of the early oblique collision of the Caribbean plate with the Bahama Platform in the middle Eocene. However, new stratigraphical, structural, geochemical and geochronological data from northern Hispaniola indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional piggy-back basin. This piggy-back basin was transported on top of the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex slab and structurally underlying accreted units of the Rio San Juan complex, as it was emplaced onto the North America continental margin units. The Imbert Fm unconformably overlies different structural levels of the Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism, including a supra-subduction zone ophiolite, and consists of three laterally discontinuous units that record the exhumation of the underlying basement. The distal turbiditic lower unit includes the latest volcanic activity of the Caribbean island arc; the more proximal turbiditic intermediate unit is moderately affected by syn-sedimentary faulting; and the upper unit is a (caotic) olistostromic unit, composed of serpentinite-rich polymictic breccias, conglomerates and sandstones, strongly deformed by syn-sedimentary faulting, slumping and sliding processes. The Imbert Fm is followed by subsidence and turbiditic deposition of the overlying El Mamey Group. The 40Ar / 39Ar plagioclase plateau ages obtained in gabbroic rocks from the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex indicate its exhumation at ∼ 45-40 Ma (lower-to-middle Eocene), contemporaneously to the sedimentation of the overlying Imbert Fm. These cooling ages imply the uplift to the surface and submarine erosion of the complex to be the source of the ophiolitic fragments in the Imbert Fm, during of shortly after the emplacement of the intra-oceanic Caribbean island-arc onto the continental margin.

  3. The Imbert Formation of northern Hispaniola: a tectono-sedimentary record of arc-continent collision and ophiolite emplacement in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, J.; Suárez-Rodríguez, Á.; Gabites, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2016-01-01

    In northern Hispaniola, the Imbert Formation (Fm) has been interpreted as an orogenic "mélange" originally deposited as trench-fill sediments, an accretionary (subduction) complex formed above a SW-dipping subduction zone, or the sedimentary result of the early oblique collision of the Caribbean plate with the Bahama Platform in the middle Eocene. However, new stratigraphical, structural, geochemical and geochronological data from northern Hispaniola indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional basin. This basin was transported on top of the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex slab and structurally underlying accreted units of the Rio San Juan complex, as it was emplaced onto the North America continental margin units.

    The Imbert Fm unconformably overlies different structural levels of the Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism, including a supra-subduction zone ophiolite, and consists of three laterally discontinuous units that record the exhumation of the underlying basement. The distal turbiditic lower unit includes the latest volcanic activity of the Caribbean island arc; the more proximal turbiditic intermediate unit is moderately affected by syn-sedimentary faulting; and the upper unit is a (chaotic) olistostromic unit, composed of serpentinite-rich polymictic breccias, conglomerates and sandstones, strongly deformed by syn-sedimentary faulting, slumping and sliding processes. The Imbert Fm is followed by subsidence and turbiditic deposition of the overlying El Mamey Group.

    The 40Ar / 39Ar plagioclase plateau ages obtained in gabbroic rocks from the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex indicate its exhumation at ˜ 45-40 Ma (lower-to-middle Eocene), contemporaneously to the sedimentation of the overlying Imbert Fm. These cooling ages imply the uplift to the surface and submarine erosion of the complex to be the source of the ophiolitic fragments in the Imbert Fm, during or shortly after the emplacement of the intra-oceanic Caribbean island arc onto the continental margin.

  4. Population structure and history of a phenotypically variable teiid lizard (Ameiva chrysolaema) from Hispaniola: the influence of a geologically complex island.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Matthew E; Powell, Robert; Larson, Allan; Gutberlet, Ronald L

    2004-09-01

    Ameiva chrysolaema is distributed across the island of Hispaniola in the West Indies. The species is restricted to dry lowlands between major mountain ranges and along the southern and eastern coasts. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses of mtDNA sequence variation from 14 sampling localities identify at least three independent evolutionary lineages, separated from one another by major mountain ranges. Nested clade phylogeographic analysis (NCPA) suggests a complex history of population fragmentation, consistent with geological evidence of seawater incursions into the Azua and Enriquillo basins during the Pliocene/Pleistocene (approximately 1.6 mya). Significantly negative Fu's F(S) values and parameters of mismatch distributions suggest that formerly fragmented populations have recently expanded their ranges. Significantly large average population clade distances (APCD) for two sampling localities in the Azua basin suggest secondary contact at these localities of previously separated populations. The distribution of haplotypes among polymorphic populations of A. chrysolaema suggests that variation in dorsal pattern represents a polymorphism within evolutionary lineages. Ameiva leberi is ecologically indistinguishable from and syntopic with A. chrysolaema. Genetic data suggest that A. leberi is a junior synonym of A. chrysolaema. PMID:15288051

  5. Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene shallow-water mixed siliciclastics and carbonates (Yanigua and Los Haitises formations) in eastern Hispaniola (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Juan C.; Díaz de Neira, Alberto; Lasseur, Eric; Mediato, José; Aguirre, Julio; Abad, Manuel; Hernaiz-Huerta, Pedro P.; Monthel, Jacques; Pérez-Valera, Fernando; Lopera, Eusebio

    2012-07-01

    The virtually unfolded sedimentary cover of the Cordilleras Central and Oriental in the eastern Dominican Republic (eastern Hispaniola, tropical North Atlantic) largely consists of Pliocene to Early Pleistocene mixed siliciclastics and carbonates. These deposits have been grouped into two laterally interfingering mapping units, the Yanigua and Los Haitises formations. The former (mainly siliciclastics) comprises marl, marly limestone, and minor conglomerate, sandstone, lignite, and carbonaceous clay and crops out closest to the basement. The Los Haitises Formation mainly consists of limestone and intercalating beds of marly limestone and marl. Lithological mapping at the 1:50,000 scale and facies analysis of twelve measured sections and of additional fourteen outcrops suggest that these deposits mainly formed on a shallow-water marine platform fringing the precursor reliefs of the Cordillera Oriental and the southeastern end of the Cordillera Central. Only a limited proportion of sediment formed in floodplains and marshes. Marl and marly limestone dominated the inner platform sediments. Terrigenous mud decreased away from the emergent basement and carbonate sedimentation dominated the more external platform. Corals, molluscs, echinoids, foraminifers, bryozoans, coralline algae, and Halimeda are the main components with varying amounts of carbonate mud. The platform was generally a low-energy environment with seagrass patches. In the inner platform, corals grew as isolated colonies or as small patch reefs dominated by Porites in marly and bioclastic substrates. Branching corals (Stylophora and Acropora) grew in extensive carpets in more distal areas. At least in the last stage of its development (Early Pleistocene), the platform was rimmed by a reef barrier similar to the Holocene Caribbean barrier reefs, with Acropora gr. palmata, A. cervicornis, Porites, Montastrea, Siderastrea, and Diploria as the main reef builders.

  6. Plio-Pleistocene palaeogeography of the Llanura Costera del Caribe in eastern Hispaniola (Dominican Republic): Interplay of geomorphic evolution and sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz de Neira, J. A.; Braga, J. C.; Mediato, J.; Lasseur, E.; Monthel, J.; Hernáiz, P. P.; Pérez-Cerdán, F.; Lopera, E.; Thomas, A.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to reconstruct the palaeogeographic evolution of the Llanura Costera del Caribe (LCC) in eastern Hispaniola (Dominican Republic) during the Pleistocene, adding new insights to published information on Pliocene-Early Pleistocene deposits. The LCC is a generally flat region comprising the unfolded sedimentary cover of the Cordilleras Central and Oriental. Within this cover, the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Yanigua Formation,mainly consisting of marl, changes seawards to the mainly limestone Los Haitises Formation. Both units formed in a shallow-water platform rimmed by a reef barrier at least in the latest depositional stages. The overlying Pleistocene La Isabela Formation consists of two major offlapping reef terraces, in which a reef core enclosed a lagoon, and prograded over forereef bioclastic debris. Two belts in LCC's morphostructure directly reflect its sedimentary evolution. The Inner Belt extends over the marly substrate of the Yanigua Formation and the Coastal Belt comprises three major surfaces corresponding to the depositional top of the Los Haitises Formation (Upper Surface), and to the Upper and Lower terraces of the La Isabela Formation (Intermediate and Lower Surfaces, respectively). The MIS 5e age of the 10-20 m high Lower Terrace implies a low uplift rate of 0.033-0.068 mm/yr for the Lower Surface. The Pliocene-Early Pleistocene platform was emergent in the Early-Middle Pleistocene. The Early Pleistocene reef barrier separated endorheic watersheds extending over the former shelf lagoon from the open ocean. Reefs built the Upper Terrace of the La Isabela Formation during one or several Middle Pleistocene highstands and the Lower Terrace during MIS 5e and previous highstands. Siliciclastic deposits in this terrace record the opening to the Caribbean Sea of watersheds in the eastern LCC. The Lower Terrace emersion and opening of the large drainage systems of the western and central LCC took place after MIS 5e. Relative sea level fall and emersion of a large area did not imply increased terrigenous sedimentation in the adjacent marine basin. Development of endorheic watersheds over most of the emergent surface delayed the diachronic arrival of siliciclastics into the marine basin for hundreds of thousands of years.

  7. Areas of Active Tectonic Uplift Are Sensitive to Small Changes in Fold Orientations within a Broad Zone of Left-lateral Transpression and Shearing, Dominican Republic and Haiti (Hispaniola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosius, I.; Mann, P.

    2014-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown that the island of Hispaniola is a 250 km-wide zone of active, east-west, left-lateral shearing along two major strike-slip zones: the Septentrional-Oriente fault zone through the northern part of the island and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) through the southern part of the island. The total interplate rate distributed on both faults is 21 mm/yr. Using a high-resolution DEM, we constructed fluvial channel profiles across transpression-related folds of late Miocene to recent age in the area of central and southern Dominican Republic and Haiti to determine controls of areas of relatively high, moderate, and slow uplift inferred from fluvial channel profiles. Fold axes in this area extend for 50-150 km and exhibit two different trends: 1) folds that occupy the area of the Sierra de Neiba-Chaine des Matheux north of the Enriquillo-Cul-de-Sac Valley and EPGFZ and folds that occupy the area of the Sierra de Bahoruco-Massif de la Selle all exhibit more east-west fold axes trending 110; 2) folds that occupy the area northwest of the EPGFZ in the western Chaine des Matheux and Sierra de Neiba all exhibit fold axes with more northwest trends of 125. River channel profiles show that the second group of more northwesterly-trending fold axes show relatively higher rates of tectonic uplift based on their convex-upward river profiles. Our interpretation for regional variations in river profiles and inferred uplift is that uplift is more pronounced on fold axes trending 15 degrees more to the northwest because their axes are more oblique to the interplate direction of east-west shearing. Longterm uplift rates previously measured from a stairstep of late Quaternary coral terraces at the plunging nose of the westernmost Chaine des Matheux have been previously shown to be occurring at a rate of 0.19 mm/yr. Onland exposures of Holocene corals are found only on one locality within the southern area of folds 30 km west of the epicenter of the 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake. This emerged Holocene coral terrace - a unique marine Holocene exposure in the northern Caribbean - is directly adjacent to the Tapion Hill restraining bend-related anticline on the main trace of the EPGFZ.

  8. The genus Leptostylopsis of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generic differences and similarities between Leptostylus LeConte and Leptostylopsis Dillon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini) are discussed. Leptostylopsis is redescribed and the following species are transferred from Leptostylus to Leptostylopsis: Leptostylopsis annulipes (Fisher 1942)...

  9. A new species of Woodcock (Aves: Scolopacidae: Scolopax) from Hispaniola, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Takano, Oona M; Steadman, David W

    2015-01-01

    Several hundred late Holocene fossils from Trouing Jean Paul, a cave in Massif de la Selle, Haiti, represent an extinct species of woodcock (Scolopax brachycarpa, new species). Scolopax brachycarpa is known from most major skeletal elements; although volant, its carpometacarpus was very short relative to its humerus. The only other species of Scolopax from the West Indies is the extinct and presumably closely related S. anthonyi of Puerto Rico, which also had a relatively short carpometacarpus compared to continental congeners. Both Scolopax brachycarpa and S. anthonyi share more osteological characters with the Eurasian S. rusticola than with the North American S. minor. PMID:26624342

  10. Cenozoic sedimentary and deformational history of hispaniola, 1: southeastern Cordillera Central

    SciTech Connect

    Heubeck, C.; Mann, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Cordillera Central approximates an elongate (220 km), elevated (>3 km), thrust-bounded anticline cored by Cretaceous-Paleogene arc rocks and uplifted during Miocene to recent time by convergent strike-slip movements between the North American and Caribbean plates. The southeastern termination of the anticline plunges beneath a thick (>6 km), well-exposed marine clastic sedimentary sequence. Because uplift-related faulting is minimal in this hinge region of the Cordillera Central anticline, the authors have carried out detailed mapping of the area to determine (1) relation of Cretaceous-Paleogene arc basement to overlying Cenozoic sedimentary cover, and (2) Cenozoic deformational history of arc and basin sequences. Mapping has clearly distinguished three superimposed Cenozoic basins lying on arc basement. The lowest basin (basin 1) is Paleocene-Eocene in age and consists of alternations of arc-derived turbidies with interbedded pelagic limestone and red mudstone. In apparent conformity above this basin is an approximately 4-km thick marine clastic sequence of medial Eocene through early Miocene age (basin 2). These sediments consist of fining-upward turbiditic sequence derived from the northwest and northeast. Arc basement and overlying basins 1 and 2 were shortened approximately 25% in a short-lived, northwest-southeast-directed compressional event that resulted in the formation of large open synclines and tightly folded and faulted anticlines with fold amplitudes of 1-6 km. Underformed, medial Miocene sediments of a mixed clastic and carbonate shelf facies (basin 3) unconformably overlie the folded latest Oligocene-early Miocene rocks of basin 2 and thus constrain the age of folding as early to middle Miocene.

  11. Is the Caribbean plate subducting underneath Hispaniola? Preliminary results from Caribe Norte wide-angle seismic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes Estrada, M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Carbo-Gorosabel, A.; Granja Bruña, J.; Flores, C. H.; Davila, J. M.; Pazos, A.; Quijano, J.

    2010-12-01

    A 200 km long, wide-angle seismic refraction transect was collected in the spring of 2009, across the widest part of the Muertos compressive margin (longitude 69°W). The transect was designed to test the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate’s interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc. Shots were fired every 90 seconds from the R/V Hesperides’ 3850 cubic inches water-gun array, which, towed at 5 knots, resulted in a shot spacing of ~ 230 m. The seismic signal was recorded by 5 ocean-bottom seismometers deployed at distances varying from 25 to 50 km. Gravity, bathymetry and magnetic data were also acquired along that transect. Published and reprocessed reflection seismic lines nearby provided an initial model of the sediment column and on the pattern of upper crustal reflectors. Preliminary results of a 2-D forward ray-tracing model have enabled us to outline the broad-scale crustal structure across the Muertos margin. The Caribbean oceanic slab shows considerable variations in crustal thickness in the Venezuelan basin area (Caribbean plate’s interior). Farther north, the slab is imaged underneath the Muertos margin to about 60 km north of the deformation front and up to 19 km depth,. A change in crustal p wave velocity at about 60 km from the deformation front (or 70 km from the southern coast of the Dominican Republic) is interpreted to be the boundary between the arc crust and the accretionary prism. Caribbean oceanic crust does not appear to extend farther north. We interpret the results to indicate limited overthrusting of the Caribbean slab in the muertos Trough, rather than subduction.

  12. A new species of Derancistrus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae) from Dominican Republic with notes on other species of Prioninae of Hispaniola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Derancistrus hovorei is described from Dominican Republic. A diagnosis is provided to discriminate it from related taxa, in particular Derancistrodes vittatus (Olivier) and Derancistrus elegans (Palisot de Beauvois). Biological, distributional, and/or taxonomic notes are provided for other Hispani...

  13. Seven New Species of Elaphidiini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Dominican Republic with Taxonomic Notes, New Country Records, and a Key to Elaphidion Audinet-Serville from Hispaniola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new species, two new combinations, two new synonyms, and four new country records of Elaphidiini longhorned woodborers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Dominican Republic are presented. Elaphidion compressipenne Fisher is transferred to Ceresium Newman as C. compressipenne (Fisher), new c...

  14. From intra-oceanic subduction to arc accretion and arc-continent collision: Insights from the structural evolution of the Río San Juan metamorphic complex, northern Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Valverde-Vaquero, Pablo; Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Jabites, Janet; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The Río San Juan metamorphic complex exposes a segment of a high-pressure subduction-accretionary complex built during Caribbean island arc-North America continental margin convergence. It is composed of accreted arc- and oceanic-derived metaigneous rocks, serpentinized peridotites and minor metasediments forming a structural pile. Combined detailed mapping, structural and metamorphic analysis, and geochronology show that the deformation can be divided into five main events (D1-D5). An early subduction-related D1 deformation and M1 metamorphism produced greenschist (mafic rocks of the Gaspar Hernández peridotite-tectonite), blueschist and eclogite (metamafic blocks in the Jagua Clara mélange), high-P epidote-amphibolite and eclogite (Cuaba unit), and lower blueschist and greenschist-facies conditions (Morrito unit). This was followed by M2 decompression and cooling in the blueschist, greenschist and low-P amphibolite-facies conditions. The shape of the retrograde P-T path, the age of the exhumation-related D2 structures, and the tectonic significance of D2 deformation are different in each structural unit. Published U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages and T-t/P-t estimations reveal diachronic Turonian-Coniacian to Maastrichtian retrograde M2 metamorphism in the different structural units of the complex, during a consistent D2 top-to-the-NE/ENE tectonic transport. Regionally, a similar top-to-the-ENE tectonic transport also took place in the metasedimentary nappes of the Samaná complex during the Eocene to earliest Miocene. This kinematic compatibility indicates a general northeastward progradation of deformation in the northern Caribbean convergent margin, as the successive tectonic incorporation of arc, oceanic and continental-derived terrains to the developing Caribbean subduction-accretionary complex took place. D3-D5 deformations are discontinuous and much less penetrative, recording the evolution from ductile to brittle conditions of deformation in the complex. The D3 event substantially modified the nappe-stack and produced open folds with amplitudes up to kilometer-scale. The Late Paleocene-Eocene D4 structures are ductile to ductile-brittle thrusts and inverse shear bands. D5 is a Tertiary, entirely brittle deformation that had considerable influence in the geometry of the whole complex. From the Miocene to the Present, it has been cut and laterally displaced by a D5 sinistral strike-slip fault system associated with the Septentrional fault zone.

  15. Satellite Movie Shows Bertha Becoming Second Atlantic Hurricane - Duration: 48 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from August 2 through 4 shows the movement of Tropical Storm Bertha over Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and the Bahamas. It became a hurricane on Augus...

  16. The Life of Hurricane Irene from Caribbean to Canada - Duration: 90 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations from August 21 through August 29 showing the birth of Hurricane Irene in the Caribbean and her track over Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, the Bahamas, the U.S. East ...

  17. Four new caponiids species (Araneae, Caponiidae) from the West Indies and redescription of Nops blandus (Bryant).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ruiz, Alexander; Brescovit, Antonio D; Alayón, Giraldo

    2015-01-01

    We update the knowledge of the unusual Caponiidae spiders from the West Indies with the description of four new species, and the redescription of Nops blandus (Bryant) including the first description of the female. Specimens previously assigned to N. blandus from Hispaniola and Puerto Rico represents two new species: Nops hispaniola n. sp. and Nops agnarssoni n. sp. respectively; while the distribution of the former is limited to British and U. S. Virgin Islands. The others two new species are Nops finisfurvus n. sp. from British Virgin Islands and Cubanops luquillo n. sp. from Puerto Rico. Female internal genitalia of Nops species are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. PMID:26249481

  18. Sweet drinks are made of this: Conservation genetics of an endemic palm species from the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudophoenix ekmanii is a threatened palm species restricted to the Parque Nacional of Jaragua in the southernmost region of Hispaniola. Sap from individual trees is commonly extracted to make a local drink; once they are tapped the plant usually dies. Additionally, adult plants are harvested for...

  19. Hispaniolan Hemilophini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tribe Hemilophini (Lamiinae) is reviewed for Hispaniola and an identification key is provided. Fifteen species are now known from the island, including one new species of Adesmus (A. fortunei from La Vega Province, Dominican Republic), one new species of Oedudes (O. anulatus from Peravia and La...

  20. From Quisqueya: In Search of New Horizons. Dominican Cultural Heritage Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcantara, Anibal; Aquino, Jaime; Lantigua, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Digna; Soto, Alejandro

    This cultural heritage resource guide has been prepared as a tool for teachers to help them understand the cultural heritage of Dominican students and their communities. The Dominican Republic, which occupies two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, has a long history dominated by the struggle for independence. In their efforts to create a better…

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  2. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  3. THE AFRICAN CLUSTER BUG, AGONOSCELIS PUBERULA STAL (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE), ESTABLISHED IN THE NEW WORLD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An African species of Pentatomidae, Agonoscelis puberula Stal, is reported for the first time from Mexico, the southern United States, and the Islands of Jamaica and Hispaniola, where it has now established. The oldest western hemisphere record dates from 1985. This species has gone unrecognized p...

  4. Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus was described by Carl Linnaeus as Curculio abbreviatus in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 from specimens collected in the West Indies. D. abbreviatus is found on Puerto Rico and Hispaniola and in the Lesser Antilles from Grenada and Bar...

  5. Tsunamis triggered by the 12 January 2010 Earthquake in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Hillaire, J. V.; Molière, E.; Mohammed, F.; Wei, Y.

    2010-12-01

    On 12 January 2010 a magnitude Mw 7.0 earthquake occurred 25 km west-southwest of Haiti’s Capital of Port-au-Prince, which resulted in more than 230,000 fatalities. In addition tsunami waves triggered by the earthquake caused at least 3 fatalities at Petit Paradis. Unfortunately, the people of Haiti had neither ancestral knowledge nor educational awareness of tsunami hazards despite the 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami at Hispaniola’s northeast coast. In sharp contrast Sri Lankan UN-soldiers on duty at Jacmel self-evacuated given the memory of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, and performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 31 January to 7 February 2010 ITST covered the greater Bay of Port-au-Prince and more than 100 km of Hispaniola’s south coast between Pedernales, Dominican Republic and Jacmel, Haiti. The Hispaniola survey data includes more than 20 runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum flow depths exceeding 3 m both at Petit Paradis inside the Bay of Grand Goâve located 45 km west-southwest of Port-au-Prince and at Jacmel on Haiti’s south coast. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed on Hispaniola and tsunami runup of more than 1 m was still observed at Pedernales in the Dominican Republic. Jacmel, which is near the center of the south coast, represents an unfortunate example of a village and harbor that was located for protection from storm waves but is vulnerable to tsunami waves with runup doubling from the entrance to the head of the bay. Inundation and damage was limited to less than 100 m inland at both Jacmel and Petit Paradis. Differences in wave period were documented between the tsunami waves at Petit Paradis and Jacmel. The Petit Paradis tsunami is attributed to a coastal submarine landslide. Field observations, video recordings, satellite imagery and numerical modelling are presented. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard. Community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis. Petit Paradis landslide scar with tree located 70m offshore

  6. Helminths from a stranded manatee in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A A; Williams, E H; Toyos-González, G M; Pérez-Padilla, J; Rodríguez-López, M A; Vega-Guerra, M B; Ventura-González, M

    1999-02-01

    Endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are known to be parasitized by a number of helminths and ectoparasites. Records of parasitic associations exist for Florida, Mexico, Guyana, Brazil, Cuba and recently for Puerto Rico. Parasites of manatees in other Caribbean areas have not been documented, particularly from Hispaniola. We report on the occurrence of a species of nematode and of two trematodes from a 238-cm male manatee from Portillo (19 degrees 20' N, 69 degrees 35' W), Las Terrenas, in the Dominican Republic. Three species of helminths were collected, including the opisthotrematid Cochleotrema cochleotrema, the ascarid Heterocheilus tunicatus, and the paramphistomid trematode Chiorchis fabaceus. The documentation of these helminths constitutes the first record of these parasites and host relationships for Hispaniola and the second for the northeastern Caribbean. PMID:9950330

  7. Columbus's Method of Determining Longitude: An Analytical View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, Keith

    On 14 September 1494, Christopher Columbus observed a lunar eclipse while at the island of Saona near the eastern tip of Hispaniola. He later recorded in his Libro de las Profecias that, from his timing of the eclipse, he determined his longitude to be west of Cape San Vicente. His actual longitude was three hours and 59 minutes west of Cape San Vicente, so Columbus was off by over an hour and a half, some 23 degrees of longitude.

  8. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Caribbean Plate and Vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, Harley M.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The depth profile panels on this map portray earthquakes that extend from the Middle America Trench axis in the west to depths as great as 300 km beneath Guatemala, and from the Lesser Antilles Trench axis in the east to depths of approximately 200 km beneath Guadeloupe and the northeast Caribbean. In contrast, seismicity along the segments of the Caribbean plate margins from Guatemala to Hispaniola and from Trinidad to western Venezuela is indicative of transform fault tectonics.

  9. Relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates and related boundary zone deformation from a decade of GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Timothy H.; Farina, Frederic; Demets, Charles; Jansma, Pamela; Mann, Paul; Calais, Eric

    1998-07-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in 1986, 1994, and 1995 at sites in Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Grand Turk define the velocity of the Caribbean plate relative to North America. The data show eastward motion of the Caribbean plate at a rate of 21 ± 1 mm/yr (1 standard error ) in the vicinity of southern Dominican Republic, a factor of 2 higher than the NUVEL-1A plate motion model prediction of 11 ± 3 mm/yr. Independent measurements on San Andres Island, and an Euler vector derived from these data, also suggest a rate that is much higher than the NUVEL-1A model. Available data, combined with simple elastic strain models, give the following slip rate estimates for major left-lateral faults in Hispaniola: (1) the North Hispaniola fault offshore the north coast of Hispaniola, 4 ± 3 mm/yr; (2) the Septentrional fault in northern Dominican Republic, 8 ± 3 mm/yr; and (3) the Enriquillo fault in southern Dominican Republic and Haiti, 8 ± 4 mm yr. The relatively high plate motion rate and fault slip rates suggested by our study, combined with evidence for strain accumulation and historical seismicity, imply that seismic risk in the region may be higher than previous estimates based on low plate rate/low fault slip rate models and the relatively low rate of seismicity over the last century.

  10. Late Cenozoic alkaline volcanism in the northwestern Caribbean - Tectonic setting and Sr isotopic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G.; Wooden, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The northwestern corner of the Caribbean plate has at least sixteen centers of alkalic volcanism, most of which is Quaternary in age. Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of the rocks in these centers are used to distinguish three geographical groups: a low-ratio group (0.7026-0.7031) at the Nicaraguan Rise, an intermediate-ratio group (0.7036-0.7038) in northeastern Costa Rica, and a high-ratio group (0.7047-0.7063) in Hispaniola. It is suggested that the increased radiogenic strontium in both Costa Rica and Hispaniola may have come from volatile-rich fluids escaping from adjacent subducting slabs of oceanic crust. The isotopic differences between the two areas is explained by the relative longevity and high rate of subduction in Costa Rica compared to that in Hispaniola. The Costa Rican alkaline rocks cover a segment of the Cocos plate which is being subducted at a smaller angle (about 35 deg) than at the rest of the Central American arc.

  11. Re-emergence of Cholera in the Americas: Risks, Susceptibility, and Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Mathieu JP; Izurieta, Ricardo; Malavade, Sharad S; McDonald, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Background: The re-emergence of cholera in Haiti has established a new reservoir for the seventh cholera pandemic which threatens to spread to other countries in the Americas. Materials and Methods: Statistics from this new epidemic are compared to the 1991 Peru epidemic, which demonstrated the speed and complexity with which this disease can spread from country to country. Environmental factors implicated in the spread of Vibrio cholerae such as ocean currents and temperatures, as well as biotic factors from zooplankton to waterfowl pose a risk for many countries in the Americas. Results: The movement of people and goods from Hispaniola are mostly destined for North America, but occur to some degree throughout the Americas. These modes of transmission, and the probability of uncontrolled community spread beyond Hispaniola, however, are completely dependent upon risk factors within these countries such as water quality and availability of sanitation. Although North America has excellent coverage of these deterrents to the spread of infectious gastrointestinal diseases, many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean lack these basic services and infrastructures. Conclusions: In order to curb the immediate spread of cholera in Hispaniola, treatment availability should be expanded to all parts of the island and phase II epidemic management initiatives must be developed. PMID:23055647

  12. Cholera in the United States, 2001-2011: a reflection of patterns of global epidemiology and travel.

    PubMed

    Loharikar, A; Newton, A E; Stroika, S; Freeman, M; Greene, K D; Parsons, M B; Bopp, C; Talkington, D; Mintz, E D; Mahon, B E

    2015-03-01

    US cholera surveillance offers insight into global and domestic trends. Between 2001 and 2011, 111 cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cholera was associated with international travel in 90 (81%) patients and was domestically acquired in 20 (18%) patients; for one patient, information was not available. From January 2001 to October 2010, the 42 (47%) travel-associated cases were associated with travel to Asia. In October 2010, a cholera epidemic started in Haiti, soon spreading to the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola). From then to December 2011, 40 (83%) of the 48 travel-associated cases were associated with travel to Hispaniola. Of 20 patients who acquired cholera domestically, 17 (85%) reported seafood consumption; 10 (59%) ate seafood from the US Gulf Coast. In summary, an increase in travel-associated US cholera cases was associated with epidemic cholera in Hispaniola in 2010-2011. Travel to Asia and consumption of Gulf Coast seafood remained important sources of US cholera cases. PMID:24865664

  13. The Tectonic Evolution of Caribbean Ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, G.

    2001-12-01

    Ophiolitic rocks (associated basalts, gabbros and ultramafic rocks) occur in many areas in the circum-Caribbean and Central America. These ophiolites are derived principally from two oceanic provinces: (1) the Atlantic realm, proto-Caribbean sea that formed when North America separated from South America during the opening of the North Atlantic during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. These ophiolites were emplaced during a series of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary arc-continent collisions as the east facing Antilles arc migrated into the Caribbean realm. These occurrences include Guatamala, northern Cuba, northern Hispaniola, and northern Venezuela. (2) the Pacific realm, late Cretaceous Caribbean-Colombian plateau that now occupies the central Caribbean, but outcrops on land in Costa Rica, SW Hispaniola, the Netherlands Antilles and western Colombia. Accretion, emplacement and uplift was aided by their buoyancy and took place at various times during the Caribbean plateau's insertion into the middle American continental gap. A third set of occurrences are more uncertain in origin. The central Hispaniola and SE Puerto Rico ophiolites seem to be Jurassic age oceanic plateau rocks that were emplaced in mid-Cretaceous time during an, subduction polarity reversal episode. The emplacement of the metamorphosed ophiolitic rocks of eastern Jamaica may also be associated with this event, but the adjacent, upper Cretaceous, Bath-Dunrobin complex seems to be more related to the Campanian Yucatan-Antillean arc collision. The ultramafic rocks of Tobago are not oceanic, but represent Alaksan-type, assemblages.

  14. Cholera in the United States, 2001–2011: a reflection of patterns of global epidemiology and travel

    PubMed Central

    LOHARIKAR, A.; NEWTON, A. E.; STROIKA, S.; FREEMAN, M.; GREENE, K. D.; PARSONS, M. B.; BOPP, C.; TALKINGTON, D.; MINTZ, E. D.; MAHON, B. E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY US cholera surveillance offers insight into global and domestic trends. Between 2001 and 2011, 111 cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cholera was associated with international travel in 90 (81%) patients and was domestically acquired in 20 (18%) patients; for one patient, information was not available. From January 2001 to October 2010, the 42 (47%) travel-associated cases were associated with travel to Asia. In October 2010, a cholera epidemic started in Haiti, soon spreading to the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola). From then to December 2011, 40 (83%) of the 48 travel-associated cases were associated with travel to Hispaniola. Of 20 patients who acquired cholera domestically, 17 (85%) reported seafood consumption; 10 (59%) ate seafood from the US Gulf Coast. In summary, an increase in travel-associated US cholera cases was associated with epidemic cholera in Hispaniola in 2010–2011. Travel to Asia and consumption of Gulf Coast seafood remained important sources of US cholera cases. PMID:24865664

  15. Neotectonics of a subduction/strike-slip transition: the northeastern Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, M.A.; McCann, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Septentrional fault system in the northeastern Dominican Republic marks the zone where the North American-Carribean plate boundary is evolving from subduction to strike-slip motion, and where terranes appear to be forming and migrating laterally in a subduction complex/forearc region. On the Island of Hispaniola, slip vectors are oblique to the strike of the Puerto Rico trench, and oblique subduction thrusts the upper plate over normal seafloor. The offshore geology and seismicity of the northern Caribbean suggest that uplift, broad crustal warping, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting (ie. collisional tectonics) should be present in the northern part of the Dominican Republic. The high topography (>1000m), high levels of seismicity, and large earthquakes support the hypothesis of contemporary deformation in Hispaniola. In this region, the subduction regime dies out toward the west, and deformation is transferred to onshore, oblique-slip faults. As this change in tectonic style has occurred in Neogene to Recent times, we are investigating the modern evolution of a plate boundary. We have already documented: (1) the presence of a strike-slip faulting in the northeastern Dominican Republic; (2) an anomalous push-up structure; and (3) a region of numerous splay faults. In conclusion, recent seismicity suggest a wide zone of deformation and variations in interplate motions near Hispaniola. This island lies at the western limit of active underthrusting and at the eastern limit of onshore faulting, i.e., at an important transition from a subduction to strike-slip regime.

  16. Seismological Insights into the Structure of the Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaphorst, D.; Kendall, J.; Bastow, I. D.; Baptie, B.

    2012-12-01

    Due to an overall eastwards drift of the Caribbean plate of around 2cm/year relative to the Atlantic plate, the type of the subduction along the eastern part of the Caribbean changes. Compared to the simple subduction of the Atlantic plate in the east, the northern plate boundary zone is far more complex, predominantly characterised by a left-lateral east-west strike-slip motion that includes an oblique convergence of the Bahamas carbonate banks and a pull apart basin in the Mona Passage, the sea gate between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The island of Hispaniola is decoupled from the Caribbean plate, which leads to a second subduction zone south of Hispaniola where the Caribbean plate subducts beneath the Hispaniola micro plate. Strictly speaking, the arc only extends to the east of the island of Puerto Rico but since most of the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone is directly linked to it the results become more directly comparable. Fed by the Orinoco River the southern part of the Lesser Antilles is a sediment-rich subduction zone, which becomes sediment-poor towards the north as the sediments get blocked by several banks, including the accretionary prism containing the island of Barbados. Here we investigate the crustal and mantle structure variation along the Antilles Arc using measurements of seismic anisotropy and receiver functions. We use data from three component broadband stations that are located from the southern end of the arc to Hispaniola in the north. Seismic anisotropy refers to directional variations in wave speeds and their polarisations. The observation of two independently propagating shear waves (splitting) is the least ambiguous indication of anisotropy. Such observations can be used to constrain mantle flow beneath subduction regions, offering insights into slab dynamics. We generally observed trench parallel orientations around the plate boundary. However, we see significant local deviations in the inferred flow pattern, for example, in the shallow mantle beneath the Mona Passage. Significant variations in sediment load, petrology and volcanism are observed along the arc. We investigate whether there is any correlation with crustal structure using receiver functions to determine Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratio. The receiver functions are computed using the extended-time multitaper frequency domain cross-correlation receiver-function (ETMTRF) by Helffrich (2006). This method has the advantage of resistance to noise, which is helpful since most of the data around the arc will have been collected by stations close to the ocean, thus containing a large amount of noise. Our preliminary results show clear variations in these measurements. There are also regions where the Moho is not very sharp.

  17. Revision of the West Indian Wattius Kaszab (Tenebrionidae, Toxicini, Eudysantina) with lectotype designations for Pascoe's South American species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron D; Sanchez, Lucio A

    2015-01-01

    The Wattius species occurring in the West Indies are revised for the first time. Wattius cucullatus (Pascoe), previously reported from Cuba, is diagnosed and restricted to Brazil. Wattius asperulus (Pascoe), currently a synonym of Wattius cucullatus, from Colombia is diagnosed and resurrected. All species found in the West Indies are endemic to the islands and form a single informal species-group. Three species are described: Wattius andersoni sp. n. from Cuba, Wattius emmabaconae sp. n. from Hispaniola (Dominican Republic), and Wattius viatorus sp. n. from Cuba and the Bahamas, and lectotypes are designated for Calymmus cucullatus Pascoe and Calymmus asperulus Pascoe. A key to the West Indian species is provided. PMID:26798241

  18. Magnetic coverage over the Greater Antilles for the updated WDMAM and the origin of the Bahama platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purucker, Michael; Batista-Rodríguez, Jose

    2010-05-01

    The Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico) was poorly covered on the first edition of the WDMAM because of its absence from the Magnetic Anomaly Map of North America. However, most of the area has been covered, at least at a reconnaissance level, and we will present a compilation of this information for possible use in the upcoming revised WDMAM. The origin of the Bahama platform, to the north of the Greater Antilles, has been the subject of debate for more than a century. Questions include the nature of the basement, and its interaction with the Greater Antilles. Using the newly compiled magnetic data, we will offer a new synthesis.

  19. Neotectonics of the Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Burke et al. (1980) have considered geologic and seismic data from Jamaica, while Mann et al. (1984) have examined data from Hispaniola. The present investigation is concerned with the neotectonics of the entire Caribbean region, taking into account the recent results in the northeastern Caribbean and a more comprehensive compilation of seismicity and neotectonic structures from other areas than has been available to most previous authors. It is hoped that this study will complement seismic network results in helping to pinpoint areas of seismic hazard. It is also intended to provide a framework for high-precision geodetic surveys of Caribbean plate motion using measurements from satellites and astronomical observations.

  20. Stress interaction between subduction earthquakes and forearc strike-slip faults: Modeling and application to the northern Caribbean plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, U.; Lin, J.

    2004-01-01

    Strike-slip faults in the forearc region of a subduction zone often present significant seismic hazard because of their proximity to population centers. We explore the interaction between thrust events on the subduction interface and strike-slip faults within the forearc region using three-dimensional models of static Coulomb stress change. Model results reveal that subduction earthquakes with slip vectors subparallel to the trench axis enhance the Coulomb stress on strike-slip faults adjacent to the trench but reduce the stress on faults farther back in the forearc region. In contrast, subduction events with slip vectors perpendicular to the trench axis enhance the Coulomb stress on strike-slip faults farther back in the forearc, while reducing the stress adjacent to the trench. A significant contribution to Coulomb stress increase on strike-slip faults in the back region of the forearc comes from "unclamping" of the fault, i.e., reduction in normal stress due to thrust motion on the subduction interface. We argue that although Coulomb stress changes from individual subduction earthquakes are ephemeral, their cumulative effects on the pattern of lithosphere deformation in the forearc region are significant. We use the Coulomb stress models to explain the contrasting deformation pattern between two adjacent segments of the Caribbean subduction zone. Subduction earthquakes with slip vectors nearly perpendicular to the Caribbean trench axis is dominant in the Hispaniola segment, where the strike-slip faults are more than 60 km inland from the trench. In contrast, subduction slip motion is nearly parallel to the Caribbean trench axis along the Puerto Rico segment, where the strike-slip fault is less than 15 km from the trench. This observed jump from a strike-slip fault close to the trench axis in the Puerto Rico segment to the inland faults in Hispaniola is explained by different distributions of Coulomb stress in the forearc region of the two segments, as a result of the change from the nearly trench parallel slip on the Puerto Rico subduction interface to the more perpendicular subduction slip beneath Hispaniola. The observations and modeling suggest that subduction-induced strike-slip seismic hazard to Puerto Rico may be smaller than previously assumed but the hazard to Hispaniola remains high. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Along-Fault Deformation Partitioning of NW Haiti:Implication on Fluid Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellouz, N.; Hamon, Y.; Deschamps, R.; Schmitz, J.; Battani, A.; Leroy, S. D.; Monplaisir, R.; Ruffine, L.

    2014-12-01

    The area of Western Haiti located in between two major fault systems, the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF) and Ciabao-Oriente Septentrional fault system has been surveyed during the 2012 and 2013 Haiti-SIS cruises. From seismic interpretation and mapping the two bordering transform faults systems, EPGF (to the South) and Oriente-Septentrional (to the North), we document the deformation partitioning and the fault segmentation at different scales. A common tectonic evolution has been registered in S. Eastern Cuba and Western Hispaniola (Haiti area), up to early Miocene times. From the effective Hispaniola-Cuba separation at Oligocene/Miocene transition times, left lateral strike-slip motion was registered along large crustal faults cross-cutting different domains versus time. Rooted on these crustal/lithospheric discontinuties tectonic stress is also released on secondary fault systems where both deep and basin, even meteoric fluids may migrate. Sedimentation processes and sequence deposition have been also analyzed both offshore and onshore in the same area showing the strong tectonic-sedimentation processes interaction. A tentative calendar of this deformation, coupled with Present-Day evaluation of the draining areas along Septentrional fault, Transhaitian Ranges and Gonave Bay will be presented on regional seismic profiles and cross-sections.

  2. Early tectonic history of the Greater Antilles

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.F.; Draper, G.; Mattson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The islands of the Greater Antilles exhibit differing pre-Oligocene tectonic styles and histories, but all display the results of convergent plate activity from the Early Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Western and central Cuba consist of autochthonous, Jurassic and older continental crust, which was overthrust by Cretaceous ophiolites in the Early to Middle Eocene. In contrast, eastern Cuba seems to be similar to Northern Hispaniola, and both areas consist of complexes of upper Cretaceous to Eocene magmatic-arc rocks, and trench generated ophiolites and blueschists produced by SW directed subduction. The oldest rocks in central Hispaniola are exposed in NW trending linear fault-bounded belts. Unusual high-Mg greenschists and amphibolites, quartz-feldspathic greenschists, together with N-type MORB basalts and keratophyric volcanics, are juxtaposed against a medial serpentinite belt. Central and eastern Puerto Rico consist of Lower to Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks intruded by upper Cretaceous to Eocene plutons. Similar Cretaceous volcanics occur in SW Puerto Rico, but they are overthrust by Upper Jurassic cherts, spilites and amphibolites. Jamaica lies along the Nicaraguan Rise to the SW of the other islands and consists of Barremian to Maastrichtian volcanics and volcanogenic sediments intruded by upper Cretaceous calc-alkalic plutons. Blueschists and related rocks in eastern Jamaica, and geochemical zonation in the igneous rocks suggest that the subduction was to the NW. Change in tectonic movements from convergence to left lateral shear took place during the Late Eocene/Early Oligocene.

  3. Depression in caregivers of status-naïve pediatric HIV patients participating in a status disclosure study in Haiti and the Dominican Republic: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M; Dévieux, Jessy G; Pinzón-Iregui, María Claudia; Abreu-Pérez, Rosa; Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Gaston, Stephanie; Dean, Andrew G; Halpern, Mina; Rouzier, Vanessa; Bertrand, Rachel; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Pape, Jean William; Nicholas, Stephen W; Blasini, Ileana

    2015-02-01

    A pilot study is underway to assess safety and acceptability of an intervention to disclose their HIV infection status to status-naïve pediatric antiretroviral therapy patients in Hispaniola [the island shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic (DR)]. Of 22 Haiti and 47 DR caregivers recruited to date, 68.2% Haiti and 34.0% DR caregivers had clinically significant depressive symptomatology at the time of enrollment (p = 0.008). Depressive symptom prevalence was higher in Haiti caregivers who were female (81.3% vs. 0 in males; p = 0.02) and in DR caregivers who were patients' mothers (50.0%) or grandmothers (66.7%; 56.0% combined) than others (9.1%), (p < 0.001). Internalized stigma was more commonly reported by Haiti (85.7%) than DR (53.2%; p = 0.01) caregivers; 56.4% of Haiti and DR caregivers reporting internalized stigma vs. 26.1% of caregivers denying it had depressive symptoms (p = 0.02). Depression is common in Hispaniola caregivers possibly affecting disclosure timing. Study participation presents opportunities for addressing caregiver depression. PMID:25389181

  4. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses of Hispaniolan and Bahamian trunk anoles (distichus species group).

    PubMed

    Geneva, Anthony J; Hilton, Jared; Noll, Sabina; Glor, Richard E

    2015-06-01

    The distichus species group includes six species and 21 subspecies of trunk ecomorph anoles distributed across Hispaniola and its satellite islands as well as the northern Bahamas. Although this group has long served as a model system for studies of reproductive character displacement, adaptation, behavior and speciation, it has never been the subject of a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Our goal here is to generate a multilocus phylogenetic dataset (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci) and to use this dataset to infer phylogenetic relationships among the majority of the taxa assigned to the distichus species group. We use these phylogenetic trees to address three topics about the group's evolution. First, we consider longstanding taxonomic controversies about the status of several species and subspecies assigned to the distichus species group. Second, we investigate the biogeographic history of the group and specifically test the hypotheses that historical division of Hispaniola into two paleo-islands contributed to the group's diversification and that Bahamian and Hispaniolan satellite island populations are derived from colonists from the main Hispaniolan landmass. Finally, third, we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to test the hypothesis that divergence between pale yellow and darkly pigmented orange or red dewlap coloration has occurred repeatedly across the distichus species group. PMID:25772800

  5. Untangling intra- and interspecific effects on body size clines reveals divergent processes structuring convergent patterns in Anolis lizards.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Martha M; Wegener, Johanna E; Algar, Adam C

    2014-11-01

    Bergmann's rule-the tendency for body size to increase in colder environments-remains controversial today, despite 150 years of research. Considerable debate has revolved around whether the rule applies within or among species. However, this debate has generally not considered that clade-level relationships are caused by both intra- and interspecific effects. In this article, we implement a novel approach that allows for the separation of intra- and interspecific components of trait-environment relationships. We apply this approach to body size clines in two Caribbean clades of Anolis lizards and discover that their similar body size gradients are constructed in very different ways. We find inverse Bergmann's clines-high-elevation lizards are smaller bodied-for both the cybotes clade on Hispaniola and the sagrei clade on Cuba. However, on Hispaniola, the inverse cline is driven by interspecific differences, whereas intraspecific variation is responsible for the inverse cline on Cuba. Our results suggest that similar body size clines can be constructed through differing evolutionary and ecological processes, namely, through local adaptation or phenotypic plasticity (intraspecific clines) and/or size-ordered spatial sorting (interspecific clines). We propose that our approach can help integrate a divided research program by focusing on how the combined effects of intra- and interspecific processes can enhance or erode clade-level relationships at large biogeographic scales. PMID:25325747

  6. Late Quaternary Activity and Seismogenic Potential of the Gonave Microplate: Plantain Garden Strike-Slip Fault Zone of Eastern Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Prentice, C.; King, W.; Demets, C.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.; Benford, B.

    2008-12-01

    At the longitude of Jamaica, Caribbean (Carib)-North America (Noam) plate motion of 19 ± 2 mm/a is carried by two parallel, left-lateral strike-slip faults, the Oriente fault zone, immediately south of Cuba, and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ), which lies 100-150 km further south. It has been postulated that the lithosphere between these faults constitutes an independent Gonave microplate that has formed in response to the ongoing collision between the leading edge of Carib in Hispaniola and the Bahama carbonate platform. GPS measurements in Jamaica and Hispanola is supportive of the microplate hypothesis and indicates that roughly half of Carib-Noam plate motion (8-14 mm/a) is carried by the EPGFZ of southern Hispaniola and eastern Jamaica. This study applies geomorphic and paleoseismic methods as a direct test of the activity and amount of microplate motion carried on the Plantain Garden fault segment of eastern Hispaniola and how this motion is distributed across a large restraining bend that has formed the island of Jamaica since the late Miocene. The EPFZ curves gently to the northeast and forming a steep mountain front to the Blue Mountains restraining bend with elevations up to 2200 m. Geomorphic fault-related features along the mountain front fault zone include left-laterally deflected rivers and streams, but no small scale features indicative of Holocene activity. River and stream deflections range from 0.1 to 0.5 km. We identified and trenched the most active trace of the mountain front fault at the Morant River where the fault is characterized by a 1.5-m-wide sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and fault Cretaceous basement rocks This section is overlain by a 6-m-thick fluvial terrace. Trenching in the unfaulted terrace immediately overlying the fault trace revealed radiocarbon and OSL ages ranging from 20 to 21 ka that are consistent with a prominent unfaulted alluvial fan along the projection of this fault 1.5 km to the east. Channel profiles constructed for 11 rivers and streams crossing the fault show concave-up profiles indicating a dominance of erosion over active tectonic uplift. We conclude that motion on the EPGFZ is highly episodic and therefore may not be the source of large, destructive earthquakes that caused widespread destruction and landslides in eastern Jamaica in 1692 and 1907.

  7. Seismic Images of the Crust across the northern Beata Ridge (NE Caribbean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, Diana; Córdoba, Diego; Pazos, Antonio; Martín-Dávila, José; Carbó, Andrés.; Granja-Bruña, José Luis; Payero, Juan; Octavio Cotilla, Mario

    2010-05-01

    The Beata Ridge is a NE-SW trending structure located in the interior of the Caribbean plate, between the extended Colombian and Venezuelan basins. The northern part of the ridge is ~100 km-wide and emerged (Sierra de Bahoruco in the southern Hispaniola Island) and the southern part is ~3500 km- wide and > 4000 m below sea level. It has been suggested that northern part of the ridge is colliding with the E-W tending island arc. In summary, the Hispaniola island arc is being impacted by collision with the Bahamas Bank in the north and by collision with the Beata Ridge in the south. This collision processes jointly with the main E-W component of left-lateral strike-slip have yielded the basin and range physiography observed in the Hispaniola island. To study the macro-structure of the Beata Ridge has likely the key to understand the controversial origin and evolution of the Caribbean plate. A recent combined onshore-offshore CARIBE NORTE survey has been carried out in the Dominican Republic region to study the subduction and collision processes in this area. The marine geophysical cruise aboard the Spanish R/V Hespérides was carried out in spring of 2009. The cruise collected multibeam bathymetry, gravity, magnetic, high-resolution seismic and three-channel seismic reflection data. In the frame of that experiment, a wide angle seismic profile was carried out across the Beata Ridge along a near NW-SE trending line of 200 km length. A set of 5 OBS were anchored along that transect on both sides of the Beata Ridge and 2 seismic land stations at the Beata and Alto Velo Islands, recorded continuously the airgun shots provided by the R/V Hespérides. Processing of the whole dataset is still ongoing, but available results, improve significantly spatial P-wave velocity variations in the upper and middle crust on both sides of the Beata Ridge. In this work, the more recent results from wide angle seismic data across the Beata Ridge are presented.

  8. Earthquake source parameters for the 2010 January Haiti main shock and aftershock sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, Meredith; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala

    2010-10-01

    Previous analyses of geological and geodetic data suggest that the obliquely compressive relative motion across the Caribbean-North America plate boundary in Hispaniola is accommodated through strain partitioning between near-vertical transcurrent faults on land and low-angle thrust faults offshore. In the Dominican Republic, earthquake focal-mechanism geometries generally support this interpretation. Little information has been available about patterns of seismic strain release in Haiti, however, due to the small numbers of moderate-to-large earthquakes occurring in western Hispaniola during the modern instrumental era. Here, we analyse the damaging MW = 7.0 earthquake that occurred near Port au Prince on 2010 January 12 and aftershocks occurring in the four months following this event, to obtain centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) solutions for 50 earthquakes with magnitudes as small as MW = 4.0. While the 2010 January main shock exhibited primarily strike-slip motion on a steeply dipping nodal plane (strike=250°, dip=71° and rake=22°), we find that nearly all of the aftershocks show reverse-faulting motion, typically on high-angle (30°-45°) nodal planes. Two small aftershocks (MW 4.5 and 4.6), located very close to the main shock epicentre, show strike-slip faulting with geometries similar to the main shock. One aftershock located off the south coast of Haiti shows low-angle thrust faulting. We also examine earthquakes occurring in this region from 1977-2009 successful analysis of four such events provides evidence for both strike-slip and reverse faulting. The pattern of seismic strain release in southern Haiti thus indicates that partitioning of plate motion between transcurrent and reverse structures extends far west within Hispaniola. While we see limited evidence for low-angle underthrusting offshore, most reverse motion appears to occur on high-angle fault structures adjacent to the Enriquillo fault. Our results highlight the need to incorporate seismogenic slip on compressional structures into hazard assessments for southern Haiti.

  9. Plate boundary segmentation in the northeastern Caribbean from geodetic measurements and Neogene geological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calais, Éric; Symithe, Steeve; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Prépetit, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean-North America plate boundary in the northeastern Caribbean shows a remarkable example of along-strike transition from plate boundary-normal subduction in the Lesser Antilles, oblique subduction with no strain partitioning in Puerto Rico, and oblique subduction/collision with strain partitioning further west in Hispaniola. We show that this segmentation is well marked in the interseismic strain, as measured using space geodetic data, and in the Neogene deformation regime, as derived from geological observations. Hence, interseismic segmentation, which reproduces the geological segmentation persistent over a long time interval, is inherited from the geological history and long-term properties of the plate boundary. This result is relevant to the assessment of seismic hazard at convergent plate boundaries, where geodetic measurements often show interseismic segmentation between fully-and partially-coupled plate interface regions.

  10. New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico Trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian D.; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

    2004-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure l). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al., 2004]. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918 [Mercado and McCann, 1998]. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico [Mercado et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 1991],although their ages are unknown.

  11. Miniaturized GPS Tags Identify Non-breeding Territories of a Small Breeding Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Hallworth, Michael T.; Marra, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we use a small archival global positioning system (GPS) tag to identify and characterize non-breeding territories, quantify migratory connectivity, and identify population boundaries of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a small migratory songbird, captured at two widely separated breeding locations. We recovered 15 (31%) GPS tags with data and located the non-breeding territories of breeding Ovenbirds from Maryland and New Hampshire, USA (0.50?±?0.15 ha, mean?±?SE). All non-breeding territories had similar environmental attributes despite being distributed across parts of Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. New Hampshire and Maryland breeding populations had non-overlapping non-breeding population boundaries that encompassed 114,803 and 169,233?km2, respectively. Archival GPS tags provided unprecedented pinpoint locations and associated environmental information of tropical non-breeding territories. This technology is an important step forward in understanding seasonal interactions and ultimately population dynamics of populations throughout the annual cycle. PMID:26057892

  12. Stx-Producing Shigella Species From Patients in Haiti: An Emerging Pathogen With the Potential for Global Spread.

    PubMed

    Gray, Miranda D; Leonard, Susan R; Lacher, David W; Lampel, Keith A; Alam, Meer T; Morris, J Glenn; Ali, Afsar; LaBreck, Patrick T; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are commonly produced by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and Stx-producing Escherichia coli. However, the toxin genes have been detected in additional Shigella species. We recently reported the emergence of Stx-producing Shigella in travelers in the United States and France who had recently visited Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic). In this study, we confirm this epidemiological link by identifying Stx-producing Shigella from Haitian patients attending clinics near Port-au-Prince. We also demonstrate that the bacteriophage encoding Stx is capable of dissemination to stx-negative Shigella species found in Haiti, suggesting that Stx-producing Shigella may become more widespread within that region. PMID:26484357

  13. Haiti and the Dominican Republic - same island - different climate adaptation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.

    2010-12-01

    The two Caribbean states, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, have experienced similar natural forces since the 18th century, such as for instance, hurricanes and earthquakes. Despite this fact, Haiti tends to be more vulnerable to natural forces than the Dominican Republic, while environmental management strategies have been very different in both countries throughout the 19th century. Research findings show that neither atmospheric nor seismic hazards, which directly hit the territory of Haiti, have significant impacts on long-term population densities and growth rates. Conversely, uncontrolled and unregulated urbanization in Haiti between 1850 and 2009 has systematically exposed more people to natural forces. Thus, Haiti is willing to take increasing human security risks, because, it finally matters where people settle. Population growth versus storm occurrence/frequency in different departments/provinces on Hispaniola island between 1850 and 2009.

  14. Twin Tsunamis Triggered by the 12 January 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Hillaire, Jean Vilmond; Molière, Emanuel; Wei, Yong; Mohammed, Fahad

    2013-09-01

    On 12 January 2010, a magnitude M w 7.0 earthquake occurred 25 km west-southwest of Haiti's capital Port-au-Prince causing an estimated 316,000 fatalities, thereby exceeding any previous loss of life from a similar size earthquake. In addition, tsunami waves triggered by the earthquake caused at least three fatalities at Petit Paradis due to a complete lack of tsunami awareness. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) was deployed within weeks of the event and covered the greater Bay of Port-au-Prince and more than 100 km of Hispaniola's southern coastline. The collected survey data include more than 21 tsunami heights along with observations of coastal land level change. Maximum tsunami heights of 3 m have been measured for two independently triggered tsunamis.

  15. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe–Sagua–Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300–400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the “Pico Cristal” National Park in the West and the “Alexander von Humbolt” National Park in the East. PMID:24146561

  16. Petroleum in the Caribbean Basin: Further exploration justified?

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.

    1996-08-01

    After more than half a century of exploration for petroleum in that part of the Caribbean Basin covered by this review, the prospects for substantial discoveries remain low. Only Barbados has had modest but sustained production of oil and gas. In Hispaniola minor production from small prospects lasted briefly. Exploration in the northeast Caribbean has not resulted in discoveries. Similar exploration in Puerto Rico and, on a more extensive scale, in Jamaica, has also failed to show positive results. On the Nicaragua Rise (Mosquitia, Tela Basins) drilling has produced shows but no production, a situation also evident in Belize. Nevertheless, examination of these results, in the context of the regional geology of the Caribbean Basin, suggests there are areas where further exploration is justified.

  17. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  18. Stx-Producing Shigella Species From Patients in Haiti: An Emerging Pathogen With the Potential for Global Spread

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Miranda D.; Leonard, Susan R.; Lacher, David W.; Lampel, Keith A.; Alam, Meer T.; Morris, J. Glenn; Ali, Afsar; LaBreck, Patrick T.; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are commonly produced by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and Stx-producing Escherichia coli. However, the toxin genes have been detected in additional Shigella species. We recently reported the emergence of Stx-producing Shigella in travelers in the United States and France who had recently visited Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic). In this study, we confirm this epidemiological link by identifying Stx-producing Shigella from Haitian patients attending clinics near Port-au-Prince. We also demonstrate that the bacteriophage encoding Stx is capable of dissemination to stx-negative Shigella species found in Haiti, suggesting that Stx-producing Shigella may become more widespread within that region. PMID:26484357

  19. What is “colonial” about medieval colonial medicine? Iberian health in global context

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Iona

    2015-01-01

    Colonial medicine is a thriving field of study in the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century medicine. Medicine can be used as a lens to view colonialism in action and as a way to critique colonialism. This article argues that key debates and ideas from that modern field can fruitfully be applied to the Middle Ages, especially for the early empires of Spain and Portugal (mid-fourteenth to mid-sixteenth centuries). The article identifies key modern debates, explores approaches to colonization and colonialism in the Middle Ages and discusses how medieval and modern medicine and healthcare could be compared using colonial and postcolonial discourses. The article ends with three case studies of healthcare encounters in Madeira, Granada and Hispaniola at the end of the fifteenth century. PMID:26550030

  20. Paleoseismicity of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary (Septentrional fault), Dominican Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Burr, G.; Valastro, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Septentrional fault zone, the major North American-Caribbean plate-boundary fault in Hispaniola, is a likely source of large earthquakes in the Dominican Republic. An excavation into a Holocene alluvial fan deposited across the fault in the central Cibao Valley, Dominican Republic, provides evidence that it has been at least 430 yr and probably more than 740 yr since the last ground-rupturing earthquake along this segment of the fault. On the basis of these data and published estimates of the plate-tectonic slip rate, it is proposed that the Septentrional fault is a source of high seismic potential in the densely populated and rapidly developing Cibao Valley in the northern Dominican Republic. -Authors

  1. STS-111 Mission Highlights Resource Tape. Part 3 of 4; Flight Days 8 - 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the STS-111 Endeavour mission is given through footage of each flight day. Scenes from flight days 8 through 10 show activities such as extravehicular activity (EVA) preparation, EVA activity to replace the wrist roll joint on the International Space Station's (ISS) robotic arm, logistics transfer operation, space suit check-out and loading of the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module onto the Endeavour's cargo bay. Individual shots of Africa, Italy, Hispaniola, Mexico and the Strait of Gilbraltar are shown. For mission footage from flight days 1 to 7 and 11-14, see also, 'STS-111 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 1', 'STS-111 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 2' and 'STS-111 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 4'.

  2. Accounts of damage from historical earthquakes in the northeastern Caribbean to aid in the determination of their location and intensity magnitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Claudia H.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Bakun, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Documentation of an event in the past depended on the population and political trends of the island, and the availability of historical documents is limited by the physical resource digitization schedule and by the copyright laws of each archive. Examples of documents accessed are governors' letters, newspapers, and other circulars published within the Caribbean, North America, and Western Europe. Key words were used to search for publications that contain eyewitness accounts of various large earthquakes. Finally, this catalog provides descriptions of damage to buildings used in previous studies for the estimation of moment intensity (MI) and location of significantly damaging or felt earthquakes in Hispaniola and in the northeastern Caribbean, all of which have been described in other studies.

  3. Revision of the West Indian Wattius Kaszab (Tenebrionidae, Toxicini, Eudysantina) with lectotype designations for Pascoe’s South American species

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron D.; Sanchez, Lucio A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Wattius species occurring in the West Indies are revised for the first time. Wattius cucullatus (Pascoe), previously reported from Cuba, is diagnosed and restricted to Brazil. Wattius asperulus (Pascoe), currently a synonym of Wattius cucullatus, from Colombia is diagnosed and resurrected. All species found in the West Indies are endemic to the islands and form a single informal species-group. Three species are described: Wattius andersoni sp. n. from Cuba, Wattius emmabaconae sp. n. from Hispaniola (Dominican Republic), and Wattius viatorus sp. n. from Cuba and the Bahamas, and lectotypes are designated for Calymmus cucullatus Pascoe and Calymmus asperulus Pascoe. A key to the West Indian species is provided. PMID:26798241

  4. Collisional zones in Puerto Rico and the northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.

    2014-10-01

    Puerto Rico is an amalgamation of island arc terranes that has recorded the deformational and tectonic history of the North American-Caribbean Plate boundary. Four collisional zones indicate the contractional events that have occurred at the plate boundary. Metamorphism and deformation of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere during the Early Cretaceous indicate the earliest collisional event. Then, an ophiolitic mélange, mostly comprised of blocks of the metamorphosed oceanic lithosphere, was formed and emplaced in the backarc region during the Turonian-Coniacian deformational event. A possible collision with a buoyant block in the North American Plate caused late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene contraction that created fold-and-thrust belts and the remobilization and uplift of serpentinite bodies in the Southwest Block. Late Eocene-early Oligocene transpression was localized along the Southern and Northern Puerto Rico fault zones, which occur north and south of large granodiorite intrusions in the strong Central Block. The deformation was accommodated in pure shear domains of fold-and-thrust belts and conjugate strike-slip faults, and simple shear domains of large mostly left-lateral faults. In addition, it reactivated faults in the weak Southwest Block. This island-wide transpression is the result of a Greater Antilles arc and continental North American collision. The kinematic model of the structures described in Puerto Rico correlate with some structures in Hispaniola and Cuba, and shows how the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate was shortened by collisions with continental lithosphere of the North American Plate throughout its history. The tectonic evolution of the Greater Antilles shows a history of collisions, in which the latest collision accretes Cuba to the North American Plate, reorganizes the plate boundary, and deforms with transpression Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The latest collision in Puerto Rico shows the case in which an arc collides obliquely with buoyant crust producing left-lateral transpression and converges obliquely with dense oceanic lithosphere.

  5. Tsunami scenarios and hazard assessment along the northern coast of Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Calais, E.; Hébert, H.; Roy, C.; Okal, E.

    2015-12-01

    The northeastern Caribbean island arc, which materializes the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates, is particularly exposed to large earthquakes and tsunamis. The low level of preparedness of a large part of its population and the lack of risk reduction provisions in public policies in many countries of the region put their population and economy at high risk in case of large telluric events. Here, we investigate the impact of three possible earthquake scenarios, consistent with the regional seismotectonic setting, on northern Haiti through inundation by tsunami waves. These scenarios simulate the effect of a M8.0 earthquake on the Septentrional strike-slip fault (possibly similar to the 1842 earthquake), a M8.1 earthquake on the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti, and an earthquake rupturing a large portion of the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. We calculate run-up heights along the northern coast of Haiti, in particular in the densely populated Cap Haitien. We find that the rupture of the offshore North Hispaniola thrust fault could result in wave heights up to 10 m with inundation up to 4 km inland, with only 10-15 min between ground shaking and the first wave arrivals. The city of Cap Haitien is particularly exposed, with potential flooding of most of the city and its suburbs, including the international airport. We also find that the historical reports available for the 1842 earthquake, when compared to our simulations, favor a rupture of the North Hispaniola thrust fault, although much uncertainty remains. If the 1842 earthquake did not rupture the Septentional fault offshore Haiti, then it is currently capable of at least a Mw7.7 earthquake, significantly larger than previously thought. The simulations presented here provide a basis for developing conservative maps of run-up heights that can be transferred, with added factors of safety, into practical implementation for tsunami preparedness and protection.

  6. Broadband Seismic Study of the Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, J.; Polanco Rivera, E.; Pujols Guridy, R.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Lopez, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (NCPBZ) is characterized by oblique subduction of oceanic crust belonging to the North American Plate, a broad zone of deformation to accommodate strain, and the development of transform and normal faults on and around the island of Hispaniola. Other features may include the formation of a new microplates, rearrangement and aggregation of crustal fragments into new islands, and rotations of the microplates. Numerous issues regarding the nature and timing of formation of the features described above, their roles in regional tectonics and even whether they exist at all, remain unresolved. Our short-term goal is to better constraint lithospheric structure and identify active earthquake faults with a temporary broadband seismic network in the Dominican Republic. The oblique-subduction-to-strike-slip transition found in the NCPBZ is representative of numerous locales around the world, so lessons learned here may inform our understanding of plate tectonics broadly. In 2013-2014 we installed sixteen broadband seismic stations in the Dominican Republic. The temporary network will remain in place for two years. Data acquired by the temporary network will be integrated with data recorded by existing seismic facilities in the region and the combined dataset will be used for a series of analyses that will, collectively, allow us to image lithospheric structure and aid seismic hazard assessment for the island of Hispaniola. Preliminary results will be presented from the deployment, including regional earthquake locations and improved 1D Earth structure as well as plans for collaborations between regional seismic networks and local capacity-building.

  7. Comparison of sand-layer geometry on flat floors of 10 modern depositional basins

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, O.H.; Locker, S.D.; Cleary, W.J.

    1980-06-01

    A comparative study of 10 deep turbidite basins indicates that sand-layer thickness, frequency, and continuity can be related to their basin geometries, tectonics, and source areas. This study is based on piston-core data from the flat floors of four oceanic-crust abyssal plains (Sohm, Hatteras, Blake-Bahama, and Silver), two Bahama-Plateau reentrant basins (Columbus basin and Tongue of the Ocean), three subduction zone-island arc basins (Hispaniola-Caicos, Navidad, and St. Croix basins), and one continental-borderland basin (Santa Monica basin). With increasing tectonic activity, sand layers on flat basin floors tend to be thinner and more frequent. Except in elongated narrow basins such as Navidad, source-area size is directly related to proximal sand-layer thickness. Continuity of individual sand layers is a function of drainage-basin size and depositional-basin shape. For example, on the Hatteras Abyssal Plan long-distance continuity (up to 500 km) of individual sand layers is achieved because most of the turbidites are large and are introduced only at the north upstream end. In the small horseshoe-shaped Columbus basin, sand-layer continuity is limited because flows are small and are introduced from three sides. In most basins, sands thin and the percentage of sand layers in the sediment column decreases away from source areas. However, in basins that are small relative to the typical turbidity-current size (e.g., Hispaniola-Caicos basin), the differences between basin-edge and basin-center sand layers are slight. 10 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Plate Coupling and Strain Partitioning in the Northeastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaker, D.; Calais, E.; Jansma, P.; Mattioli, G.

    2006-12-01

    Major strike-slip faults commonly found on the margin of overriding plates in oblique subduction zone settings facilitate the partitioning of strain into trench-parallel and trench-normal tectonics. Their development has been proposed to be controlled by factors such as convergence obliquity, basal tractions, magnitude of slab-pull force, or strength of interplate coupling. In the northeastern Caribbean, the direction of GPS velocities and earthquake slip vectors suggests low coupling along the Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles trenches, but strong coupling to the west along the Hispaniola margin, while the convergence obliquity remains constant. Coincidentally, large strike-slip faults in the overriding plate only develop in Hispaniola, which is also the locus of the largest historical subduction earthquakes in the Caribbean (M8.0, 1946-53 sequence). We investigate interplate coupling at the Caribbean-North American plate boundary using a model that allows for block rotations and elastic strain accumulation on partially coupled faults. Model parameters (block rotations and coupling on interplate faults) are derived from an inversion of earthquake slip vectors and new GPS data covering Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, and the Lesser Antilles. We find that intraplate coupling is high in the western half of the domain, coincident with the development of large and fast-slipping strike-slip faults in the upper plate that partition the Carribean/North America plate motion, but low in its eastern half, along the Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles subductions, that show little to no strain partitioning. This suggests that strain partitioning occur only if interplate coupling is large enough to effectively transfer shear stresses to the overriding plate.

  9. Current block motions and strain accumulation on active faults in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symithe, S.; Calais, E.; Chabalier, J. B.; Robertson, R.; Higgins, M.

    2015-05-01

    The Caribbean plate and its boundaries with north and south America, marked by subduction and large intra-arc strike-slip faults, are a natural laboratory for the study of strain partitioning and interseismic plate coupling in relation to large earthquakes. Here we use most of the available campaign and continuous GPS measurements in the Caribbean to derive a regional velocity field expressed in a consistent reference frame. We use this velocity field as input to a kinematic model where surface velocities results from the rotation of rigid blocks bounded by locked faults accumulating interseismic strain, while allowing for partial locking along the Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, and Hispaniola subduction. We test various block geometries, guided by previous regional kinematic models and geological information on active faults. Our findings refine a number of previously established results, in particular slip rates on the strike-slip faults systems bounding the Caribbean plate to the north and south, and the kinematics of the Gonave microplate. Our much-improved GPS velocity field in the Lesser Antilles compared to previous studies does not require the existence of a distinct Northern Lesser Antilles block and excludes more than 3 mm/yr of strain accumulation on the Lesser Antilles-Puerto Rico subduction plate interface, which appears essentially uncoupled. The transition from a coupled to an uncoupled subduction coincides with a transition in the long-term geological behavior of the Caribbean plate margin from compressional (Hispaniola) to extensional (Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles), a characteristics shared with several other subduction systems.

  10. Ancient differentiation in the single-island avian radiation of endemic Hispaniolan chat-tanagers (Aves: Calyptophilus).

    PubMed

    Townsend, Andrea K; Rimmer, Christopher C; Latta, Steven C; Lovette, Irby J

    2007-09-01

    The simple geographic structure of island systems often makes them tractable for studies of the patterns and processes of biological diversification. The Calyptophilus chat-tanagers of Hispaniola are of general evolutionary interest because their multiple lineages might have arisen on a single island, of conservation concern because several isolated populations are nearly extinct, and taxonomically ambiguous because they have been variously lumped or split into one to four species. To explore the context of diversification of the seven extant Calyptophilus populations, we conducted a multilocus coalescent analysis based on sequences of mitochondrial ND2 and three nuclear intron loci. We then compared patterns of phylogeographic genetic variation with the morphological differences that distinguish these populations. Mitochondrial haplotypes formed two reciprocally monophyletic groups separated by a large magnitude of nucleotide divergence. Intron structure largely paralleled the geographic grouping pattern of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but these groups were only reciprocally monophyletic at one of the three introns. Also, the magnitude of between-group divergence was much lower in the introns than mtDNA genealogies. Multilocus coalescent analyses inferred a nonzero divergence time between these two major geographic groups, but suggested that they have experienced a low level of gene flow. All four markers showed substantial allele sharing within each of the two groups, demonstrating that many now separated montane populations do not have long histories of isolation. Considered in concert, our multilocus phylogeographic reconstructions support the recognition of two species within the Calyptophilus complex, and raise the possibility that these taxa differentiated prior to the fusion of the two palaeo-islands that form present-day Hispaniola. PMID:17845436

  11. Modeling the Crust and Upper Mantle in Northern Beata Ridge (CARIBE NORTE Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Diana; Córdoba, Diego; Cotilla, Mario Octavio; Pazos, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The complex tectonic region of NE Caribbean, where Hispaniola and Puerto Rico are located, is bordered by subduction zone with oblique convergence in the north and by incipient subduction zone associated to Muertos Trough in the south. Central Caribbean basin is characterized by the presence of a prominent topographic structure known as Beata Ridge, whose oceanic crustal thickness is unusual. The northern part of Beata Ridge is colliding with the central part of Hispaniola along a transverse NE alignment, which constitutes a morphostructural limit, thus producing the interruption of the Cibao Valley and the divergence of the rivers and basins in opposite directions. The direction of this alignment coincides with the discontinuity that could explain the extreme difference between west and east seismicity of the island. Different studies have provided information about Beata Ridge, mainly about the shallow structure from MCS data. In this work, CARIBE NORTE (2009) wide-angle seismic data are analyzed along a WNW-ESE trending line in the northern flank of Beata Ridge, providing a complete tectonic view about shallow, middle and deep structures. The results show clear tectonic differences between west and east separated by Beata Island. In the Haiti Basin area, sedimentary cover is strongly influenced by the bathymetry and its thickness decreases toward to the island. In this area, the Upper Mantle reaches 20 km deep increasing up to 24 km below the island where the sedimentary cover disappears. To the east, the three seamounts of Beata Ridge provoke the appearance of a structure completely different where sedimentary cover reaches thicknesses of 4 km between seamounts and Moho rises up to 13 km deep. This study has allowed to determine the Moho topography and to characterize seismically the first upper mantle layers along the northern Beata Ridge, which had not been possible with previous MCS data.

  12. Documentation for Initial Seismic Hazard Maps for Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In response to the urgent need for earthquake-hazard information after the tragic disaster caused by the moment magnitude (M) 7.0 January 12, 2010, earthquake, we have constructed initial probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Haiti. These maps are based on the current information we have on fault slip rates and historical and instrumental seismicity. These initial maps will be revised and improved as more data become available. In the short term, more extensive logic trees will be developed to better capture the uncertainty in key parameters. In the longer term, we will incorporate new information on fault parameters and previous large earthquakes obtained from geologic fieldwork. These seismic hazard maps are important for the management of the current crisis and the development of building codes and standards for the rebuilding effort. The boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates in the Hispaniola region is a complex zone of deformation. The highly oblique ~20 mm/yr convergence between the two plates (DeMets and others, 2000) is partitioned between subduction zones off of the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola and strike-slip faults that transect the northern and southern portions of the island. There are also thrust faults within the island that reflect the compressional component of motion caused by the geometry of the plate boundary. We follow the general methodology developed for the 1996 U.S. national seismic hazard maps and also as implemented in the 2002 and 2008 updates. This procedure consists of adding the seismic hazard calculated from crustal faults, subduction zones, and spatially smoothed seismicity for shallow earthquakes and Wadati-Benioff-zone earthquakes. Each one of these source classes will be described below. The lack of information on faults in Haiti requires many assumptions to be made. These assumptions will need to be revisited and reevaluated as more fieldwork and research are accomplished. We made two sets of maps using different assumptions about site conditions. One set of maps is for a firm-rock site condition (30-m averaged shear-wave velocity, Vs30, of 760 m/s). We also developed hazard maps that contain site amplification based on a grid of Vs30 values estimated from topographic slope. These maps take into account amplification from soils. We stress that these new maps are designed to quantify the hazard for Haiti; they do not consider all the sources of earthquake hazard that affect the Dominican Republic and therefore should not be considered as complete hazard maps for eastern Hispaniola. For example, we have not included hazard from earthquakes in the Mona Passage nor from large earthquakes on the subduction zone interface north of Puerto Rico. Furthermore, they do not capture all the earthquake hazards for eastern Cuba.

  13. Coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and pine: does more time allow for greater phenotypic escalation at lower latitude?

    PubMed

    Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W; Mezquida, Eduardo T

    2007-09-01

    Crossbills (Aves: Loxia) and several conifers have coevolved in predator-prey arms races over the last 10,000 years. However, the extent to which coevolutionary arms races have contributed to the adaptive radiation of crossbills or to any other adaptive radiation is largely unknown. Here we extend our previous studies of geographically structured coevolution by considering a crossbill-conifer interaction that has persisted for a much longer time period and involves a conifer with more variable annual seed production. We examined geographic variation in the cone and seed traits of two sister species of pines, Pinus occidentalis and P. cubensis, on the islands of Hispaniola and Cuba, respectively. We also compared the Hispaniolan crossbill (Loxia megaplaga) to its sister taxa the North American white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera leucoptera). The Hispaniolan crossbill is endemic to Hispaniola whereas Cuba lacks crossbills. In addition and in contrast to previous studies, the variation in selection experienced by these pines due to crossbills is not confounded by the occurrence of selection by tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus and Sciurus). As predicted if P. occidentalis has evolved defenses in response to selection exerted by crossbills, cones of P. occidentalis have scales that are 53% thicker than those of P. cubensis. Cones of P. occidentalis, but not P. cubensis, also have well-developed spines, a known defense against vertebrate seed predators. Consistent with patterns of divergence seen in crossbills coevolving locally with other conifers, the Hispaniolan crossbill has evolved a bill that is 25% deeper than the white-winged crossbill. Together with phylogenetic analyses, our results suggest that predator-prey coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and P. occidentalis over approximately 600,000 years has caused substantial morphological evolution in both the crossbill and pine. This also indicates that cone crop fluctuations do not prevent crossbills and conifers from coevolving. Furthermore, because the traits at the phenotypic interface of the interaction apparently remain the same over at least several hundred thousand years, divergence as a result of coevolution is greater at lower latitude where crossbill-conifer interactions have been less interrupted by Pleistocene events. PMID:17767586

  14. Lithosphere structure from Cordillera Central to Cordillera Oriental (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, Diana; Cordoba, Diego; Nuñez-Cornu, Francisco J.; Cotilla, Mario O.

    2015-04-01

    Located on the northern margin of the Caribbean Plate, the Island of Hispaniola is a tectonic collage produced by the oblique convergence to final collision of the Caribbean island-arc/back arc system with the North American Plate. West-central part of the Hispaniola Island consists of high topography bounded by dominantly reverse and oblique-slip faults along the edges of the uplifted mountain ranges. The eastern part of the island is much lower in elevation than the rest of the island and is not extensively affected by active faulting. Escarpments and lineaments forming west-north-west and north-west-striking boundaries of morphotectonic zones in the central part of the island closely follow island arc terrain boundaries and suggest that Cretaceous to Eocene island-arc structures were reactivated by early Miocene to Recent collisional and transpressional tectonics. The seismic data presented in this work correspond to Profile D of Caribe Norte project (2009). This profile is W - E oriented in a length of 450 km. The deployment was made of 140 land seismic stations of one vertical component and one land station of three components located near Hato Mayor. These stations were recording from 11th to 17th of April 2009. The seismic sources used in this line have been three land borehole explosions 1 Ton (S1, S2 and S3), one marine shooting line (LM4) and one earthquake occurred while seismic stations were recording the Profile D. Our study has characterized seismically basins and mountain ranges in the shallow crustal structure. The results have corroborated previous data and have provided slight changes respect to the previous studies in the area. The results establish the marked differences between N and S and from W to E. Particularly, Moho discontinuity increases towards the interior of the island from Bahamas Platform to the interior of the island but gets different maximum depth values being roughly 30 km deep in the western and central, while rises up to 24 km deep, in the eastern area. Moreover, a structure dipping towards eastern interior of the island has been obtained with a dip angle of 18° reaching depths of 120 km. The relocation and P-wave phases analysis of one earthquake registered by CARIBE NORTE land seismic deployment have allowed obtaining these values. This structure could explain deep seismicity in the area.

  15. Do Fault Intersections Play a Role in Concentrating Seismicity along the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary? Insights from 2-D Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, A.; Pulliam, J.

    2007-05-01

    Analytical studies spanning several decades have shown that stresses concentrate at fault intersections and bends when subjected to background tectonic loading. This phenomenon has also been demonstrated in geological systems, both within intraplate (continental and oceanic) and plate boundary settings. In particular, studies of stress interactions between strike-slip faults and the relationship between these stresses and seismicity in the northern Caribbean plate boundary region have produced a better understanding of regional tectonics. In this study we use two-dimensional mechanical modeling to investigate the role of fault intersections in concentrating seismicity along a part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary. We use a numerical method called "Distinct Element Method" implemented by a commercially available code called "UDEC". Our block model comprises of the structural geometry of a part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary spanning Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, and includes the major faults. In our model we use realistic mechanical properties (bulk and shear moduli, and density for the blocks, and stiffnesses, friction, and cohesion for the faults) based on the known geology. Assuming a linear, elastic behavior, we load our model tectonically for a specified period along the direction of the regional plate motion at a rate obtained from GPS studies in the region. At the end of the tectonic loading period we observe the spatial distribution of shear stresses in the model and along the individual faults. We find that relatively high shear stresses are concentrated at the intersections of the Hispaniola and Puerto Rico trenches, Septentrional and Bruce faults, and other fault intersections northeast of Puerto Rico. These locations of relatively high shear stresses also coincide spatially with clusters of seismicity in the region. Some of these fault intersections also have been postulated to be locations of major historical earthquakes. The areas of largest shear stresses also coincide with increased seismicity of greater magnitudes. Our modeling results also predict the appropriate senses of motion along individual faults. Additional, simple three-dimensional analysis is underway to investigate a spatial correlation of the seismicity with depth. These preliminary modeling results demonstrate that fault intersections concentrate stresses when tectonically loaded and influence the spatial distribution of seismicity. Such an analysis has the potential to identify the locations of major earthquakes in the future.

  16. Geological interpretation of combined Seabeam, Gloria and seismic data from Anegada Passage (Virgin Islands, north Caribbean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jany, I.; Scanlon, K.M.; Mauffret, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Anegada Passage (sensu lato) includes several basins and ridges from Southeast of Puerto Rico to the corner of the Virgin Islands Platform. Seabeam (Seacarib I) and Gloria long-range sidescan sonar surveys were carried out in this area. These new data allow us to propose an interpretation of the Anegada Passage. Most of the features described are related to wrench faulting: (a) St Croix and Virgin Islands Basins are pull-apart basins created in a right-lateral strike-slip environment based on their rhomboidal shape and seismic data (e.g. the flower structure). These two pull-aparts are divided into two sub-basins by a curvilinear normal fault in the Virgin Islands Basin and a right-lateral strike-slip fault in the St Croix Basin. (b) Tortola Ridge and a 'dog's leg' shaped structure are inferred to be restraining bends between two right-lateral strike-slip faults. (c) We identified two ENE-WSW volcanic lineaments in the eastern area and one volcano lying between Virgin Islands and St Croix Basins. (d) As shown by the seismic activity main wrench motion occurs along the north slope of Virgin Islands Basin and through Anegada Passage. A branching of this main fault transmits the transtensional motion to St Croix Basin. A two-stage story is proposed for the creation of the basins. A first extensional event during Eocene(?)-Oligocene-lower Miocene time created Virgin Islands, St Croix Basins and the tilted blocks of St Croix Ridge. A second transtensional event from Pliocene to Recent gave the present day pattern to this area. However, the displacement along the strike-slip faults is no more than 15 km long. The proposed geodynamic model is based on the separation of the northeastern Caribbean boundary into two blocks. In the West, the indenter of Beata Ridge gives a northeastern motion to Hispaniola Block. In the East, as a result of Hispaniola Block's motion, the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Block could escape in an east-northeast direction. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  17. Genetic introgression and hybridization in Antillean freshwater turtles (Trachemys) revealed by coalescent analyses of mitochondrial and cloned nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    Parham, James F; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Dijk, Peter Paul van; Wilson, Byron S; Marte, Cristian; Schettino, Lourdes Rodriguez; Brian Simison, W

    2013-04-01

    Determining whether a conflict between gene trees and species trees represents incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) or hybridization involving native and/or invasive species has implications for reconstructing evolutionary relationships and guiding conservation decisions. Among vertebrates, turtles represent an exceptional case for exploring these issues because of the propensity for even distantly related lineages to hybridize. In this study we investigate a group of freshwater turtles (Trachemys) from a part of its range (the Greater Antilles) where it is purported to have undergone reticulation events from both natural and anthropogenic processes. We sequenced mtDNA for 83 samples, sequenced three nuDNA markers for 45 samples, and cloned 29 polymorphic sequences, to identify species boundaries, hybridization, and intergrade zones for Antillean Trachemys and nearby mainland populations. Initial coalescent analyses of phased nuclear alleles (using (*)BEAST) recovered a Bayesian species tree that strongly conflicted with the mtDNA phylogeny and traditional taxonomy, and appeared to be confounded by hybridization. Therefore, we undertook exploratory phylogenetic analyses of mismatched alleles from the "coestimated" gene trees (Heled and Drummond, 2010) in order to identify potential hybrid origins. The geography, morphology, and sampling context of most samples with potential introgressed alleles suggest hybridization over ILS. We identify contact zones between different species on Jamaica (T. decussata × T. terrapen), on Hispaniola (T. decorata × T. stejnegeri), and in Central America (T. emolli × T. venusta). We are unable to determine whether the distribution of T. decussata on Jamaica is natural or the result of prehistoric introduction by Native Americans. This uncertainty means that the conservation status of the Jamaican T. decussata populations and contact zone with T. terrapen are unresolved. Human-mediated dispersal events were more conclusively implicated for the prehistoric translocation of T. stejnegeri between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, as well as the more recent genetic pollution of native species by an invasive pet turtle native to the USA (T. scripta elegans). Finally, we test the impact of introgressed alleles using the multispecies coalescent in a Bayesian framework and show that studies that do not phase heterozygote sequences of hybrid individuals may recover the correct species tree, but overall support for clades that include hybrid individuals may be reduced. PMID:23353072

  18. Airborne Radar Observations of Hurricane Georges during Landfall over the Dominican Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geerts, B.; Heymsfield, G.; Tian, L.

    1999-01-01

    On 22 September 1998 hurricane Georges made landfall on the Dominican Republic (DR). Georges cost the DR at least 500 lives, made more than 155,000 people homeless and caused extensive damage to the country's main industries, tourism and agriculture. There was considerable wind damage, with wind gusts up to 58 m/s in Santa Domingo on the south coast, but most of the damage and deaths resulted from mudslides and the flooding of rivers. While this may have been the worst natural disaster to strike the DR, the sustained rapid storm movement saved the island from worse damage. Georges had previously affected several islands in the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico, but it had retained much of its circulation strength. Forty raingauge stations across the DR measured rainfall totals from Georges between 0.7 and 41 cm, the latter at the capital Santo Domingo, located on the south coast. At Herrera the maximum 1 h rainfall rate was 72 mm/h. It is suspected that much higher rain rates occurred in DR's mountainous interior. Before landfall the eye was clearly evident in satellite imagery. When the eye moved over southeastern DR, it filled rapidly, and the cloud top height decreased in all storm sectors except in the southern inflow sector, where a long-lived MCS, with a diameter larger than that of the eyewall, slowly became enwrapped in the hurricane circulation. The eye closure was most rapid between 16-18 UTC, when the eyewall circulation felt the mountainous terrain of the Cordillera Central, which rises up to 3,093 m. The estimated central pressure increased from 962 hPa at 15 UTC to 986 hPa at 03Z on 23 Sept, and the maximum sustained surface wind speed decreased from 54 to 36 in s-1 during the same period. The island of Hispaniola has a cross-track width of about 250 km, much wider than the diameter of the eyewall anvil (about 100 km before landfall). So the event can truly be considered to be a landfalling case, even though Georges recovered after crossing Hispaniola, albeit never to the same strength. This talk will summarize satellite and ground observations of Georges, as it passed the DR, and it will focus on EDOP data. In particular, we will try to estimate the rainfall rate over the mountainous terrain of the DR. And we will use detailed sounding data to explain the presence and characteristics of the massive MCS to the south, as well as the upper-level updrafts apparent over this MCS and over the mountains of the DR.

  19. Present-day Block Motions and Strain Accumulation on Active Faults in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left and right lateral strike-slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip between major plates. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling at the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. We used the block modeling approach described in Meade and Loveless (2009) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solved for angular velocities for each block/plate and strain accumulation rates for all major faults in the region. Then we calculated the variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries using the accumulated strain rates. We tested 11 different block geometries; they are all based on geological evidences unless they are suggested by discrepancies within the GPS and seismological data or by previously published results. We confirm the existence of the micro Gonave plate. The boundary between the Micro-Gonave plate and the Hispaniola crustal block is better suited along the Haitian-Thrust-Belt instead of the Neiba-Matheux fault. The interseismic GPS velocities do not show evidence for a distinct North Lesser Antilles block. We found a totally uncoupled section of the subduction starting from the Puerto-Rico trench to the end of the Lesser Antilles section. All the relative motion of the Caribbean block is lost aseismically along the boundary of that portion of the subduction. While we found strong coupling along the northern Hispaniola section, most of the deformation on this region is being accumulated along intrablock faults with very low strain (~2mm/yr) along the intraplate subduction interface. We also performed several tests resolutions to assess the ability of the existing GPS data and the associated uncertainties to adequately resolved different aspects of the strain accumulation along the subduction. We found reasonable lateral resolution and very poor vertical resolution.

  20. 1.32 ± 0.11 Ma age for underwater remains constrain antiquity and longevity of the Dominican primate Antillothrix bernensis.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Alfred L; Pickering, Robyn; Green, Helen; Cooke, Siobhán B; Tallman, Melissa; Morrow, Andrea; Rímoli, Renato

    2015-11-01

    Endemic New World monkeys are an important element of the extinct mammal faunas of the Caribbean's Greater Antilles. Here we report the first geochronometric evidence that the primate Antillothrix bernensis existed in the Dominican Republic during the Pleistocene, based on the uranium-series age of carbonate speleothem that encased a tibia when it was collected in a flooded cave. Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics of laser-scanned living and extinct samples provide evidence to support the hypothesis that this specimen and other Dominican primate tibial remains belong to that same species. U-Th dating of the host cave carbonate returns ages consistently at the 600 ka upper limit of the technique. However, U-Pb, capable of resolving ages of greater antiquity, is more robust in this context, returning a secure age of 1.32 ± 0.11 Ma, which is the oldest chronometric age recorded for a Hispaniolan mammal. While its origins and manner and time of arrival are obscure, the morphometric studies are consistent with phylogenetic analyses that place A. bernensis within the pitheciid clade of the platyrrhines. The species apparently endured for over 1 million years during the climatic perturbations of the Pleistocene, as a frugivorous climbing quadruped, one of two known primate species occupying the hazard prone island of Hispaniola. PMID:26321147

  1. First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Alfred L; Cooke, Siobhán B; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades. PMID:20659936

  2. First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Cooke, Siobhán B.; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades. PMID:20659936

  3. Haiti.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The U.S. Department's background notes on Haiti briefly describe her geography, people, history, government, economy and foreign relations. Haiti comprises the western third of the Caribbean island Hispaniola, situated east of Cuba. There are 6 million people, growing at 1.9% annually, of African origin. Infant mortality is 124/1000; life expectancy 54 years. The country is undeveloped: 80% live in rural areas; per capita income is $379; literacy is estimated at 23%; most speak Creole, although Haiti is the only officially French speaking nation in the Western hemisphere. The land is hot and dry, largely becoming deforested and eroded. Haiti became independent in 1804 after a slave rebellion. Since then the government has been a succession of dictatorships, leading to constant political and economic disorder. The current transition government rules by decree. The economy is largely based on small subsistence farms. Coffee, cocoa, mangoes, essential oils and locally assembled manufactured goods are exported. Haiti benefits from foreign aid from several institutions and governments, including an active USAID program that fosters soil conservation, education and business. PMID:12177924

  4. Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the middle Eocene Saramaguacan formation of Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  5. Evidence of left-lateral active motion at the North America-Caribbean plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S. D.; Ellouz, N.; Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Meyer, B.; Momplaisir, R.; Granja, J. L.; Battani, A.; Burov, E. B.; Clouard, V.; Deschamps, R.; Gorini, C.; Hamon, Y.; LE Pourhiet, L.; Loget, N.; Lucazeau, F.; Pillot, D.; Poort, J.; Tankoo, K.; Cuevas, J. L.; Alcaide, J.; Poix, C. J.; Mitton, S.; Rodriguez, Y.; Schmitz, J.; Munoz Martin, A.

    2014-12-01

    The North America-Caribbean plate boundary is one of the least-known among large plate boundaries. Although it was identified early on as an example of a strike-slip fault in the north of Hispaniola, its structure and rate of motion remains poorly constrained. We present the first direct evidence for active sinistral strike-slip motion along this fault, based on swath seafloor mapping of the northern Haiti area. There is evidence for ~16.5 km of apparent strike-slip motion along the mapped segment of the Septentrional fault zone off Cap Haitien town which is terminated to the east onland Dominican republic and in the west to southern Cuban margin. By evaluating these new constraints within the context of geodetic models of global plate motions, we estimate an activity of the fault since 2 Ma with an angular velocity for the Caribbean plate relative to the North America predicted 6-12 mmyr-1 sinistral motion along the Septentrional fault zone. This transform fault was initiated around 20 million years ago in its western segment and since 2 Ma in its eastern segment in response to a regional reorganization of plate velocities and directions, which induced a change in configuration of plate boundaries.

  6. A Pilot Study to Examine the Disparities in Water Quality between Predominantly Haitian Neighborhoods and Dominican Neighborhoods in Two Cities in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Rogers-Brown, Jessica; Johnson, Ryan; Smith, Dominique; Ramsey-White, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death affecting over 1.7 million individuals annually. Much of this can be attributed to lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly all of these deaths occur in countries with developing economies. This public health problem is apparent in the island of Hispaniola; the island that is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Significant gaps in income between the countries have resulted in Haitians migrating into the Dominican Republic. While there has been increased migration into the Dominican Republic, many of the neighborhoods remain segregated. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at 49 sites in the Dominican Republic. Samples were classified as being from a Haitian neighborhood or Dominican neighborhood and analyzed for microbial contamination. Overall, Haitian neighborhoods were found to have statistically significantly higher levels of contamination of both coliform and E. coli. The odds of having E. coli contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.25 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. The odds of having coliform contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.78 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. This study provides evidence of the disparity in access to clean drinking water for Haitian immigrants and highlights the need for further investigation. PMID:26703674

  7. [Chikungunya: a challenge for the Dominican Republic's health services].

    PubMed

    Moya, José; Pimentel, Raquel; Puello, José

    2014-11-01

    The Region of the Americas has been affected since December 2013 by a chikungunya epidemic for the first time. Although the first cases were recorded in the French Caribbean, the epidemic quickly spread to the Dominican Republic due to trade and people movements. The Dominican Republic, which shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti, has a population of 10 million. This article contains information from a range of different publications and official documents about the chikungunya virus infection and epidemic. These papers were extremely helpful for guiding the response to the epidemic in the Dominican Republic and may also be useful for enhancing knowledge of the virus and responses among health workers elsewhere in the region. Particular attention is drawn to the important research undertaken in countries and territories affected by the epidemic in the Indian Ocean area. This is the case, for example, of the island of La Réunion, where the epidemic had an attack rate of more than 30% between 2005 and 2007. Researchers were able to identify risk groups, severe and atypical forms of the infection, cases of vertical transmission, chronic disease causing recurrent pain over three years, and directly- or indirectly-related deaths from the virus. Given its high attack rate, the chikungunya virus has emerged as an exceptional challenge for health ministries and calls for appropriate organized responses from the health services, prioritization of care for risk groups and patients exhibiting severe forms of the disease, and effective social communication and intersectoral actions. PMID:25604103

  8. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: Key Contributing Factors.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Patria; Malow, Robert; Ruffin, Beverly; Rothe, Eugenio M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries. As in other Caribbean and Latin American countries, reported HIV transmission in the Dominican Republic is predominantly due to unprotected heterosexual sex and the infection rate has been increasing disproportionally among women. The Dominican Republic represents two thirds of the Hispaniola island; the western one third is occupied by Haiti, the nation with the highest HIV prevalence in the western hemisphere. Although data is limited, it shows important differences in seroprevalence and incidence between these two countries, but commonalities such as poverty, gender inequalities, and stigma appear to be pivotal factors driving the epidemic. This article will discuss these and other factors that may contribute to the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic, as well as highlight the gaps in the literature and provide recommendations to guide further work in this area, particularly in the role of governance in sustainable HIV prevention. PMID:21368008

  9. Evolutionary stasis and lability in thermal physiology in a group of tropical lizards.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Martha M; Stimola, Maureen A; Algar, Adam C; Conover, Asa; Rodriguez, Anthony J; Landestoy, Miguel A; Bakken, George S; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-03-01

    Understanding how quickly physiological traits evolve is a topic of great interest, particularly in the context of how organisms can adapt in response to climate warming. Adjustment to novel thermal habitats may occur either through behavioural adjustments, physiological adaptation or both. Here, we test whether rates of evolution differ among physiological traits in the cybotoids, a clade of tropical Anolis lizards distributed in markedly different thermal environments on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. We find that cold tolerance evolves considerably faster than heat tolerance, a difference that results because behavioural thermoregulation more effectively shields these organisms from selection on upper than lower temperature tolerances. Specifically, because lizards in very different environments behaviourally thermoregulate during the day to similar body temperatures, divergent selection on body temperature and heat tolerance is precluded, whereas night-time temperatures can only be partially buffered by behaviour, thereby exposing organisms to selection on cold tolerance. We discuss how exposure to selection on physiology influences divergence among tropical organisms and its implications for adaptive evolutionary response to climate warming. PMID:24430845

  10. Oxygen isotope evidence of Little Ice Age aridity on the Caribbean slope of the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Chad S.; Horn, Sally P.; Orvis, Kenneth H.; Thomason, John M.

    2011-05-01

    Climate change during the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA) of the 15th to 19th centuries was once thought to be limited to the high northern latitudes, but increasing evidence reflects significant climate change in the tropics. One of the hypothesized features of LIA climate in the low latitudes is a more southerly mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which produced more arid conditions through much of the northern tropics. High-resolution stable oxygen isotope data and other sedimentary evidence from Laguna de Felipe, located on the Caribbean slope of the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, support the hypothesis that the mean annual position of the ITCZ was displaced significantly southward during much of the LIA. Placed within the context of regional paleoclimate and paleoceanographic records, and reconstructions of global LIA climate, this shift in mean annual ITCZ position appears to have been induced by lower solar insolation and internal dynamical responses of the global climate system. Our results from Hispaniola further emphasize the global nature of LIA climate change and the sensitivity of circum-Caribbean climate conditions to what are hypothesized to be relatively small variations in global energy budgets.

  11. Characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni n.sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the Parasite Responsible for Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jeffrey; Pratlong, Francine; Floeter-Winter, Lucile; Ishikawa, Edna; El Baidouri, Fouad; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Leishmania parasites isolated, between 1979 and 1988 by the late Bryce Walton, from Dominican Republic (DR) patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, were characterized using a panel of 12 isoenzymes, 23 monoclonal antibodies, small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSu rDNA), and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The isoenzyme and monoclonal antibody profiles and the MLSA results showed that the Dominican Republic parasites were distinct from other described Leishmania species. This new species belongs to the mexicana complex, which is distributed in central and parts of northern South America. It is suggested that the parasites uniqueness from other members of the mexicana complex is related to it being isolated on an island for millions of years. If Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni fails to adapt to some imported mammal, such as the house rat, it will be the only Leishmania to be classified as an endangered species. The excessive destruction of habitats on Hispaniola threatens the survival of its vectors and presumed natural reservoirs, such as the rodent hutias and the small insectivorous mammal solenodon. The concept of Leishmania species is discussed in the light of recent evaluations on criteria for defining bacterial species. PMID:26149864

  12. Rio Soliette (haiti): AN International Initiative for Flood-Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, S.; Castellarin, A.; Barbarella, M.; Brath, A.; Domeneghetti, A.; Brandimarte, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2013-01-01

    Natural catastrophic events are one of most critical aspects for health and economy all around the world. However, the impact in a poor region can impact more dramatically than in others countries. Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), one of the poorest regions of the planet, has repeatedly been hit by catastrophic natural disasters that caused incalculable human and economic losses. After the catastrophic flood event occurred in the basin of River Soliette on May 24th, 2004, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded an international cooperation initiative (ICI) coordinated by the University of Bologna, that involved Haitian and Dominican institutions.Main purpose of the ICI was hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures. In this contest, a topographic survey was necessary to realize the hydrological model and to improve the knowledge in some areas candidates to be site for mitigation measures.To overcome the difficulties arising from the narrowness of funds, surveyors and limited time available for the survey, only GPS technique have been used, both for framing aspects (using PPP approach), and for geometrical survey of the river by means of river cross-sections and detailed surveys in two areas (RTK technique). This allowed us to reconstruct both the river geometry and the DTM's of two expansion areas (useful for design hydraulic solutions for mitigate flood-hazard risk).

  13. Short Communication: HIV-1 Subtype B in the Dominican Republic: Evolution and Molecular Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    López, Pablo; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Paulino-Ramirez, Robert; Yamamura, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    The Caribbean region has the world second highest incidence rate of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The island of Hispaniola is composed of two sovereign nations: the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Together, they account for more than 85% of HIV/AIDS cases in the Caribbean; and the Dominican Republic alone has approximately 46,000 (33,000-59,000) HIV-1-infected adults and children. Despite this, the magnitude of the genetic variability and evolution of the HIV-1 virus in the Dominican Republic is unclear. In the current study, we analyzed 195 reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences obtained from the Los Alamos HIV database. The data were used to assess the course of the viral epidemic over time in the Dominican Republic, using a coalescent approach. Based on the data, we estimated that the timing of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of local HIV-1 subtype B emerged in 1963, approximately. In addition, the Bayesian analysis provided new information that suggests that the epidemic in the Dominican Republic experienced a significant decrease in relative genetic diversity in the past 2 decades. The results suggest that adherence to antiretroviral therapy, adequate prevention campaigns, and better access to health care may be altering the virus's evolution in the Dominican Republic. PMID:25941939

  14. Evolutionary stasis and lability in thermal physiology in a group of tropical lizards

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Martha M.; Stimola, Maureen A.; Algar, Adam C.; Conover, Asa; Rodriguez, Anthony J.; Landestoy, Miguel A.; Bakken, George S.; Losos, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how quickly physiological traits evolve is a topic of great interest, particularly in the context of how organisms can adapt in response to climate warming. Adjustment to novel thermal habitats may occur either through behavioural adjustments, physiological adaptation or both. Here, we test whether rates of evolution differ among physiological traits in the cybotoids, a clade of tropical Anolis lizards distributed in markedly different thermal environments on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. We find that cold tolerance evolves considerably faster than heat tolerance, a difference that results because behavioural thermoregulation more effectively shields these organisms from selection on upper than lower temperature tolerances. Specifically, because lizards in very different environments behaviourally thermoregulate during the day to similar body temperatures, divergent selection on body temperature and heat tolerance is precluded, whereas night-time temperatures can only be partially buffered by behaviour, thereby exposing organisms to selection on cold tolerance. We discuss how exposure to selection on physiology influences divergence among tropical organisms and its implications for adaptive evolutionary response to climate warming. PMID:24430845

  15. SeaMARC II mapping of transform faults in the Cayman Trough, Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosencrantz, Eric; Mann, Paul

    1992-01-01

    SeaMARC II maps of the southern wall of the Cayman Trough between Honduras and Jamaica show zones of continuous, well-defined fault lineaments adjacent and parallel to the wall, both to the east and west of the Cayman spreading axis. These lineaments mark the present, active traces of transform faults which intersect the southern end of the spreading axis at a triple junction. The Swan Islands transform fault to the west is dominated by two major lineaments that overlap with right-stepping sense across a large push-up ridge beneath the Swan Islands. The fault zone to the east of the axis, named the Walton fault, is more complex, containing multiple fault strands and a large pull-apart structure. The Walton fault links the spreading axis to Jamaican and Hispaniolan strike-slip faults, and it defines the southern boundary of a microplate composed of the eastern Cayman Trough and western Hispaniola. The presence of this microplate raises questions about the veracity of Caribbean plate velocities based primarily on Cayman Trough opening rates.

  16. Malaria acquired in Haiti - 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti, which borders the Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola. The earthquake's epicenter was 10 miles west of the Haiti capital city of Port-au-Prince (estimated population: 2 million). According to the Haitian government, approximately 200,000 persons were killed, and 500,000 were left homeless. Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection is endemic in Haiti, and the principal mosquito vector is Anopheles albimanus, which frequently bites outdoors. Thus, displaced persons living outdoors or in temporary shelters and thousands of emergency responders in Haiti are at substantial risk for malaria. During January 12-February 25, CDC received reports of 11 laboratory-confirmed cases of P. falciparum malaria acquired in Haiti. Patients included seven U.S. residents who were emergency responders, three Haitian residents, and one U.S. traveler. This report summarizes the 11 cases and provides chemoprophylactic and additional preventive recommendations to minimize the risk for acquiring malaria for persons traveling to Haiti. PMID:20203553

  17. A 10,300 14C yr Record of Climate and Vegetation Change from Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuera-Gundy, Antonia; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Leyden, Barbara W.; Binford, Michael W.

    1999-09-01

    Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation dynamics in the American tropics are inferred largely from pollen in continental lake sediments. Maritime influences may have moderated climate and vegetation changes on Caribbean islands. Stable isotope (?18O) study of a 7.6-m core from Lake Miragoane, Haiti, provided a high-resolution record of changing evaporation/precipitation (E/P) since ?10,300 14C yr B.P. The Miragoane pollen record documents climate influences and human impacts on vegetation in Hispaniola. The ?18O and pollen data near the base of the core indicate cool, dry conditions before ?10,000 14C yr B.P. Lake Miragoane filled with water in the early Holocene as E/P declined and the freshwater aquifer rose. Despite increasing early Holocene moisture, shrubby, xeric vegetation persisted. Forest expanded ?7000 14C yr B.P. in response to greater effective moisture and warming. The middle Holocene (?7000-3200 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by high lake levels and greatest relative abundance of pollen from moist forest taxa. Climatic drying that began ?3200 14C yr B.P. may have driven some mesophilic animal species to extinction. The pollen record of the last millennium reflects pre-Columbian (Taino) and European deforestation. Long-term, Holocene vegetation trends in southern Haiti are comparable to trends from continental, lowland circum-Caribbean sites, suggesting a common response to regional climate change.

  18. Effects of experimental egg composition on rejection by Village Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prather, J.W.; Cruz, A.; Weaver, P.F.; Wiley, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    We experimentally parasitized nests of the Village Weaver (Ploceus cucullatus) in Hispaniola using real and artificial eggs made from wood and modeling clay. Artificial eggs were similar in size and shape to real weaver eggs and were coated with acrylic paint and glazed. Real eggs were actual weaver eggs taken from Village Weaver nests. Experimental parasitic eggs (1) mimicked natural weaver eggs, (2) differed in color only, (3) differed in spotting only, or (4) mimicked Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) egg color and spotting pattern. Parasitized nests were checked after 2-6 days. Real eggs were ejected from weaver nests with increasing frequency as they became less similar to the eggs in the nest with cowbirds eggs having the highest rejection (81%). However, for artificial egg types there were no significant within-composition differences in patterns of rejection. Clay eggs were usually ejected from the nests, whereas nests containing wood eggs often ended empty, or with only the artificial egg remaining in the nest. These patterns may reflect the differential ability of weavers to recognize and remove foreign eggs of different compositions from their nests. Researchers undertaking egg-rejection experiments should use real eggs either in addition or in place of artificial eggs to assess the cost of rejection and the coevolutionary relationships between parasite and host.

  19. Earthquake Shakes ``Big Bend'' Region of North America-Caribbean Boundary Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Paul; Calais, Eric; Huerfano, Victor

    2004-02-01

    At 12:45 pm on 22 September, a M6.5 earthquake severely shook the northern Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola. The earthquake caused extensive damage to buildings in the major cities of Puerto Plata and Santiago, along with landslides in outlying areas. The main shock was followed by a large aftershock of M5.1 1 hr and 45 min later. Unfortunately, one person died due to collapse of a building during the main shock, two elderly people died of heart attacks, and one person jumped out of a building and later died of injuries. Fortunately, two partially collapsed school buildings and several office buildings in Puerto Plata that were severely damaged were unoccupied at the time of the early morning main shock. Aftershocks ranging up to nearly M5 continued for over a month, alarming local inhabitants. The M6.5 earthquake is the strongest shock to affect the northern Dominican Republic since a series of thrust events ranging from M6.1-8.1 occurred offshore and northeast of the Dominican Republic between 1943 and 1953 [Dolan and Wald, 1998]. This article summarizes the tectonic setting of the recent earthquake, its focal mechanism and inferred fault plane, damage, and ongoing research.

  20. Brunfelsia (Solanaceae): a genus evenly divided between South America and radiations on Cuba and other Antillean islands.

    PubMed

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-07-01

    Hallucinogenic or toxic species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae: Petunieae) are important in native cultures throughout South America, and the genus also contains several horticulturally important species. An earlier morphological revision of the c. 50 species recognized three main groups, one consisting of the 23 Antillean species, another of southern South American and Andean species, and a third of species from the Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield. Based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 65 accessions representing 80% of the species, we generated a phylogeny and a calibrated chronogram for Brunfelsia to infer clade expansion and shifts in pollinators and fruit types. Brunfelsia flowers offer nectar, and attract lepidoptera, hummingbirds, or bees; the fruits are dry or fleshy. Our results imply that Brunfelsia is 16-21 Myr old and entered the Antilles from South America early during its history, with subsequent expansion along the island arc. The ancestor of the Antillean clade was hawk-moth-pollinated and had fleshy capsules, perhaps facilitating dispersal by birds. The only shift to hummingbird pollination occurred on Cuba, which also harbors the largest single radiation, with 11 species (10 included in our study) that apparently arose over the past 4 Myr. Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico each sustained smaller radiations. The data also reveal at least one new species. PMID:22425729

  1. Rain from Tropical Storm Noel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Though not the most powerful storm of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane season, Tropical Storm Noel was among the most deadly. Only Category 5 Hurricane Felix and its associated flooding had a higher toll. The slow-moving Tropical Storm Noel inundated the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas with heavy rain between October 28 and November 1, 2007. The resulting floods and mudslides left at least 115 dead and thousands homeless throughout the Caribbean, reported the Associated Press on November 2, 2007. This image shows the distribution of the rainfall that made Noel a deadly storm. The image shows rainfall totals as measured by the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from October 26 through November 1, 2007. The analysis is based on measurements taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The heaviest rainfall fell in the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas, northeast of Noel's center. Areas of dark red show that rainfall totals over the south-central Dominican Republic and parts of the Bahamas were over 551 millimeters (21 inches). Much of eastern Hispaniola, including both the Dominican Republic and Haiti received at least 200 mm (about 8 inches) of rain, shown in yellow. Rainfall totals over Haiti and Cuba were less, with a range of at least 50 mm (2 inches) to over 200 mm (8 inches).

  2. Seismic hazard along the southern boundary of the Gônave microplate: block modelling of GPS velocities from Jamaica and nearby islands, northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, B.; DeMets, C.; Tikoff, B.; Williams, P.; Brown, L.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.

    2012-07-01

    We use block modelling of GPS site velocities from Jamaica and nearby islands, including Hispaniola, to test alternative plate boundary geometries for deformation in Jamaica and estimate slip rates along the island's major fault zones. Relative to the Caribbean Plate, GPS sites in northern Jamaica move 6.0 ± 0.5 mm yr-1 to the WSW, constituting a lower bound on the motion of the Gônave microplate across its southern boundary in Jamaica. Obliquely convergent motion of all 30 GPS sites on and near Jamaica relative to the island's ˜E-W-trending strike-slip faults may be partitioned into 2.6 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 of ˜N-S shortening across submarine faults south of Jamaica and 5-6 mm yr-1 of E-W motion. Guided by geological and seismic information about the strikes and locations of faults in Jamaica, inverse block modelling of the regional GPS velocities rejects plate boundary configurations that presume either a narrow plate boundary in Jamaica or deformation concentrated across a restraining bend defined by the topographically high Blue Mountains of eastern Jamaica. The best-fitting models instead place most deformation on faults in central Jamaica. The 4-5 mm yr-1 slip rate we estimate for the Plantain Garden fault and Blue Mountain restraining bend of southeastern Jamaica implies significant seismic hazard for the nearby capital of Kingston.

  3. In the Aftermath of Haiti's Earthquake: A Discussion of Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-02-01

    The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti brought massive devastation to that country (see Figure 1). In this week's issue of Eos, three noted seismologists respond to questions from Eos senior writer Randy Showstack in a news roundtable format. Paul Mann, senior research scientist with the Institute for Geophysics at the University of Texas at Austin, has just returned from Haiti, where he and a colleague worked on a fault rupture survey; they plan to conduct an offshore fault survey soon. Glen Mattioli, professor of geosciences at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, has been part of a team conducting a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Haiti to measure ground deformation following the earthquake and to install a number of continuous GPS sites to examine after slip, viscoelastic relaxation, and the time return to interseismic deformation (see Figure 2). Work by Mann, Mattioli, and their colleagues has been supported through a U.S. National Science Foundation Rapid Response Research (RAPID) proposal grant provided to Purdue University, with Eric Calais serving as principal investigator. Carol Prentice, a seismologist with the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Hazards Team, has been conducting paleoseismic research on the active faults in the Caribbean region since 1991, including projects on Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and Jamaica.

  4. Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 Isolates from a US Gulf Coast Cholera Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Christopher J.; Onifade, Tiffiani J.; Cinar, Hediye N.; Tall, Ben D.; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A.; Abdullah, AbdulShakur H.; Carter, Laurenda; Sahu, Surasri N.; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Chen, Arlene; Baker, Ron; Hutchinson, Richard; Blackmore, Carina; Cebula, Thomas A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2014-01-01

    Between November 2010, and May 2011, eleven cases of cholera, unrelated to a concurrent outbreak on the island of Hispaniola, were recorded, and the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75, was traced to oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. From the 11 diagnosed cases, eight isolates of V. cholerae were isolated and their genomes were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of a suite of mobile elements previously shown to be involved in the disease process of cholera (ctxAB, VPI-1 and -2, and a VSP-II like variant) and a phylogenomic analysis showed the isolates to be sister taxa to toxigenic V. cholerae V51 serogroup O141, a clinical strain isolated 23 years earlier. Toxigenic V. cholerae O75 has been repeatedly isolated from clinical cases in the southeastern United States and toxigenic V. cholerae O141 isolates have been isolated globally from clinical cases over several decades. Comparative genomics, phenotypic analyses, and a Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection for the isolates were conducted. This analysis coupled with isolation data of V. cholerae O75 and O141 suggests these strains may represent an underappreciated clade of cholera-causing strains responsible for significant disease burden globally. PMID:24699521

  5. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolates from a US Gulf Coast cholera outbreak.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Choi, Seon Young; Grim, Christopher J; Onifade, Tiffiani J; Cinar, Hediye N; Tall, Ben D; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A; Abdullah, Abdulshakur H; Carter, Laurenda; Sahu, Surasri N; Kothary, Mahendra H; Chen, Arlene; Baker, Ron; Hutchinson, Richard; Blackmore, Carina; Cebula, Thomas A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2014-01-01

    Between November 2010, and May 2011, eleven cases of cholera, unrelated to a concurrent outbreak on the island of Hispaniola, were recorded, and the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75, was traced to oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. From the 11 diagnosed cases, eight isolates of V. cholerae were isolated and their genomes were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of a suite of mobile elements previously shown to be involved in the disease process of cholera (ctxAB, VPI-1 and -2, and a VSP-II like variant) and a phylogenomic analysis showed the isolates to be sister taxa to toxigenic V. cholerae V51 serogroup O141, a clinical strain isolated 23 years earlier. Toxigenic V. cholerae O75 has been repeatedly isolated from clinical cases in the southeastern United States and toxigenic V. cholerae O141 isolates have been isolated globally from clinical cases over several decades. Comparative genomics, phenotypic analyses, and a Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection for the isolates were conducted. This analysis coupled with isolation data of V. cholerae O75 and O141 suggests these strains may represent an underappreciated clade of cholera-causing strains responsible for significant disease burden globally. PMID:24699521

  6. Annotated list of the flora of the Bisley Area, luquillo experimental forest, Puerto Rico 1987 to 1992. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chinea, J.D.; Beymer, R.J.; Sastre de Jesus, I.; Scatena, F.N.

    1993-08-01

    The plant species of the Bisley area were surveyed for several years, mostly as a result of studies conducted under the Long-Term Ecological Research Program of the National Science Foundation. A list was prepared that contains a total of 336 plant species in 255 genera and 102 families of bryophytes and vascular plants. Within these species there are 107 tree species, 20 shrub species, 28 dicotyledonous vines, 86 herbs, 52 bryophytes, and 43 ferns. There are 22 introduced and 314 native species (of the later, 30 are endemic to Puerto Rico). Nine families account for 39 percent of all species found in the Bisley area. Forests of the Bisley area have been classified as subtropical wet forests, lower montane rain forests, and single-dominant forests. The Bisley watersheds are covered by a secondary forest of the tabonuco type (Dacryodes excelsa). This forest type is part of the Dacryodes-Sloanea association of Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and higher elevation islands of the Lesser Antilles.

  7. Migration of Neogene marine environments, southwestern Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Peter P., Jr.; Gupta, Barun K. Sen

    1991-03-01

    The Azua Basin contains a 4000-m-thick regressive Neogene sedimentary sequence that records the effects of neotectonic activity along the northern boundary of the Caribbean plate.Shifts of benthic foraminiferal depth zone boundaries between stratigraphic sections demonstrate a southeastward migration of paleoenvironments in the Miocene and early Pliocene which suggest that the Hispaniola restraining bend was activated near the beginning of the late Miocene. In the northwestern part of the Azua basin, the boundary between the middle and upper bathyal biofacies is in the uppermost Miocene Globorotalia humerosa Zone; the bathyal-neritic boundary is near the top of the same zone. In contrast, toward the southeastern (i.e., seaward) end of the basin, the middle bathyal/upper bathyal boundary is just above the base of the lower Pliocene Globorotalia margaritae margaritae Subzone, and the bathyal-neritic transition falls within the upper part of the same zone or in the overlying Globorotalia margaritae evoluta Subzone. The diachroneity of biofacies boundaries spans a time interval of ca. 1 m.y. The foraminiferal trends are corroborated by the disposition of time-transgressive lithofacies.

  8. Conservation and management of the American crocodile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushlan, James A.

    1988-11-01

    The American crocodile is a rare and endangered species, the range of which has contracted to disjunct locations such as Hispaniola, Jamaica, Cuba, Panama, and southern Florida. In an attempt to determine what factors might be limiting population growth, an extensive collaborative research program was conducted in 1978 82 in southern Florida. Limiting factors explicitly studied included climate, hurricanes, population dispersion, nesting habitat, fertility, predation, nest chamber environment, juvenile survivorship, artificial mortality, disturbance, and environmental contamination. No single natural factor limits the population, although in concert various factors result in low adult recruitment rates. Such natural limitations explain the natural rarity of this tropical species at the temperate limits of its range. Two artificial sources of mortality are death of adults on roads and the flooding of nests by high groundwater tables. These sources of mortality are potentially controllable by the appropriate management agencies. Active management, by such means as protection of individuals, habitat preservation and enhancement, nest site protection, and captive breeding, is also appropriate for assuring the survival of a rare species. The American crocodile has survived in southern Florida in face of extensive human occupancy of parts of its former nesting habitat, demonstrating the resilience of a threatened species. This case history illustrates the efficacy of conducting research aimed at testing specific management hypotheses, the importance of considering biographical constraints limiting population status in peripheral populations, the need for active management of rare species, and the role of multiple reserves in a conservation and management strategy.

  9. Systematics and distribution of the giant fossil barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae).

    PubMed

    Suárez, William; Olson, Storrs L

    2015-01-01

    After reviewing the systematics and distribution of the extinct West Indian taxa of Tytonidae (Tyto) larger than the living barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli), we reached the following conclusions: (1) the species T. ostologa Wetmore (1922) is the only giant barn owl known so far from Hispaniola; (2) T. pollens Wetmore (1937) was a somewhat larger and even more robust representative of T. ostologa known from the Great Bahama Bank and Cuba; (3) the very rare species T. riveroi Arredondo (1972b) is here synonymized with T. pollens; (4) the smallest taxon of these giant barn owls is T. noeli Arredondo (1972a), which is widespread and abundant in Quaternary deposits of Cuba and is here reported for the first time from two cave deposits in Jamaica; (5) the only large barn owl named so far from the Lesser Antilles is T. neddi Steadman & Hilgartner (1999), which is here synonymized with T. noeli; (6) a new taxon from Cuba, T. cravesae new species, which in size approached the linear dimensions of T. ostologa, is named and described herein. PMID:26624114

  10. The major epidemic infections: a gift from the Old World to the New?

    PubMed

    Sessa, R; Palagiano, C; Scifoni, M G; di Pietro, M; Del Piano, M

    1999-03-01

    With the discovery of the New World, the Europeans flocked to America and with them spread infectious diseases. During long sea voyages the agents of these diseases increased their diffusion capacity in a suitable environment. Lack of hygiene, fatigue and privations, a diet without vitamins and many persons kept in confined spaces were the essential features of this environment. Sick persons, whose health conditions worsened during the journey to the New World, carried the germs of infectious diseases. The first disease to appear in the New World was smallpox described in 1518 in Hispaniola. From there the disease moved rapidly to Mexico in 1520, exterminating most of the Aztecs, Guatemala and to the territories of Incas from 1525-26, killing most of them and the King himself. The second disease, influenza, appeared in La Isabela, a few years later, causing a heavy epidemic between 1558 and 1559. Other diseases followed such as yellow fever and malaria. So Europeans and these invisible and mortal agents caused enormous destruction of American populations. In fact historians have estimated that beginning from early 1500, in only 50 years the population of Peru and Mexico fell from 60 to 10 million; in the latter country, in one century, the populations fell from an initial 10 million to only 2 million. PMID:10230264

  11. Migration of Neogene marine environments, southwestern Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, P.P. Jr. ); Sen Gupta, B.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The Azua Basin contains a 4000-m-thick regressive Neogene sedimentary sequence that records the effects of neotectonic activity along the northern bounary of the Caribbean plate. Shifts of benthic foraminiferal depth zone boundaries between stratigraphic sections demonstrate a southeastward migration of paleoenvironments in the Miocene and early Pliocene which suggest that the Hispaniola restraining bend was activated near the beginning of the late Miocene. In the morthwestern part of the Azua basin, the boundary between the middle and upper bathyal biofacies is in the uppermost Miocene Globorotalia humerosa Zone; the bathyal-neritic boundary is near the top of the same zone. In contrast, toward the southeastern (i.e., seaward) end of the basin, the middle bathyal/upper bathyal boundary is just above the base of the lower Pliocene Globorotalia margaritae margaritae Subzone, and the bathyal-neritic transition falls within the upper part of the same zone or in the overlying Globorotalia margaritae evoluta Subzone. The diachroneity of biofacies boundaries spans a time interval of ca. 1 m.y. The foraminiferal trends are corroborated by the disposition of time-transgressive lithofacies.

  12. Retreat of carbonate platforms: Response to tectonic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, H.T.; Andersen, B.; Gaylord, M.; Petruccione, J.L.; Wellner, R.W. ); Dolan, J. ); Breen, N. ); Melillo, A.J.; Jurgens, A.D. )

    1991-11-01

    A SeaMARC 2 and seismic reflection investigation of the deep-water margins of carbonate banks in the southeast Bahamas has documented the retreat of these isolated platforms since mid-Cretaceous time. This retreat is in sharp contrast to prograding carbonate platforms in the passive northwest Bahamas and provides an initial framework within which to view the response of carbonate platforms to tectonic processes. Processes of retreat include large-scale (50-60 km) step-back to platform margins during the mid-Cretaceous; tectonic subsidence and downfaulting during the late Tertiary; and large-scale collapse of platform margins, which may be an active process. Step-back during the mid-Cretaceous correlates with a global tectonic pulse of ocean-crust formation and relative sea-level rise; downfaulting may be a response to either late Tertiary lithospheric bending during subduction and/or block rotation along the North American-Caribbean plate boundary; and collapse may be related to earthquake shocks generated by active plate-tectonic collision between the southwest Bahamas and Hispaniola.

  13. [Management policy and utilization of botanical resources in the Dominican Republic].

    PubMed

    Garcia, R; Roersch, C

    1996-04-01

    The Dominican Republic has an extension of 48 442 km2. It occupies the eastern portion of the island of Hispaniola and is the second in size within the Greater Antilles. The floral resources of the Island have been extensively exploited without an adequate management policy. This has led to the destruction of about 90% of the forested lands of the country. The Dominican Republic has about 5600 species of vascular plants, of which 36% are endemic, many of which are in danger of extinction, due to overexploitation and/or destruction of the habitats. In order to protect the biodiversity of the Dominican Republic, 22 nature preserves were created, representing about 13.3% of the national territory. The primary institutions charged with the management and protection of the flora are the General Directorate of Forests, National Directorate of Parks, the National Botanical Garden, and the Department of Wild Life under the State Secretary of Agriculture (SEA). Numerous laws, resolutions and decrees have been promulgated, governing forest resources. As to the wildlife, emphasis is given to the protection of the fauna. At present, there is a technical body, which is structuring a Forest Code. Export of products of the wild flora is regulated by the Wildlife Department under the State Secretary of Agriculture (SEA). This Department also administers regulations for CITES. The Department of Plant Sanitation of the SEA and the Dominican Centre of Export Promotion (CEDOPEX) are also involved in the control of the export of biological materials. PMID:9213610

  14. Plate interaction in the NE Caribbean subduction zone from continuous GPS observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Lopez-Vegas, Alberto M.

    2012-01-01

    Kinematic similarities between the Sumatra and Puerto Rico Trenches highlight the potential for a mega-earthquake along the Puerto Rico Trench and the generation of local and trans-Atlantic tsunamis. We used the horizontal components of continuous GPS (cGPS) measurements from 10 sites on NE Caribbean islands to evaluate strain accumulation along the North American (NA) - Caribbean (CA) plate boundary. These sites move westward and slightly northward relative to CA interior at rates ≤2.5 mm/y. Provided this motion originates in the subduction interface, the northward motion suggests little or no trench-perpendicular thrust accumulation and may in fact indicate divergence north of Puerto Rico, where abnormal subsidence, bathymetry, and gravity are observed. The Puerto Rico Trench, thus, appears unable to generate mega-earthquakes, but damaging smaller earthquakes cannot be discounted. The westward motion, characterized by decreasing rate with distance from the trench, is probably due to eastward motion of CA plate impeded at the plate boundary by the Bahamas platform. Two additional cGPS sites in Mona Passage and SW Puerto Rico move to the SW similar to Hispaniola and unlike the other 10 sites. That motion relative to the rest of Puerto Rico may have given rise to seismicity and normal faults in Mona Rift, Mona Passage, and SW Puerto Rico.

  15. Vector-borne diseases in Haiti: a review.

    PubMed

    Ben-Chetrit, Eli; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Haiti lies on the western third of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean, and is one of the poorest nations in the Western hemisphere. Haiti attracts a lot of medical attention and support due to severe natural disasters followed by disastrous health consequences. Vector-borne infections are still prevalent there with some unique aspects comparing it to Latin American countries and other Caribbean islands. Although vector-borne viral diseases such as dengue and recently chikungunya can be found in many of the Caribbean islands, including Haiti, there is an apparent distinction of the vector-borne parasitic diseases. Contrary to neighboring Carribbean islands, Haiti is highly endemic for malaria, lymphatic filariasis and mansonellosis. Affected by repeat natural disasters, poverty and lack of adequate infrastructure, control of transmission within Haiti and prevention of dissemination of vector-borne pathogens to other regions is challenging. In this review we summarize some aspects concerning diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens in Haiti. PMID:25765486

  16. Tectonic events recorded in the sediments and crust of the Caribbean sea floor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A reconnaissance review of reflection-seismic sections from the Caribbean, together with limited information derived from dredged rocks, sediment cores, and drillholes, yields or contributes to first-order conclusions regarding the tectonic history of the water-covered Caribbean. Broadly speaking, tectonic episodes for which there is some evidence are: (1) late Cenozoic convergence and accretion along deformed continental or island margins off Panama, Colombia/Venezuela, and Hispaniola/Puerto Rico; (2) late Cenozoic generation of oceanic crust within the Cayman Trough; (3) late Cenozoic secondary deformation along the Caribbean-North American plate boundary zone, in the form of small pull-apart basins, transcurrent faults, tensional rift basins, and compressional features; (4) late Cenozoic slow disintegration of the western part of the Caribbean plate; (5) Cenozoic rift-basin formation on the upper Nicaraguan rise; (6) early Cenozoic or late Cretaceous opening of the Yucatan Basin; (7) late Cretaceous through early Cenozoic island arc formation; and (8) late Cretaceous and earlier emplacement of flow basalts in the northwestern Venezuelan Basin and possibly beneath large areas of the Caribbean. There is no evidence that except along their active margins, the Venezuelan Basin, Beata Ridge, Colombian Basin, and Nicaraguan rise areas have been sites for large-scale relative movements which created or destroyed plate material since late Cretaceous time - or earlier.

  17. Colonization of islands in the Mona Passage by endemic dwarf geckoes (genus Sphaerodactylus) reconstructed with mitochondrial phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Lameiro, Alondra M; Oleksyk, Taras K; Bird-Picó, Fernando J; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the natural history of the Sphaerodactylus species endemic to the three islands located in the Mona Passage separating the Greater Antillean islands of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. In this study, parts of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA, were sequenced to determine the relationships between the sphaerodactylids that live in the Mona Passage and other Caribbean species from the same genus. While the main goal was to identify the biogeographical origin of these species, we also identified a genetically distinct type of dwarf gecko that warrants future evaluation as a possible new species. According to the reconstructed phylogenies, we propose a stepwise model of colonization wherein S. nicholsi from southwestern Puerto Rico or a very close ancestor gave rise through a founder event to Sphaerodactylus monensis on Mona Island. In a similar fashion, S. monensis or a very close ancestor on Mona Island gave rise to S. levinsi on Desecheo Island. This study also suggests that the most recent common ancestor between the species from the islands in the Mona Passage and Puerto Rico existed approximately 3 MYA. PMID:24340189

  18. A Pilot Study to Examine the Disparities in Water Quality between Predominantly Haitian Neighborhoods and Dominican Neighborhoods in Two Cities in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Rogers-Brown, Jessica; Johnson, Ryan; Smith, Dominique; Ramsey-White, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death affecting over 1.7 million individuals annually. Much of this can be attributed to lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly all of these deaths occur in countries with developing economies. This public health problem is apparent in the island of Hispaniola; the island that is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Significant gaps in income between the countries have resulted in Haitians migrating into the Dominican Republic. While there has been increased migration into the Dominican Republic, many of the neighborhoods remain segregated. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at 49 sites in the Dominican Republic. Samples were classified as being from a Haitian neighborhood or Dominican neighborhood and analyzed for microbial contamination. Overall, Haitian neighborhoods were found to have statistically significantly higher levels of contamination of both coliform and E. coli. The odds of having E. coli contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.25 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. The odds of having coliform contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.78 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. This study provides evidence of the disparity in access to clean drinking water for Haitian immigrants and highlights the need for further investigation. PMID:26703674

  19. Seismic zonation of Port-Au-Prince using pixel- and object-based imaging analysis methods on ASTER GDEM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yong, Alan; Hough, Susan E.; Cox, Brady R.; Rathje, Ellen M.; Bachhuber, Jeff; Dulberg, Ranon; Hulslander, David; Christiansen, Lisa; and Abrams, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, VS30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available VS30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data.

  20. Seismic-zonation of Port-au-Prince using pixel- and object-based imaging analysis methods on ASTER GDEM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yong, A.; Hough, S.E.; Cox, B.R.; Rathje, E.M.; Bachhuber, J.; Dulberg, R.; Hulslander, D.; Christiansen, L.; Abrams, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, Vs30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available Vs30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data. ?? 2011 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  1. Analysis of the morphology and deformation of the collision zone between the Muertos thrust belt and the aseismic Beata Ridge in the NE Caribbean plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja Bruña, J.; Carbo-Gorosabel, A.; Llanes Estrada, M.; Munoz Martin, A.; Druet, M.; Gómez, M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Vitolla, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Beata Ridge is an aseismic bathymetric high located in the center of the Caribbean plate whose evolution is not yet well understood. The present collision between the Beata Ridge and the island arc at the Hispaniola island region may be driven by a small N-S component of compression. The basin-and-range physiography of southern Hispaniola, the turn and termination of the Muertos thrust belt and the surprisingly sharp termination of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault Zone seem to be related with this collision process. Swath bathymetry data and reflection seismic profiles acquired during the 2009 CARIBENORTE cruise aboard the Spanish R/V Hesperides, together with reprocessed multichannel seismic profiles provide the basis of the analysis of the morphology and deformation of the western end of the Muertos thrust belt and the northern aseismic Beata Ridge. The 650 km-long Muertos thrust belt turns progressively from E-W to N and then becomes narrower and disappears in the collision zone with the NNE-SSW trending Beata Ridge. The collision is evidenced because the active Muertos thrust belt has a southward transport direction and the NNE-SSW trending Beata Ridge acts as a basement high in the foreland area. The deep and elongated Muertos Trough located at the toe of the thrust belt, becomes narrower and progressively shallower and then sharply disappears at 70.9W and 18.1N. Both the thrust belt and the trough are replaced westward by a steep insular slope characterized by a dense network of submarine canyons draining to the south and east from the Bahoruco peninsula and the Ocoa and Azua Bays. The northern Beata Ridge shows a strongly asymmetrical cross-shape, with a main steep fault-scarp showing a maximum bathymetrical step of 4300 m-high in the western side and a gentler eastern slope formed by an alternation of terraces, interior basins and subsidiary ridges. Generally subsidiary ridges are N-S trending and then sub-parallel to the NNE-SSW trending main structure of the Beata Ridge. The most western subsidiary ridge shows a surprising arcuate shape suggesting that it is possibly involved in the collision with the Muertos fold-and-thrust belt. However, data suggest that this ridge is a volcanic construction that had a later tectonic control but does not show any evidence of collision with the Muertos compressive belt. Except for some minor faulting in the flanks, we have observed evidence of active tectonics only in a fault zone located at the crest of the Beata Ridge. This fault zone follows the orientation of the Beata Ridge NNE-SSW and is parallel to the western scarp. The fault zone is composed of several straight scarp faults with low continuity which are arranged en echelon. The canyons are not offset laterally where fault traces intersect the canyon network, arguing against a recent strike-slip motion. The surface expression of this fault zone suggests an extensional regime oriented transversal to the Beata Ridge.

  2. Substance Abuse and HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean: Current Challenges and the Ongoing Response.

    PubMed

    Angulo-Arreola, Iliana Alexandra; Bastos, Francisco I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-08-18

    The Caribbean and Central America represent a formidable challenge for researchers and policy makers in the HIV field, due to their pronounced heterogeneity in terms of social, economic, and cultural contexts and the different courses the HIV epidemic has followed in the region. Such contrasting contexts and epidemics can be exemplified by 2 countries that share the island of Hispaniola, the French Creole-speaking Haiti, and the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic. Haiti has experienced the worst epidemics outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Following a protracted economic and social crisis, recently aggravated by a devastating earthquake, the local HIV epidemic could experience resurgence. The region, strategically located on the way between coca-producing countries and the profitable North American markets, has been a transshipment area for years. Notwithstanding, the impact of such routes on local drug scenes has been very heterogeneous and dynamic, depending on a combination of local mores, drug enforcement activities, and the broad social and political context. Injecting drug use remains rare in the region, but local drug scenes are dynamic under the influence of increasing mobility of people and goods to and from North and South America, growing tourism and commerce, and prostitution. The multiple impacts of the recent economic and social crisis, as well as the influence of drug-trafficking routes across the Caribbean and other Latin American countries require a sustained effort to track changes in the HIV risk environment to inform sound drug policies and initiatives to minimize drug-related harms in the region. PMID:21852689

  3. Near Real-time Operational Use of eMODIS Expedited NDVI for Monitoring Applications and Famine Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has requirements for near real-time monitoring of vegetation conditions for food security applications. Accurate and timely assessments of crop conditions are an important element of food security decision making. FEWS NET scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center are utilizing a new Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset for operational monitoring of crop and pasture conditions in parts of the world where food availability is highly dependent on subsistence agriculture and animal husbandry. The expedited MODIS, or eMODIS, production system processes NDVI data using MODIS surface reflectance provided by the Land Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE). Benefits of this production system include customized compositing schedules, near real-time data availability, and minimized re-sampling. FEWS NET has implemented a 10-day compositing scheme every five days to accommodate the need for timely information on vegetation conditions. The data are currently being processed at 250-meter spatial resolution for Central America, Hispaniola, and Africa. Data are further enhanced by the application of a temporal smoothing filter which helps remove contamination due to clouds and other atmospheric effects. The results of this near real-time monitoring capability have been the timely provision of NDVI and NDVI anomaly maps for each of the FEWS NET monitoring regions and the availability of a consistently processed dataset to aid crop assessment missions and to facilitate customized analyses of crop production, drought, and agro-pastoral conditions.

  4. Reconstructing the Population Genetic History of the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L.; Byrnes, Jake K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A.; Martínez, Ricardo J.; Hedges, Dale J.; Morris, Richard W.; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J.; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Martin, Eden R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse—which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts—consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse—reflected by longer, younger tracts—is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub-continental source populations with far greater resolution than previously thought, even when limited pre-Columbian Caribbean haplotypes have survived. PMID:24244192

  5. Mélanges and olistostromes in the Puerto Plata area (northern Dominican Republic) as a record of subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North-American plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernaiz Huerta, P. P.; Pérez-Valera, F.; Abad, M.; Monthel, J.; Diaz de Neira, A.

    2012-09-01

    The Cordillera Septentrional records the oblique subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North American plates during Late Cretaceous to early Palaeogene times. The Puerto Plata basement complex of this range is considered to represent a fragment of the frontal part of the Great Arc of the Caribbean in Hispaniola that originated during thrusting of the Caribbean plate onto the North American shelf. This paper describes and interprets mélange-type formations spatially related to this basement complex and its associated sedimentary cover, the Imbert Fm. Such formations include the San Marcos olistostromic Fm and a unit of Serpentinic Breccias located at the base and interbedded in the lower section of the former. Both units are Eocene in age, have been mainly deposited by syntectonic subaqueous mass-transport processes and typically host a varied mixture of blocks of known and unknown origin, including high-P metamorphic rocks (knockers). Cartoon models of palaeotectonic reconstructions depicting the final stages of subduction and the onset of collisional process in Early and Middle Eocene times respectively, are proposed in order to show the original relationships among all geological units involved in the study area. The Serpentinic Breccias are interpreted as being the result of extensive sedimentary recycling of peridotite and serpentinite massive bodies or subduction related mélanges when exposed at the surface by return flow during early exhumation stages of the accretionary complex, coevally with the end of island-arc volcanism. This process is inferred to be the triggering mechanism for the feeding of originally deep-sited knockers, probably in combination with strike-slip tectonics and associated mud diapirism The slightly younger San Marcos Fm records the collision event and main exhumation stage, while displaying the typical features present in olistostromes and other mass-wasting, gravitationally-driven deposits recognized in extensive areas of forearc and accretionary complexes involved in arc-continent collisional processes.

  6. Late-Holocene paleoenvironmental change at mid-elevation on the Caribbean slope of the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic: a multi-site, multi-proxy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Chad S.; Horn, Sally P.; Mora, Claudia I.; Orvis, Kenneth H.

    2009-11-01

    High-resolution proxy records from the circum-Caribbean region indicate significant variation in Late Holocene climate, especially precipitation, attributed primarily to shifts in the mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The paleoenvironmental and cultural impacts of this Late-Holocene climate variability have been analyzed intensively in the western Caribbean, and to a lesser extent in the southern Caribbean. However, the occurrence and impacts of Late Holocene climate shifts in the eastern Caribbean, especially in island interiors, has not been well documented. Here we present sediment records of Late-Holocene paleoenvironmental change from two lakes located on the Caribbean slope of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic that span the last ?3000 years. Sediment characteristics, pollen, charcoal, biogenic carbonate assemblages and isotopic composition, and bulk sedimentary carbon isotope values in Laguna Castilla and Laguna de Salvador indicate extreme shifts in hydrology, vegetation, and disturbance regimes in response to climate change and human activity in the lake watersheds. Close correspondence between the hydrological histories of the lakes and trace metal concentrations in sediments of the Cariaco Basin indicate that precipitation variability here responds to the same controls, and may similarly reflect shifts in the mean annual position of the ITCZ. Human occupation of the watersheds appears to be closely linked to severe dry periods and may indicate larger scale cultural responses to precipitation variability on the island of Hispaniola. Prehistoric human populations strongly affected vegetation and disturbance regimes in the lake watersheds. Impacts may have lasted several centuries and may have been more severe than impacts of modern populations.

  7. Faith based aviation: An ethnographic study of missionary flights international

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Joseph H.

    The development of faith-based missionary aviation is a post-World War II phenomenon. The war effort demonstrated the value, utility, and global reach of aviation to remote, underdeveloped areas of the world. With the beginnings of a worldwide infrastructure for aviation, Christian aviators realized aviation could increase the range and effectiveness of their efforts to reach the world for Christ (Mellis, 2006). Although individual organizations provide statistical information and data about flight operations there is a lack of external evidence and relevant research literature confirming the scope and value of these faith based aviation organizations and operations. A qualitative, ethnographic study was conducted to document the activities of one faith-based aviation organization to gain an understanding of this little known aspect of civilian aviation. The study was conducted with Missionary Flights International (MFI) of Fort Pierce, FL which has been involved in faith-based, missionary aviation since its inception in 1964. As an aviation organization "MFI strives to offer affiliated missions the kind of efficient service and professionalism expected of an airline operation" (Missionary Flights International, 2013, p.1). MFI is a lifeline for missionaries to Haiti and the Dominican Republic, fulfilling their motto of "Standing in the Gap". MFI provides twice a week service to the island of Hispaniola and the Republic of Haiti. In this in-depth study insight and understanding was gained into the purpose of MFI, their daily routines and operations, and the challenges they face in maintaining their flight services to Haiti. This study provided documentation of the value and utility of such aviation efforts and of the individuals involved in this endeavor.

  8. Jurassic hydrocarbon exploration of southern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.J.

    1994-09-01

    South Florida Jurassic exploration has been overlooked as a viable exploration target due to lack of data and plate-tectonics application. In Florida, {open_quotes}basement{close_quotes} is defined as crystalline, igneous, metamorphic, and unmetamorphosed sediments of Paleozoic age. Age-dating of zircons has proven that the Florida lower Paleozoic terrane is not akin to that of North America but is part of the West African Guinean shield. Previous published reconstructions of late Paleozoic fits of crustal plates and continents have failed to account for the differences in peninsula Florida basement and the geologic and tectonic continuities of peninsula Florida, Yucatan, Cuba, Hispaniola, and Bahamas. Pre-Atlantic reconstruction of the Gulf of Mexico in this study proposes that there was a Florida connection to Yucatan-Cuba-Africa during the Triassic. This reconstruction also shows that the Jurassic sediments that are well known in the northern Gulf Coast should have been deposited in similar depositional environments in southern Florida. Deep drilling on the Florida peninsula has confirmed this hypothesis. By using plate tectonic reconstruction based on the rising of the North Atlantic Ocean and evidence from petrology of basement samples from deep wells together with petrographic analyses of Jurassic sediments, a Smackover-equivalent exploration play can be developed. Petrographic and petrophysical analysis of these wells that have encountered Jurassic marine shales, anhydrite, dolomite, carbonate, and elastic sediments has determined that these sediments are from shallow-water subtidal, tidal, intertidal, and supratidal environments. Excellent gas shows, oil stain in the pores and high TOC values in the marine shales, indicate that large accumulations of hydrocarbon are present.

  9. Puerto Rico trench: site of a shallow-water Tertiary basin and regional tectonic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, E.A.; Meyerhoff, A.A.; Taner, I.

    1985-02-01

    Until late Eocene time, the Bahamas platform extended to the present Virgin Islands, as demonstrated by magnetic, gravity, and refraction data. This interpretation is confirmed by the presence of widespread outcrops of middle Cretaceous through early Pliocene shallow-water bank carbonates below 5200 m depth in the trench. Crustal thickness beneath this bank is 18-25 km. Igneous and metamorphic rocks from the base of the trench's southern slope are chemically very different from subduction-zone rocks. Waters of the carbonate bank (300 x 100 km in size) transgressed southward after early Eocene time. During late Eocene time, the bank's southern margin was near today's shoreline where down-to-the-north growth faults formed. Along the bank's northern margin, block faulting produced a graben above the site of the modern Puerto Rico Trench. During middle Eocene to early Pliocene time, shallow-water deposition extended from a position presently 5200 m deep in the trench to central Puerto Rico, an exceptionally stable block at least 100 km wide. During middle Eocene time, the Beata Ridge dextral shear cut the trench off north of Hispaniola. In early Pliocene time, the Mona Canyon dextral fault zone cut across the trench, and strong northward tilting commenced. The trench's present southern slope is mainly a dip slope, inclined about 5/sup 0/. The Puerto Rico Outer Ridge formed by lateral and upward movements of mantle materials that withdrew from beneath the sinking trench. Petroleum prospects presently are limited to the Tertiary (4000 m thick) and to a coastal zone 20-25 km wide (to 2000 m water depth). Traps are mainly fault seals and stratigraphic pinch-outs.

  10. Reconstructing the population genetic history of the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L; Byrnes, Jake K; Gignoux, Christopher R; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A; Martínez, Ricardo J; Hedges, Dale J; Morris, Richard W; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L; Martin, Eden R; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2013-11-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse--which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts--consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse--reflected by longer, younger tracts--is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub-continental source populations with far greater resolution than previously thought, even when limited pre-Columbian Caribbean haplotypes have survived. PMID:24244192

  11. From transtension to transpression along the northern Caribbean plate boundary off Cuba: implications for the Recent motion of the Caribbean plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calais, Eric; de Lepinay, Bernard Mercier

    1991-02-01

    Marine geophysical surveys using Seabeam, single-channel seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic measurements have been conducted along a segment of the northern Caribbean transcurrent plate boundary (SEACARIB II cruise). The data allow a better definition of the geometry and the tectonic regime of this major strike-slip area. They support the following results: (1) Along the southern Cuban margin, the Oriente fault displays a discontinuous trace, mainly composed of dextral offset, "en echelon" segments. Some pull-apart basins are located between fault segments (Cabo Cruz basin, Chivirico and Baitiquiri basins). In the Windward Passage area, the plate boundary enters into the Tortue Channel and is not connected with the subduction front off northern Hispaniola. (2) The eastern part of the Oriente Deep and the Santiago Promontory are characterised by active compressional tectonics. They form the Santiago Deformed Belt, described here for the first time. This deformed belt can be divided longitudinally into three main segments, each one characterised by a particular tectonic style. Its development is related to a transpressional mechanism along the left-lateral Oriente strike-slip fault. Our observations suggest that a tectonic and kinematic reorganisation occurred recently in this area, probably in the Late Pliocene, which may be compared with the recent geological events recorded on land in the northern Caribbean domain. The precise knowledge of both geometry and structures along the Oriente strike-slip fault south of Cuba provides new constraints for the recent kinematic evolution along the northern Caribbean transcurrent plate boundary: it leads us to infer the existence of a convergence component associated with the slip component along the Oriente transform fault.

  12. A new species of plasmodiidae (Coccidia: Hemosporidia) from the blood of the skink Scincus hemprichii (Scincidae: Reptilia) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Amoudi, Mikky A; Alyousif, Mohamed S; Saifi, Muheet A; Alanazi, Abdullah D

    2015-05-01

    Fallisia arabica n. sp. was described from peripheral blood smears of the Skink lizard, Scincus hemprichii from Jazan Province in the southwest of Saudi Arabia. Schizogony and gametogony take place within neutrophils in the peripheral blood of the host. Mature schizont is rosette shaped 17.5 ± 4.1 × 17.0 ± 3.9 ?m, with a L/W ratio of 1.03(1.02-1.05) ?m and produces 24(18-26) merozoites. Young gametocytes are ellipsoidal, 5.5 ± 0.8 × 3.6 ± 0.5 ?m, with a L/W of 1.53(1.44-1.61) ?m. Mature macrogametocytes are ellipsoidal, 9.7 ± 1.2 × 7.8 ± 1.0 ?m, with a L/W of 1.24(1.21-1.34) ?m and microgametocytes are ellipsoidal, 7.0 ± 1.1 × 6.8 ± 0.9 ?m. with a L/W of 1.03(1.01-1.10) ?m. In comparison to the described Fallisia species, this new taxon has rosette schizonts and is larger than F. dominicensis, in Hispaniola, F. bipocrati, F. poecilopi, in Panama, F. thecadactyli in Venezuela, and F. effusa, F. simplex, F. modesta, in Brazil. F. arabica has fewer merozoites than F. effusa, F. poecilopi, F. thecadactyli and F. siamense in Thailand. This new species has more merozoites than F. dominicensis and F. modesta. All of these species belong to diverse saurian families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae and Teiidae) parasitize only thrombocytes or lymphocytes and some species parasitize immature erythroid cells and leucocytes. PMID:25972752

  13. A new species of plasmodiidae (Coccidia: Hemosporidia) from the blood of the skink Scincus hemprichii (Scincidae: Reptilia) in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Amoudi, Mikky A.; Alyousif, Mohamed S.; Saifi, Muheet A.; Alanazi, Abdullah D.

    2014-01-01

    Fallisia arabica n. sp. was described from peripheral blood smears of the Skink lizard, Scincus hemprichii from Jazan Province in the southwest of Saudi Arabia. Schizogony and gametogony take place within neutrophils in the peripheral blood of the host. Mature schizont is rosette shaped 17.5 ± 4.1 × 17.0 ± 3.9 ?m, with a L/W ratio of 1.03(1.02–1.05) ?m and produces 24(18–26) merozoites. Young gametocytes are ellipsoidal, 5.5 ± 0.8 × 3.6 ± 0.5 ?m, with a L/W of 1.53(1.44–1.61) ?m. Mature macrogametocytes are ellipsoidal, 9.7 ± 1.2 × 7.8 ± 1.0 ?m, with a L/W of 1.24(1.21–1.34) ?m and microgametocytes are ellipsoidal, 7.0 ± 1.1 × 6.8 ± 0.9 ?m. with a L/W of 1.03(1.01–1.10) ?m. In comparison to the described Fallisia species, this new taxon has rosette schizonts and is larger than F. dominicensis, in Hispaniola, F. bipocrati, F. poecilopi, in Panama, F. thecadactyli in Venezuela, and F. effusa, F. simplex, F. modesta, in Brazil. F. arabica has fewer merozoites than F. effusa, F. poecilopi, F. thecadactyli and F. siamense in Thailand. This new species has more merozoites than F. dominicensis and F. modesta. All of these species belong to diverse saurian families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae and Teiidae) parasitize only thrombocytes or lymphocytes and some species parasitize immature erythroid cells and leucocytes. PMID:25972752

  14. New Seafloor Map of the Puerto Rico Trench Helps Assess Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brink, Uri; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian; Llanes, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

    2004-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure 1). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico, although their ages are unknown. The Puerto Rico Trench is atypical of oceanic trenches. Subduction is highly oblique (10°-20°) to the trench axis with a large component of left-lateral strike-slip motion. Similar convergence geometry is observed at the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, the deepest point on Earth. In addition to its extremely deep seafloor, the Puerto Rico Trench is also characterized by the most negative free-air gravity anomaly on Earth, -380 mGal, located 50 km south of the trench, where water depth is 7950 m (Figure 2). A tilted carbonate platform provides evidence for extreme vertical tectonism in the region. This platform was horizontally deposited over Cretaceous to Paleocene arc rocks starting in the Late Oligocene. Then, at 3.5 Ma, the carbonate platform was tilted by 4° toward the trench over a time period of less than 40 kyr, such that its northern edge is at a depth of 4000 m and its reconstructed elevation on land in Puerto Rico is at +1300 m (Figures 1 and 2).

  15. The October 11, 1918 Mona Passage tsunami modeled using new submarine landslide evidence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A. M.; ten Brink, U.; Geist, E.

    2007-12-01

    The October 11, 1918 ML 7.5 earthquake in the Mona Passage betweeen Hispaniola and Puerto Rico generated a local tsunami that claimed approximately 100 lives along the western coast of Puerto Rico. The area affected by this tsunami is now many-fold more populated. Although the exact cause of the tsunami is still unclear, newly-acquired high-resolution bathymetry of the Mona Passage and seismic reflection lines show a fresh submarine landslide 12 km northwest of Rincón in northwestern Puerto Rico and in the vicinity of the earthquake epicenter determined by Doser et al., (2005). The landslide area is approximately 76 km2 and probably displaced a total volume of 10 km3. The landslide's head scarp is at a water depth of 1.2 km, with the debris flow extending down to a water depth of 4.5 km. The seismic profiles and multibeam bathymetry indicate that the previously suggested source of the 1918 tsunami, a normal fault along the east side of Mona Rift (Mercado and McCann, 1998), was not active recently. The fault escarpment along Desecheo Ridge, which is near the Doser et al., (2005) epicenter, and our landslide appear, on the other hand, to be rather fresh. Using the extended, weakly non-linear hydrodynamic equations implemented in the program COULWAVE (Lynett and Liu, 2002), we modeled the tsunami by a landslide with a finite duration and with the observed dimensions and location. Marigrams (time series of sea level) were calculated at locations near to reported locations of runup. The marigrams show a leading depression wave followed by a maximum positive amplitude in good agreement with the reported polarity, relative amplitudes, and arrival times. Our results suggest this newly-identified landslide, which was likely triggered by the 1918 earthquake, was the probable cause of the October 11, 1918 tsunami and not a normal fault rupture as previously suggested.

  16. Vertical Deformation of Late Quaternary Features Across Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, M.; McHugh, C. M.; Gulick, S. P.; Braudy, N.; Davis, M. B.; Diebold, J. B.; Dieudonne, N.; Douilly, R.; Hornbach, M. J.; Johnson, H. E.; Mishkin, K.; Seeber, L.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Symithe, S. J.; Templeton, J.

    2010-12-01

    As part of a project that investigated the underwater impacts of the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti, we surveyed offshore structures that may have been activated during that earthquake or that might become activated in future earthquakes. Part of that survey focused on the shallow shelf area that extends north of the segment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault that just ruptured. This area is occupied by an elongated depression, 25 km long, 10 km wide, and 140 m deep. The NW-SE axis of that shallow basin is sub-parallel to that of the NW-SE anticlines that bounds Port-au-Prince Bay. The shallow basin is also rimmed by a carbonate platform that is 5-10 km-wide and ~30m deep. New multibeam bathymetric and sidescan sonar data collected across that platform highlight a series of circular dissolution structures 1-2 km across and ~80 m deep. We interpret that morphology to indicate antecedent karst topography that developed during previous glacial maxima. According to that scenario, the shallow basin off Port-au-Prince would have been isolated from the Caribbean Sea by the continuous platform, and would probably have been occupied by a lagoon. Indeed, a few high-resolution chirp profiles image what may be a paleoshoreline at about 80m depth, buried beneath a 5-8 m thick, acoustically transparent, presumably Holocene layer. Preliminary analysis indicates that the basin floor and the base of the presumably Holocene layer are perfectly horizontal in the center of the basin, but tilted down to the south at its northern edge. The presumed paleoshoreline is also shallower to the north of the basin. We propose that this tilt is driven by contraction across the NW-SE fold-and-thrust belt that runs across Hispaniola. This hypothesis remains to be tested with a more thorough geophysical and coring survey in Port-au-Prince Bay.

  17. Hurricane Georges' Landfall in the Dominican Republic: Detailed Airborne Doppler Radar Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geerts, B.; Heymsfield, G. M.; Tian, L.; Halverson, J. B.; Guillory, A.; Mejia, M. I.

    1999-01-01

    Current understanding of landfalling tropical cyclones is limited, especially with regard to convective scale processes. On 22 September 1998 Hurricane Georges made landfall on the island of Hispaniola, leaving behind a trail of death and devastation, largely the result of excessive rainfall, not sea level surge or wind. Detailed airborne measurements were taken as part of the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). Of Particular interest are the ER-2 nadir X-band Doppler radar (EDOP) data, which provide a first-time high-resolution view of the precipitation and airflow changes as a hurricane interacts with mountainous terrain. The circulation of hurricane Georges underwent an obvious transition during landfall, evident in the rapid increase in minimum sea-level pressure, the subsidence of the eyewall anvil, and a decrease in average ice concentrations in the eyewall. The eye, as seen in satellite imagery, disappeared, but contrary to current understanding, this was not due to eyewall contraction but rather to convective eruption within the eye. The main convective event within the eye, with upper-level updraft magnitudes near 20 m/s and 89 GHz brightness temperatures below 100 K, occurred when the eye moved over the Cordillera Central, the island's main mountain chain. The location, intensity and evolution of this convection indicate that it was coupled to the surface orography. It is likely that surface rain rates increased during landfall, because of effective droplet collection, both in the convection and in the more widespread stratiform rainfall areas over the island. Evidence for this is the increase in radar reflectivity below the bright band of 1-2 dB/km down to ground-level. Such increase was absent offshore. Such low-level rain enhancement, which cannot be detected in satellite images of upwelling infrared or microwave radiation, must be due to the ascent of boundary-layer air over the topography.

  18. Late Holocene liquefaction features in the Dominican Republic: A powerful tool for earthquake hazard assessment in the northeastern Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.P.; Prentice, C.S.; Dyer-Williams, K.; Pena, L.R.; Burr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Several generations of sand blows and sand dikes, indicative of significant and recurrent liquefaction, are preserved in the late Holocene alluvial deposits of the Cibao Valley in northern Dominican Republic. The Cibao Valley is structurally controlled by the Septentrional fault, an onshore section of the North American-Caribbean strike-slip plate boundary. The Septentrional fault was previously studied in the central part of the valley, where it sinistrally offsets Holocene terrace risers and soil horizons. In the eastern and western parts of the valley, the Septentrional fault is buried by Holocene alluvial deposits, making direct study of the structure difficult. Liquefaction features that formed in these Holocene deposits as a result of strong ground shaking provide a record of earthquakes in these areas. Liquefaction features in the eastern Cibao Valley indicate that at least one historic earthquake, probably the moment magnitude, M 8, 4 August 1946 event, and two to four prehistoric earthquakes of M 7 to 8 struck this area during the past 1100 yr. The prehistoric earthquakes appear to cluster in time and could have resulted from rupture of the central and eastern sections of the Septentrional fault circa A.D. 1200. Liquefaction features in the western Cibao Valley indicate that one historic earthquake, probably the M 8, 7 May 1842 event, and two prehistoric earthquakes of M 7-8 struck this area during the past 1600 yr. Our findings suggest that rupture of the Septentrional fault circa A.D. 1200 may have extended beyond the central Cibao Valley and generated an earthquake of M 8. Additional information regarding the age and size distribution of liquefaction features is needed to reconstruct the prehistoric earthquake history of Hispaniola and to define the long-term behavior and earthquake potential of faults associated with the North American-Caribbean plate boundary.

  19. Slip rate and earthquake recurrence along the central Septentrional fault, North American-Caribbean plate boundary, Dominican Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Mann, P.; Pena, L.R.; Burr, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Septentrional fault zone (SFZ) is the major North American-Caribbean, strike-slip, plate boundary fault at the longitude of eastern Hispaniola. The SFZ traverses the densely populated Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, forming a prominent scarp in alluvium. Our studies at four sites along the central SFZ are aimed at quantifying the late Quaternary behavior of this structure to better understand the seismic hazard it represents for the northeastern Caribbean. Our investigations of excavations at sites near Rio Cenovi show that the most recent ground-rupturing earthquake along this fault in the north central Dominican Republic occurred between A.D. 1040 and A.D. 1230, and involved a minimum of ???4 m of left-lateral slip and 2.3 m of normal dip slip at that site. Our studies of offset stream terraces at two locations, Rio Juan Lopez and Rio Licey, provide late Holocene slip rate estimates of 6-9 mm/yr and a maximum of 11-12 mm/yr, respectively, across the Septentrional fault. Combining these results gives a best estimate of 6-12 mm/yr for the slip rate across the SFZ. Three excavations, two near Tenares and one at the Rio Licey site, yielded evidence for the occurrence of earlier prehistoric earthquakes. Dates of strata associated with the penultimate event suggest that it occurred post-A.D. 30, giving a recurrence interval of 800-1200 years. These studies indicate that the SFZ has likely accumulated elastic strain sufficient to generate a major earthquake during the more than 800 years since it last slipped and should be considered likely to produce a destructive future earthquake.

  20. Early implications of the COCONet GPS velocity field for studies of plate and microplate motions in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, C.

    2013-05-01

    Now entering their 3rd decade, GPS measurements in the Caribbean region have been used to study a wide range of tectonic topics such as the movement of the Caribbean plate relative to North and South America, earthquake cycle effects along the seismically hazardous Caribbean plate boundary faults, and microplate interactions along the complexly deforming Caribbean plate boundaries. The construction of COCONet stands out as the most significant-ever one-time advance in GPS-MET infrastructure in the Caribbean region due to its standardized GPS-MET equipment, its open access to real-time data, and its expansion of coverage relative to pre-existing GPS stations. In this talk, I will show an up-to-date Caribbean region velocity field derived using the most recent version of GIPSY software (release 6.1), the latest satellite orbit products, single-station ambiguity resolution, and a consistent realization of the Caribbean plate reference frame. Consisting of several hundred site velocities, the new velocity field clearly defines how the crust responds to east-to-west changes in the geometry of the Caribbean-North America plate boundary, including the profound effect of the oblique collision zone between the Bahama platform and northern edge of the Caribbean plate. I will discuss implications of the still-maturing COCONet GPS velocities for ongoing studies of Caribbean plate motion and plate rigidity and will also discuss applications of COCONet velocities for testing recently published kinematic estimates for the movements of the Gonave, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and southern Jamaica microplates.

  1. The 2010 Haiti earthquake sequence: new insight of the tectonic pattern from aftershocks and marine geophysical data : Haiti-OBS cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier de Lepinay, B. F.; Mazabraud, Y.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Clouard, V.; Hello, Y.; Graindorge, D.; Marcaillou, B.; Crozon, J.; Saurel, J.; Charvis, P.; Mildor, B. S.; Deschamps, A.; Bouin, M.; Perrot, J.

    2010-12-01

    The devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake ruptured only a relatively short segment (~50km) of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF) a 600km long strike-slip fault running onland and offshore from Jamaica to Dominican Republic, with apparently no major surface rupture in the epicentral area. Considering the general behavior of such strike-slip fault (i.e. North Anatolian fault, San Andreas fault), we can expect that, following the 2010 earthquake, other large earthquakes will occur in the near future on adjacent segments. To contribute to the multinational scientific effort for a better understanding of the rupture process and the stress relaxation of this earthquake, we organized the Haiti-OBS cruise of the R/V L'Atalante few weeks after the catastrophe (Feb.5 to Feb.15, 2010, from and to Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe). Our goal was 1) to deploy a temporary network of seismologic stations -21 OBS, Ocean Bottom Seismometer, and 4 onland stations- and 2) to survey the detailed sea-floor features in relation with the deformation pattern of the area (multibeam bathymetry and mud-penetrator). We show that the distribution pattern of the aftershocks as well as the compressive surface structures observed in the geology and onshore/offshore morphology of the area are consistent with a deformation model implying a major left-lateral component along the EPGF, and a strong reverse component. The January 12, 2010 mainshock has been shown as very complex. However, in the first order, the mainshock and the distribution of the aftershocks, better localized by our temporary network, can be explained by the interaction between the strike-slip EPGF system and a blind folds-and-thrusts system. Thus, the general geological setting shows a southern extension until the southern part of the Canal du Sud area of the well-known fold and thrust system of the Hispaniola main block.

  2. Deformation partitioning at the junction between the Enriquillo fault and the Trans-Haitian belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S.; Pubellier, M.; Ellouz, N.; Momplaisir, R.; Boisson, D.; Amilcar, H.

    2010-12-01

    The recent Haiti earthquake, although it ruptured dramatically the strike-slip Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), is actually located where this fault cross-cut or is overlapped by the frontal part of the Trans-Haitian belt accretionary wedge. This belt started accreting flysch series in the North of Hispaniola during the late Palaeogene and propagated onto the carbonate platform during the Miocene and the Pliocene. Well dated flexural basins filled with clastics attest for this migration. The recent Matheux and the latest Gonave anticline are still currently uplifting as shown by marine terraces, so that the wedge has at present reached the active flower structure of the Presqu’île-du-Sud of Haiti, which is dissected by the EPGFZ. Therefore the structures and possible recent expression associated with their compression must be carefully investigated at surface as well as the strike-slip structure itself, recent ground destabilization and fluid escape. In fact, fault propagation is controlled mainly by, tectonic regime, physical/mechanical properties of the host-rocks and fluid/gas circulation within fault planes. Fluid and gas composition changes, flow increase or decrease, noble gas isotopic evolution can be used as indicators and evenly precursors of stress regime and mechanical variation along faults. We are now initiating onshore field observation on the strike-slip and compressional faults connection, coupled with fluid/gas sampling along both active and locked segments of the Haiti active fault system, similarly with methods tested in the Colorado plateau and along the South Atlas front (Morocco). Some investigations will be realized offshore, especially the mapping of the junction between Haïti and Jamaïca, in order to precise (1) newly and/or past destabilized segments, (2) the wavelength of the segmentation, (3) relationships with the oblique ridges, inherited segments, cross-cut by the EPGFZ.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in Haiti: Insights from Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Tamar E.; Malloy, Halley; Existe, Alexandre; Memnon, Gladys; St. Victor, Yves; Okech, Bernard A.; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2015-01-01

    Hispaniola, comprising Haiti and the Dominican Republic, has been identified as a candidate for malaria elimination. However, incomplete surveillance data in Haiti hamper efforts to assess the impact of ongoing malaria control interventions. Characteristics of the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum populations can be used to assess parasite transmission, which is information vital to evaluating malaria elimination efforts. Here we characterize the genetic diversity of P. falciparum samples collected from patients at seven sites in Haiti using 12 microsatellite markers previously employed in population genetic analyses of global P. falciparum populations. We measured multiplicity of infections, level of genetic diversity, degree of population geographic substructure, and linkage disequilibrium (defined as non-random association of alleles from different loci). For low transmission populations like Haiti, we expect to see few multiple infections, low levels of genetic diversity, high degree of population structure, and high linkage disequilibrium. In Haiti, we found low levels of multiple infections (12.9%), moderate to high levels of genetic diversity (mean number of alleles per locus = 4.9, heterozygosity = 0.61), low levels of population structure (highest pairwise Fst = 0.09 and no clustering in principal components analysis), and moderate linkage disequilibrium (ISA = 0.05, P<0.0001). In addition, population bottleneck analysis revealed no evidence for a reduction in the P. falciparum population size in Haiti. We conclude that the high level of genetic diversity and lack of evidence for a population bottleneck may suggest that Haiti’s P. falciparum population has been stable and discuss the implications of our results for understanding the impact of malaria control interventions. We also discuss the relevance of parasite population history and other host and vector factors when assessing transmission intensity from genetic diversity data. PMID:26462203

  4. First satellite tracks of the Endangered black-capped petrel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.; Ronconi, Robert A.; Rupp, Ernst; Wallace, George E.; Satgé, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    The black-capped petrel Pterodroma hasitata is an endangered seabird with fewer than 2000 breeding pairs restricted to a few breeding sites in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. To date, use areas at sea have been determined entirely from vessel-based surveys and opportunistic sightings and, as such, spatial and temporal gaps in our understanding of the species’ marine range are likely. To enhance our understanding of marine use areas, we deployed satellite tags on 3 black-capped petrels breeding on Hispaniola, representing the first tracking study for this species and one of the first published tracking studies for any breeding seabird in the Caribbean. During chick rearing, petrels primarily used marine habitats in the southern Caribbean Sea (ca. 18.0° to 11.5°N, 70.0° to 75.5°W) between the breeding site and the coasts of Venezuela and Colombia. Maximum distance from the breeding sites ranged from ca. 500 to 1500 km during the chick-rearing period. During the post-breeding period, each bird dispersed north and used waters west of the Gulf Stream offshore of the mid- and southern Atlantic coasts of the USA as well as Gulf Stream waters and deeper pelagic waters east of the Gulf Stream. Maximum distance from the breeding sites ranged from ca. 2000 to 2200 km among birds during the nonbreeding period. Petrels used waters located within 14 different exclusive economic zones, suggesting that international collaboration will benefit the development of management strategies for this species.

  5. Malaria elimination in Haiti by the year 2020: an achievable goal?

    PubMed

    Boncy, Paul Jacques; Adrien, Paul; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Existe, Alexandre; Henry, Patricia Jean; Raccurt, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Fenelon, Natael; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A; Kaljee, Linda; Baxa, Dwayne; Prieur, Eric; El Badry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Mulligan, Connie J; Carter, Tamar E; Beau de Rochars, V Madsen; Lutz, Chelsea; Parke, Dana M; Zervos, Marcus J

    2015-01-01

    Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, are the last locations in the Caribbean where malaria still persists. Malaria is an important public health concern in Haiti with 17,094 reported cases in 2014. Further, on January 12, 2010, a record earthquake devastated densely populated areas in Haiti including many healthcare and laboratory facilities. Weakened infrastructure provided fertile reservoirs for uncontrolled transmission of infectious pathogens. This situation results in unique challenges for malaria epidemiology and elimination efforts. To help Haiti achieve its malaria elimination goals by year 2020, the Laboratoire National de Santé Publique and Henry Ford Health System, in close collaboration with the Direction d'Épidémiologie, de Laboratoire et de Recherches and the Programme National de Contrôle de la Malaria, hosted a scientific meeting on "Elimination Strategies for Malaria in Haiti" on January 29-30, 2015 at the National Laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The meeting brought together laboratory personnel, researchers, clinicians, academics, public health professionals, and other stakeholders to discuss main stakes and perspectives on malaria elimination. Several themes and recommendations emerged during discussions at this meeting. First, more information and research on malaria transmission in Haiti are needed including information from active surveillance of cases and vectors. Second, many healthcare personnel need additional training and critical resources on how to properly identify malaria cases so as to improve accurate and timely case reporting. Third, it is necessary to continue studies genotyping strains of Plasmodium falciparum in different sites with active transmission to evaluate for drug resistance and impacts on health. Fourth, elimination strategies outlined in this report will continue to incorporate use of primaquine in addition to chloroquine and active surveillance of cases. Elimination of malaria in Haiti will require collaborative multidisciplinary approaches, sound strategic planning, and strong ownership of strategies by the Haiti Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population. PMID:26043728

  6. Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea and the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico&solCaribbean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindell, James; Dewey, John F.

    1982-04-01

    A Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea (North America, South America, Africa) is proposed that is characterized by (1) definition of the North Atlantic fit by matching of marginal offsets (fracture zones) along the opposing margins, (2) a South Atlantic fit that is tighter than the BuIlard fit and that is achieved by treating Africa as two plates astride the Benue Trough and related structures during the Cretaceous, (3) complete closure of the Proto-Atlantic Ocean between North and South America, accomplished by placing the Yucatan block between the Ouachita Mountains and Venezuela, (4) a proposed Hercynian suture zone that separates zones of foreland thrusting from zones of arc-related magmatic activity; to the northwest of this suture lie the Chortis block and Mexico and most of North America, and to the southeast lie South America, the Yucatan Block, Florida and Africa, and (5) satisfaction of paleomagmatic data from North America, South America, and Africa. Beginning with the proposed reconstruction, the relative motion history of South America with respect of North America is defined by using the finite difference method. Within the framework provided by the proposed relative motion history, an evolutionary model for the development of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region is outlined in a series of 13 plate boundary reconstructions at time intervals from the Jurassic to the present. The model includes (1) formation of the Gulf of Mexico by 140 Ma, (2) Pacific provenance of the Caribbean plate through the North America-South America gap during Cretaceous time, (3) Paleocene-Early Eocene back arc spreading origin for the Yucatan Basin, whereby Cuba is the frontal arc and the Nicaragua Rise-Jamaica-Southern Hispaniola is the remnant arc, and (4) 1200 km of post-Eocene cumulative offset along both the Northern and Southern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zones, allowing large-scale eastward migration of the Caribbean plate with respect to the North and South American Plates.

  7. Cenozoic tectonic and sedimentary development of the North American-Caribbean transform boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P.; Debalko, D.; Grote, D.; Tyburski, S. )

    1990-05-01

    The North American-Caribbean plate boundary consists of strike-slip deformation extending 3,200 km from the Middle American volcanic arc in western Guatemala to the northern Lesser Antilles. The authors have reconstructed the complex sedimentary and tectonic evolution of this zone over the past 65 m.y. by integration of onshore geologic data and offshore geophysical data. Onshore geologic data consists mainly of detailed structural maps and biostratigraphic studies from uplifted sedimentary basins in Hispaniola and Jamaica. Offshore data consists of single and multichannel seismic profiles and side-scan sonar maps. Both onshore and offshore data have been synthesized into a set of computer-based, paleogeographic maps for the following Cenozoic periods: late Paleocene, middle Eocene, late Oligocene, early Miocene, late Miocene, Pliocene, and Holocene. These data allow them to generalize the tectonic evolution of the boundary into three stages. Stage 1: Paleocene to early Eocene rifting and bimodal volcanism associated with formation of the Cayman Trough pullapart basin. Nonmarine to shallow marine sedimentation was controlled by northwest-northeast-striking normal faults formed at a high angle to the direction of plate motion. Stage 2: middle Eocene to early Miocene strike-slip faulting across a broad, California Borderlands-type margin. Shallow marine to marine sedimentation was controlled by strike-slip faults parallel or at a low angle to the direction of plate motion. Stage 3: middle Miocene to present strike-slip faulting along a single major fault. Deep-marine sedimentation was controlled by a major strike-slip fault scarp formed approximately parallel to the direction of plate motion over most of the length of the boundary. Eustatic sea level effects are recognizable in all three stages.

  8. Bivergent thrust wedges surrounding oceanic island arcs: Insight from observations and sandbox models of the northeastern caribbean plate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ten Brink, U.S.; Marshak, S.; Granja, Bruna J. L.

    2009-01-01

    At several localities around the world, thrust belts have developed on both sides of oceanic island arcs (e.g., Java-Timor, Panama, Vanuatu, and the northeastern Caribbean). In these localities, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, a north-verging accretionary prism lies to the north of the Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), whereas a south-verging thrust belt called the Muertos thrust belt lies to the south. Researchers have attributed such bivergent geometry to several processes, including: reversal of subduction polarity; subduction-driven mantle flow; stress transmission across the arc; gravitational spreading of the arc; and magmatic inflation within the arc. New observations of deformational features in the Muertos thrust belt and of fault geometries produced in sandbox kinematic models, along with examination of published studies of island arcs, lead to the conclusion that the bivergence of thrusting in island arcs can develop without reversal of subduction polarity, without subarc mantle flow, and without magmatic inflation. We suggest that the Eastern Greater Antilles arc and comparable arcs are simply crustalscale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedges formed during unidirectional subduction. Sandbox kinematic modeling suggests, in addition, that a broad retrowedge containing an imbricate fan of thrusts develops only where the arc behaves relatively rigidly. In such cases, the arc acts as a backstop that transmits compressive stress into the backarc region. Further, modeling shows that when arcs behave as rigid blocks, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely within the prowedge and the arc-the retrowedge hosts only dip-slip faulting ("frontal thrusting"). The existence of large retrowedges and the distribution of faulting in an island arc may, therefore, be evidence that the arc is relatively rigid. The rigidity of an island arc may arise from its mafi c composition and has implications for seismic-hazard analysis. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  9. Benefits of studies of overwintering birds for understanding resident bird ecology and promoting development of conservation capacity.

    PubMed

    Latta, Steven C; Faaborg, John

    2009-04-01

    Funding of ecological research and monitoring of Neotropical migratory birds on their overwintering grounds has benefited both migratory and permanent-resident species. Using examples from our work in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, we demonstrate that ecological research of overwintering migrants often provides information about the ecology and demography of little-known tropical resident birds. Critically important long-term monitoring in Puerto Rico with a focus on winter residents has provided information on the relationships between annual rainfall and fluctuations in resident bird populations and survival rates. It also has alerted local biologists to declines in resident bird populations, including a decline apparently driven by the entry of a brood parasite. But migrant-focused research may also have had an underappreciated effect on the development of conservation capacity and conservation efforts in host countries. Investments in research on Neotropical migrants overwintering on Hispaniola have resulted in a huge increase in field training of students and wildlife professionals, promoted conservation awareness at local and national levels, played an important role in the growth and professionalization of key environmental organizations, spawned a growing ecotourism industry for bird-watching, and driven national park management planning and conservation efforts for all bird species. We encourage funding organizations and agencies to consider the broader impacts of funding migratory-bird research and monitoring efforts, and we encourage researchers in the tropics to use protocols that provide the most information about all the birds that use the study areas involved and to be aware of important opportunities that they may have to build capacity in host countries. PMID:19016823

  10. Site-specific Earthquake-generate Tsunami Hazard Assessment in U.S. Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Gica, E.; Arcas, D.; Spillane, M. C.; Zhou, H.

    2009-12-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami of 24 December 2004 has changed the perception of a tsunami as an infrequent low-risk hazard. The devoid of subduction or convergent zones in the Atlantic Ocean makes coastal communities less aware of the potential tsunami hazard in the East Coast of US. The existing continental shelf offshore has believed to act as additional buffer that may significantly attenuate the tsunami impact to the U.S. Atlantic coast. However, the uncertainties are still substantial and need to be timely addressed: 1. the largest tsunami ever recorded in Atlantic, 1755 Lisbon, was understudied; 2. the Hispaniola-Puerto Rico-Lesser Antilles subduction zone - a Sumatra-Andaman type of trench - in the northeast of Caribbean is capable of generating catastrophic tsunami; 3. the South Sandwich Trench was mostly overlooked; and 4. most of previous studies tackling these issues did not surpass the linear tsunami propagation in the deep ocean for nonlinear tsunami inundation modeling in the coastal area. Using the established NOAA high-resolution tsunami inundation model, the present study explores above uncertainties and provides comprehensive modeling assessment of the potential earthquake-generated tsunami hazard for selected coastal communities in U.S. Atlantic coasts, with highlight on over-shelf tsunami wave dynamics. This study is an extension of the USGS evaluation of earthquake-tsunami impact in Atlantic (ten Brink et al., 2007; Barkan et al., 2009) in the light of the Nuclear Regulation Commission (NRC) efforts on tsunami risk assessment for existing and potential nuclear power plants in U. S. East Coast.

  11. Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Olen M.; Wright, Peter F.; Agol, Vadim I.; Delpeyroux, Francis; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nathanson, Neal; Pallansch, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-derived virus in Belarus (1965-66). Gaps in OPV coverage and the previous eradication of the corresponding serotype of indigenous wild poliovirus were the critical risk factors for all cVDPV outbreaks. The cVDPV outbreaks were stopped by mass immunization campaigns using OPV. To increase sensitivity for detecting vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in 2001 the Global Polio Laboratory Network implemented additional testing requirements for all poliovirus isolates under investigation. This approach quickly led to the recognition of the Philippines and Madagascar cVDPV outbreaks, but of no other current outbreaks. The potential risk of cVDPV emergence has increased dramatically in recent years as wild poliovirus circulation has ceased in most of the world. The risk appears highest for the type 2 OPV strain because of its greater tendency to spread to contacts. The emergence of cVDPVs underscores the critical importance of eliminating the last pockets of wild poliovirus circulation, maintaining universally high levels of polio vaccine coverage, stopping OPV use as soon as it is safely possible to do so, and continuing sensitive poliovirus surveillance into the foreseeable future. Particular attention must be given to areas where the risks for wild poliovirus circulation have been highest, and where the highest rates of polio vaccine coverage must be maintained to suppress cVDPV emergence. PMID:15106296

  12. Potential of high resolution satellite imagery, remote weather data and 1D hydraulic modeling to evaluate flood areas in Gonaives, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, Andrea; Durand, Arnaud; Allenbach, Bernard; Confortola, Gabriele; Bocchiola, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    We present a feasibility study to explore potential of high-resolution imagery, coupled with hydraulic flood modeling to predict flooding risks, applied to the case study of Gonaives basins (585 km²), Haiti. We propose a methodology working at different scales, providing accurate results and a faster intervention during extreme flood events. The 'Hispaniola' island, in the Caribbean tropical zone, is often affected by extreme floods events. Floods are caused by tropical springs and hurricanes, and may lead to several damages, including cholera epidemics, as recently occurred, in the wake of the earthquake upon January 12th 2010 (magnitude 7.0). Floods studies based upon hydrological and hydraulic modeling are hampered by almost complete lack of ground data. Thenceforth, and given the noticeable cost involved in the organization of field measurement campaigns, the need for exploitation of remote sensing images data. HEC-RAS 1D modeling is carried out under different scenarios of available Digital Elevation Models. The DEMs are generated using optical remote sensing satellite (WorldView-1) and SRTM, combined with information from an open source database (Open Street Map). We study two recent flood episodes, where flood maps from remote sensing were available. Flood extent and land use have been assessed by way of data from SPOT-5 satellite, after hurricane Jeanne in 2004 and hurricane Hanna in 2008. A semi-distributed, DEM based hydrological model is used to simulate flood flows during the hurricanes. Precipitation input is taken from daily rainfall data derived from TRMM satellite, plus proper downscaling. The hydraulic model is calibrated using floodplain friction as tuning parameters against the observed flooded area. We compare different scenarios of flood simulation, and the predictive power of model calibration. The method provide acceptable results in depicting flooded areas, especially considering the tremendous lack of ground data, and show the potential of remote sensing information in prediction of flood events in this area, for the purpose of risk assessment and land use planning, and possibly for flood forecast during extreme events.

  13. Modeling of tsunamis and hurricanes as causes of the catastrophic overwash of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, between 1650 and 1800

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; ten Brink, U. S.; Atwater, B. F.

    2010-12-01

    The giant 2004 Aceh-Andaman earthquake and its Indian Ocean tsunami have spurred reassessment of earthquake and tsunami potential at subduction zones worldwide. Some of these zones resemble the source area of the 2004 earthquake in having a highly oblique convergence and little or no written record of great (M 8.0 or larger) thrust earthquakes. Some scientists have questioned whether subduction rate and subducting-plate age control the maximum earthquake size (Stein and Okal, 2007), even stating that all subduction zones long enough to make a giant (M 9) earthquake should be assumed capable of doing so (McCaffrey, 2008). In the present study, we seek to explain geological evidence for overwash, sometime between 1650 and 1800, at Anegada, northeast of Puerto Rico and 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. Anegada offers three kinds of well-preserved evidence for a one-time overwash from the island’s north side during the decades between 1650 and 1800: dozens of elongate breaches cutting through sandy beach ridges of Anegada's north shore, which is protected from storm waves by a fringing reef; a sheet of sand and shell traced as much as 1.5 km southward inland from that shore; and fields of scattered boulders and cobbles moved southward and derived, in one case, from limestone outcrops 1 km south of the shore. Here we use tsunami modeling, tied to geological and written observations, to explore the earthquake and tsunami potential of the northern Antilles subduction zone. The plate convergence here is highly oblique, and there is no compelling written evidence, nor any instrumental evidence, for the occurrence of a great earthquake along the Puerto Rico Trench east of Hispaniola. We present tsunami simulations for four hypothetical sources, three along the Puerto Rico Trench and one in the Azores-Gibraltar convergence zone. We compare the model output with inundation inferred from the overwash evidence and with tsunamis, or their absence, recorded in writing in the northeast Caribbean. Alternatively, we use models of storm surge and storm waves to ask whether this overwash could have resulted from a hurricane of category 4 or 5. The models show that the fringing reef and the shallows behind it reduce storm-wave heights as much as twenty-fold and storm-wave energy by factors as large as 400. Based on these findings, along with inferences made directly from the geology itself, we conclude that the overwash at Anegada most likely resulted from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake or from a previously unreported earthquake on the outer rise along the Puerto Rico Trench.

  14. Changes in Late Cretaceous-Quaternary Caribbean plate motion directions inferred from paleostress measurements from striated fault planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batbayar, K.; Mann, P.; Hippolyte, J.

    2013-12-01

    We compiled paleostress analyses from previous research works collected at 591 localities of striated fault planes in rocks ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Quaternary in the circum-Caribbean and Mexico. The purpose of the study is to quantify a progressive clockwise rotation of the Caribbean plate during its Late Cretaceous to recent subduction of the Proto-Caribbean seaway. Paleostress analysis is based on the assumption that slickenside lineations indicate both the direction and sense of maximum resolved shear stress on that fault plane. We have plotted directions of maximum horizontal stress onto plate tectonic reconstructions of the circum-Caribbean plate boundaries and infer that these directions are proxies for paleo-plate motion directions of the Caribbean plate. Plotting these stress directions onto reconstructions provided a better visualization of the relation of stress directions to blocks at their time of Late Cretaceous to recent deformation. Older, more deformed rocks of Late Cretaceous to Eocene ages yield a greater scatter in derived paleostress directions as these rocks have steeper dips, more pervasive faulting, and were likely affected by large rotations as known from previous paleomagnetic studies of Caribbean plate margins. Despite more scatter in measurements from older rock units, four major events that affected the Caribbean plate and the Great Arc of the Caribbean (GAC) are recognizable from changing orientations of stress directions: 1) Late Cretaceous collision of the GAC with southern Mexico and Colombia is consistent with NE directions of maximum compression in rocks of this age range in southern Mexico and EW directions in Colombia as the GAC approached the Proto-Caribbean seaway; 2) Paleocene-Eocene collision of the GAC with the Bahamas platform in Cuba and Hispaniola and with the South American plate in Venezuela is consistent with CW rotations of stress directions in rocks of these ages in the northern Caribbean and CCW rotations of these rocks in the southern Caribbean ; 3) Late Miocene collision and indentation of the Panama arc with northwestern South America is consistent with EW directions in rocks of these ages; and 4) Oligocene to recent strike-slip faulting along the northern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean shows consistent directions for the northern (NE) and southern (NW) Caribbean. Stress directions document the progressive clockwise rotation of the Caribbean plate and the GAC motion from NE in the Late Cretaceous, to ENE in the Paleogene, to EW in the Neogene.

  15. Initiatives of Application of the Bakun-Wentworth's Method for the Estimation of Macroseismic Parameters in the Northern South America and the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Capera, A.; Bindi, D.; Cifuentes, H.; Choy, J.; Chuy Rodriguez, T.; Garcia, J.; Massa, M.; Palme, C.; Pierristal, G.; Salcedo Hurtado, E.; Sanchez Vasquez, A.

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of location, magnitude and uncertainties of great historical earthquakes is a key issue for understanding the seismic potential and PSHA of a region. In the last years independent techniques using only macrosesismic data points have been developed as, for example, the approach of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) or BW. This method has been largely applied in different tectonic contexts (Bindi et al., 2013), in different UE international projects and in estimations of location, magnitude and epistemic uncertainties (Bakun et al., 2011). We focus on some regional calibration initiatives in Northern South America and areas of the Caribbean Region. BW has been calibrated by Palme et al. (2005) and Choy et al. (2012) for earthquakes of the Mérida Andes and the Venezuela Central Regions. As well, BW calibrations have been proposed for the interandean Valley in Ecuador (Beauval et al., 2010), in the Hispaniola (Bakun et al, 2012) and for the northeastern Caribbean region (ten Brink et al., 2011). Preliminary BW calibration for the southeastern region of Cuba has been proposed by Gómez-Capera et al. (2012). Applications to historical earthquakes in Cuba have given encouraging results mainly for offshore events and are presented in the present study. We also present preliminary results for some earthquakes that have been recently studied in literature as for example the historical earthquakes of 1743 (Salcedo Hurtado and Gómez-Capera in press) and 1785 (Salcedo Hurtado and Castaño Castaño, 2011) which occurred close to Bogotá, BW method and intensity relationship of the literature were used. We present comparisons and sensibility analysis of the different relationships obtained in the region as well as uncertainty assessment. We also note that the magnitude parameter depends strongly on the regional calibration. Because of the availability of new macroseismic studies in Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano y Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2013; available online in http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistórica/), Venezuela (http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve) and Caribbean Region, in the future it is expected to propose models for macroseismic intensity attenuations of regional character especially in Colombia and in Venezuela in the Cumaná region. This region has a rich earthquake history. In this topic of the regional calibration of intensity attenuation relationships, the situation is challenging because several historical and recent earthquakes in this region are attributed to subduction zones. It is therefore necessary to involve focal depth. This is still an open problem.

  16. Mass flow in serpentinite-hosted subduction channels: P - T - t path patterns of metamorphic blocks in the Rio San Juan mélange (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, M.; Schertl, H.-P.; Maresch, W. V.; Draper, G.

    2011-09-01

    Serpentinite mélanges formed in the subduction zone channel of an intra-oceanic arc system are exposed in the Rio San Juan complex of northern Hispaniola. This study presents an array of pressure-temperature paths for 14 metamorphic blocks. The P- T paths were constructed from isochemical P- T phase diagrams ("pseudosections") as well as multi-equilibrium calculations on mineral assemblages, providing for the first time the means to compare P- T paths in both time and space. The study involves metabasic, meta-andesitic and metagranitic lithologies. Subduction was slow, so that the uninterrupted thermal development of the subduction zone can be followed over a time span of more than 60 Myr. Early eclogites mirror "warm" subduction zone gradients (˜18°/km); both clockwise and anticlockwise paths are found. The maximum P- T conditions reached are ˜800 °C and 26 kbar, thus indicating sufficient buoyancy for return flow from depths exceeding the stability of serpentine. As the subduction zone matures, P/ T gradients gradually steepen to ˜6°/km, and the maximum depth from which blocks are exhumed decreases in a regular way from 26 to 17 kbar. The exhumed metamorphic products are initially omphacite-bearing blueschists and evolve to jadeite- and lawsonite-bearing blueschists with veins of jadeitite jade. Lawsonite eclogites are not found, because in the latest history of the subduction zone the predominantly basic geochemistry of the blocks evolved to more intermediate compositions inappropriate for this rock type. There are no indications of systematic differences or episodic variations in subduction/exhumation velocities, so that a continuous cycling of material in the subduction zone channel is indicated. In two blocks of eclogite and garnet blueschist an earlier amphibolite-facies history at 575-700 °C and 7-8 kbar can be documented, suggesting erosion of the base of the overlying intra-oceanic island arc. The fossil subduction zone studied in detail here is part of a much larger feature exposed at intervals around the perimeter of the Caribbean plate where the intra-oceanic arc has collided with North and South America. The continuous history documented here from before 120 Ma to after 60 Ma constrains regional plate tectonic models to incorporate a similarly uninterrupted continuous history of eastward movement of the Caribbean plate with respect to North and South America.

  17. Searching for the Blind fault: Haiti Subsurface Imaging Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake was catastrophic, causing serious damage to infrastructure and more than 200000 deaths. Initially, the Haiti earthquake was assumed to occur with the movement of Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), but recent scientific studies have shown that the primary rupture occurred on an unmapped blind thrust fault in the Léogâne fan (associated as Léogâne fault) near the EPGFZ (Figure 1a and 1b). The main purpose of this project are: characterizing and analyzing subsurface structures and associated hazards, characterizing the physical properties of near-surface, locating and understanding the blind faults theorized to have caused the 2010 earthquake (Léogâne fault). Surveys were conducted by a research group from the University of Houston in 2013 to address some of these goals. Surveys were mainly concentrated on Léogâne fan (Figure 1c) and Lake Enriquillo (Figure 1d). For Léogâne surveys, multiple 2D Seismic lines were deployed with approximately N-S orientation. We performed both P wave and S wave refraction analyses and time-migrated the P wave data. The prominent change in both P wave and S wave velocities are interpreted as the effects of faulting. The CMP stacked section shows a multiple discontinuity profile whose location coincides with the anomalies observed at P wave and S wave refraction velocity profile. Extracted reflection coefficients also support a reflective structure at these offsets. We interpret the anomalous structure as North dipping thrust fault. The dip of the fault is estimated around 60°. Near-surface reflection seismic analysis provided deeper information indicating multiple layers with varying velocities, intersected by a number of faults. Gravity surveys were conducted along the main seismic line over Léogâne fan, with additional surveys conducted from Jacmel to Léogâne and around the Port Au Prince area. The estimated Free air gravity profile suggests that the variation of the gravitational field may be related to the proposed faults. More extensive surveys are expected to be conducted in January, 2014. Figure 1 a- digital elevation map of Hispaniola, b- zoomed view of Léogâne fan and Lake Enriquillo with gravity stations, c- surveys over Léogâne area, d- chirp surveys over Lake Enriquillo

  18. [Haitian migration to Santo Domingo].

    PubMed

    Latortue, P R

    1985-01-01

    This work examines the history of Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic, the central role of Haitian migration in Dominican society, working conditions of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic, and the relationship of the migration to economic development on the island of Hispaniola. Lack of data, the difficulty of measuring illegal movement, and the problem of defining Haitians in Santo Domingo have impeded understanding of migration to the Dominican Republic. It is believed by many authorities that Haitian migration to Santo Domingo is considerable and perhaps exceeds that to the US. Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic began after 1915 with the fall of the Haitian president, a worsening of economic conditions partly caused by stagnation in the agricultural sector, and the newly dominant role of the US in Haitian economic affairs. The Great Depression of the 1930s was a direct antecedent of the massacre of Haitians by Dominican police in which some 30 thousand persons were killed; the economic recession of the early 1980s has also caused an outburst of antiHaitian feeling in the Dominican Republic although 80% of laborers in the sugar industry are Haitians. Sugar is extremely important to the Dominican economy: in 1974, sugar covered 12% of cultivated land, produced 40% of foreign exchange earnings, and was responsable for 21% of taxable income. Dominicans however refuse to work in sugar plantations under the current technological. conditions and wage system. Although the government periodically demands the Dominicanization of the sugar work force, no such changes have been made. Sugar will probably continue to play a decisive role in the generation of foreign exchange despite introduction of more technologically advanced sectors which benefit from better prices in the international market. Possibilities of mechanizing sugar production in the Dominican Republic appear remote, and failure to modernize an important sector of the economy has explained migration of unskilled labor from poorer countries in more than 1 case. Under such circumstances, the extremely poor working conditions of Haitians in the Dominican Republic are not surprising. A 1983 investigation by the International Labour Organization indicated that salaries were low, that a large proportion was routinely diverted from the migrants, that hours of work were long with no regular rest and few days off, that few workers had any contractual protection, that forced labor recruitment occurred, that a rigid system of vigilance with armed patrols was used to keep the immigrants in the work camps, and that living conditions were substandard--in short, that Haitian workers were "neo-slaves". In addition, the Dominicans consider themselves racially and culturally superior to Haitians. The Haitian government, in return for payments from the Dominican Republic, does nothing to stop the abuses. PMID:12179414

  19. Petrology and geochemistry of the Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Vespucci, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Late Cenozoic rocks of Hispaniola are subdivided into two petrographically and geochemically contrasting series, a calc-alkaline series (CA-series), and a mafic alkaline series (MA-series). The CA-series are basalts, basaltic andesites, trachyandesites, and dacites occurring in several eruptive centers in the southern part of the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic. MA-series basalts are alkali-olivine basalts and limburgitic basalts occurring in the San Juan Valley of the Dominican republic and in the Cul de Sac of south central Haiti. Olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, and titanomagnetite were analyzed for major element chemical composition. MA-series basalts are slightly to moderately silica undersaturated, have high TiO2 (>1.5%) and MgO (>5.0%) and moderately high total alkalis (>2.0%). MA-series basalts are enriched in K, Rb, Sr, Ba, U, Th and LREEs with Ba/La ratios around 0.98. REE patterns are fractionated (chrondrite normalized La/Yb ratios around 62, and La/Sm ratios around 6). HFS elements Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta are high resembling intraplate basalts. 86SR/87SR ratios are high (0.7060-0.7070) with low Rb/Sr ratios (0.03 to 0.15). Basalts, basaltic andesites, trachyandesites, and dacites of the CA-series show low MgO (<5.0%) and TiO2(<2.0%), and moderately high total alkali contents (2 to 7%). Enrichment is seen in K Rb, Sr, Ba, Th, U, and LREEs with Ba/La ratios as high as 5.6 REE patterns are fractionated to a lesser degree compared to the MA-series (chondrite normalized La/Yb around 23, and La/Sm ratios less than 5). HFS elements are lower resembling typical island arc volcanic rocks. CA-series have 87Sr/86Sr ratios (.7043-.7053), with low Rb/Sr ratios as in the MA-series.

  20. Ophiolite and Tectonic Development of the East Pacific Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, E. M.

    2001-12-01

    Well-preserved ophiolites represent oceanic crust and mantle formed at a spreading center and emplaced by collision of a mantle-rooted thrust fault (subduction zone) with a continental margin or island arc. Ophiolite nappes thus represent remnants of lithospheric plates; their basal thrusts (fossil subduction zones) intrinscally cannot be balanced; their displacements are unknown but very large. Many environments of formation are possible for ophiolites: mid-ocean ridge, back-arc, forearc, or intra-arc spreading vrnyrtd, but geochemistry alone is inadequate to differentiate between the possibilities; geologic field evidence is needed, as well. Mesozoic ophiolites in western North America are associated either with the Stikine-Intermontane superterrane (e.g. Sierra Nevada, Klamath Mountains, California. Guerrero terrane, Mexico?), or lie west of it (e.g. Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and correlatives to north and south.). The "Great Arc" of the Caribbean (Burke, 1988), including ophiolitic rocks in Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Colombia, may also correlate with the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and/or with ophiolites in the Sierra Nevada. The Wrangellia/Insular superterrane may have extended to the south and at times may have included parts of the Chortis-Choco blocks of Central America, as well as the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia and Ecuador). These relations suggest the hypothesis that in mid-late Mesozoic time, a separate intra-oceanic plate similar to the present Philippine plate, herein informally called "Americordilleria" was separated by active island arc complexes from the American andFarallon/Kula plates to the east and west, respectively. Basement rocks of the Colombian, Venezuelan, and Yucatan basins, as well as the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite, may represent remnants of "Americordilleria". Convergence and collision of "Americordilleria" and its island arc margins with the American continents were major factors in western American and Caribbean orogenic development. Direct contact between the Kula/Farallon plates and North America may not have occurred until late Cretaceous time.

  1. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

    2013-05-01

    The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together with ONEV and BME, installed 4 seismic stations with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank and the Haitian Government. The 4 stations include strong motion and broad-band sensors, complementing the 8 sensors initially installed. The stations communicate via SATMEX5 with the Canadian HUB, which sends the data back to Haiti with minimum delay. In the immediate future, data transfer will be improved with the installation of a main antenna for data reception and the Seismic Warning Center of Port-au-Prince. A bidirectional satellite communication is considered of fundamental importance for robust real-time data transmission that is not affected in the case of a catastrophic event.

  2. Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, K. H.

    2008-05-01

    Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history of Middle American geographic components, negates rotations of the Maya and Chortis blocks required by Pacific models and shows that the Caribbean Plate formed in place. Regional geologic and seismic data indicate that much of "oceanic" Middle America is in fact underpinned by extended continental crust. Salt is present, and probably Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary source rocks also. Oil is seen on Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Cuba, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Prolific hydrocarbon provinces exist in the Gulf of Mexico and along northern S America. The submarine areas in between have significant hydrocarbon potential.

  3. Northern Caribbean Tsunami Hazard: Earthquake and Gravity Source Contribution of the Tsunami of 2010 in Haïti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupardin, Adrien; Hébert, Hélène; Calais, Eric; Gailler, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    The Mw 7 earthquake of January 12, 2010, in Haïti was followed by a tsunami with wave heights reaching 3 m in some locations (Grand Goâve, Jacmel) on either side of the Presqu'Ile du Sud where the event took place. The tsunami was also recorded at DART buoy 42407 (about 600 km southeast of the earthquake source) and at a tide gauge in Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). In the hours following the event, the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) suggested rupture of a south-dipping segment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF). Fritz et al. (2013) used the NEIC source model to simulate the tsunami height and match coastal run-up measurements and DART data by (1) increasing coseismic slip on the EPGF while keeping a constant Mo by scaling the regional rigidity, and (2) invoking a coastal submarine landslide in addition to ground motion. Since then, several studies have considerably improved our understanding of the 2010 Haiti earthquake source using GPS, InSAR, seismological, geological, and/or teleseismic data (Meng et al., 2012; Hayes et al., 2010, Symithe et al., 2013). All show that rupture occurred on a north-dipping blind fault (Leogâne fault) with 1/3 of its moment expressed by reverse motion and up to 60 cm of coastal uplift. Here we revisit the January 12, 2010 Haiti tsunami by modeling runup heights, DART, and tide gauge observations using these recent source models as input parameters. We propagate the tsunami using a non linear shallow water tsunami model able to account for the shoaling effect thanks to imbricated bathymetric grids. Simulations indicate run-up heights much lower than observed (1) in the Grand Goâve Bay, consistent with the hypoythesis of a landslide-triggered tsunami at this location, (2) along the southern coast of Hispaniola and at the DART buoy, closest to observations however when using Symithe et al.'s source model. We also find wave heights up to 1 m in Port-au-Prince (harbor and coastal shantytowns) when using Fritz et al.'s scaled NEIC source model, which have not been reported by the population. We conclude that this early model lacks accuracy, but additional work is needed to understand the significant wave heights observed along the southern coast and to the south of the island.

  4. Role of the offshore Pedro Banks left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in the plate tectonic evolution of the northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, B.; Mann, P.; Saunders, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous workers, mainly mapping onland active faults on Caribbean islands, defined the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone as a 200-km-wide bounded by two active and parallel strike-slip faults: the Oriente fault along the northern edge of the Cayman trough with a GPS rate of 14 mm/yr, and and the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) with a rate of 5-7 mm/yr. In this study we use 5,000 km of industry and academic data from the Nicaraguan Rise south and southwest of the EPGFZ in the maritime areas of Jamaica, Honduras, and Colombia to define an offshore, 700-km-long, active, left-lateral strike-slip fault in what has previously been considered the stable interior of the Caribbean plate as determined from plate-wide GPS studies. The fault was named by previous workers as the Pedro Banks fault zone because a 100-km-long segment of the fault forms an escarpment along the Pedro carbonate bank of the Nicaraguan Rise. Two fault segments of the PBFZ are defined: the 400-km-long eastern segment that exhibits large negative flower structures 10-50 km in width, with faults segments rupturing the sea floor as defined by high resolution 2D seismic data, and a 300-km-long western segment that is defined by a narrow zone of anomalous seismicity first observed by previous workers. The western end of the PBFZ terminates on a Quaternary rift structure, the San Andres rift, associated with Plio-Pleistocene volcanism and thickening trends indicating initial rifting in the Late Miocene. The southern end of the San Andreas rift terminates on the western Hess fault which also exhibits active strands consistent with left-lateral, strike-slip faults. The total length of the PBFZ-San Andres rift-Southern Hess escarpment fault is 1,200 km and traverses the entire western end of the Caribbean plate. Our interpretation is similar to previous models that have proposed the "stable" western Caribbean plate is broken by this fault whose rate of displacement is less than the threshold recognizable from the current GPS network (~3 mm/yr). The Late Miocene age of the fault indicates it may have activated during the Late Miocene to recent Hispaniola-Bahamas oblique collision event.

  5. Relative sea-level changes during the last century recorded by coral microatolls in Belloc, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil-Accardo, J.; Feuillet, N.; Jacques, E.; Deschamps, P.; Saurel, J.-M.; Thirumalai, K.; Demeza, S.; Anglade, D.

    2016-04-01

    We present here the first study of coral microatolls in the Caribbean. An exceptional site (Belloc reef) where dozens of microatolls were growing was uplifted and exposed during the 12 January 2010 Mw 7 Haiti earthquake. Total station measurements of the old pre-earthquake and the new post-earthquake coral highest level of survival (HLS) on two generations of Siderastrea siderea corals allowed us to estimate a value of 45 ± 14 cm for the coseismic uplift. In this small 90 m × 70 m reef, microatolls of different shapes (cups, hats or flats) coexist, indicating long term submergence, emergence or stable relative sea-level. This variability in coral shape is uncommon. Two slices of microatolls, one cup-shaped (B8) and one hat-shaped (B10) were sampled with a chain saw and X-rayed to study their stratigraphy. B10 recorded a mean relative sea-level decrease of about - 1 mm/yr over the last five decades, whereas B8 has grown in a context of relative sea-level rise at a rate of about 1 mm/yr over nine decades. Several sudden and temporary die downs simultaneously disrupted the growth of both corals in 1940 ± 2, 1963 ± 2, 1983 ± 2, 1992 ± 1, 2001 ± 1 and 2009 and may be caused by oceanographic/climatic phenomena occurring in the tropical North Atlantic. The last one, in 2009, was associated with a clear sea-level height decrease (about 10 cm) in the satellite data. B10 was strongly affected by these events and records die downs of systematically larger amplitude, which tended to delay its upward growth compared to B8. This makes B10 less reliable for the evaluation of the relative sea-level trend, its emergence rate being only an apparent estimate due to die downs. Fossil coral microatolls of Diploria strigosa which died between 1958 and 1966 (according to U/Th dating), probably during one of the strongest hurricane reported in Haiti (Flora, 1963), display a cup shape attesting for submergence. Their HLS is 1 cm below the HLS of the S. siderea killed in 2010. The record of B8, the diversity in shape of the S. siderea microatolls and the position of fossil D. strigosa corals overall indicate stable to slightly increasing relative sea-level (about 1 mm/yr). This is on the same order of magnitude, although slightly lower, as the rate we determined over the last 74 years by using eight tide gauge records around Hispaniola (1.63 ± 0.20 mm/yr) and the mean rate of sea-level rise previously published (2.0 ± 0.5 mm/yr) in the area. This study demonstrates that coral microatolls can be used to infer relative sea-level changes over the last decades or centuries in the Caribbean, where tide gauge records are often sparse, incomplete or nonexistent. This is of prime importance for the numerous small and flat Caribbean islands, highly vulnerable to the threat of global sea-level rise.

  6. Overview of Collaborative Project to Develop Tsunami Hazard Assessments for the US Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammerer, A. M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Titov, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and in anticipation of new license applications, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for coastal facilities on the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. For this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program with researchers at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Key researchers from universities and other groups have also made important contributions to this program. The work undertaken represents the combined effort of a diverse group of marine geologists, geophysicists, geotechnical engineers, and hydrodynamic modelers. The Atlantic and Gulf coasts are the focus of this program due to the number of existing and proposed nuclear facilities located on these coasts and because less is generally known about tsunami hazard on these coasts. Because the US NRC is interested in understanding hazard associated with the rare large tsunami that may occur over long time periods (in excess of 10,000 years), the research program considers both seismic and landslide tsunamigenic sources. It also includes the study of both large far-field sources and near-field sources. The study of tsunamigenic landslides is a key difference between this research program and other tsunami hazard assessment programs. In the initial phase, significant effort was focused on identifying and characterizing offshore near-field landslides and on understanding their regional distribution along the coasts. Once early results were obtained, modeling of one of the larger slides was initiated to better understand the hazard posed by the slides identified. Important properties of the slide, such as flow velocity, were characterized through work that included analysis of the dynamic elements. The research related to far-field tsunamigenic landslides has similarly focused on collecting existing information and assessing the potential impact to the coasts. The focus of seismic sources focused on the Hispaniola-Puerto Rico-Lesser Antilles subduction zone and the enigmatic zone of large earthquakes west of Gibraltar. These source areas were investigated, an evaluation of their tsunamigenic potential was undertaken, and the potential for hazard to the U.S. coastline was considered. As part of the current phase, the USGS will conduct field investigations in key locations for the purpose of filling existing data gaps. Investigations will also continue to assess landslide potential in the Gulf of Mexico and to determine the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The potential for developing tools and data to undertake probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments (PTHA) will also be a key focus of later phases of the program. Simultaneously, the NOAA MOST tsunami generation and propagation model is being enhanced to include landslide-based initiation mechanisms and is being validated with case studies. The enhanced MOST model will be used to investigate the tsunamigenic sources characterized by the USGS, with the goal of creating an estimation of deterministic tsunami hazard levels for the length of Atlantic and Gulf Coasts.

  7. Map pattern and paleostress analysis of extensional faults deforming the Quaternary coral-reef deposits of the southeastern Dominican Republic: Implications for earthquake hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Senz, J.; Escuder-Viruete, J.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we document a fault system in southeastern Dominican Republic that constitutes the onland continuation of the Mona Passage fault array. Fault-slip analysis has been carried out on 60 stations and paleostress ellipsoids were computed from striae orientations on faults using inverse methods. The CMT-catalog was also consulted to compare the moment tensor solution of earthquakes with the obtained results. Faults cut the 65-90 m raised coral-reef platform (Pliocene?-Pleistocene) that form the bulk of the Caribbean coastal plain, the 27-30 m reef terrace (247.2+26.3-20.05 ka, Middle Pleistocene), and the 6-7 m reef terrace (~125ka, Middle-Late Pleistocene boundary). Cumulative fault activity in the 65-90 m reef produced half-grabens with north polarity that controls the tributary water drainage. Their bounding faults attain 10-20 km wide and are segmented with transverse ramps developed at relay areas. The maximum throw calculated from fault scarps is about 75m. When represented in a length vs strike diagram, line scarps oriented in a prominent WNW set and a subordinate ENE set, in good agreement with field measurements of 540 fractures, that group into WNW, NNE and ENE sets. Paleostress analyses in tensional and hybrid fractures that affect the lower reef terraces indicate a SW-NE trend of subhorizontal extension. In the 65-90 m reef platform, the fault analysis establishes a stress ellipsoid characterized by a near-subvertical ?1 axis and a near-subhorizontal SSW to SW-trending ?3 axis. Therefore, the resulting type of brittle deformation in the Pleistocene ranges from (near) pure normal to normal strike-slip. In contrast, focal mechanisms solutions of generally deep (>65 km) earthquakes are characteristic of reverse, reverse oblique and strike-slip faulting, though shallow normal mechanisms also occur. The main stress axes determined by right-dihedra diagrams reveal a dominant N-trending subhorizontal compression and a subvertical extension. Assuming uniform stress in the source region, the obtained regional stress ellipsoid that best fit these focal mechanisms is characterized by ?1: 06/348 (plunge, trend) and ?3: 68/172. These results suggest that a compressional to reverse strike-slip type of deformation affects the deep lithosphere of the southeastern Dominican Republic. In conclusion, the studied system of extensional faults is active and differs from the transpressive structures present in western, central and northern Hispaniola. Field evidences point to an extensional stress field affecting the uppermost crustal level, as in the Mona Passage. In contrast, the interpretation of seismicity, fault plane solutions and deep seismic reflection data suggests a compressional to reverse strike-slip stress regime affecting the deep subducting lithospheres. Historical description of destructive earthquakes, field evidences of seismites in the Late Pleistocene reef terraces, and the almost daily seismic activity are indicative of a seismic risk still not yet assessed in southeastern Dominican Republic.

  8. Recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierristal, G.; Benito, B.; Cervera, J.; Belizaire, D.

    2013-05-01

    Haiti, because of his seismicity associated with plate boundary and several faults that cross the island of Hispaniola (Haiti-Dominican Republic), has been affected in the past by major earthquakes, which have caused loss of life and damage or considerable structural collapses (ex. 1771, 1842), sometimes the destruction of the cities. The recent earthquake of January 12, 2010, was the most destructive earthquake that any country has experienced in modern times, when we measure the number of people killed with respect to the population of a country (Cavallo et al. 2010). It's obvious that the major causes of theses losses are the lack of awareness of the population about the earthquakes, the absence of seismic code and quality control of the building. In this paper, we propose some recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti in order to decrease physical and social impacts of earthquakes in the future. First of all, we present a theoretical part of concepts and fundamental elements to establish a seismic code, such as: description of the methodology for seismic hazard's assessment, presentation of the results in terms of acceleration maps for the whole country (in rock sites) and Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) in the cities, and the criteria for soil classification and amplification factors for including site's effects, equivalent forces, etc. Then, we include a practical part where calculations and comparisons of five seismic codes of different countries (Eurocode 8, Spain, Canada, United States and Dominican Republic) are included, in order to have criteria for making the proposals for Haiti. Using the results of Benito et al (presented in this session S10) we compare the UHS in different cities of Haiti with the response spectrum derived from the application of the spectral shapes given by the aforementioned codes. Furthermore, the classification of soils and buildings have been also analyzed and contrasted with local data in order to propose the more suitable classification for Haiti. Finally, we have proposed a methodology for the forces estimation providing the values of the relevant coefficients. References: EN 1998-1:2004 (E): Eurocode 8, Design of structures for earthquake resistance, Part 1(General Rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings), 2004. -MTPTC, (2011). Règles de calcul intérimaires pour les bâtiments en Haïti, Ministère des Travaux Publics, Transports et Communications, Février 2011, Haïti. -NBCC 2005: National Building Code of Canada, vol1, National Research Council of Canada 2005. -NCSE-02: Norma de construcción sismorresistente de España. BOE num.244, Viernes 11 Octubre 2002. -NEHRP, 2009. Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for new Buildings and Other Structures, FEMA P-750, February, Part 1 (Provisions) and Part 2 (Commentary). -R-001 (2011): Reglamento para el análisis y diseño sísmico de estructuras de República Dominicana. Decreto No. 201-11. Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Comunicaciones.

  9. Biogeography in deep time - What do phylogenetics, geology, and paleoclimate tell us about early platyrrhine evolution?

    PubMed

    Kay, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Molecular data have converged on a consensus about the genus-level phylogeny of extant platyrrhine monkeys, but for most extinct taxa and certainly for those older than the Pleistocene we must rely upon morphological evidence from fossils. This raises the question as to how well anatomical data mirror molecular phylogenies and how best to deal with discrepancies between the molecular and morphological data as we seek to extend our phylogenies to the placement of fossil taxa. Here I present parsimony-based phylogenetic analyses of extant and fossil platyrrhines based on an anatomical dataset of 399 dental characters and osteological features of the cranium and postcranium. I sample 16 extant taxa (one from each platyrrhine genus) and 20 extinct taxa of platyrrhines. The tree structure is constrained with a "molecular scaffold" of extant species as implemented in maximum parsimony using PAUP with the molecular-based 'backbone' approach. The data set encompasses most of the known extinct species of platyrrhines, ranging in age from latest Oligocene (?26 Ma) to the Recent. The tree is rooted with extant catarrhines, and Late Eocene and Early Oligocene African anthropoids. Among the more interesting patterns to emerge are: (1) known early platyrrhines from the Late Oligocene through Early Miocene (26-16.5Ma) represent only stem platyrrhine taxa; (2) representatives of the three living platyrrhine families first occur between 15.7 Ma and 13.5 Ma; and (3) recently extinct primates from the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola) are sister to the clade of extant platyrrhines and may have diverged in the Early Miocene. It is probable that the crown platyrrhine clade did not originate before about 20-24 Ma, a conclusion consistent with the phylogenetic analysis of fossil taxa presented here and with recent molecular clock estimates. The following biogeographic scenario is consistent with the phylogenetic findings and climatic and geologic evidence: Tropical South America has been a center for platyrrhine diversification since platyrrhines arrived on the continent in the middle Cenozoic. Platyrrhines dispersed from tropical South America to Patagonia at ?25-24 Ma via a "Paraná Portal" through eastern South America across a retreating Paranense Sea. Phylogenetic bracketing suggests Antillean primates arrived via a sweepstakes route or island chain from northern South America in the Early Miocene, not via a proposed land bridge or island chain (GAARlandia) in the Early Oligocene (?34 Ma). Patagonian and Antillean platyrrhines went extinct without leaving living descendants, the former at the end of the Early Miocene and the latter within the past six thousand years. Molecular evidence suggests crown platyrrhines arrived in Central America by crossing an intermittent connection through the Isthmus of Panama at or after 3.5Ma. Any more ancient Central American primates, should they be discovered, are unlikely to have given rise to the extant Central American taxa in situ. PMID:24333920

  10. On the Changes of the Hydrological Balance of Caribbean Lakes - Modeling and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comarazamy, D.; Gonzalez, J.; Glenn, E.; Leon, Y.; Brito, D. R.

    2013-05-01

    The Enriquillo and Sumatra are saltwater lakes located in a rift valley that is a former marine strait created around 1 million years ago when the water level fell and the strait was filled in by river sediments, they are the largest lakes in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, respectively, with Lake Enriquillo being the lowest point in the Caribbean. The lakes, part of the Enriquillo closed water basin in the southwestern region of the island of La Hispaniola, have been experiencing dramatic changes in total lake-surface area coverage during the period 1980-2012. The size of the lakes was determined using remote sensing images (NASA-LANDSAT) analyzed with geographic information system (GIS) at different times during the available record. The size calculation for Lake Enriquillo shows a lake surface area of approximately 276 km2 in 1984 that gradually decreased to 172 km2 in 1996. After a period of fluctuations between 1996 and 2001, the surface area of the lake reaches its lowest point in 2004, at 165 km2. Beginning in 2004, the recent growth of the lake begins and reaches its 1984 size in 2006. Based on surface area measurement for December 2009, the lake size is 333 km2, 17% larger than in 1984 and almost double than in 2004. Sumatra sizes at both ends of the record are 115.96 km2 in 1984 and 134.26 km2 in 2011, an overall 15.8% increase in 27 years. Because the lakes are mostly latitudinally restricted by topography, most of the size changes occur on the southeastern side of Lake Enriquillo, with some growth on the western tip. Determining the causes of lake surface area changes is of extreme importance due to the environmental, social, and economic consequences. The goal of this study is to quantify the changing water balance in these lakes using satellite and ground observations and regional atmospheric modeling. Analyses of environmental variables in the region reflect a hydrological unbalance of the lakes due to changing regional hydro-climatic conditions. Historical data show precipitation, land surface temperature and humidity, and sea surface temperature (SST), increasing all over the past decades. Salinity levels have also been decreasing by more than 30% from baseline levels. We hypothesized that the increases in SSTs may be leading to increases in regional moisture content which leads to decreases in evaporation capacity from the lakes, and simultaneously to increases in fresh water production in the neighboring sierras. A network of rain and fog gauges along the high sierras reflects growing cloud montane forests, with significant increase in water production. Results from a high-resolution mesoscale atmospheric modeling clearly reflect increases in the amount of liquid water content in the vertical column as function of changing regional climate conditions.

  11. A Seismo-Tectonic Signal From Offshore Sedimentation: The 2010 Haiti Earthquake and Prior Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, C. M.; Seeber, L.; Cormier, M.; Hornbach, M.; Momplaisir, R.; Waldhauser, F.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Gulick, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Mw 7.0 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti was one of the deadliest in history. It involved multiple faults along or near the main Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). This left-lateral transform is a branch of the northern Caribbean plate boundary across southern Hispaniola. The main rupture was strike-slip but almost all aftershocks had thrust mechanisms, and surface deformation may have been concentrated on anticline forelimbs driven by blind thrust faults. Earthquake generated mass-wasting and turbidity currents were sampled from the Canal du Sud slope (~1000 m water depth), a basin at 1500 m, and the deepest part of the strait at 1700 m. The turbidites were strongly correlated by 234Th with a half-life of 24 days. In the deepest area, a turbidite-homogenite unit (T-H) extends over 50 km2 and is composed of basal sand beds 5 cm thick and 50 cm of mud above. The sedimentary structures in the sand were linked to oscillatory motions by internal seiches. The T-H units recovered from the slope and deep basin are similar in composition. The Leogane Delta, upslope from the sampling sites, is rich in this lithology that has been linked to oceanic basement rocks exposed on the southern Haitian peninsula. In contrast, the T-H unit recovered from the basin at 1500 m is perched behind a thrust anticline and has a greater concentration of Ca derived from Ca rich sources such as the Tapion Ridge on the southern peninsula. The Tapion Ridge is a compressional structure associated with a restraining bend along the EPGF. The T-H unit beneath the 2010 deposit has a 14C age of 2400 cal yrs BP, and interpreted as an earthquake triggered deposit. It is nearly identical in thickness, composition and fine structures to the 2010 T-H. Notably absent from the record are younger turbidites that could have been linked to the historic 1770 AD and other similar earthquakes expected from GPS rates across the EPGF. Two hypotheses are being considered for this long gap in T-H sedimentation. One proposes that during relative high stands of sea level fringing reefs are trapping sediment on the shelf and that a critical accumulation is needed to generate failure. Many large local earthquakes could have occurred before reaching this critical thickness. Low sedimentation rates (6 cm/1000 yrs) support this possibility. Our preferred hypothesis, alternatively, links T-Hs to earthquakes with a large thrust component such as the 2010 event in order to generate failure. This latter hypothesis accounts for some earthquakes producing no turbidites while others, such as the 2010 event, do. It also accounts for the fracturing sampled along 8 km of the perched basin. We propose that thrust earthquakes along the Tapion Ridge segment of the EPGF reoccur at ~2000-year intervals and this sedimentary signal is preserved in Canal du Sud.

  12. Latest Pleistocene to Holocene Evolution of the Baie de Port au Prince, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, J. K.; McHugh, C. M.; Seeber, L.; Blair, S.; Sorlien, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Baie de Port au Prince (BPP) is adjacent a restraining segment of the sinistral Caribbean-North America plate boundary and is therefore situated between converging high-relief thrust systems, the Massif Selle (Peninsula Range) to the south and the Chaine de Matheux (Hispaniola highlands) to the north. To evaluate neotectonic deformation, seismic hazards and sedimentation patterns for the BPP, six gravity cores were studied within the framework of chirp profiles collected from the R/V Endeavor in 2010. The cores were recovered from 76 m to 148 m of water depth sampling sediment from the carbonate platform that rims the BPP and from the slope. We studied the biostratigraphy (foraminifers, nannoplankton), geochemical elemental composition and physical properties of the sediment. An age model from the last glacial to the present (~20 ka BP) was derived from radiocarbon. Nannoplankton biostratigraphy provide constraints on the late Pleistocene. The BPP is 150 m maximum water depth and is rimmed by an ~30 m deep carbonate platform that has undergone dissolution. Terraces characterize the sub-bottom topography to the NE. This topography was covered by sediment during at least one relative sea-level cycle. Sediment progradation and mass-wasting on the northern and southern flanks of the BPP respectively, occurred during the latest Pleistocene low stand (~20 ka BP). Increased sedimentation from 0.2 mm/year to 0.8 mm/year occurred from 14.2 ka BP to 9.5 ka BP. This period also corresponds with a global rapid rate in sea-level rise from -94 m to -37 m. A basin wide acoustically transparent layer of sediment ~10 m thick covered the BPP. Mass-wasting, microfaulting, fluidization and turbidites caused by erosion triggered by pre-historic earthquakes possibly associated with EPG transform fault are found in the cores. One such deposit is possibly associated to the 2010 earthquake and another to an unconformable surface that separates early- from late-Holocene sediment on the slope. The late Pleistocene sediment is laminated and microfossils assemblages reveal sediment reworking and shallow water depths. Normal marine sedimentation resumed from ~14 ka BP to the present. The climate was characterized by wet or high discharge intervals noted by an influx of wood fragments and sediment most likely derived from land (>Si weight %, Al%, Fe% and Cu ppm). Wet periods were less frequent in the Holocene. The late Holocene trend is to dryer climate consistent with previous studies of the region. Evaporation is manifested by an increase in subhedral gypsum coated in calcite. Limited chirp profiles across the BPP suggest subsidence to the south. Ages from the base of the cores will verify this possibility. Coseismic 2010 uplift was documented in the southwestern part of the Leogane delta, an area that has no evidence of long-term uplift. Chirp profiles and multibeam bathymetry close to this uplift, show a deepening of the sea-floor suggestive of ongoing subsidence. More studies are needed to better understand the long-term patterns of subsidence and uplift in this region.

  13. Seismic rupture process of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Mw7.0) inferred from seismic and SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Rúben; Caldeira, Bento; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad

    2013-04-01

    On January 12th 2010 at 21:53, the Port-au-Prince - Haiti region was struck by an Mw7 earthquake, the second most deadly of the history. The last seismic significant events in the region occurred in November 1751 and June 1770 [1]. Geodetic and geological studies, previous to the 2010 earthquake [2] have warned to the potential of the destructive seismic events in that region and this event has confirmed those warnings. Some aspects of the source of this earthquake are nonconsensual. There is no agreement in the mechanism of rupture or correlation with the fault that should have it generated [3]. In order to better understand the complexity of this rupture, we combined several techniques and data of different nature. We used teleseismic body-wave and Synthetic Aperture Radar data (SAR) based on the following methodology: 1) analysis of the rupture process directivity [4] to determine the velocity and direction of rupture; 2) teleseismic body-wave inversion to obtain the spatiotemporal fault slip distribution and a detailed rupture model; 3) near field surface deformation modeling using the calculated seismic rupture model and compared with the measured deformation field using SAR data of sensor Advanced Land Observing Satellite - Phased Array L-band SAR (ALOS-PALSAR). The combined application of seismic and geodetic data reveals a complex rupture that spread during approximately 12s mainly from WNW to ESE with average velocity of 2,5km/s, on a north-dipping fault plane. Two main asperities are obtained: the first (and largest) occurs within the first ~ 5sec and extends for approximately 6km around the hypocenter; the second one, that happens in the remaining 6s, covers a near surface rectangular strip with about 12km long by 3km wide. The first asperity is compatible with a left lateral strike-slip motion with a small reverse component; the mechanism of second asperity is predominantly reverse. The obtained rupture process allows modeling a coseismic deformation which is in agreement with the deformation field measured by InSAR. [1] Bakun W, Flores C, Brink U, 2012 Significant Earthquakes on the Enriquillo Fault System, Hispaniola, 1500-2010: Implications for Seismic Hazard. Bul. Seis. Soc. of America, 102(1):18-30. [2] Dixon, T. et al., 1998. Relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates and related boundary zone deformation based on a decade of GPS observations. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 15157-15182. [3] Mercier de Lépinay, B., Deschamps, A., Klingelhoefer, F., Mazabraud, Y., Delouis, B., Clouard, V., Hello Y., Crozon, J., Marcaillou, B., Graindorge, D., Vallée M., Perrot, J., Bouin, M., Saurel, J., Charvis, Philippe, C. and St-Louis, 2011. The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained by seismologic and tectonic observations, Geoph. Res. Let., 30, L22305 [4] Caldeira B, Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF., 2009 DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J. of Seis.. 2009;14(3):565-600.

  14. Near-field tsunami inferred from numerical modeling of medieval overwash at Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Atwater, B. F.; Tuttle, M. P.; Robert, H.; Feuillet, N.; Jennifer, W.; Fuentes, Z.

    2012-12-01

    In a comparison among numerical models of storms and tsunamis, only tsunami waves of nearby origin manage to wash over an area where coral heads of medieval age are scattered hundreds of meters inland from the north shore of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. This low-lying island faces the Puerto Rico Trench 120 km to the north. The island's north shore, fringed by a coral reef 100-1200 m offshore, displays geological evidence for two levels of overwash. The medieval overwash, dated to AD 1200-1450, was the higher one. It is evidenced by scores of coral boulders scattered hundreds of meters inland. Some of them crossed the area of the modern storm berm at Soldier Wash, continued across a broad limestone rise 3-4 m above sea level, and came to rest on lower ground farther inland. Coral heads in four other areas, also medieval or older, came to rest hundreds of meters inland from beach ridges now 2-4 m above sea level. The later, lower-elevation overwash, dated to AD 1650-1800, laid down a sheet of sand and shell that extends as much as 1.5 km inland. The hypothetical causes for each event, tested by numerical modeling, include (1) category IV and V hurricanes that differ in surge and wave heights; (2) the 1755 Lisbon earthquake or hypothetical medieval predecessor, at M 8.7 and M 9.0; (3) M 8.4 thrust earthquake along the Puerto Rico Trench between Hispaniola and Anegada; (4) M 8.7 thrust along the Puerto Rico Trench between Tortola and Antigua; (5) M 8.0 earthquake from normal faulting on the outer rise north of Anegada. The model output includes extent of onshore flooding, depth and velocity of overland flow, and energy lost by tsunami and hurricane waves as they cross the reef and continue across a shallow subtidal flat to Anegada's north shore. For the medieval overwash, the modeling is most conclusive in testing various explanations for the coral boulders inland of Soldier Wash. The simulated hurricane waves do not wash inland of the storm berm; the height of storm surge level is limited by deep water offshore, and the waves lose energy by breaking on the reef. As for the hypothesized tsunami sources, the Soldier Wash evidence is explained only by the M 8.7 interplate-thrust source along the eastern Puerto Rico Trench (4) or the outer-rise source north of Anegada (5). The M 8.7 interplate-thrust source may be inconsistent with recent GPS measurements [1], in which case the likely source is normal faulting on the outer rise (L = 132 km, W = 45 km, depth = 7.5 km, dip = 60°, strike = 110°, rake = -90°, slip = 7.1 m). The 1755 Lisbon tsunami may explain the sand-and-shell sheet from 1650-1800, with two caveats: (1) the sheet extends farther inland than does the modeled inundation from a Lisbon source smaller than M 9.0; and (2) neither of the Lisbon sources tested corresponds to mapped faults offshore Iberia (the modeled Lisbon sources strike NNW-SSE to account for flooding and damage elsewhere in the Caribbean [2]). In the hurricane models, the reef and the subtidal flats behind it dissipate too much wave energy from the storms to explain even the low-elevation overwash of 1650-1800. COMPANION ABSTRACTS: Geological evidence overview (Atwater), coral-boulder ages (Weil Accardo). REFERENCES: [1] GRL 39 (2012), L10304. [2] Marine Geology (2009), 264, 109-122.

  15. Mineral and whole rock compositions of peridotites from Loma Caribe (Dominican Republic): insights into the evolution of the oceanic mantle in the Caribbean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, C.; Garrido, C. J.; Proenza, J. A.; Konc, Z.; Hidas, K.; Lewis, J.; Lidiak, E.

    2012-04-01

    Several mantle peridotite massifs crop out as isolated dismembered bodies in tectonic belts along the northern margin of the Caribbean plate, especially in Cuba, Guatemala, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Among these bodies, the Loma Caribe peridotite forms the core of the Median Belt in central Dominican Republic and is considered to have been emplaced in Aptian time as result of the collision between an oceanic plateau (the Duarte plateau terrane) and the primitive Caribbean island arc. This peridotite massif is mainly composed of clinopyroxene-rich harzburgite, harzburgite, lherzolite and dunite which mainly have porphyroclastic texture with strongly deformed orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, as commonly observed in ophiolitic mantle tectonites. Mg# [100*Mg/(Mg+Fe2+)] of olivine increases from lower values in lherzolite (89-90), to higher values in harzburgite (89-91) and dunite (91-92). Orthopyroxene in harzburgite has higher Mg# (91-92) and lower Al2O3 (0.89 to 1.12 wt.%) than in lherzolite (Mg# = 89-91; Al2O3 = 2.4-3.5wt.%), similarly to clinopyroxene (Mg# = 94-95 and Al2O3 = 0.89-1.10 wt% in harzburgite, versus Mg# = 86-94 and Al2O3 = 2.3-4.0 wt% in lherzolite). Cr# [Cr/(Cr+Al)] of spinel spans from 0.30 in lherzolite to 0.88 in dunite. These variations in terms of Mg# in olivine and Cr# in spinel overlap the mineral compositions in both abyssal and supra-subduction zone peridotites. The sample/chondrite REE concentrations of peridotites are variable (0.002 < LREE chondrite-normalized < 0.11 and 0.002 < HREE chondrite-normalized < 1.02) and their HREE contents generally reflect the clinopyroxene proportions in the samples, i.e. harzburgite has lower HREE abundances than lherzolite. These trace element abundances are transitional between those of highly depleted supra-subduction peridotites from ophiolites in eastern Cuba and those of fertile mantle rocks in ultramafic massifs from Puerto Rico. Chondrite-normalized patterns are U-shaped (i.e., relatively rich in LREE) with steep fractionated HREE segments in harzburgite and hump-shaped MREE segments in lherzolite. Peridotites are enriched in the most incompatible trace elements (Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, U) and Pb, and show negative anomaly in Nb and Ta. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Loma Caribe peridotites are residues after moderate to high degrees (10-25%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. The relative enrichment in incompatible elements (e.g., LILE and LREE) in these rocks probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as micro-inclusions in minerals and resulted from interaction of melting residues with ascending melts. We interpret the Loma Caribe peridotite as a portion of heterogeneous sub-oceanic mantle lithosphere generated in Jurassic-Cretaceous time, which has been modified at a supra-subduction zone environment related to the Cretaceous Greater Antilles arc.

  16. From 2012 HAITI-SIS Survey: thick-skin versus thin-skin tectonics partitioned along offshore strike-slip Faults-Haïti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellouz, N.; Leroy, S. D.; Momplaisir, R.; Mercier de Lepinay, B.

    2013-12-01

    The characterization of the deformation along large strike-slip fault-systems like transpressive boundaries between N. Caribbean/N America is a challenging topic, which requires a multi-scale approach. Thanks to Haiti-sis new data, the precise description of the fault segmentation pattern, the sedimentogical distribution, the uplift/subsidence rates, the along-fault and intra-basin fluids circulations, allows to actualize the evolution of the deformation history up to present-day . All the co-seismic surface to near-surface events, have to be also identified in order to integrate geophysical solutions for the earthquake, within the present-day geological and structural pattern. These two approaches, ranging from geological to instantaneous time-scales have been used during multi-tools Haiti-Sis oceanographic survey, allowing to document and image these different aspects at a large scale. The complex strike-slip North Caribbean boundary registered significative stress partitioning. Oblique convergence is expressed by along-strike evolution; from rifted segments (Cayman Through) to transpressive ones (Haiti, Dominican Rep.), to subduction (Porto Rico). In the Haiti-Sis survey, we acquired new offshore data surrounding the active fault areas, in the Gonâve Bay, the Jamaica Channel and along Southern Peninsula. Mapping the sea-floor, and HR seismic acquisition were our main objectives, in order to characterize the fault and fold architecture, with a new delineation of active segments. Offshore piston cores, have been used as representative of the modern basin sedimentation, and to document the catastrophic events (earthquakes, massive flood or sudden destabilization of the platform ) represented by turbiditic or mass-flow sequences, with the objective to track the time recurrence of seismic events by dating some of these catastrophic sediment deposition. At surface, the other markers of the fault activity are linked with along-fault permeability and fluid circulation pathway changes. Geochemical signature and temperature of the fluids and gas, change drastically depending on location and depth provenance. Our first results show that 1) the present-day EPGF geometry results from oblique shortening processes along different segments of the fault. Deep basins previously localized south and north of the fault are inverted at different degrees, 2) the Gonâve Island is only the emerged part of a NW-SE, either growing large " anti-formal stack" or basement inversion responsible for the large present-day fold amplitude, or both of them successively. It separates two sub-basins South and North Gonâve with independant sedimentary and deformation evolution 3) the Jeremie Basin probably has a specific long-living evolution, allowing to precise the geodynamic evolution of the Western Hispaniola Margin.

  17. Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first time during the Lisbon(?) event. (3) A storm berm of coral rubble lies seaward of a field of coral boulders that marks the medieval overwash. The berm rises as much as 3 m above fair-weather high tides along Anegada's north shore at Soldier Wash, a sand-free stretch of coast 100 m from the fringing reef. The berm consists of imbricated, well-rounded fragments 15-30 cm in diameter on average. This rubble differs in preservation, size, and distribution from the brain-coral heads 1 m in diameter that the medieval overwash scattered hundreds of meters inland from Soldier Wash. *REFERENCES link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11069-010-9622-6; 2012 fall AGU abs OS32A-05 T41A-2562, and T41A-2566.

  18. Radar Observations of Convective Systems from a High-Altitude Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G.; Geerts, B.; Tian, L.

    1999-01-01

    Reflectivity data collected by the precipitation radar on board the tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, orbiting at 350 km altitude, are compared to reflectivity data collected nearly simultaneously by a doppler radar aboard the NASA ER-2 flying at 19-20 km altitude, i.e. above even the deepest convection. The TRMM precipitation radar is a scanning device with a ground swath width of 215 km, and has a resolution of about a4.4 km in the horizontal and 250 m in the vertical (125 m in the core swath 48 km wide). The TRMM radar has a wavelength of 217 cm (13.8 GHz) and the Nadir mirror echo below the surface is used to correct reflectivity for loss by attenuation. The ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) has two antennas, one pointing to the nadir, 34 degrees forward. The forward pointing beam receives both the normal and the cross-polarized echos, so the linear polarization ratio field can be monitored. EDOP has a wavelength of 3.12 cm (9.6 GHz), a vertical resolution of 37.5 m and a horizontal along-track resolution of about 100 m. The 2-D along track airflow field can be synthesized from the radial velocities of both beams, if a reflectivity-based hydrometer fall speed relation can be assumed. It is primarily the superb vertical resolution that distinguishes EDOP from other ground-based or airborne radars. Two experiments were conducted during 1998 into validate TRMM reflectivity data over convection and convectively-generated stratiform precipitation regions. The Teflun-A (TEXAS-Florida Underflight) experiment, was conducted in April and May and focused on mesoscale convective systems mainly in southeast Texas. TEFLUN-B was conducted in August-September in central Florida, in coordination with CAMEX-3 (Convection and Moisture Experiment). The latter was focused on hurricanes, especially during landfall, whereas TEFLUN-B concentrated on central; Florida convection, which is largely driven and organized by surface heating and ensuing sea breeze circulations. Both TEFLUN-A and B were amply supported by surface data, in particular a dense raingauge network, a polarization radar, wind profilers, a mobile radiosonde system, a cloud physics aircraft penetrating the overflown storms, and a network of 10 cm Doppler radars(WSR-88D). This presentation will show some preliminary comparisons between TRMM, EDOP, and WSR-88D reflectivity fields in the case of an MCS, a hurricane, and less organized convection in central Florida. A validation of TRMM reflectivity is important, because TRMM's primary objective is to estimate the rainfall climatology with 35 degrees of the equator. Rainfall is estimated from the radar reflectivity, as well from TRMM's Microwave Imager, which measures at 10.7, 19.4, 21.3, 37, and 85.5 GHz over a broader swath (78 km). While the experiments lasted about three months the cumulative period of near simultaneous observations of storms by ground-based, airborne and space borne radars is only about an hour long. Therefore the comparison is case-study-based, not climatological. We will highlight fundamental differences in the typical reflectivity profiles in stratiform regions of MCS's, Florida convection and hurricanes and will explain why Z-R relationships based on ground-based radar data for convective systems over land should be different from those for hurricanes. These catastrophically intense rainfall from hurricane Georges in Hispaniola and from Mitch in Honduras highlights the importance of accurate Z-R relationships, It will be shown that a Z-R relationship that uses the entire reflectivity profile (rather than just a 1 level) works much better in a variety of cases, making an adjustment of the constants for different precipitation system categories redundant.

  19. Changing Water-Resources on Ile de la Gonave, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troester, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    Ile de la Gonave is a 750-square-kilometer island off the western coast of Haiti. The island is composed of Eocene and Miocene limestones unconformably overlain by Pleistocene limestone. The highest elevation is 778 meters. Annual precipitation varies across the island because of the orographic effect and ranges from 800 to 1,400 millimeters. There is no surface water except immediately after large storms. Droughts, some extending for more than one year, and frequent crop failures due to droughts have been reported. Potential evaporation is estimated to be about 2,000 millimeters at the coast, but less at higher elevations. Consequently most rain is lost through evapotranspiration; recharge to the limestone aquifers apparently occurs only after large storms and is estimated to be about 4 percent of the mean annul precipitation based on a chloride mass balance. Depth to the water table ranges from less than 30 meters in the Eocene and Miocene limestones to over 60 meters in the 300-meter thick Quaternary limestone. Average annual precipitation at Port au-Prince (50 kilometers to the east and on the main island of Hispaniola) has decreased from about 1600 millimeters in 1860's to about 1300 mm in the 1950's. Precipitation data from Port-au-Prince after the 1950's are sporadic, making further comments about climate change difficult. Even without decreasing precipitation, which may be due in part to climate change or the deforestation of Haiti, the increasing population on Ile de la Gonave has and will continue to exacerbate the scarce water supply, particularly because of the small number of sources (springs, cave pools, and wells) where people can obtain water. Women take an average of almost three hours per day to travel an average of 2.5 kilometers (one-way) to obtain water for their families. Because of the difficulties in obtaining freshwater, the 100,000 inhabitants use an average of only 7 to 13 liters per person per day. Reconnaissance field analyses indicate that ground water in the interior of the island is of a calcium-bicarbonate type, while water at the coast is of a sodium-chloride type and has mixed with as much as 20 percent seawater. Tests for the presence of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria were negative in most drilled wells, but positive in most capped springs and positive in all springs, cave pools, and hand-dug wells, indicating contamination of most drinking-water sources. Widespread bacterial contamination of the water is not surprising, in that there are few latrines on the island and livestock grazes everywhere, enabling waste to be washed into the drinking water sources. The contaminated drinking water likely causes typhoid fever, which is frequently seen in the one hospital on the island.

  20. Some Aspects of the Physical Variability of the Caribbean Sea Relevant to Regional Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    The Caribbean Sea is the least studied portion of the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS), which is the combined Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Straits of Florida, and the adjacent western North Atlantic. The upstream elements of the Gulf Stream System are the dominant features of the upper ocean circulation in the Caribbean Sea. The Trade Winds superimpose a coastal upwelling regime along the northern coast of South America and a coastal downwelling regime along the southern coasts of Cuba and Hispaniola. The inflow from the Atlantic through several Antillean passages is derived from tropical and subtropical sources and is relatively weak, shallow, and variable; the outflow to the Gulf of Mexico through the Yucatan Channel is relatively strong, deep, and variable. The variability includes mesoscale eddies and meanders as well as the seasonal cycle and year-to-year variability; it also includes lengthy plumes from the Orinoco and other rivers and lengthy filaments from coastal upwelling centers. Some of the mesoscale variability originates in the Eastern Caribbean; other components originate in the Western Caribbean, especially in the cyclonic Panama-Colombia Gyre. The upper ocean of the Caribbean Sea is not only under the influence of the Trade Winds and their seasonal and longer term variability but also two other, not mutually exclusive, sources of variability: the seasonal heating and precipitation cycles on one hand, and synoptic scale and mesoscale phenomena on the other hand. For example, there are wet and dry seasons, and the Eastern Caribbean is typically dry and the Western Caribbean typically wet, with a heavy rainfall zone off the coast of Central America. And the patterns of atmospheric deep convection and subsidence apparently account for the summertime intensification of an extensive "warm pool" concentrated in the Northwestern Caribbean, which is exported to the Gulf of Mexico. As another example, the weekly Tropical Easterly Waves (TEWs) are the predominant synoptic atmospheric systems in the summertime, while weekly cold front passages are predominant in wintertime. Some of the TEWs develop into tropical cyclones and hurricanes, a subset of which commonly pass over the warm pool that may foster their further development. The atmospheric regime includes the Caribbean Low Level Jet (CLLJ) embedded in the Trade Winds and which may play a critical role in the summertime transport of moisture into the American Midwest. How these synoptic scale systems affect air-sea transfers in the IAS has yet to be quantified. Some of the above points are illustrated with numerical simulations using IAS-POM, an implementation of the Princeton Ocean Model with eddy-admitting resolution. Others are illustrated using information from climatology and recent observations. A challenging potential application is the scientific design of Marine Protected Areas, especially their separation distances taking into account the probable Lagrangian pathways (and rates) linking nearest neighbors through hypothetical larval transports, as illustrated by IAS-POM.

  1. Seismic Hazard in Haiti: A Geologic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, C. S.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Narcisse, R.

    2012-12-01

    The catastrophic M 7.0 earthquake that occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010 highlighted the hazard associated with the Caribbean-North American plate boundary in Hispaniola. Detailed analysis and modeling of geologic, geodetic, and seismologic data showed that most of the moment release occurred on a previously unidentified, north-dipping, blind thrust fault (now named the Léogâne fault), which is north of the plate-bounding, left-lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF). The result that the Léogâne fault was the source of the 2010 earthquake implies that the EPGF remains a significant hazard and raises the question of other potential seismic sources near Port-au-Prince (PaP). Following the earthquake, we mapped Quaternary traces of the EPGF in the field using satellite imagery, aerial photography, and LiDAR data. We identified three paleoseismic study sites along the EPGF: the Jean-Jean and Marianne sites southwest of PaP along the Momance section of the EPGF and the Riviére Grise site southeast of PaP along the Dumay section. Trenches at the Jean-Jean site show fault strands breaking nearly to the ground surface, but that did not move in the 2010 earthquake. We collected radiocarbon samples from faulted strata that we anticipate will provide constraints on the age of the most recent surface rupture. We also identified a buried channel deposit that is left-laterally offset a minimum of 3 m, and collected radiocarbon samples to constrain its age. In a natural stream cut at the Marianne site, we documented three colluvial wedges, and collected samples for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating that we anticipate will provide age constraints on the three most recent earthquakes. At Riviére Grise we documented evidence for three surface ruptures in a fluvial terrace deposit, and collected OSL samples to constrain their ages. Our preliminary geomorphic analysis of a belt of low hills north of the EPGF and east of PaP suggests that these hills are young folds likely underlain by blind thrust faults. Reconnaissance field observations show that the hills are cored by folded alluvial-fan deposits of probable Quaternary age and that the folding defeated north-flowing drainages and ponded lacustrine sediment on the south flank of the folds. Radiocarbon analyses of charcoal samples collected from ponded sediments will help to constrain the age of recent deformation. These blind thrust faults are potentially additional earthquake sources that should be included in seismic hazard assessments for PaP. In our reconnaissance along the Matheux-Neiba fault north of PaP we found only weak evidence of recent deformation, and while this fault system may also be a potential earthquake source, its rate of activity is much lower than the rate on the EPGF. Because the EPGF adjacent to PaP did not rupture in 2010, and has not ruptured in at least 240 years, considerable strain remains to be released in a future earthquake, and this fault still poses a major hazard to densely populated parts of Haiti, including Port-au-Prince.

  2. Hurricane Isabel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: AIRS infrared channel 2333 (2616 cm-1)

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2: Total Water Vapor retrieved from AIRS infrared and AMSU-A microwave data

    September 18, 2003 These two false-color images show Hurricane Isabel viewed by the AIRS and AMSU-A instruments at 1:30 EDT in the morning of Thursday September 18, 2003. Isabel will be ashore within 12 hours, bringing widespread flooding and destructive winds. In figure 1 on the left, data retrieved by the AIRS infrared sensor shows the hurricane's eye as the small ring of pale blue near the upper left corner of the image. The dark blue band around the eye shows the cold tops of hundreds of powerful thunderstorms. These storms are embedded in the 120 mile per hour winds swirling counterclockwise around Isabel's eye. Cape Hatteras is the finger of land north-northwest of the eye. Isabel's winds will soon push ashore a 4- to 8-foot high mound of 'storm surge' and accompanying high surf, leading to flooding of Cape Hatteras and other islands of North Carolina's Outer Banks. Also seen in the image are several organized bands of cold, (blue) thunderstorm tops being pulled into the storm center. Other thunderstorm are forming north of the islands of Jamaica, Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico near the bottom of the picture.

    Figure 2 shows the geographical distribution and total amount of atmospheric water vapor associated with Isabel as inferred by AIRS and AMSU-A. Very humid areas appear deep red and surround the storm's eye in the ring of thunderstorms, as seen above. The enhancement of atmospheric water vapor in the storm is maintained by evaporation from the wind-churned sea surface. In turn, the water vapor powers the thunderstorms by condensing as rain and releasing the ocean's warmth into the atmosphere to drive strong convection. This makes Isabel and other hurricanes 'heat engines,' converting ocean water's warmth into atmospheric gales. Isabel is weakening as it move ashore and loses its supply of energy from warm water, but not before raining an expected 6-12 inch thick layer of its water over an area extending from South Carolina and New England to the midwest and southern Canada. Paler blue areas in the water vapor image show less humid heights of the atmosphere, which are associated with the colder thunderstorm tops seen in the infrared image.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena

  3. The Role of Science and Engineering in Rebuilding a More Resilient Haiti (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, D.

    2010-12-01

    Rebuilding a more disaster-resilient Haiti is the defining challenge in the wake of the devastating magnitude-7 earthquake that struck in January. The contrasting experience of Chile, which weathered a magnitude-8.8 earthquake in April with casualties in the hundreds, teaches us that building resilience is an achievable and desirable goal given suitable investments and governance. Scientists and engineers have much to contribute, but doing so requires effective mechanisms to enable them to inform the rebuilding process. The international donor community has been a key point of engagement since their funds provide the opportunity to build new schools, hospitals, critical infrastructure and housing that will not fail in the next disaster. In advance of a gathering of international donors at the end of March, the U.S. National Science and Technology Council’s interagency Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction convened a workshop that brought together over 100 scientists, engineers, planners, and policymakers, including a delegation of Haitian government officials and academics. Hosted by the University of Miami and organized by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, the workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction with support from NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Key findings from the workshop covered the need to adopt and enforce international building codes, to use hazard assessments for earthquakes, inland flooding, and landslides in the planning process, and the central importance of long-term capacity building. As an example of one science agency’s contributions, the USGS informed the initial response by rapidly characterizing the earthquake and delivering estimates of population exposure to strong shaking that were used by humanitarian organizations, aid agencies, and the Haitians themselves. In the ensuing weeks, the USGS tracked aftershocks and issued statements with probabilities of future earthquakes. Early on, the U.S. Southern Command made it possible to put an advance team of engineers and a USGS seismologist on the ground in Haiti. That initial team was followed by the first major deployment of a USGS/USAID Earthquake Disaster Assistance Team, which evolved from the long-standing partnership between these two agencies. EDAT activities included field assessment of faulting, coastal uplift, and landslides; seismometer deployments for aftershock recording and characterization of ground shaking amplification; and development of a probabilistic seismic hazard map for Haiti and the whole island of Hispaniola. The team’s efforts benefited greatly from collaboration with Haitian colleagues with knowledge transfer occurring in both directions. The effort also benefited from significant remote sensing acquisitions, which helped to target field activities and constrain fault rupture patterns. Although the products have been put to use in Haiti, it still remains to turn hazard assessments into tools that can be used for effective planning, building code development and land-use decisions.

  4. Diachronous uplift and recycling of sedimentary basins during Cenozoic tectonic transpression, northeastern Caribbean plate margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heubeck, Christoph; Mann, Paul; Dolan, James; Monechi, Simonetta

    1991-02-01

    Four marine sedimentary sequences of Late Cretaceous to Pleistocene age crop out in the 320 km long, 1 to 30 km wide Peralta-Rio Ocoa belt of Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic). The four sedimentary sequences are dominated by marine turbiditic rocks ranging up to 11.5 km in apparent thickness and exhibit mainly northwest to southeast, belt-parallel paleocurrents. The three younger sequences are generally in fault or unconformable contact with the underlying sequence. From northwest to southeast, the four belts become progressively wider, younger, less metamorphosed, less folded and faulted, and lower in topographic elevation. We interpret the three younger sequences as a syn-tectonic stratigraphic record of diachronous, northwest to southeast transpressional closure of a Coniacian-Danian back-arc basin represented by the oldest exposed sedimentary sequence at the northwest end of the belt and inferred at depth beneath the three younger sequences. Using the stratigraphic record, we infer the following three stages in the closure of the back-arc basin and the overlying younger basins. Stage One: latest Cretaceous to early Late Eocene closure. A minimum of 11 km of Paleocene turbidites and limestone in the Padre las Casas area and a minimum of 11.5 km of Early Eocene to early Late Eocene pelagic limestone, mudstone, sandstone, and siltstone in the Peralta and Sierra El Numero areas was deposited in an elongate basin derived from the first stage of latest Cretaceous-early Late Eocene closure and erosion of the Coniacian-Danian back-arc basin to the northwest. Paleocene-Eocene turbidites in both areas contain large amounts of reworked Campanian-Paleocene microfauna and exhibit northwest to southeast belt-parallel paleocurrents. Syn-deformational features in Eocene sedimentary rocks in the Peralta and Sierra El Numero area indicate that convergent deformation accompanied sedimentation (Witschard and Dolan, 1990). Stage Two: Middle Eocene to Early Miocene closure. Up to 8.6 km of Middle Eocene to Early Miocene turbidites, debris flows, and olistostromes of the Rio Ocoa Group of the Dominican Republic were deposited in an elongate basin derived from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene closure, uplift, and erosion of the Peralta Group to the west and northwest. Turbidites contain reworked Eocene faunas and lithologies similar to those in the underlying Peralta Group and exhibit northwest to southeast, belt-parallel paleocurrents. Erosion of Late Cretaceous island arc and overlying Paleogene carbonate rocks of the Cordillera Central provided additional belt-perpendicular sources of coarser-grained conglomerate and olistostromes. Following deposition of the Rio Ocoa Group, both the Peralta and the Rio Ocoa Group were deformed in a southwest-verging fold-and-thrust belt during the Early Miocene. Stage Three: Middle Miocene to Recent closure. Up to 1.5 km of Middle Miocene to Pleistocene sandstone, conglomerate, and reefal limestone of the Ingenio Caei Group of the Dominican Republic were deposited in an elongate basin above a pronounced angular unconformity developed on the older, deformed rocks of the Rio Ocoa Group. Sediments of the Ingenio Caei Group were derived from Middle Miocene to Recent closure, uplift, and erosion of the Rio Ocoa and Peralta Groups to the northwest. Onshore exposures of the Ingenio Caei Group can be correlated with submerged strata seen on seismic reflection profiles across the offshore San Pedro basin. Recent submarine clastic sedimentation in the San Pedro basin is dominated by northwest to southeast influx of clastic turbidites derived from active erosion of onshore exposures of the Rio Ocoa and Ingenio Caei Groups. Middle Miocene (?) to Recent sediments of the San Pedro basin are being actively shortened by northward to northeastward-directed underthrusting along the Muertos trench. Underthrusting at the Muertos trench is suggested to represent ongoing closure of the back-arc basin thought to be deeply buried beneath the San Pedro basin. Tectonic transpression along the closing back-arc basin marks o

  5. Geochemistry of jadeitites and jadeite-lawsonite rocks in a serpentinite mélange (Rio San Juan Complex, northern Dominican Republic): Constraints on fluid composition in a subduction channel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baese, Rauno; Maresch, Walter V.; Schenk, Volker; Schertl, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    Jadeitites are excellent rock types for obtaining information on fluid composition in subduction zones. Recent studies indicate that many jadeitites appear to have formed by direct precipitation from a fluid [1]. In almost all localities worldwide (see e.g. Harlow and Sorensen, 2005) jadeitites are found either as allochthonous blocks or as veins and lenses directly within the serpentinite country rock of serpentinite mélanges. In the Rio San Juan Complex on the other hand jadeitite also frequently occurs as veins (cm to some dm in thickness) within lawsonite-blueschist blocks [2,3,4] entrained in the serpentinite mélange. The mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex also contains blocks (m to 10m scale) of different metamorphic grade and lithology (eclogites, blueschists, orthogneisses and very low grade rocks) showing contrasting but interrelated P-T-t paths. The consistency of such interrelated P-T-t paths with those obtained by numerical models led Krebs et al. [5] to interpret the mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex as a former subduction channel. So far, two types of jadeitite have been found in the blueschist blocks: either as discordant veins cutting the foliation, or as concordant layers. In some cases the jadeitites contain large amounts of lawsonite and should then better be called jadeite-lawsonite rocks. The latter rock type may form a network of thin (< 1cm) veinlets that are folded. In both jadeitite and jadeite-lawsonite rocks XJd in clinopyroxene ranges between 0.80 and 0.99. The contact between vein and host rock is very sharp and petrographically no sign of a depletion zone near the vein can be recognized, indicating that the infiltrating fluid originated from an external source and was not released from the adjoining host rock. A mineralogical center-to-rim zonation has been identified in the jadeitite veins. Near the contact to the blueschist, lawsonite is the dominant mineral phase and towards the center the amount of jadeite increases. Major and trace element concentrations also change from centers to rims. Ca/Na varies from 0.75-0.77 in the center to 1.03-1.29 in the rim; the rims are enriched in Rb, Ba, Pb, Eu and have slightly higher REE concentrations than the centers. This may be explained by the lower solubility of lawsonite compared to that of jadeite [6], causing lawsonite to crystallize first during precipitation. Lawsonite crystallization leads to a decrease of the Ca/Na ratio in the fluid. When the Ca/Na ratio becomes low enough jadeite starts to crystallize. Based on chemical data, jadeitites and jadeite-lawsonite rocks can be subdivided into two groups. The chondrite-normalised REE pattern of the first group shows decreasing normalized values from LREE (40-10 times) towards HREE (8-1 times). The second group has a U-shaped pattern with a strong positive Eu (5 times) anomaly. Even though no depletion zone in the adjoining host rock of the jadeitite is petrographically visible, there are lower REE concentrations in blueschists directly adjacent to the veins as compared to homogeneous blueschists without any veins. This clearly indicates some fluid-rock interaction during formation of the veins. References 1) Harlow G.E., Sorensen S.S. (2005) Jade (nephrite and jadeitite) and serpentinite: Metasomatic connections. International Geology Review 47:113-146. 2) Schertl, H.-P., Maresch, W.V., Krebs, M., Draper, G. (2007) The Rio San Juan serpentinite complex and its jadeitites (Dominican Republic). In: Martens U., García-Casco A. (eds) High-pressure belts of Central Guatemala: the Motagua suture and the Chuacús Complex. IGCP 546 Special Contribution, 1. 3) Schertl, H.-P., Krebs, M., Maresch, W.V., Draper, G. (2007) Jadeitite from Hispaniola: a link between Guatemala and Antigua? 20th Colloquium on Latin American Earth Sciences, Kiel, Germany, Abstract Volume, 167-168 4) Baese, R., Schertl, H.-P., Maresch, W.V. (2007) Mineralogy and petrology of Hispaniolan jadeitites: first results. In: Martens U., García-Casco A. (eds) High-pressure belts of Central Guatemala: the Motagua suture and the Chuacús Complex. IGCP 546 Special Contribution, 1. 5) Krebs, M., Maresch, W.V., Schertl, H.-P., Münker, C., Baumann, A., Draper, G., Idleman, B., Trapp, E. (2008) The dynamics of intra-oceanic subduction zones: a direct comparison between fossil petrological evidence (Rio San Juan Complex, Dominican Republic) and numerical simulation. Lithos 103:106-137. 6) Azmiov, P.Y., Bushmin, S.A. (2007) Solubility of minerals of metamorphic and metasomatic rocks in hydrothermal solutions of varying acidity: Thermodynamic modeling at 400-800 degrees C and 1-5 kbar. Geochemistry International 45: 1210-1234.