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Sample records for histone variant ratios

  1. Histone variants and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Henikoff, Steven; Smith, M Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Histones package and compact DNA by assembling into nucleosome core particles. Most histones are synthesized at S phase for rapid deposition behind replication forks. In addition, the replacement of histones deposited during S phase by variants that can be deposited independently of replication provide the most fundamental level of chromatin differentiation. Alternative mechanisms for depositing different variants can potentially establish and maintain epigenetic states. Variants have also evolved crucial roles in chromosome segregation, transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and other processes. Investigations into the evolution, structure, and metabolism of histone variants provide a foundation for understanding the participation of chromatin in important cellular processes and in epigenetic memory. PMID:25561719

  2. Histone variants: emerging players in cancer biology

    PubMed Central

    Vardabasso, Chiara; Hasson, Dan; Ratnakumar, Kajan; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Duarte, Luis F.

    2014-01-01

    Histone variants are key players in shaping chromatin structure, and, thus, in regulating fundamental cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene expression. Emerging evidence points towards a role for histone variants in contributing to tumor progression, and, recently, the first cancer-associated mutation in a histone variant-encoding gene was reported. In addition, genetic alterations of the histone chaperones that specifically regulate chromatin incorporation of histone variants are rapidly being uncovered in numerous cancers. Collectively, these findings implicate histone variants as potential drivers of cancer initiation and/or progression, and, therefore, targeting histone deposition or the chromatin remodeling machinery may be of therapeutic value. Here, we review the mammalian histone variants of the H2A and H3 families in their respective cellular functions, and their involvement in tumor biology. PMID:23652611

  3. Histone H3 Variants in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Zubácová, Zuzana; Hostomská, Jitka; Tachezy, Jan

    2012-05-01

    The parabasalid protist Trichomonas vaginalis is a widespread parasite that affects humans, frequently causing vaginitis in infected women. Trichomonad mitosis is marked by the persistence of the nuclear membrane and the presence of an asymmetric extranuclear spindle with no obvious direct connection to the chromosomes. No centromeric markers have been described in T. vaginalis, which has prevented a detailed analysis of mitotic events in this organism. In other eukaryotes, nucleosomes of centromeric chromatin contain the histone H3 variant CenH3. The principal aim of this work was to identify a CenH3 homolog in T. vaginalis. We performed a screen of the T. vaginalis genome to retrieve sequences of canonical and variant H3 histones. Three variant histone H3 proteins were identified, and the subcellular localization of their epitope-tagged variants was determined. The localization of the variant TVAG_185390 could not be distinguished from that of the canonical H3 histone. The sequence of the variant TVAG_087830 closely resembled that of histone H3. The tagged protein colocalized with sites of active transcription, indicating that the variant TVAG_087830 represented H3.3 in T. vaginalis. The third H3 variant (TVAG_224460) was localized to 6 or 12 distinct spots at the periphery of the nucleus, corresponding to the number of chromosomes in G(1) phase and G(2) phase, respectively. We propose that this variant represents the centromeric marker CenH3 and thus can be employed as a tool to study mitosis in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, we suggest that the peripheral distribution of CenH3 within the nucleus results from the association of centromeres with the nuclear envelope throughout the cell cycle. PMID:22408228

  4. Histone variants and melanoma: facts and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Ulff-Møller, Constance J; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with rising incidence and morbidity. Despite advances in treatment, the 10-yr survival for patients with metastatic disease is less than 10%. During the past few years, ongoing research on different epigenomic aberrations in melanoma has catalyzed better understanding of its pathogenesis and identification of new therapeutics. In our review, we will focus on the role of histone variants, key epigenetic players in melanoma initiation and progression. Specifically, incorporation of histone variants enables additional layers of chromatin structure, and here, we will describe how alterations in this epigenetic behavior impact melanoma. PMID:26909678

  5. The Structural Determinants behind the Epigenetic Role of Histone Variants

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Manjinder S.; Ausió, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Histone variants are an important part of the histone contribution to chromatin epigenetics. In this review, we describe how the known structural differences of these variants from their canonical histone counterparts impart a chromatin signature ultimately responsible for their epigenetic contribution. In terms of the core histones, H2A histone variants are major players while H3 variant CenH3, with a controversial role in the nucleosome conformation, remains the genuine epigenetic histone variant. Linker histone variants (histone H1 family) haven’t often been studied for their role in epigenetics. However, the micro-heterogeneity of the somatic canonical forms of linker histones appears to play an important role in maintaining the cell-differentiated states, while the cell cycle independent linker histone variants are involved in development. A picture starts to emerge in which histone H2A variants, in addition to their individual specific contributions to the nucleosome structure and dynamics, globally impair the accessibility of linker histones to defined chromatin locations and may have important consequences for determining different states of chromatin metabolism. PMID:26213973

  6. HistoneDB 2.0: a histone database with variants--an integrated resource to explore histones and their variants.

    PubMed

    Draizen, Eli J; Shaytan, Alexey K; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Talbert, Paul B; Landsman, David; Panchenko, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    Compaction of DNA into chromatin is a characteristic feature of eukaryotic organisms. The core (H2A, H2B, H3, H4) and linker (H1) histone proteins are responsible for this compaction through the formation of nucleosomes and higher order chromatin aggregates. Moreover, histones are intricately involved in chromatin functioning and provide a means for genome dynamic regulation through specific histone variants and histone post-translational modifications. 'HistoneDB 2.0--with variants' is a comprehensive database of histone protein sequences, classified by histone types and variants. All entries in the database are supplemented by rich sequence and structural annotations with many interactive tools to explore and compare sequences of different variants from various organisms. The core of the database is a manually curated set of histone sequences grouped into 30 different variant subsets with variant-specific annotations. The curated set is supplemented by an automatically extracted set of histone sequences from the non-redundant protein database using algorithms trained on the curated set. The interactive web site supports various searching strategies in both datasets: browsing of phylogenetic trees; on-demand generation of multiple sequence alignments with feature annotations; classification of histone-like sequences and browsing of the taxonomic diversity for every histone variant. HistoneDB 2.0 is a resource for the interactive comparative analysis of histone protein sequences and their implications for chromatin function. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/HistoneDB2.0. PMID:26989147

  7. Histone variants as emerging regulators of embryonic stem cell identity

    PubMed Central

    Turinetto, Valentina; Giachino, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure is an important mechanism for balancing the pluripotency and cell fate decision in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Indeed ESCs are characterized by unusual chromatin packaging, and a wide variety of chromatin regulators have been implicated in control of pluripotency and differentiation. Genome-wide maps of epigenetic factors have revealed a unique epigenetic signature in pluripotent ESCs and have contributed models to explain their plasticity. In addition to the well known epigenetic regulation through DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA, histone variants are emerging as important regulators of ESC identity. In this review, we summarize and discuss the recent progress that has highlighted the central role of histone variants in ESC pluripotency and ESC fate, focusing, in particular, on H1 variants, H2A variants H2A.X, H2A.Z and macroH2A and H3 variant H3.3. PMID:26114724

  8. Examining the Impact of Gene Variants on Histone Lysine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Van Rechem, Capucine; Whetstine, Johnathan R.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a boom in the amount of genome-wide sequencing data that has uncovered important and unappreciated links between certain genes, families of genes and enzymatic processes and diseases such as cancer. Such studies have highlighted the impact that chromatin modifying enzymes could have in cancer and other genetic diseases. In this review, we summarize characterized mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs), histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) and histones. We primarily focus on variants with strong disease correlations and discuss how they could impact histone lysine methylation dynamics and gene regulation. PMID:24859469

  9. Phosphorylation of histone variant regions in chromatin: unlocking the linker?

    PubMed

    Green, G R

    2001-01-01

    Histone variants illuminate the behavior of chromatin through their unique structures and patterns of postsynthetic modification. This review examines the literature on heteromorphous histone structures in chromatin, structures that are primary targets for histone kinases and phosphatases in vivo. Special attention is paid to certain well-studied experimental systems: mammalian culture cells, chicken erythrocytes, sea urchin sperm, wheat sprouts, Tetrahymena, and budding yeast. A common theme emerges from these studies. Specialized, highly basic structures in histone variants promote chromatin condensation in a variety of developmental situations. Before, and sometimes after condensed chromatin is formed, the chromatin is rendered soluble by phosphorylation of the heteromorphous regions, preventing their interaction with linker DNA. A simple structural model accounting for histone variation and phosphorylation is presented. PMID:11467741

  10. Linker histone variants control chromatin dynamics during early embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Hideaki; Ohsumi, Keita; Aihara, Hitoshi; Ito, Takashi; Hirose, Susumu; Ura, Kiyoe; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2005-01-01

    Complex transitions in chromatin structure produce changes in genome function during development in metazoa. Linker histones, the last component of nucleosomes to be assembled into chromatin, comprise considerably divergent subtypes as compared with core histones. In all metazoa studied, their composition changes dramatically during early embryogenesis concomitant with zygotic gene activation, leading to distinct functional changes that are still poorly understood. Here, we show that early embryonic linker histone B4, which is maternally expressed, is functionally different from somatic histone H1 in influencing chromatin structure and dynamics. We developed a chromatin assembly system with nucleosome assembly protein-1 as a linker histone chaperone. This assay system revealed that maternal histone B4 allows chromatin to be remodeled by ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor, whereas somatic histone H1 prevents this remodeling. Structural analysis shows that histone B4 does not significantly restrict the accessibility of linker DNA. These findings define the functional significance of developmental changes in linker histone variants. We propose a model that holds that maternally expressed linker histones are key molecules specifying nuclear dynamics with respect to embryonic totipotency. PMID:15821029

  11. Germline-specific H1 variants: the "sexy" linker histones.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montero, Salvador; Carbonell, Albert; Azorín, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    The eukaryotic genome is packed into chromatin, a nucleoprotein complex mainly formed by the interaction of DNA with the abundant basic histone proteins. The fundamental structural and functional subunit of chromatin is the nucleosome core particle, which is composed by 146 bp of DNA wrapped around an octameric protein complex formed by two copies of each core histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. In addition, although not an intrinsic component of the nucleosome core particle, linker histone H1 directly interacts with it in a monomeric form. Histone H1 binds nucleosomes near the exit/entry sites of linker DNA, determines nucleosome repeat length and stabilizes higher-order organization of nucleosomes into the ∼30 nm chromatin fiber. In comparison to core histones, histone H1 is less well conserved through evolution. Furthermore, histone H1 composition in metazoans is generally complex with most species containing multiple variants that play redundant as well as specific functions. In this regard, a characteristic feature is the presence of specific H1 variants that replace somatic H1s in the germline and during early embryogenesis. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge about their structural and functional properties. PMID:25921218

  12. Identification and characterization of the genes encoding the core histones and histone variants of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Shan M; Swanson, Johanna; Selker, Eric U

    2002-01-01

    We have identified and characterized the complete complement of genes encoding the core histones of Neurospora crassa. In addition to the previously identified pair of genes that encode histones H3 and H4 (hH3 and hH4-1), we identified a second histone H4 gene (hH4-2), a divergently transcribed pair of genes that encode H2A and H2B (hH2A and hH2B), a homolog of the F/Z family of H2A variants (hH2Az), a homolog of the H3 variant CSE4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (hH3v), and a highly diverged H4 variant (hH4v) not described in other species. The hH4-1 and hH4-2 genes, which are 96% identical in their coding regions and encode identical proteins, were inactivated independently. Strains with inactivating mutations in either gene were phenotypically wild type, in terms of growth rates and fertility, but the double mutants were inviable. As expected, we were unable to isolate null alleles of hH2A, hH2B, or hH3. The genomic arrangement of the histone and histone variant genes was determined. hH2Az and the hH3-hH4-1 gene pair are on LG IIR, with hH2Az centromere-proximal to hH3-hH4-1 and hH3 centromere-proximal to hH4-1. hH3v and hH4-2 are on LG IIIR with hH3v centromere-proximal to hH4-2. hH4v is on LG IVR and the hH2A-hH2B pair is located immediately right of the LG VII centromere, with hH2A centromere-proximal to hH2B. Except for the centromere-distal gene in the pairs, all of the histone genes are transcribed toward the centromere. Phylogenetic analysis of the N. crassa histone genes places them in the Euascomycota lineage. In contrast to the general case in eukaryotes, histone genes in euascomycetes are few in number and contain introns. This may be a reflection of the evolution of the RIP (repeat-induced point mutation) and MIP (methylation induced premeiotically) processes that detect sizable duplications and silence associated genes. PMID:11901114

  13. HistoneDB 2.0: a histone database with variants—an integrated resource to explore histones and their variants

    PubMed Central

    Draizen, Eli J.; Shaytan, Alexey K.; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Talbert, Paul B.; Landsman, David; Panchenko, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Compaction of DNA into chromatin is a characteristic feature of eukaryotic organisms. The core (H2A, H2B, H3, H4) and linker (H1) histone proteins are responsible for this compaction through the formation of nucleosomes and higher order chromatin aggregates. Moreover, histones are intricately involved in chromatin functioning and provide a means for genome dynamic regulation through specific histone variants and histone post-translational modifications. ‘HistoneDB 2.0 – with variants’ is a comprehensive database of histone protein sequences, classified by histone types and variants. All entries in the database are supplemented by rich sequence and structural annotations with many interactive tools to explore and compare sequences of different variants from various organisms. The core of the database is a manually curated set of histone sequences grouped into 30 different variant subsets with variant-specific annotations. The curated set is supplemented by an automatically extracted set of histone sequences from the non-redundant protein database using algorithms trained on the curated set. The interactive web site supports various searching strategies in both datasets: browsing of phylogenetic trees; on-demand generation of multiple sequence alignments with feature annotations; classification of histone-like sequences and browsing of the taxonomic diversity for every histone variant. HistoneDB 2.0 is a resource for the interactive comparative analysis of histone protein sequences and their implications for chromatin function. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/HistoneDB2.0 PMID:26989147

  14. Distinct Features of the Histone Core Structure in Nucleosomes Containing the Histone H2A.B Variant

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Shirayama, Kazuyoshi; Fujita, Risa; Oba, Yojiro; Sato, Nobuhiro; Inoue, Rintaro; Oda, Takashi; Sato, Mamoru; Heenan, Richard K.; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosomes containing a human histone variant, H2A.B, in an aqueous solution were analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering utilizing a contrast variation technique. Comparisons with the canonical H2A nucleosome structure revealed that the DNA termini of the H2A.B nucleosome are detached from the histone core surface, and flexibly expanded toward the solvent. In contrast, the histone tails are compacted in H2A.B nucleosomes compared to those in canonical H2A nucleosomes, suggesting that they bind to the surface of the histone core and/or DNA. Therefore, the histone tail dynamics may function to regulate the flexibility of the DNA termini in the nucleosomes. PMID:24853749

  15. Global turnover of histone post-translational modifications and variants in human cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on the N-terminal tails of histones and histone variants regulate distinct transcriptional states and nuclear events. Whereas the functional effects of specific PTMs are the current subject of intense investigation, most studies characterize histone PTMs/variants in a non-temporal fashion and very few studies have reported kinetic information about these histone forms. Previous studies have used radiolabeling, fluorescence microscopy and chromatin immunoprecipitation to determine rates of histone turnover, and have found interesting correlations between increased turnover and increased gene expression. Therefore, histone turnover is an understudied yet potentially important parameter that may contribute to epigenetic regulation. Understanding turnover in the context of histone modifications and sequence variants could provide valuable additional insight into the function of histone replacement. Results In this study, we measured the metabolic rate of labeled isotope incorporation into the histone proteins of HeLa cells by combining stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) pulse experiments with quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In general, we found that most core histones have similar turnover rates, with the exception of the H2A variants, which exhibit a wider range of rates, potentially consistent with their epigenetic function. In addition, acetylated histones have a significantly faster turnover compared with general histone protein and methylated histones, although these rates vary considerably, depending on the site and overall degree of methylation. Histones containing transcriptionally active marks have been consistently found to have faster turnover rates than histones containing silent marks. Interestingly, the presence of both active and silent marks on the same peptide resulted in a slower turnover rate than either mark alone on that same peptide. Lastly, we observed

  16. Mice without MacroH2A Histone Variants

    PubMed Central

    Changolkar, Lakshmi N.; Costanzi, Carl; Leu, N. Adrian

    2014-01-01

    MacroH2A core histone variants have a unique structure that includes a C-terminal nonhistone domain. They are highly conserved in vertebrates and are thought to regulate gene expression. However, the nature of genes regulated by macroH2As and their biological significance remain unclear. Here, we examine macroH2A function in vivo by knocking out both macroH2A1 and macroH2A2 in the mouse. While macroH2As are not required for early development, the absence of macroH2As impairs prenatal and postnatal growth and can significantly reduce reproductive efficiency. The distributions of macroH2A.1- and macroH2A.2-containing nucleosomes show substantial overlap, as do their effects on gene expression. Our studies in fetal and adult liver indicate that macroH2As can exert large positive or negative effects on gene expression, with macroH2A.1 and macroH2A.2 acting synergistically on the expression of some genes and apparently having opposing effects on others. These effects are very specific and in the adult liver preferentially involve genes related to lipid metabolism, including the leptin receptor. MacroH2A-dependent gene regulation changes substantially in postnatal development and can be strongly affected by fasting. We propose that macroH2As produce adaptive changes to gene expression, which in the liver focus on metabolism. PMID:25312643

  17. The Histone Deacetylase Complex 1 Protein of Arabidopsis Has the Capacity to Interact with Multiple Proteins Including Histone 3-Binding Proteins and Histone 1 Variants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Craig; Asensi-Fabado, Maria A.; Donald, Naomi A.; Hannah, Matthew A.; Amtmann, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins can adopt multiple conformations, thereby enabling interaction with a wide variety of partners. They often serve as hubs in protein interaction networks. We have previously shown that the Histone Deacetylase Complex 1 (HDC1) protein from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) interacts with histone deacetylases and quantitatively determines histone acetylation levels, transcriptional activity, and several phenotypes, including abscisic acid sensitivity during germination, vegetative growth rate, and flowering time. HDC1-type proteins are ubiquitous in plants, but they contain no known structural or functional domains. Here, we explored the protein interaction spectrum of HDC1 using a quantitative bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) epidermal cells. In addition to binding histone deacetylases, HDC1 directly interacted with histone H3-binding proteins and corepressor-associated proteins but not with H3 or the corepressors themselves. Surprisingly, HDC1 also was able to interact with variants of the linker histone H1. Truncation of HDC1 to the ancestral core sequence narrowed the spectrum of interactions and of phenotypic outputs but maintained binding to a H3-binding protein and to H1. Thus, HDC1 provides a potential link between H1 and histone-modifying complexes. PMID:26951436

  18. Genome-wide identification, evolutionary, and expression analyses of histone H3 variants in plants.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jinteng; Zhang, Zhanlu; Shao, Yang; Zhang, Kezhong; Leng, Pingsheng; Liang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Histone variants alter the nucleosome structure and play important roles in chromosome segregation, transcription, DNA repair, and sperm compaction. Histone H3 is encoded by many genes in most eukaryotic species and is the histone that contains the largest variety of posttranslational modifications. Compared with the metazoan H3 variants, little is known about the complex evolutionary history of H3 variants proteins in plants. Here, we study the identification, evolutionary, and expression analyses of histone H3 variants from genomes in major branches in the plant tree of life. Firstly we identified all the histone three related (HTR) genes from the examined genomes, then we classified the four groups variants: centromeric H3, H3.1, H3.3 and H3-like, by phylogenetic analysis, intron information, and alignment. We further demonstrated that the H3 variants have evolved under strong purifying selection, indicating the conservation of HTR proteins. Expression analysis revealed that the HTR has a wide expression profile in maize and rice development and plays important roles in development. PMID:25815311

  19. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary, and Expression Analyses of Histone H3 Variants in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jinteng; Zhang, Zhanlu; Shao, Yang; Zhang, Kezhong; Leng, Pingsheng; Liang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Histone variants alter the nucleosome structure and play important roles in chromosome segregation, transcription, DNA repair, and sperm compaction. Histone H3 is encoded by many genes in most eukaryotic species and is the histone that contains the largest variety of posttranslational modifications. Compared with the metazoan H3 variants, little is known about the complex evolutionary history of H3 variants proteins in plants. Here, we study the identification, evolutionary, and expression analyses of histone H3 variants from genomes in major branches in the plant tree of life. Firstly we identified all the histone three related (HTR) genes from the examined genomes, then we classified the four groups variants: centromeric H3, H3.1, H3.3 and H3-like, by phylogenetic analysis, intron information, and alignment. We further demonstrated that the H3 variants have evolved under strong purifying selection, indicating the conservation of HTR proteins. Expression analysis revealed that the HTR has a wide expression profile in maize and rice development and plays important roles in development. PMID:25815311

  20. Subnuclear distribution of the entire complement of linker histone variants in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, R; Gantt, J S

    1999-11-01

    Linker histones (e.g. H1, H5, H1 degrees ) are thought to exert control on chromatin function by restricting nucleosomal dynamics. All higher eukaryotes possess a diverse family of linker histones, which may exhibit functional specialization. Arabidopsis thaliana apparently contains a minimal complement of linker histone structural variants and therefore is an ideal model for investigating functional differentiation among linker histones. Histones H1-1 and H1-2 are relatively similar proteins that are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and make up the majority of linker histone while H1-3 is a highly divergent minor variant protein that is induced by drought stress. We are interested in determining whether the in vivo distribution of each of these proteins also differs. To this end, we have produced subtype-specific antibodies and have localized each of the three proteins at the intranuclear and DNA sequence levels by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation, respectively. Antibodies against linker histones H1-1 and H1-2 decorate nuclei in patterns very similar to 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, but different than the staining pattern of total histones. In contrast, antibodies made against two regions of H1-3 bind to chromatin in a diffuse pattern distinct from the DAPI-staining pattern. We also describe a technique to determine the localization of plant linker histone variants along regions of chromatin, employing in vivo chemical DNA-protein cross-linking to preserve native associations followed by immunoprecipitation with subtype-specific antibodies. We use this technique to demonstrate that, in contrast to the major linker histones, H1-3 does not bind the repetitive sequences pAL1 and 5S rDNA. In addition, we show that linker histones are bound to the compacted nucleosomal arrays at the telomere but with reduced stoichiometry. Taken together, our results suggest that plants, as has been shown for animals, possess a variant linker

  1. Depletion of Human Histone H1 Variants Uncovers Specific Roles in Gene Expression and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Mónica; Diani, Erika; Beato, Miguel; Jordan, Albert

    2008-01-01

    At least six histone H1 variants exist in somatic mammalian cells that bind to the linker DNA and stabilize the nucleosome particle contributing to higher order chromatin compaction. In addition, H1 seems to be actively involved in the regulation of gene expression. However, it is not well known whether the different variants have distinct roles or if they regulate specific promoters. We have explored this by inducible shRNA-mediated knock-down of each of the H1 variants in a human breast cancer cell line. Rapid inhibition of each H1 variant was not compensated for by changes of expression of other variants. Microarray experiments have shown a different subset of genes to be altered in each H1 knock-down. Interestingly, H1.2 depletion caused specific effects such as a cell cycle G1-phase arrest, the repressed expression of a number of cell cycle genes, and decreased global nucleosome spacing. On its side, H1.4 depletion caused cell death in T47D cells, providing the first evidence of the essential role of an H1 variant for survival in a human cell type. Thus, specific phenotypes are observed in breast cancer cells depleted of individual histone H1 variants, supporting the theory that distinct roles exist for the linker histone variants. PMID:18927631

  2. In situ detection of histone variants and modifications in mouse brain using imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Shibojyoti; Sun, Na; Solis-Mezarino, Victor; Fedisch, Andreas; Ninkovic, Jovica; Feuchtinger, Annette; Götz, Magdalena; Walch, Axel; Imhof, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Histone posttranslational modifications and histone variants control the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and affect a wide variety of biological processes. A complex pattern of such modifications and variants defines the identity of cells within complex organ systems and can therefore be used to characterize cells at a molecular level. However, their detection and identification in situ has been limited so far due to lack of specificity, selectivity, and availability of antihistone antibodies. Here, we describe a novel MALDI imaging MS based workflow, which enables us to detect and characterize histones by their intact mass and their correlation with cytological properties of the tissue using novel statistical and image analysis tools. The workflow allows us to characterize the in situ distribution of the major histone variants and their modification in the mouse brain. This new analysis tool is particularly useful for the investigation of expression patterns of the linker histone H1 variants for which suitable antibodies are so far not available. PMID:26593131

  3. Protein profiling and histone deacetylation activities in somaclonal variants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Loh, Hwei-San; Mat Taha, Rosna

    2013-01-01

    Mantled fruits as a result of somaclonal variation are often observed from the oil palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture. The mantling of fruits with finger-like and thick outer coating phenotypes significantly reduces the seed size and oil content, posing a threat to oil palm planters, and may jeopardize the economic growth of countries that depend particularly on oil palm plantation. The molecular aspects of the occurrence of somaclonal variations are yet to be known, possibly due to gene repression such as DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone deacetylation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), involved in eukaryotic gene regulation by catalyzing the acetyl groups are removal from lysine residues on histone, hence transcriptionally repress gene expression. This paper described the total protein polymorphism profiles of somaclonal variants of oil palm and the effects of histone deacetylation on this phenomenon. Parallel to the different phenotypes, the protein polymorphism profiles of the mantled samples (leaves, fruits, and florets) and the phenotypically normal samples were proven to be different. Higher HDAC activity was found in mantled leaf samples than in the phenotypically normal leaf samples, leading to a preliminary conclusion that histone deacetylation suppressed gene expression and contributed to the development of somaclonal variants. PMID:23844406

  4. Histone modifications and a choice of variant: a language that helps the genome express itself

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Covalent post-translational modifications on histones impact chromatin structure and function. Their misfunction, along with perturbations or mutations in genes that regulate their dynamic status, has been observed in several diseases. Thus, targeting histone modifications represents attractive opportunities for therapeutic intervention and biomarker discovery. The best approach to address this challenge is to paint a comprehensive picture integrating the growing number of modifications on individual residues and their combinatorial association, the corresponding modifying enzymes, and effector proteins that bind modifications. Furthermore, how they are imposed in a distinct manner during the cell cycle and on specific histone variants are important dimensions to consider. Firstly, this report highlights innovative technologies used to characterize histone modifications, and the corresponding enzymes and effector proteins. Secondly, we examine the recent progress made in understanding the dynamics and maintenance of histone modifications on distinct variants. We also discuss their roles as potential carriers of epigenetic information. Finally, we provide examples of initiatives to exploit histone modifications in cancer management, with the potential for new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:25343033

  5. Distinct chromatin signature of histone H3 variant H3.3 in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Snyers, Luc; Zupkovitz, Gordin; Almeder, Marlene; Fliesser, Marianne; Stoisser, Anja; Weipoltshammer, Klara; Schöfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Actively transcribed regions of the genome have been found enriched for the histone H3 variant H3.3. This variant is incorporated into nucleosomes throughout the cell cycle whereas the canonical isoforms are predominately deposited in association with replication. In order to obtain a global picture of the deposition pattern at the single cell level we expressed H3.3 in both normal and malignant human cells and analyzed nuclei using conventional and structured illumination imaging (SIM). We found that the distribution pattern of H3.3 in interphase differs from that of the canonical histone H3 variants and this difference is conveyed to mitotic chromosomes which display a distinct H3.3 banding pattern. Histone H3.3 localization positively correlated with markers for transcriptionally active chromatin and, notably, H3.3 was almost completely absent from the inactive X chromosome. Collectively, our data show that histone variant H3.3 occupies distinct intranuclear chromatin domains and that these genomic loci are associated with gene expression. PMID:25482197

  6. The Distribution and Spreading of Rare Variants in the Histone Multigene Family of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Colby, C.; Williams, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    We surveyed the distribution of rare variant restriction sites within and among histone gene arrays of Drosophila melanogaster using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Seventy-three naturally occurring arrays were digested with restriction enzymes that had no recognition sites in the published histone sequence. Of the arrays surveyed, 68.5% had at least two nonconsensus restriction sites present as indicated by the presence of a small band or bands on the autoradiographs. These bands were almost always the length of a single repeat in the histone multigene family or a multiple of this length. In arrays with more than one band, intensity of the bands almost always decreased with increasing size. This shows that within these arrays variant restriction sites were predominantly located on adjacent repeats. If these bands are caused by spreading of variant sites, as is most likely, then variants spread along the array as an inverse function of distance. Overall, if a sequence spread it had a 92% probability of ending up in its nearest neighbor. This pattern may result from the noncontiguous nature of the histone family. PMID:7901119

  7. Expression and functionality of histone H2A variants in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Fátima Liliana; Baptista, Tiago; Amado, Francisco; Vitorino, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen; Helguero, Luisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression includes the replacement of canonical histones for non-allelic histone variants, as well as their multiple targeting by postranslational modifications. H2A variants are highly conserved between species suggesting they execute important functions that cannot be accomplished by canonical histones. Altered expression of many H2A variants is associated to cancer. MacroH2A variants are enriched in heterocromatic foci and are necessary for chromatin condensation. MacroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2 are two mutually exclusive isoforms. MacroH2A1.1 and macroH2A2 inhibit proliferation and are associated with better cancer prognosis; while macroH2A1.2 is associated to cancer progression. H2AX variant functions as a sensor of DNA damage and defines the cellular response towards DNA repair or apoptosis; therefore, screening approaches and therapeutic options targeting H2AX have been proposed. H2A.Z is enriched in euchromatin, acting as a proto-oncogene with established roles in hormone responsive cancers and overexpressed in endocrine-resistant disease. Other H2A family members have also been found altered in cancer, but their function remains unknown. Substantial progress has been made to understand histone H2A variants, their contribution to normal cellular function and to cancer development and progression. Yet, implementation of high resolution mass spectrometry is needed to further our knowledge on highly homologous H2A variants expression and function. PMID:25003966

  8. Binding kinetics of histone chaperone Chz1 and variant histone H2A.Z-H2B by relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, D. Flemming; Zhou, Zheng; Feng, Haniqiao; Miller Jenkins, Lisa M.; Bai, Yawen; Kay, Lewis E.

    2009-01-01

    The genome of eukaryotic cells is packed into a compact structure called chromatin that consists of DNA as well as both histone and non-histone proteins. Histone-chaperones associate with histone proteins and play important roles in the assembly of chromatin structure and transport of histones in the cell. The recently discovered histone-chaperone Chz1 associates with the variant histone H2A.Z of budding yeast and plays a critical role in the exchange of the canonical histone pair H2A-H2B for the variant H2A.Z-H2B. Here, we present an NMR approach that provides accurate estimates for the rates of association and dissociation of Chz1 and H2A.Z-H2B. The methodology exploits the fact that in a 1:1 mixture of Chz1 and H2A.Z-H2B the small amounts of unbound proteins that are invisible in spectra produce line-broadening of signals from the complex that can be quantified in terms of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the exchange process. The dissociation rate constant measured, 22±2 s−1, provides an upper bound for the rate of transfer of H2A.Z-H2B to the chromatin remodeling complex and the faster than diffusion association rate, 108±107 M−1s−1, establishes the importance of attractive electrostatic interactions that form the chaperone:histone complex. PMID:19385041

  9. Weaver Syndrome‐Associated EZH2 Protein Variants Show Impaired Histone Methyltransferase Function In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Damian B.; Lewis, M.E. Suzanne; Chijiwa, Chieko; Ramos‐Arroyo, Maria A.; Tkachenko, Natália; Milano, Valentina; Fradin, Mélanie; McKinnon, Margaret L.; Townsend, Katelin N.; Xu, Jieqing; Van Allen, M.I.; Ross, Colin J.D.; Dobyns, William B.; Weaver, David D.; Gibson, William T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Weaver syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, macrocephaly, specific facial features, accelerated bone age, intellectual disability, and susceptibility to cancers. De novo mutations in the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) have been shown to cause WS. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that acts as the catalytic agent of the polycomb‐repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to maintain gene repression via methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27). Functional studies investigating histone methyltransferase activity of mutant EZH2 from various cancers have been reported, whereas WS‐associated mutations remain poorly characterized. To investigate the role of EZH2 in WS, we performed functional studies using artificially assembled PRC2 complexes containing mutagenized human EZH2 that reflected the codon changes predicted from patients with WS. We found that WS‐associated amino acid alterations reduce the histone methyltransferase function of EZH2 in this in vitro assay. Our results support the hypothesis that WS is caused by constitutional mutations in EZH2 that alter the histone methyltransferase function of PRC2. However, histone methyltransferase activities of different EZH2 variants do not appear to correlate directly with the phenotypic variability between WS patients and individuals with a common c.553G>C (p.Asp185His) polymorphism in EZH2. PMID:26694085

  10. Weaver Syndrome-Associated EZH2 Protein Variants Show Impaired Histone Methyltransferase Function In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ana S A; Yap, Damian B; Lewis, M E Suzanne; Chijiwa, Chieko; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria A; Tkachenko, Natália; Milano, Valentina; Fradin, Mélanie; McKinnon, Margaret L; Townsend, Katelin N; Xu, Jieqing; Van Allen, M I; Ross, Colin J D; Dobyns, William B; Weaver, David D; Gibson, William T

    2016-03-01

    Weaver syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, macrocephaly, specific facial features, accelerated bone age, intellectual disability, and susceptibility to cancers. De novo mutations in the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) have been shown to cause WS. EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase that acts as the catalytic agent of the polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to maintain gene repression via methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27). Functional studies investigating histone methyltransferase activity of mutant EZH2 from various cancers have been reported, whereas WS-associated mutations remain poorly characterized. To investigate the role of EZH2 in WS, we performed functional studies using artificially assembled PRC2 complexes containing mutagenized human EZH2 that reflected the codon changes predicted from patients with WS. We found that WS-associated amino acid alterations reduce the histone methyltransferase function of EZH2 in this in vitro assay. Our results support the hypothesis that WS is caused by constitutional mutations in EZH2 that alter the histone methyltransferase function of PRC2. However, histone methyltransferase activities of different EZH2 variants do not appear to correlate directly with the phenotypic variability between WS patients and individuals with a common c.553G>C (p.Asp185His) polymorphism in EZH2. PMID:26694085

  11. Separation of Variant Methylated Histone Tails by Differential Ion Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Zheng, Yupeng; Smith, Richard D.; Kelleher, Neil

    2012-07-18

    Differential ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is emerging as a broadly useful tool for separation of isomeric modified peptides with post-translational modifications (PTMs) attached to alternative residues. Such separations were anticipated to become more challenging for smaller PTMs and longer peptides. Here we show that FAIMS can fully resolve localization variants involving a PTM as minuscule as methylation, even for larger peptides in the middle-down range.

  12. SAGA DUB-Ubp8 Deubiquitylates Centromeric Histone Variant Cse4

    PubMed Central

    Canzonetta, Claudia; Vernarecci, Stefano; Iuliani, Michele; Marracino, Cristina; Belloni, Claudia; Ballario, Paola; Filetici, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploidy, the unbalanced segregation of chromosomes during cell division, is recurrent in many tumors and the cause of birth defects and genetic diseases. Centromeric chromatin represents the chromosome attachment site to the mitotic spindle, marked by specialized nucleosomes containing a specific histone variant, CEN-H3/Cse4, in yeast. Mislocalization of Cse4 outside the centromere is deleterious and may cause aberrant chromosome behavior and mitotic loss. For this reason, ubiquitylation by the E3-ubiquitin ligase Psh1 and subsequent proteolysis tightly regulates its restricted localization. Among multiproteic machineries, the SAGA complex is not merely engaged in acetylation but also directly involved in deubiquitylation. In this study, we investigated the role of SAGA-DUB’s Ubp8-driven deubiquitylation of the centromeric histone variant Cse4 in budding yeast. We found that Ubp8 works in concert with the E3-ubiquitin ligase Psh1, and that its loss causes defective deubiquitylation and the accumulation of a short ubiquitin oligomer on Cse4. We also show that lack of Ubp8 and defective deubiquitylation increase mitotic instability, cause faster Cse4 proteolysis and induce mislocalization of the centromeric histone outside the centromere. Our data provide evidence for a fundamental role of DUB-Ubp8 in deubiquitylation and the stability of the centromeric histone in budding yeast. PMID:26613948

  13. Selective methylation of histone H3 variant H3.1 regulates heterochromatin replication.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Yannick; Bergamin, Elisa; Donoghue, Mark T A; Mongeon, Vanessa; LeBlanc, Chantal; Voigt, Philipp; Underwood, Charles J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Michaels, Scott D; Reinberg, Danny; Couture, Jean-François; Martienssen, Robert A

    2014-03-14

    Histone variants have been proposed to act as determinants for posttranslational modifications with widespread regulatory functions. We identify a histone-modifying enzyme that selectively methylates the replication-dependent histone H3 variant H3.1. The crystal structure of the SET domain of the histone H3 lysine-27 (H3K27) methyltransferase ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED PROTEIN 5 (ATXR5) in complex with a H3.1 peptide shows that ATXR5 contains a bipartite catalytic domain that specifically "reads" alanine-31 of H3.1. Variation at position 31 between H3.1 and replication-independent H3.3 is conserved in plants and animals, and threonine-31 in H3.3 is responsible for inhibiting the activity of ATXR5 and its paralog, ATXR6. Our results suggest a simple model for the mitotic inheritance of the heterochromatic mark H3K27me1 and the protection of H3.3-enriched genes against heterochromatization during DNA replication. PMID:24626927

  14. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Changes in Histone H2B Variants as Cells Undergo Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Cellular Transformation.

    PubMed

    Rea, Matthew; Jiang, Tingting; Eleazer, Rebekah; Eckstein, Meredith; Marshall, Alan G; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic, a ubiquitous environmental toxic metalloid, leads to carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism is unknown. Several studies have shown that inorganic arsenic exposure alters specific gene expression patterns, possibly through alterations in chromatin structure. While most studies on understanding the mechanism of chromatin-mediated gene regulation have focused on histone post-translational modifications, the role of histone variants remains largely unknown. Incorporation of histone variants alters the functional properties of chromatin. To understand the global dynamics of chromatin structure and function in arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis, analysis of the histone variants incorporated into the nucleosome and their covalent modifications is required. Here we report the first global mass spectrometric analysis of histone H2B variants as cells undergo arsenic-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We used electron capture dissociation-based top-down tandem mass spectrometry analysis validated with quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction to identify changes in the expression levels of H2B variants in inorganic arsenic-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We identified changes in the expression levels of specific histone H2B variants in two cell types, which are dependent on dose and length of exposure of inorganic arsenic. In particular, we found increases in H2B variants H2B1H/1K/1C/1J/1O and H2B2E/2F, and significant decreases in H2B1N/1D/1B as cells undergo inorganic arsenic-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The analysis of these histone variants provides a first step toward an understanding of the functional significance of the diversity of histone structures, especially in inorganic arsenic-mediated gene expression and carcinogenesis. PMID:27169413

  15. macroH2A1 histone variant represses rDNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong; Das, Sadhan; Douet, Julien; Wong, Jiemin; Buschbeck, Marcus; Mongelard, Fabien; Bouvet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of ribosomal DNA transcription is an important step for the control of cell growth. Epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of canonical histones have been involved in this regulation, but much less is known about the role of histone variants. In this work, we show that the histone variant macroH2A1 is present on the promoter of methylated rDNA genes. The inhibition of the expression of macroH2A1 in human HeLa and HepG2 cells and in a mouse ES cell line resulted in an up to 5-fold increase of pre-rRNA levels. This increased accumulation of pre-rRNA is accompanied by an increase of the loading of RNA polymerase I and UBF on the rDNA without any changes in the number of active rDNA genes. The inhibition of RNA polymerase I transcription by actinomycin D or by knocking down nucleolin, induces the recruitment of macroH2A1 on the rDNA and the relocalization of macroH2A1 in the nucleolus. Interestingly, the inhibition of rDNA transcription induced by nucleolin depletion is alleviated by the inactivation of macroH2A1. These results demonstrate that macroH2A1 is a new factor involved in the regulation of rDNA transcription. PMID:24071584

  16. A drought-stress-inducible histone gene in Arabidopsis thaliana is a member of a distinct class of plant linker histone variants.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, R; Gantt, J S

    1997-07-01

    We have isolated and characterized a gene, His1-3, encoding a structurally divergent linker histone in Arabidopsis thaliana. Southern and northern hybridization data indicate that A. thaliana expresses three single-copy linker histone genes, each encoding a structurally distinct variant. H1-3 is a considerably smaller protein (167 amino acids with a mass of 19.0 kDa) than any other described linker histone from higher eukaryotes. We examined the expression of His1-3 at the RNA and protein levels and found that it is induced specifically by water stress. In contrast, expression of His1-1, His1-2 and His4 appear unaffected by water stress. Furthermore, the primary structure of the protein possesses distinct characteristics that are shared with another drought-inducible linker histone, H1-D, isolated from Lycopersicon pennellii. Based on structural characteristics of the deduced protein and its inducible expression, we hypothesize that H1-3 and H1-D are linker histone variants that have specialized roles in the structure and function of plant chromatin and therefore they can be considered to be members of a unique subclass of plant histones. Immunoblotting with an antibody produced against a short polypeptide in the conserved domain of this subtype indicates that similar proteins may exist in other plants. PMID:9247544

  17. Structure of human nucleosome containing the testis-specific histone variant TSH2B

    SciTech Connect

    Urahama, Takashi; Horikoshi, Naoki; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2014-03-25

    The crystal structure of human nucleosome containing the testis-specific TSH2B variant has been determined. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, and induces a local structural difference between TSH2B and H2B in nucleosomes. The human histone H2B variant TSH2B is highly expressed in testis and may function in the chromatin transition during spermatogenesis. In the present study, the crystal structure of the human testis-specific nucleosome containing TSH2B was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. A local structural difference between TSH2B and canonical H2B in nucleosomes was detected around the TSH2B-specific amino-acid residue Ser85. The TSH2B Ser85 residue does not interact with H4 in the nucleosome, but in the canonical nucleosome the H2B Asn84 residue (corresponding to the TSH2B Ser85 residue) forms water-mediated hydrogen bonds with the H4 Arg78 residue. In contrast, the other TSH2B-specific amino-acid residues did not induce any significant local structural changes in the TSH2B nucleosome. These findings may provide important information for understanding how testis-specific histone variants form nucleosomes during spermatogenesis.

  18. Characterization of post-translational modifications of histone H2B-variants isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bergmüller, Eveline; Gehrig, Peter M; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2007-09-01

    Eukaryotic DNA is structurally packed into chromatin by the basic histone proteins H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. There is increasing evidence that incorporation and post-translational modifications of histone variants have a fundamental role in gene regulation. While modifications of H3 and H4 histones are now well-established, considerably less is known about H2B modifications. Here, we present the first detailed characterization of H2B-variants isolated from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We combined reversed-phase chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to identify post-translational modifications of the H2B-variants HTB1, HTB2, HTB4, HTB9, and HTB11, isolated from total chromatin and euchromatin-enriched fractions. The HTB9-variant has acetylation sites at lysines 6, 11, 27, 32, 38, and 39, while Lys-145 can be ubiquitinated. Analogous modifications and an additional methylation of Lys-3 were identified for HTB11. HTB2 shows similar acetylation and ubiquitination sites and an additional methylation at Lys-11. Furthermore, the N-terminal alanine residues of HTB9 and HTB11 were found to be mono-, di-, or trimethylated or unmodified. No methylation of arginine residues was detected. The data suggest that most of these modification sites are only partially occupied. Our study significantly expands the map of covalent Arabidopsis histone modifications and is the first step to unraveling the histone code in higher plants. PMID:17691833

  19. Point mutations in an epigenetic factor lead to multiple types of bone tumors: role of H3.3 histone variant in bone development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shigeaki; Ishii, Takeaki; Kouzmenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Coordinated post-translational modifications (PTMs) of nucleosomal histones emerge as a key mechanism of gene regulation by defining chromatin configuration. Patterns of histone modifications vary in different cells and constitute core elements of cell-specific epigenomes. Recently, in addition to canonical histone proteins produced during the S phase of cell cycle, several non-canonical histone variants have been identified and shown to express in a DNA replication-independent manner. These histone variants generate diversity in nucleosomal structures and add further complexity to mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. Cell-specific functions of histone variants remain to be determined. Several recent studies reported an association between some point mutations in the non-canonical histone H3.3 and particular types of brain and bone tumors. This suggests a possibility of differential physiological effects of histone variants in different cells and tissues, including bone. In this review, we outline the roles of histone variants and their PTMs in the epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and discuss possible mechanisms of biological effects of the non-canonical histone mutations found in bone tumors on tumorigenesis in differentiating bone stem cells. PMID:26157578

  20. Chromatin-to-nucleoprotamine transition is controlled by the histone H2B variant TH2B

    PubMed Central

    Montellier, Emilie; Boussouar, Fayçal; Rousseaux, Sophie; Zhang, Kai; Buchou, Thierry; Fenaille, François; Shiota, Hitoshi; Debernardi, Alexandra; Héry, Patrick; Curtet, Sandrine; Jamshidikia, Mahya; Barral, Sophie; Holota, Hélène; Bergon, Aurélie; Lopez, Fabrice; Guardiola, Philippe; Pernet, Karin; Imbert, Jean; Petosa, Carlo; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming; Gérard, Matthieu; Khochbin, Saadi

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of male germ cell chromatin to a nucleoprotamine structure is fundamental to the life cycle, yet the underlying molecular details remain obscure. Here we show that an essential step is the genome-wide incorporation of TH2B, a histone H2B variant of hitherto unknown function. Using mouse models in which TH2B is depleted or C-terminally modified, we show that TH2B directs the final transformation of dissociating nucleosomes into protamine-packed structures. Depletion of TH2B induces compensatory mechanisms that permit histone removal by up-regulating H2B and programming nucleosome instability through targeted histone modifications, including lysine crotonylation and arginine methylation. Furthermore, after fertilization, TH2B reassembles onto the male genome during protamine-to-histone exchange. Thus, TH2B is a unique histone variant that plays a key role in the histone-to-protamine packing of the male genome and guides genome-wide chromatin transitions that both precede and follow transmission of the male genome to the egg. PMID:23884607

  1. The characterization of macroH2A beyond vertebrates supports an ancestral origin and conserved role for histone variants in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Casas, Ciro; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Cheema, Manjinder S; Ausió, Juan; Eirín-López, José M

    2016-06-01

    Histone variants play a critical role in chromatin structure and epigenetic regulation. These "deviant" proteins have been historically considered as the evolutionary descendants of ancestral canonical histones, helping specialize the nucleosome structure during eukaryotic evolution. Such view is now challenged by 2 major observations: first, canonical histones present extremely unique features not shared with any other genes; second, histone variants are widespread across many eukaryotic groups. The present work further supports the ancestral nature of histone variants by providing the first in vivo characterization of a functional macroH2A histone (a variant long defined as a specific refinement of vertebrate chromatin) in a non-vertebrate organism (the mussel Mytilus) revealing its recruitment into heterochromatic fractions of actively proliferating tissues. Combined with in silico analyses of genomic data, these results provide evidence for the widespread presence of macroH2A in metazoan animals, as well as in the holozoan Capsaspora, supporting an evolutionary origin for this histone variant lineage before the radiation of Filozoans (including Filasterea, Choanoflagellata and Metazoa). Overall, the results presented in this work help configure a new evolutionary scenario in which histone variants, rather than modern "deviants" of canonical histones, would constitute ancient components of eukaryotic chromatin. PMID:27082816

  2. Cu2+-assisted two dimensional charge-mass double focusing gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis of histone variants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyang; Tang, Xuemei; Ding, Mengjie; Zhong, Hongying

    2014-12-10

    Abundant isoforms and dynamic posttranslational modifications cause the separation and identification of histone variants to be experimentally challenging. To meet this need, we employ two-dimensional electrophoretic gel separation followed by mass spectrometric detection which takes advantage of the chelation of Cu(2+) with amino acid residues exposed on the surfaces of the histone proteins. Acid-extracted rat liver histones were first mixed with CuSO4 solution and then separated in one dimension with triton-acid-urea (TAU) gel electrophoresis and in a second dimension using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The separations result from both the changes in charge and mass upon Cu(2+) chelation. Identities of each separated gel bands were obtained by using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). It was found that the migration of H3 histone isoforms of rat liver is markedly affected by the use of Cu(2+) ions. PMID:25441888

  3. Molecular genetic analysis of the drought-inducible linker histone variant in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, R; Gantt, J S

    1999-09-01

    Linker histones are ubiquitous structural components of chromatin that have been shown to influence the expression of a subset of genes in diverse organisms. Plants contain a minor linker histone variant that is expressed in most tissues of all organs, and is induced during drought stress. Based on reporter gene analysis in roots, His1-3 is expressed almost exclusively in emerging secondary roots in unstressed plants, but is primarily expressed in the root meristem and elongation zone of stressed plants. In shoots, expression is higher in younger tissues than older tissues. In order to investigate the function of H1-3, we have generated lines with altered levels of H1-3. Plants expressing an antisense His1-3 transcript exhibit a greatly impaired induction (5% of wild-type RNA levels during stress) of His1-3 transcripts in shoots during drought and contain decreased protein relative to wild-type control plants. In plants overexpressing His1-3, more H1-3 is bound to chromatin than in unstressed wild-type plants. None of the plants containing these transgenes display phenotypic aberrations or differences in water content during drought stress. Additionally, the expression of several drought-responsive genes is not significantly altered in lines misexpressing His1-3. PMID:10579484

  4. Pluripotency Activity of Nanog Requires Biochemical Stabilization by Variant Histone Protein H2A.Z.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxu; Qiao, Mengran; He, Qianqian; Shi, Ronghua; Loh, Sharon Jia Hui; Stanton, Lawrence W; Wu, Mian

    2015-07-01

    The variant histone protein H2A.Z plays a critical role in early development. Likewise, Nanog, a master regulator of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), is essential for proper development in early embryogenesis. In this study, we establish that these two factors work together to maintain pluripotency. It is shown that H2A.Z influences the protein level of Nanog through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Knockdown of H2A.Z causes differentiation of mouse ESCs and disrupts the reprogramming of somatic cells, which can be partially rescued by overexpression of Nanog. We conclude that the H2A.Z-Nanog partnership is involved in ESC pluripotency and reprogramming of somatic cells. Stem Cells 2015;33:2126-2134. PMID:25809870

  5. Characterization of Centromeric Histone H3 (CENH3) Variants in Cultivated and Wild Carrots (Daucus sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Dunemann, Frank; Schrader, Otto; Budahn, Holger; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9. PMID:24887084

  6. Characterization of centromeric histone H3 (CENH3) variants in cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus sp.).

    PubMed

    Dunemann, Frank; Schrader, Otto; Budahn, Holger; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9. PMID:24887084

  7. SWI/SNF remodeling and p300-dependent transcription of histone variant H2ABbd nucleosomal arrays

    PubMed Central

    Angelov, Dimitar; Verdel, André; An, Woojin; Bondarenko, Vladimir; Hans, Fabienne; Doyen, Cécile-Marie; Studitsky, Vassily M; Hamiche, Ali; Roeder, Robert G; Bouvet, Philippe; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    A histone variant H2ABbd was recently identified, but its function is totally unknown. Here we have studied the structural and functional properties of nucleosome and nucleosomal arrays reconstituted with this histone variant. We show that H2ABbd can replace the conventional H2A in the nucleosome, but this replacement results in alterations of the nucleosomal structure. The remodeling complexes SWI/SNF and ACF are unable to mobilize the variant H2ABbd nucleosome. However, SWI/SNF was able to increase restriction enzyme access to the variant nucleosome and assist the transfer of variant H2ABbd–H2B dimer to a tetrameric histone H3–H4 particle. In addition, the p300- and Gal4-VP16-activated transcription appeared to be more efficient for H2ABbd nucleosomal arrays than for conventional H2A arrays. The intriguing mechanisms by which H2ABbd affects both nucleosome remodeling and transcription are discussed. PMID:15372075

  8. Distinct factors control histone variant H3.3 localization at specific genomic regions

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Aaron D.; Banaszynski, Laura A.; Noh, Kyung-Min; Lewis, Peter W.; Elsaesser, Simon J.; Stadler, Sonja; Dewell, Scott; Law, Martin; Guo, Xingyi; Li, Xuan; Wen, Duancheng; Chapgier, Ariane; DeKelver, Russell C.; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Lee, Ya-Li; Boydston, Elizabeth A.; Holmes, Michael C.; Gregory, Philip D.; Greally, John M.; Rafii, Shahin; Yang, Chingwen; Scambler, Peter J.; Garrick, David; Gibbons, Richard J.; Higgs, Douglas R.; Cristea, Ileana M.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Zheng, Deyou; Allis, C. David

    2010-01-01

    Summary The incorporation of histone H3 variants has been implicated in the epigenetic memory of cellular state. Using genome editing with zinc finger nucleases to tag endogenous H3.3, we report genome-wide profiles of H3 variants in mammalian embryonic stem (ES) cells and neuronal precursor cells. Genome-wide patterns of H3.3 are dependent on amino acid sequence, and change with cellular differentiation at developmentally regulated loci. The H3.3 chaperone Hira is required for H3.3 enrichment at active and repressed genes. Strikingly, Hira is not essential for localization of H3.3 at telomeres and many transcription factor binding sites. Immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry reveal that the proteins Atrx and Daxx associate with H3.3 in a Hira-independent manner. Atrx is required for Hira-independent localization of H3.3 at telomeres, and for the repression of telomeric RNA. Our data demonstrate that multiple and distinct factors are responsible for H3.3 localization at specific genomic locations in mammalian cells. PMID:20211137

  9. Expression of P. falciparum var Genes Involves Exchange of the Histone Variant H2A.Z at the Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Petter, Michaela; Lee, Chin Chin; Byrne, Timothy J.; Boysen, Katja E.; Volz, Jennifer; Ralph, Stuart A.; Cowman, Alan F.; Brown, Graham V.; Duffy, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum employs antigenic variation to evade the human immune response by switching the expression of different variant surface antigens encoded by the var gene family. Epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications and sub-nuclear compartmentalization contribute to transcriptional regulation in the malaria parasite, in particular to control antigenic variation. Another mechanism of epigenetic control is the exchange of canonical histones with alternative variants to generate functionally specialized chromatin domains. Here we demonstrate that the alternative histone PfH2A.Z is associated with the epigenetic regulation of var genes. In many eukaryotic organisms the histone variant H2A.Z mediates an open chromatin structure at promoters and facilitates diverse levels of regulation, including transcriptional activation. Throughout the asexual, intraerythrocytic lifecycle of P. falciparum we found that the P. falciparum ortholog of H2A.Z (PfH2A.Z) colocalizes with histone modifications that are characteristic of transcriptionally-permissive euchromatin, but not with markers of heterochromatin. Consistent with this finding, antibodies to PfH2A.Z co-precipitate the permissive modification H3K4me3. By chromatin-immunoprecipitation we show that PfH2A.Z is enriched in nucleosomes around the transcription start site (TSS) in both transcriptionally active and silent stage-specific genes. In var genes, however, PfH2A.Z is enriched at the TSS only during active transcription in ring stage parasites. Thus, in contrast to other genes, temporal var gene regulation involves histone variant exchange at promoter nucleosomes. Sir2 histone deacetylases are important for var gene silencing and their yeast ortholog antagonises H2A.Z function in subtelomeric yeast genes. In immature P. falciparum parasites lacking Sir2A or Sir2B high var transcription levels correlate with enrichment of PfH2A.Z at the TSS. As Sir2A knock out parasites mature the var genes are

  10. Histone Variant H2A.Z and RNA Polymerase II Transcription Elongation ▿

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Maria Soledad; Hang, Mingda; Smith, M. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosomes containing histone variant H2A.Z (Htz1) serve to poise quiescent genes for activation and transcriptional initiation. However, little is known about their role in transcription elongation. Here we show that dominant mutations in the elongation genes SPT5 and SPT16 suppress the hypersensitivity of htz1Δ strains to drugs that inhibit elongation, indicating that Htz1 functions at the level of transcription elongation. Direct kinetic measurements of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) movement across the 9.5-kb GAL10p-VPS13 gene revealed that the elongation rate of polymerase is 24% slower in the absence of Htz1. We provide evidence for two nonexclusive mechanisms. First, we observed that both the phospho-Ser2 levels in the elongating isoform of Pol II and the loading of Spt5 and Elongator over the GAL1 open reading frame (ORF) depend on Htz1. Second, in the absence of Htz1, the density of nucleosome occupancy is increased over the GAL10p-VPS13 ORF and the chromatin is refractory to remodeling during active transcription. These results establish a mechanistic role for Htz1 in transcription elongation and suggest that Htz1-containing nucleosomes facilitate Pol II passage by affecting the correct assembly and modification status of Pol II elongation complexes and by favoring efficient nucleosome remodeling over the gene. PMID:21357739

  11. Histone variant H2A.Z.2 mediates proliferation and drug sensitivity of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Vardabasso, Chiara; Gaspar-Maia, Alexandre; Hasson, Dan; Pünzeler, Sebastian; Valle-Garcia, David; Straub, Tobias; Keilhauer, Eva C.; Strub, Thomas; Dong, Joanna; Panda, Taniya; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Yao, Jonathan L.; Singh, Rajendra; Segura, Miguel F.; Fontanals-Cirera, Barbara; Verma, Amit; Mann, Matthias; Hernando, Eva; Hake, Sandra B.; Bernstein, Emily

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone variants are emerging as key regulatory molecules in cancer. Here we report a novel role for the H2A.Z isoform H2A.Z.2 as a driver of malignant melanoma. H2A.Z.2 is highly expressed in metastatic melanoma, correlates with decreased patient survival, and is required for cellular proliferation. Our integrated genomic analyses reveal that H2A.Z.2 controls the transcriptional output of E2F target genes in melanoma cells. These genes are highly expressed and display a distinct signature of H2A.Z occupancy. We identify BRD2 as an H2A.Z interacting protein, whose levels are also elevated in melanoma. We further demonstrate that H2A.Z.2 regulated genes are bound by BRD2 and E2F1 in a H2A.Z.2-dependent manner. Importantly, H2A.Z.2 deficiency sensitizes melanoma cells to chemotherapy and targeted therapies. Collectively, our findings implicate H2A.Z.2 as a mediator of cell proliferation and drug sensitivity in malignant melanoma, holding translational potential for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26051178

  12. Histone variant macroH2A confers resistance to nuclear reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Pasque, Vincent; Gillich, Astrid; Garrett, Nigel; Gurdon, John B

    2011-01-01

    How various layers of epigenetic repression restrict somatic cell nuclear reprogramming is poorly understood. The transfer of mammalian somatic cell nuclei into Xenopus oocytes induces transcriptional reprogramming of previously repressed genes. Here, we address the mechanisms that restrict reprogramming following nuclear transfer by assessing the stability of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in different stages of inactivation. We find that the Xi of mouse post-implantation-derived epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) can be reversed by nuclear transfer, while the Xi of differentiated or extraembryonic cells is irreversible by nuclear transfer to oocytes. After nuclear transfer, Xist RNA is lost from chromatin of the Xi. Most epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation and Polycomb-deposited H3K27me3 do not explain the differences between reversible and irreversible Xi. Resistance to reprogramming is associated with incorporation of the histone variant macroH2A, which is retained on the Xi of differentiated cells, but absent from the Xi of EpiSCs. Our results uncover the decreased stability of the Xi in EpiSCs, and highlight the importance of combinatorial epigenetic repression involving macroH2A in restricting transcriptional reprogramming by oocytes. PMID:21552206

  13. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals that Intact Histone H1 Phosphorylations are Variant Specific and Exhibit Single Molecule Hierarchical Dependence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Hoover, Michael E; Dang, Xibei; Shomo, Alan A; Guan, Xiaoyan; Marshall, Alan G; Freitas, Michael A; Young, Nicolas L

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer was the second leading cause of cancer related mortality for females in 2014. Recent studies suggest histone H1 phosphorylation may be useful as a clinical biomarker of breast and other cancers because of its ability to recognize proliferative cell populations. Although monitoring a single phosphorylated H1 residue is adequate to stratify high-grade breast tumors, expanding our knowledge of how H1 is phosphorylated through the cell cycle is paramount to understanding its role in carcinogenesis. H1 analysis by bottom-up MS is challenging because of the presence of highly homologous sequence variants expressed by most cells. These highly basic proteins are difficult to analyze by LC-MS/MS because of the small, hydrophilic nature of peptides produced by tryptic digestion. Although bottom-up methods permit identification of several H1 phosphorylation events, these peptides are not useful for observing the combinatorial post-translational modification (PTM) patterns on the protein of interest. To complement the information provided by bottom-up MS, we utilized a top-down MS/MS workflow to permit identification and quantitation of H1 proteoforms related to the progression of breast cells through the cell cycle. Histones H1.2 and H1.4 were observed in MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cells, whereas an additional histone variant, histone H1.3, was identified only in nonneoplastic MCF-10A cells. Progressive phosphorylation of histone H1.4 was identified in both cell lines at mitosis (M phase). Phosphorylation occurred first at S172 followed successively by S187, T18, T146, and T154. Notably, phosphorylation at S173 of histone H1.2 and S172, S187, T18, T146, and T154 of H1.4 significantly increases during M phase relative to S phase, suggesting that these events are cell cycle-dependent and may serve as markers for proliferation. Finally, we report the observation of the H1.2 SNP variant A18V in MCF-10A cells. PMID:26209608

  14. Loss of histone variant macroH2A2 expression associates with progression of anal neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wan-Hsiang; Miyai, Katsumi; Sporn, Judith C; Luo, Linda; Wang, Jean Y J; Cosman, Bard; Ramamoorthy, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Aims The macroH2A histone variants are epigenetic marks for inactivated chromatin. In this study, we examined the expression of macroH2A2 in anal neoplasm from anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) to anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods AIN and anal SCC samples were analysed for macroH2A2 expression, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). The association of macroH2A2 expression with clinical grade, disease recurrence, overall survival and viral involvement was determined. Results macroH2A2 was expressed in normal squamous tissue and lower grade AIN (I and II). Expression was lost in 38% of high-grade AIN (III) and 71% of anal SCC (p=0.002). Patients with AIN with macroH2A2-negative lesions showed earlier recurrence than those with macroH2A2-positive neoplasm (p=0.017). With anal SCC, macroH2A2 loss was more prevalent in the HPV-negative tumours. Conclusions Loss of histone variant macroH2A2 expression is associated with the progression of anal neoplasm and can be used as a prognostic biomarker for high-grade AIN and SCC. PMID:26658220

  15. Mapping of six somatic linker histone H1 variants in human breast cancer cells uncovers specific features of H1.2

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Ariño, Lluís; Islam, Abul B. M. M. K.; Izquierdo-Bouldstridge, Andrea; Mayor, Regina; Terme, Jean-Michel; Luque, Neus; Sancho, Mónica; López-Bigas, Núria; Jordan, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Seven linker histone H1 variants are present in human somatic cells with distinct prevalence across cell types. Despite being key structural components of chromatin, it is not known whether the different variants have specific roles in the regulation of nuclear processes or are differentially distributed throughout the genome. Using variant-specific antibodies to H1 and hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged recombinant H1 variants expressed in breast cancer cells, we have investigated the distribution of six H1 variants in promoters and genome-wide. H1 is depleted at promoters depending on its transcriptional status and differs between variants. Notably, H1.2 is less abundant than other variants at the transcription start sites of inactive genes, and promoters enriched in H1.2 are different from those enriched in other variants and tend to be repressed. Additionally, H1.2 is enriched at chromosomal domains characterized by low guanine–cytosine (GC) content and is associated with lamina-associated domains. Meanwhile, other variants are associated with higher GC content, CpG islands and gene-rich domains. For instance, H1.0 and H1X are enriched at gene-rich chromosomes, whereas H1.2 is depleted. In short, histone H1 is not uniformly distributed along the genome and there are differences between variants, H1.2 being the one showing the most specific pattern and strongest correlation with low gene expression. PMID:24476918

  16. Contribution of the Two Genes Encoding Histone Variant H3.3 to Viability and Fertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Michelle C. W.; Jacobs, Shelley A.; Mattiske, Deidre M.; Soh, Yu May; Graham, Alison N.; Tran, An; Lim, Shu Ly; Hudson, Damien F.; Kalitsis, Paul; O’Bryan, Moira K.; Wong, Lee H.; Mann, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Histones package DNA and regulate epigenetic states. For the latter, probably the most important histone is H3. Mammals have three near-identical H3 isoforms: canonical H3.1 and H3.2, and the replication-independent variant H3.3. This variant can accumulate in slowly dividing somatic cells, replacing canonical H3. Some replication-independent histones, through their ability to incorporate outside S-phase, are functionally important in the very slowly dividing mammalian germ line. Much remains to be learned of H3.3 functions in germ cell development. Histone H3.3 presents a unique genetic paradigm in that two conventional intron-containing genes encode the identical protein. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the developmental effects of null mutations in each of these genes. H3f3a mutants were viable to adulthood. Females were fertile, while males were subfertile with dysmorphic spermatozoa. H3f3b mutants were growth-deficient, dying at birth. H3f3b heterozygotes were also growth-deficient, with males being sterile because of arrest of round spermatids. This sterility was not accompanied by abnormalities in sex chromosome inactivation in meiosis I. Conditional ablation of H3f3b at the beginning of folliculogenesis resulted in zygote cleavage failure, establishing H3f3b as a maternal-effect gene, and revealing a requirement for H3.3 in the first mitosis. Simultaneous ablation of H3f3a and H3f3b in folliculogenesis resulted in early primary oocyte death, demonstrating a crucial role for H3.3 in oogenesis. These findings reveal a heavy reliance on H3.3 for growth, gametogenesis, and fertilization, identifying developmental processes that are particularly susceptible to H3.3 deficiency. They also reveal partial redundancy in function of H3f3a and H3f3b, with the latter gene being generally the most important. PMID:25675407

  17. Two Histone Variants TH2A and TH2B Enhance Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Linh My; Shinagawa, Toshie; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    There are two major methods of reprogramming: generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by overexpressing embryonic stem cell-specific transcription factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC) and somatic cell nuclear transfer by oocyte-specific factors. Previously, we reported oocyte-enriched histone variants TH2A, TH2B, and the histone chaperone nucleoplasmin (NPM2) enhance the reprogramming by OSKM in mice by inducing open chromatin structure. In this study, we showed that human TH2A, TH2B, and NPM2 enhance the OSKM-induced reprogramming of adult and neonatal human dermal fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pluripotency of iPSCs generated by coexpressing OSKM, TH2A, TH2B, and NPM2 was shown by in vitro and in vivo differentiation assays. These iPSCs gave rise to highly differentiated teratomas compared to iPSCs induced by OSKM alone. Genome-wide analysis suggests a possibility that TH2A, TH2B, and NPM2 might regulate genes that are involved in naïve stem cell stage. Thus, TH2A, TH2B, and NPM2 enhance reprogramming of human somatic cells and improve the quality of human iPSCs. PMID:26649967

  18. Ion Mobility Separation of Variant Histone Tails Extending to the “Middle-down” Range

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Zheng, Yupeng; Smith, Richard D.; Kelleher, Neil

    2012-05-15

    Differential ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) can baseline-resolve multiple variants of post-translationally modified peptides extending to the 3 - 4 kDa range, which differ in the localization of a PTM as small as acetylation. Essentially orthogonal separations for different charge states expand the total achievable peak capacity in proportion to the number of observed states that increases for longer polypeptides. This might enable resolving localization variants for even larger peptides and intact proteins.

  19. macroH2A1 Histone Variants Are Depleted on Active Genes but Concentrated on the Inactive X Chromosome†

    PubMed Central

    Changolkar, Lakshmi N.; Pehrson, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Using a novel thiol affinity chromatography approach to purify macroH2A1-containing chromatin fragments, we examined the distribution of macroH2A1 histone variants in mouse liver chromatin. We found that macroH2A1 was depleted on the transcribed regions of active genes. This depletion was observed on all of the 20 active genes that we probed, with only one site showing a small amount of enrichment. In contrast, macroH2A1 was concentrated on the inactive X chromosome, consistent with our previous immunofluorescence studies. This preferential localization was seen on genes that are active in liver, genes that are inactive in liver, and intergenic regions but was absent from four regions that escape X inactivation. These results support the hypothesis that macroH2As function as transcriptional repressors. Also consistent with this hypothesis is our finding that the heterochromatin protein HP1β copurifies with the macroH2A1-containing chromatin fragments. This study presents the first detailed examination of the distribution of macroH2A1 variants on specific sequences. Our results indicate that macroH2As have complex distribution patterns that are influenced by both local factors and long-range mechanisms. PMID:16738309

  20. Requirement of a novel splicing variant of human histone deacetylase 6 for TGF-{beta}1-mediated gene activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Yan; Nguyen, Hong T.; Lasky, Joseph A.; Cao, Subing; Li, Cui; Hu, Jiyao; Guo, Xinyue; Burow, Matthew E.; Shan, Bin

    2010-02-19

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) belongs to the family of class IIb HDACs and predominantly deacetylates non-histone proteins in the cytoplasm via the C-terminal deacetylase domain of its two tandem deacetylase domains. HDAC6 modulates fundamental cellular processes via deacetylation of {alpha}-tubulin, cortactin, molecular chaperones, and other peptides. Our previous study indicates that HDAC6 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells. In the current study, we identify a novel splicing variant of human HDAC6, hHDAC6p114. The hHDAC6p114 mRNA arises from incomplete splicing and encodes a truncated isoform of the hHDAC6p114 protein of 114 kDa when compared to the major isoform hHDAC6p131. The hHDAC6p114 protein lacks the first 152 amino acids from N-terminus in the hHDAC6p131 protein, which harbors a nuclear export signal peptide and 76 amino acids of the N-terminal deacetylase domain. hHDAC6p114 is intact in its deacetylase activity against {alpha}-tubulin. The expression hHDAC6p114 is elevated in a MCF-7 derivative that exhibits an EMT-like phenotype. Moreover, hHDAC6p114 is required for TGF-{beta}1-activated gene expression associated with EMT in A549 cells. Taken together, our results implicate that expression and function of hHDAC6p114 is differentially regulated when compared to hHDAC6p131.

  1. Differential association of Arabidopsis telomeres and centromeres with Histone H3 variants

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Sedas, María I.; Vega-Palas, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Two different groups, using ChIP-seq data, have recently published the genome-wide distribution of histones H3.1 and H3.3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. In one report, Stroud and colleagues determined that, whereas H3.1 was enriched in repetitive pericentromeric and silent chromatin, H3.3 was enriched in transcriptionally active regions. This work was performed using seedlings, which contained dividing and non-dividing cells. In a second report, Wollmann and colleagues found similar results analyzing dividing or non-dividing tissue. None of these reports addressed the analysis of telomeres or centromeres. Our group has recently described an experimental approach that allows the study of the epigenetic status of some Arabidopsis repetitive sequences by analyzing ChIP-seq data. By using this approach and the data generated by Stroud, Wollmann and colleagues, we found that telomeres are enriched in H3.3 with regard to the centromeric 178 bp repeats, whereas the centromeric repeats are enriched in H3.1 with regard to telomeres. PMID:23383372

  2. The Histone Variant MacroH2A1.2 is Necessary for the Activation of Muscle Enhancers and Recruitment of the Transcription Factor Pbx1

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Orso, Stefania; Wang, A. Hongjun; Shih, Han-Yu; Saso, Kayoko; Berghella, Libera; Gutierrez-Cruz, Gustavo; Ladurner, Andreas G.; O’Shea, John J.; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Zare, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone variants complement and integrate histone post-translational modifications in regulating transcription. The histone variant macroH2A1 (mH2A1) is almost three times the size of its canonical H2A counterpart due to the presence of a ~25kDa evolutionarily conserved non-histone macro domain. Strikingly, mH2A1 can mediate both gene repression and activation. However, the molecular determinants conferring these alternative functions remain elusive. Here, we report that mH2A1.2 is required for the activation of the myogenic gene regulatory network and muscle cell differentiation. H3K27 acetylation at prospective enhancers is exquisitely sensitive to mH2A1.2, indicating a role of mH2A1.2 in imparting enhancer activation. Both H3K27 acetylation and recruitment of the transcription factor Pbx1 at prospective enhancers are regulated by mH2A1.2. Overall, our findings indicate a role of mH2A1.2 in marking regulatory regions for activation. PMID:26832413

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Fatty-acylated Proteins in Mammalian Cells with Chemical Reporters Reveals S-Acylation of Histone H3 Variants

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John P.; Raghavan, Anuradha S.; Yang, Yu-Ying; Charron, Guillaume; Hang, Howard C.

    2011-01-01

    Bioorthogonal chemical reporters are useful tools for visualizing and identifying post-translational modifications on proteins. Here we report the proteomic analysis of mammalian proteins targeted by a series of fatty acid chemical reporters ranging from myristic to stearic acid. The large-scale analysis of total cell lysates from fully solubilized Jurkat T cells identified known fatty-acylated proteins and many new candidates, including nuclear proteins and in particular histone H3 variants. We demonstrate that histones H3.1, H3.2, and H3.3 are modified with fatty acid chemical reporters and identify the conserved cysteine 110 as a new site of S-acylation on histone H3.2. This newly discovered modification of histone H3 could have implications for nuclear organization and chromatin regulation. The unbiased proteomic analysis of fatty-acylated proteins using chemical reporters has revealed a greater diversity of lipid-modified proteins in mammalian cells and identified a novel post-translational modification of histones. PMID:21076176

  4. The histone variant H2A.X is a regulator of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E.; Choudhuri, Rohini; Aziz, Towqir; Maeda, Daisuke; Boufraqech, Myriem; Parekh, Palak R.; Sethi, Taresh K.; Kasoji, Manjula; Abrams, Natalie; Merchant, Anand; Rajapakse, Vinodh N.; Bonner, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), considered essential for metastatic cancer, has been a focus of much research, but important questions remain. Here, we show that silencing or removing H2A.X, a histone H2A variant involved in cellular DNA repair and robust growth, induces mesenchymal-like characteristics including activation of EMT transcription factors, Slug and ZEB1, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Ectopic H2A.X re-expression partially reverses these changes, as does silencing Slug and ZEB1. In an experimental metastasis model, the HCT116 parental and H2A.X-null cells exhibit a similar metastatic behaviour, but the cells with re-expressed H2A.X are substantially more metastatic. We surmise that H2A.X re-expression leads to partial EMT reversal and increases robustness in the HCT116 cells, permitting them to both form tumours and to metastasize. In a human adenocarcinoma panel, H2A.X levels correlate inversely with Slug and ZEB1 levels. Together, these results point to H2A.X as a regulator of EMT. PMID:26876487

  5. The histone variant H2A.X is a regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E; Choudhuri, Rohini; Aziz, Towqir; Maeda, Daisuke; Boufraqech, Myriem; Parekh, Palak R; Sethi, Taresh K; Kasoji, Manjula; Abrams, Natalie; Merchant, Anand; Rajapakse, Vinodh N; Bonner, William M

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), considered essential for metastatic cancer, has been a focus of much research, but important questions remain. Here, we show that silencing or removing H2A.X, a histone H2A variant involved in cellular DNA repair and robust growth, induces mesenchymal-like characteristics including activation of EMT transcription factors, Slug and ZEB1, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Ectopic H2A.X re-expression partially reverses these changes, as does silencing Slug and ZEB1. In an experimental metastasis model, the HCT116 parental and H2A.X-null cells exhibit a similar metastatic behaviour, but the cells with re-expressed H2A.X are substantially more metastatic. We surmise that H2A.X re-expression leads to partial EMT reversal and increases robustness in the HCT116 cells, permitting them to both form tumours and to metastasize. In a human adenocarcinoma panel, H2A.X levels correlate inversely with Slug and ZEB1 levels. Together, these results point to H2A.X as a regulator of EMT. PMID:26876487

  6. Chromatin remodeling defects in pediatric and young adult glioblastoma: a tale of a variant histone 3 tail.

    PubMed

    Fontebasso, Adam M; Liu, Xiao-Yang; Sturm, Dominik; Jabado, Nada

    2013-03-01

    Primary brain tumors occur in 8 out of 100 000 people and are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. Among brain tumors, high-grade astrocytomas (HGAs) including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are aggressive and are lethal human cancers. Despite decades of concerted therapeutic efforts, HGAs remain essentially incurable in adults and children. Recent discoveries have revolutionized our understanding of these tumors in children and young adults. Recurrent somatic driver mutations in the tail of histone 3 variant 3 (H3.3), leading to amino acid substitutions at key residues, namely lysine (K) 27 (K27M) and glycine 34 (G34R/G34V), were identified as a new molecular mechanism in pediatric GBM. These mutations represent the pediatric counterpart of the recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) identified in young adult gliomas and provide a much-needed new pathway that can be targeted for therapeutic development. This review will provide an overview of the potential role of these mutations in altering chromatin structure and affecting specific molecular pathways ultimately leading to gliomagenesis. The distinct changes in chromatin structure and the specific downstream events induced by each mutation need characterizing independently if progress is to be made in tackling this devastating cancer. PMID:23432647

  7. Histone variant H3.3 provides the heterochromatic H3 lysine 9 tri-methylation mark at telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Udugama, Maheshi; M. Chang, Fiona T.; Chan, F. Lyn; Tang, Michelle C.; Pickett, Hilda A.; R. McGhie, James D.; Mayne, Lynne; Collas, Philippe; Mann, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Lee H.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to being a hallmark at active genes, histone variant H3.3 is deposited by ATRX at repressive chromatin regions, including the telomeres. It is unclear how H3.3 promotes heterochromatin assembly. We show that H3.3 is targeted for K9 trimethylation to establish a heterochromatic state enriched in trimethylated H3.3K9 at telomeres. In H3f3a−/− and H3f3b−/− mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), H3.3 deficiency results in reduced levels of H3K9me3, H4K20me3 and ATRX at telomeres. The H3f3b−/− cells show increased levels of telomeric damage and sister chromatid exchange (t-SCE) activity when telomeres are compromised by treatment with a G-quadruplex (G4) DNA binding ligand or by ASF1 depletion. Overexpression of wild-type H3.3 (but not a H3.3K9 mutant) in H3f3b−/− cells increases H3K9 trimethylation level at telomeres and represses t-SCE activity induced by a G4 ligand. This study demonstrates the importance of H3.3K9 trimethylation in heterochromatin formation at telomeres. It provides insights into H3.3 function in maintaining integrity of mammalian constitutive heterochromatin, adding to its role in mediating transcription memory in the genome. PMID:26304540

  8. Multiple facets of histone variant H2AX: a DNA double-strand-break marker with several biological functions

    PubMed Central

    Turinetto, Valentina; Giachino, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, many papers highlighted that the histone variant H2AX and its phosphorylation on Ser 139 (γH2AX) cannot be simply considered a specific DNA double-strand-break (DSB) marker with a role restricted to the DNA damage response, but rather as a ‘protagonist’ in different scenarios. This review will present and discuss an up-to-date view regarding the ‘non-canonical’ H2AX roles, focusing in particular on possible functional and structural parts in contexts different from the canonical DNA DSB response. We will present aspects concerning sex chromosome inactivation in male germ cells, X inactivation in female somatic cells and mitosis, but will also focus on the more recent studies regarding embryonic and neural stem cell development, asymmetric sister chromosome segregation in stem cells and cellular senescence maintenance. We will discuss whether in these new contexts there might be a relation with the canonical DNA DSB signalling function that could justify γH2AX formation. The authors will emphasize that, just as H2AX phosphorylation signals chromatin alteration and serves the canonical function of recruiting DSB repair factors, so the modification of H2AX in contexts other than the DNA damage response may contribute towards creating a specific chromatin structure frame allowing ‘non-canonical’ functions to be carried out in different cell types. PMID:25712102

  9. A Specialized Histone H1 Variant Is Required for Adaptive Responses to Complex Abiotic Stress and Related DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rutowicz, Kinga; Puzio, Marcin; Halibart-Puzio, Joanna; Lirski, Maciej; Kotliński, Maciej; Kroteń, Magdalena A; Knizewski, Lukasz; Lange, Bartosz; Muszewska, Anna; Śniegowska-Świerk, Katarzyna; Kościelniak, Janusz; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Buza, Krisztián; Janowiak, Franciszek; Żmuda, Katarzyna; Jõesaar, Indrek; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Fogtman, Anna; Kollist, Hannes; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Tiuryn, Jerzy; Siedlecki, Paweł; Swiezewski, Szymon; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Koblowska, Marta; Archacki, Rafał; Wilczynski, Bartek; Rapacz, Marcin; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Linker (H1) histones play critical roles in chromatin compaction in higher eukaryotes. They are also the most variable of the histones, with numerous nonallelic variants cooccurring in the same cell. Plants contain a distinct subclass of minor H1 variants that are induced by drought and abscisic acid and have been implicated in mediating adaptive responses to stress. However, how these variants facilitate adaptation remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the single Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stress-inducible variant H1.3 occurs in plants in two separate and most likely autonomous pools: a constitutive guard cell-specific pool and a facultative environmentally controlled pool localized in other tissues. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses of h1.3 null mutants demonstrate that H1.3 is required for both proper stomatal functioning under normal growth conditions and adaptive developmental responses to combined light and water deficiency. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis, we show that H1.3 has superfast chromatin dynamics, and in contrast to the main Arabidopsis H1 variants H1.1 and H1.2, it has no stable bound fraction. The results of global occupancy studies demonstrate that, while H1.3 has the same overall binding properties as the main H1 variants, including predominant heterochromatin localization, it differs from them in its preferences for chromatin regions with epigenetic signatures of active and repressed transcription. We also show that H1.3 is required for a substantial part of DNA methylation associated with environmental stress, suggesting that the likely mechanism underlying H1.3 function may be the facilitation of chromatin accessibility by direct competition with the main H1 variants. PMID:26351307

  10. A Specialized Histone H1 Variant Is Required for Adaptive Responses to Complex Abiotic Stress and Related DNA Methylation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rutowicz, Kinga; Puzio, Marcin; Halibart-Puzio, Joanna; Lirski, Maciej; Kotliński, Maciej; Kroteń, Magdalena A.; Knizewski, Lukasz; Lange, Bartosz; Muszewska, Anna; Śniegowska-Świerk, Katarzyna; Kościelniak, Janusz; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Buza, Krisztián; Janowiak, Franciszek; Żmuda, Katarzyna; Jõesaar, Indrek; Laskowska-Kaszub, Katarzyna; Fogtman, Anna; Kollist, Hannes; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Tiuryn, Jerzy; Siedlecki, Paweł; Swiezewski, Szymon; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Koblowska, Marta; Archacki, Rafał; Wilczynski, Bartek; Rapacz, Marcin; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Linker (H1) histones play critical roles in chromatin compaction in higher eukaryotes. They are also the most variable of the histones, with numerous nonallelic variants cooccurring in the same cell. Plants contain a distinct subclass of minor H1 variants that are induced by drought and abscisic acid and have been implicated in mediating adaptive responses to stress. However, how these variants facilitate adaptation remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the single Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stress-inducible variant H1.3 occurs in plants in two separate and most likely autonomous pools: a constitutive guard cell-specific pool and a facultative environmentally controlled pool localized in other tissues. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses of h1.3 null mutants demonstrate that H1.3 is required for both proper stomatal functioning under normal growth conditions and adaptive developmental responses to combined light and water deficiency. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis, we show that H1.3 has superfast chromatin dynamics, and in contrast to the main Arabidopsis H1 variants H1.1 and H1.2, it has no stable bound fraction. The results of global occupancy studies demonstrate that, while H1.3 has the same overall binding properties as the main H1 variants, including predominant heterochromatin localization, it differs from them in its preferences for chromatin regions with epigenetic signatures of active and repressed transcription. We also show that H1.3 is required for a substantial part of DNA methylation associated with environmental stress, suggesting that the likely mechanism underlying H1.3 function may be the facilitation of chromatin accessibility by direct competition with the main H1 variants. PMID:26351307

  11. Pat1 protects centromere-specific histone H3 variant Cse4 from Psh1-mediated ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Prashant K.; Guo, Jiasheng; Dittman, Lauren E.; Haase, Julian; Yeh, Elaine; Bloom, Kerry; Basrai, Munira A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved histone H3 variant Cse4 and its homologues are essential components of specialized centromere (CEN)-specific nucleosomes and serve as an epigenetic mark for CEN identity and propagation. Cse4 is a critical determinant for the structure and function of the kinetochore and is required to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. The kinetochore protein Pat1 regulates the levels and spatial distribution of Cse4 at centromeres. Deletion of PAT1 results in altered structure of CEN chromatin and chromosome segregation errors. In this study, we show that Pat1 protects CEN-associated Cse4 from ubiquitination in order to maintain proper structure and function of the kinetochore in budding yeast. PAT1-deletion strains exhibit increased ubiquitination of Cse4 and faster turnover of Cse4 at kinetochores. Psh1, a Cse4-specific E3-ubiquitin ligase, interacts with Pat1 in vivo and contributes to the increased ubiquitination of Cse4 in pat1∆ strains. Consistent with a role of Psh1 in ubiquitination of Cse4, transient induction of PSH1 in a wild-type strain resulted in phenotypes similar to a pat1∆ strain, including a reduction in CEN-associated Cse4, increased Cse4 ubiquitination, defects in spatial distribution of Cse4 at kinetochores, and altered structure of CEN chromatin. Pat1 interacts with Scm3 and is required for its maintenance at kinetochores. In conclusion, our studies provide novel insights into mechanisms by which Pat1 affects the structure of CEN chromatin and protects Cse4 from Psh1-mediated ubiquitination for faithful chromosome segregation. PMID:25833709

  12. The Histone Variant H3.3 Is Enriched at Drosophila Amplicon Origins but Does Not Mark Them for Activation

    PubMed Central

    Paranjape, Neha P.; Calvi, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication begins from multiple origins. The origin recognition complex (ORC) binds origin DNA and scaffolds assembly of a prereplicative complex (pre-RC), which is subsequently activated to initiate DNA replication. In multicellular eukaryotes, origins do not share a strict DNA consensus sequence, and their activity changes in concert with chromatin status during development, but mechanisms are ill-defined. Previous genome-wide analyses in Drosophila and other organisms have revealed a correlation between ORC binding sites and the histone variant H3.3. This correlation suggests that H3.3 may designate origin sites, but this idea has remained untested. To address this question, we examined the enrichment and function of H3.3 at the origins responsible for developmental gene amplification in the somatic follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary. We found that H3.3 is abundant at these amplicon origins. H3.3 levels remained high when replication initiation was blocked, indicating that H3.3 is abundant at the origins before activation of the pre-RC. H3.3 was also enriched at the origins during early oogenesis, raising the possibility that H3.3 bookmarks sites for later amplification. However, flies null mutant for both of the H3.3 genes in Drosophila did not have overt defects in developmental gene amplification or genomic replication, suggesting that H3.3 is not essential for the assembly or activation of the pre-RC at origins. Instead, our results imply that the correlation between H3.3 and ORC sites reflects other chromatin attributes that are important for origin function. PMID:27172191

  13. The Histone Variant H3.3 Is Enriched at Drosophila Amplicon Origins but Does Not Mark Them for Activation.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Neha P; Calvi, Brian R

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication begins from multiple origins. The origin recognition complex (ORC) binds origin DNA and scaffolds assembly of a prereplicative complex (pre-RC), which is subsequently activated to initiate DNA replication. In multicellular eukaryotes, origins do not share a strict DNA consensus sequence, and their activity changes in concert with chromatin status during development, but mechanisms are ill-defined. Previous genome-wide analyses in Drosophila and other organisms have revealed a correlation between ORC binding sites and the histone variant H3.3. This correlation suggests that H3.3 may designate origin sites, but this idea has remained untested. To address this question, we examined the enrichment and function of H3.3 at the origins responsible for developmental gene amplification in the somatic follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary. We found that H3.3 is abundant at these amplicon origins. H3.3 levels remained high when replication initiation was blocked, indicating that H3.3 is abundant at the origins before activation of the pre-RC. H3.3 was also enriched at the origins during early oogenesis, raising the possibility that H3.3 bookmarks sites for later amplification. However, flies null mutant for both of the H3.3 genes in Drosophila did not have overt defects in developmental gene amplification or genomic replication, suggesting that H3.3 is not essential for the assembly or activation of the pre-RC at origins. Instead, our results imply that the correlation between H3.3 and ORC sites reflects other chromatin attributes that are important for origin function. PMID:27172191

  14. Histone H1 Variants in Arabidopsis Are Subject to Numerous Post-Translational Modifications, Both Conserved and Previously Unknown in Histones, Suggesting Complex Functions of H1 in Plants.

    PubMed

    Kotliński, Maciej; Rutowicz, Kinga; Kniżewski, Łukasz; Palusiński, Antoni; Olędzki, Jacek; Fogtman, Anna; Rubel, Tymon; Koblowska, Marta; Dadlez, Michał; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Linker histones (H1s) are conserved and ubiquitous structural components of eukaryotic chromatin. Multiple non-allelic variants of H1, which differ in their DNA/nucleosome binding properties, co-exist in animal and plant cells and have been implicated in the control of genetic programs during development and differentiation. Studies in mammals and Drosophila have revealed diverse post-translational modifications of H1s, most of which are of unknown function. So far, it is not known how this pattern compares with that of H1s from other major lineages of multicellular Eukaryotes. Here, we show that the two main H1variants of a model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana are subject to a rich and diverse array of post-translational modifications. The distribution of these modifications in the H1 molecule, especially in its globular domain (GH1), resembles that occurring in mammalian H1s, suggesting that their functional significance is likely to be conserved. While the majority of modifications detected in Arabidopsis H1s, including phosphorylation, acetylation, mono- and dimethylation, formylation, crotonylation and propionylation, have also been reported in H1s of other species, some others have not been previously identified in histones. PMID:26820416

  15. Histone H1 Variants in Arabidopsis Are Subject to Numerous Post-Translational Modifications, Both Conserved and Previously Unknown in Histones, Suggesting Complex Functions of H1 in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kotliński, Maciej; Rutowicz, Kinga; Kniżewski, Łukasz; Palusiński, Antoni; Olędzki, Jacek; Fogtman, Anna; Rubel, Tymon; Koblowska, Marta; Dadlez, Michał; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Linker histones (H1s) are conserved and ubiquitous structural components of eukaryotic chromatin. Multiple non-allelic variants of H1, which differ in their DNA/nucleosome binding properties, co-exist in animal and plant cells and have been implicated in the control of genetic programs during development and differentiation. Studies in mammals and Drosophila have revealed diverse post-translational modifications of H1s, most of which are of unknown function. So far, it is not known how this pattern compares with that of H1s from other major lineages of multicellular Eukaryotes. Here, we show that the two main H1variants of a model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana are subject to a rich and diverse array of post-translational modifications. The distribution of these modifications in the H1 molecule, especially in its globular domain (GH1), resembles that occurring in mammalian H1s, suggesting that their functional significance is likely to be conserved. While the majority of modifications detected in Arabidopsis H1s, including phosphorylation, acetylation, mono- and dimethylation, formylation, crotonylation and propionylation, have also been reported in H1s of other species, some others have not been previously identified in histones. PMID:26820416

  16. Mapping post-translational modifications of mammalian testicular specific histone variant TH2B in tetraploid and haploid germ cells and their implications on the dynamics of nucleosome structure.

    PubMed

    Pentakota, Satya Krishna; Sandhya, Sankaran; P Sikarwar, Arun; Chandra, Nagasuma; Satyanarayana Rao, Manchanahalli R

    2014-12-01

    Histones regulate a variety of chromatin templated events by their post-translational modifications (PTMs). Although there are extensive reports on the PTMs of canonical histones, the information on the histone variants remains very scanty. Here, we report the identification of different PTMs, such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation of a major mammalian histone variant TH2B. Our mass spectrometric analysis has led to the identification of both conserved and unique modifications across tetraploid spermatocytes and haploid spermatids. We have also computationally derived the 3-dimensional model of a TH2B containing nucleosome in order to study the spatial orientation of the PTMs identified and their effect on nucleosome stability and DNA binding potential. From our nucleosome model, it is evident that substitution of specific amino acid residues in TH2B results in both differential histone-DNA and histone-histone contacts. Furthermore, we have also observed that acetylation on the N-terminal tail of TH2B weakens the interactions with the DNA. These results provide direct evidence that, similar to somatic H2B, the testis specific histone TH2B also undergoes multiple PTMs, suggesting the possibility of chromatin regulation by such covalent modifications in mammalian male germ cells. PMID:25252820

  17. Targeting of the SUN protein Mps3 to the inner nuclear membrane by the histone variant H2A.Z

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Jennifer M.; Smoyer, Christine J.; Stensrud, Elizabeth S.; Alexander, Richard; Gogol, Madelaine; Wiegraebe, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between chromatin and proteins at the nuclear periphery, such as the conserved SUN family of inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins, is necessary to elucidate how three-dimensional nuclear architecture is established and maintained. We found that the budding yeast SUN protein Mps3 directly binds to the histone variant H2A.Z but not other histones. Biochemical and genetic data indicate that the interaction between Mps3 and H2A.Z requires the Mps3 N-terminal acidic domain and unique sequences in the H2A.Z N terminus and histone-fold domain. Analysis of binding-defective mutants showed that the Mps3–H2A.Z interaction is not essential for any previously described role for either protein in nuclear organization, and multiple lines of evidence suggest that Mps3–H2A.Z binding occurs independently of H2A.Z incorporation into chromatin. We demonstrate that H2A.Z is required to target a soluble Mps3 fragment to the nucleus and to localize full-length Mps3 in the INM, indicating that H2A.Z has a novel chromatin-independent function in INM targeting of SUN proteins. PMID:21518795

  18. Identification of proliferation-induced genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Characterization of a new member of the highly evolutionarily conserved histone H2A.F/Z variant subfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Callard, D; Mazzolini, L

    1997-01-01

    The changes in gene expression associated with the reinitiation of cell division and subsequent progression through the cell cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana cell-suspension cultures were investigated. Partial synchronization of cells was achieved by a technique combining phosphate starvation and a transient treatment with the DNA replication inhibitor aphidicolin. Six cDNAs corresponding to genes highly induced in proliferating cells and showing cell-cycle-regulated expression were obtained by the mRNA differential display technique. Full-length cDNA clones (cH2BAt and cH2AvAt) corresponding to two of the display products were subsequently isolated. The cH2BAt clone codes for a novel histone H2B protein, whereas the cH2AvAt cDNA corresponds to a gene encoding a new member of the highly conserved histone H2A.F/Z subfamily of chromosomal proteins. Further studies indicated that H2AvAt mRNA expression is tightly correlated with cell proliferation in cell-suspension cultures, and that closely related analogs of the encoded protein exist in Arabidopsis. The implications of the conservation of histone H2A.F/Z variants in plants are discussed. PMID:9414552

  19. Rare variants detection with kernel machine learning based on likelihood ratio test.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Liwei; Huang, Shuiping; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly utilizes likelihood-based tests to detect rare variants associated with a continuous phenotype under the framework of kernel machine learning. Both the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and the restricted likelihood ratio test (ReLRT) are investigated. The relationship between the kernel machine learning and the mixed effects model is discussed. By using the eigenvalue representation of LRT and ReLRT, their exact finite sample distributions are obtained in a simulation manner. Numerical studies are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches under the contexts of standard mixed effects model and kernel machine learning. The results have shown that the LRT and ReLRT can control the type I error correctly at the given α level. The LRT and ReLRT consistently outperform the SKAT, regardless of the sample size and the proportion of the negative causal rare variants, and suffer from fewer power reductions compared to the SKAT when both positive and negative effects of rare variants are present. The LRT and ReLRT performed under the context of kernel machine learning have slightly higher powers than those performed under the context of standard mixed effects model. We use the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 exome sequencing SNP data as an illustrative example. Some interesting results are observed from the analysis. Finally, we give the discussion. PMID:24675868

  20. New players in heterochromatin silencing: histone variant H3.3 and the ATRX/DAXX chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Hsiao P.J.; Wong, Lee H.

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that various components of the ATRX/DAXX/Histone H3.3 complex are important for heterochromatin silencing at multiple genomic regions. We provide an overview of the individual components (ATRX, DAXX and/or H3.3) tested in each study and propose a model where the ATRX/DAXX chaperone complex deposits H3.3 to maintain the H3K9me3 modification at heterochromatin throughout the genome. PMID:26773061

  1. PP1α, PP1β and Wip-1 regulate H4S47 phosphorylation and deposition of histone H3 variant H3.3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhiquan; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of histone H4 serine 47 (H4S47ph) is catalyzed by Pak2, a member of the p21-activated serine/threonine protein kinase (Pak) family and regulates the deposition of histone variant H3.3. However, the phosphatase(s) involved in the regulation of H4S47ph levels was unknown. Here, we show that three phosphatases (PP1α, PP1β and Wip1) regulate H4S47ph levels and H3.3 deposition. Depletion of each of the three phosphatases results in increased H4S47ph levels. Moreover, PP1α, PP1β and Wip1 bind H3-H4 in vitro and in vivo, whereas only PP1α and PP1β, but not Wip1, interact with Pak2 in vivo. These results suggest that PP1α, PP1β and Wip1 regulate the levels of H4S47ph through directly acting on H4S47ph, with PP1α and PP1β also likely regulating the activity of Pak2. Finally, depletion of PP1α, PP1β and Wip1 leads to increased H3.3 occupancy at candidate genes tested, elevated H3.3 deposition and enhanced association of H3.3 with its chaperones HIRA and Daxx. These results reveal a novel role of three phosphatases in chromatin dynamics in mammalian cells. PMID:23828041

  2. Structural characteristics of two wheat histone H2A genes encoding distinct types of variants and functional differences in their promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Huh, G H; Nakayama, T; Meshi, T; Iwabuchi, M

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the regulation of plant histone H2A gene expression, we isolated two H2A genes (TH254 and TH274) from wheat, which encode two variants of H2A. Both genes had an intron in the coding region. In the promoters, some characteristic sequences, such as Oct and Nona motifs, which are conserved among plant histone genes, were located in a short region (about 120 bp) upstream from the putative TATA box. Transient expression analyses of promoter activity with H2A-GUS fusion genes using tobacco protoplasts revealed novel types of positive cis-acting sequences in the TH254 promoter: a direct repeat of a 13 bp sequence (AGTTACATTATTG) and a stretch composed of an AT-rich sequence (ATATAGAAAATTAAAA) and a G-box (CACGTG). Quantitative S1 assay of the mRNA amounts from the TH254/GUS and TH274/GUS chimeric genes in stably transformed and cell cycle-synchronized tobacco cell lines showed that the promoters of both genes contained at least one cis-acting element responsible for S phase-specific expression. Histochemical analysis of transgenic tobacco plants carrying the chimeric genes showed that the promoters of the two H2A genes were active in developing seedlings and flower organs but were regulated in a different manner. PMID:9106503

  3. The NH2 Tail of the Novel Histone Variant H2BFWT Exhibits Properties Distinct from Conventional H2B with Respect to the Assembly of Mitotic Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Boulard, Mathieu; Gautier, Thierry; Mbele, Gaelh Ouengue; Gerson, Véronique; Hamiche, Ali; Angelov, Dimitar; Bouvet, Philippe; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the functional and structural properties of nucleosomes reconstituted with H2BFWT, a recently identified putative histone variant of the H2B family with totally unknown function. We show that H2BFWT can replace the conventional histone H2B in the nucleosome. The presence of H2BFWT did not affect the overall structure of the nucleosome, and the H2BFWT nucleosomes exhibited the same stability as conventional nucleosomes. SWI/SNF was able to efficiently remodel and mobilize the H2BFWT nucleosomes. Importantly, H2BFWT, in contrast to conventional H2B, was unable to recruit chromosome condensation factors and to participate in the assembly of mitotic chromosomes. This was determined by the highly divergent (compared to conventional H2B) NH2 tail of H2BFWT. These data, in combination with the observations that H2BFWT was found by others in the sperm nuclei and appeared to be associated with the telomeric chromatin, suggest that H2BFWT could act as a specific epigenetic marker. PMID:16449661

  4. The histone variant H2A.Z is dynamically expressed in the developing mouse placenta and in differentiating trophoblast stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kafer, Georgia R; Carlton, Peter M; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2015-11-01

    The histone variant H2A.Z is important in establishing new chromatin environments necessary for permitting changes in gene expression and thus differentiation in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. In this study we show that H2A.Z is highly expressed in the early mouse placenta, and is specifically limited to progenitor-like trophoblast cells. Using in vitro models, we revealed distinct differences in H2A.Z abundance between undifferentiated, differentiating and differentiated mouse trophoblast stem (mTS) cells. Our work supports the hypothesis that in addition to roles in differentiating mES cells, H2A.Z is also involved in the differentiation of extra-embryonic tissues. PMID:26363621

  5. MLL5 Orchestrates a Cancer Self-Renewal State by Repressing the Histone Variant H3.3 and Globally Reorganizing Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Marco; Coutinho, Fiona J; Vanner, Robert J; Gayden, Tenzin; Mack, Stephen C; Murison, Alex; Remke, Marc; Li, Ren; Takayama, Naoya; Desai, Kinjal; Lee, Lilian; Lan, Xiaoyang; Park, Nicole I; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Smil, David; Sturm, Dominik; Kushida, Michelle M; Head, Renee; Cusimano, Michael D; Bernstein, Mark; Clarke, Ian D; Dick, John E; Pfister, Stefan M; Rich, Jeremy N; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Taylor, Michael D; Jabado, Nada; Bazett-Jones, David P; Lupien, Mathieu; Dirks, Peter B

    2015-12-14

    Mutations in the histone 3 variant H3.3 have been identified in one-third of pediatric glioblastomas (GBMs), but not in adult tumors. Here we show that H3.3 is a dynamic determinant of functional properties in adult GBM. H3.3 is repressed by mixed lineage leukemia 5 (MLL5) in self-renewing GBM cells. MLL5 is a global epigenetic repressor that orchestrates reorganization of chromatin structure by punctuating chromosomes with foci of compacted chromatin, favoring tumorigenic and self-renewing properties. Conversely, H3.3 antagonizes self-renewal and promotes differentiation. We exploited these epigenetic states to rationally identify two small molecules that effectively curb cancer stem cell properties in a preclinical model. Our work uncovers a role for MLL5 and H3.3 in maintaining self-renewal hierarchies in adult GBM. PMID:26626085

  6. The development of a monoclonal antibody recognizing the Drosophila melanogaster phosphorylated histone H2A variant (γ-H2AV).

    PubMed

    Lake, Cathleen M; Holsclaw, Julie Korda; Bellendir, Stephanie P; Sekelsky, Jeff; Hawley, R Scott

    2013-09-01

    The recognition of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) using a phospho-specific antibody to the histone 2A variant has become the gold standard assay for DNA damage detection. Here we report on the development of the first monoclonal antibody to the phospho-specific form of Drosophila H2AV and characterize the specificity of this antibody to programmed DSBs in oocytes and rereplication sites in endocycling cells by immunofluorescence assays and to DSBs resulting from irradiation in both cell culture and whole tissue by Western blot assays. These studies show that the antibody derived in the study is highly specific for this modification that occurs at DSB sites, and therefore will be a new useful tool within the Drosophila community for the study of DNA damage response, DSB repair, meiotic recombination and chemical agents that cause DNA damage. PMID:23833215

  7. DNA Hypomethylation and Histone Variant macroH2A1 Synergistically Attenuate Chemotherapy-Induced Senescence to Promote Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression.

    PubMed

    Borghesan, Michela; Fusilli, Caterina; Rappa, Francesca; Panebianco, Concetta; Rizzo, Giovanni; Oben, Jude A; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Faulkes, Chris; Pata, Illar; Agodi, Antonella; Rezaee, Farhad; Minogue, Shane; Warren, Alessandra; Peterson, Abigail; Sedivy, John M; Douet, Julien; Buschbeck, Marcus; Cappello, Francesco; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2016-02-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for progression of liver diseases to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cellular senescence contributes to age-related tissue dysfunction, but the epigenetic basis underlying drug-induced senescence remains unclear. macroH2A1, a variant of histone H2A, is a marker of senescence-associated heterochromatic foci that synergizes with DNA methylation to silence tumor-suppressor genes in human fibroblasts. In this study, we investigated the relationship between macroH2A1 splice variants, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2, and liver carcinogenesis. We found that protein levels of both macroH2A1 isoforms were increased in the livers of very elderly rodents and humans, and were robust immunohistochemical markers of human cirrhosis and HCC. In response to the chemotherapeutic and DNA-demethylating agent 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), transgenic expression of macroH2A1 isoforms in HCC cell lines prevented the emergence of a senescent-like phenotype and induced synergistic global DNA hypomethylation. Conversely, macroH2A1 depletion amplified the antiproliferative effects of 5-aza-dC in HCC cells, but failed to enhance senescence. Senescence-associated secretory phenotype and whole-transcriptome analyses implicated the p38 MAPK/IL8 pathway in mediating macroH2A1-dependent escape of HCC cells from chemotherapy-induced senescence. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing revealed that this hepatic antisenescence state also required active transcription that could not be attributed to genomic occupancy of these histones. Collectively, our findings reveal a new mechanism by which drug-induced senescence is epigenetically regulated by macroH2A1 and DNA methylation and suggest macroH2A1 as a novel biomarker of hepatic senescence that could potentially predict prognosis and disease progression. PMID:26772755

  8. Histone H3 Variant Regulates RNA Polymerase II Transcription Termination and Dual Strand Transcription of siRNA Loci in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, David; Hofmeister, Brigitte T.; Cliffe, Laura; Alabady, Magdy; Siegel, T. Nicolai; Schmitz, Robert J.; Sabatini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Base J, β-D-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil, is a chromatin modification of thymine in the nuclear DNA of flagellated protozoa of the order Kinetoplastida. In Trypanosoma brucei, J is enriched, along with histone H3 variant (H3.V), at sites involved in RNA Polymerase (RNAP) II termination and telomeric sites involved in regulating variant surface glycoprotein gene (VSG) transcription by RNAP I. Reduction of J in T. brucei indicated a role of J in the regulation of RNAP II termination, where the loss of J at specific sites within polycistronic gene clusters led to read-through transcription and increased expression of downstream genes. We now demonstrate that the loss of H3.V leads to similar defects in RNAP II termination within gene clusters and increased expression of downstream genes. Gene derepression is intensified upon the subsequent loss of J in the H3.V knockout. mRNA-seq indicates gene derepression includes VSG genes within the silent RNAP I transcribed telomeric gene clusters, suggesting an important role for H3.V in telomeric gene repression and antigenic variation. Furthermore, the loss of H3.V at regions of overlapping transcription at the end of convergent gene clusters leads to increased nascent RNA and siRNA production. Our results suggest base J and H3.V can act independently as well as synergistically to regulate transcription termination and expression of coding and non-coding RNAs in T. brucei, depending on chromatin context (and transcribing polymerase). As such these studies provide the first direct evidence for histone H3.V negatively influencing transcription elongation to promote termination. PMID:26796527

  9. Functional role of histone variant Htz1 in the stress response to oleate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongde; Li, Guanghui; Liu, Lingjie; Wan, Yakun

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin structure is implicated in regulating gene transcription in stress response. Transcription factors, transferases and deacetylases, such as multicopy suppressor of SNF1 protein 2 (Msn2), SET domain-containing protein 1 (Set1) and sucrose NonFermenting protein 1 (Snf1), have been identified as key regulators in stress response. In the present study, we reported the dynamics of nucleosome occupancy, Histone Two A Z1 (Htz1) deposition and histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) and histone H3 lysine 79 trimethylation (H3K79me3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under oleate stress. Our results indicated that citrate cycle-associated genes are enhanced and ribosome genes are repressed during the glucose-oleate shift. Importantly, Htz1 acts as a sensor for oleate stress. High-throughput ChIP-chip analysis showed that Htz1 has redistributed across the genome during oleate stress. The number of Htz1-bound genes increases with stress and the number of Htz1-bound ribosome genes decreases with stress. The dynamics of Htz1 and H3K79me3 around transcription factor-binding sites correlate with transcriptional changes. Moreover, we found that nucleosome dynamics are coupled with Htz1 binding changes upon stress. In unstressed conditions (2% glucose), nucleosome occupancy is comparable between Htz1-bound genes and Htz1-depleted genes; in stressed conditions (0.2% oleate for 8 h), the nucleosome occupancy of Htz1-depleted genes is significantly lower than that of Htz1-bound genes. We also found that Msn2 acts an important role in response to the oleate stress and Htz1 is dynamic in Msn2-target genes. Htz1 senses the oleate stress and undergoes a global redistribution and this change couples dynamics of nucleosome occupancy. Our analysis suggests that Htz1 and nucleosome dynamics change in response to oleate stress. PMID:26182431

  10. Nucleosome formation with the testis-specific histone H3 variant, H3t, by human nucleosome assembly proteins in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Osakabe, Akihisa; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Five non-allelic histone H3 variants, H3.1, H3.2, H3.3, H3t and CENP-A, have been identified in mammals. H3t is robustly expressed in the testis, and thus was assigned as the testis-specific H3 variant. However, recent proteomics and tissue-specific RT-PCR experiments revealed a small amount of H3t expression in somatic cells. In the present study, we purified human H3t as a recombinant protein, and showed that H3t/H4 forms nucleosomes with H2A/H2B by the salt-dialysis method, like the conventional H3.1/H4. We found that H3t/H4 is not efficiently incorporated into the nucleosome by human Nap1 (hNap1), due to its defective H3t/H4 deposition on DNA. In contrast, human Nap2 (hNap2), a paralog of hNap1, promotes nucleosome assembly with H3t/H4. Mutational analyses revealed that the Ala111 residue, which is conserved among H3.1, H3.2 and H3.3, but not in H3t, is the essential residue for the hNap1-mediated nucleosome assembly. These results suggest that H3t may be incorporated into chromatin by a specific chaperone-mediated pathway. PMID:18281699

  11. Arabidopsis KINETOCHORE NULL2 Is an Upstream Component for Centromeric Histone H3 Variant cenH3 Deposition at Centromeres[W

    PubMed Central

    Lermontova, Inna; Kuhlmann, Markus; Friedel, Swetlana; Rutten, Twan; Heckmann, Stefan; Sandmann, Michael; Demidov, Dmitri; Schubert, Veit; Schubert, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    The centromeric histone H3 variant cenH3 is an essential centromeric protein required for assembly, maintenance, and proper function of kinetochores during mitosis and meiosis. We identified a KINETOCHORE NULL2 (KNL2) homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana and uncovered features of its role in cenH3 loading at centromeres. We show that Arabidopsis KNL2 colocalizes with cenH3 and is associated with centromeres during all stages of the mitotic cell cycle, except from metaphase to mid-anaphase. KNL2 is regulated by the proteasome degradation pathway. The KNL2 promoter is mainly active in meristematic tissues, similar to the cenH3 promoter. A knockout mutant for KNL2 shows a reduced level of cenH3 expression and reduced amount of cenH3 protein at chromocenters of meristematic nuclei, anaphase bridges during mitosis, micronuclei in pollen tetrads, and 30% seed abortion. Moreover, knl2 mutant plants display reduced expression of suppressor of variegation 3-9 homologs2, 4, and 9 and reduced DNA methylation, suggesting an impact of KNL2 on the epigenetic environment for centromere maintenance. PMID:24014547

  12. Human GRK4γ142V Variant Promotes Angiotensin II Type I Receptor-Mediated Hypertension via Renal Histone Deacetylase Type 1 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zeng, Chunyu; Villar, Van Anthony M; Chen, Shi-You; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Wang, Xiaoyan; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Yu; Sanada, Hironobu; Felder, Robin A; Eisner, Gilbert M; Weir, Matthew R; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A

    2016-02-01

    The influence of a single gene on the pathogenesis of essential hypertension may be difficult to ascertain, unless the gene interacts with other genes that are germane to blood pressure regulation. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4) is one such gene. We have reported that the expression of its variant hGRK4γ(142V) in mice results in hypertension because of impaired dopamine D1 receptor. Signaling through dopamine D1 receptor and angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) reciprocally modulates renal sodium excretion and blood pressure. Here, we demonstrate the ability of the hGRK4γ(142V) to increase the expression and activity of the AT1R. We show that hGRK4γ(142V) phosphorylates histone deacetylase type 1 and promotes its nuclear export to the cytoplasm, resulting in increased AT1R expression and greater pressor response to angiotensin II. AT1R blockade and the deletion of the Agtr1a gene normalize the hypertension in hGRK4γ(142V) mice. These findings illustrate the unique role of GRK4 by targeting receptors with opposite physiological activity for the same goal of maintaining blood pressure homeostasis, and thus making the GRK4 a relevant therapeutic target to control blood pressure. PMID:26667412

  13. The Histone Variant MacroH2A1 Regulates Target Gene Expression in Part by Recruiting the Transcriptional Coregulator PELP1

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Kristine M.; Chen, Hongshan; Yang, Christine; Park, Eugene; Hah, Nasun; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Gamble, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    MacroH2A1 is a histone variant harboring an ∼25-kDa carboxyl-terminal macrodomain. Due to its enrichment on the inactive X chromosome, macroH2A1 was thought to play a role in transcriptional repression. However, recent studies have shown that macroH2A1 occupies autosomal chromatin and regulates genes in a context-specific manner. The macrodomain may play a role in the modulation of gene expression outcomes via physical interactions with effector proteins, which may depend on the ability of the macrodomain to bind NAD+ metabolite ligands. Here, we identify proline, glutamic acid, and leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1), a chromatin-associated factor and transcriptional coregulator, as a ligand-independent macrodomain-interacting factor. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with tiling microarrays (ChIP-chip) to determine the genomic localization of PELP1 in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We find that PELP1 genomic localization is highly correlated with that of macroH2A1. Additionally, PELP1 positively correlates with heterochromatic chromatin marks and negatively correlates with active transcription marks, much like macroH2A1. MacroH2A1 specifically recruits PELP1 to the promoters of macroH2A1 target genes, but macroH2A1 occupancy occurs independent of PELP1. This recruitment allows macroH2A1 and PELP1 to cooperatively regulate gene expression outcomes. PMID:24752897

  14. Specific detection of methionine 27 mutation in histone 3 variants (H3K27M) in fixed tissue from high-grade astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Bechet, Denise; Gielen, Gerrit G H; Korshunov, Andrey; Pfister, Stefan M; Rousso, Caterina; Faury, Damien; Fiset, Pierre-Olivier; Benlimane, Naciba; Lewis, Peter W; Lu, Chao; David Allis, C; Kieran, Mark W; Ligon, Keith L; Pietsch, Torsten; Ellezam, Benjamin; Albrecht, Steffen; Jabado, Nada

    2014-11-01

    Studies in pediatric high-grade astrocytomas (HGA) by our group and others have uncovered recurrent somatic mutations affecting highly conserved residues in histone 3 (H3) variants. One of these mutations leads to analogous p.Lys27Met (K27M) mutations in both H3.3 and H3.1 variants, is associated with rapid fatal outcome, and occurs specifically in HGA of the midline in children and young adults. This includes diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (80 %) and thalamic or spinal HGA (>90 %), which are surgically challenging locations with often limited tumor material available and critical need for specific histopathological markers. Here, we analyzed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 143 pediatric HGA and 297 other primary brain tumors or normal brain. Immunohistochemical staining for H3K27M was compared to tumor genotype, and also compared to H3 tri-methylated lysine 27 (H3K27me3) staining, previously shown to be drastically decreased in samples carrying this mutation. There was a 100 % concordance between genotype and immunohistochemical analysis of H3K27M in tumor samples. Mutant H3K27M was expressed in the majority of tumor cells, indicating limited intra-tumor heterogeneity for this specific mutation within the limits of our dataset. Both H3.1 and H3.3K27M mutants were recognized by this antibody while non-neoplastic elements, such as endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells or lymphocytes, did not stain. H3K27me3 immunoreactivity was largely mutually exclusive with H3K27M positivity. These results demonstrate that mutant H3K27M can be specifically identified with high specificity and sensitivity using an H3K27M antibody and immunohistochemistry. Use of this antibody in the clinical setting will prove very useful for diagnosis, especially in the context of small biopsies in challenging midline tumors and will help orient care in the context of the extremely poor prognosis associated with this mutation. PMID:25200321

  15. Histone phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, Dorine; Avvakumov, Nikita; Côté, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Histone posttranslational modifications are key components of diverse processes that modulate chromatin structure. These marks function as signals during various chromatin-based events, and act as platforms for recruitment, assembly or retention of chromatin-associated factors. The best-known function of histone phosphorylation takes place during cellular response to DNA damage, when phosphorylated histone H2A(X) demarcates large chromatin domains around the site of DNA breakage. However, multiple studies have also shown that histone phosphorylation plays crucial roles in chromatin remodeling linked to other nuclear processes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of histone phosphorylation and describe the many kinases and phosphatases that regulate it. We discuss the key roles played by this histone mark in DNA repair, transcription and chromatin compaction during cell division and apoptosis. Additionally, we describe the intricate crosstalk that occurs between phosphorylation and other histone modifications and allows for sophisticated control over the chromatin remodeling processes. PMID:22948226

  16. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Marinov, Georgi K.; Lynch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed. PMID:26646152

  17. Genome Distribution of Replication-independent Histone H1 Variants Shows H1.0 Associated with Nucleolar Domains and H1X Associated with RNA Polymerase II-enriched Regions*

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Regina; Izquierdo-Bouldstridge, Andrea; Millán-Ariño, Lluís; Bustillos, Alberto; Sampaio, Cristina; Luque, Neus; Jordan, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Unlike core histones, the linker histone H1 family is more evolutionarily diverse, and many organisms have multiple H1 variants or subtypes. In mammals, the H1 family includes seven somatic H1 variants; H1.1 to H1.5 are expressed in a replication-dependent manner, whereas H1.0 and H1X are replication-independent. Using ChIP-sequencing data and cell fractionation, we have compared the genomic distribution of H1.0 and H1X in human breast cancer cells, in which we previously observed differential distribution of H1.2 compared with the other subtypes. We have found H1.0 to be enriched at nucleolus-associated DNA repeats and chromatin domains, whereas H1X is associated with coding regions, RNA polymerase II-enriched regions, and hypomethylated CpG islands. Further, H1X accumulates within constitutive or included exons and retained introns and toward the 3′ end of expressed genes. Inducible H1X knockdown does not affect cell proliferation but dysregulates a subset of genes related to cell movement and transport. In H1X-depleted cells, the promoters of up-regulated genes are not occupied specifically by this variant, have a lower than average H1 content, and, unexpectedly, do not form an H1 valley upon induction. We conclude that H1 variants are not distributed evenly across the genome and may participate with some specificity in chromatin domain organization or gene regulation. PMID:25645921

  18. Molecular cloning and expression of hctB encoding a strain-variant chlamydial histone-like protein with DNA-binding activity.

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, T J; Barry, C E; Hackstadt, T

    1993-01-01

    Two DNA-binding proteins with similarity to eukaryotic histone H1 have been described in Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition to the 18-kDa histone H1 homolog Hc1, elementary bodies of C. trachomatis possess an antigenically related histone H1 homolog, which we have termed Hc2, that varies in apparent molecular mass among strains. We report the molecular cloning, expression, and nucleotide sequence of the hctB gene encoding Hc2 and present evidence for in vivo DNA-binding activity of the expressed product. Expression of Hc2 in Escherichia coli induces a compaction of bacterial chromatin that is distinct from that observed upon Hc1 expression. Moreover, isolated nucleoids from Hc2-expressing E. coli exhibit markedly reduced sensitivity to DNase I. These properties of Hc2 are consistent with a postulated role in establishing the nucleoid structure of elementary bodies. Images PMID:7687246

  19. Ratios of Four STAT3 Splice Variants in Human Eosinophils and Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turton, Keren B.; Annis, Douglas S.; Rui, Lixin; Esnault, Stephane; Mosher, Deane F.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a key mediator of leukocyte differentiation and proliferation. The 3' end of STAT3 transcripts is subject to two alternative splicing events. One results in either full-length STAT3α or in STAT3β, which lacks part of the C-terminal transactivation domain. The other is at a tandem donor (5') splice site and results in the codon for Ser-701 being included (S) or excluded (ΔS). Despite the proximity of Ser-701 to the site of activating phosphorylation at Tyr-705, ΔS/S splicing has barely been studied. Sequencing of cDNA from purified eosinophils revealed the presence of four transcripts (S-α, ΔS-α, S-β, and ΔS-β) rather than the three reported in publically available databases from which ΔS-β is missing. To gain insight into regulation of the two alternative splicing events, we developed a quantitative(q) PCR protocol to compare transcript ratios in eosinophils in which STAT3 is upregulated by cytokines, activated B cell diffuse large B cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) cells in which STAT3 is dysregulated, and in germinal center B cell-like DLBCL cells in which it is not. With the exception of one line of activated B cell DLCBL cells, the four variants were found in roughly the same ratios despite differences in total levels of STAT3 transcripts. S-α was the most abundant, followed by S-β. ΔS-α and ΔS-β together comprised 15.6±4.0 % (mean±SD, n=21) of the total. The percentage of STAT3β variants that were ΔS was 1.5-fold greater than of STAT3α variants that were ΔS. Inspection of Illumina’s “BodyMap” RNA-Seq database revealed that the ΔS variant accounts for 10-26 % of STAT3 transcripts across 16 human tissues, with less variation than three other genes with the identical tandem donor splice site sequence. Thus, it seems likely that all cells contain the S-α, ΔS-α, S-β, and ΔS-β variants of STAT3. PMID:25984943

  20. A genome-wide approach to screen for genetic variants in broilers (Gallus gallus) with divergent feed conversion ratio.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tejas M; Patel, Namrata V; Patel, Anand B; Upadhyay, Maulik R; Mohapatra, Amitbikram; Singh, Krishna M; Deshpande, Sunil D; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2016-08-01

    Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an economically important trait in broilers and feed accounts for a significant proportion of the costs involved in broiler production. To explore the contribution of functional variants to FCR trait, we analyzed coding and non-coding single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) across the genome by exome sequencing in seven pairs of full-sibs broilers with divergent FCR and with a sequence coverage at an average depth of fourfold. We identified 192,119 high-quality SNVs, including 30,380 coding SNVs (cSNVs) in the experimental population. We discovered missense SNVs in PGM2, NOX4, TGFBR3, and TMX4, and synonymous SNVs in TSNAX, ITA, HSP90B1, and COL18A1 associated with FCR. Haplotype analyses of genome-wide significant SNVs in PGM2, PHKG1, DGKZ, and SOD2 were also observed with suggestive evidence of haplotype association with FCR. Single-variant and FCR QTL-related genes-based association analyses of SNVs identified newly associated genes for FCR in the regions subjected to targeted exome sequencing. The top seven SNVs were next evaluated in independent replication data sets where SNV chr. 3: 13,990,160 (c. 961G>C) at TMX4 was replicated (p < 0.05). Collectively, we have detected SNVs associated with FCR in broiler as well as identification of SNVs in known FCR QTL region. These findings should facilitate the discovery of causative variants for FCR and contribute to marker-assisted selection. PMID:27174137

  1. Characterization of a Novel Chromatin Sorting Tool Reveals Importance of Histone Variant H3.3 in Contextual Fear Memory and Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Anna G.; Poplawski, Shane G.; Mayweather, Brittany A.; White, Kyle M.; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The consolidation of short-term labile memories for long-term storage requires transcription and there is growing interest in defining the epigenetic mechanisms regulating these transcriptional events. In particular, it has been hypothesized that combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) have the potential to store memory by dynamically defining the transcriptional status of any given gene loci. Studying epigenetic phenomena during long-term memory consolidation, however, is complicated by the complex cellular heterogeneity of the brain, in which epigenetic signal from memory-relevant cells can be obscured or diluted by the surrounding milieu. To address this issue, we have developed a transgenic mouse line expressing a tetO-regulated, hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged histone H3.3 exclusively in excitatory neurons of the forebrain. Unlike canonical histones, histone H3.3 is incorporated at promoter regions of transcriptionally active genes in a DNA replication-independent manner, stably “barcoding” active regions of the genome in post-mitotic cells. Immunoprecipitating H3.3-HA containing nucleosomes from the hippocampus will therefore enrich for memory-relevant chromatin by isolating actively transcribed regions of the excitatory neuron genome. To evaluate the validity of using H3.3 “barcoding” to sort chromatin, we performed a molecular and behavioral characterization of the H3.3-HA transgenic mouse line. Expectedly, we find that H3.3-HA is incorporated preferentially at promoter regions of actively-transcribed neuronal genes and that expression can be effectively regulated by doxycycline. Additionally, H3.3-HA overexpression does not adversely affect exploratory or anxiety-related behaviors, nor does it affect spatial memory. Transgenic animals do, however, exhibit deficits in contextual memory and motor learning, revealing the importance of this histone isoform in the brain. Future studies in the H3.3-HA transgenic mouse line will define

  2. High-performance capillary electrophoresis of histones

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Valdez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) system has been developed for the fractionation of histones. This system involves electroinjection of the sample and electrophoresis in a 0.1M phosphate buffer at pH 2.5 in a 50 {mu}m {times} 35 cm coated capillary. Electrophoresis was accomplished in 9 minutes separating a whole histone preparation into its components in the following order of decreasing mobility; (MHP) H3, H1 (major variant), H1 (minor variant), (LHP) H3, (MHP) H2A (major variant), (LHP) H2A, H4, H2B, (MHP) H2A (minor variant) where MHP is the more hydrophobic component and LHP is the less hydrophobic component. This order of separation is very different from that found in acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in reversed-phase HPLC and, thus, brings the histone biochemist a new dimension for the qualitative analysis of histone samples. 27 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Depletion of nuclear histone H2A variants is associated with chronic DNA damage signaling upon drug-evoked senescence of human somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Mary F.; Tollervey, James; Krastins, Bryan; Garces, Alejandra; Sarracino, David; Prakash, Amol; Vogelsang, Maryann; Geesman, Glenn; Valderrama, Augusto; Jordan, I. King; Lunyak, Victoria V.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular senescence is associated with global chromatin changes, altered gene expression, and activation of chronic DNA damage signaling. These events ultimately lead to morphological and physiological transformations in primary cells. In this study, we show that chronic DNA damage signals caused by genotoxic stress impact the expression of histones H2A family members and lead to their depletion in the nuclei of senescent human fibroblasts. Our data reinforce the hypothesis that progressive chromatin destabilization may lead to the loss of epigenetic information and impaired cellular function associated with chronic DNA damage upon drug-evoked senescence. We propose that changes in the histone biosynthesis and chromatin assembly may directly contribute to cellular aging. In addition, we also outline the method that allows for quantitative and unbiased measurement of these changes. PMID:23235539

  4. AFM of self-assembled lambda DNA-histone networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, YuYing; Guthold, Martin; Snyder, Matthew J; Lu, HongFeng

    2015-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the self-assembly behavior of λ-DNA and histones at varying histone:DNA ratios. Without histones and at the lowest histone:DNA ratio (less than one histone per 1000 base pairs of DNA), the DNA appeared as individual (uncomplexed), double-stranded DNA molecules. At increasing histone concentrations (one histone per 500, 250 and 167 base pairs of DNA), the DNA molecules started to form extensive polygonal networks of mostly pentagons and hexagons. The observed networks might be one of the naturally occurring, stable DNA-histone structures. The condensing effects of the divalent cations Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) on the DNA-histone complexes were also investigated. The networks persisted at high Mg(2+) concentration (20mM) and the highest histone concentration. At high Ca(2+) concentration and the highest histone concentration, the polygonal network disappeared and, instead, individual, tightly condensed aggregates were formed. PMID:26141439

  5. Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Parbin, Sabnam; Kar, Swayamsiddha; Shilpi, Arunima; Sengupta, Dipta; Deb, Moonmoon; Rath, Sandip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In the current era of genomic medicine, diseases are identified as manifestations of anomalous patterns of gene expression. Cancer is the principal example among such maladies. Although remarkable progress has been achieved in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the genesis and progression of cancer, its epigenetic regulation, particularly histone deacetylation, demands further studies. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are one of the key players in the gene expression regulation network in cancer because of their repressive role on tumor suppressor genes. Higher expression and function of deacetylases disrupt the finely tuned acetylation homeostasis in both histone and non-histone target proteins. This brings about alterations in the genes implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and other cellular processes. Moreover, the reversible nature of epigenetic modulation by HDACs makes them attractive targets for cancer remedy. This review summarizes the current knowledge of HDACs in tumorigenesis and tumor progression as well as their contribution to the hallmarks of cancer. The present report also describes briefly various assays to detect histone deacetylase activity and discusses the potential role of histone deacetylase inhibitors as emerging epigenetic drugs to cure cancer. PMID:24051359

  6. Association Studies with Imputed Variants Using Expectation-Maximization Likelihood-Ratio Tests

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Sun, Wei; Wu, Ying; Chen, Mengjie; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Li, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Genotype imputation has become standard practice in modern genetic studies. As sequencing-based reference panels continue to grow, increasingly more markers are being well or better imputed but at the same time, even more markers with relatively low minor allele frequency are being imputed with low imputation quality. Here, we propose new methods that incorporate imputation uncertainty for downstream association analysis, with improved power and/or computational efficiency. We consider two scenarios: I) when posterior probabilities of all potential genotypes are estimated; and II) when only the one-dimensional summary statistic, imputed dosage, is available. For scenario I, we have developed an expectation-maximization likelihood-ratio test for association based on posterior probabilities. When only imputed dosages are available (scenario II), we first sample the genotype probabilities from its posterior distribution given the dosages, and then apply the EM-LRT on the sampled probabilities. Our simulations show that type I error of the proposed EM-LRT methods under both scenarios are protected. Compared with existing methods, EM-LRT-Prob (for scenario I) offers optimal statistical power across a wide spectrum of MAF and imputation quality. EM-LRT-Dose (for scenario II) achieves a similar level of statistical power as EM-LRT-Prob and, outperforms the standard Dosage method, especially for markers with relatively low MAF or imputation quality. Applications to two real data sets, the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey study and the Women’s Health Initiative Study, provide further support to the validity and efficiency of our proposed methods. PMID:25383782

  7. Histone tyrosine phosphorylation comes of age

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Histones were discovered over a century ago and have since been found to be the most extensively post-translationally modified proteins, although tyrosine phosphorylation of histones had remained elusive until recently. The year 2009 proved to be a landmark year for histone tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation as five research groups independently discovered this modification. Three groups describe phosphorylation of Y142 in the variant histone H2A.X, where it may be involved in the cellular decision making process to either undergo DNA repair or apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Further, one group suggests that phosphorylation of histone H3 on Y99 is crucial for its regulated proteolysis in yeast, while another found that Y41 phosphorylation modulates chromatin architecture and oncogenesis in mammalian cells. These pioneering studies provide the initial conceptual framework for further analyses of the diverse roles of tyrosine phosphorylation on different histones, with far reaching implications for human health and disease. PMID:20935492

  8. The D-isoAsp-25 variant of histone H2B is highly enriched in active chromatin: potential role in the regulation of gene expression?

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenxia; Zhu, Jeff X; Aswad, Dana W

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 12 % of histone H2B in mammalian brain contains an unusual D-aspartate residue in its N-terminal tail. Most of this D-aspartate is linked to the C-flanking glycine via an isopeptide bond. To explore the possible significance of these modifications, we generated an antibody to the D-isoaspartyl form of H2B, and used it to assess its levels in H2B associated with "active" vs. "silent" chromatin. We found that the D-isoaspartyl form of H2B appears to be highly enriched in the former. This irreversible modification could serve a novel regulatory function in gene expression. PMID:26666674

  9. Histone H1 null vertebrate cells exhibit altered nucleosome architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Takami, Yasunari; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Iwasaki, Tomohito; Iwano, Hidetomo; Tachibana, Makoto; Takeda, Shunichi; Nakayama, Tatsuo; Kimura, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic nuclei, DNA is wrapped around an octamer of core histones to form nucleosomes, and chromatin fibers are thought to be stabilized by linker histones of the H1 type. Higher eukaryotes express multiple variants of histone H1; chickens possess six H1 variants. Here, we generated and analyzed the phenotype of a complete deletion of histone H1 genes in chicken cells. The H1-null cells showed decreased global nucleosome spacing, expanded nuclear volumes, and increased chromosome aberration rates, although proper mitotic chromatin structure appeared to be maintained. Expression array analysis revealed that the transcription of multiple genes was affected and was mostly downregulated in histone H1-deficient cells. This report describes the first histone H1 complete knockout cells in vertebrates and suggests that linker histone H1, while not required for mitotic chromatin condensation, plays important roles in nucleosome spacing and interphase chromatin compaction and acts as a global transcription regulator. PMID:20156997

  10. Rare variant associations with waist-to-hip ratio in European-American and African-American women from the NHLBI-Exome Sequencing Project.

    PubMed

    Kan, Mengyuan; Auer, Paul L; Wang, Gao T; Bucasas, Kristine L; Hooker, Stanley; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Li, Biao; Ellis, Jaclyn; Adrienne Cupples, L; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S; Gross, Myron D; Smith, Joshua D; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David; Wilson, James G; Shendure, Jay; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Zhong, Hua; Lin, Danyu; Hsu, Li; Franceschini, Nora; Carlson, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo; Gabriel, Stacey; Bamshad, Michael J; Altshuler, David; Nickerson, Deborah A; North, Kari E; Lange, Leslie A; Reiner, Alexander P; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project. Association analysis was performed on the gene level using several rare variant association methods. The strongest association was observed for rare variants in IKBKB (P=4.0 × 10(-8)) in European-Americans, where rare variants in this gene are predicted to decrease WHRs. The activation of the IKBKB gene is involved in inflammatory processes and insulin resistance, which may affect normal food intake and body weight and shape. Meanwhile, aggregation of rare variants in COBLL1, previously found to harbor common variants associated with WHR and fasting insulin, were nominally associated (P=2.23 × 10(-4)) with higher WHR in European-Americans. However, these significant results are not shared between African-Americans and European-Americans that may be due to differences in the allelic architecture of the two populations and the small sample sizes. Our study indicates that the combined effect of rare variants contribute to the inter-individual variation in fat distribution through the regulation of insulin response. PMID:26757982

  11. The Drosophila histone variant H2A.V works in concert with HP1 to promote kinetochore-driven microtubule formation.

    PubMed

    Vernì, Fiammetta; Cenci, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Unlike other organisms that have evolved distinct H2A variants for different functions, Drosophila melanogaster has just one variant which is capable of filling many roles. This protein, H2A.V, combines the features of the conserved variants H2A.Z and H2A.X in transcriptional control/heterochromatin assembly and DNA damage response, respectively. Here we show that mutations in the gene encoding H2A.V affect chromatin compaction and perturb chromosome segregation in Drosophila mitotic cells. A microtubule (MT) regrowth assay after cold exposure revealed that loss of H2A.V impairs the formation of kinetochore-driven (k) fibers, which can account for defects in chromosome segregation. All defects are rescued by a transgene encoding H2A.V that lacks the H2A.X function in the DNA damage response, suggesting that the H2A.Z (but not H2A.X) functionality of H2A.V is required for chromosome segregation. We also found that loss of H2A.V weakens HP1 localization, specifically at the pericentric heterochromatin of metaphase chromosomes. Interestingly, loss of HP1 yielded not only telomeric fusions but also mitotic defects similar to those seen in H2A.V null mutants, suggesting a role for HP1 in chromosome segregation. We also show that H2A.V precipitates HP1 from larval brain extracts indicating that both proteins are part of the same complex. Moreover, we found that the overexpression of HP1 rescues chromosome missegregation and defects in the kinetochore-driven k-fiber regrowth of H2A.V mutants indicating that both phenotypes are influenced by unbalanced levels of HP1. Collectively, our results suggest that H2A.V and HP1 work in concert to ensure kinetochore-driven MT growth. PMID:25591068

  12. Toxoplasma histone acetylation remodelers as novel drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Vanagas, Laura; Jeffers, Victoria; Bogado, Silvina S; Dalmasso, Maria C; Sullivan, William J; Angel, Sergio O

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of neurological birth defects and a serious opportunistic pathogen. The authors and others have found that Toxoplasma uses a unique nucleosome composition supporting a fine gene regulation together with other factors. Post-translational modifications in histones facilitate the establishment of a global chromatin environment and orchestrate DNA-related biological processes. Histone acetylation is one of the most prominent post-translational modifications influencing gene expression. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases have been intensively studied as potential drug targets. In particular, histone deacetylase inhibitors have activity against apicomplexan parasites, underscoring their potential as a new class of antiparasitic compounds. In this review, we summarize what is known about Toxoplasma histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases, and discuss the inhibitors studied to date. Finally, the authors discuss the distinct possibility that the unique nucleosome composition of Toxoplasma, which harbors a nonconserved H2Bv variant histone, might be targeted in novel therapeutics directed against this parasite. PMID:23199404

  13. Role of several histone lysine methyltransferases in tumor development

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIFU; ZHU, SHUNQIN; KE, XIAO-XUE; CUI, HONGJUAN

    2016-01-01

    The field of cancer epigenetics has been evolving rapidly in recent decades. Epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Histone modifications are important markers of function and chromatin state. Aberrant histone methylation frequently occurs in tumor development and progression. Multiple studies have identified that histone lysine methyltransferases regulate gene transcription through the methylation of histone, which affects cell proliferation and differentiation, cell migration and invasion, and other biological characteristics. Histones have variant lysine sites for different levels of methylation, catalyzed by different lysine methyltransferases, which have numerous effects on human cancers. The present review focused on the most recent advances, described the key function sites of histone lysine methyltransferases, integrated significant quantities of data to introduce several compelling histone lysine methyltransferases in various types of human cancers, summarized their role in tumor development and discussed their potential mechanisms of action. PMID:26998265

  14. SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 regulates proteolysis of centromeric histone H3 variant Cse4 and prevents its mislocalization to euchromatin

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuni, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fulp, Alyona; Lawrimore, Josh; Au, Wei-Chun; Pasupala, Nagesh; Levy-Myers, Reuben; Warren, Jack; Strunnikov, Alexander; Baker, Richard E.; Kerscher, Oliver; Bloom, Kerry; Basrai, Munira A.

    2016-01-01

    Centromeric histone H3, CENP-ACse4, is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Stringent regulation of cellular levels of CENP-ACse4 restricts its localization to centromeres. Mislocalization of CENP-ACse4 is associated with aneuploidy in yeast and flies and tumorigenesis in human cells; thus defining pathways that regulate CENP-A levels is critical for understanding how mislocalization of CENP-A contributes to aneuploidy in human cancers. Previous work in budding yeast shows that ubiquitination of overexpressed Cse4 by Psh1, an E3 ligase, partially contributes to proteolysis of Cse4. Here we provide the first evidence that Cse4 is sumoylated by E3 ligases Siz1 and Siz2 in vivo and in vitro. Ubiquitination of Cse4 by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 plays a critical role in proteolysis of Cse4 and prevents mislocalization of Cse4 to euchromatin under normal physiological conditions. Accumulation of sumoylated Cse4 species and increased stability of Cse4 in slx5∆ strains suggest that sumoylation precedes ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cse4. Slx5-mediated Cse4 proteolysis is independent of Psh1, since slx5∆ psh1∆ strains exhibit higher levels of Cse4 stability and mislocalization than either slx5∆ or psh1∆ strains. Our results demonstrate a role for Slx5 in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Cse4 to prevent its mislocalization and maintain genome stability. PMID:26960795

  15. Oncogenic potential of histone-variant H2A.Z.1 and its regulatory role in cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Jung Woo; Shen, Qingyu; Kim, Hyung Seok; Shin, Woo Chan; Ahn, Young Min; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Nam, Suk Woo

    2016-01-01

    H2A.Z is a highly conserved H2A variant, and two distinct H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, have been identified as products of two non-allelic genes, H2AFZ and H2AFV. H2A.Z has been reported to be overexpressed in breast, prostate and bladder cancers, but most studies did not clearly distinguish between isoforms. One recent study reported a unique role for the H2A.Z isoform H2A.Z.2 as a driver of malignant melanoma. Here we first report that H2A.Z.1 plays a pivotal role in the liver tumorigenesis by selectively regulating key molecules in cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). H2AFZ expression was significantly overexpressed in a large cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and high expression of H2AFZ was significantly associated with their poor prognosis. H2A.Z.1 overexpression was demonstrated in a subset of human HCC and cell lines. H2A.Z.1 knockdown suppressed HCC cell growth by transcriptional deregulation of cell cycle proteins and caused apoptotic cell death of HCC cells. We also observed that H2A.Z.1 knockdown reduced the metastatic potential of HCC cells by selectively modulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulatory proteins such as E-cadherin and fibronectin. In addition, H2A.Z.1 knockdown reduced the in vivo tumor growth rate in a mouse xenograft model. In conclusion, our findings suggest the oncogenic potential of H2A.Z.1 in liver tumorigenesis and that it plays established role in accelerating cell cycle transition and EMT during hepatocarcinogenesis. This makes H2A.Z.1 a promising target in liver cancer therapy. PMID:26863632

  16. Histones in protistan evolution.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, P J

    1985-01-01

    The potential of comparative studies on histones for use in protistan evolution is discussed, using algal histones as specific examples. A basic premise for the importance of histones in protistan evolution is the observation that these proteins are completely absent in prokaryotes (and cytoplasmic organelles), but with few exceptions, the same five major histone types are found in all higher plants and animals. Since the histone content of the algae and other protists is not constant, some of these organisms may represent transition forms between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic modes of packaging the genetic material. Comparative studies of protistan histones may thus be of help in determining evolutionary relationships. However, several problems are encounter with protistan histones, including difficulties in isolating nuclei, proteolytic degradation, anomalous gel migration of histones, and difficulties in histone identification. Because of the above problems, and the observed variability in protistan histones, it is suggested that several criteria be employed for histone identification in protists. PMID:3910133

  17. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  18. Genetic Variants Associated with Optic Nerve Vertical Cup-to-Disc Ratio Are Risk Factors for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in a US Caucasian Population

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bao Jian; Wang, Dan Yi; Pasquale, Louis R.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Genetically complex disorders, such as primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), may include highly heritable quantitative traits as part of the overall phenotype, and mapping genes influencing the related quantitative traits may effectively identify genetic risk factors predisposing to the complex disease. Recent studies have identified SNPs associated with optic nerve area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between these SNPs and POAG in a US Caucasian case-control sample. Methods. Five SNPs previously associated with optic disc area, or VCDR, were genotyped in 539 POAG cases and 336 controls. Genotype data were analyzed for single SNP associations and SNP interactions with VCDR and POAG. Results. SNPs associated with VCDR rs1063192 (CDKN2B) and rs10483727 (SIX1/SIX6) were also associated with POAG (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0043 for rs1063192 and rs10483727, respectively). rs1063192, associated with smaller VCDR, had a protective effect (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58–0.90), whereas rs10483727, associated with larger VCDR, increased POAG risk (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.08–1.65). POAG risk associated with increased VCDR was significantly influenced by the C allele of rs1900004 (ATOH7), associated with increased optic nerve area (P-interaction = 0.025; OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.22–2.94). Conclusions. Genetic variants influencing VCDR are associated with POAG in a US Caucasian population. Variants associated with optic nerve area are not independently associated with disease but can influence the effects of VCDR variants suggesting that increased optic disc area can significantly contribute to POAG risk when coupled with risk factors controlling VCDR. PMID:21398277

  19. Familial Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin 1 variants elevate Abeta1-42/1-40 ratio in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Borchelt, D R; Thinakaran, G; Eckman, C B; Lee, M K; Davenport, F; Ratovitsky, T; Prada, C M; Kim, G; Seekins, S; Yager, D; Slunt, H H; Wang, R; Seeger, M; Levey, A I; Gandy, S E; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Price, D L; Younkin, S G; Sisodia, S S

    1996-11-01

    Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 genes cosegregate with the majority of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pedigrees. We now document that the Abeta1-42(43)/Abeta1-40 ratio in the conditioned media of independent N2a cell lines expressing three FAD-linked PS1 variants is uniformly elevated relative to cells expressing similar levels of wild-type PS1. Similarly, the Abeta1-42(43)/Abeta1-40 ratio is elevated in the brains of young transgenic animals coexpressing a chimeric amyloid precursor protein (APP) and an FAD-linked PS1 variant compared with brains of transgenic mice expressing APP alone or transgenic mice coexpressing wild-type human PS1 and APP. These studies provide compelling support for the view that one mechanism by which these mutant PS1 cause AD is by increasing the extracellular concentration of Abeta peptides terminating at 42(43), species that foster Abeta deposition. PMID:8938131

  20. A Variant in LIN28B Is Associated with 2D:4D Finger-Length Ratio, a Putative Retrospective Biomarker of Prenatal Testosterone Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Medland, Sarah E.; Zayats, Tetyana; Glaser, Beate; Nyholt, Dale R.; Gordon, Scott D.; Wright, Margaret J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Campbell, Megan J.; Henders, Anjali K.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Peltonen, Leena; Wolke, Dieter; Ring, Susan M.; Deloukas, Panos; Martin, Nicholas G.; Smith, George Davey; Evans, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The ratio of the lengths of an individual's second to fourth digit (2D:4D) is commonly used as a noninvasive retrospective biomarker for prenatal androgen exposure. In order to identify the genetic determinants of 2D:4D, we applied a genome-wide association approach to 1507 11-year-old children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in whom 2D:4D ratio had been measured, as well as a sample of 1382 12- to 16-year-olds from the Brisbane Adolescent Twin Study. A meta-analysis of the two scans identified a single variant in the LIN28B gene that was strongly associated with 2D:4D (rs314277: p = 4.1 × 10−8) and was subsequently independently replicated in an additional 3659 children from the ALSPAC cohort (p = 1.53 × 10−6). The minor allele of the rs314277 variant has previously been linked to increased height and delayed age at menarche, but in our study it was associated with increased 2D:4D in the direction opposite to that of previous reports on the correlation between 2D:4D and age at menarche. Our findings call into question the validity of 2D:4D as a simplistic retrospective biomarker for prenatal testosterone exposure. PMID:20303062

  1. Linker histones in hormonal gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Vicent, G P; Wright, R H G; Beato, M

    2016-03-01

    In the present review, we summarize advances in our knowledge on the role of the histone H1 family of proteins in breast cancer cells, focusing on their response to progestins. Histone H1 plays a dual role in gene regulation by hormones, both as a structural component of chromatin and as a dynamic modulator of transcription. It contributes to hormonal regulation of the MMTV promoter by stabilizing a homogeneous nucleosome positioning, which reduces basal transcription whereas at the same time promoting progesterone receptor binding and nucleosome remodeling. These combined effects enhance hormone dependent gene transcription, which eventually requires H1 phosphorylation and displacement. Various isoforms of histone H1 have specific functions in differentiated breast cancer cells and compact nucleosomal arrays to different extents in vitro. Genome-wide studies show that histone H1 has a key role in chromatin dynamics of hormone regulated genes. A complex sequence of enzymatic events, including phosphorylation by CDK2, PARylation by PARP1 and the ATP-dependent activity of NURF, are required for H1 displacement and gene de-repression, as a prerequisite for further nucleosome remodeling. Similarly, during hormone-dependent gene repression a dedicated enzymatic mechanism controls H1 deposition at promoters by a complex containing HP1γ, LSD1 and BRG1, the ATPase of the BAF complex. Thus, a broader vision of the histone code should include histone H1, as the linker histone variants actively participate in the regulation of the chromatin structure. How modifications of the core histones tails affect H1 modifications and vice versa is one of the many questions that remains to be addressed to provide a more comprehensive view of the histone cross-talk mechanisms. PMID:26518266

  2. Expression ratio of histone demethylase KDM3A to protamine-1 mRNA is predictive of successful testicular sperm extraction in men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Javadirad, S M; Hojati, Z; Ghaedi, K; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of histone demethylase KDM3A to protamine 1 (PRM1) mRNA expression ratio as a reliable marker of sperm retrieval in men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Fifty eight azoospermic men, including 44 with NOA and 14 with obstructive azoospermia (OA). Testis tissue samples were collected from azoospermic men who have been referred for testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and micro-TESE. Relative expression ratio of KDM3A to PRM1 was analyzed after selection of approved reference genes. Histological classification of testis biopsies was performed. Sperm retrieval following TESE and micro-TESE was evaluated. A sperm retrieval prediction sensitivity of 95% was established when the Cq of PRM1 became smaller than the Cq of both KDM3A and GAPDH genes. However, azoospermic men with down-regulated KDM3A and decreased expression of PRM1 mRNA showed very low success for sperm retrieval (<25%), even after micro-TESE surgery. The KDM3A to PRM1 mRNA expression ratio can be used as a reliable marker of successful testicular sperm extraction in men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia with 95% sensitivity. PMID:27027467

  3. Histone modification and chromatin remodeling during NER.

    PubMed

    Waters, Raymond; van Eijk, Patrick; Reed, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Here we review our developments of and results with high resolution studies on global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Technologies were developed to examine NER at nucleotide resolution in yeast sequences of choice and to determine how these related to local changes in chromatin. We focused on how GG-NER relates to histone acetylation for its functioning and we identified the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 and acetylation at lysines 9/14 of histone H3 as a major factor in enabling efficient repair. Factors influencing this Gcn5-mediated event are considered which include Rad16, a GG-NER specific SWI/SNF factor and the yeast histone variant of H2AZ (Htz1). We describe results employing primarily MFA2 as a model gene, but also those with URA3 located at subtelomeric sequences. In the latter case we also see a role for acetylation at histone H4. We then consider the development of a high resolution genome-wide approach that enables one to examine correlations between histone modifications and the NER of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers throughout entire yeast genome. This is an approach that will enable rapid advances in understanding the complexities of how compacted chromatin in chromosomes is processed to access DNA damage before it is returned to its pre-damaged status to maintain epigenetic codes. PMID:26422133

  4. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry as a novel tool for detecting histone modifications in clinical tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Shibojyoti; Sun, Na; Buck, Achim; Imhof, Axel; Walch, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), histone variants and enzymes responsible for the incorporation or the removal of the PTMs are being increasingly associated with human disease. Combinations of histone PTMs and the specific incorporation of variants contribute to the establishment of cellular identity and hence are potential markers that could be exploited in disease diagnostics and prognostics and therapy response prediction. Due to the scarcity of suitable antibodies and the pre-requirement of tissue homogenization for more advanced analytical techniques, comprehensive information regarding the spatial distribution of these factors at the tissue level has been lacking. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry provides an ideal platform to measure histone PTMs and variants from tissues while maintaining the information about their spatial distribution. Discussed in this review are the relevance of histones in the context of human disease and the contribution of MALDI imaging mass spectrometry in measuring histones in situ. PMID:26808584

  5. Endocytic Sorting of CFTR variants Monitored by Single Cell Fluorescence Ratio Image Analysis (FRIA) in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barriere, H.; Apaja, P.; Okiyoneda, T.; Lukacs, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The wild-type CFTR channel undergoes constitutive internalization and recycling at the plasma membrane. This process is initiated by the recognition of the Tyr- and di-Leu-based endocytic motifs of CFTR by the AP-2 adaptor complex, leading to the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles and the channel delivery to sorting/recycling endosomes. Accumulating evidence suggests that conformationally defective mutant CFTRs (e.g. rescued ΔF508 and glycosylation-deficient channel) are unstable at the plasma membrane and undergo augmented ubiquitination in post-Golgi compartments. Ubiquitination conceivably accounts for the metabolic instability at cell surface by provoking accelerated internalization, as well as rerouting the channel from recycling towards lysosomal degradation. We developed an in vivo fluorescence ratio imaging assay (FRIA) that in concert with genetic manipulation can be utilized to establish the post-endocytic fate and sorting determinants of mutant CFTRs. PMID:21594793

  6. ChIp-seq of bovine cells (MDBK) to study butyrate-induced histone modification with 10 datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next-generation sequencing was combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technology to analyze histone modification (acetylation) induced by butyrate and to map the epigenomic landscape of normal histone H3, H4 in rumen cells of the cow. Ten variants of histone H3 and H4 modification were m...

  7. Histone Modifiers in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Idan; Poręba, Elżbieta; Kamieniarz, Kinga; Schneider, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Covalent modifications of histones can regulate all DNA-dependent processes. In the last few years, it has become more and more evident that histone modifications are key players in the regulation of chromatin states and dynamics as well as in gene expression. Therefore, histone modifications and the enzymatic machineries that set them are crucial regulators that can control cellular proliferation, differentiation, plasticity, and malignancy processes. This review discusses the biology and biochemistry of covalent histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and evaluates the dual role of their modifiers in cancer: as oncogenes that can initiate and amplify tumorigenesis or as tumor suppressors. PMID:21941619

  8. Histones and histone modifications in perinuclear chromatin anchoring: from yeast to man.

    PubMed

    Harr, Jennifer C; Gonzalez-Sandoval, Adriana; Gasser, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    It is striking that within a eukaryotic nucleus, the genome can assume specific spatiotemporal distributions that correlate with the cell's functional states. Cell identity itself is determined by distinct sets of genes that are expressed at a given time. On the level of the individual gene, there is a strong correlation between transcriptional activity and associated histone modifications. Histone modifications act by influencing the recruitment of non-histone proteins and by determining the level of chromatin compaction, transcription factor binding, and transcription elongation. Accumulating evidence also shows that the subnuclear position of a gene or domain correlates with its expression status. Thus, the question arises whether this spatial organization results from or determines a gene's chromatin status. Although the association of a promoter with the inner nuclear membrane (INM) is neither necessary nor sufficient for repression, the perinuclear sequestration of heterochromatin is nonetheless conserved from yeast to man. How does subnuclear localization influence gene expression? Recent work argues that the common denominator between genome organization and gene expression is the modification of histones and in some cases of histone variants. This provides an important link between local chromatin structure and long-range genome organization in interphase cells. In this review, we will evaluate how histones contribute to the latter, and discuss how this might help to regulate genes crucial for cell differentiation. PMID:26792937

  9. A SULT2A1 genetic variant identified by GWAS as associated with low serum DHEAS does not impact on the actual DHEA/DHEAS ratio

    PubMed Central

    Haring, Robin; Wallaschofski, Henri; Teumer, Alexander; Kroemer, Heyo; Taylor, Angela E; Shackleton, Cedric H L; Nauck, Matthias; Völker, Uwe; Homuth, Georg; Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    DHEA is the major precursor of human sex steroid synthesis and is inactivated via sulfonation to DHEAS. A previous genome-wide association study related the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2637125, located near the coding region of DHEA sulfotransferase, SULT2A1, to serum DHEAS concentrations. However, the functional relevance of this SNP with regard to DHEA sulfonation is unknown. Using data from 3300 participants of the population-based cohort Study of Health in Pomerania, we identified 43 individuals being homozygote for the minor allele of the SNP rs2637125 (AA) and selected two sex- and age-matched individuals with AG and GG genotype (n=172) respectively. Steroid analysis including measurement of serum DHEA and DHEAS was carried out by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, employing steroid oxime analysis for enhancing the sensitivity of DHEA detection. We applied quantile regression models to compare median hormone levels across SULT2A1 genotypes. Median comparisons by SULT2A1 genotype (AA vs AG and GG genotypes respectively) showed no differences in the considered hormones including DHEAS, DHEA, androstenedione, as well as cortisol and cortisone concentrations. SULT2A1 genotype also had no effect on the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. Sex-stratified analyses, as well as alternative use of the SULT2A1 SNP rs182420, yielded similar negative results. Genetic variants of SULT2A1 do not appear to have an effect on individual DHEA and DHEAS concentrations or the DHEA/DHEAS ratio as a marker of DHEA sulfonation capacity. PMID:23132913

  10. The dissociation of histone from deoxyribonucleohistone by gamma-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, P H; Peacocke, A R

    1968-09-01

    1. Experiments were carried out to determine the extent of dissociation of histone from deoxyribonucleohistone as a result of irradiation with gamma-rays from (60)Co. 2. The bulk of the nucleohistone was removed from the irradiated solutions either by sedimentation or by precipitation with dilute sodium chloride solution. The supernatants were then analysed for DNA and histone. 3. The ratios of histone to DNA in these supernatants were less than for the original nucleohistone. This indicated that histone was dissociated by the irradiation, and then aggregated either with itself or with other nucleohistone molecules, and so was removed with the bulk of the nucleohistone during sedimentation or precipitation. PMID:5685855

  11. Countercurrent-distribution studies on histones

    PubMed Central

    Butler, J. A. V.; Power, D. F.; Palau, J.

    1967-01-01

    1. The possibilities of fractionating histones and histone fractions by means of countercurrent distribution between two phases formed by water and butan-2-ol, in the presence of various concentrations of trichloroacetic acid, have been examined. 2. Although the principal histone fractions differ considerably in their partition ratios, a satisfactory resolution of the principal histone fractions from the whole histone has not been achieved. 3. The histone fractions obtained by other methods can be resolved with suitable concentrations of trichloroacetic acid. Besides the main peak several subsidiary peaks are obtained in most cases, the composition of which corresponds with others of the main fractions. 4. The method is therefore capable of removing from the principal fractions as previously prepared contamination by other fractions. 5. Except in one case, no fraction with composition unlike other fractions has been obtained. In several cases the material isolated from the principal peak behaves as a single component on running again. In two cases fractions with similar compositions were distinguished by countercurrent distribution. PMID:6029613

  12. The specification and global reprogramming of histone epigenetic marks during gamete formation and early embryo development in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Samson, Mark; Jow, Margaret M; Wong, Catherine C L; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Aslanian, Aaron; Saucedo, Israel; Estrada, Rodrigo; Ito, Takashi; Park, Sung-kyu Robin; Yates, John R; Chu, Diana S

    2014-10-01

    In addition to the DNA contributed by sperm and oocytes, embryos receive parent-specific epigenetic information that can include histone variants, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), and DNA methylation. However, a global view of how such marks are erased or retained during gamete formation and reprogrammed after fertilization is lacking. To focus on features conveyed by histones, we conducted a large-scale proteomic identification of histone variants and PTMs in sperm and mixed-stage embryo chromatin from C. elegans, a species that lacks conserved DNA methylation pathways. The fate of these histone marks was then tracked using immunostaining. Proteomic analysis found that sperm harbor ∼2.4 fold lower levels of histone PTMs than embryos and revealed differences in classes of PTMs between sperm and embryos. Sperm chromatin repackaging involves the incorporation of the sperm-specific histone H2A variant HTAS-1, a widespread erasure of histone acetylation, and the retention of histone methylation at sites that mark the transcriptional history of chromatin domains during spermatogenesis. After fertilization, we show HTAS-1 and 6 histone PTM marks distinguish sperm and oocyte chromatin in the new embryo and characterize distinct paternal and maternal histone remodeling events during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. These include the exchange of histone H2A that is marked by ubiquitination, retention of HTAS-1, removal of the H2A variant HTZ-1, and differential reprogramming of histone PTMs. This work identifies novel and conserved features of paternal chromatin that are specified during spermatogenesis and processed in the embryo. Furthermore, our results show that different species, even those with diverged DNA packaging and imprinting strategies, use conserved histone modification and removal mechanisms to reprogram epigenetic information. PMID:25299455

  13. Local generation of fumarate promotes DNA repair through inhibition of histone H3 demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuhui; Qian, Xu; Shen, Jianfeng; Wang, Yugang; Li, Xinjian; Liu, Rui; Xia, Yan; Chen, Qianming; Peng, Guang; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Lu, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Histone methylation regulates DNA repair. However, the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of histone methylation during this repair remain to be further defined. Here, we show that ionizing radiation (IR) induces DNA-PK-dependent phosphorylation of nuclear fumarase at T236, which leads to an interaction between fumarase and the histone variant H2A.Z at DNA double-strand break (DSB) regions. Locally generated fumarate inhibits KDM2B histone demethylase activity, resulting in enhanced dimethylation of histone H3 K36; in turn, this increases the accumulation of the Ku70-containing DNA-PK at DSB regions for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair and cell survival. These findings reveal a feedback mechanism that underlies DNA-PK regulation by chromatin-associated fumarase and an instrumental function of fumarase in regulating histone H3 methylation and DNA repair. PMID:26237645

  14. Application of histone modification-specific interaction domains as an alternative to antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kungulovski, Goran; Kycia, Ina; Tamas, Raluca; Jurkowska, Renata Z; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Henry, Chisato; Reinhardt, Richard; Labhart, Paul; Jeltsch, Albert

    2014-11-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones constitute a major chromatin indexing mechanism, and their proper characterization is of highest biological importance. So far, PTM-specific antibodies have been the standard reagent for studying histone PTMs despite caveats such as lot-to-lot variability of specificity and binding affinity. Herein, we successfully employed naturally occurring and engineered histone modification interacting domains for detection and identification of histone PTMs and ChIP-like enrichment of different types of chromatin. Our results demonstrate that histone interacting domains are robust and highly specific reagents that can replace or complement histone modification antibodies. These domains can be produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli at low cost and constant quality. Protein design of reading domains allows for generation of novel specificities, addition of affinity tags, and preparation of PTM binding pocket variants as matching negative controls, which is not possible with antibodies. PMID:25301795

  15. Epigenetic regulation of the histone-to-protamine transition during spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Jianqiang; Bedford, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, male germ cells differentiate from haploid round spermatids to flagella-containing motile sperm, in a process called spermiogenesis. This process is distinct from somatic cell differentiation in that the majority of the core histones are replaced sequentially, first by transition proteins and then protamines, facilitating chromatin hyper-compaction. This histone-to-protamine transition process represents an excellent model for the investigation of how epigenetic regulators interact with each other to remodel chromatin architecture. While early work in the field highlighted the critical roles of testis-specific transcription factors in controlling the haploid-specific developmental program, recent studies underscore the essential functions of epigenetic players involved in the dramatic genome remodeling that takes place during wholesale histone replacement. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of how epigenetic players, like histone variants and histone writers/readers/erasers, rewire the haploid spermatid genome to facilitate histone substitution by protamines in mammals. PMID:26850883

  16. Critical Role of Histone Turnover in Neuronal Transcription and Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Maze, Ian; Wenderski, Wendy; Noh, Kyung-Min; Bagot, Rosemary C; Tzavaras, Nikos; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Elsässer, Simon J; Guo, Yin; Ionete, Carolina; Hurd, Yasmin L; Tamminga, Carol A; Halene, Tobias; Farrelly, Lorna; Soshnev, Alexey A; Wen, Duancheng; Rafii, Shahin; Birtwistle, Marc R; Akbarian, Schahram; Buchholz, Bruce A; Blitzer, Robert D; Nestler, Eric J; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Garcia, Benjamin A; Shen, Li; Molina, Henrik; Allis, C David

    2015-07-01

    Turnover and exchange of nucleosomal histones and their variants, a process long believed to be static in post-replicative cells, remains largely unexplored in brain. Here, we describe a novel mechanistic role for HIRA (histone cell cycle regulator) and proteasomal degradation-associated histone dynamics in the regulation of activity-dependent transcription, synaptic connectivity, and behavior. We uncover a dramatic developmental profile of nucleosome occupancy across the lifespan of both rodents and humans, with the histone variant H3.3 accumulating to near-saturating levels throughout the neuronal genome by mid-adolescence. Despite such accumulation, H3.3-containing nucleosomes remain highly dynamic-in a modification-independent manner-to control neuronal- and glial-specific gene expression patterns throughout life. Manipulating H3.3 dynamics in both embryonic and adult neurons confirmed its essential role in neuronal plasticity and cognition. Our findings establish histone turnover as a critical and previously undocumented regulator of cell type-specific transcription and plasticity in mammalian brain. PMID:26139371

  17. Complete Workflow for Analysis of Histone Post-translational Modifications Using Bottom-up Mass Spectrometry: From Histone Extraction to Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sidoli, Simone; Bhanu, Natarajan V.; Karch, Kelly R.; Wang, Xiaoshi; Garcia, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosomes are the smallest structural unit of chromatin, composed of 147 base pairs of DNA wrapped around an octamer of histone proteins. Histone function is mediated by extensive post-translational modification by a myriad of nuclear proteins. These modifications are critical for nuclear integrity as they regulate chromatin structure and recruit enzymes involved in gene regulation, DNA repair and chromosome condensation. Even though a large part of the scientific community adopts antibody-based techniques to characterize histone PTM abundance, these approaches are low throughput and biased against hypermodified proteins, as the epitope might be obstructed by nearby modifications. This protocol describes the use of nano liquid chromatography (nLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) for accurate quantification of histone modifications. This method is designed to characterize a large variety of histone PTMs and the relative abundance of several histone variants within single analyses. In this protocol, histones are derivatized with propionic anhydride followed by digestion with trypsin to generate peptides of 5 - 20 aa in length. After digestion, the newly exposed N-termini of the histone peptides are derivatized to improve chromatographic retention during nLC-MS. This method allows for the relative quantification of histone PTMs spanning four orders of magnitude. PMID:27286567

  18. Autoacetylation of the Histone Acetyltransferase Rtt109*

    PubMed Central

    Albaugh, Brittany N.; Arnold, Kevin M.; Lee, Susan; Denu, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Rtt109 is a yeast histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that associates with histone chaperones Asf1 and Vps75 to acetylate H3K56, H3K9, and H3K27 and is important in DNA replication and maintaining genomic integrity. Recently, mass spectrometry and structural studies of Rtt109 have shown that active site residue Lys-290 is acetylated. However, the functional role of this modification and how the acetyl group is added to Lys-290 was unclear. Here, we examined the mechanism of Lys-290 acetylation and found that Rtt109 catalyzes intramolecular autoacetylation of Lys-290 ∼200-times slower than H3 acetylation. Deacetylated Rtt109 was prepared by reacting with a sirtuin protein deacetylase, producing an enzyme with negligible HAT activity. Autoacetylation of Rtt109 restored full HAT activity, indicating that autoacetylation is necessary for HAT activity and is a fully reversible process. To dissect the mechanism of activation, biochemical, and kinetic analyses were performed with Lys-290 variants of the Rtt109-Vps75 complex. We found that autoacetylation of Lys-290 increases the binding affinity for acetyl-CoA and enhances the rate of acetyl-transfer onto histone substrates. This study represents the first detailed investigation of a HAT enzyme regulated by single-site intramolecular autoacetylation. PMID:21606491

  19. Histone H2A.Z subunit exchange controls consolidation of recent and remote memory.

    PubMed

    Zovkic, Iva B; Paulukaitis, Brynna S; Day, Jeremy J; Etikala, Deepa M; Sweatt, J David

    2014-11-27

    Memory formation is a multi-stage process that initially requires cellular consolidation in the hippocampus, after which memories are downloaded to the cortex for maintenance, in a process termed systems consolidation. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate both types of consolidation, but histone variant exchange, in which canonical histones are replaced with their variant counterparts, is an entire branch of epigenetics that has received limited attention in the brain and has never, to our knowledge, been studied in relation to cognitive function. Here we show that histone H2A.Z, a variant of histone H2A, is actively exchanged in response to fear conditioning in the hippocampus and the cortex, where it mediates gene expression and restrains the formation of recent and remote memory. Our data provide evidence for H2A.Z involvement in cognitive function and specifically implicate H2A.Z as a negative regulator of hippocampal consolidation and systems consolidation, probably through downstream effects on gene expression. Moreover, alterations in H2A.Z binding at later stages of systems consolidation suggest that this histone has the capacity to mediate stable molecular modifications required for memory retention. Overall, our data introduce histone variant exchange as a novel mechanism contributing to the molecular basis of cognitive function and implicate H2A.Z as a potential therapeutic target for memory disorders. PMID:25219850

  20. Altered ratios of pro- and anti-angiogenic VEGF-A variants and pericyte expression of DLL4 disrupt vascular maturation in infantile haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xi; Abou-Rayyah, Yassir; Bischoff, Joyce; Ritchie, Alison; Sebire, Neil J; Watts, Patrick; Churchill, Amanda J; Bates, David O

    2016-06-01

    Infantile haemangioma (IH), the most common neoplasm in infants, is a slowly resolving vascular tumour. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), which consists of both the pro- and anti-angiogenic variants, contributes to the pathogenesis of IH. However, the roles of different VEGF-A variants in IH progression and its spontaneous involution is unknown. Using patient-derived cells and surgical specimens, we showed that the relative level of VEGF-A165 b was increased in the involuting phase of IH and the relative change in VEGF-A isoforms may be dependent on endothelial differentiation of IH stem cells. VEGFR signalling regulated IH cell functions and VEGF-A165 b inhibited cell proliferation and the angiogenic potential of IH endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of angiogenesis by VEGF-A165 b was associated with the extent of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) activation and degradation and Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) expression. These results indicate that VEGF-A variants can be regulated by cell differentiation and are involved in IH progression. We also demonstrated that DLL4 expression was not exclusive to the endothelium in IH but was also present in pericytes, where the expression of VEGFR2 is absent, suggesting that pericyte-derived DLL4 may prevent sprouting during involution, independently of VEGFR2. Angiogenesis in IH therefore appears to be controlled by DLL4 within the endothelium in a VEGF-A isoform-dependent manner, and in perivascular cells in a VEGF-independent manner. The contribution of VEGF-A isoforms to disease progression also indicates that IH may be associated with altered splicing. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:26957058

  1. Altered ratios of pro‐ and anti‐angiogenic VEGF‐A variants and pericyte expression of DLL4 disrupt vascular maturation in infantile haemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xi; Abou‐Rayyah, Yassir; Bischoff, Joyce; Ritchie, Alison; Sebire, Neil J; Watts, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Infantile haemangioma (IH), the most common neoplasm in infants, is a slowly resolving vascular tumour. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF‐A), which consists of both the pro‐ and anti‐angiogenic variants, contributes to the pathogenesis of IH. However, the roles of different VEGF‐A variants in IH progression and its spontaneous involution is unknown. Using patient‐derived cells and surgical specimens, we showed that the relative level of VEGF‐A165b was increased in the involuting phase of IH and the relative change in VEGF‐A isoforms may be dependent on endothelial differentiation of IH stem cells. VEGFR signalling regulated IH cell functions and VEGF‐A165b inhibited cell proliferation and the angiogenic potential of IH endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition of angiogenesis by VEGF‐A165b was associated with the extent of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) activation and degradation and Delta‐like ligand 4 (DLL4) expression. These results indicate that VEGF‐A variants can be regulated by cell differentiation and are involved in IH progression. We also demonstrated that DLL4 expression was not exclusive to the endothelium in IH but was also present in pericytes, where the expression of VEGFR2 is absent, suggesting that pericyte‐derived DLL4 may prevent sprouting during involution, independently of VEGFR2. Angiogenesis in IH therefore appears to be controlled by DLL4 within the endothelium in a VEGF‐A isoform‐dependent manner, and in perivascular cells in a VEGF‐independent manner. The contribution of VEGF‐A isoforms to disease progression also indicates that IH may be associated with altered splicing. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:26957058

  2. Replication-dependent histone genes are actively transcribed in differentiating and aging retinal neurons.

    PubMed

    Banday, Abdul Rouf; Baumgartner, Marybeth; Al Seesi, Sahar; Karunakaran, Devi Krishna Priya; Venkatesh, Aditya; Congdon, Sean; Lemoine, Christopher; Kilcollins, Ashley M; Mandoiu, Ion; Punzo, Claudio; Kanadia, Rahul N

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian genome, each histone family contains multiple replication-dependent paralogs, which are found in clusters where their transcription is thought to be coupled to the cell cycle. Here, we wanted to interrogate the transcriptional regulation of these paralogs during retinal development and aging. We employed deep sequencing, quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH), and microarray analysis, which revealed that replication-dependent histone genes were not only transcribed in progenitor cells but also in differentiating neurons. Specifically, by ISH analysis we found that different histone genes were actively transcribed in a subset of neurons between postnatal day 7 and 14. Interestingly, within a histone family, not all paralogs were transcribed at the same level during retinal development. For example, expression of Hist1h1b was higher embryonically, while that of Hist1h1c was higher postnatally. Finally, expression of replication-dependent histone genes was also observed in the aging retina. Moreover, transcription of replication-dependent histones was independent of rapamycin-mediated mTOR pathway inactivation. Overall, our data suggest the existence of variant nucleosomes produced by the differential expression of the replication-dependent histone genes across retinal development. Also, the expression of a subset of replication-dependent histone isotypes in senescent neurons warrants re-examining these genes as "replication-dependent." Thus, our findings underscore the importance of understanding the transcriptional regulation of replication-dependent histone genes in the maintenance and functioning of neurons. PMID:25486194

  3. Two distinct modes for propagation of histone PTMs across the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Alabert, Constance; Barth, Teresa K.; Reverón-Gómez, Nazaret; Sidoli, Simone; Schmidt, Andreas; Jensen, Ole N.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic states defined by chromatin can be maintained through mitotic cell division. However, it remains unknown how histone-based information is transmitted. Here we combine nascent chromatin capture (NCC) and triple-SILAC (stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture) labeling to track histone modifications and histone variants during DNA replication and across the cell cycle. We show that post-translational modifications (PTMs) are transmitted with parental histones to newly replicated DNA. Di- and trimethylation marks are diluted twofold upon DNA replication, as a consequence of new histone deposition. Importantly, within one cell cycle, all PTMs are restored. In general, new histones are modified to mirror the parental histones. However, H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and H3K27me3 are propagated by continuous modification of parental and new histones because the establishment of these marks extends over several cell generations. Together, our results reveal how histone marks propagate and demonstrate that chromatin states oscillate within the cell cycle. PMID:25792596

  4. Histone Modifications and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Audia, James E; Campbell, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARYHistone posttranslational modifications represent a versatile set of epigenetic marks involved not only in dynamic cellular processes, such as transcription and DNA repair, but also in the stable maintenance of repressive chromatin. In this article, we review many of the key and newly identified histone modifications known to be deregulated in cancer and how this impacts function. The latter part of the article addresses the challenges and current status of the epigenetic drug development process as it applies to cancer therapeutics. PMID:27037415

  5. A nucleosome turnover map reveals that the stability of histone H4 Lys20 methylation depends on histone recycling in transcribed chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, J. Peter; Shukla, Manu; Menendez-Benito, Victoria; Norman-Axelsson, Ulrika; Audergon, Pauline; Sinha, Indranil; Tanny, Jason C.; Allshire, Robin C.; Ekwall, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosome composition actively contributes to chromatin structure and accessibility. Cells have developed mechanisms to remove or recycle histones, generating a landscape of differentially aged nucleosomes. This study aimed to create a high-resolution, genome-wide map of nucleosome turnover in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The recombination-induced tag exchange (RITE) method was used to study replication-independent nucleosome turnover through the appearance of new histone H3 and the disappearance or preservation of old histone H3. The genome-wide location of histones was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation–exonuclease methodology (ChIP-exo). The findings were compared with diverse chromatin marks, including histone variant H2A.Z, post-translational histone modifications, and Pol II binding. Finally, genome-wide mapping of the methylation states of H4K20 was performed to determine the relationship between methylation (mono, di, and tri) of this residue and nucleosome turnover. Our analysis showed that histone recycling resulted in low nucleosome turnover in the coding regions of active genes, stably expressed at intermediate levels. High levels of transcription resulted in the incorporation of new histones primarily at the end of transcribed units. H4K20 was methylated in low-turnover nucleosomes in euchromatic regions, notably in the coding regions of long genes that were expressed at low levels. This transcription-dependent accumulation of histone methylation was dependent on the histone chaperone complex FACT. Our data showed that nucleosome turnover is highly dynamic in the genome and that several mechanisms are at play to either maintain or suppress stability. In particular, we found that FACT-associated transcription conserves histones by recycling them and is required for progressive H4K20 methylation. PMID:25778913

  6. Zinc deficiency and metabolism of histones and non-histone proteins in Euglena gracilis

    SciTech Connect

    Czupryn, M.; Falchuk, K.H.; Vallee, B.L.

    1987-12-15

    Histones and most other basic chromosomal proteins are not extracted from zinc-deficient (-Zn) Euglena gracilis chromatin either by 0.25 M HCl or by 0.3-0.6 M NaCl/7 M urea. Instead, a class of 3-5-kilodalton (kDa) polypeptides, which is absent in zinc-sufficient (+Zn) cells, is solubilized. These heterogeneous polypeptides are comprised of Asn, Arg, Cys, and Gln. The partial sequence of one of these, which is composed only of Arg and Asn, is Arg-Asn-Asn-Arg-Arg-Asn-Asn-Asn-Asn-Asn-. This demonstrates they are not proteolytic fragments of the histones, proteins which do not contain contiguous Arg-Asn or Asn-Asn sequences. Once -Zn chromatin is depleted of this 3-5-kDa material, nearly all of the histones and most non-histone proteins are extracted. On the other hand, if chromatin first is depleted of, and subsequently is reconstituted with, the 3-5-kDa material, the chromosomal proteins are not solubilized, as observed with intact chromatin. Histone H4 is an exception. Electrophoretic analysis of the solubilized H4 reveals that the degree to which it is acetylated in -Zn is lower than in +Zn chromatin. Jointly, these data indicate that chromosomal proteins bind much more tightly to DNA of -Zn than +Zn cells. The histone/DNA weight ratio in -Zn chromatin is 0.44 compared to 1.04 in +Zn chromatin. However, the 3-5-kDa polypeptide fraction maintains the amount of total basic proteins per unit mass of DNA at approximately 1. Further, four non-histone proteins extractable with 5% HClO/sub 4/ or 0.35 M NaCl and characterized by high electrophoretic mobility have been purified from +Zn nuclei. Only one of these proteins is found in -Zn chromatin. Thus, zinc deficiency induces changes in the amounts and types of histones and non-histone proteins, as well as in their interaction with DNA. These findings are discussed in relation to recent advances in understanding of the role of zinc in replication and transcription.

  7. Histone mimics: digging down under

    PubMed Central

    LIN, Yiwei; ZHOU, Binhua P.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is intimately associated with the development of human diseases. Intensive studies are currently underway to clarify the mechanism for the sake of achieving ideal diagnostic and therapeutic goals. It has been demonstrated that enzymes with histone-modifying activities can also target non-histone proteins, with the underlying mechanism remaining obscure. In this review, we focus on a novel histone mimicry strategy that may be wildly adapted during the non-histone substrate recognition process. Its potential clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:24966873

  8. Plasticity of fission yeast CENP-A chromatin driven by relative levels of histone H3 and H4.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Araceli G; Mellone, Barbara G; Partridge, Janet F; Richardson, William; Hamilton, Georgina L; Allshire, Robin C; Pidoux, Alison L

    2007-07-01

    The histone H3 variant CENP-A assembles into chromatin exclusively at centromeres. The process of CENP-A chromatin assembly is epigenetically regulated. Fission yeast centromeres are composed of a central kinetochore domain on which CENP-A chromatin is assembled, and this is flanked by heterochromatin. Marker genes are silenced when placed within kinetochore or heterochromatin domains. It is not known if fission yeast CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin is confined to specific sequences or whether histone H3 is actively excluded. Here, we show that fission yeast CENP-A(Cnp1) can assemble on noncentromeric DNA when it is inserted within the central kinetochore domain, suggesting that in fission yeast CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin assembly is driven by the context of a sequence rather than the underlying DNA sequence itself. Silencing in the central domain is correlated with the amount of CENP-A(Cnp1) associated with the marker gene and is also affected by the relative level of histone H3. Our analyses indicate that kinetochore integrity is dependent on maintaining the normal ratio of H3 and H4. Excess H3 competes with CENP-A(Cnp1) for assembly into central domain chromatin, resulting in less CENP-A(Cnp1) and other kinetochore proteins at centromeres causing defective kinetochore function, which is manifest as aberrant mitotic chromosome segregation. Alterations in the levels of H3 relative to H4 and CENP-A(Cnp1) influence the extent of DNA at centromeres that is packaged in CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin and the composition of this chromatin. Thus, CENP-A(Cnp1) chromatin assembly in fission yeast exhibits plasticity with respect to the underlying sequences and is sensitive to the levels of CENP-A(Cnp1) and other core histones. PMID:17677001

  9. Cellulase variants

    SciTech Connect

    Blazej, Robert; Toriello, Nicholas; Emrich, Charles; Cohen, Richard N.; Koppel, Nitzan

    2015-07-14

    This invention provides novel variant cellulolytic enzymes having improved activity and/or stability. In certain embodiments the variant cellulotyic enzymes comprise a glycoside hydrolase with or comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to one or more of residues F64, A226, and/or E246 in Thermobifida fusca Cel9A enzyme. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a family 9 glycoside hydrolase. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a theme B family 9 glycoside hydrolase.

  10. Proteomic analysis reveals the differential histone programs between male germline cells and vegetative cells in Lilium davidii.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Yang, Ning; Wang, Tai

    2016-03-01

    In flowering plants, male germline fate is determined after asymmetric division of the haploid microspore. Daughter cells have distinct fates: the generative cell (GC) undergoes further mitosis to generate sperm cells (SCs), and the vegetative cell (VC) terminally differentiates. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying germline development remains limited. Histone variants and modifications define chromatin states, and contribute to establishing and maintaining cell identities by affecting gene expression. Here, we constructed a lily protein database, then extracted and detailed histone entries into a comprehensive lily histone database. We isolated large amounts of nuclei from VCs, GCs and SCs from lily, and profiled histone variants of all five histone families in all three cell types using proteomics approaches. We revealed 92 identities representing 32 histone variants: six for H1, 11 for H2A, eight for H2B, five for H3 and two for H4. Nine variants, including five H1, two H2B, one H3 and one H4 variant, specifically accumulated in GCs and SCs. We also detected H3 modification patterns in the three cell types. GCs and SCs had almost identical histone profiles and similar H3 modification patterns, which were significantly different from those of VCs. Our study also revealed the presence of multiple isoforms, and differential expression patterns between isoforms of a variant. The results suggest that differential histone programs between the germline and companion VCs may be established following the asymmetric division, and are important for identity establishment and differentiation of the male germline as well as the VC. PMID:26846354

  11. Histone deacetylases and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia-xia; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Xin-An; Tong, Xiao-hong; Ding, Jia-wang

    2015-06-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common pathological process that leads to cardiovascular diseases, a disease of large- and medium-sized arteries that is characterized by a formation of atherosclerotic plaques consisting of necrotic cores, calcified regions, accumulated modified lipids, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells, leukocytes, and foam cells. Recently, the question about how to suppress the occurrence of atherosclerosis and alleviate the progress of cardiovascular disease becomes the hot topic. Accumulating evidence suggests that histone deacetylases(HDACs) play crucial roles in arteriosclerosis. This review summarizes the effect of HDACs and HDAC inhibitors(HDACi) on the progress of atherosclerosis. PMID:25875381

  12. Anti-phosphorylated histone H2AThr120: a universal microscopic marker for centromeric chromatin of mono- and holocentric plant species.

    PubMed

    Demidov, D; Schubert, V; Kumke, K; Weiss, O; Karimi-Ashtiyani, R; Buttlar, J; Heckmann, S; Wanner, G; Dong, Q; Han, F; Houben, A

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of 20 different monocot and eudicot species, we propose that the centromeric distribution of the phosphorylated histone H2AThr120 is evolutionary highly conserved across species with mono- and holocentric chromosomes. Therefore, antibodies recognizing the phosphorylated threonine 120 of the histone H2A can serve as a universal marker for the cytological detection of centromeres of mono- and holokinetic plant species. In addition, super resolution microscopy of signals specific to the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENH3 and to H2AThr120ph revealed that these histone variants are incorporated into different nucleosomes, which form distinct, partly intermingled chromatin domains. This specific arrangement of both histone variants suggests different centromeric functions during the cell cycle. PMID:24642790

  13. Histone-modifying enzymes, histone modifications and histone chaperones in nucleosome assembly: Lessons learned from Rtt109 histone acetyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Jayme L; Chen, Xiaoyue; Walters, Michael A.; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    During DNA replication, nucleosomes ahead of replication forks are disassembled to accommodate replication machinery. Following DNA replication, nucleosomes are then reassembled onto replicated DNA using both parental and newly synthesized histones. This process, termed DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly (RCNA), is critical for maintaining genome integrity and for the propagation of epigenetic information, dysfunctions of which have been implicated in cancers and aging. In recent years, it has been shown that RCNA is carefully orchestrated by a series of histone modifications, histone chaperones and histone-modifying enzymes. Interestingly, many features of RCNA are also found in processes involving DNA replication-independent nucleosome assembly like histone exchange and gene transcription. In yeast, histone H3 lysine K56 acetylation (H3K56ac) is found in newly synthesized histone H3 and is critical for proper nucleosome assembly and for maintaining genomic stability. The histone acetyltransferase (HAT) regulator of Ty1 transposition 109 (Rtt109) is the sole enzyme responsible for H3K56ac in yeast. Much research has centered on this particular histone modification and histone-modifying enzyme. This Critical Review summarizes much of our current understanding of nucleosome assembly and highlights many important insights learned from studying Rtt109 HATs in fungi. We highlight some seminal features in nucleosome assembly conserved in mammalian systems and describe some of the lingering questions in the field. Further studying fungal and mammalian chromatin assembly may have important public health implications, including deeper understandings of human cancers and aging as well as the pursuit of novel anti-fungal therapies. PMID:25365782

  14. Histone and Non-Histone Targets of Dietary Deacetylase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunah; Bisson, William H; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H; Rajendran, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation is an important, reversible post-translational modification affecting histone and non-histone proteins with critical roles in gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. Key regulatory enzymes include histone deacetylase (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases (HATs). Overexpressed HDACs have been identified in many human cancers, resulting in repressed chromatin states that interfere with vital tumor suppressor functions. Inhibition of HDAC activity has been pursued as a mechanism for re-activating repressed genes in cancers, with some HDAC inhibitors showing promise in the clinical setting. Dietary compounds and their metabolites also have been shown to modulate HDAC activity or expression. Out of this body of research, attention increasingly has shifted towards non-histone targets of HDACs and HATs, such as transcriptions factors, hormone receptors, DNA repair proteins, and cytoskeletal components. These aspects are covered in present review, along with the possible clinical significance. Where such data are available, examples are cited from the literature of studies with short chain fatty acids, polyphenols, isoflavones, indoles, organosulfur compounds, organoselenium compounds, sesquiterpene lactones, isoflavones, and various miscellaneous agents. By virtue of their effects on both histone and non-histone proteins, dietary chemopreventive agents modulate the cellular acetylome in ways that are only now becoming apparent. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms will likely enhance the potential to more effectively combat diseases harboring altered epigenetic landscapes and dysregulated protein signaling. PMID:26303421

  15. Quasiclassical trajectory study of the C(1D) + H2 reaction and isotopomeric variants: kinetic isotope effect and CD/CH branching ratio.

    PubMed

    Joseph, S; Caridade, P J S B; Varandas, A J C

    2011-07-14

    The recently proposed ab initio single-sheeted double many-body expansion potential energy for the methylene molecule has been used to perform quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations for the title reaction. Thermal and initial state-specific (v = 0, j = 0) rate constants for the C((1)D) + H(2)/HD/D(2) reactions have been obtained over a wide range of temperatures. Cross sections for the reaction C((1)D) + H(2) and its deuterated isotopes have also been calculated, as well as the CD/CH branching ratios for the C((1)D) + HD reaction. It is found that the CD + H product channel in the C((1)D) + HD reaction is preferred relative to the CH + D channel. The estimated rate constants are predicted to be in the order k(H2) > k(HD) > k(D2) and the calculated cross sections and rate constants compared with available theoretical and experimental data. PMID:21644798

  16. Histone H3.3 and its proteolytically processed form drive a cellular senescence program

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Luis F.; Young, Andrew R. J.; Wang, Zichen; Wu, Hsan-Au; Panda, Taniya; Kou, Yan; Kapoor, Avnish; Hasson, Dan; Mills, Nicholas R.; Ma’ayan, Avi; Narita, Masashi; Bernstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The process of cellular senescence generates a repressive chromatin environment, however, the role of histone variants and histone proteolytic cleavage in senescence remains unclear. Using models of oncogene-induced and replicative senescence, here we report novel histone H3 tail cleavage events mediated by the protease Cathepsin L. We find that cleaved forms of H3 are nucleosomal and the histone variant H3.3 is the preferred cleaved form of H3. Ectopic expression of H3.3 and its cleavage product (H3.3cs1), which lacks the first twenty-one amino acids of the H3 tail, is sufficient to induce senescence. Further, H3.3cs1 chromatin incorporation is mediated by the HUCA histone chaperone complex. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling revealed that H3.3cs1 facilitates transcriptional silencing of cell cycle regulators including RB/E2F target genes, likely via the permanent removal of H3K4me3. Collectively, our study identifies histone H3.3 and its proteolytically processed forms as key regulators of cellular senescence. PMID:25394905

  17. Quantification of histone modifications by parallel-reaction monitoring: a method validation.

    PubMed

    Sowers, James L; Mirfattah, Barsam; Xu, Pei; Tang, Hui; Park, In Young; Walker, Cheryl; Wu, Ping; Laezza, Fernanda; Sowers, Lawrence C; Zhang, Kangling

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal epigenetic reprogramming is one of the major causes leading to irregular gene expression and regulatory pathway perturbations, in the cells, resulting in unhealthy cell development or diseases. Accurate measurements of these changes of epigenetic modifications, especially the complex histone modifications, are very important, and the methods for these measurements are not trivial. By following our previous introduction of PRM to targeting histone modifications (Tang, H.; Fang, H.; Yin, E.; Brasier, A. R.; Sowers, L. C.; Zhang, K. Multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring targeting histone modifications on the QExactive mass spectrometer. Anal. Chem. 2014, 86 (11), 5526-34), herein we validated this method by varying the protein/trypsin ratios via serial dilutions. Our data demonstrated that PRM with SILAC histones as the internal standards allowed reproducible measurements of histone H3/H4 acetylation and methylation in the samples whose histone contents differ at least one-order of magnitude. The method was further validated by histones isolated from histone H3 K36 trimethyltransferase SETD2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) cells. Furthermore, histone acetylation and methylation in human neural stem cells (hNSC) treated with ascorbic acid phosphate (AAP) were measured by this method, revealing that H3 K36 trimethylation was significantly down-regulated by 6 days of treatment with vitamin C. PMID:26356480

  18. The roles of histone modifications and small RNA in centromere function.

    PubMed

    Ekwall, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Here, epigenetic regulation of centromeric chromatin in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is reviewed, focussing on the role of histone modifications and the link to RNA interference (RNAi). Fission yeast centromeres are organized into two structurally and functionally distinct domains, both of which are required for centromere function. The central core domain anchors the kinetochore structure while the flanking heterochromatin domain is important for sister centromere cohesion. The chromatin structure of both domains is regulated epigenetically. In the central core domain, the histone H3 variant Cnp1(CENP-A) plays a key role. In the flanking heterochromatin domain, histones are kept underacetylated by the histone deacetylases (HDACs) Clr3, Clr6 and Sir2, and methylated by Clr4 methyltransferase (HMTase) to create a specific binding site for the Swi6 protein. Swi6 then directly mediates cohesin binding to the centromeric heterochromatin. Recently, a surprising link was made between heterochromatin formation and RNAi. PMID:15289661

  19. A new approach combining LC-MS and multivariate statistical analysis for revealing changes in histone modification levels.

    PubMed

    Bilgraer, Raphaël; Gillet, Sylvie; Gil, Sophie; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Laprévote, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    While acting upon chromatin compaction, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are involved in modulating gene expression through histone-DNA affinity and protein-protein interactions. These dynamic and environment-sensitive modifications are constitutive of the histone code that reflects the transient transcriptional state of the chromatin. Here we describe a global screening approach for revealing epigenetic disruption at the histone level. This original approach enables fast and reliable relative abundance comparison of histone PTMs and variants in human cells within a single LC-MS experiment. As a proof of concept, we exposed BeWo human choriocarcinoma cells to sodium butyrate (SB), a universal histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Histone acid-extracts (n = 45) equally representing 3 distinct classes, Control, 1 mM and 2.5 mM SB, were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Multivariate statistics allowed us to discriminate control from treated samples based on differences in their mass spectral profiles. Several acetylated and methylated forms of core histones emerged as markers of sodium butyrate treatment. Indeed, this untargeted histonomic approach could be a useful exploratory tool in many cases of xenobiotic exposure when histone code disruption is suspected. PMID:25167371

  20. Histone Regulation in the CNS: Basic Principles of Epigenetic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Maze, Ian; Noh, Kyung-Min; Allis, C David

    2013-01-01

    Postmitotic neurons are subject to a vast array of environmental influences that require the nuclear integration of intracellular signaling events to promote a wide variety of neuroplastic states associated with synaptic function, circuit formation, and behavioral memory. Over the last decade, much attention has been paid to the roles of transcription and chromatin regulation in guiding fundamental aspects of neuronal function. A great deal of this work has centered on neurodevelopmental and adulthood plasticity, with increased focus in the areas of neuropharmacology and molecular psychiatry. Here, we attempt to provide a broad overview of chromatin regulation, as it relates to central nervous system (CNS) function, with specific emphasis on the modes of histone posttranslational modifications, chromatin remodeling, and histone variant exchange. Understanding the functions of chromatin in the context of the CNS will aid in the future development of pharmacological therapeutics aimed at alleviating devastating neurological disorders. PMID:22828751

  1. The histone chaperone sNASP binds a conserved peptide motif within the globular core of histone H3 through its TPR repeats

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Andrew; Lercher, Lukas; Singh, Hari R.; Zinne, Daria; Timinszky, Gyula; Carlomagno, Teresa; Ladurner, Andreas G.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is a complex yet dynamic structure, which is regulated in part by the assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes. Key to this process is a group of proteins termed histone chaperones that guide the thermodynamic assembly of nucleosomes by interacting with soluble histones. Here we investigate the interaction between the histone chaperone sNASP and its histone H3 substrate. We find that sNASP binds with nanomolar affinity to a conserved heptapeptide motif in the globular domain of H3, close to the C-terminus. Through functional analysis of sNASP homologues we identified point mutations in surface residues within the TPR domain of sNASP that disrupt H3 peptide interaction, but do not completely disrupt binding to full length H3 in cells, suggesting that sNASP interacts with H3 through additional contacts. Furthermore, chemical shift perturbations from 1H-15N HSQC experiments show that H3 peptide binding maps to the helical groove formed by the stacked TPR motifs of sNASP. Our findings reveal a new mode of interaction between a TPR repeat domain and an evolutionarily conserved peptide motif found in canonical H3 and in all histone H3 variants, including CenpA and have implications for the mechanism of histone chaperoning within the cell. PMID:26673727

  2. Histone acetylation: from code to web and router via intrinsically disordered regions.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Structural changes of chromatin, which consists of nucleosomes and nucleosome-associated factors, lead to functional changes that are important determinants of eukaryotic gene regulation. These structural changes are regulated by modifications of histones and DNA, both of which are components of nucleosomes, as well as by replacement of histone variants and the actions of noncoding RNAs. In studies of chromatin modifications, a great deal of attention has been paid to histone acetylation. Progress in understanding this subject has been extensive, including i) elucidation of the relationship of histone acetylation and gene activity; ii) the first isolation of a histonemodifying enzyme; iii) the first identification of a factor that recognizes a modified site; iv) elucidation of the mechanism by which histone modification leads to structural changes in nucleosomes; and v) elucidation of the mechanism of border formation between euchromatin and heterochromatin. Histone acetylation is considered to be fundamental in several fields, including studies of a) the role of chromatin and epigenetics in higher-order biochemical systems such as transcription, DNA replication, and repair; b) biological phenomena such as cell proliferation and differentiation; and c) cancer and aging, potentially leading to clinical applications. In this review, I will discuss the histone code hypothesis, at one time believed to represent a unified theory regarding the functions of histone modification. In addition, I will describe the "modification web theory, " by which the problems in the histone code hypothesis can be overcome, as well as the "signal router theory, " which explains the mechanisms of formation, development, and evolution of the modification web from a structural viewpoint. Lastly, I will illustrate how these novel theories partially explain the robustness of biological systems against various perturbations, and elucidate the strategy that a cell employs to avoid fatal

  3. Elevated histone expression promotes life span extension.

    PubMed

    Feser, Jason; Truong, David; Das, Chandrima; Carson, Joshua J; Kieft, Jeffrey; Harkness, Troy; Tyler, Jessica K

    2010-09-10

    Changes to the chromatin structure accompany aging, but the molecular mechanisms underlying aging and the accompanying changes to the chromatin are unclear. Here, we report a mechanism whereby altering chromatin structure regulates life span. We show that normal aging is accompanied by a profound loss of histone proteins from the genome. Indeed, yeast lacking the histone chaperone Asf1 or acetylation of histone H3 on lysine 56 are short lived, and this appears to be at least partly due to their having decreased histone levels. Conversely, increasing the histone supply by inactivation of the histone information regulator (Hir) complex or overexpression of histones dramatically extends life span via a pathway that is distinct from previously known pathways of life span extension. This study indicates that maintenance of the fundamental chromatin structure is critical for slowing down the aging process and reveals that increasing the histone supply extends life span. PMID:20832724

  4. Interactions between the lysine-rich histone F1 and deoxyribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Johns, E W; Forrester, S

    1969-02-01

    1. The interactions of the lysine-rich histone F1 with DNA have been studied at various histone to DNA ratios, in water and in the presence of uni- and bi-valent cations. In water only, histone F1, even in fourfold excess, is unable to precipitate all the DNA. In 0.14m-sodium chloride, 0.8mg. of histone F1 is required to precipitate 1mg. of DNA, whereas in 0.07m-magnesium chloride only 0.4mg. is required. 2. Bivalent cations are also shown to be more effective in dissociating the DNA-histone complex. Histone F1 can be selectively removed from deoxyribonucleoprotein with 0.1m-magnesium chloride. 3. The precipitation of DNA by histone F1 is a reversible process and the complex can be taken in and out of solution by changing the ionic environment. 4. The bearing of these results on the observed ability of various DNA-histone complexes to act as templates for RNA synthesis is discussed. PMID:4975020

  5. Mutation of histone H3 serine 86 disrupts GATA factor Ams2 expression and precise chromosome segregation in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kim Kiat; Ong, Terenze Yao Rui; Tan, Yue Rong; Yang, Eugene Guorong; Ren, Bingbing; Seah, Kwi Shan; Yang, Zhe; Tan, Tsu Soo; Dymock, Brian W; Chen, Ee Sin

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are packed into discrete units, referred to as nucleosomes, by organizing around scaffolding histone proteins. The interplay between these histones and the DNA can dynamically regulate the function of the chromosomal domain. Here, we interrogated the function of a pair of juxtaposing serine residues (S86 and S87) that reside within the histone fold of histone H3. We show that fission yeast cells expressing a mutant histone H3 disrupted at S86 and S87 (hht2-S86AS87A) exhibited unequal chromosome segregation, disrupted transcriptional silencing of centromeric chromatin, and reduced expression of Ams2, a GATA-factor that regulates localization of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A. We found that overexpression of ams2(+) could suppress the chromosome missegregation phenotype that arose in the hht2-S86AS87A mutant. We further demonstrate that centromeric localization of SpCENP-A(cnp1-1) was significantly compromised in hht2-S86AS87A, suggesting synergism between histone H3 and the centromere-targeting domain of SpCENP-A. Taken together, our work presents evidence for an uncharacterized serine residue in fission yeast histone H3 that affects centromeric integrity via regulating the expression of the SpCENP-A-localizing Ams2 protein. [173/200 words]. PMID:26369364

  6. A unique binding mode enables MCM2 to chaperone histones H3-H4 at replication forks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongda; Strømme, Caroline B; Saredi, Giulia; Hödl, Martina; Strandsby, Anne; González-Aguilera, Cristina; Chen, Shoudeng; Groth, Anja; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-08-01

    During DNA replication, chromatin is reassembled by recycling of modified old histones and deposition of new ones. How histone dynamics integrates with DNA replication to maintain genome and epigenome information remains unclear. Here, we reveal how human MCM2, part of the replicative helicase, chaperones histones H3-H4. Our first structure shows an H3-H4 tetramer bound by two MCM2 histone-binding domains (HBDs), which hijack interaction sites used by nucleosomal DNA. Our second structure reveals MCM2 and ASF1 cochaperoning an H3-H4 dimer. Mutational analyses show that the MCM2 HBD is required for MCM2-7 histone-chaperone function and normal cell proliferation. Further, we show that MCM2 can chaperone both new and old canonical histones H3-H4 as well as H3.3 and CENPA variants. The unique histone-binding mode of MCM2 thus endows the replicative helicase with ideal properties for recycling histones genome wide during DNA replication. PMID:26167883

  7. Mutation of histone H3 serine 86 disrupts GATA factor Ams2 expression and precise chromosome segregation in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kiat Lim, Kim; Rui Ong, Terenze Yao; Rong Tan, Yue; Guorong Yang, Eugene; Ren, Bingbing; Shan Seah, Kwi; Yang, Zhe; Soo Tan, Tsu; Dymock, Brian W.; Sin Chen, Ee

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are packed into discrete units, referred to as nucleosomes, by organizing around scaffolding histone proteins. The interplay between these histones and the DNA can dynamically regulate the function of the chromosomal domain. Here, we interrogated the function of a pair of juxtaposing serine residues (S86 and S87) that reside within the histone fold of histone H3. We show that fission yeast cells expressing a mutant histone H3 disrupted at S86 and S87 (hht2-S86AS87A) exhibited unequal chromosome segregation, disrupted transcriptional silencing of centromeric chromatin, and reduced expression of Ams2, a GATA-factor that regulates localization of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A. We found that overexpression of ams2+ could suppress the chromosome missegregation phenotype that arose in the hht2-S86AS87A mutant. We further demonstrate that centromeric localization of SpCENP-Acnp1-1 was significantly compromised in hht2-S86AS87A, suggesting synergism between histone H3 and the centromere-targeting domain of SpCENP-A. Taken together, our work presents evidence for an uncharacterized serine residue in fission yeast histone H3 that affects centromeric integrity via regulating the expression of the SpCENP-A-localizing Ams2 protein. [173/200 words] PMID:26369364

  8. Beyond Histone and Deacetylase: An Overview of Cytoplasmic Histone Deacetylases and Their Nonhistone Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ya-Li; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Acetylation of lysines is a prominent form of modification in mammalian proteins. Deacetylation of proteins is catalyzed by histone deacetylases, traditionally named after their role in histone deacetylation, transcriptional modulation, and epigenetic regulation. Despite the link between histone deacetylases and chromatin structure, some of the histone deacetylases reside in various compartments in the cytoplasm. Here, we review how these cytoplasmic histone deacetylases are regulated, the identification of nonhistone substrates, and the functional implications of their nondeacetylase enzymatic activities. PMID:21234400

  9. Myb-domain protein Teb1 controls histone levels and centromere assembly in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Luis P; Dehé, Pierre-Marie; Klutstein, Michael; Aligianni, Sofia; Watt, Stephen; Bähler, Jürg; Promisel Cooper, Julia

    2013-01-01

    The TTAGGG motif is common to two seemingly unrelated dimensions of chromatin function—the vertebrate telomere repeat and the promoter regions of many Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes, including all of those encoding canonical histones. The essential S. pombe protein Teb1 contains two Myb-like DNA binding domains related to those found in telomere proteins and binds the human telomere repeat sequence TTAGGG. Here, we analyse Teb1 binding throughout the genome and the consequences of reduced Teb1 function. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip analysis reveals robust Teb1 binding at many promoters, notably including all of those controlling canonical histone gene expression. A hypomorphic allele, teb1-1, confers reduced binding and reduced levels of histone transcripts. Prompted by previously suggested connections between histone expression and centromere identity, we examined localization of the centromeric histone H3 variant Cnp1 and found reduced centromeric binding along with reduced centromeric silencing. These data identify Teb1 as a master regulator of histone levels and centromere identity. PMID:23314747

  10. Myb-domain protein Teb1 controls histone levels and centromere assembly in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Valente, Luis P; Dehé, Pierre-Marie; Klutstein, Michael; Aligianni, Sofia; Watt, Stephen; Bähler, Jürg; Cooper, Julia Promisel

    2013-02-01

    The TTAGGG motif is common to two seemingly unrelated dimensions of chromatin function-the vertebrate telomere repeat and the promoter regions of many Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes, including all of those encoding canonical histones. The essential S. pombe protein Teb1 contains two Myb-like DNA binding domains related to those found in telomere proteins and binds the human telomere repeat sequence TTAGGG. Here, we analyse Teb1 binding throughout the genome and the consequences of reduced Teb1 function. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip analysis reveals robust Teb1 binding at many promoters, notably including all of those controlling canonical histone gene expression. A hypomorphic allele, teb1-1, confers reduced binding and reduced levels of histone transcripts. Prompted by previously suggested connections between histone expression and centromere identity, we examined localization of the centromeric histone H3 variant Cnp1 and found reduced centromeric binding along with reduced centromeric silencing. These data identify Teb1 as a master regulator of histone levels and centromere identity. PMID:23314747

  11. H3K36ac Is an Evolutionary Conserved Plant Histone Modification That Marks Active Genes.

    PubMed

    Mahrez, Walid; Arellano, Minerva Susana Trejo; Moreno-Romero, Jordi; Nakamura, Miyuki; Shu, Huan; Nanni, Paolo; Köhler, Claudia; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Hennig, Lars

    2016-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, histones are subject to a large number of posttranslational modifications whose sequential or combinatorial action affects chromatin structure and genome function. We identified acetylation at Lys-36 in histone H3 (H3K36ac) as a new chromatin modification in plants. The H3K36ac modification is evolutionary conserved in seed plants, including the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the angiosperms rice (Oryza sativa), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In Arabidopsis, H3K36ac is highly enriched in euchromatin but not in heterochromatin. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing experiments revealed that H3K36ac peaks at the 5' end of genes, mainly on the two nucleosomes immediately distal to the transcription start site, independently of gene length. H3K36ac overlaps with H3K4me3 and the H2A.Z histone variant. The histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and the histone deacetylase HDA19 are required for H3K36ac homeostasis. H3K36ac and H3K36me3 show negative crosstalk, which is mediated by GCN5 and the histone methyl transferase SDG8. Although H3K36ac is associated with gene activity, we did not find a linear relationship between H3K36ac and transcript levels, suggesting that H3K36ac is a binary indicator of transcription. PMID:26764380

  12. Histone and DNA Modifications as Regulators of Neuronal Development and Function.

    PubMed

    Lomvardas, Stavros; Maniatis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARYDNA and histone modifications, together with constraints imposed by nuclear architecture, contribute to the transcriptional regulatory landscape of the nervous system. Here, we provide select examples showing how these regulatory layers, often referred to as epigenetic, contribute to neuronal differentiation and function. We describe the interplay between DNA methylation and Polycomb-mediated repression during neuronal differentiation, the role of DNA methylation and long-range enhancer-promoter interactions in Protocadherin promoter choice, and the contribution of heterochromatic silencing and nuclear organization in singular olfactory receptor expression. Finally, we explain how the activity-dependent expression of a histone variant determines the longevity of olfactory sensory neurons. PMID:27371659

  13. Phenotypic variation of erythrocyte linker histone H1.c in a pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L.) population.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Andrzej; Pa Yga, Jan; Górnicka-Michalska, Ewa; Bernacki, Zenon; Adamski, Marek

    2010-07-01

    Our goal was to characterize a phenotypic variation of the pheasant erythrocyte linker histone subtype H1.c. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis three histone H1.c phenotypes were identified. The differently migrating allelic variants H1.c1 and H1.c2 formed either two homozygous phenotypes, c1 and c2, or a single heterozygous phenotype, c1c2. In the pheasant population screened, birds with phenotype c2 were the most common (frequency 0.761) while individuals with phenotype c1 were rare (frequency 0.043). PMID:21637419

  14. Histone H1 Limits DNA Methylation in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Michael; Ji, Lexiang; Santos, Alex M.; Kamei, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Basenko, Evelina Y.; Schmitz, Robert J.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lewis, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    Histone H1 variants, known as linker histones, are essential chromatin components in higher eukaryotes, yet compared to the core histones relatively little is known about their in vivo functions. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa encodes a single H1 protein that is not essential for viability. To investigate the role of N. crassa H1, we constructed a functional FLAG-tagged H1 fusion protein and performed genomic and molecular analyses. Cell fractionation experiments showed that H1-3XFLAG is a chromatin binding protein. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation combined with sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that H1-3XFLAG is globally enriched throughout the genome with a subtle preference for promoters of expressed genes. In mammals, the stoichiometry of H1 impacts nucleosome repeat length. To determine if H1 impacts nucleosome occupancy or nucleosome positioning in N. crassa, we performed micrococcal nuclease digestion in the wild-type and the ΔhH1 strain followed by sequencing (MNase-seq). Deletion of hH1 did not significantly impact nucleosome positioning or nucleosome occupancy. Analysis of DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (MethylC-seq) revealed a modest but global increase in DNA methylation in the ΔhH1 mutant. Together, these data suggest that H1 acts as a nonspecific chromatin binding protein that can limit accessibility of the DNA methylation machinery in N. crassa. PMID:27172195

  15. Histone H1 Limits DNA Methylation in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michael; Ji, Lexiang; Santos, Alex M; Kamei, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Basenko, Evelina Y; Schmitz, Robert J; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lewis, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    Histone H1 variants, known as linker histones, are essential chromatin components in higher eukaryotes, yet compared to the core histones relatively little is known about their in vivo functions. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa encodes a single H1 protein that is not essential for viability. To investigate the role of N. crassa H1, we constructed a functional FLAG-tagged H1 fusion protein and performed genomic and molecular analyses. Cell fractionation experiments showed that H1-3XFLAG is a chromatin binding protein. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation combined with sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that H1-3XFLAG is globally enriched throughout the genome with a subtle preference for promoters of expressed genes. In mammals, the stoichiometry of H1 impacts nucleosome repeat length. To determine if H1 impacts nucleosome occupancy or nucleosome positioning in N. crassa, we performed micrococcal nuclease digestion in the wild-type and the [Formula: see text]hH1 strain followed by sequencing (MNase-seq). Deletion of hH1 did not significantly impact nucleosome positioning or nucleosome occupancy. Analysis of DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (MethylC-seq) revealed a modest but global increase in DNA methylation in the [Formula: see text]hH1 mutant. Together, these data suggest that H1 acts as a nonspecific chromatin binding protein that can limit accessibility of the DNA methylation machinery in N. crassa. PMID:27172195

  16. Histone Chaperone HIRA in Regulation of Transcription Factor RUNX1.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Aditi; Syed, Khaja Mohieddin; Joseph, Sunu; Scambler, Peter J; Dutta, Debasree

    2015-05-22

    RUNX1 (Runt-related transcription factor 1) is indispensable for the generation of hemogenic endothelium. However, the regulation of RUNX1 during this developmental process is poorly understood. We investigated the role of the histone chaperone HIRA (histone cell cycle regulation-defective homolog A) from this perspective and report that HIRA significantly contributes toward the regulation of RUNX1 in the transition of differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells from hemogenic to hematopoietic stage. Direct interaction of HIRA and RUNX1 activates the downstream targets of RUNX1 implicated in generation of hematopoietic stem cells. At the molecular level, HIRA-mediated incorporation of histone H3.3 variant within the Runx1 +24 mouse conserved noncoding element is essential for the expression of Runx1 during endothelial to hematopoietic transition. An inactive chromatin at the intronic enhancer of Runx1 in absence of HIRA significantly repressed the transition of cells from hemogenic to hematopoietic fate. We expect that the HIRA-RUNX1 axis might open up a novel approach in understanding leukemogenesis in future. PMID:25847244

  17. Histone hyperacetylation can induce unfolding of the nucleosome core particle.

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, R; Bazett-Jones, D P; Locklear, L; Dixon, G H

    1990-01-01

    A direct correlation exists between the level of histone H4 hyperacetylation induced by sodium butyrate and the extent to which nucleosomes lose their compact shape and become elongated (62.0% of the particles have a length/width ratio over 1.6; overall mean in the length/width ratio = 1.83 +/- 0.48) when bound to electron microscope specimen grids at low ionic strength (1mM EDTA, 10mM Tris, pH 8.0). A marked proportion of elongated core particles is also observed in the naturally occurring hyperacetylated chicken testis chromatin undergoing spermatogenesis when analyzed at low ionic strength (36.8% of the particles have a length/width ratio over 1.6). Core particles of elongated shape (length/width ratio over 1.6) generated under low ionic strength conditions are absent in the hypoacetylated chicken erythrocyte chromatin and represent only 2.3% of the untreated Hela S3 cell core particles containing a low proportion of hyperacetylated histones. The marked differences between control and hyperacetylated core particles are absent if the particles are bound to the carbon support film in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl, 6mM MgCl2 and 10mM Tris pH 8.0, conditions known to stabilize nucleosomes. A survey of the published work on histone hyperacetylation together with the present results indicate that histone hyperacetylation does not produce any marked disruption of the core particle 'per se', but that it decreases intranucleosomal stabilizing forces as judged by the lowered stability of the hyperacetylated core particle under conditions of shearing stress such as cationic competition by the carbon support film of the EM grid for DNA binding. Images PMID:2339060

  18. Folate deficiency affects histone methylation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Benjamin A; Luka, Zigmund; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Bhanu, Natarajan V; Wagner, Conrad

    2016-03-01

    Formaldehyde is extremely toxic reacting with proteins to crosslinks peptide chains. Formaldehyde is a metabolic product in many enzymatic reactions and the question of how these enzymes are protected from the formaldehyde that is generated has largely remained unanswered. Early experiments from our laboratory showed that two liver mitochondrial enzymes, dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH) and sarcosine dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyze oxidative demethylation reactions (sarcosine is a common name for monomethylglycine). The enzymatic products of these enzymes were the demethylated substrates and formaldehyde, produced from the removed methyl group. Both DMGDH and SDH contain FAD and both have tightly bound tetrahydrofolate (THF), a folate coenzyme. THF binds reversibly with formaldehyde to form 5,10-methylene-THF. At that time we showed that purified DMGDH, with tightly bound THF, reacted with formaldehyde generated during the reaction to form 5,10-methylene-THF. This effectively scavenged the formaldehyde to protect the enzyme. Recently, post-translational modifications on histone tails have been shown to be responsible for epigenetic regulation of gene expression. One of these modifications is methylation of lysine residues. The first enzyme discovered to accomplish demethylation of these modified histones was histone lysine demethylase (LSD1). LSD1 specifically removes methyl groups from di- and mono-methylated lysines at position 4 of histone 3. This enzyme contained tightly bound FAD and the products of the reaction were the demethylated lysine residue and formaldehyde. The mechanism of LSD1 demethylation is analogous to the mechanism previously postulated for DMGDH, i.e. oxidation of the N-methyl bond to the methylene imine followed by hydrolysis to generate formaldehyde. This suggested that THF might also be involved in the LSD1 reaction to scavenge the formaldehyde produced. Our hypotheses are that THF is bound to native LSD1 by analogy to DMGDH and SDH and

  19. EpiProfile Quantifies Histone Peptides With Modifications by Extracting Retention Time and Intensity in High-resolution Mass Spectra*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Lin, Shu; Molden, Rosalynn C.; Cao, Xing-Jun; Bhanu, Natarajan V.; Wang, Xiaoshi; Sidoli, Simone; Liu, Shichong; Garcia, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications contribute to chromatin function through their chemical properties which influence chromatin structure and their ability to recruit chromatin interacting proteins. Nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) has emerged as the most suitable technology for global histone modification analysis because of the high sensitivity and the high mass accuracy of this approach that provides confident identification. However, analysis of histones with this method is even more challenging because of the large number and variety of isobaric histone peptides and the high dynamic range of histone peptide abundances. Here, we introduce EpiProfile, a software tool that discriminates isobaric histone peptides using the distinguishing fragment ions in their tandem mass spectra and extracts the chromatographic area under the curve using previous knowledge about peptide retention time. The accuracy of EpiProfile was evaluated by analysis of mixtures containing different ratios of synthetic histone peptides. In addition to label-free quantification of histone peptides, EpiProfile is flexible and can quantify different types of isotopically labeled histone peptides. EpiProfile is unique in generating layouts (i.e. relative retention time) of histone peptides when compared with manual quantification of the data and other programs (such as Skyline), filling the need of an automatic and freely available tool to quantify labeled and non-labeled modified histone peptides. In summary, EpiProfile is a valuable nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry-based quantification tool for histone peptides, which can also be adapted to analyze nonhistone protein samples. PMID:25805797

  20. Release and activity of histone in diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Kang, R; Fan, X-G; Tang, D

    2014-01-01

    Histones and their post-translational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecular pattern molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of exogenous histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses through activating Toll-like receptors and inflammasome pathways. Anti-histone treatment (e.g., neutralizing antibodies, activated protein C, recombinant thrombomodulin, and heparin) protect mice against lethal endotoxemia, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, trauma, pancreatitis, peritonitis, stroke, coagulation, and thrombosis. In addition, elevated serum histone and nucleosome levels have been implicated in multiple pathophysiological processes and progression of diseases including autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Therefore, extracellular histones could serve as biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets in human diseases. PMID:25118930

  1. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Junhyun; Kwon, Seomun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25288980

  2. Coupling histone homeostasis to centromere integrity via the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In many eukaryotes, histone gene expression is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with a spike pattern at S phase. In fission yeast the GATA-type transcription factor Ams2 is required for transcriptional activation of all the core histone genes during S phase and Ams2 protein levels per se show concomitant periodic patterns. We have recently unveiled the molecular mechanisms underlying Ams2 fluctuation during the cell cycle. We have found that Ams2 stability varies during the cell cycle, and that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is responsible for Ams2 instability. Intriguingly, Ams2 proteolysis requires Hsk1-a Cdc7 homologue in fission yeast generally called Dbf4-dependent protein kinase (DDK)-and the SCF ubiquitin ligase containing the substrate receptor Pof3 F-box protein. Here, we discuss why histone synthesis has to occur only during S phase. Our results indicate that excess synthesis of core histones outside S phase results in deleterious effects on cell survival. In particular, functions of the centromere, in which the centromere-specific H3 variant CENP-A usually form centromeric nucleosomes, are greatly compromised. This defect is, at least in part, ascribable to abnormal incorporation of canonical histone H3 into these nucleosomes. Finally, we address the significance and potential implications of our work from an evolutionary point of view. PMID:20604974

  3. Physical properties of inner histone-DNA complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, P N; Wright, E B; Hsie, M H; Olins, A L; Olins, D E

    1978-01-01

    Chicken-erythrocyte inner histone tetramer has been complexed with several natural and synthetic DNA duplexes by salt-gradient dialysis at various protein/DNA ratios. The resulting complexes, in low-ionic-strength buffer, have been examined by electron microscopy, circular dichroism, and thermal denaturation. Electron microscopy reveals nucleosomes (nu bodies) randomly arranged along DNA fibers, including poly(dA-dT)-poly(dA-dT), poly(dI-dC)-poly(dI-dC), but not poly(dA)-poly(dT). Circular dichroism studies showed prominent histone alpha-helix and "suppression" of nucleic acid ellipticity (lambda less than 240 nm). Thermal denaturation experiments revealed Tm behavior comparable to that of H1- (or H5-) depleted chromatin. Tm III and Tm IV increased linearly with G + C%(natural DNAs), but were virtually independent of the histone/DNA ratio; therefore, the melting of nucleosomes along a DNA chain is insensitive to adjacent "spacer" DNA lengths. This suggests that Tm III and Tm IV arise from the melting of different domains of DNA associated with the core nu body. Images PMID:214760

  4. Characterization of neurohistone variants and post-translational modifications by electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Benjamin A.; Siuti, Nertila; Thomas, C. Eric; Mizzen, Craig A.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2007-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones are intimately involved in chromatin structure and thus have roles in cellular processes through their impact on gene activation or repression. At the forefront in histone PTM analysis are mass spectrometry-based techniques, which have capabilities to produce improved views of processes affected by chromatin remodeling via histone modifications. In this report, we take the first mass spectrometric look at histone variant expression and post-translational modifications from histones isolated from rat brain tissue. Analyses of whole rat brain identified specific histone H2A and H2B gene family members and several H4 and H3 post-translational modification sites by electron capture dissociation (ECD) mass spectrometry. We subsequently compared these results to selected rat brain regions. Major differences in the expression profiles of H2A and H2B gene family members or in the post-translational modifications on histone H4 were not observed from the different brain regions using a Top Down approach. However, "Middle Down" mass spectrometry facilitating improved characterization of the histone H3 tail (1-50 residues), revealed an enrichment of trimethylation on Lys9 from cerebellum tissue compared to H3 extracted from whole brain, cerebral cortex or hypothalamus tissue. We forward this study in honor of Professor Donald F. Hunt, whose pioneering efforts in protein and PTM analyses have spawned new eras and numerous careers, many exemplified in this special issue.

  5. Effect of histone deacetylase on prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanfeng; Xu, Qingchun; Liu, Guoyuan; Huang, Hong; Lin, Weiqiang; Huang, Yueying; Chi, Zepai; Chen, Shaochuan; Lan, Kaijian; Lin, Jiahua; Zhang, Yonghai

    2015-01-01

    Commonly occurred in aged males, the incidence of prostate carcinoma is increasing by years. Histone deacetylase (HDACs) as one key enzyme in regulating gene transcription has been found to be related with cancer occurrence. Trichostatin A (TSA) is one HDAC inhibitor for suppressing tumor growth. This study thus treated prostate carcinoma cell line PC3 with TSA, to analyze the effect of HDAC on the occurrence and progression of HDAC. PC3 cells were treated with gradient concentrations of TSA. MTT assay was employed to detect the proliferation of PC3 cells, while flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2 were further quantified by Western blotting. MTT assays showed a dose- and time-dependent manner of TSA in inhibiting PC3 cell proliferation. Most of PC3 cells were arrested at G1 phase after treating with TSA. The apoptotic ratio of cells was also elevated by higher concentrations of drugs. Apoptotic proteins including caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2 were all up-regulated by TSA. HDAC inhibitor can effectively suppress the proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells, which can be arrested at G1 phase. The elevated apoptotic ratio was caused by up-regulation of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, caspase-9 and bcl-2, in both dose- and time-dependent manners. PMID:26823840

  6. Histone exchange and histone modifications during transcription and aging☆

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chandrima; Tyler, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    The organization of the eukaryotic genome into chromatin enables DNA to fit inside the nucleus while also regulating the access of proteins to the DNA to facilitate genomic functions such as transcription, replication and repair. The basic repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, which includes 147 bp of DNA wrapped 1.65 times around an octamer of core histone proteins comprising two molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 [1]. Each nucleosome is a highly stable unit, being maintained by over 120 direct protein–DNA interactions and several hundred water mediated ones [1]. Accordingly, there is considerable interest in understanding how processive enzymes such as RNA polymerases manage to pass along the coding regions of our genes that are tightly packaged into arrays of nucleosomes. Here we present the current mechanistic understanding of this process and the evidence for profound changes in chromatin dynamics during aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone chaperones and Chromatin assembly. PMID:24459735

  7. Investigating Histone Acetylation Stoichiometry and Turnover Rate.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Baeza, J; Denu, J M

    2016-01-01

    Histone acetylation is a dynamic epigenetic modification that functions in the regulation of DNA-templated reactions, such as transcription. This lysine modification is reversibly controlled by histone (lysine) acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Here, we present methods employing isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry (MS) to comprehensively investigate histone acetylation dynamics. Turnover rates of histone acetylation are determined by measuring the kinetics of labeling from (13)C-labeled precursors of acetyl-CoA, which incorporates (13)C-carbon onto histones via the acetyltransferase reaction. Overall histone acetylation states are assessed from complete protease digestion to single amino acids, which is followed by MS analysis. Determination of site-specific acetylation stoichiometry is achieved by chemically acetylating endogenous histones with isotopic acetic anhydride, followed by trypsin digestion and LC-MS analysis. Combining metabolic labeling with stoichiometric analysis permits determination of both acetylation level and acetylation dynamics. When comparing genetic, diet, or environmental perturbations, these methods permit both a global and site-specific evaluation of how histone acetylation is dynamically regulated. PMID:27423860

  8. Imaging Histone Methylations in Living Animals.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Thillai V; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2016-01-01

    Histone modifications (methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, etc.,) are at the heart of cellular regulatory mechanisms, which control expression of genes in an orderly fashion and control the entire cellular regulatory networks. Histone lysine methylation has been identified as one of the several posttranslational histone modifications that plays crucial role in regulating gene expressions in facultative heterochromatic DNA regions while maintaining structural integrity in constitutive heterochromatic DNA regions. Since histone methylation is dysregulated in various cellular diseases, it has been considered a potential therapeutic target for drug development. Currently there is no simple method available to screen and preclinically evaluate drugs modulating this cellular process, we recently developed two different methods by adopting reporter gene technology to screen drugs and to preclinically evaluate them in living animals. Method detects and quantitatively monitors the level of histone methylations in intact cells, is of a prerequisite to screen small molecules that modulate histone lysine methylation. Here, we describe two independent optical imaging sensors developed to image histone methylations in cells and in living animals. Since we used standard PCR-based cloning strategies to construct different plasmid vectors shown in this chapter, we are not providing any details regarding the construction methods, instead, we focus on detailing various methods used for measuring histone methylation-assisted luciferase quantitation in cells and imaging in living animals. PMID:27424907

  9. Acetylated histone H3 increases nucleosome dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Marek; Manohar, Mridula; Ottesen, Jennifer; Poirier, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Chromatin's basic unit structure is the nucleosome, i.e. genomic DNA wrapped around a particular class of proteins -- histones -- which due to their physical hindrance, block vital biological processes, such as DNA repair, DNA replication, and RNA transcription. Histone post-translational modifications, which are known to exist in vivo, are hypothesized to regulate these biological processes by directly altering DNA-histone interactions and thus nucleosome structure and stability. Using magnetic tweezers technique we studied the acetylation of histone H3 in the dyad region, i.e. at K115 and K122, on reconstituted arrays of nucleosomes under constant external force. Based on the measured increase in the probability of dissociation of modified nucleosomes, we infer that this double modification could facilitate histone chaperone mediated nucleosome disassembly in vivo.

  10. Inhibition of mitotic-specific histone phophorylation by sodium arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Cobo, J.M.; Valdez, J.G.; Gurley, L.R.

    1994-10-01

    Synchronized cultures of Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) were used to measure the effects of 10{mu}M sodium arsenite on histone phosphorylation. This treatment caused cell proliferation to be temporarily arrested, after which the cells spontaneously resumed cell proliferation in a radiomimetric manner. Immediately following treatment, it was found that sodium arsenite affected only mitotic-specific HI and H3 phosphorylations. Neither interphase, nor mitotic, H2A and H4 phosphorylations were affected, nor was interphase HI Phosphorylation affected. The phosphorylation of HI was inhibited only in mitosis, reducing HI phosphorylation to 38.1% of control levels, which was the level of interphase HI phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of both H3 variants was inhibited in mitosis, the less hydrophobic H3 to 19% and the more hydrophobic H3 to 24% of control levels. These results suggest that sodium arsenite may inhibite cell proliferation by interfering with the cyclin B/p34{sup cdc2} histone kinase activity which is thought to play a key role in regulating the cell cycle. It has been proposed by our laboratory that HI and H3 phosphorylations play a role in restructuring interphase chromatin into metaphase chromosomes. Interference of this process by sodium arsenite may lead to structurally damaged chromosomes resulting in the increased cancer risks known to be produced by arsenic exposure from the environment.

  11. H3K36ac Is an Evolutionary Conserved Plant Histone Modification That Marks Active Genes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Arellano, Minerva Susana Trejo; Shu, Huan; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, histones are subject to a large number of posttranslational modifications whose sequential or combinatorial action affects chromatin structure and genome function. We identified acetylation at Lys-36 in histone H3 (H3K36ac) as a new chromatin modification in plants. The H3K36ac modification is evolutionary conserved in seed plants, including the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the angiosperms rice (Oryza sativa), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In Arabidopsis, H3K36ac is highly enriched in euchromatin but not in heterochromatin. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing experiments revealed that H3K36ac peaks at the 5′ end of genes, mainly on the two nucleosomes immediately distal to the transcription start site, independently of gene length. H3K36ac overlaps with H3K4me3 and the H2A.Z histone variant. The histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and the histone deacetylase HDA19 are required for H3K36ac homeostasis. H3K36ac and H3K36me3 show negative crosstalk, which is mediated by GCN5 and the histone methyl transferase SDG8. Although H3K36ac is associated with gene activity, we did not find a linear relationship between H3K36ac and transcript levels, suggesting that H3K36ac is a binary indicator of transcription. PMID:26764380

  12. Nucleosome Dancing at the Tempo of Histone Tail Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Galvani, Angélique; Thiriet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The impact of histone acetylation on transcription was revealed over 50 years ago by Allfrey and colleagues. However, it took decades for an understanding of the fine mechanism by which this posttranslational modification affects chromatin structure and promotes transcription. Here, we review breakthroughs linking histone tail acetylation, histone dynamics, and transcription. We also discuss the histone exchange during transcription and highlight the important function of a pool of non-chromatinized histones in chromatin dynamics. PMID:26184324

  13. Dynamics of histone H3 acetylation in the nucleosome core during mouse pre-implantation development.

    PubMed

    Ziegler-Birling, Céline; Daujat, Sylvain; Schneider, Robert; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, the time period that follows fertilization is characterized by extensive chromatin remodeling, which enables epigenetic reprogramming of the gametes. Major changes in chromatin structure persist until the time of implantation, when the embryo develops into a blastocyst, which comprises the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. Changes in DNA methylation, histone variant incorporation, and covalent modifications of the histones tails have been intensively studied during pre-implantation development. However, modifications within the core of the nucleosomes have not been systematically analyzed. Here, we report the first characterization and temporal analysis of 3 key acetylated residues in the core of the histone H3: H3K64ac, H3K122ac, and H3K56ac, all located at structurally important positions close to the DNA. We found that all 3 acetylations occur during pre-implantation development, but with different temporal kinetics. Globally, H3K64ac and H3K56ac were detected throughout cleavage stages, while H3K122ac was only weakly detectable during this time. Our work contributes to the understanding of the contribution of histone modifications in the core of the nucleosome to the "marking" of the newly established embryonic chromatin and unveils new modification pathways potentially involved in epigenetic reprogramming. PMID:26479850

  14. Histone H3.3 and cancer: A potential reader connection

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Fei; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The building block of chromatin is nucleosome, which consists of 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer composed of two copies of histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Significantly, the somatic missense mutations of the histone H3 variant, H3.3, are associated with childhood and young-adult tumors, such as pediatric high-grade astrocytomas, as well as chondroblastoma and giant-cell tumors of the bone. The mechanisms by which these histone mutations cause cancer are by and large unclear. Interestingly, two recent studies identified BS69/ZMYND11, which was proposed to be a candidate tumor suppressor, as a specific reader for a modified form of H3.3 (H3.3K36me3). Importantly, some H3.3 cancer mutations are predicted to abrogate the H3.3K36me3/BS69 interaction, suggesting that this interaction may play an important role in tumor suppression. These new findings also raise the question of whether H3.3 cancer mutations may lead to the disruption and/or gain of interactions of additional cellular factors that contribute to tumorigenesis. PMID:25453099

  15. Quantitative Proteomic Approaches to Studying Histone Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Barry M; Young, Nicolas L; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2011-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) positively and negatively regulate gene expression, and are consequently a vital influence on the genomic profile of all eukaryotic species. The study of histone PTMs using classical methods in molecular biology, such as immunofluorescence and Western blotting, is challenging given the technical issues of the approaches, and chemical diversity and combinatorial patterns of the modifications. In light of these many technical limitations, mass spectrometry (MS) is emerging as the most unbiased and rigorous experimental platform to identify and quantify histone PTMs in a high-throughput manner. This review covers the latest developments in mass spectrometry for the analysis of histone PTMs, with the hope of inspiring the continued integration of proteomic, genomic and epigenetic research. PMID:21966350

  16. Western Analysis of Histone Modifications (Aspergillus nidulans)

    PubMed Central

    Soukup, Alexandra; Keller, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    Western blotting allows for the specific detection of proteins and/or modifications of proteins by an antibody of interest. This protocol utilizes a crude nuclei extraction protocol for Aspergillus nidulans to enrich for histones and other nuclear proteins prior to gel electrophoresis. Post translational modifications of histones may then be easily detected. After electrophoresis, the selected antibodies are used to detect and quantify levels of the modifications of interest.

  17. Inhibition of Histone Acetyltransferase by Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Buczek-Thomas, Jo Ann; Hsia, Edward; Rich, Celeste B.; Foster, Judith A.; Nugent, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are a class of enzymes that participate in modulating chromatin structure and gene expression. Altered HAT activity has been implicated in a number of diseases, yet little is known about the regulation of HATs. In this study, we report that glycosaminoglycans are potent inhibitors of p300 and pCAF HAT activities in vitro, with heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans being the most potent inhibitors. The mechanism of inhibition by heparin was investigated. The ability of heparin to inhibit HAT activity was in part dependent upon its size and structure, as small heparin-derived oligosaccharides (> 8 sugars) and N-desulfated or O-desulfated heparin showed reduced inhibitory activity. Heparin was shown to bind to pCAF; and enzyme assays indicated that heparin shows the characteristics of a competitive-like inhibitor causing an ~50-fold increase in the apparent Km of pCAF for histone H4. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans isolated from corneal and pulmonary fibroblasts inhibited HAT activity with similar effectiveness as heparin. As evidence that endogenous glycosaminoglycans might be involved in modulating histone acetylation, the direct addition of heparin to pulmonary fibroblasts resulted in an ~50% reduction of histone H3 acetylation after 6 hours of treatment. In addition, Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in glycosaminoglycan synthesis showed increased levels of acetylated histone H3 compared to wild-type parent cells. Glycosaminoglycans represent a new class of HAT inhibitors that might participate in modulating cell function by regulating histone acetylation. PMID:18459114

  18. Interpreting thelanguage of histone and DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Rothbart, Scott B.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or ‘code’ that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins has raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. PMID:24631868

  19. Assaying Pharmacodynamic Endpoints with Targeted Therapy: Flavopiridol and 17AAG Induced Dephosphorylation of Histone H1.5 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liwen; Harshman, Sean W.; Liu, Shujun; Ren, Chen; Xu, Hua; Sallans, Larry; Grever, Michael; Byrd, John C.; Marcucci, Guido; Freitas, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Histone H1 is commonly used to assay kinase activity in vitro. As many promising targeted therapies affect kinase activity of specific enzymes involved in cancer transformation, H1 phosphorylation can serve as potential pharmacodynamic marker for drug activity within the cell. In this report we utilized a phosphoproteomic workflow to characterize histone H1 phosphorylation changes associated with two targeted therapies in the Kasumi-1 Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cell line. The phosphoproteomic workflow was first validated with standard casein phosphoproteins and then applied to the direct analysis of histone H1 from Kasumi-1 nuclear lysates. Ten H1 phosphorylation sites were identified on the H1 variants, H1.2, H1.3, H1.4, H1.5 and H1.x. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry profiling of intact H1s demonstrated global dephosphorylation of H1.5 associated with therapy by the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, flavopiridol, and the Hsp90 inhibitor, 17AAG (17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin). In contrast, independent treatments with a nucleotide analog, proteosome inhibitor and histone deacetylase inhibitor did not exhibit decreased H1.5 phosphorylation. The data presented herein demonstrate that potential of histones to assess the cellular response of reagents that have direct and indirect effects on kinase activity that alters histone phosphorylation. As such, this approach may be a highly informative marker for response to targeted therapies influencing histone phosphorylation. PMID:21110323

  20. The Histone Chaperones FACT and Spt6 Restrict H2A.Z from Intragenic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimo, Célia; Watanabe, Shinya; Kaplan, Craig D.; Peterson, Craig L.; Robert, François

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY H2A.Z is a highly conserved histone variant involved in several key nuclear processes. It is incorporated into promoters by SWR-C-related chromatin remodeling complexes, but whether it is also actively excluded from non-promoter regions is not clear. Here, we provide genomic and biochemical evidence that RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) elongation-associated histone chaperones FACT and Spt6 both contribute to restricting H2A.Z from intragenic regions. In the absence of FACT or Spt6, the lack of efficient nucleosome reassembly coupled to pervasive incorporation of H2A.Z by mislocalized SWR-C alters chromatin composition and contributes to cryptic initiation. Thus, chaperone-mediated H2A.Z confinement is crucial for restricting the chromatin signature of gene promoters, which otherwise may license or promote cryptic transcription. PMID:25959393

  1. Histone turnover and chromatin accessibility: Critical mediators of neurological development, plasticity, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Wenderski, Wendy; Maze, Ian

    2016-01-01

    In postmitotic neurons, nucleosomal turnover was long considered to be a static process that is inconsequential to transcription. However, our recent studies in human and rodent brain indicate that replication-independent (RI) nucleosomal turnover, which requires the histone variant H3.3, is dynamic throughout life and is necessary for activity-dependent gene expression, synaptic connectivity, and cognition. H3.3 turnover also facilitates cellular lineage specification and plays a role in suppressing the expression of heterochromatic repetitive elements, including mutagenic transposable sequences, in mouse embryonic stem cells. In this essay, we review mechanisms and functions for RI nucleosomal turnover in brain and present the hypothesis that defects in histone dynamics may represent a common mechanism underlying neurological aging and disease. PMID:26990528

  2. Histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation and HP1γ favor inclusion of alternative exons.

    PubMed

    Saint-André, Violaine; Batsché, Eric; Rachez, Christophe; Muchardt, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Pre-messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs) maturation is initiated cotranscriptionally. It is therefore conceivable that chromatin-borne information participates in alternative splicing. Here we find that elevated levels of trimethylation of histone H3 on Lys9 (H3K9me3) are a characteristic of the alternative exons of several genes including CD44. On this gene the chromodomain protein HP1γ, frequently defined as a transcriptional repressor, facilitates inclusion of the alternative exons via a mechanism involving decreased RNA polymerase II elongation rate. In addition, accumulation of HP1γ on the variant region of the CD44 gene stabilizes association of the pre-mRNA with the chromatin. Altogether, our data provide evidence for localized histone modifications impacting alternative splicing. They further implicate HP1γ as a possible bridging molecule between the chromatin and the maturating mRNA, with a general impact on splicing decisions. PMID:21358630

  3. Increased Histone Deacetylase Activity Involved in the Suppressed Invasion of Cancer Cells Survived from ALA-Mediated Photodynamic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Tzu; Tsai, Yi-Jane; Lee, Ming-Jen; Chen, Chin-Tin

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have found that cancer cells survived from 5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) have abnormal mitochondrial function and suppressed cellular invasiveness. Here we report that both the mRNA expression level and enzymatic activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) were elevated in the PDT-derived variants with dysfunctional mitochondria. The activated HDAC deacetylated histone H3 and further resulted in the reduced migration and invasion, which correlated with the reduced expression of the invasion-related genes, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), paternally expressed gene 1 (PEG1), and miR-355, the intronic miRNA. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we further demonstrate the reduced amount of acetylated histone H3 on the promoter regions of MMP9 and PEG1, supporting the down-regulation of these two genes in PDT-derived variants. These results indicate that HDAC activation induced by mitochondrial dysfunction could modulate the cellular invasiveness and its related gene expression. This argument was further verified in the 51-10 cybrid cells with the 4977 bp mtDNA deletion and A375 ρ0 cells with depleted mitochondria. These results indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction might suppress tumor invasion through modulating histone acetylation. PMID:26473836

  4. Histone Deacetylases and Mechanisms of Regulation of Gene Expression (Histone deacetylases in cancer)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong Ping; Zhao, Yu Tina; Zhao, Ting C

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has become widely recognized that histone modification plays a pivotal role in controlling gene expression, and is involved in a wide spectrum of disease regulation. Histone acetylation is a major modification that affects gene transcription and is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDAC). HATs acetylate lysines of histone proteins, resulting in relaxation of chromatin structure, and they also facilitate gene activation. Conversely, HDACs remove acetyl groups from hyperacetylated histones and suppress general gene transcription. In addition to histones, numerous non-histone proteins can be acetylated and deacetylated, and they are also involved in a wide range of disease regulation. To date, there are 18 HDACs in mammals classified into four classes based on homology to yeast HDACs. Accumulating evidence has revealed that HDACs play crucial roles in a variety of biological processes including inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of HDACs in carcinogenesis and describe the involvement of HDACs in cancer-associated molecular processes. It is hoped than our understanding of the role of HDACs in cancer will lead to the design of more potent and specific drugs targeting selective HDAC proteins for the treatment of the disease. PMID:25746103

  5. Levels of histone acetylation in thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Frasca, Francesco; Vella, Veronica; Vigneri, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe

    2011-08-12

    Histone acetylation is a major mechanism to regulate gene transcription. This post-translational modification is modified in cancer cells. In various tumor types the levels of acetylation at several histone residues are associated to clinical aggressiveness. By using immunohistochemistry we show that acetylated levels of lysines at positions 9-14 of H3 histone (H3K9-K14ac) are significantly higher in follicular adenomas (FA), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and undifferentiated carcinomas (UC) than in normal tissues (NT). Similar data have been obtained when acetylated levels of lysine 18 of H3 histone (H3K18ac) were evaluated. In this case, however, no difference was observed between NT and UC. When acetylated levels of lysine 12 of H4 histone (H4K12ac) were evaluated, only FA showed significantly higher levels in comparison with NT. These data indicate that modification histone acetylation is an early event along thyroid tumor progression and that H3K18 acetylation is switched off in the transition between differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. By using rat thyroid cell lines that are stably transfected with doxycyclin-inducible oncogenes, we show that the oncoproteins RET-PTC, RAS and BRAF increase levels of H3K9-K14ac and H3K18ac. In the non-tumorigenic rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, TSH increases levels of H3K18ac. However, this hormone decreases levels of H3K9-K14ac and H4K12ac. In conclusion, our data indicate that neoplastic transformation and hormonal stimulation can modify levels of histone acetylation in thyroid cells. PMID:21763277

  6. Defective histone supply causes changes in RNA polymerase II elongation rate and cotranscriptional pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Payán-Bravo, Laura; Muñoz-Cabello, Ana M.; Guijo, Macarena; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Prado, Félix; Reyes, José C.

    2015-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription elongation is a highly regulated process that greatly influences mRNA levels as well as pre-mRNA splicing. Despite many studies in vitro, how chromatin modulates RNAPII elongation in vivo is still unclear. Here, we show that a decrease in the level of available canonical histones leads to more accessible chromatin with decreased levels of canonical histones and variants H2A.X and H2A.Z and increased levels of H3.3. With this altered chromatin structure, the RNAPII elongation rate increases, and the kinetics of pre-mRNA splicing is delayed with respect to RNAPII elongation. Consistent with the kinetic model of cotranscriptional splicing, the rapid RNAPII elongation induced by histone depletion promotes the skipping of variable exons in the CD44 gene. Indeed, a slowly elongating mutant of RNAPII was able to rescue this defect, indicating that the defective splicing induced by histone depletion is a direct consequence of the increased elongation rate. In addition, genome-wide analysis evidenced that histone reduction promotes widespread alterations in pre-mRNA processing, including intron retention and changes in alternative splicing. Our data demonstrate that pre-mRNA splicing may be regulated by chromatin structure through the modulation of the RNAPII elongation rate. PMID:26578803

  7. Replacement of histone H3 with CENP-A directs global nucleosome array condensation and loosening of nucleosome superhelical termini.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, Tanya; Sorensen, Troy C; Woodcock, Christopher L; Kan, Zhong-Yuan; Wood, Stacey; Resch, Michael G; Luger, Karolin; Englander, S Walter; Hansen, Jeffrey C; Black, Ben E

    2011-10-01

    Centromere protein A (CENP-A) is a histone H3 variant that marks centromere location on the chromosome. To study the subunit structure and folding of human CENP-A-containing chromatin, we generated a set of nucleosomal arrays with canonical core histones and another set with CENP-A substituted for H3. At the level of quaternary structure and assembly, we find that CENP-A arrays are composed of octameric nucleosomes that assemble in a stepwise mechanism, recapitulating conventional array assembly with canonical histones. At intermediate structural resolution, we find that CENP-A-containing arrays are globally condensed relative to arrays with the canonical histones. At high structural resolution, using hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS), we find that the DNA superhelical termini within each nucleosome are loosely connected to CENP-A, and we identify the key amino acid substitution that is largely responsible for this behavior. Also the C terminus of histone H2A undergoes rapid hydrogen exchange relative to canonical arrays and does so in a manner that is independent of nucleosomal array folding. These findings have implications for understanding CENP-A-containing nucleosome structure and higher-order chromatin folding at the centromere. PMID:21949362

  8. Epigenetic Modifications of Histones in Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, M D; Jiao, Y; Larsson, L; Almeida, L O; Garaicoa-Pazmino, C; Le, J M; Squarize, C H; Inohara, N; Giannobile, W V; Castilho, R M

    2016-02-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease driven by dysbiosis, an imbalance between commensal bacteria and the host organism. Periodontitis is a leading cause of tooth loss in adults and occurs in about 50% of the US population. In addition to the clinical challenges associated with treating periodontitis, the progression and chronic nature of this disease seriously affect human health. Emerging evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with mechanisms beyond bacteria-induced protein and tissue degradation. Here, we hypothesize that bacteria are able to induce epigenetic modifications in oral epithelial cells mediated by histone modifications. In this study, we found that dysbiosis in vivo led to epigenetic modifications, including acetylation of histones and downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1. In addition, in vitro exposure of oral epithelial cells to lipopolysaccharides resulted in histone modifications, activation of transcriptional coactivators, such as p300/CBP, and accumulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Given that oral epithelial cells are the first line of defense for the periodontium against bacteria, we also evaluated whether activation of pathogen recognition receptors induced histone modifications. We found that activation of the Toll-like receptors 1, 2, and 4 and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 1 induced histone acetylation in oral epithelial cells. Our findings corroborate the emerging concept that epigenetic modifications play a role in the development of periodontitis. PMID:26496800

  9. The role of histone ubiquitination during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Kai; Liang, Xiaotong; Huang, Sizhou; Xu, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    Protein ubiquitin-proteasome (ubiquitin-proteasome) system is the major mechanism responsible for protein degradation in eukaryotic cell. During spermatogenesis, the replacement of histone by protamine is vital for normal sperm formation, which is involved in ubiquitination enzymes expressed in testis. Recently, histone ubiquitin ligases have been shown to play critical roles in several aspects of spermatogenesis, such as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), DNA damage response, and spermiogenesis. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the discovery of several histone ubiquitin ligases and elaborate mechanisms of how these enzymes are involved in these processes through knockout mouse model. Using Huwe1, UBR2, and RNF8 as examples, we emphasized the diverse functions for each enzyme and the broad involvement of these enzymes in every stage, from spermatogonia differentiation and meiotic division to spermiogenesis; thus histone ubiquitin ligases represent a class of enzymes, which play important roles in spermatogenesis through targeting histone for ubiquitination and therefore are involved in transcription regulation, epigenetic modification, and other processes essential for normal gametes formation. PMID:24963488

  10. Histone Acetylation Regulates Intracellular pH

    PubMed Central

    McBrian, Matthew A.; Behbahan, Iman Saramipoor; Ferrari, Roberto; Su, Trent; Huang, Ta-Wei; Li, Kunwu; Hong, Candice S.; Christofk, Heather R.; Vogelauer, Maria; Seligson, David B.; Kurdistani, Siavash K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Differences in global levels of histone acetylation occur in normal and cancer cells, although the reason why cells regulate these levels has been unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for histone acetylation in regulating intracellular pH (pHi). As pHi decreases, histones are globally deacetylated by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and the released acetate anions are coexported with protons out of the cell by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), preventing further reductions in pHi. Conversely, global histone acetylation increases as pHi rises, such as when resting cells are induced to proliferate. Inhibition of HDACs or MCTs decreases acetate export and lowers pHi, particularly compromising pHi maintenance in acidic environments. Global deacetylation at low pH is reflected at a genomic level by decreased abundance and extensive redistribution of acetylation throughout the genome. Thus, acetylation of chromatin functions as a rheostat to regulate pHi with important implications for mechanism of action and therapeutic use of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23201122

  11. Citrullination regulates pluripotency and histone H1 binding to chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophorou, Maria A.; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Halley-Stott, Richard P.; Oliveira, Clara Slade; Loos, Remco; Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Mowen, Kerri A.; Bertone, Paul; Silva, José C. R.; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena; Nielsen, Michael L.; Gurdon, John B.; Kouzarides, Tony

    2014-03-01

    Citrullination is the post-translational conversion of an arginine residue within a protein to the non-coded amino acid citrulline. This modification leads to the loss of a positive charge and reduction in hydrogen-bonding ability. It is carried out by a small family of tissue-specific vertebrate enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) and is associated with the development of diverse pathological states such as autoimmunity, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, prion diseases and thrombosis. Nevertheless, the physiological functions of citrullination remain ill-defined, although citrullination of core histones has been linked to transcriptional regulation and the DNA damage response. PADI4 (also called PAD4 or PADV), the only PADI with a nuclear localization signal, was previously shown to act in myeloid cells where it mediates profound chromatin decondensation during the innate immune response to infection. Here we show that the expression and enzymatic activity of Padi4 are also induced under conditions of ground-state pluripotency and during reprogramming in mouse. Padi4 is part of the pluripotency transcriptional network, binding to regulatory elements of key stem-cell genes and activating their expression. Its inhibition lowers the percentage of pluripotent cells in the early mouse embryo and significantly reduces reprogramming efficiency. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we identify linker histone H1 variants, which are involved in the generation of compact chromatin, as novel PADI4 substrates. Citrullination of a single arginine residue within the DNA-binding site of H1 results in its displacement from chromatin and global chromatin decondensation. Together, these results uncover a role for citrullination in the regulation of pluripotency and provide new mechanistic insights into how citrullination regulates chromatin compaction.

  12. Epigenomic functional characterization of genetic susceptibility variants in systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Amr H; Dozmorov, Mikhail G

    2016-02-01

    Systemic vasculitides are poorly understood inflammatory diseases of the blood vessels that are frequently associated with significant organ damage. Genetic risk variants contribute to the susceptibility of vasculitis, but functional consequences of these genetic variants are largely unknown. Most genetic risk variants in immune-mediated diseases, including systemic vasculitis, are localized to non-coding genetic regions suggesting they might increase disease risk by influencing regulatory elements within the genome. Long range regulatory interactions pose an additional obstacle in localizing functional consequences associated with risk variants to specific genes or cell types. We used cell-type specific enrichment patterns of histone changes that mark poised, primed, and active enhancers, and DNase hypersensitivity to identify specific immune cells mediating genetic risk in vasculitis. Our data suggest that genetic risk variants in ANCA-associated vasculitis are significantly enriched in enhancer elements in Th17 cells, supporting a role for Th17 cells in this disease. Primed and active enhancer elements in B cells can be potentially affected by genetic risk variants associated with Kawasaki disease. Genetic risk in Behçet's disease and Takayasu arteritis might affect enhancer elements in multiple cell types, possibly explained by influencing enhancers in hematopoietic stem cells. Interestingly, our analyses indicate a role for B cells in Kawasaki disease, Behçet's disease, and Takayasu arteritis, and suggest that further work to characterize the involvement of B cells in these diseases is warranted. PMID:26492816

  13. Chemical and semisynthesis of modified histones.

    PubMed

    Maity, Suman Kumar; Jbara, Muhammad; Brik, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play critical roles in the epigenetic regulation of eukaryotic genome by directly altering the biophysical properties of chromatin or by recruiting effector proteins. The large number of PTMs and the inherent complexity in their population and signaling processes make it highly challenging to understand epigenetics-related processes. To address these challenges, accesses to homogeneously modified histones are obligatory. Over the last decade, synthetic protein chemists have been devising novel synthetic tools and applying state-of-the-art chemoselective ligation strategies to prepare precious materials useful in answering fundamental questions in this area. In this short review, we cover some of the recent breakthroughs in these directions in particular the synthesis and semi-synthesis of modified histones and their use to unravel the mysteries of epigenetics. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26778211

  14. Histone modifications: implications in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Ellis, Leigh; Pili, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, an estimated 64,770 men and women were diagnosed with malignancy of the kidney and renal pelvis, of which 13,570 succumbed to their disease. Common genetic aberrations in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) include loss of function of the VHL gene in clear-cell RCC, overexpression of the c-MET gene in papillary RCC type I, deficiency in the FH gene in papillary RCC type II and loss of heterozygozity of the BHD gene in chromophobe RCC. Recent studies illustrate epigenetic silencing of VHL, as well as alterations in histone modifications and their governing enzymes. The possibility of reversing these epigenetic marks has resulted in efforts to target these changes by utilizing inhibitors of HDACs, DNA methyltransferases and, recently, histone methyltransferases in preclinical and clinical studies. This article focuses on potential therapeutic interventions, and the implications of histone modifications and related enzyme alterations in RCC. PMID:23895657

  15. The Cajal Body and Histone Locus Body

    PubMed Central

    Nizami, Zehra; Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gall, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    The Cajal body (CB) is a nuclear organelle present in all eukaryotes that have been carefully studied. It is identified by the signature protein coilin and by CB-specific RNAs (scaRNAs). CBs contain high concentrations of splicing small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and other RNA processing factors, suggesting that they are sites for assembly and/or posttranscriptional modification of the splicing machinery of the nucleus. The histone locus body (HLB) contains factors required for processing histone pre-mRNAs. As its name implies, the HLB is associated with the genes that code for histones, suggesting that it may function to concentrate processing factors at their site of action. CBs and HLBs are present throughout the interphase of the cell cycle, but disappear during mitosis. The biogenesis of CBs shows the features of a self-organizing structure. PMID:20504965

  16. Histone methyltransferases: novel targets for tumor and developmental defects

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xin; Jiang, Xue-Jun; Li, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Ding-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Histone lysine methylation plays a critical role in epigenetic regulation of eukaryotes. To date, studies have shown that lysine residues of K4, K9, K27, K36 and K79 in histone H3 and K20 in histone H4 can be modified by histone methyltransferases (HMTs). Such histone methylation can specifically activate or repress the transcriptional activity to play a key role in gene expression/regulation and biological genetics. Importantly, abnormities of patterns or levels of histone methylation in higher eukaryotes may result in tumorigenesis and developmental defects, suggesting histone methylation will be one of the important targets or markers for treating these diseases. This review will outline the structural characteristics, active sites and specificity of HMTs, correlation between histone methylation and human diseases and lay special emphasis on the progress of the research on H3K36 methylation. PMID:26807165

  17. Nickel compounds induce histone ubiquitination by inhibiting histone deubiquitinating enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ke Qingdong; Ellen, Thomas P.; Costa, Max

    2008-04-15

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are known carcinogens but underlying mechanisms are not clear. Epigenetic changes are likely to play an important role in nickel ion carcinogenesis. Previous studies have shown epigenetic effects of nickel ions, including the loss of histone acetylation and a pronounced increase in dimethylated H3K9 in nickel-exposed cells. In this study, we demonstrated that both water-soluble and insoluble nickel compounds induce histone ubiquitination (uH2A and uH2B) in a variety of cell lines. Investigations of the mechanism by which nickel increases histone ubiquitination in cells reveal that nickel does not affect cellular levels of the substrates of this modification, i.e., ubiquitin, histones, and other non-histone ubiquitinated proteins. In vitro ubiquitination and deubiquitination assays have been developed to further investigate possible effects of nickel on enzymes responsible for histone ubiquitination. Results from the in vitro assays demonstrate that the presence of nickel did not affect the levels of ubiquitinated histones in the ubiquitinating assay. Instead, the addition of nickel significantly prevents loss of uH2A and uH2B in the deubiquitinating assay, suggesting that nickel-induced histone ubiquitination is the result of inhibition of (a) putative deubiquitinating enzyme(s). Additional supporting evidence comes from the comparison of the response to nickel ions with a known deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor, iodoacetamide (IAA). This study is the first to demonstrate such effects of nickel ions on histone ubiquitination. It also sheds light on the possible mechanisms involved in altering the steady state of this modification. The study provides further evidence that supports the notion that nickel ions alter epigenetic homeostasis in cells, which may lead to altered programs of gene expression and carcinogenesis.

  18. Histone deacetylases: Targets for antifungal drug development

    PubMed Central

    Kmetzsch, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of pathogens and its hosts causes a drastic change in the transcriptional landscape in both cells. Among the several mechanisms of gene regulation, transcriptional initiation is probably the main point. In such scenario, the access of transcriptional machinery to promoter is highly regulated by post-translational modification of histones, such as acetylation, phosphorylation and others. Inhibition of histone deacetylases is able to reduce fungal pathogens fitness during infection and, therefore, is currently being considered for the development of new antifungal therapy strategies. PMID:26151486

  19. Balancing Histone Methylation Activities in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Cyril Jayakumar; Akbarian, Schahram

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in histone lysine methylation and other epigenetic regulators of gene expression contribute to changes in brain transcriptomes in mood and psychosis spectrum disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Genetic association studies and animal models implicate multiple lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and demethylases (KDMs) in the neurobiology of emotion and cognition. Here, we review the role of histone lysine methylation and transcriptional regulation in normal and diseased neurodevelopment and discuss various KMTs and KDMs as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:21429800

  20. Regulation and function of histone acetyltransferase MOF.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Han, Xiaofei; Guan, Jingyun; Li, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    The mammalian MOF (male absent on the first), a member of the MYST (MOZ, YBF2, SAS2, and Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), is the major enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of histone H4 on lysine 16. Acetylation of K16 is a prevalent mark associated with chromatin decondensation. MOF has recently been shown to play an essential role in maintaining normal cell functions. In this study, we discuss the important roles of MOF in DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. We also analyze the role of MOF as a key regulator of the core transcriptional network of embryonic stem cells. PMID:24452550

  1. Endometriosis Is Characterized by a Distinct Pattern of Histone 3 and Histone 4 Lysine Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Janice B.; Colón-Díaz, Maricarmen; García, Miosotis; Gutierrez, Sylvia; Colón, Mariano; Seto, Edward; Laboy, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Background: The histone modification patterns in endometriosis have not been fully characterized. This gap in knowledge results in a poor understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms (and potential therapeutic targets) at play. We aimed to (1) assess global acetylation status of histone 3 (H3) and histone 4 (H4), (2) measure levels of H3 and H4 lysine (K) acetylation and methylation, and (3) to identify histone acetylation patterns in promoter regions of candidate genes in tissues from patients and controls. Methods: Global and K-specific acetylation/methylation levels of histones were measured in 24 lesions, 15 endometrium from patients, and 26 endometrium from controls. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)–polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the histone acetylation status of the promoter regions of candidate genes in tissues. Results: The lesions were globally hypoacetylated at H3 (but not H4) compared to eutopic endometrium from controls. Lesions had significantly lower levels of H3K9ac and H4K16ac compared to eutopic endometrium from patients and controls. Tissues from patients were hypermethylated at H3K4, H3K9, and H3K27 compared to endometrium from controls. The ChIP analysis showed hypoacetylation of H3/H4 within promoter regions of candidate genes known to be downregulated in endometriosis (e.g., HOXA10, ESR1, CDH1, and p21WAF1/Cip1) in lesions versus control endometrium. The stereoidogenic factor 1 (SF1) promoter region was enriched for acetylated H3 and H4 in lesions versus control tissues, correlating with its reported high expression in lesions. Conclusions: This study describes the histone code of lesions and endometrium from patients with endometriosis and provides support for a possible role of histone modification in modulation of gene expression in endometriosis. PMID:23899551

  2. IDH1, Histone Methylation, and So Forth.

    PubMed

    Penard-Lacronique, Virginie; Bernard, Olivier A

    2016-08-01

    IDH mutants cause aberrant DNA and histone methylation and contribute to hematological and neuronal malignancies. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Inoue et al. describe a potential specific effect of IDH1 mutations that reduces Atm expression via inhibition of H3K9 demethylases, which may represent a first step toward cellular transformation. PMID:27505668

  3. Biphasic incorporation of centromeric histone CENP-A in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yuko; Sato, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeaki; Ogiyama, Yuki; Masuda, Fumie; Takahashi, Kohta

    2008-02-01

    CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant that is essential for kinetochore formation. Here, we report that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has at least two distinct CENP-A deposition phases across the cell cycle: S and G2. The S phase deposition requires Ams2 GATA factor, which promotes histone gene activation. In Delta ams2, CENP-A fails to retain during S, but it reaccumulates onto centromeres via the G2 deposition pathway, which is down-regulated by Hip1, a homologue of HIRA histone chaperon. Reducing the length of G2 in Delta ams2 results in failure of CENP-A accumulation, leading to chromosome missegregation. N-terminal green fluorescent protein-tagging reduces the centromeric association of CENP-A, causing cell death in Delta ams2 but not in wild-type cells, suggesting that the N-terminal tail of CENP-A may play a pivotal role in the formation of centromeric nucleosomes at G2. These observations imply that CENP-A is normally localized to centromeres in S phase in an Ams2-dependent manner and that the G2 pathway may salvage CENP-A assembly to promote genome stability. The flexibility of CENP-A incorporation during the cell cycle may account for the plasticity of kinetochore formation when the authentic centromere is damaged. PMID:18077559

  4. FACT plays a major role in histone dynamics affecting VSG expression site control in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Denninger, Viola; Rudenko, Gloria

    2014-11-01

    Chromatin remodelling is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the RNA polymerase I transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs) of Trypanosoma brucei. We show that the T. brucei FACT complex contains the Pob3 and Spt16 subunits, and plays a key role in ES silencing. We see an inverse correlation between transcription and condensed chromatin, whereby FACT knockdown results in ES derepression and more open chromatin around silent ES promoters. Derepressed ESs show increased sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion, and a decrease in histones at silent ES promoters but not telomeres. In contrast, FACT knockdown results in more histones at the active ES, correlated with transcription shut-down. ES promoters are derepressed in cells stalled at the G2/M cell cycle stage after knockdown of FACT, but not in G2/M cells stalled after knockdown of cyclin 6. This argues that the observed ES derepression is a direct consequence of histone chaperone activity by FACT at the G2/M cell cycle stage which could affect transcription elongation, rather than an indirect consequence of a cell cycle checkpoint. These experiments highlight the role of the FACT complex in cell cycle-specific chromatin remodelling within VSG ESs. PMID:25266856

  5. FACT plays a major role in histone dynamics affecting VSG expression site control in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Denninger, Viola; Rudenko, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin remodelling is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the RNA polymerase I transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs) of Trypanosoma brucei. We show that the T. brucei FACT complex contains the Pob3 and Spt16 subunits, and plays a key role in ES silencing. We see an inverse correlation between transcription and condensed chromatin, whereby FACT knockdown results in ES derepression and more open chromatin around silent ES promoters. Derepressed ESs show increased sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion, and a decrease in histones at silent ES promoters but not telomeres. In contrast, FACT knockdown results in more histones at the active ES, correlated with transcription shut-down. ES promoters are derepressed in cells stalled at the G2/M cell cycle stage after knockdown of FACT, but not in G2/M cells stalled after knockdown of cyclin 6. This argues that the observed ES derepression is a direct consequence of histone chaperone activity by FACT at the G2/M cell cycle stage which could affect transcription elongation, rather than an indirect consequence of a cell cycle checkpoint. These experiments highlight the role of the FACT complex in cell cycle-specific chromatin remodelling within VSG ESs. PMID:25266856

  6. Histone H3.3 regulates dynamic chromatin states during spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Benjamin T. K.; Bush, Kelly M.; Barrilleaux, Bonnie L.; Cotterman, Rebecca; Knoepfler, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    The histone variant H3.3 is involved in diverse biological processes, including development, transcriptional memory and transcriptional reprogramming, as well as diseases, including most notably malignant brain tumors. Recently, we developed a knockout mouse model for the H3f3b gene, one of two genes encoding H3.3. Here, we show that targeted disruption of H3f3b results in a number of phenotypic abnormalities, including a reduction in H3.3 histone levels, leading to male infertility, as well as abnormal sperm and testes morphology. Additionally, null germ cell populations at specific stages in spermatogenesis, in particular spermatocytes and spermatogonia, exhibited increased rates of apoptosis. Disruption of H3f3b also altered histone post-translational modifications and gene expression in the testes, with the most prominent changes occurring at genes involved in spermatogenesis. Finally, H3f3b null testes also exhibited abnormal germ cell chromatin reorganization and reduced protamine incorporation. Taken together, our studies indicate a major role for H3.3 in spermatogenesis through regulation of chromatin dynamics. PMID:25142466

  7. WHSC1 links transcription elongation to HIRA-mediated histone H3.3 deposition.

    PubMed

    Sarai, Naoyuki; Nimura, Keisuke; Tamura, Tomohiko; Kanno, Tomohiko; Patel, Mira C; Heightman, Tom D; Ura, Kiyoe; Ozato, Keiko

    2013-08-28

    Actively transcribed genes are enriched with the histone variant H3.3. Although H3.3 deposition has been linked to transcription, mechanisms controlling this process remain elusive. We investigated the role of the histone methyltransferase Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1 (WHSC1) (NSD2/MMSET) in H3.3 deposition into interferon (IFN) response genes. IFN treatment triggered robust H3.3 incorporation into activated genes, which continued even after cessation of transcription. Likewise, UV radiation caused H3.3 deposition in UV-activated genes. However, in Whsc1(-/-) cells IFN- or UV-triggered H3.3 deposition was absent, along with a marked reduction in IFN- or UV-induced transcription. We found that WHSC1 interacted with the bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4) and the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and facilitated transcriptional elongation. WHSC1 also associated with HIRA, the H3.3-specific histone chaperone, independent of BRD4 and P-TEFb. WHSC1 and HIRA co-occupied IFN-stimulated genes and supported prolonged H3.3 incorporation, leaving a lasting transcriptional mark. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role of WHSC1, which links transcriptional elongation and H3.3 deposition into activated genes through two molecularly distinct pathways. PMID:23921552

  8. Histone demethylase KDM5B is a key regulator of genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Liu, Ling; Yang, Shangda; Song, Nan; Zhou, Xing; Gao, Jie; Yu, Na; Shan, Lin; Wang, Qian; Liang, Jing; Xuan, Chenghao; Wang, Yan; Shang, Yongfeng; Shi, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of genomic stability is essential for normal organismal development and is vital to prevent diseases such as cancer. As genetic information is packaged into chromatin, it has become increasingly clear that the chromatin environment plays an important role in DNA damage response. However, how DNA repair is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms is not fully understood. Here we report the identification and characterization of lysine-specific histone demethylase 5B (KDM5B), a member of the JmjC domain-containing histone demethylases, as an important player in multiple aspects of DNA double-strand break (DSB) response in human cells. We found that KDM5B becomes enriched in DNA-damage sites after ironizing radiation and endonuclease treatment in a poly(ADP ribose) polymerase 1- and histone variant macroH2A1.1-dependent manner. We showed that KDM5B is required for efficient DSB repair and for the recruitment of Ku70 and BRCA1, the essential component of nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination, respectively. Significantly, KDM5B deficiency disengages the DNA repair process, promotes spontaneous DNA damage, activates p53 signaling, and sensitizes cells to genotoxic insults. Our results suggest that KDM5B is a bona fide DNA damage response protein and indicate that KDM5B is an important genome caretaker and a critical regulator of genome stability, adding to the understanding of the roles of epigenetics in the maintenance of genetic fidelity. PMID:24778210

  9. Histone chaperone Chz1p regulates H2B ubiquitination and subtelomeric anti-silencing

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yakun; Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Lin, Chan-Hsien; Arens, Christina E.; Saleem, Ramsey A.; Smith, Jennifer J.; Aitchison, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Chz1p is a histone chaperone that interacts physically and functionally with the histone variant Htz1p, which has been implicated in establishing and maintaining boundaries between transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin and active euchromatin. To investigate the role of Chz1p in chromatin organization, we performed genome-wide expression arrays and chromatin immunoprecipitations of SIR complex components and modified histones in a CHZ1 deletion strain. Deletion of CHZ1 led to reduced ubiquitination of subtelomere-associated H2B, reduced subtelomeric H3K79 di-methylation, and increased binding of Sir3p, and Sir4p at telomere-distal euchromatin regions, correlating with decreased gene expression in subtelomeric regions. This anti-silencing defect appears to be mediated by enhanced association of de-ubiquitinase Ubp10p with subtelomeric DNA, as detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. In support of this, we show that deletion of UBP10 can antagonize the subtelomeric silencing phenotype of Δchz1. Taken together, the results demonstrate a novel role for Chz1p in epigenetic regulation, through H2B de-ubiquitination by Ubp10p. PMID:20008511

  10. Substantial Histone Reduction Modulates Genomewide Nucleosomal Occupancy and Global Transcriptional Output

    PubMed Central

    Celona, Barbara; Weiner, Assaf; Di Felice, Francesca; Mancuso, Francesco M.; Cesarini, Elisa; Rossi, Riccardo L.; Gregory, Lorna; Baban, Dilair; Rossetti, Grazisa; Grianti, Paolo; Pagani, Massimiliano; Bonaldi, Tiziana; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Friedman, Nir; Camilloni, Giorgio; Bianchi, Marco E.; Agresti, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    The basic unit of genome packaging is the nucleosome, and nucleosomes have long been proposed to restrict DNA accessibility both to damage and to transcription. Nucleosome number in cells was considered fixed, but recently aging yeast and mammalian cells were shown to contain fewer nucleosomes. We show here that mammalian cells lacking High Mobility Group Box 1 protein (HMGB1) contain a reduced amount of core, linker, and variant histones, and a correspondingly reduced number of nucleosomes, possibly because HMGB1 facilitates nucleosome assembly. Yeast nhp6 mutants lacking Nhp6a and -b proteins, which are related to HMGB1, also have a reduced amount of histones and fewer nucleosomes. Nucleosome limitation in both mammalian and yeast cells increases the sensitivity of DNA to damage, increases transcription globally, and affects the relative expression of about 10% of genes. In yeast nhp6 cells the loss of more than one nucleosome in four does not affect the location of nucleosomes and their spacing, but nucleosomal occupancy. The decrease in nucleosomal occupancy is non-uniform and can be modelled assuming that different nucleosomal sites compete for available histones. Sites with a high propensity to occupation are almost always packaged into nucleosomes both in wild type and nucleosome-depleted cells; nucleosomes on sites with low propensity to occupation are disproportionately lost in nucleosome-depleted cells. We suggest that variation in nucleosome number, by affecting nucleosomal occupancy both genomewide and gene-specifically, constitutes a novel layer of epigenetic regulation. PMID:21738444

  11. Diverse Activities of Histone Acylations Connect Metabolism to Chromatin Function.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arnob; Abmayr, Susan M; Workman, Jerry L

    2016-08-18

    Modifications of histones play important roles in balancing transcriptional output. The discovery of acyl marks, besides histone acetylation, has added to the functional diversity of histone modifications. Since all modifications use metabolic intermediates as substrates for chromatin-modifying enzymes, the prevalent landscape of histone modifications in any cell type is a snapshot of its metabolic status. Here, we review some of the current findings of how differential use of histone acylations regulates gene expression as response to metabolic changes and differentiation programs. PMID:27540855

  12. Nonenzymatic biotinylation of histone H2A

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Shannon; Heightman, Tom D; Hohmann, Laura; Schriemer, David; Gravel, Roy A

    2009-01-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS, eukaryotic enzyme) and BirA (prokaryotic) are biotin protein ligases that catalyze the ATP-dependent attachment of biotin to apocarboxylases via the reactive intermediate, bio-5′-AMP. In this study, we examined the in vitro mechanism of biotin attachment to histone H2A in the presence of HCS and BirA. The experiment derives from our observations that HCS is found in the nucleus of cells in addition to the cytoplasm, and it has the ability to attach biotin to histones in vitro (Narang et al., Hum Mol Genet 2004; 13:15–23). Using recombinant HCS or BirA, the rate of biotin attachment was considerably slower with histone H2A than with the biotin binding domain of an apocarboxylase. However, on incubation of recombinant H2A with chemically synthesized bio-5′-AMP, H2A was observed to be rapidly labeled with biotin in the absence of enzyme. Nonenzymatic biotinylation of a truncated apocarboxylase (BCCP87) has been previously reported (Streaker and Beckett, Protein Sci 2006; 15:1928–1935), though at a much slower rate than we observe for H2A. The specific attachment sites of nonenzymatically biotinylated recombinant H2A at different time points were identified using mass spectrometry, and were found to consist of a similar pattern of biotin attachment as seen in the presence of HCS, with preference for lysines in the highly basic N-terminal region of the histone. None of the lysine sites within H2A resembles the biotin attachment consensus sequence seen in carboxylases, suggesting a novel mechanism for histone biotinylation. PMID:19160459

  13. INFECTIVITY OF HISTONE-POLIOVIRUS RIBONUCLEIC ACID PREPARATIONS.

    PubMed

    LUDWIG, E H; SMULL, C E

    1963-06-01

    Ludwig, Ernest H. (The Pennsylvania State University, University Park) and Christine E. Smull. Infectivity of histone-poliovirus ribonucleic acid preparations. J. Bacteriol. 85:1334-1338. 1963.-Some properties of histone-poliovirus ribonucleic acid (RNA) preparations, as relate to infectivity for HeLa cell monolayers, were investigated. The histone-RNA preparations were found to lose their infectivity rapidly at room temperature. They were considerably more stable at ice-bath temperature. Dilution of a histone-RNA preparation in a diluent containing an appropriate amount of histone yielded a plaque count which was proportional to the dilution factor, and which regressed linearly through the point of origin. Dilution of a histone-RNA preparation in a diluent containing no histone resulted in a rapidly decreasing plaque count which was not proportional to the dilution factor. The ability of histone to enhance the infectivity of poliovirus RNA was found to be dependent upon the presence of a low concentration of a monovalent salt in the histone-RNA preparations. Histone-RNA preparations containing approximately isotonic levels of NaCl exhibited a high degree of infectivity. When concentrations of NaCl outside this range were used, a great loss in infectivity of the histone-RNA preparations occurred. The NaCl could be replaced by KCl but not by CaCl(2), MgCl(2), or MgSO(4). PMID:14047226

  14. Cadmium Induces Histone H3 Lysine Methylation by Inhibiting Histone Demethylase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chunlian; Liu, Yin; Xie, Chengfeng; Tu, Wei; Xia, Yujie; Costa, Max; Zhou, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is an established human lung carcinogen with weak mutagenicity. However, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis remain obscure. It has been suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium on histone methylation and histone demethylases, and the role of histone methylation in transformation of immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Exposure to 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 μM of cadmium for 6, 24, and 48 h increased global trimethylated histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and dimethylated histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me2) in BEAS-2B cells compared with untreated cells, and most of these changes remained after the removal of cadmium (P < .05 or P < .01 for most modifications). Meanwhile, cadmium inhibited the activities of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4) and histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylases which were detected by histone demethylation assay. However, there was no significant change in the protein levels of the H3K4 demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 5A (KDM5A) and the H3K9 demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 3A (KDM3A). Interestingly, during transformation of BEAS-2B cells by 20 weeks of exposure to 2.0 μM cadmium as assessed by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, global H3K4me3, and H3K9me2 were significantly increased at 4 weeks (P < .05 or P < .01), whereas no significant change was observed at 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks compared with control. Our study suggests that cadmium increases global H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 by inhibiting the activities of histone demethylases, and aberrant histone methylation that occurs early (48 h) and at 4 weeks is associated with cadmium-induced transformation of BEAS-2B cells at the early stage. PMID:25673502

  15. Distinct roles for histone chaperones in the deposition of Htz1 in chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongde; Zhu, Min; Mu, Yawen; Liu, Lingjie; Li, Guanghui; Wan, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Histone variant Htz1 substitution for H2A plays important roles in diverse DNA transactions. Histone chaperones Chz1 and Nap1 (nucleosome assembly protein 1) are important for the deposition Htz1 into nucleosomes. In literatures, it was suggested that Chz1 is a Htz1–H2B-specific chaperone, and it is relatively unstructured in solution but it becomes structured in complex with the Htz1–H2B histone dimer. Nap1 (nucleosome assembly protein 1) can bind (H3–H4)2 tetramers, H2A–H2B dimers and Htz1–H2B dimers. Nap1 can bind H2A–H2B dimer in the cytoplasm and shuttles the dimer into the nucleus. Moreover, Nap1 functions in nucleosome assembly by competitively interacting with non-nucleosomal histone–DNA. However, the exact roles of these chaperones in assembling Htz1-containing nucleosome remain largely unknown. In this paper, we revealed that Chz1 does not show a physical interaction with chromatin. In contrast, Nap1 binds exactly at the genomic DNA that contains Htz1. Nap1 and Htz1 show a preferential interaction with AG-rich DNA sequences. Deletion of chz1 results in a significantly decreased binding of Htz1 in chromatin, whereas deletion of nap1 dramatically increases the association of Htz1 with chromatin. Furthermore, genome-wide nucleosome-mapping analysis revealed that nucleosome occupancy for Htz1p-bound genes decreases upon deleting htz1 or chz1, suggesting that Htz1 is required for nucleosome structure at the specific genome loci. All together, these results define the distinct roles for histone chaperones Chz1 and Nap1 to regulate Htz1 incorporation into chromatin. PMID:25338502

  16. Msc1 acts through histone H2A.Z to promote chromosome stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shakil; Dul, Barbara; Qiu, Xinxing; Walworth, Nancy C

    2007-11-01

    As a central component of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway, the conserved protein kinase Chk1 mediates cell cycle progression when DNA damage is generated. Msc1 was identified as a multicopy suppressor capable of facilitating survival in response to DNA damage of cells mutant for chk1. We demonstrate that loss of msc1 function results in an increased rate of chromosome loss and that an msc1 null allele exhibits genetic interactions with mutants in key kinetochore components. Multicopy expression of msc1 robustly suppresses a temperature-sensitive mutant (cnp1-1) in the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, and localization of CENP-A to the centromere is compromised in msc1 null cells. We present several lines of evidence to suggest that Msc1 carries out its function through the histone H2A variant H2A.Z, encoded by pht1 in fission yeast. Like an msc1 mutant, a pht1 mutant also exhibits chromosome instability and genetic interactions with kinetochore mutants. Suppression of cnp1-1 by multicopy msc1 requires pht1. Likewise, suppression of the DNA damage sensitivity of a chk1 mutant by multicopy msc1 also requires pht1. We present the first genetic evidence that histone H2A.Z may participate in centromere function in fission yeast and propose that Msc1 acts through H2A.Z to promote chromosome stability and cell survival following DNA damage. PMID:17947424

  17. Mucopolysaccharidosis: A New Variant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primrose, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Described is a possibly new variant of mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by progressive mental and motor deficiency, bone abnormalities, a generalized skin lesion, and abnormal mucopolysaccharides in the urine as seen in a 20-year-old female. (DB)

  18. Normal Variants in Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Daniel R; Bryg, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Echocardiography is a powerful and convenient tool used routinely in the cardiac evaluation of many patients. Improved resolution and visualization of cardiac anatomy has led to the discovery of many normal variant structures that have no known pathologic consequence. Importantly, these findings may masquerade as pathology prompting unnecessary further evaluation at the expense of anxiety, cost, or potential harm. This review provides an updated and comprehensive collection of normal anatomic variants on both transthoracic and transesophageal imaging. PMID:27612473

  19. HDAC8 Substrates: Histones and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Noah A.; Pitcairn, Carol Ann; Fierke, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    The lysine deacetylase family of enzymes (HDACs) was first demonstrated to catalyze deacetylation of acetyllysine residues on histones. In subsequent years, HDACs have been shown to recognize a large pool of acetylated non-histone proteins as substrates. Recently, thousands of acetylated proteins have been discovered, yet in most cases, the HDAC that catalyzes deacetylation in vivo has not been identified. This gap has created the need for better in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches for determining HDAC substrates. While HDAC8 is the best kinetically and structurally characterized HDAC, few efficient substrates have yet been substantiated in vivo. In this review we delineate factors that may be important for determining HDAC8 substrate recognition and catalytic activity, including structure, complex formation, and post-translational modifications. This summary provides insight into the challenges of identifying in vivo substrates for HDAC8, and provides a good vantage point for understanding the variables important for predicting HDAC substrate recognition. PMID:23175386

  20. LSD1 Histone Demethylase Assays and Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hayward, D; Cole, P A

    2016-01-01

    The lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1) is a flavin-dependent amine oxidase that selectively removes one or two methyl groups from histone H3 at the Lys4 position. Along with histone deacetylases 1 and 2, LSD1 is involved in epigenetically silencing gene expression. LSD1 has been implicated as a potential therapeutic target in cancer and other diseases. In this chapter, we discuss several approaches to measure LSD1 demethylase activity and their relative strengths and limitations for inhibitor discovery and mechanistic characterization. In addition, we review the principal established chemical functional groups derived from monoamine oxidase inhibitors that have been investigated in the context of LSD1 as demethylase inhibitors. Finally, we highlight a few examples of recently developed LSD1 mechanism-based inactivators and their biomedical applications. PMID:27372757

  1. DNA and histone methylation in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations contribute significantly to the development and progression of gastric cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Epigenetics refers to the number of modifications of the chromatin structure that affect gene expression without altering the primary sequence of DNA, and these changes lead to transcriptional activation or silencing of the gene. Over the years, the study of epigenetic processes has increased, and novel therapeutic approaches that target DNA methylation and histone modifications have emerged. A greater understanding of epigenetics and the therapeutic potential of manipulating these processes is necessary for gastric cancer treatment. Here, we review recent research on the effects of aberrant DNA and histone methylation on the onset and progression of gastric tumors and the development of compounds that target enzymes that regulate the epigenome. PMID:23482412

  2. Linker Histones Incorporation Maintains Chromatin Fiber Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Recouvreux, Pierre; Lavelle, Christophe; Barbi, Maria; Conde e Silva, Natalia; Le Cam, Eric; Victor, Jean-Marc; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Genomic DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized in supercoiled chromatin fibers, which undergo dynamic changes during such DNA metabolic processes as transcription or replication. Indeed, DNA-translocating enzymes like polymerases produce physical constraints in vivo. We used single-molecule micromanipulation by magnetic tweezers to study the response of chromatin to mechanical constraints in the same range as those encountered in vivo. We had previously shown that under positive torsional constraints, nucleosomes can undergo a reversible chiral transition toward a state of positive topology. We demonstrate here that chromatin fibers comprising linker histones present a torsional plasticity similar to that of naked nucleosome arrays. Chromatosomes can undergo a reversible chiral transition toward a state of positive torsion (reverse chromatosome) without loss of linker histones. PMID:21641318

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibitors enhance phosphorylation of histone H2AX after ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yubin; Adachi, Masaaki . E-mail: adachi@sapmed.ac.jp; Zou Huichao; Hareyama, Masato; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2006-07-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are believed to be promising radiosensitizers. To explore their effects on ionizing radiation (IR), we examined whether the HDAC inhibitors m-carboxycinnamic acid bis-hydroxamide (CBHA) and depsipeptide FK228 affect H2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}-H2AX), a landmark of DNA double-strand breaks after IR exposure. Methods and Materials We evaluated the effects of the HDAC inhibitors on clonogenic assay in human lung carcinoma A549 cells and progression of A549 xenograft tumors. IR-induced DNA damage was evaluated by histone {gamma}-H2AX. Histone hyperacetylation was induced by overexpression of histone acetyltransferase p300 and evaluated by Western blots. Results M-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxyamide pretreatment radiosensitized A549 cells and strongly inhibited A549 xenograft tumor progression. CBHA and FK228, but not 5-fluorouracil, enhanced IR-induced {gamma}-H2AX in A549 and other cancer cell lines. Overexpression of p300 similarly augmented IR-induced {gamma}-H2AX. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that HDAC inhibitors enhance IR-induced {gamma}-H2AX, most likely through histone hyperacetylation, and radiosensitize various cancers.

  4. Binding of the histone chaperone ASF1 to the CBP bromodomain promotes histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Das, Chandrima; Roy, Siddhartha; Namjoshi, Sarita; Malarkey, Christopher S; Jones, David N M; Kutateladze, Tatiana G; Churchill, Mair E A; Tyler, Jessica K

    2014-03-25

    The multifunctional Creb-binding protein (CBP) protein plays a pivotal role in many critical cellular processes. Here we demonstrate that the bromodomain of CBP binds to histone H3 acetylated on lysine 56 (K56Ac) with higher affinity than to its other monoacetylated binding partners. We show that autoacetylation of CBP is critical for the bromodomain-H3 K56Ac interaction, and we propose that this interaction occurs via autoacetylation-induced conformation changes in CBP. Unexpectedly, the bromodomain promotes acetylation of H3 K56 on free histones. The CBP bromodomain also interacts with the histone chaperone anti-silencing function 1 (ASF1) via a nearby but distinct interface. This interaction is necessary for ASF1 to promote acetylation of H3 K56 by CBP, indicating that the ASF1-bromodomain interaction physically delivers the histones to the histone acetyl transferase domain of CBP. A CBP bromodomain mutation manifested in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome has compromised binding to both H3 K56Ac and ASF1, suggesting that these interactions are important for the normal function of CBP. PMID:24616510

  5. Histone H1--DNA interaction. On the mechanism of DNA strands crosslinking by histone H1.

    PubMed Central

    Glotov, B O; Nikolaev, L G; Severin, E S

    1978-01-01

    Crosslinking of DNA fibers by histone H1 or phosphorylated on Ser-37 histone H1, and by the individual fragments of the H1 polypeptide chain was studied by the method of turbidimetry. The dependence of the turbidity of DNA-protein complexes on the ionic strength in solution suggests that the condensation of H1.DNA complexes in vitro is apparently due to both specific histone-DNA interactions with the contribution of hydrogen and/or hydrophobic bonds and the formation of polycationic "bridges" fastening the DNA fibers. The effectiveness of the condensation is postulated to be a function of a proportion between the two mechanisms which in turn can be controlled by slight changes in ionic surroundings. The sharp dependence of shrinkage of H1.DNA complexes on ionic strength at "physiological" salt concentrations could provide a mechanism to regulate density and consequently the total activity of chromatin in the cell nuclei. The phosphorylation of histone H1 on Ser-37 by a specific histone kinase does not noticeably affect the pattern of DNA crosslinking by the H1. Images PMID:27766

  6. Histone demethylase LSD1 regulates adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Musri, Melina M; Carmona, Mari Carmen; Hanzu, Felicia A; Kaliman, Perla; Gomis, Ramon; Párrizas, Marcelina

    2010-09-24

    Epigenetic mechanisms, in particular the enzymatic modification of histones, are a crucial element of cell differentiation, a regulated process that allows a precursor cell basically to turn into a different cell type while maintaining the same genetic equipment. We have previously described that the promoters of adipogenic genes display significant levels of dimethylation at the Lys(4) of histone H3 (H3K4) in preadipocytes, where these genes are still silenced, thus maintaining the chromatin of the precursor cell in a receptive state. Here, we show that the expression of several histone demethylases and methyltransferases increases during adipogenesis, suggesting an important role for these proteins in this process. Knockdown of the H3K4/K9 demethylase LSD1 results in markedly decreased differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This outcome is associated with decreased H3K4 dimethylation and increased H3K9 dimethylation at the promoter of transcription factor cebpa, whose expression must be induced >200-fold upon stimulation of differentiation. Thus, our data suggest that LSD1 acts to maintain a permissive state of the chromatin in this promoter by opposing the action of a H3K9 methyltransferase. Knockdown of H3K9 methyltransferase SETDB1 produced the opposite results, by decreasing H3K9 dimethylation and increasing H3K4 dimethylation levels at the cebpa promoter and favoring differentiation. These findings indicate that the histone methylation status of adipogenic genes as well as the expression and function of the proteins involved in its maintenance play a crucial role in adipogenesis. PMID:20656681

  7. Histone Demethylase LSD1 Regulates Adipogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Musri, Melina M.; Carmona, Mari Carmen; Hanzu, Felicia A.; Kaliman, Perla; Gomis, Ramon; Párrizas, Marcelina

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, in particular the enzymatic modification of histones, are a crucial element of cell differentiation, a regulated process that allows a precursor cell basically to turn into a different cell type while maintaining the same genetic equipment. We have previously described that the promoters of adipogenic genes display significant levels of dimethylation at the Lys4 of histone H3 (H3K4) in preadipocytes, where these genes are still silenced, thus maintaining the chromatin of the precursor cell in a receptive state. Here, we show that the expression of several histone demethylases and methyltransferases increases during adipogenesis, suggesting an important role for these proteins in this process. Knockdown of the H3K4/K9 demethylase LSD1 results in markedly decreased differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This outcome is associated with decreased H3K4 dimethylation and increased H3K9 dimethylation at the promoter of transcription factor cebpa, whose expression must be induced >200-fold upon stimulation of differentiation. Thus, our data suggest that LSD1 acts to maintain a permissive state of the chromatin in this promoter by opposing the action of a H3K9 methyltransferase. Knockdown of H3K9 methyltransferase SETDB1 produced the opposite results, by decreasing H3K9 dimethylation and increasing H3K4 dimethylation levels at the cebpa promoter and favoring differentiation. These findings indicate that the histone methylation status of adipogenic genes as well as the expression and function of the proteins involved in its maintenance play a crucial role in adipogenesis. PMID:20656681

  8. Cloning and characterization of the major histone H2A genes completes the cloning and sequencing of known histone genes of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Gorovsky, M A

    1996-08-01

    A truncated cDNA clone encoding Tetrahymena thermophila histone H2A2 was isolated using synthetic degenerate oligonucleotide probes derived from H2A protein sequences of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The cDNA clone was used as a homologous probe to isolate a truncated genomic clone encoding H2A1. The remaining regions of the genes for H2A1 (HTA1) and H2A2 (HTA2) were then isolated using inverse PCR on circularized genomic DNA fragments. These partial clones were assembled into intact HTA1 and HTA2 clones. Nucleotide sequences of the two genes were highly homologous within the coding region but not in the noncoding regions. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with protein sequences of T. pyriformis H2As showed only two and three differences respectively, in a total of 137 amino acids for H2A1, and 132 amino acids for H2A2, indicating the two genes arose before the divergence of these two species. The HTA2 gene contains a TAA triplet within the coding region, encoding a glutamine residue. In contrast with the T. thermophila HHO and HTA3 genes, no introns were identified within the two genes. The 5'- and 3'-ends of the histone H2A mRNAs; were determined by RNase protection and by PCR mapping using RACE and RLM-RACE methods. Both genes encode polyadenylated mRNAs and are highly expressed in vegetatively growing cells but only weakly expressed in starved cultures. With the inclusion of these two genes, T. thermophila is the first organism whose entire complement of known core and linker histones, including replication-dependent and basal variants, has been cloned and sequenced. PMID:8760889

  9. Atlas of Computed Tomography Variants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhns, L.R.; Seeger, J.

    1983-01-01

    Atlas of Computed Tomography Variants is unique in that, while others of its kind may include plain film, roentgen variants, it concentrates solely on CT images of variants which may simulate disease. Organized into four regions, it presents dicussions covering CT variants of the skull, neck and spine; thorax; abdomen; and extremities-featuring a section on the head.

  10. Inhibition of histone binding by supramolecular hosts

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Hillary F.; Daze, Kevin D.; Shimbo, Takashi; Lai, Anne; Musselman, Catherine A.; Sims, Jennifer K.; Wade, Paul A.; Hof†, Fraser; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.

    2015-01-01

    The tandem PHD (plant homeodomain) fingers of the CHD4 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4) ATPase are epigenetic readers that bind either unmodified histone H3 tails or H3K9me3 (histone H3 trimethylated at Lys9). This dual function is necessary for the transcriptional and chromatin remodelling activities of the NuRD (nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase) complex. In the present paper, we show that calixarene-based supramolecular hosts disrupt binding of the CHD4 PHD2 finger to H3K9me3, but do not affect the interaction of this protein with the H3K9me0 (unmodified histone H3) tail. A similar inhibitory effect, observed for the association of chromodomain of HP1γ (heterochromatin protein 1γ) with H3K9me3, points to a general mechanism of methyl-lysine caging by calixarenes and suggests a high potential for these compounds in biochemical applications. Immunofluorescence analysis reveals that the supramolecular agents induce changes in chromatin organization that are consistent with their binding to and disruption of H3K9me3 sites in living cells. The results of the present study suggest that the aromatic macrocyclic hosts can be used as a powerful new tool for characterizing methylation-driven epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24576085

  11. FERRITIN H INDUCTION BY HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITORS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Di, Xiumin; Torti, Suzy V.; Torti, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    Because both iron deficiency and iron excess are deleterious to normal cell function, the intracellular level of iron must be tightly controlled. Ferritin, an iron binding protein, regulates iron balance by storing iron in a bioavailable but non-toxic form. Ferritin protein comprises two subunits: ferritin H, which contains ferroxidase activity, and ferritin L. Here we demonstrate that ferritin H mRNA and protein are induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors), a promising class of anti-cancer drugs, in cultured human cancer cells. Deletion analysis and EMSA assays reveal that the induction of ferritin H occurs at a transcriptional level via Sp1 and NF-Y binding sites near the transcriptional start site of the human ferritin H promoter. Classically, HDAC inhibitors modulate gene expression by increasing histone acetylation. However, ChIP assays demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors induce ferritin H transcription by increasing NF-Y binding to the ferritin H promoter without changes in histone acetylation. These results identify ferritin H as a new target of HDAC inhibitors, and recruitment of NF-Y as a novel mechanism of action of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:20385107

  12. Histone methylation, alternative splicing and neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fiszbein, Ana; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing, as well as chromatin structure, greatly contributes to specific transcriptional programs that promote neuronal differentiation. The activity of G9a, the enzyme responsible for mono- and di-methylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2) in mammalian euchromatin, has been widely implicated in the differentiation of a variety of cell types and tissues. In a recent work from our group (Fiszbein et al., 2016) we have shown that alternative splicing of G9a regulates its nuclear localization and, therefore, the efficiency of H3K9 methylation, which promotes neuronal differentiation. We discuss here our results in the light of a report from other group (Laurent et al. 2015) demonstrating a key role for the alternative splicing of the histone demethylase LSD1 in controlling specific gene expression in neurons. All together, these results illustrate the importance of alternative splicing in the generation of a proper equilibrium between methylation and demethylation of histones for the regulation of neuron-specific transcriptional programs. PMID:27606339

  13. Histone cross-linking by transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Nam, Kang Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Seok; Kim, In Gyu; Bustin, Michael; Choy, Hyon E; Park, Sang Chul

    2002-05-24

    Transglutaminases irreversibly catalyze covalent cross-linking of proteins by forming isopeptide bonds between peptide-bound glutamine and lysine residues. Among several transglutaminases, tissue-type transglutaminase (tTGase) is most ubiquitously found in every type of cells and tissues in animals, but its natural substrate has yet to be identified. In an attempt to identify the natural substrate for tTGase, we examined in vitro if core histones were subject to cross-linking by tTGase. We found core histone subunits, H2A and H2B, were specifically cross-linked by tTGase. The cross-linking was between either one or both glutamines at C-terminal end of H2A (-VTIAQ104 GGVLPNTQ112 SVLLPKKTESSKSK-C' end) and the first and/or third lysine from C-terminal end of H2B (-AVESEGK116 AVTKYTSSK125-C' end). The cross-linking occurred only when these subunits were released from nucleosome but not when these were organized in nucleosome. Most interestingly, in chicken erythrocyte the cross-linked H2A-H2B was present in a significant amount. From these results, it can be proposed that tTGase-mediated cross-linking is an another form of core histone modification and it may play a role of chromatin condensation during erythrocyte differentiation. PMID:12054678

  14. Interactions of aflatoxin with histones and DNA.

    PubMed

    Black, H S; Jirgensons, B

    1967-05-01

    The interactions of aflatoxin B(1) with certain histone fractions and DNA were investigated by means of viscosity measurements and equilibrium dialysis. Two main histone fractions (F2b and F1), both lysine-rich, were examined after treatment with the toxin. Fraction 2b and 1 differ in amino acid composition and behave differently, in regard to gross conformation, in the presence of electrolytes. Aflatoxin increased the viscosity of fraction 2b but affected the viscosity of fraction 1 only slightly. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that aflatoxin was bound to both histone fractions. Aflatoxin also increased the viscosity of DNA and equilibrium dialysis showed that 1 molecule of the toxin was bound to approximately every 5 nucleotides of the nucleic acid. Binding constants for the aflatoxin complexes were calculated as 1000 for F2b, 700 for F1, and 5500 for DNA. The biological implications of these data, in regard to the effect aflatoxin has on the information-transcription process, are discussed. PMID:6039901

  15. A histone mutant reproduces the phenotype caused by loss of histone-modifying factor Polycomb.

    PubMed

    Pengelly, Ana Raquel; Copur, Ömer; Jäckle, Herbert; Herzig, Alf; Müller, Jürg

    2013-02-01

    Although many metazoan enzymes that add or remove specific modifications on histone proteins are essential transcriptional regulators, the functional significance of posttranslational modifications on histone proteins is not well understood. Here, we show in Drosophila that a point mutation in lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3-K27) fails to repress transcription of genes that are normally repressed by Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), the methyltransferase that modifies H3-K27. Moreover, differentiated H3-K27 mutant cells show homeotic transformations like those seen in PRC2 mutant cells. Taken together, these analyses demonstrate that H3-K27 is the crucial physiological substrate that PRC2 modifies for Polycomb repression. PMID:23393264

  16. Role of histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases in adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2014-04-01

    Adipogenesis is a complex process strictly regulated by a well-established cascade that has been thoroughly studied in the last two decades. This process is governed by complex regulatory networks that involve the activation/inhibition of multiple functional genes, and is controlled by histone-modifying enzymes. Among such modification enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification of protein acetylation. HATs and HDACs have been shown to respond to signals that regulate cell differentiation, participate in the regulation of protein acetylation, mediate transcription and post-translation modifications, and directly acetylate/deacetylate various transcription factors and regulatory proteins. In this paper, we review the role of HATs and HDACs in white and brown adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis, to expand our knowledge on fat formation and adipose tissue biology. PMID:24810880

  17. The Role of Histone Acetyltransferases in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Jian; Man, Na; Tan, Yurong; Nimer, Stephen D.; Wang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Histone, and non-histone, protein acetylation plays an important role in a variety of cellular events, including the normal and abnormal development of blood cells, by changing the epigenetic status of chromatin and regulating non-histone protein function. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which are the enzymes responsible for histone and non-histone protein acetylation, contain p300/CBP, MYST, and GNAT family members. HATs are not only protein modifiers and epigenetic factors but also critical regulators of cell development and carcinogenesis. Here, we will review the function of HATs such as p300/CBP, Tip60, MOZ/MORF, and GCN5/PCAF in normal hematopoiesis and the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. The inhibitors that have been developed to target HATs will also be reviewed here. Understanding the roles of HATs in normal/malignant hematopoiesis will provide the potential therapeutic targets for the hematological malignancies. PMID:26075180

  18. The Role of Histone Acetyltransferases in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Jian; Man, Na; Tan, Yurong; Nimer, Stephen D; Wang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Histone, and non-histone, protein acetylation plays an important role in a variety of cellular events, including the normal and abnormal development of blood cells, by changing the epigenetic status of chromatin and regulating non-histone protein function. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which are the enzymes responsible for histone and non-histone protein acetylation, contain p300/CBP, MYST, and GNAT family members. HATs are not only protein modifiers and epigenetic factors but also critical regulators of cell development and carcinogenesis. Here, we will review the function of HATs such as p300/CBP, Tip60, MOZ/MORF, and GCN5/PCAF in normal hematopoiesis and the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. The inhibitors that have been developed to target HATs will also be reviewed here. Understanding the roles of HATs in normal/malignant hematopoiesis will provide the potential therapeutic targets for the hematological malignancies. PMID:26075180

  19. Natural variation in the histone demethylase, KDM4C, influences expression levels of specific genes including those that affect cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Brittany L.; Cheung, Vivian G.

    2014-01-01

    DNA sequence variants influence gene expression and cellular phenotypes. In this study, we focused on natural variation in the gene encoding the histone demethylase, KDM4C, which promotes transcriptional activation by removing the repressive histone mark, H3K9me3, from its target genes. We uncovered cis-acting variants that contribute to extensive individual differences in KDM4C expression. We also identified the target genes of KDM4C and demonstrated that variation in KDM4C expression leads to differences in the growth of normal and some cancer cells. Together, our results from genetic mapping and molecular analysis provide an example of how genetic variation affects epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cellular phenotype. PMID:24285722

  20. Epigenetic Histone Marks of Extended Meta-Polycentric Centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Pavel; Schubert, Veit; Fuková, Iva; Manning, Jasper E; Houben, Andreas; Macas, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here, we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph, and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented toward the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes. PMID:26973677

  1. Epigenetic Histone Marks of Extended Meta-Polycentric Centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Pavel; Schubert, Veit; Fuková, Iva; Manning, Jasper E.; Houben, Andreas; Macas, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here, we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph, and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented toward the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes. PMID:26973677

  2. Targeting post-translational modifications of histones for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y-C; Hsieh, Y-H; Liao, C-C; Chong, L-W; Lee, C-Y; Yu, Y-L; Chou, R-H

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, citrullination, ubiquitination, ADP ribosylation, and sumoylation, play important roles in different biological events including chromatin dynamics, DNA replication, and transcriptional regulation. Aberrant histones PTMs leads to abnormal gene expression and uncontrolled cell proliferation, followed by development of cancers. Therefore, targeting the enzymes required for specific histone PTMs holds a lot of potential for cancer treatment. In this review article, we retrospect the latest studies in the regulations of acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation of histones. We also summarize inhibitors/drugs that target these modifications for cancer treatment. PMID:26518898

  3. Role of Histone Acetylation in Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Koprinarova, Miglena; Schnekenburger, Michael; Diederich, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Core histone acetylation is a key prerequisite for chromatin decondensation and plays a pivotal role in regulation of chromatin structure, function and dynamics. The addition of acetyl groups disturbs histone/DNA interactions in the nucleosome and alters histone/histone interactions in the same or adjacent nucleosomes. Acetyl groups can also provide binding sites for recruitment of bromodomain (BRD)-containing non-histone readers and regulatory complexes to chromatin allowing them to perform distinct downstream functions. The presence of a particular acetylation pattern influences appearance of other histone modifications in the immediate vicinity forming the "histone code". Although the roles of the acetylation of particular lysine residues for the ongoing chromatin functions is largely studied, the epigenetic inheritance of histone acetylation is a debated issue. The dynamics of local or global histone acetylation is associated with fundamental cellular processes such as gene transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair or chromatin condensation. Therefore, it is an essential part of the epigenetic cell response to processes related to internal and external signals. PMID:26303420

  4. Mycosis Fungoides Variants.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Escala, M Estela; González, Belén Rubio; Guitart, Joan

    2014-06-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that usually manifests as patches and plaques with a propensity for nonphotoexposed areas. MF is a common mimicker of inflammatory and infectious skin diseases, because it can be manifested with a wide variety of clinical and pathologic presentations. These atypical presentations of MF may be difficult to diagnose, requiring a high level of suspicion and careful clinicopathologic correlation. Within this array of clinical presentations, the World Health Organization classification recognizes 3 MF variants: folliculotropic MF, pagetoid reticulosis, and granulomatous slack skin. These 3 variants, as well as hypopigmented MF, are addressed in this article. PMID:26837197

  5. One-pot refolding of core histones from bacterial inclusion bodies allows rapid reconstitution of histone octamer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Tae; Gibbons, Garrett; Lee, Shirley Y; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Dou, Yali

    2015-06-01

    We report an optimized method to purify and reconstitute histone octamer, which utilizes high expression of histones in inclusion bodies but eliminates the time consuming steps of individual histone purification. In the newly modified protocol, Xenopus laevis H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 are expressed individually into inclusion bodies of bacteria, which are subsequently mixed together and denatured in 8M guanidine hydrochloride. Histones are refolded and reconstituted into soluble octamer by dialysis against 2M NaCl, and metal-affinity purified through an N-terminal polyhistidine-tag added on the H2A. After cleavage of the polyhistidine-tag, histone octamer is further purified by size exclusion chromatography. We show that the nucleosomes reconstituted using the purified histone octamer above are fully functional. They serve as effective substrates for the histone methyltransferases DOT1L and MLL1. Small angle X-ray scattering further confirms that the reconstituted nucleosomes have correct structural integration of histone octamer and DNA as observed in the X-ray crystal structure. Our new protocol enables rapid reconstitution of histone octamer with an optimal yield. We expect this simplified approach to facilitate research using recombinant nucleosomes in vitro. PMID:25687285

  6. Resetting the epigenetic histone code in the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse model of lupus by histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Benjamin A; Busby, Scott A; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Mishra, Nilamadhab

    2005-01-01

    The baseline level of gene expression varies between healthy controls and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and among SLE patients themselves. These variations may explain the different clinical manifestations and severity of disease observed in SLE. Epigenetic mechanisms, which involve DNA and histone modifications, are predictably associated with distinct transcriptional states. To understand the interplay between various histone modifications, including acetylation and methylation, and lupus disease, we performed differential expression histone modification analysis in splenocytes from the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse model of lupus. Using stable isotope labeling in combination with mass spectrometry, we found global site-specific hypermethylation (except H3 K4 methylation) and hypoacetylation in histone H3 and H4 MRL-lpr/lpr mice compared to control MRL/MPJ mice. Moreover, we have identified novel histone modifications such as H3 K18 methylation, H4 K31 methylation, and H4 K31 acetylation that are differentially expressed in MRL-lpr/lpr mice compared to controls. Finally, in vivo administration of the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) corrected the site-specific hypoacetylation states on H3 and H4 in MRL-lpr/lpr mice with improvement of disease phenotype. Thus, this study is the first to establish the association between aberrant histone codes and pathogenesis of autoimmune disease SLE. These aberrant post-translational histone modifications can therefore be reset with histone deacetylase inhibition in vivo. PMID:16335948

  7. Supramolecular Affinity Labeling of Histone Peptides Containing Trimethyllysine and Its Application to Histone Deacetylase Assays.

    PubMed

    Gober, Isaiah N; Waters, Marcey L

    2016-08-01

    Lysine methylation is an important histone post-translational modification (PTM) for manipulating chromatin structure and regulating gene expression, and its dysregulation is associated with various diseases including many cancers. While characterization of Lys methylation has seen improvements over the past decade due to advances in proteomic mass spectrometry and methods involving antibodies, chemical methods for selective detection of proteins containing PTMs are still lacking. Here, we detail the development of a unique labeling method wherein a synthetic receptor probe for trimethyl lysine (Kme3), CX4-ONBD, is used to direct selective fluorescent labeling of Kme3 histone peptides. This supramolecular approach reverses the paradigm of ligand-directed affinity labeling by making the receptor the synthetic component and the ligand the component to be labeled. We show that the probe mediates a strong turn-on fluorescence response in the presence of a Kme3 histone peptide and shows >5-fold selectivity in covalent labeling over an unmethylated lysine peptide. We also demonstrate the utility of the probe through the design of a turn-on fluorescence assay for histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and for inhibitor screening and IC50 determination. Our synthetic receptor-mediated affinity labeling approach broadens the scope of PTM detection by chemical means and may facilitate the development of more versatile in vitro enzymatic assays. PMID:27387477

  8. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases in B- and T-cell development, physiology and malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Haery, Leila; Thompson, Ryan C.; Gilmore, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The development of B and T cells from hematopoietic precursors and the regulation of the functions of these immune cells are complex processes that involve highly regulated signaling pathways and transcriptional control. The signaling pathways and gene expression patterns that give rise to these developmental processes are coordinated, in part, by two opposing classes of broad-based enzymatic regulators: histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HATs and HDACs can modulate gene transcription by altering histone acetylation to modify chromatin structure, and by regulating the activity of non-histone substrates, including an array of immune-cell transcription factors. In addition to their role in normal B and T cells, dysregulation of HAT and HDAC activity is associated with a variety of B- and T-cell malignancies. In this review, we describe the roles of HATs and HDACs in normal B- and T-cell physiology, describe mutations and dysregulation of HATs and HDACs that are implicated lymphoma and leukemia, and discuss HAT and HDAC inhibitors that have been explored as treatment options for leukemias and lymphomas. PMID:26124919

  9. Thyroid hormone increases bulk histones expression by enhancing translational efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Alberto; García-Carpizo, Verónica; Villamuera, Raquel; Aranda, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The expression of canonical histones is normally coupled to DNA synthesis during the S phase of the cell cycle. Replication-dependent histone mRNAs do not contain a poly(A) tail at their 3' terminus, but instead possess a stem-loop motif, the binding site for the stem-loop binding protein (SLBP), which regulates mRNA processing, stability, and relocation to polysomes. Here we show that the thyroid hormone can increase the levels of canonical histones independent of DNA replication. Incubation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts with T3 increases the total levels of histones, and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor β induces a further increase. This is not restricted to mouse embryonic fibroblasts, because T3 also raises histone expression in other cell lines. T3 does not increase histone mRNA or SLBP levels, suggesting that T3 regulates histone expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Indeed, T3 enhanced translational efficiency, inducing relocation of histone mRNA to heavy polysomes. Increased translation was associated with augmented transcription of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 γ2 (EIF4G2). T3 induced EIF4G2 protein and mRNA levels and the thyroid hormone receptor bound to the promoter region of the Eif4g2 gene. Induction of EIF4G2 was essential for T3-dependent histone induction, because depletion of this factor abolished histone increase. These results point out the importance of the thyroid hormones on the posttranscriptional regulation of histone biosynthesis in a cell cycle-independent manner and also suggest the potential regulation of eukaryotic translation by the modulation of the initiation factor EIF4G2, which also operates in the translation of canonical mRNAs. PMID:25422881

  10. Histone Gene Multiplicity and Position Effect Variegation in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Gerald D.; Sinclair, Donald A.; Grigliatti, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    The histone genes of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster are reiterated 100–150 times per haploid genome and are located in the segment of chromosome 2 that corresponds to polytene bands 39D2-3 to E1-2. The influence of altered histone gene multiplicity on chromatin structure has been assayed by measuring modification of the gene inactivation associated with position effect variegation in genotypes bearing deletions of the 39D-E segment. The proportion of cells in which a variegating gene is active is increased in genotypes that are heterozygous for a deficiency that removes the histone gene complex. Deletions that remove segments adjacent to the histone gene complex have no effect on the expression of variegating genes. Suppression of position effect variegation associated with reduction of histone gene multiplicity applies to both X-linked and autosomal variegating genes. Position effects exerted by both autosomal and sex-chromosome heterochromatin were suppressible by deletions of the histone gene complex. The suppression was independent of the presence of the Y chromosome. A deficiency that deletes only the distal portion of the histone gene complex also has the ability to suppress position effect variegation. Duplication of the histone gene complex did not enhance position effect variegation. Deletion or duplication of the histone gene complex in the maternal genome had no effect on the extent of variegation in progeny whose histone gene multiplicity was normal. These results are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the organization of the histone gene complex and control of its expression. PMID:17246163

  11. Histone lysine crotonylation during acute kidney injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Andres, Olga; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Cannata-Ortiz, Pablo; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially lethal condition for which no therapy is available beyond replacement of renal function. Post-translational histone modifications modulate gene expression and kidney injury. Histone crotonylation is a recently described post-translational modification. We hypothesized that histone crotonylation might modulate kidney injury. Histone crotonylation was studied in cultured murine proximal tubular cells and in kidneys from mice with AKI induced by folic acid or cisplatin. Histone lysine crotonylation was observed in tubular cells from healthy murine and human kidney tissue. Kidney tissue histone crotonylation increased during AKI. This was reproduced by exposure to the protein TWEAK in cultured tubular cells. Specifically, ChIP-seq revealed enrichment of histone crotonylation at the genes encoding the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1α and the sirtuin-3 decrotonylase in both TWEAK-stimulated tubular cells and in AKI kidney tissue. To assess the role of crotonylation in kidney injury, crotonate was used to increase histone crotonylation in cultured tubular cells or in the kidneys in vivo. Crotonate increased the expression of PGC-1α and sirtuin-3, and decreased CCL2 expression in cultured tubular cells and healthy kidneys. Systemic crotonate administration protected from experimental AKI, preventing the decrease in renal function and in kidney PGC-1α and sirtuin-3 levels as well as the increase in CCL2 expression. For the first time, we have identified factors such as cell stress and crotonate availability that increase histone crotonylation in vivo. Overall, increasing histone crotonylation might have a beneficial effect on AKI. This is the first observation of the in vivo potential of the therapeutic manipulation of histone crotonylation in a disease state. PMID:27125278

  12. Unravelling a histone code for malaria virulence.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Christy A; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2007-12-01

    Epigenetic phenomena have been shown to play a role in the regulated expression of virulence genes in several pathogenic organisms, including the var gene family in Plasmodium falciparum. A better understanding of how P. falciparum can both maintain a single active var gene locus through many erythrocytic cycles and also achieve successive switching to different loci in order to evade the host immune system is greatly needed. Disruption of this tightly co-ordinated expression system presents an opportunity for increased clearance of the parasites by the immune system and, in turn, reduced mortality and morbidity. In the current issue of Molecular Microbiology, Lopez-Rubio and colleagues investigate the correlation of specific post-translational histone modifications with different transcriptional states of a single var gene, var2csa. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation is used to demonstrate that different histone methylation marks are enriched at the 5' flanking and coding regions of active, poised or silenced var genes. They identify an increase of H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 in the 5' flanking region of an active var locus and expand on an earlier finding that H3K9me3 is enriched in the coding regions of silenced var genes. The authors also present evidence that H3K4me2 bookmarks the active var gene locus during later developmental stages for expression in the subsequent asexual cycle, hinting at a potential mechanism for transcriptional 'memory'. The stage is now set for work generating a complete catalogue of all histone modifications associated with var gene regulation as well as functional studies striving to uncover the precise mechanisms underlying these observations. PMID:18028316

  13. [Variant of Bacillus anthracoides].

    PubMed

    Galanina, L A; Bekhtereva, M N; Kraĭnova, O A

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of the Bacillus anthracoides culture and its variant has shown that the latter differs drastically from the parent culture in the shape and consistence of colonies, the size of spores and vegetative cells, the rate of spore germination in MPB, and the resistence to steam treatment and chloroactive disinfectants. PMID:423806

  14. Recent Progress in Histone Demethylase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Tom E; England, Katherine S; Hopkinson, Richard J; Brennan, Paul E; Kawamura, Akane; Schofield, Christopher J

    2016-02-25

    There is increasing interest in targeting histone N-methyl-lysine demethylases (KDMs) with small molecules both for the generation of probes for target exploration and for therapeutic purposes. Here we update on previous reviews on the inhibition of the lysine-specific demethylases (LSDs or KDM1s) and JmjC families of N-methyl-lysine demethylases (JmjC KDMs, KDM2-7), focusing on the academic and patent literature from 2014 to date. We also highlight recent biochemical, biological, and structural studies which are relevant to KDM inhibitor development. PMID:26710088

  15. Comment on "A histone acetylation switch regulates H2A.Z deposition by the SWR-C remodeling enzyme".

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Ranjan, Anand; Wei, Debbie; Wu, Carl

    2016-07-22

    Watanabe et al (Reports, 12 April 2013, p. 195) study the yeast SWR1/SWR-C complex responsible for depositing the histone variant H2A.Z by replacing nucleosomal H2A with H2A.Z. They report that reversal of H2A.Z replacement is mediated by SWR1 and related INO80 on an H2A.Z nucleosome carrying H3K56Q. Using multiple assays and reaction conditions, we find no evidence of such reversal of H2A.Z exchange. PMID:27463665

  16. Effect of leucine-to-methionine substitutions on the diffraction quality of histone chaperone SET/TAF-Ibeta/INHAT crystals.

    PubMed

    Senda, Miki; Muto, Shinsuke; Horikoshi, Masami; Senda, Toshiya

    2008-10-01

    One of the most frequent problems in crystallization is poor quality of the crystals. In order to overcome this obstacle several methods have been utilized, including amino-acid substitutions of the target protein. Here, an example is presented of crystal-quality improvement by leucine-to-methionine substitutions. A variant protein with three amino-acid substitutions enabled improvement of the crystal quality of the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Ibeta/INHAT when combined with optimization of the cryoconditions. This procedure improved the resolution of the SET/TAF-Ibeta/INHAT crystals from around 5.5 to 2.3 A without changing the crystallization conditions. PMID:18931446

  17. Reorganization of Damaged Chromatin by the Exchange of Histone Variant H2A.Z-2

    SciTech Connect

    Nishibuchi, Ikuno; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kinomura, Aiko; Sun, Jiying; Liu, Ning-Ang; Horikoshi, Yasunori; Shima, Hiroki; Kusakabe, Masayuki; Harata, Masahiko; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Takafumi; Nagata, Yasushi; Tashiro, Satoshi

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The reorganization of damaged chromatin plays an important role in the regulation of the DNA damage response. A recent study revealed the presence of 2 vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2. However, the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms are still unclear. Thus, in this study we examined the roles of the vertebrate H2A.Z isoforms in chromatin reorganization after the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: To examine the dynamics of H2A.Z isoforms at damaged sites, we constructed GM0637 cells stably expressing each of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled H2A.Z isoforms, and performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis and inverted FRAP analysis in combination with microirradiation. Immunofluorescence staining using an anti-RAD51 antibody was performed to study the kinetics of RAD51 foci formation after 2-Gy irradiation of wild-type (WT), H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells. Colony-forming assays were also performed to compare the survival rates of WT, H2A.Z-1-, and H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells with control, and H2A.Z-1- and H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells after irradiation. Results: FRAP analysis revealed that H2A.Z-2 was incorporated into damaged chromatin just after the induction of DSBs, whereas H2A.Z-1 remained essentially unchanged. Inverted FRAP analysis showed that H2A.Z-2 was released from damaged chromatin. These findings indicated that H2A.Z-2 was exchanged at DSB sites immediately after the induction of DSBs. RAD51 focus formation after ionizing irradiation was disturbed in H2A.Z-2-deficient DT40 cells but not in H2A.Z-1-deficient cells. The survival rate of H2A.Z-2-deficient cells after irradiation was lower than those of WT and H2A.Z-1- DT40 cells. Similar to DT40 cells, H2A.Z-2-depleted U2OS cells were also radiation-sensitive compared to control and H2A.Z-1-depleted cells. Conclusions: We found that vertebrate H2A.Z-2 is involved in the regulation of the DNA damage response at a very early stage, via the damaged chromatin reorganization required for RAD51 focus formation.

  18. Non-coding RNAs, the cutting edge of histone messages.

    PubMed

    Köhn, Marcel; Hüttelmaier, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In metazoan the 3'-end processing of histone mRNAs is a conserved process involving the concerted action of many protein factors and the non-coding U7 snRNA. Recently, we identified that the processing of histone pre-mRNAs is promoted by an additional ncRNA, the Y3-derived Y3** RNA. U7 modulates the association of the U7 snRNP whereas Y3** promotes recruitment of CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor) proteins to nascent histone transcripts at histone locus bodies (HLBs) in mammals. This enhances the 3'-end cleavage of nascent histone pre-mRNAs and modulates HLB assembly. Here we discuss new insights in the role of ncRNAs in the spatiotemporal control of histone synthesis. We propose that ncRNAs scaffold the formation of functional protein-RNA complexes and their sequential deposition on nascent histone pre-mRNAs at HLBs. These findings add to the multiple roles of ncRNAs in controlling gene expression and may provide new avenues for targeting histone synthesis in cancer. PMID:26909464

  19. Kluyveromyces lactis genome harbours a functional linker histone encoding gene.

    PubMed

    Staneva, Dessislava; Georgieva, Milena; Miloshev, George

    2016-06-01

    Linker histones are essential components of chromatin in eukaryotes. Through interactions with linker DNA and nucleosomes they facilitate folding and maintenance of higher-order chromatin structures and thus delicately modulate gene activity. The necessity of linker histones in lower eukaryotes appears controversial and dubious. Genomic data have shown that Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not possess genes encoding linker histones while Kluyveromyces lactis has been reported to have a pseudogene. Regarding this controversy, we have provided the first direct experimental evidence for the existence of a functional linker histone gene, KlLH1, in K. lactis genome. Sequencing of KlLH1 from both genomic DNA and copy DNA confirmed the presence of an intact open reading frame. Transcription and splicing of the KlLH1 sequence as well as translation of its mRNA have been studied. In silico analysis revealed homology of KlLH1p to the histone H1/H5 protein family with predicted three domain structure characteristic for the linker histones of higher eukaryotes. This strongly proves that the yeast K. lactis does indeed possess a functional linker histone gene thus entailing the evolutionary preservation and significance of linker histones. The nucleotide sequences of KlLH1 are deposited in the GenBank under accession numbers KT826576, KT826577 and KT826578. PMID:27189369

  20. Non-coding RNAs, the cutting edge of histone messages

    PubMed Central

    Köhn, Marcel; Hüttelmaier, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In metazoan the 3′-end processing of histone mRNAs is a conserved process involving the concerted action of many protein factors and the non-coding U7 snRNA. Recently, we identified that the processing of histone pre-mRNAs is promoted by an additional ncRNA, the Y3-derived Y3** RNA. U7 modulates the association of the U7 snRNP whereas Y3** promotes recruitment of CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor) proteins to nascent histone transcripts at histone locus bodies (HLBs) in mammals. This enhances the 3′-end cleavage of nascent histone pre-mRNAs and modulates HLB assembly. Here we discuss new insights in the role of ncRNAs in the spatiotemporal control of histone synthesis. We propose that ncRNAs scaffold the formation of functional protein-RNA complexes and their sequential deposition on nascent histone pre-mRNAs at HLBs. These findings add to the multiple roles of ncRNAs in controlling gene expression and may provide new avenues for targeting histone synthesis in cancer. PMID:26909464

  1. Histone content increases in differentiating embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Karnavas, Theodoros; Pintonello, Luisa; Agresti, Alessandra; Bianchi, Marco E

    2014-01-01

    Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) are pluripotent mammalian cells derived from the Inner Cell Mass (ICM) of mouse blastocysts, which give rise to all three embryonic germ layers both in vivo and in vitro. Mouse ESCs have a distinct epigenetic landscape and a more decondensed chromatin compared to differentiated cells. Numerous studies have shown that distinct histone modifications in ESCs serve as hallmarks of pluripotency. However, so far it is still unknown whether the total histone content (as opposed to histone modifications) remains the same in cells of different developmental stage and differentiation capacity. In this work we show that total histone content differs between pluripotent and differentiated cells. In vitro spontaneous differentiation from ESCs to Embryoid Bodies (EBs) and directed differentiation toward neuronal and endodermal cells entails an increase in histone content. Primary MEFs also contain more histones than ESCs. We suggest that the difference in histone content is an additional hallmark of pluripotency, in addition to and besides histone modifications. PMID:25221520

  2. The Fork in the Road: Histone Partitioning During DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Annunziato, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    In the following discussion the distribution of histones at the replication fork is examined, with specific attention paid to the question of H3/H4 tetramer "splitting." After a presentation of early experiments surrounding this topic, more recent contributions are detailed. The implications of these findings with respect to the transmission of histone modifications and epigenetic models are also addressed. PMID:26110314

  3. Histone octamer acetylation affects the free energy of nucleosome formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, Alex; Manohar, Mridula; Edon, Annick; Nakkula, Robin; Ottesen, Jennifer; Poirier, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Nucleosomes, histone octamer-DNA complexes, form the fundamental repeating units of eukaryotic chromatin. Numerous post-translational modifications of histone octamers are found in vivo and are known to play roles in gene regulation and DNA repair, but the molecular functions of these modifications are not well understood. In this study we consider the effects of acetylating histone protein H3 residues Lys^115 and Lys^122. These modifications reduce the positive surface charge of the histone octamer at contact points with the negatively charged DNA phosphate backbone and add steric bulk in the dyad region. We report results from competitive reconstitutions that show the free energy of nucleosome formation between wild-type and modified histone octamer binding to a strong nucleosome positioning sequence is reduced. These results suggest that these modifications may be involved in nucleosome assembly and disassembly.

  4. Structural Basis of Histone H4 Recognition by p55

    SciTech Connect

    Song,J.; Garlick, J.; Kingston, R.

    2008-01-01

    p55 is a common component of many chromatin-modifying complexes and has been shown to bind to histones. Here, we present a crystal structure of Drosophila p55 bound to a histone H4 peptide. p55, a predicted WD40 repeat protein, recognizes the first helix of histone H4 via a binding pocket located on the side of a ?-propeller structure. The pocket cannot accommodate the histone fold of H4, which must be altered to allow p55 binding. Reconstitution experiments show that the binding pocket is important to the function of p55-containing complexes. These data demonstrate that WD40 repeat proteins use various surfaces to direct the modification of histones.

  5. Cancer Chemoprotection Through Nutrient-mediated Histone Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yifeng; Tollefsbol, Trygve O.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics, the study of heritable changes in gene expression without modifying the nucleotide sequence, is among the most important topics in medicinal chemistry and cancer chemoprotection. Among those changes, DNA methylation and histone modification have been shown to be associated with various types of cancers in a number of ways, many of which are regulated by dietary components that are mostly found in plants. Although, mechanisms of nutrient components affecting histone acetylation/deacetylation in cancer are widely studied, how those natural compounds affect cancer through other histone modifications, such as methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, is rarely reviewed. Thus, this review article discusses impacts recently studied on histone acetylation as well as other histone modifications by dietary components, such as genistein, resveratrol, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), diallyl disulfide, garcinol, procyanidin B3, quercetin, sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates, in various types of cancer. PMID:25891109

  6. Role of histone modifications in defining chromatin structure and function.

    PubMed

    Gelato, Kathy A; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Chromosomes in eukaryotic cell nuclei are not uniformly organized, but rather contain distinct chromatin elements, with each state having a defined biochemical structure and biological function. These are recognizable by their distinct architectures and molecular components, which can change in response to cellular stimuli or metabolic requirements. Chromatin elements are characterized by the fundamental histone and DNA components, as well as other associated non-histone proteins and factors. Post-translational modifications of histone proteins in particular often correlate with a specific chromatin structure and function. Patterns of histone modifications are implicated as having a role in directing the level of chromatin compaction, as well as playing roles in multiple functional pathways directing the readout of distinct regions of the genome. We review the properties of various chromatin elements and the apparent links of histone modifications with chromatin organization and functional output. PMID:18225984

  7. Transcription factor binding predicts histone modifications in human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Benveniste, Dan; Sonntag, Hans-Joachim; Sanguinetti, Guido; Sproul, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression in higher organisms is thought to be regulated by a complex network of transcription factor binding and chromatin modifications, yet the relative importance of these two factors remains a matter of debate. Here, we show that a computational approach allows surprisingly accurate prediction of histone modifications solely from knowledge of transcription factor binding both at promoters and at potential distal regulatory elements. This accuracy significantly and substantially exceeds what could be achieved by using DNA sequence as an input feature. Remarkably, we show that transcription factor binding enables strikingly accurate predictions across different cell lines. Analysis of the relative importance of specific transcription factors as predictors of specific histone marks recapitulated known interactions between transcription factors and histone modifiers. Our results demonstrate that reported associations between histone marks and gene expression may be indirect effects caused by interactions between transcription factors and histone-modifying complexes. PMID:25187560

  8. The role of extracellular histones in haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Alhamdi, Yasir; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, chromosomal alterations have been extensively investigated for their pathophysiological relevance in haematological malignancies. In particular, epigenetic modifications of intra-nuclear histones are now known as key regulators of healthy cell cycles that have also evolved into novel therapeutic targets for certain blood cancers. Thus, for most haematologists, histones are DNA-chained proteins that are buried deep within chromatin. However, the plot has deepened with recent revelations on the function of histones when unchained and released extracellularly upon cell death or from activated neutrophils as part of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Extracellular histones and NETs are increasingly recognized for profound cytotoxicity and pro-coagulant effects. This article highlights the importance of recognizing this new paradigm of extracellular histones as a key player in host defence through its damage-associated molecular patterns, which could translate into novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in various haematological and critical disorders. PMID:27062156

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Clawson, Gary A

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cells contain significant alterations in their epigenomic landscape, which several enzyme families reversibly contribute to. One class of epigenetic modifying enzymes is that of histone deacetylases (HDAC), which are receiving considerable scrutiny clinically as a therapeutic target in many cancers. The underlying rationale is that inhibiting HDACs will reverse dysregulated target gene expression by modulating functional histone (or other) acetylation marks. This perspective will discuss a recent paper by Markozashvili and co-workers which appeared in Gene, which indicates that the mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) alter the epigenetic landscape include widespread alternative effects beyond simply controlling regional epigenetic marks. HDACs are involved in many processes/diseases, and it is not surprising that HDACis have considerable off-target effects, and thus a major effort is being directed toward identification of inhibitors which are selective for HDAC isoforms often uniquely implicated in various cancers. This Perspective will also discuss some representative work with inhibitors targeting individual HDAC classes or isoforms. At present, it is not really clear that isoform-specific HDACis will avoid non-selective effects on other unrecognized activities of HDACs. PMID:27568481

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells contain significant alterations in their epigenomic landscape, which several enzyme families reversibly contribute to. One class of epigenetic modifying enzymes is that of histone deacetylases (HDAC), which are receiving considerable scrutiny clinically as a therapeutic target in many cancers. The underlying rationale is that inhibiting HDACs will reverse dysregulated target gene expression by modulating functional histone (or other) acetylation marks. This perspective will discuss a recent paper by Markozashvili and co-workers which appeared in Gene, which indicates that the mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) alter the epigenetic landscape include widespread alternative effects beyond simply controlling regional epigenetic marks. HDACs are involved in many processes/diseases, and it is not surprising that HDACis have considerable off-target effects, and thus a major effort is being directed toward identification of inhibitors which are selective for HDAC isoforms often uniquely implicated in various cancers. This Perspective will also discuss some representative work with inhibitors targeting individual HDAC classes or isoforms. At present, it is not really clear that isoform-specific HDACis will avoid non-selective effects on other unrecognized activities of HDACs. PMID:27568481

  11. HISTONE LYSINE DEMETHYLASES IN BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Paolicchi, Elisa; Crea, Francesco; Farrar, William L; Green, Jeffrey E; Danesi, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) have been recently discovered in mammals and have been nicknamed “erasers” for their ability to remove methyl groups from histone substrates. In cancer cells, KDMs can activate or repress gene transcription, behaving as oncogenes or tumor suppressors depending upon the cellular context. In order to investigate the potential role of KDMs in Breast Cancer (BC), we queried the Oncomine database and determined that the expression of KDMs correlates with BC prognosis. High expression of KDM3B and KDM5A is associated with a better prognosis (no recurrence after mastectomy p=0.005 and response to docetaxel p=0.005); conversely, KDM6A is overexpressed in BC patients with an unfavorable prognosis (mortality at 1 year, p=8.65E-7). Our findings suggest that KDMs could be potential targets for BC therapy. Further, altering the interactions between KDMs and Polycomb Group genes (PcG) may provide novel avenues for therapy that specifically targets these genes in BC. PMID:23266085

  12. Driver mutations in histone H3.3 and chromatin remodelling genes in paediatric glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Korshunov, Andrey; Liu, Xiao-Yang; Jones, David T W; Pfaff, Elke; Jacob, Karine; Sturm, Dominik; Fontebasso, Adam M; Quang, Dong-Anh Khuong; Tönjes, Martje; Hovestadt, Volker; Albrecht, Steffen; Kool, Marcel; Nantel, Andre; Konermann, Carolin; Lindroth, Anders; Jäger, Natalie; Rausch, Tobias; Ryzhova, Marina; Korbel, Jan O; Hielscher, Thomas; Hauser, Peter; Garami, Miklos; Klekner, Almos; Bognar, Laszlo; Ebinger, Martin; Schuhmann, Martin U; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Pekrun, Arnulf; Frühwald, Michael C; Roggendorf, Wolfgang; Kramm, Christoph; Dürken, Matthias; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Lepage, Pierre; Montpetit, Alexandre; Zakrzewska, Magdalena; Zakrzewski, Krzystof; Liberski, Pawel P; Dong, Zhifeng; Siegel, Peter; Kulozik, Andreas E; Zapatka, Marc; Guha, Abhijit; Malkin, David; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Ichimura, Koichi; Collins, V Peter; Witt, Hendrik; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Zhang, Cindy; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Lichter, Peter; Faury, Damien; Tabori, Uri; Plass, Christoph; Majewski, Jacek; Pfister, Stefan M; Jabado, Nada

    2012-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases. To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin remodelling pathway were identified in 44% of tumours (21/48). Recurrent mutations in H3F3A, which encodes the replication-independent histone 3 variant H3.3, were observed in 31% of tumours, and led to amino acid substitutions at two critical positions within the histone tail (K27M, G34R/G34V) involved in key regulatory post-translational modifications. Mutations in ATRX (α-thalassaemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked) and DAXX (death-domain associated protein), encoding two subunits of a chromatin remodelling complex required for H3.3 incorporation at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres, were identified in 31% of samples overall, and in 100% of tumours harbouring a G34R or G34V H3.3 mutation. Somatic TP53 mutations were identified in 54% of all cases, and in 86% of samples with H3F3A and/or ATRX mutations. Screening of a large cohort of gliomas of various grades and histologies (n = 784) showed H3F3A mutations to be specific to GBM and highly prevalent in children and young adults. Furthermore, the presence of H3F3A/ATRX-DAXX/TP53 mutations was strongly associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and specific gene expression profiles. This is, to our knowledge, the first report to highlight recurrent mutations in a regulatory histone in humans, and our data suggest that defects of the chromatin architecture underlie paediatric and young adult GBM pathogenesis. PMID:22286061

  13. Systematic Identification of Functional Residues in Mammalian Histone H2AX

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Alpert, Amir; Leiter, Courtney; Gong, Fade

    2013-01-01

    The histone variant H2AX is a principal component of chromatin involved in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). H2AX is thought to operate primarily through its C-terminal S139 phosphorylation, which mediates the recruitment of DNA damage response (DDR) factors to chromatin at DSB sites. Here, we describe a comprehensive screen of 67 residues in H2AX to determine their contributions to H2AX functions. Our analysis revealed that H2AX is both sumoylated and ubiquitylated. Individual residues defective for sumoylation, ubiquitylation, and S139 phosphorylation in untreated and damaged cells were identified. Specifically, we identified an acidic triad region in both H2A and H2AX that is required in cis for their ubiquitylation. We also report the characterization of a human H2AX knockout cell line, which exhibits DDR defects, including p53 activation, following DNA damage. Collectively, this work constitutes the first genetic complementation system for a histone in human cells. Finally, our data reveal new roles for several residues in H2AX and define distinct functions for H2AX in human cells. PMID:23109425

  14. Histone H3.3 maintains genome integrity during mammalian development

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Chuan-Wei; Shibata, Yoichiro; Starmer, Joshua; Yee, Della; Magnuson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Histone H3.3 is a highly conserved histone H3 replacement variant in metazoans and has been implicated in many important biological processes, including cell differentiation and reprogramming. Germline and somatic mutations in H3.3 genomic incorporation pathway components or in H3.3 encoding genes have been associated with human congenital diseases and cancers, respectively. However, the role of H3.3 in mammalian development remains unclear. To address this question, we generated H3.3-null mouse models through classical genetic approaches. We found that H3.3 plays an essential role in mouse development. Complete depletion of H3.3 leads to developmental retardation and early embryonic lethality. At the cellular level, H3.3 loss triggers cell cycle suppression and cell death. Surprisingly, H3.3 depletion does not dramatically disrupt gene regulation in the developing embryo. Instead, H3.3 depletion causes dysfunction of heterochromatin structures at telomeres, centromeres, and pericentromeric regions of chromosomes, leading to mitotic defects. The resulting karyotypical abnormalities and DNA damage lead to p53 pathway activation. In summary, our results reveal that an important function of H3.3 is to support chromosomal heterochromatic structures, thus maintaining genome integrity during mammalian development. PMID:26159997

  15. Differential regulation of the histone chaperone HIRA during muscle cell differentiation by a phosphorylation switch

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jae-Hyun; Song, Tae-Yang; Jo, Chanhee; Park, Jinyoung; Lee, Han-Young; Song, Ilang; Hong, Suji; Jung, Kwan Young; Kim, Jaehoon; Han, Jeung-Whan; Youn, Hong-Duk; Cho, Eun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Replication-independent incorporation of variant histone H3.3 has a profound impact on chromatin function and numerous cellular processes, including the differentiation of muscle cells. The histone chaperone HIRA and H3.3 have essential roles in MyoD regulation during myoblast differentiation. However, the precise mechanism that determines the onset of H3.3 deposition in response to differentiation signals is unclear. Here we show that HIRA is phosphorylated by Akt kinase, an important signaling modulator in muscle cells. By generating a phosphospecific antibody, we found that a significant amount of HIRA was phosphorylated in myoblasts. The phosphorylation level of HIRA and the occupancy of phosphorylated protein on muscle genes gradually decreased during cellular differentiation. Remarkably, the forced expression of the phosphomimic form of HIRA resulted in reduced H3.3 deposition and suppressed the activation of muscle genes in myotubes. Our data show that HIRA phosphorylation limits the expression of myogenic genes, while the dephosphorylation of HIRA is required for proficient H3.3 deposition and gene activation, demonstrating that the phosphorylation switch is exploited to modulate HIRA/H3.3-mediated muscle gene regulation during myogenesis. PMID:27515126

  16. Functional interplay between histone H1 and HMG proteins in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Postnikov, Yuri V; Bustin, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic interaction of nucleosome binding proteins with their chromatin targets is an important element in regulating the structure and function of chromatin. Histone H1 variants and High Mobility Group (HMG) proteins are ubiquitously expressed in all vertebrate cells, bind dynamically to chromatin, and are known to affect chromatin condensation and the ability of regulatory factors to access their genomic binding sites. Here, we review the studies that focus on the interactions between H1 and HMGs and highlight the functional consequences of the interplay between these architectural chromatin binding proteins. H1 and HMG proteins are mobile molecules that bind to nucleosomes as members of a dynamic protein network. All HMGs compete with H1 for chromatin binding sites, in a dose dependent fashion, but each HMG family has specific effects on the interaction of H1 with chromatin. The interplay between H1 and HMGs affects chromatin organization and plays a role in epigenetic regulation. PMID:26455954

  17. Mislocalization of the Drosophila centromere-specific histone CIDpromotes formation of functional ectopic kinetochores

    SciTech Connect

    Heun, Patrick; Erhardt, Sylvia; Blower, Michael D.; Weiss,Samara; Skora, Andrew D.; Karpen, Gary H.

    2006-01-30

    The centromere-specific histone variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation and chromosome segregation. Here, we show that overexpressed CID is mislocalized into normally non-centromeric regions in Drosophila tissue culture cells and animals. Analysis of mitoses in living and fixed cells reveals that mitotic delays, anaphase bridges, chromosome fragmentation, and cell and organismal lethality are all direct consequences of CID mislocalization. In addition, proteins that are normally restricted to endogenous kinetochores assemble at a subset of ectopic CID incorporation regions. The presence of microtubule motors and binding proteins, spindle attachments, and aberrant chromosome morphologies demonstrate that these ectopic kinetochores are functional. We conclude that CID mislocalization promotes formation of ectopic centromeres and multicentric chromosomes, which causes chromosome missegregation, aneuploidy, and growth defects. Thus, CENP-A mislocalization is one possible mechanism for genome instability during cancer progression, as well as centromere plasticity during evolution.

  18. Psychiatric genome-wide association study analyses implicate neuronal, immune and histone pathways

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from over 60,000 participants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. We developed an analysis framework to rank pathways that requires only summary statistics. We combined this score across disorders to find common pathways across three adult psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Histone methylation processes showed the strongest association, and we also found statistically significant evidence for associations with multiple immune and neuronal signaling pathways and with the postsynaptic density. Our study indicates that risk variants for psychiatric disorders aggregate in particular biological pathways and that these pathways are frequently shared between disorders. Our results confirm known mechanisms and suggest several novel insights into the etiology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25599223

  19. Psychiatric genome-wide association study analyses implicate neuronal, immune and histone pathways.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from over 60,000 participants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. We developed an analysis framework to rank pathways that requires only summary statistics. We combined this score across disorders to find common pathways across three adult psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Histone methylation processes showed the strongest association, and we also found statistically significant evidence for associations with multiple immune and neuronal signaling pathways and with the postsynaptic density. Our study indicates that risk variants for psychiatric disorders aggregate in particular biological pathways and that these pathways are frequently shared between disorders. Our results confirm known mechanisms and suggest several novel insights into the etiology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25599223

  20. Disease-associated variants in different categories of disease located in distinct regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The invention of high throughput sequencing technologies has led to the discoveries of hundreds of thousands of genetic variants associated with thousands of human diseases. Many of these genetic variants are located outside the protein coding regions, and as such, it is challenging to interpret the function of these genetic variants by traditional genetic approaches. Recent genome-wide functional genomics studies, such as FANTOM5 and ENCODE have uncovered a large number of regulatory elements across hundreds of different tissues or cell lines in the human genome. These findings provide an opportunity to study the interaction between regulatory elements and disease-associated genetic variants. Identifying these diseased-related regulatory elements will shed light on understanding the mechanisms of how these variants regulate gene expression and ultimately result in disease formation and progression. Results In this study, we curated and categorized 27,558 Mendelian disease variants, 20,964 complex disease variants, 5,809 cancer predisposing germline variants, and 43,364 recurrent cancer somatic mutations. Compared against nine different types of regulatory regions from FANTOM5 and ENCODE projects, we found that different types of disease variants show distinctive propensity for particular regulatory elements. Mendelian disease variants and recurrent cancer somatic mutations are 22-fold and 10- fold significantly enriched in promoter regions respectively (q<0.001), compared with allele-frequency-matched genomic background. Separate from these two categories, cancer predisposing germline variants are 27-fold enriched in histone modification regions (q<0.001), 10-fold enriched in chromatin physical interaction regions (q<0.001), and 6-fold enriched in transcription promoters (q<0.001). Furthermore, Mendelian disease variants and recurrent cancer somatic mutations share very similar distribution across types of functional effects. We further found that

  1. Conformational selection and dynamic adaptation upon linker histone binding to the nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Mehmet Ali; Pachov, Georgi V; Wade, Rebecca C; Cojocaru, Vlad

    2016-08-19

    Linker histones are essential for DNA compaction in chromatin. They bind to nucleosomes in a 1:1 ratio forming chromatosomes. Alternative configurations have been proposed in which the globular domain of the linker histone H5 (gH5) is positioned either on- or off-dyad between the nucleosomal and linker DNAs. However, the dynamic pathways of chromatosome assembly remain elusive. Here, we studied the conformational plasticity of gH5 in unbound and off-dyad nucleosome-bound forms with classical and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the unbound gH5 converts between open and closed conformations, preferring the closed form. However, the open gH5 contributes to a more rigid chromatosome and restricts the motion of the nearby linker DNA through hydrophobic interactions with thymidines. Moreover, the closed gH5 opens and reorients in accelerated simulations of the chromatosome. Brownian dynamics simulations of chromatosome assembly, accounting for a range of amplitudes of nucleosome opening and different nucleosome DNA sequences, support the existence of both on- and off-dyad binding modes of gH5 and reveal alternative, sequence and conformation-dependent chromatosome configurations. Taken together, these findings suggest that the conformational dynamics of linker histones and nucleosomes facilitate alternative chromatosome configurations through an interplay between induced fit and conformational selection. PMID:27270081

  2. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  3. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOEpatents

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  4. The histone acetyltransferase p300 inhibitor C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression and inhibits histone deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Thea; Boichenko, Alexander; Leus, Niek G. J.; Eleni Ourailidou, Maria; Wapenaar, Hannah; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Imhof, Axel; Bischoff, Rainer; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylations are reversible posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone proteins that play important regulatory roles in signal transduction cascades and gene expression. Lysine acetylations are regulated by histone acetyltransferases as writers and histone deacetylases as erasers. Because of their role in signal transduction cascades, these enzymes are important players in inflammation. Therefore, applications of histone acetyltransferase inhibitors to reduce inflammatory responses are interesting. Among the few histone acetyltransferase inhibitors described, C646 is one of the most potent (Ki of 0.4 μM for histone acetyltransferase p300). C646 was described to regulate the NF-κB pathway; an important pathway in inflammatory responses, which is regulated by acetylation. Interestingly, this pathway has been implicated in asthma and COPD. Therefore we hypothesized that via regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, C646 can inhibit pro-inflammatory gene expression, and have potential for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. In line with this, here we demonstrate that C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and murine precision-cut lung slices. To unravel its effects on cellular substrates we applied mass spectrometry and found, counterintuitively, a slight increase in acetylation of histone H3. Based on this finding, and structural features of C646, we presumed inhibitory activity of C646 on histone deacetylases, and indeed found inhibition of histone deacetylases from 7 μM and higher concentrations. This indicates that C646 has potential for further development towards applications in the treatment of inflammation, however, its newly discovered lack of selectivity at higher concentrations needs to be taken into account. PMID:26718586

  5. The histone acetyltransferase p300 inhibitor C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression and inhibits histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Thea; Boichenko, Alexander; Leus, Niek G J; Ourailidou, Maria E; Wapenaar, Hannah; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Imhof, Axel; Bischoff, Rainer; Haisma, Hidde J; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-02-15

    Lysine acetylations are reversible posttranslational modifications of histone and non-histone proteins that play important regulatory roles in signal transduction cascades and gene expression. Lysine acetylations are regulated by histone acetyltransferases as writers and histone deacetylases as erasers. Because of their role in signal transduction cascades, these enzymes are important players in inflammation. Therefore, histone acetyltransferase inhibitors could reduce inflammatory responses. Among the few histone acetyltransferase inhibitors described, C646 is one of the most potent (Ki of 0.4μM for histone acetyltransferase p300). C646 was described to affect the NF-κB pathway; an important pathway in inflammatory responses, which is regulated by acetylation. This pathway has been implicated in asthma and COPD. Therefore, we hypothesized that via regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, C646 can inhibit pro-inflammatory gene expression, and have potential for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. In line with this, we demonstrate here that C646 reduces pro-inflammatory gene expression in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and murine precision-cut lung slices. To unravel its effects on cellular substrates we applied mass spectrometry and found, counterintuitively, a slight increase in acetylation of histone H3. Based on this finding, and structural features of C646, we presumed inhibitory activity of C646 on histone deacetylases, and indeed found inhibition of histone deacetylases from 7μM and higher concentrations. This indicates that C646 has potential for further development towards applications in the treatment of inflammation, however, its newly discovered lack of selectivity at higher concentrations needs to be taken into account. PMID:26718586

  6. Condensed Mitotic Chromosome Structure at Nanometer Resolution Using PALM and EGFP- Histones

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Shao, Lin; Boulanger, Jerome; Kervrann, Charles; Carlton, Peter M.; Kner, Peter; Agard, David; Sedat, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and related fluorescent biological imaging methods are capable of providing very high spatial resolutions (up to 20 nm). Two major demands limit its widespread use on biological samples: requirements for photoactivatable/photoconvertible fluorescent molecules, which are sometimes difficult to incorporate, and high background signals from autofluorescence or fluorophores in adjacent focal planes in three-dimensional imaging which reduces PALM resolution significantly. We present here a high-resolution PALM method utilizing conventional EGFP as the photoconvertible fluorophore, improved algorithms to deal with high levels of biological background noise, and apply this to imaging higher order chromatin structure. We found that the emission wavelength of EGFP is efficiently converted from green to red when exposed to blue light in the presence of reduced riboflavin. The photon yield of red-converted EGFP using riboflavin is comparable to other bright photoconvertible fluorescent proteins that allow <20 nm resolution. We further found that image pre-processing using a combination of denoising and deconvolution of the raw PALM images substantially improved the spatial resolution of the reconstruction from noisy images. Performing PALM on Drosophila mitotic chromosomes labeled with H2AvD-EGFP, a histone H2A variant, revealed filamentous components of ∼70 nm. This is the first observation of fine chromatin filaments specific for one histone variant at a resolution approximating that of conventional electron microscope images (10–30 nm). As demonstrated by modeling and experiments on a challenging specimen, the techniques described here facilitate super-resolution fluorescent imaging with common biological samples. PMID:20856676

  7. Mis16 Independently Recognizes Histone H4 and the CENP-ACnp1-Specific Chaperone Scm3sp.

    PubMed

    An, Sojin; Kim, Hanseong; Cho, Uhn-Soo

    2015-10-01

    CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant that is required for kinetochore assembly and accurate chromosome segregation. For it to function properly, CENP-A must be specifically localized to centromeres. In fission yeast, Scm3sp and the Mis18 complex, composed of Mis16, Eic1, and Mis18, function as a CENP-A(Cnp1)-specific chaperone and a recruiting factor, respectively, and together ensure accurate delivery of CENP-A(Cnp1) to centromeres. Although how Scm3sp specifically recognizes CENP-A(Cnp1) has been revealed recently, the recruiting mechanism of CENP-A(Cnp1) via the Mis18 complex remains unknown. In this study, we have determined crystal structures of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus Mis16 alone and in complex with the helix 1 of histone H4 (H4α1). Crystal structures followed by mutant analysis and affinity pull-downs have revealed that Mis16 recognizes both H4α1 and Scm3sp independently within the CENP-A(Cnp1)/H4:Scm3sp complex. This observation suggests that Mis16 gains CENP-A(Cnp1) specificity by recognizing both Scm3sp and histone H4. Our studies provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying specific recruitment of CENP-A(Cnp1)/H4:Scm3sp into centromeres. PMID:26343758

  8. HP1BP3 is a novel histone H1 related protein with essential roles in viability and growth.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Benjamin P; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Anuka, Eli; Bustin, Michael; Orly, Joseph

    2015-02-27

    The dynamic architecture of chromatin is vital for proper cellular function, and is maintained by the concerted action of numerous nuclear proteins, including that of the linker histone H1 variants, the most abundant family of nucleosome-binding proteins. Here we show that the nuclear protein HP1BP3 is widely expressed in most vertebrate tissues and is evolutionarily and structurally related to the H1 family. HP1BP3 contains three globular domains and a highly positively charged C-terminal domain, resembling similar domains in H1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies indicate that like H1, binding of HP1BP3 to chromatin depends on both its C and N terminal regions and is affected by the cell cycle and post translational modifications. HP1BP3 contains functional motifs not found in H1 histones, including an acidic stretch and a consensus HP1-binding motif. Transcriptional profiling of HeLa cells lacking HP1BP3 showed altered expression of 383 genes, suggesting a role for HP1BP3 in modulation of gene expression. Significantly, Hp1bp3(-/-) mice present a dramatic phenotype with 60% of pups dying within 24 h of birth and the surviving animals exhibiting a lifelong 20% growth retardation. We suggest that HP1BP3 is a ubiquitous histone H1 like nuclear protein with distinct and non-redundant functions necessary for survival and growth. PMID:25662603

  9. POTAMOS mass spectrometry calculator: computer aided mass spectrometry to the post-translational modifications of proteins. A focus on histones.

    PubMed

    Vlachopanos, A; Soupsana, E; Politou, A S; Papamokos, G V

    2014-12-01

    Mass spectrometry is a widely used technique for protein identification and it has also become the method of choice in order to detect and characterize the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Many software tools have been developed to deal with this complication. In this paper we introduce a new, free and user friendly online software tool, named POTAMOS Mass Spectrometry Calculator, which was developed in the open source application framework Ruby on Rails. It can provide calculated mass spectrometry data in a time saving manner, independently of instrumentation. In this web application we have focused on a well known protein family of histones whose PTMs are believed to play a crucial role in gene regulation, as suggested by the so called "histone code" hypothesis. The PTMs implemented in this software are: methylations of arginines and lysines, acetylations of lysines and phosphorylations of serines and threonines. The application is able to calculate the kind, the number and the combinations of the possible PTMs corresponding to a given peptide sequence and a given mass along with the full set of the unique primary structures produced by the possible distributions along the amino acid sequence. It can also calculate the masses and charges of a fragmented histone variant, which carries predefined modifications already implemented. Additional functionality is provided by the calculation of the masses of fragments produced upon protein cleavage by the proteolytic enzymes that are most widely used in proteomics studies. PMID:25450216

  10. HP1BP3 is a novel histone H1 related protein with essential roles in viability and growth

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Benjamin P.; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Anuka, Eli; Bustin, Michael; Orly, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic architecture of chromatin is vital for proper cellular function, and is maintained by the concerted action of numerous nuclear proteins, including that of the linker histone H1 variants, the most abundant family of nucleosome-binding proteins. Here we show that the nuclear protein HP1BP3 is widely expressed in most vertebrate tissues and is evolutionarily and structurally related to the H1 family. HP1BP3 contains three globular domains and a highly positively charged C-terminal domain, resembling similar domains in H1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies indicate that like H1, binding of HP1BP3 to chromatin depends on both its C and N terminal regions and is affected by the cell cycle and post translational modifications. HP1BP3 contains functional motifs not found in H1 histones, including an acidic stretch and a consensus HP1-binding motif. Transcriptional profiling of HeLa cells lacking HP1BP3 showed altered expression of 383 genes, suggesting a role for HP1BP3 in modulation of gene expression. Significantly, Hp1bp3−/− mice present a dramatic phenotype with 60% of pups dying within 24 h of birth and the surviving animals exhibiting a lifelong 20% growth retardation. We suggest that HP1BP3 is a ubiquitous histone H1 like nuclear protein with distinct and non-redundant functions necessary for survival and growth. PMID:25662603

  11. Correlation among DNA Linker Length, Linker Histone Concentration, and Histone Tails in Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Luque, Antoni; Ozer, Gungor; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells condense their genetic material in the nucleus in the form of chromatin, a macromolecular complex made of DNA and multiple proteins. The structure of chromatin is intimately connected to the regulation of all eukaryotic organisms, from amoebas to humans, but its organization remains largely unknown. The nucleosome repeat length (NRL) and the concentration of linker histones (ρLH) are two structural parameters that vary among cell types and cell cycles; the NRL is the number of DNA basepairs wound around each nucleosome core plus the number of basepairs linking successive nucleosomes. Recent studies have found a linear empirical relationship between the variation of these two properties for different cells, but its underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we apply our established mesoscale chromatin model to explore the mechanisms responsible for this relationship, by investigating chromatin fibers as a function of NRL and ρLH combinations. We find that a threshold of linker histone concentration triggers the compaction of chromatin into well-formed 30-nm fibers; this critical value increases linearly with NRL, except for long NRLs, where the fibers remain disorganized. Remarkably, the interaction patterns between core histone tails and chromatin elements are highly sensitive to the NRL and ρLH combination, suggesting a molecular mechanism that could have a key role in regulating the structural state of the fibers in the cell. An estimate of the minimized work and volume associated with storage of chromatin fibers in the nucleus further suggests factors that could spontaneously regulate the NRL as a function of linker histone concentration. Both the tail interaction map and DNA packing considerations support the empirical NRL/ρLH relationship and offer a framework to interpret experiments for different chromatin conditions in the cell. PMID:27276249

  12. The uni chromosome of Chlamydomonas: histone genes and nucleosome structure.

    PubMed

    Walther, Z; Hall, J L

    1995-09-25

    The uni linkage group (ULG) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains many genes involved in the basal body-flagellar system. Recent evidence suggests that the corresponding uni chromosome is located in close proximity to the basal body complex. In the course of studies into its molecular organization, we have found a cluster of four histone genes on the ULG. The genes are arranged as divergently-transcribed pairs: H3-H4 and H2B-H2A. Genomic sequencing reveals that these genes lack introns and contain characteristic 3' palindromes similar to those of animals. The predicted amino acid sequences are highly conserved across species, with greatest similarities to the histone genes of Volvox. Southern analysis shows that each histone gene is present in 15-20 copies in Chlamydomonas and suggests a dispersed genomic organization. Northern analysis of mitotically-synchronized cells shows that, like the replication-dependent histones of higher eukaryotes, Chlamydomonas histone genes are expressed during S-phase. Using a gene-specific probe on Northern blots, we provide evidence that the ULG H4 gene is regulated in the same manner as other Chlamydomonas histone genes. Finally, micrococcal nuclease protection experiments show that the uni chromosome itself associates with histone proteins and displays a conventional nucleosomal banding pattern. PMID:7479007

  13. Novel nucleosomal particles containing core histones and linker DNA but no histone H1

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Hope A.; Cui, Feng; Ocampo, Josefina; Burke, Tara L.; Nikitina, Tatiana; Nagarajavel, V.; Kotomura, Naoe; Zhurkin, Victor B.; Clark, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA is assembled into regularly spaced nucleosomes, which play a central role in gene regulation by determining accessibility of control regions. The nucleosome contains ∼147 bp of DNA wrapped ∼1.7 times around a central core histone octamer. The linker histone, H1, binds both to the nucleosome, sealing the DNA coils, and to the linker DNA between nucleosomes, directing chromatin folding. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digests the linker to yield the chromatosome, containing H1 and ∼160 bp, and then converts it to a core particle, containing ∼147 bp and no H1. Sequencing of nucleosomal DNA obtained after MNase digestion (MNase-seq) generates genome-wide nucleosome maps that are important for understanding gene regulation. We present an improved MNase-seq method involving simultaneous digestion with exonuclease III, which removes linker DNA. Remarkably, we discovered two novel intermediate particles containing 154 or 161 bp, corresponding to 7 bp protruding from one or both sides of the nucleosome core. These particles are detected in yeast lacking H1 and in H1-depleted mouse chromatin. They can be reconstituted in vitro using purified core histones and DNA. We propose that these ‘proto-chromatosomes’ are fundamental chromatin subunits, which include the H1 binding site and influence nucleosome spacing independently of H1. PMID:26400169

  14. Histone Deacetylases in Cartilage Homeostasis and Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Lomeli R; Westendorf, Jennifer J

    2016-08-01

    The involvement of the epigenome in complex diseases is becoming increasingly clear and more feasible to study due to new genomic and computational technologies. Moreover, therapies altering the activities of proteins that modify and interpret the epigenome are available to treat cancers and neurological disorders. Many additional uses have been proposed for these drugs based on promising preclinical results, including in arthritis models. Understanding the effects of epigenomic drugs on the skeleton is of interest because of its importance in maintaining overall health and fitness. In this review, we summarize ongoing advancements in how one class of epigenetic modifiers, histone deacetylases (Hdacs), controls normal cartilage development and homeostasis, as well as recent work aimed at understanding the alterations in the expression and activities of these enzymes in osteoarthritis (OA). We also review recent studies utilizing Hdac inhibitors and discuss the potential therapeutic benefits and limitations of these drugs for preventing cartilage destruction in OA. PMID:27402109

  15. Epigenetic inheritance: histone bookmarks across generations.

    PubMed

    Campos, Eric I; Stafford, James M; Reinberg, Danny

    2014-11-01

    Multiple circuitries ensure that cells respond correctly to the environmental cues within defined cellular programs. There is increasing evidence suggesting that cellular memory for these adaptive processes can be passed on through cell divisions and generations. However, the mechanisms by which this epigenetic information is transferred remain elusive, largely because it requires that such memory survive through gross chromatin remodeling events during DNA replication, mitosis, meiosis, and developmental reprogramming. Elucidating the processes by which epigenetic information survives and is transmitted is a central challenge in biology. In this review, we consider recent advances in understanding mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance with a focus on histone segregation at the replication fork, and how an epigenetic memory may get passed through the paternal lineage. PMID:25242115

  16. Epigenetic Inheritance: Histone Bookmarks Across Generations

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Eric I.; Stafford, James M.; Reinberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Multiple circuitries ensure that cells respond correctly to the environmental cues within defined cellular programs. There is increasing evidence suggesting that cellular memory for these adaptive processes can be passed on through cell divisions and generations. However, the mechanisms by which this epigenetic information is transferred remain elusive largely because it requires that such memory survive through gross chromatin remodeling events during DNA replication, mitosis, meiosis and developmental reprogramming. Elucidating the processes by which epigenetic information survives and is transmitted is a central challenge in biology. Here we consider recent advances in understanding mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance with a focus on histone segregation at the replication fork and how an epigenetic memory may get passed through the paternal lineage. PMID:25242115

  17. [Comparison of histone-like proteins from blue-green algae with ribosomal basic proteins of alga and wheat germ histones].

    PubMed

    Gofshteĭn, L V; Iurina, N P; Romashkin, V I; Oparin, A I

    1975-01-01

    Histone-like proteins was found in blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans, which has no nucleus. F2b2, F2a2, F2a1 fractions were found in histone-like algae proteins and no fraction F1. Content of basic amino acids (arginine being prevailing in algae protein) is quite identical in histone-like algae proteins and in wheat germs histones, while the content of acid amino acids is considerably higher in algae. The presence in procaryotic cells of basic proteins similar in a number of properties to histones of higher organisms suggests that these proteins are evolutionary precursors of eucaryotic histones. PMID:813782

  18. Human histone gene organization: Nonregular arrangement within a large cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Albig, W.; Meergans, K.; Doenecke, D.

    1997-03-01

    We have previously located the genes of the five human main type H1 genes and the gene encoding the testicular subtype H1t to the region 21.1 to 22.2 on the short arm of chromosome 6. To investigate the organization of the histone genes in this region, we isolated two YACs from a human YAC library by PCR screening with primers specific for histone H1.1. This screen revealed two YAC clones. YAC Y23 (corresponding to ICRFy901D1223) contains an insert of about 480 kb, whereas the smaller YAC 4A (corresponding to ICRFy900C104) spans about 340 kb and is completely covered by YAC Y23. We have subcloned the YAC inserts in cosmids, determined the linear orientation of the cosmids by cosmid walking, and constructed a restriction map of the entire region by mapping the individual cosmids using partial digests and hybridization with labeled oligonucleotides complementary to the cos site of the vector. Hybridization analysis, subcloning, restriction mapping, and sequencing revealed that most of the previously isolated phage and cosmid clones containing histone genes are part of this YAC including the clones containing the four human main type H1 histone genes H1.1 to H1.4, the H1t gene, and core histone genes. Thirty-five histone genes map within 260 kb of the YAC Y23 insert. All newly identified histone genes were sequenced, and the sequences were deposited with the EMBL nucleotide sequence database. The histone H1.5 gene is not part of this region, and we therefore conclude that the H1.5 gene and the associated core histone genes form a separate subcluster within this chromosomal region. 53 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Circulating Histones Are Mediators of Trauma-associated Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Simon T.; Zhang, Nan; Manson, Joanna; Liu, Tingting; Dart, Caroline; Baluwa, Florence; Wang, Susan Siyu; Brohi, Karim; Kipar, Anja; Yu, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury is a common complication after severe trauma, which predisposes patients to multiple organ failure. This syndrome largely accounts for the late mortality that arises and despite many theories, the pathological mechanism is not fully understood. Discovery of histone-induced toxicity in mice presents a new dimension for elucidating the underlying pathophysiology. Objectives: To investigate the pathological roles of circulating histones in trauma-induced lung injury. Methods: Circulating histone levels in patients with severe trauma were determined and correlated with respiratory failure and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. Their cause–effect relationship was studied using cells and mouse models. Measurements and Main Results: In a cohort of 52 patients with severe nonthoracic blunt trauma, circulating histones surged immediately after trauma to levels that were toxic to cultured endothelial cells. The high levels were significantly associated with the incidence of acute lung injury and SOFA scores, as well as markers of endothelial damage and coagulation activation. In in vitro systems, histones damaged endothelial cells, stimulated cytokine release, and induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and myeloperoxidase release. Cellular toxicity resulted from their direct membrane interaction and resultant calcium influx. In mouse models, cytokines and markers for endothelial damage and coagulation activation significantly increased immediately after trauma or histone infusion. Pathological examinations showed that lungs were the predominantly affected organ with edema, hemorrhage, microvascular thrombosis, and neutrophil congestion. An anti-histone antibody could reduce these changes and protect mice from histone-induced lethality. Conclusions: This study elucidates a new mechanism for acute lung injury after severe trauma and proposes that circulating histones are viable therapeutic targets for improving survival

  20. Histone and ribosomal RNA repetitive gene clusters linked in tandem array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and ...

  1. Alternating tandem array of histone and ribosomal RNA gene blocks in the boll weevil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histones are the major protein component of the ncleosome. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and the clust...

  2. Eaf1 Links the NuA4 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex to Htz1 Incorporation and Regulation of Purine Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue; Auger, Andréanne; Altaf, Mohammed; Drouin, Simon; Paquet, Eric; Utley, Rhea T; Robert, François; Côté, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    Proper modulation of promoter chromatin architecture is crucial for gene regulation in order to precisely and efficiently orchestrate various cellular activities. Previous studies have identified the stimulatory effect of the histone-modifying complex NuA4 on the incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z (Htz1) at the PHO5 promoter (A. Auger, L. Galarneau, M. Altaf, A. Nourani, Y. Doyon, R. T. Utley, D. Cronier, S. Allard, and J. Côté, Mol Cell Biol 28:2257-2270, 2008, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01755-07). In vitro studies with a reconstituted system also indicated an intriguing cross talk between NuA4 and the H2A.Z-loading complex, SWR-C (M. Altaf, A. Auger, J. Monnet-Saksouk, J. Brodeur, S. Piquet, M. Cramet, N. Bouchard, N. Lacoste, R. T. Utley, L. Gaudreau, J. Côté, J Biol Chem 285:15966-15977, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.117069). In this work, we investigated the role of the NuA4 scaffold subunit Eaf1 in global gene expression and genome-wide incorporation of Htz1. We found that loss of Eaf1 affects Htz1 levels mostly at the promoters that are normally highly enriched in the histone variant. Analysis of eaf1 mutant cells by expression array unveiled a relationship between NuA4 and the gene network implicated in the purine biosynthesis pathway, as EAF1 deletion cripples induction of several ADE genes. NuA4 directly interacts with Bas1 activation domain, a key transcription factor of adenine genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments demonstrate that nucleosomes on the inactive ADE17 promoter are acetylated already by NuA4 and enriched in Htz1. Upon derepression, these poised nucleosomes respond rapidly to activate ADE gene expression in a mechanism likely reminiscent of the PHO5 promoter, leading to nucleosome disassembly. These detailed molecular events depict a specific case of cross talk between NuA4-dependent acetylation and incorporation of histone variant Htz1, presetting the chromatin structure over ADE promoters for

  3. Eaf1 Links the NuA4 Histone Acetyltransferase Complex to Htz1 Incorporation and Regulation of Purine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xue; Auger, Andréanne; Altaf, Mohammed; Drouin, Simon; Paquet, Eric; Utley, Rhea T.; Robert, François

    2015-01-01

    Proper modulation of promoter chromatin architecture is crucial for gene regulation in order to precisely and efficiently orchestrate various cellular activities. Previous studies have identified the stimulatory effect of the histone-modifying complex NuA4 on the incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z (Htz1) at the PHO5 promoter (A. Auger, L. Galarneau, M. Altaf, A. Nourani, Y. Doyon, R. T. Utley, D. Cronier, S. Allard, and J. Côté, Mol Cell Biol 28:2257–2270, 2008, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01755-07). In vitro studies with a reconstituted system also indicated an intriguing cross talk between NuA4 and the H2A.Z-loading complex, SWR-C (M. Altaf, A. Auger, J. Monnet-Saksouk, J. Brodeur, S. Piquet, M. Cramet, N. Bouchard, N. Lacoste, R. T. Utley, L. Gaudreau, J. Côté, J Biol Chem 285:15966–15977, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.117069). In this work, we investigated the role of the NuA4 scaffold subunit Eaf1 in global gene expression and genome-wide incorporation of Htz1. We found that loss of Eaf1 affects Htz1 levels mostly at the promoters that are normally highly enriched in the histone variant. Analysis of eaf1 mutant cells by expression array unveiled a relationship between NuA4 and the gene network implicated in the purine biosynthesis pathway, as EAF1 deletion cripples induction of several ADE genes. NuA4 directly interacts with Bas1 activation domain, a key transcription factor of adenine genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments demonstrate that nucleosomes on the inactive ADE17 promoter are acetylated already by NuA4 and enriched in Htz1. Upon derepression, these poised nucleosomes respond rapidly to activate ADE gene expression in a mechanism likely reminiscent of the PHO5 promoter, leading to nucleosome disassembly. These detailed molecular events depict a specific case of cross talk between NuA4-dependent acetylation and incorporation of histone variant Htz1, presetting the chromatin structure over ADE promoters for

  4. Imaging the fate of histone Cse4 reveals de novo replacement in S phase and subsequent stable residence at centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Jan; Hajj, Bassam; Chen, Jiji; Mizuguchi, Gaku; Xiao, Hua; Wei, Debbie; Dahan, Maxime; Wu, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast centromere contains Cse4, a specialized histone H3 variant. Fluorescence pulse-chase analysis of an internally tagged Cse4 reveals that it is replaced with newly synthesized molecules in S phase, remaining stably associated with centromeres thereafter. In contrast, C-terminally-tagged Cse4 is functionally impaired, showing slow cell growth, cell lethality at elevated temperatures, and extra-centromeric nuclear accumulation. Recent studies using such strains gave conflicting findings regarding the centromeric abundance and cell cycle dynamics of Cse4. Our findings indicate that internally tagged Cse4 is a better reporter of the biology of this histone variant. Furthermore, the size of centromeric Cse4 clusters was precisely mapped with a new 3D-PALM method, revealing substantial compaction during anaphase. Cse4-specific chaperone Scm3 displays steady-state, stoichiometric co-localization with Cse4 at centromeres throughout the cell cycle, while undergoing exchange with a nuclear pool. These findings suggest that a stable Cse4 nucleosome is maintained by dynamic chaperone-in-residence Scm3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02203.001 PMID:24844245

  5. Patterns of sperm-specific histone variation in sea stars and sea urchins: primary structural homologies in the N-terminal region of spermatogenic H1.

    PubMed

    Massey, C B; Watts, S A

    1992-04-15

    An electrophoretic characterization of histones from pyloric caeca, testes, and sperm of Asterias vulgaris revealed a sperm/testes-specific variant of histone H1 significantly larger than its somatic counterpart from pyloric caeca. Additional proteins were observed in H1 regions of acetic acid-urea polyacrylamide gels in testicular extracts. Sperm or testis-specific variants of H2B observed in sea urchins were not found in the sea star. Evidence presented suggests that sperm- or testes-specific H1 species of intermediate mobility may arise from a single, slow-migrating H1 species (SpH1). Although an increase in nonspecific DNA binding by nuclear proteins must occur during the process of spermatogenesis, different organisms exhibit various patterns of sperm-specific protein mediating differential binding during the process. Sperm-specific variants of both H1 and H2B histones are observed in sea urchins, while the only variant observed in sea stars during spermatogenesis is SpH1. Sequencing of the N-terminus of SpH1 from A. vulgaris revealed a repeating tetrapeptide in residues 3-6 and 8-11 (Ser-Pro-Arg-Lys and Ser-Pro-Lys-Lys, respectively), homologous to repeats in the N-termini of sperm-specific H1s from sea urchins. Primary structure within critical, variable regions of molecules responsible for nonspecific DNA binding appear conserved in many organisms. The occurrence of repeating tetrapeptides in SpH1 and other DNA binding proteins suggests that such domains may function similarly in various chromatins undergoing regulated or reversible condensation. PMID:1583456

  6. The death-associated protein DAXX is a novel histone chaperone involved in the replication-independent deposition of H3.3

    PubMed Central

    Drané, Pascal; Ouararhni, Khalid; Depaux, Arnaud; Shuaib, Muhammad; Hamiche, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The histone variant H3.3 marks active chromatin by replacing the conventional histone H3.1. In this study, we investigate the detailed mechanism of H3.3 replication-independent deposition. We found that the death domain-associated protein DAXX and the chromatin remodeling factor ATRX (α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome protein) are specifically associated with the H3.3 deposition machinery. Bacterially expressed DAXX has a marked binding preference for H3.3 and assists the deposition of (H3.3–H4)2 tetramers on naked DNA, thus showing that DAXX is a H3.3 histone chaperone. In DAXX-depleted cells, a fraction of H3.3 was found associated with the replication-dependent machinery of deposition, suggesting that cells adapt to the depletion. The reintroduced DAXX in these cells colocalizes with H3.3 into the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) bodies. Moreover, DAXX associates with pericentric DNA repeats, and modulates the transcription from these repeats through assembly of H3.3 nucleosomes. These findings establish a new link between the PML bodies and the regulation of pericentric DNA repeat chromatin structure. Taken together, our data demonstrate that DAXX functions as a bona fide histone chaperone involved in the replication-independent deposition of H3.3. PMID:20504901

  7. Cardiomyocyte-specific conditional knockout of the histone chaperone HIRA in mice results in hypertrophy, sarcolemmal damage and focal replacement fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fan, Qiying; Fa'ak, Faisal; Soibam, Benjamin; Nagandla, Harika; Liu, Yu; Schwartz, Robert J; McConnell, Bradley K; Stewart, M David

    2016-03-01

    HIRA is the histone chaperone responsible for replication-independent incorporation of histone variant H3.3 within gene bodies and regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes, and within the bivalent promoter regions of developmentally regulated genes. The HIRA gene lies within the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome critical region; individuals with this syndrome have multiple congenital heart defects. Because terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes have exited the cell cycle, histone variants should be utilized for the bulk of chromatin remodeling. Thus, HIRA is likely to play an important role in epigenetically defining the cardiac gene expression program. In this study, we determined the consequence of HIRA deficiency in cardiomyocytes in vivo by studying the phenotype of cardiomyocyte-specific Hira conditional-knockout mice. Loss of HIRA did not perturb heart development, but instead resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and susceptibility to sarcolemmal damage. Cardiomyocyte degeneration gave way to focal replacement fibrosis and impaired cardiac function. Gene expression was widely altered in Hira conditional-knockout hearts. Significantly affected pathways included responses to cellular stress, DNA repair and transcription. Consistent with heart failure, fetal cardiac genes were re-expressed in the Hira conditional knockout. Our results suggest that transcriptional regulation by HIRA is crucial for cardiomyocyte homeostasis. PMID:26935106

  8. Cardiomyocyte-specific conditional knockout of the histone chaperone HIRA in mice results in hypertrophy, sarcolemmal damage and focal replacement fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fan, Qiying; Fa'ak, Faisal; Soibam, Benjamin; Nagandla, Harika; Liu, Yu; Schwartz, Robert J.; McConnell, Bradley K.; Stewart, M. David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIRA is the histone chaperone responsible for replication-independent incorporation of histone variant H3.3 within gene bodies and regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes, and within the bivalent promoter regions of developmentally regulated genes. The HIRA gene lies within the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome critical region; individuals with this syndrome have multiple congenital heart defects. Because terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes have exited the cell cycle, histone variants should be utilized for the bulk of chromatin remodeling. Thus, HIRA is likely to play an important role in epigenetically defining the cardiac gene expression program. In this study, we determined the consequence of HIRA deficiency in cardiomyocytes in vivo by studying the phenotype of cardiomyocyte-specific Hira conditional-knockout mice. Loss of HIRA did not perturb heart development, but instead resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and susceptibility to sarcolemmal damage. Cardiomyocyte degeneration gave way to focal replacement fibrosis and impaired cardiac function. Gene expression was widely altered in Hira conditional-knockout hearts. Significantly affected pathways included responses to cellular stress, DNA repair and transcription. Consistent with heart failure, fetal cardiac genes were re-expressed in the Hira conditional knockout. Our results suggest that transcriptional regulation by HIRA is crucial for cardiomyocyte homeostasis. PMID:26935106

  9. Substrate Recognition of Histone H2B by DUBm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Elizabeth; Berndsen, Christopher; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2011-03-01

    The SAGA complex is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates gene expression in eukaryotes via histone acetylation and deubiquitination, which are crucial for transcription. Our lab is investigating the SAGA-dependent deubiquitination of histone H2B. The deubiquitinating module (DUBm) of SAGA is comprised of a ubiquitin-specific protease, Ubp8, and three other proteins. It is known that Ubp8 cleaves ubiquitin from histone H2B, however, the specific way in which the enzyme binds to the substrate remains elusive. In order to unravel this mechanism, we attempted to determine the crystal structure of the substrate binding complex. We obtained this substrate by exploiting the techniques of intein chemistry to artificially ubiquitinate a histone H2B peptide, which we then co-crystallized with DUBm. Additionally, we synthesized Ub-K63R-linked chains and Ub-K48-linked chains and co-crystallized them with DUBm.

  10. Histone methylations in heart development, congenital and adult heart diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Heart development comprises myocyte specification, differentiation and cardiac morphogenesis. These processes are regulated by a group of core cardiac transcription factors in a coordinated temporal and spatial manner. Histone methylation is an emerging epigenetic mechanism for regulating gene transcription. Interplay among cardiac transcription factors and histone lysine modifiers plays important role in heart development. Aberrant expression and mutation of the histone lysine modifiers during development and in adult life can cause either embryonic lethality or congenital heart diseases, and influences the response of adult hearts to pathological stresses. In this review, we describe current body of literature on the role of several common histone methylations and their modifying enzymes in heart development, congenital and adult heart diseases. PMID:25942538

  11. Histone Deacetylases as Potential Targets for Cocaine Addiction.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Pamela J; Harvey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced changes in gene expression likely contribute to long-lasting structural and functional alterations in the brain's reward circuitry and the persistence of addiction. Modulation of chromatin structure through covalent histone modifications has emerged as an important regulator of gene transcription in brain and increasing evidence suggests that misregulation of histone acetylation contributes to the establishment and maintenance of aberrant neuronal gene programs and behaviors associated with cocaine or amphetamine exposure. In this review, we summarize evidence supporting a role for histone acetylation in psychostimulant-induced plasticity and discuss findings from preclinical studies investigating histone deacetylase (HDAC) action and the use of small-molecule HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) to correct drug-mediated transcriptional dysregulation. PMID:26022264

  12. Interplay between histone H1 structure and function.

    PubMed

    Roque, Alicia; Ponte, Inma; Suau, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    H1 linker histones are involved both in the maintenance of higher-order chromatin structure and in gene regulation. Histone H1 exists in multiple isoforms, is evolutionarily variable and undergoes a large variety of post-translational modifications. We review recent progress in the understanding of the folding and structure of histone H1 domains with an emphasis on the interactions with DNA. The importance of intrinsic disorder and hydrophobic interactions in the folding and function of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) is discussed. The induction of a molten globule-state in the CTD by macromolecular crowding is also considered. The effects of phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases on the structure of the CTD, as well as on chromatin condensation and oligomerization, are described. We also address the extranuclear functions of histone H1, including the interaction with the β-amyloid peptide. PMID:26415976

  13. "Identification Card": Sites on Histone Modification of Cancer Cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Wen, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Formation of malignant tumor originating from normal healthy cell is a multistep process including genetic and epigenetic lesions. Previous studies of cell line model systems displayed that early important epigenetic events happened in stepwise fashion prior to cell immortalization. Once these epigenetic alterations are integrated into chromatin, they will perform vertical propagation through cell subculture. Hence, status of epigenetics is dramatically important in maintaining of cell identity. Histone modification is another factor of epigenetic alterations during human oncogenesis. Histones, one of main components of chromatin, can be modified post-translationally. Histone tail modifications are regulated by corresponding modification enzymes. This review focuses on the description of relationship between the main sites of histone modification and oncogenesis. PMID:26960300

  14. Suppression of caspase-11 expression by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Hyejung; Yoo, Lang; Shin, Ki Soon; Kang, Shin Jung

    2009-01-02

    It has been well documented that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress inflammatory gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether histone deacetylase inhibitors modulate the expression of caspase-11 that is known as an inducible caspase regulating both inflammation and apoptosis. In the present study, we show that sodium butyrate and trichostatin A, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC), effectively suppressed the induction of caspase-11 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts stimulated with lipopolysaccharides. Sodium butyrate inhibited the activation of upstream signaling events for the caspase-11 induction such as activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, degradation of inhibitor of {kappa}B, and activation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B. These results suggest that the HDAC inhibitor suppressed cytosolic signaling events for the induction of caspase-11 by inhibiting the deacetylation of non-histone proteins.

  15. Protein kinase C coordinates histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Darieva, Zoulfia; Webber, Aaron; Warwood, Stacey; Sharrocks, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The re-assembly of chromatin following DNA replication is a critical event in the maintenance of genome integrity. Histone H3 acetylation at K56 and phosphorylation at T45 are two important chromatin modifications that accompany chromatin assembly. Here we have identified the protein kinase Pkc1 as a key regulator that coordinates the deposition of these modifications in S. cerevisiae under conditions of replicative stress. Pkc1 phosphorylates the histone acetyl transferase Rtt109 and promotes its ability to acetylate H3K56. Our data also reveal novel cross-talk between two different histone modifications as Pkc1 also enhances H3T45 phosphorylation and this modification is required for H3K56 acetylation. Our data therefore uncover an important role for Pkc1 in coordinating the deposition of two different histone modifications that are important for chromatin assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09886.001 PMID:26468616

  16. Histone modifications and mitosis: countermarks, landmarks, and bookmarks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangwei; Higgins, Jonathan M G

    2013-04-01

    The roles of post-translational histone modifications in regulating transcription and DNA damage have been widely studied and discussed. Although mitotic histone marks, particularly phosphorylation, were discovered four decades ago, their roles in mitosis have been outlined only in the past few years. Here we aim to provide an integrated view of how histone modifications act as 'countermarks', 'landmarks', and 'bookmarks' to displace, recruit, and 'remember' the location of regulatory proteins during and shortly after mitosis. These capabilities allow histone marks to help downregulate interphase functions such as transcription during mitosis, to facilitate chromatin events required to accomplish chromosome segregation, and to contribute to the maintenance of epigenetic states through mitosis. PMID:23246430

  17. Increasing Power of Groupwise Association Test with Likelihood Ratio Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sul, Jae Hoon; Han, Buhm; Eskin, Eleazar

    Sequencing studies have been discovering a numerous number of rare variants, allowing the identification of the effects of rare variants on disease susceptibility. As a method to increase the statistical power of studies on rare variants, several groupwise association tests that group rare variants in genes and detect associations between groups and diseases have been proposed. One major challenge in these methods is to determine which variants are causal in a group, and to overcome this challenge, previous methods used prior information that specifies how likely each variant is causal. Another source of information that can be used to determine causal variants is observation data because case individuals are likely to have more causal variants than control individuals. In this paper, we introduce a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that uses both data and prior information to infer which variants are causal and uses this finding to determine whether a group of variants is involved in a disease. We demonstrate through simulations that LRT achieves higher power than previous methods. We also evaluate our method on mutation screening data of the susceptibility gene for ataxia telangiectasia, and show that LRT can detect an association in real data. To increase the computational speed of our method, we show how we can decompose the computation of LRT, and propose an efficient permutation test. With this optimization, we can efficiently compute an LRT statistic and its significance at a genome-wide level. The software for our method is publicly available at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/rarevariants.

  18. Quality of histone modification antibodies undermines chromatin biology research

    PubMed Central

    Kungulovski, Goran; Jeltsch, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Histone post-translational modification (PTM) antibodies are essential research reagents in chromatin biology. However, they suffer from variable properties and insufficient documentation of quality. Antibody manufacturers and vendors should provide detailed lot-specific documentation of quality, rendering further quality checks by end-customers unnecessary. A shift from polyclonal antibodies towards sustainable reagents like monoclonal or recombinant antibodies or histone binding domains would help to improve the reproducibility of experimental work in this field. PMID:26834995

  19. The Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor.

    PubMed

    McLaren, William; Gil, Laurent; Hunt, Sarah E; Riat, Harpreet Singh; Ritchie, Graham R S; Thormann, Anja; Flicek, Paul; Cunningham, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    The Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor is a powerful toolset for the analysis, annotation, and prioritization of genomic variants in coding and non-coding regions. It provides access to an extensive collection of genomic annotation, with a variety of interfaces to suit different requirements, and simple options for configuring and extending analysis. It is open source, free to use, and supports full reproducibility of results. The Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor can simplify and accelerate variant interpretation in a wide range of study designs. PMID:27268795

  20. Alterations of Histone H1 Phosphorylation During Bladder Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Telu, Kelly H.; Abbaoui, Besma; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M.; Zynger, Debra L.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    There is a crucial need for development of prognostic and predictive biomarkers in human bladder carcinogenesis in order to personalize preventive and therapeutic strategies and improve outcomes. Epigenetic alterations, such as histone modifications, are implicated in the genetic dysregulation that is fundamental to carcinogenesis. Here we focus on profiling the histone modifications during the progression of bladder cancer. Histones were extracted from normal human bladder epithelial cells, an immortalized human bladder epithelial cell line (hTERT), and four human bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, J82, T24, and UMUC3) ranging from superficial low-grade to invasive high-grade cancers. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling revealed a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation of H1 linker histones from normal human bladder epithelial cells to low-grade superficial to high-grade invasive bladder cancer cells. This finding was further validated by immunohistochemical staining of the normal epithelium and transitional cell cancer from human bladders. Cell cycle analysis of histone H1 phosphorylation by western blotting showed an increase of phosphorylation from G0/G1 phase to M phase, again supporting this as a proliferative marker. Changes in histone H1 phosphorylation status may further clarify epigenetic changes during bladder carcinogenesis and provide diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers or targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:23675690

  1. Interaction of the tobacco lectin with histone proteins.

    PubMed

    Schouppe, Dieter; Ghesquière, Bart; Menschaert, Gerben; De Vos, Winnok H; Bourque, Stéphane; Trooskens, Geert; Proost, Paul; Gevaert, Kris; Van Damme, Els J M

    2011-03-01

    The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) agglutinin or Nictaba is a member of a novel class of plant lectins residing in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of tobacco cells. Since tobacco lectin expression is only observed after the plant has been subjected to stress situations such as jasmonate treatment or insect attack, Nictaba is believed to act as a signaling protein involved in the stress physiology of the plant. In this paper, a nuclear proteomics approach was followed to identify the binding partners for Nictaba in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of tobacco cv Xanthi cells. Using lectin affinity chromatography and pull-down assays, it was shown that Nictaba interacts primarily with histone proteins. Binding of Nictaba with histone H2B was confirmed in vitro using affinity chromatography of purified calf thymus histone proteins on a Nictaba column. Elution of Nictaba-interacting histone proteins was achieved with 1 m N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Moreover, mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the Nictaba-interacting histone proteins are modified by O-GlcNAc. Since the lectin-histone interaction was shown to be carbohydrate dependent, it is proposed that Nictaba might fulfill a signaling role in response to stress by interacting with O-GlcNAcylated proteins in the plant cell nucleus. PMID:21224338

  2. Epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylase: therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Dexter, David T

    2013-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder affecting more than 4million people worldwide. The primary motor symptoms of the disease are due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Dopamine replacement therapies have therefore revolutionised disease management by partially controlling these symptoms. However these drugs can produce debilitating side effects when used long term and do not protect degenerating neurons against death. Recent evidence has highlighted a pathological imbalance in PD between the acetylation and deacetylation of the histone proteins around which deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is coiled, in favour of excessive histone deacetylation. This mechanism of adding/removing acetyl groups to histone lysine residues is one of many epigenetic regulatory processes which control the expression of genes, many of which will be essential for neuronal survival. Hence, such epigenetic modifications may have a pathogenic role in PD. It has therefore been hypothesised that if this pathological imbalance can be corrected with the use of histone deacetylase inhibiting agents then neurodegeneration observed in PD can be ameliorated. This article will review the current literature with regard to epigenetic changes in PD and the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) in PD: examining the evidence of the neuroprotective effects of numerous HDACIs in cellular and animal models of Parkinsonian cell death. Ultimately answering the question: does epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylases hold therapeutic potential in PD? PMID:23711791

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF HISTONE H3 LYSINE 36 ACETYLATION AS A HIGHLY CONSERVED HISTONE MODIFICATION*

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Stephanie A.; Rao, Bhargavi; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Hake, Sandra B.; Diaz, Robert L.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Allis, C. David; Lieb, Jason D.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Histone lysine (K) acetylation is a major mechanism by which cells regulate the structure and function of chromatin, and new sites of acetylation continue to be discovered. Here we identify and characterize histone H3K36 acetylation (H3K36ac). By mass spectrometric analyses of H3 purified from Tetrahymena thermophila and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), we find that H3K36 can be acetylated or methylated. Using an antibody specific to H3K36ac, we show that this modification is conserved in mammals. In yeast, genome-wide ChIP-chip experiments show that H3K36ac is localized predominantly to the promoters of RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes, a pattern inversely related to that of H3K36 methylation. The pattern of H3K36ac localization is similar to that of other sites of H3 acetylation, including H3K9ac and H3K14ac. Using histone acetyltransferase complexes purified from yeast, we show that the Gcn5-containing SAGA complex that regulates transcription specifically acetylates H3K36 in vitro. Deletion of GCN5 completely abolishes H3K36ac in vivo. These data expand our knowledge of the genomic targets of Gcn5, show H3K36ac is highly conserved, and raise the intriguing possibility that the transition between H3K36ac and H3K36me acts as an “acetyl/methyl switch” governing chromatin function along transcription units. PMID:17189264

  4. Histone deacetylase 9 regulates breast cancer cell proliferation and the response to histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lapierre, Marion; Linares, Aurélien; Dalvai, Mathieu; Duraffourd, Céline; Bonnet, Sandrine; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Rodriguez, Carmen; Jalaguier, Stéphan; Assou, Said; Orsetti, Beatrice; Balaguer, Patrick; Maudelonde, Thierry; Blache, Philippe; Bystricky, Kerstin; Boulle, Nathalie; Cavaillès, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Histone lysine acetylation is an epigenetic mark regulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDAC) which plays an important role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we observed a strong overexpression of class IIa HDAC9, at the mRNA and protein levels, in the most aggressive human breast cancer cell lines (i.e. in basal breast cancer cells vs luminal ones or in malignant vs begnin MCF10A breast epithelial cell lines). HDAC9 overexpression was associated with higher rates of gene transcription and increased epigenetic marks on the HDAC9 promoter. Ectopic expression of HDAC9 in MCF7 luminal breast cancer cells led to an increase in cell proliferation and to a decrease in apoptosis. These effects were associated with a deregulated expression of several genes controlled by HDAC inhibitors such as CDKN1A, BAX and TNFRSF10A. Inversely, knock-down of HDAC9 expression in MDA-MB436 basal breast cancer cells reduced cell proliferation. Moreover, high HDAC9 expression decreased the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors to reduce cell proliferation and to regulate CDKN1A gene expression. Interestingly, the gene encoding the transcription factor SOX9 was identified by a global transcriptomic approach as an HDAC9 target gene. In stably transfected MCF7 cells, SOX9 silencing significantly decreased HDAC9 mitogenic activity. Finally, in a large panel of breast cancer biopsies, HDAC9 expression was significantly increased in tumors of the basal subtype, correlated with SOX9 expression and associated with poor prognosis. Altogether, these results indicate that HDAC9 is a key factor involved in mammary carcinogenesis and in the response to HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26930713

  5. Group B streptococcal opacity variants.

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, S H; Cole, R L; Wessels, M R; Corwin, M D; Kamanga-Sollo, E; Hayes, S F; Cieplak, W; Swanson, J

    1992-01-01

    Colony opacity variants were detected for type III group B streptococci (GBS). Transparent colonies predominate in the parent GBS, with occasional colonies having opaque portions. Two stable opaque variants (1.1 and 1.5) were compared with three transparent clones (1.2, 1.3, and 1.4). All grew well on blood agar and on GC medium, but variant 1.1 failed to grow on Todd-Hewitt medium. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that colony opacity correlated with bacterial aggregation status, with opaque variants forming longer and more organized chains. Opaque-transparent switches were observed in both directions for most variants, with transparent to opaque noted most frequently, but 1.5 did not switch at all. Switching of the opacity phenotype was observed both in vitro and in neonatal mice. Relationships between colony opacity and several cell surface phenomena were explored. (i) Opaque variant 1.1 had two surface proteins (46 and 75 kDa) that were either unique or greatly overexpressed. (ii) Variant 1.1 was deficient in type III polysaccharide, while 1.5 lacked group B antigen. Diminished capsular polysaccharide of variant 1.1 was reflected in reduced negative electrophoretic mobility and in increased buoyant density. (iii) Transparent variant colonies growing closest to a penicillin disk were opaque, but colonial variants did not differ in their sensitivity to penicillin. These data indicate that GBS can exist in both opaque and transparent forms, with opaque appearance occurring by multiple routes. Opaque variants grow poorly on Todd-Hewitt medium generally used for isolation of GBS, so any possible relationships between opacity variation and pathogenesis of GBS infection are unknown. Images PMID:1592825

  6. Polyadenylated and 3' processed mRNAs are transcribed from the mouse histone H2A.X gene.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, T; Kato, T; Morita, T; Nozaki, M; Kubota, H; Yagi, H; Matsushiro, A

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a mouse histone H2A.X from a cDNA library of teratocarcinoma F9 cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of this clone is 97% identical to human histone H2A.X. The first 119 residues of the mouse H2A.X were very similar (96-97%) to those of the major H2A histones (H2A.1 and H2A.2) of mouse and the long carboxy terminal sequence of H2A.X was homologous with those of several lower eukaryotes. Northern blot analysis revealed that this cDNA hybridized with two mRNAs in different sizes, 0.5 kb and 1.4 kb. The two mRNAs were present in tissue culture cells, and in spleen, thymus and testes of mice, but the ratio of abundance of the two transcripts differed in different cells and tissues. The shorter mRNA contained the highly conserved palindromic sequence typical of the 3' end of replication-dependent histone genes. The amount of this transcript was coupled to DNA synthesis and rapidly decreased in culture cells. It was synthesized just after the beginning of S-phase and degraded just after the end of S-phase. On the other hand, the longer mRNA was polyadenylated at 0.9 kb downstream from the palindromic sequence. This transcript was very stable when compared with the shorter one. These results indicate that these two mRNAs are transcribed from a single gene and maintained differently during the cell cycle, perhaps to maintain a partially replication-dependent level of histone H2A.X. Images PMID:2041781

  7. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  8. Variants of windmill nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwang-Dong; Shin, Hae Kyung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Sung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Zee, David S

    2016-07-01

    Windmill nystagmus is characterized by a clock-like rotation of the beating direction of a jerk nystagmus suggesting separate horizontal and vertical oscillators, usually 90° out of phase. We report oculographic characteristics in three patients with variants of windmill nystagmus in whom the common denominator was profound visual loss due to retinal diseases. Two patients showed a clock-like pattern, while in the third, the nystagmus was largely diagonal (in phase or 180° out of phase) but also periodically changed direction by 180°. We hypothesize that windmill nystagmus is a unique manifestation of "eye movements of the blind." It emerges when the central structures, including the cerebellum, that normally keep eye movements calibrated and gaze steady can no longer perform their task, because they are deprived of the retinal image motion that signals a need for adaptive recalibration. PMID:27159990

  9. Phenylketonuria variants in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Since mass screening of the newborn population for phenylketonuria (PKU) by the Guthrie test was begun in Ontario in July 1965 many variants of PKU have been recognized in the 96 to 97% screened. Seventy-one cases of classic PKU were detected (four were missed). Of 48 cases of persistent hyperphenylalaninemia discovered, 18 were classified as atypical PKU and 30 as persistent benign hyperphenylalaninemia. Numerous infants with transient hyperphenylalaninemia (initial values over 10 mg/dl in 12), in many instances the result of transient neonatal tyrosinemia, were discovered. There was a slight predominance of males. Serum phenylalanine values of up to 15 mg/dl seemed to be harmless to the developing brain. A survey of 67 247 adults in the general population revealed 1 person with PKU and 1 with persistent benign hyperphenylalaninemia; both had normal intelligence quotients. Of 1548 mothers of retarded children tested, none had hyperphenylalaninemia. PMID:953933

  10. Dual Inhibitors Against Topoisomerases and Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Topoisomerases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are considered as important therapeutic targets for a wide range of cancers, due to their association with the initiation, proliferation and survival of cancer cells. Topoisomerases are involved in the cleavage and religation processes of DNA, while HDACs regulate a dynamic epigenetic modification of the lysine amino acid on various proteins. Extensive studies have been undertaken to discover small molecule inhibitor of each protein and thereby, several drugs have been transpired from this effort and successfully approved for clinical use. However, the inherent heterogeneity and multiple genetic abnormalities of cancers challenge the clinical application of these single targeted drugs. In order to overcome the limitations of a single target approach, a novel approach, simultaneously targeting topoisomerases and HDACs with a single molecule has been recently employed and attracted much attention of medicinal chemists in drug discovery. This review highlights the current studies on the discovery of dual inhibitors against topoisomerases and HDACs, provides their pharmacological aspects and advantages, and discusses the challenges and promise of the dual inhibitors. PMID:26151040

  11. Interpreting clinical assays for histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Martinet, Nadine; Bertrand, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    As opposed to genetics, dealing with gene expressions by direct DNA sequence modifications, the term epigenetics applies to all the external influences that target the chromatin structure of cells with impact on gene expression unrelated to the sequence coding of DNA itself. In normal cells, epigenetics modulates gene expression through all development steps. When “imprinted” early by the environment, epigenetic changes influence the organism at an early stage and can be transmitted to the progeny. Together with DNA sequence alterations, DNA aberrant cytosine methylation and microRNA deregulation, epigenetic modifications participate in the malignant transformation of cells. Their reversible nature has led to the emergence of the promising field of epigenetic therapy. The efforts made to inhibit in particular the epigenetic enzyme family called histone deacetylases (HDACs) are described. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been proposed as a viable clinical therapeutic approach for the treatment of leukemia and solid tumors, but also to a lesser degree for noncancerous diseases. Three epigenetic drugs are already arriving at the patient’s bedside, and more than 100 clinical assays for HDACi are registered on the National Cancer Institute website. They explore the eventual additive benefits of combined therapies. In the context of the pleiotropic effects of HDAC isoforms, more specific HDACi and more informative screening tests are being developed for the benefit of the patients. PMID:21625397

  12. A Genetically Encoded FRET Probe to Detect Intranucleosomal Histone H3K9 or H3K14 Acetylation Using BRD4, a BET Family Member.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Shiho; Sasaki, Kazuki; Ito, Akihiro; Nakao, Yoichi; Yoshida, Minoru

    2016-03-18

    Acetylation is a well-characterized histone modification, which plays important roles in controlling epigenetic gene expression, and its malfunction is tightly associated with cancer. By taking advantage of the specific binding of BRD4 to acetylated lysine residues, we developed a FRET-based probe for visualizing histone H3 acetylation in living cells. BRD4, a protein known to be involved in acute myeloid leukemia and nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma, recognizes the acetylation of histone H3 via its bromodomains. The probe exhibited a significant change in FRET signaling that was dependent on histone H3 acetylation. Mutagenesis studies revealed that an increase in the emission ratio reflected the acetylation of either K9 or K14 of histone H3 within the probe. Since BRD4 has increasingly drawn attention as a new anticancer drug target, we demonstrated that the developed fluorescent probe will also serve as a powerful tool to evaluate BRD4 inhibitors in living cells. PMID:25946208

  13. SUMOylated ORC2 Recruits a Histone Demethylase to Regulate Centromeric Histone Modification and Genomic Stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Cheng, Jinke; Bawa-Khalfe, Tasneem; Yao, Xuebiao; Chin, Y Eugene; Yeh, Edward T H

    2016-04-01

    Origin recognition complex 2 (ORC2), a subunit of the ORC, is essential for DNA replication initiation in eukaryotic cells. In addition to a role in DNA replication initiation at the G1/S phase, ORC2 has been shown to localize to the centromere during the G2/M phase. Here, we show that ORC2 is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier 2 (SUMO2), but not SUMO1, at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. SUMO2-modification of ORC2 is important for the recruitment of KDM5A in order to convert H3K4me3 to H3K4me2, a "permissive" histone marker for α-satellite transcription at the centromere. Persistent expression of SUMO-less ORC2 led to reduced α-satellite transcription and impaired pericentric heterochromatin silencing, which resulted in re-replication of heterochromatin DNA. DNA re-replication eventually activated the DNA damage response, causing the bypass of mitosis and the formation of polyploid cells. Thus, ORC2 sustains genomic stability by recruiting KDM5A to maintain centromere histone methylation in order to prevent DNA re-replication. PMID:27052177

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors disrupt the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint by targeting histone and nonhistone proteins.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Brian; Brown, Mellissa

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors exhibit pleiotropic effects on cell functions, both in vivo and in vitro. One of the more dramatic effects of these drugs is their ability to disrupt normal mitotic division, which is a significant contributor to the anticancer properties of these drugs. The most important feature of the disrupted mitosis is that drug treatment overcomes the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint and drives mitotic slippage, but in a manner that triggers apoptosis. The mechanism by which histone deacetylase inhibitors affect mitosis is now becoming clearer through the identification of a number of chromatin and nonchromatin protein targets that are critical to the regulation of normal mitotic progression and cell division. These proteins are directly regulated by acetylation and deacetylation, or in some cases indirectly through the acetylation of essential partner proteins. There appears to be little contribution from deacetylase inhibitor-induced transcriptional changes to the mitotic effects of these drugs. The overall mitotic phenotype of drug treatment appears to be the sum of these disrupted mechanisms. PMID:23088867

  15. Histone H4 Lys 20 monomethylation by histone methylase SET8 mediates Wnt target gene activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenfei; Nie, Fen; Wang, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2011-02-22

    Histone methylation has an important role in transcriptional regulation. However, unlike H3K4 and H3K9 methylation, the role of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me-1) in transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we show that Wnt3a specifically stimulates H4K20 monomethylation at the T cell factor (TCF)-binding element through the histone methylase SET8. Additionally, SET8 is crucial for activation of the Wnt reporter gene and target genes in both mammalian cells and zebrafish. Furthermore, SET8 interacts with lymphoid enhancing factor-1 (LEF1)/TCF4 directly, and this interaction is regulated by Wnt3a. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is a Wnt signaling mediator and is recruited by LEF1/TCF4 to regulate the transcription of Wnt-activated genes, possibly through H4K20 monomethylation at the target gene promoters. Our findings also indicate that H4K20me-1 is a marker for gene transcription activation, at least in canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:21282610

  16. Rapid degradation of replication-dependent histone mRNAs largely occurs on mRNAs bound by nuclear cap-binding proteins 80 and 20

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Junho; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Ye Kyung; Song, Ok-Kyu; Kim, Min Kyung; Lee, Byung-Gil; Song, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2013-01-01

    The translation of mammalian messenger RNAs (mRNAs) can be driven by either cap-binding proteins 80 and 20 (CBP80/20) or eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)4E. Although CBP80/20-dependent translation (CT) is known to be coupled to an mRNA surveillance mechanism termed nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), its molecular mechanism and biological role remain obscure. Here, using a yeast two-hybrid screening system, we identify a stem-loop binding protein (SLBP) that binds to a stem-loop structure at the 3′-end of the replication-dependent histone mRNA as a CT initiation factor (CTIF)-interacting protein. SLBP preferentially associates with the CT complex of histone mRNAs, but not with the eIF4E-depedent translation (ET) complex. Several lines of evidence indicate that rapid degradation of histone mRNA on the inhibition of DNA replication largely takes place during CT and not ET, which has been previously unappreciated. Furthermore, the ratio of CBP80/20-bound histone mRNA to eIF4E-bound histone mRNA is larger than the ratio of CBP80/20-bound polyadenylated β-actin or eEF2 mRNA to eIF4E-bound polyadenylated β-actin or eEF2 mRNA, respectively. The collective findings suggest that mRNAs harboring a different 3′-end use a different mechanism of translation initiation, expanding the repertoire of CT as a step for determining the fate of histone mRNAs. PMID:23234701

  17. Structural and Histone Binding Ability Characterizations of Human PWWP Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; Tempel, Wolfram; Amaya, Maria F.; Xu, Chao; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Yanming; Min, Jinrong

    2013-09-25

    The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently. The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members, implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3. PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical {beta}-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third {beta}-strands and a C-terminal {alpha}-helix bundle. Both the canonical {beta}-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones.

  18. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Wogulis, Mark

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  19. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Wogulis, Mark

    2013-09-24

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  20. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Wogulis, Mark

    2014-09-09

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the cellobiohydrolase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the cellobiohydrolase variants.

  1. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  2. Structural basis underlying viral hijacking of a histone chaperone complex.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongda; Deng, Zhong; Vladimirova, Olga; Wiedmer, Andreas; Lu, Fang; Lieberman, Paul M; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2016-01-01

    The histone H3.3 chaperone DAXX is implicated in formation of heterochromatin and transcription silencing, especially for newly infecting DNA virus genomes entering the nucleus. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can efficiently establish stable latent infection as a chromatinized episome in the nucleus of infected cells. The EBV tegument BNRF1 is a DAXX-interacting protein required for the establishment of selective viral gene expression during latency. Here we report the structure of BNRF1 DAXX-interaction domain (DID) in complex with DAXX histone-binding domain (HBD) and histones H3.3-H4. BNRF1 DID contacts DAXX HBD and histones through non-conserved loops. The BNRF1-DAXX interface is responsible for BNRF1 localization to PML-nuclear bodies typically associated with host-antiviral resistance and transcriptional repression. Paradoxically, the interface is also required for selective transcription activation of viral latent cycle genes required for driving B-cell proliferation. These findings reveal molecular details of virus reprogramming of an antiviral histone chaperone to promote viral latency and cellular immortalization. PMID:27581705

  3. The Functional Analysis of Histone Acetyltransferase MOF in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiaming; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2016-01-01

    Changes in chromatin structure and heritably regulating the gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone post-translational modification, are involved in most cellular biological processes. Thus, abnormal regulation of epigenetics is implicated in the occurrence of various diseases, including cancer. Human MOF (males absent on the first) is a member of the MYST (Moz-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As a catalytic subunit, MOF can form at least two distinct multiprotein complexes (MSL and NSL) in human cells. Both complexes can acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16); however, the NSL complex possesses broader substrate specificity and can also acetylate histone H4 at lysines 5 and 8 (H4K5 and H4K8), suggesting the complexity of the intracellular functions of MOF. Silencing of MOF in cells leads to genomic instability, inactivation of gene transcription, defective DNA damage repair and early embryonic lethality. Unbalanced MOF expression and its corresponding acetylation of H4K16 have been found in certain primary cancer tissues, including breast cancer, medulloblastoma, ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, gastric cancer, as well as non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of MOF and its corresponding histone acetylation, introduce recent research findings that link MOF functions to tumorigenesis and speculate on the potential role that may be relevant to tumorigenic pathways. PMID:26784169

  4. Histone demethylation and steroid receptor function in cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, Antje; Haendler, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Steroid receptors recruit various cofactors to form multi-protein complexes which locally alter chromatin structure and control DNA accessibility in order to regulate gene transcription. Some of these factors are enzymes that add or remove histone marks in the vicinity of regulatory regions of target genes. Numerous histone modifications added by specific writer enzymes and removed by eraser enzymes have been identified. Histone methylation is a modification with a complex outcome, as it can lead to gene activation or repression, depending on the modified residue and the context. Methylation marks are added by different enzyme families displaying exquisite substrate specificity. Lysine methylation is reversible and two different demethylase families have been identified in humans, the Jumonji C and the lysine-specific demethylase families. A regulatory role of histone demethylases in fine-tuning the function of steroid receptors, especially the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor, has emerged in recent years. This is mostly inferred from in vitro studies, but more recently first in vivo data have further supported this concept. This and the deregulated expression observed for several histone demethylases suggest a role in tumours such as prostate and breast cancer. PMID:21958694

  5. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation Affects Histone Acetylation and Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Verdone, Loredana; La Fortezza, Marco; Ciccarone, Fabio; Caiafa, Paola; Zampieri, Michele; Caserta, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a posttranslational protein modification catalyzed by members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme family. PARylation regulates a wide variety of biological processes in most eukaryotic cells including energy metabolism and cell death, maintenance of genomic stability, chromatin structure and transcription. Inside the nucleus, cross-talk between PARylation and other epigenetic modifications, such as DNA and histone methylation, was already described. In the present work, using PJ34 or ABT888 to inhibit PARP activity or over-expressing poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), we show decrease of global histone H3 and H4 acetylation. This effect is accompanied by a reduction of the steady state mRNA level of p300, Pcaf, and Tnfα, but not of Dnmt1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses, performed at the level of the Transcription Start Site (TSS) of these four genes, reveal that changes in histone acetylation are specific for each promoter. Finally, we demonstrate an increase of global deacetylase activity in nuclear extracts from cells treated with PJ34, whereas global acetyltransferase activity is not affected, suggesting a role for PARP in the inhibition of histone deacetylases. Taken together, these results show an important link between PARylation and histone acetylation regulated transcription. PMID:26636673

  6. Regulation of histone gene expression during the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Meshi, T; Taoka, K I; Iwabuchi, M

    2000-08-01

    The steady-state level of histone mRNAs fluctuates coordinately with chromosomal DNA synthesis during the cell cycle. Such an S phase-specific expression pattern results from transcriptional activation of histone genes coupled with the onset of replication and from transcriptional repression of the genes as well as specific destabilization of histone mRNAs around the end of the S phase. Proliferation-coupled and S phase-specific expression of histone genes is primarily achieved by the activities of the proximal promoter regions, where several conserved cis-acting elements have been identified. Among them, three kinds of Oct-containing composite elements (OCEs) play a pivotal role in S phase-specific transcriptional activation. Other ones, such as Nona, solo-Oct, and CCGTC motifs, appear to modulate the functions of OCEs to enhance or repress the transcriptional level, possibly depending on the state of the cells. Here, we review the growing evidence concerning the regulatory mechanisms by which plant histone genes are expressed S phase-specifically in proliferating cells. PMID:11089867

  7. Targeting Histone Deacetylases in Diseases: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Rosaria; Conte, Mariarosaria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Epigenetic inactivation of pivotal genes involved in cell growth is a hallmark of human pathologies, in particular cancer. Histone acetylation balance obtained through opposing actions of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone acetyltransferases is one epigenetic mechanism controlling gene expression and is, thus, associated with disease etiology and progression. Interfering pharmacologically with HDAC activity can correct abnormalities in cell proliferation, migration, vascularization, and death. Recent Advances: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) represent a new class of cytostatic agents that interfere with the function of HDACs and are able to increase gene expression by indirectly inducing histone acetylation. Several HDACi, alone or in combination with DNA-demethylating agents, chemopreventive, or classical chemotherapeutic drugs, are currently being used in clinical trials for solid and hematological malignancies, and are, thus, promising candidates for cancer therapy. Critical Issues: (i) Non-specific (off-target) HDACi effects due to activities unassociated with HDAC inhibition. (ii) Advantages/disadvantages of non-selective or isoform-directed HDACi. (iii) Limited number of response-predictive biomarkers. (iv) Toxicity leading to dysfunction of critical biological processes. Future Directions: Selective HDACi could achieve enhanced clinical utility by reducing or eliminating the serious side effects associated with current first-generation non-selective HDACi. Isoform-selective and pan-HDACi candidates might benefit from the identification of biomarkers, enabling better patient stratification and prediction of response to treatment. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 99–126. PMID:24382114

  8. Nucleosome structure incorporated histone acetylation site prediction in arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Acetylation is a crucial post-translational modification for histones, and plays a key role in gene expression regulation. Due to limited data and lack of a clear acetylation consensus sequence, a few researches have focused on prediction of lysine acetylation sites. Several systematic prediction studies have been conducted for human and yeast, but less for Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Concerning the insufficient observation on acetylation site, we analyzed contributions of the peptide-alignment-based distance definition and 3D structure factors in acetylation prediction. We found that traditional structure contributes little to acetylation site prediction. Identified acetylation sites of histones in Arabidopsis thaliana are conserved and cross predictable with that of human by peptide based methods. However, the predicted specificity is overestimated, because of the existence of non-observed acetylable site. Here, by performing a complete exploration on the factors that affect the acetylability of lysines in histones, we focused on the relative position of lysine at nucleosome level, and defined a new structure feature to promote the performance in predicting the acetylability of all the histone lysines in A. thaliana. Conclusion We found a new spacial correlated acetylation factor, and defined a ε-N spacial location based feature, which contains five core spacial ellipsoid wired areas. By incorporating the new feature, the performance of predicting the acetylability of all the histone lysines in A. Thaliana was promoted, in which the previous mispredicted acetylable lysines were corrected by comparing to the peptide-based prediction. PMID:21047388

  9. The Functional Analysis of Histone Acetyltransferase MOF in Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiaming; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2016-01-01

    Changes in chromatin structure and heritably regulating the gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone post-translational modification, are involved in most cellular biological processes. Thus, abnormal regulation of epigenetics is implicated in the occurrence of various diseases, including cancer. Human MOF (males absent on the first) is a member of the MYST (Moz-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As a catalytic subunit, MOF can form at least two distinct multiprotein complexes (MSL and NSL) in human cells. Both complexes can acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16); however, the NSL complex possesses broader substrate specificity and can also acetylate histone H4 at lysines 5 and 8 (H4K5 and H4K8), suggesting the complexity of the intracellular functions of MOF. Silencing of MOF in cells leads to genomic instability, inactivation of gene transcription, defective DNA damage repair and early embryonic lethality. Unbalanced MOF expression and its corresponding acetylation of H4K16 have been found in certain primary cancer tissues, including breast cancer, medulloblastoma, ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, gastric cancer, as well as non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of MOF and its corresponding histone acetylation, introduce recent research findings that link MOF functions to tumorigenesis and speculate on the potential role that may be relevant to tumorigenic pathways. PMID:26784169

  10. RNF8-dependent histone modifications regulate nucleosome removal during spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lin-Yu; Wu, Jiaxue; Ye, Lin; Gavrilina, Galina B.; Saunders, Thomas L.; Yu, Xiaochun

    2010-01-01

    Summary During spermatogenesis, global nucleosome removal occurs where histones are initially replaced by transition proteins and subsequently by protamines. This chromatin reorganization is thought to facilitate the compaction of the paternal genome into the sperm head and to protect the DNA from damaging agents. Histone ubiquitination has been suggested to be important for sex chromosome inactivation during meiotic prophase and nucleosome removal at post-meiotic stages. However, the mechanisms regulating these ubiquitin-mediated processes are unknown. In this study, we investigate the role of the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 during spermatogenesis and find that RNF8-deficient mice are proficient in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), but deficient in global nucleosome removal. Moreover, we show that RNF8-dependent histone ubiquitination induces H4K16 acetylation, which may be an initial step in nucleosome removal. Thus, our results show that RNF8 plays an important role during spermatogenesis through histone ubiquitination, resulting in trans-histone acetylation and global nucleosome removal. PMID:20153262

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitors stimulate histone H3 lysine 4 methylation in part via transcriptional repression of histone H3 lysine 4 demethylases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Chen, Chun-Han; Chou, Chih-Chien; Sargeant, Aaron M; Kulp, Samuel K; Teng, Che-Ming; Byrd, John C; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the mechanism by which histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors up-regulate histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation. Exposure of LNCaP prostate cancer cells and the prostate tissue of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate mice to the pan- and class I HDAC inhibitors (S)-(+)-N-hydroxy-4-(3-methyl-2-phenyl-butyrylamino)-benzamide (AR42), N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[N-(pyridine-3-yl-methoxycarbonyl)-aminomethyl]-benzamide (MS-275), and vorinostat led to differential increases in H3K4 methylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that this accumulation of methylated H3K4 occurred in conjunction with decreases in the amount of the H3K4 demethylase RBP2 at the promoter of genes associated with tumor suppression and differentiation, including KLF4 and E-cadherin. This finding, together with the HDAC inhibitor-induced up-regulation of KLF4 and E-cadherin, suggests that HDAC inhibitors could activate the expression of these genes through changes in histone methylation status. Evidence indicates that this up-regulation of H3K4 methylation was attributable to the suppressive effect of these HDAC inhibitors on the expression of RBP2 and other JARID1 family histone demethylases, including PLU-1, SMCX, and LSD1, via the down-regulation of Sp1 expression. Moreover, shRNA-mediated silencing of the class I HDAC isozymes 1, 2, 3, and 8, but not that of the class II isozyme HDAC6, mimicked the drug effects on H3K4 methylation and H3K4 demethylases, which could be reversed by ectopic Sp1 expression. These data suggest a cross-talk mechanism between HDACs and H3K4 demethylases via Sp1-mediated transcriptional regulation, which underlies the complexity of the functional role of HDACs in the regulation of histone modifications. PMID:20959362

  12. Histone H3.3 is required for endogenous retroviral element silencing in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Elsässer, Simon J; Noh, Kyung-Min; Diaz, Nichole; Allis, C David; Banaszynski, Laura A

    2015-06-11

    Transposable elements comprise roughly 40% of mammalian genomes. They have an active role in genetic variation, adaptation and evolution through the duplication or deletion of genes or their regulatory elements, and transposable elements themselves can act as alternative promoters for nearby genes, resulting in non-canonical regulation of transcription. However, transposable element activity can lead to detrimental genome instability, and hosts have evolved mechanisms to silence transposable element mobility appropriately. Recent studies have demonstrated that a subset of transposable elements, endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs) containing long terminal repeats (LTRs), are silenced through trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me3) by ESET (also known as SETDB1 or KMT1E) and a co-repressor complex containing KRAB-associated protein 1 (KAP1; also known as TRIM28) in mouse embryonic stem cells. Here we show that the replacement histone variant H3.3 is enriched at class I and class II ERVs, notably those of the early transposon (ETn)/MusD family and intracisternal A-type particles (IAPs). Deposition at a subset of these elements is dependent upon the H3.3 chaperone complex containing α-thalassaemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) and death-domain-associated protein (DAXX). We demonstrate that recruitment of DAXX, H3.3 and KAP1 to ERVs is co-dependent and occurs upstream of ESET, linking H3.3 to ERV-associated H3K9me3. Importantly, H3K9me3 is reduced at ERVs upon H3.3 deletion, resulting in derepression and dysregulation of adjacent, endogenous genes, along with increased retrotransposition of IAPs. Our study identifies a unique heterochromatin state marked by the presence of both H3.3 and H3K9me3, and establishes an important role for H3.3 in control of ERV retrotransposition in embryonic stem cells. PMID:25938714

  13. Inter-α inhibitor protein and its associated glycosaminoglycans protect against histone-induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Hala; Keshari, Ravi S.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Popescu, Narcis I.; Mehta-D’Souza, Padmaja; Lim, Yow-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular histones are mediators of tissue injury and organ dysfunction; therefore they constitute potential therapeutic targets in sepsis, inflammation, and thrombosis. Histone cytotoxicity in vitro decreases in the presence of plasma. Here, we demonstrate that plasma inter-α inhibitor protein (IAIP) neutralizes the cytotoxic effects of histones and decreases histone-induced platelet aggregation. These effects are mediated through the negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) chondroitin sulfate and high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) associated with IAIP. Cell surface anionic glycosaminoglycans heparan sulfate and HA protect the cells against histone-mediated damage in vitro. Surface plasmon resonance showed that both IAIP and HMW-HA directly bind to recombinant histone H4. In vivo neutralization of histones with IAIP and HMW-HA prevented histone-induced thrombocytopenia, bleeding, and lung microvascular thrombosis, decreased neutrophil activation, and averted histone-induced production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. IAIP and HMW-HA colocalized with histones in necrotic tissues and areas that displayed neutrophil extracellular traps. Increasing amounts of IAIP-histone complexes detected in the plasma of septic baboons correlated with increase in histones and/or nucleosomes and consumption of plasma IAIP. Our data suggest that IAIP, chondroitin sulfate, and HMW-HA are potential therapeutic agents to protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity, coagulopathy, systemic inflammation, and organ damage during inflammatory conditions such as sepsis and trauma. PMID:25631771

  14. Garcinol, a Histone Acetyltransferase Inhibitor, Radiosensitizes Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Non-Homologous End Joining

    SciTech Connect

    Oike, Takahiro; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Torikai, Kohta; Nakano, Takashi; Yokota, Jun; Kohno, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), a major pathway used to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by ionizing radiation (IR), requires chromatin remodeling at DSB sites through the acetylation of histones by histone acetyltransferases (HATs). However, the effect of compounds with HAT inhibitory activities on the DNA damage response (DDR), including the NHEJ and cell cycle checkpoint, as well as on the radiosensitivity of cancer cells, remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated whether garcinol, a HAT inhibitor found in the rinds of Garcinia indica fruit (called mangosteens), has effects on DDR, and whether it can be used for radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: The following assays were used to examine the effect of garcinol on the inhibition of DSB repair, including the following: a conventional neutral comet assay; a cell-based assay recently developed by us, in which NHEJ repair of DSBs on chromosomal DNA was evaluated; the micrococcal nuclease sensitivity assay; and immunoblotting for autophosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). We assessed the effect of garcinol on the cell cycle checkpoint after IR treatment by analyzing the phosphorylation levels of checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2 and histone H3, and by cell cycle profile analysis using flow cytometry. The radiosensitizing effect of garcinol was assessed by a clonogenic survival assay, whereas its effects on apoptosis and senescence were examined by annexin V and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-Gal) staining, respectively. Results: We found that garcinol inhibits DSB repair, including NHEJ, without affecting cell cycle checkpoint. Garcinol radiosensitized A549 lung and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells with dose enhancement ratios (at 10% surviving fraction) of 1.6 and 1.5, respectively. Cellular senescence induced by IR was enhanced by garcinol. Conclusion: These results suggest that garcinol is a radiosensitizer that

  15. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  16. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  17. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Clancy, Brian Gorre

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  18. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  19. C646, a Novel p300/CREB-Binding Protein-Specific Inhibitor of Histone Acetyltransferase, Attenuates Influenza A Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dongming; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Takashita, Emi; Shoemaker, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    New strategies to develop novel broad-spectrum antiviral drugs against influenza virus infections are needed due to the emergence of antigenic variants and drug-resistant viruses. Here, we evaluated C646, a novel p300/CREB-binding protein-specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase (HAT), as an anti-influenza virus agent in vitro and in vivo and explored how C646 affects the viral life cycle and host response. Our studies highlight the value of targeting HAT activity for anti-influenza drug development. PMID:26711748

  20. C646, a Novel p300/CREB-Binding Protein-Specific Inhibitor of Histone Acetyltransferase, Attenuates Influenza A Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongming; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Takashita, Emi; Shoemaker, Jason E; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    New strategies to develop novel broad-spectrum antiviral drugs against influenza virus infections are needed due to the emergence of antigenic variants and drug-resistant viruses. Here, we evaluated C646, a novel p300/CREB-binding protein-specific inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase (HAT), as an anti-influenza virus agent in vitro and in vivo and explored how C646 affects the viral life cycle and host response. Our studies highlight the value of targeting HAT activity for anti-influenza drug development. PMID:26711748

  1. [The relationship between the conception of the role of histones in the mutagenic process and the combined effect of trichloracetic acid and dimethylsulfate on Arabidopsis].

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, V A; Petrov, A P

    1976-01-01

    Separate and combined effect of TChAA and DMS was studied as applied to Arabidopsis of Estland race. When the Arabidopsis seeds were treated with TChAA in M1 separately, stimulation was observed as to certain features. A combined treatment with TChAA + DMS reduces significantly the yield of chlorophyll mutations both as compared to variants of separate treatment and to those of control. On the basis of the data obtained an important role of histones in mutation process is suggested. PMID:941257

  2. Extensive and varied modifications in histone H2B of wildtype and histone deacetylase 1-mutant Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D.C.; Green, George R.; Smith, Kristina; Selker, Eric U.

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is deficient in a histone deacetylase 1 (HDA11) mutant (hda-1) strain of Neurospora crassa with inactivated histone deacetylase 1. Difference 2D gels identified the primary histone deacetylase 1 target as histone H2B. Acetylation was identified by LC/MS/MS at 5 different lysines in wild type H2B, and at 11 lysines in hda-1 H2B, suggesting Neurospora H2B is a complex combination of different acetylated species. Individual 2D gel spots were shifted by single lysine acetylations. FTICR MS-observed methylation ladders identify an ensemble of 20–25 or more modified forms for each 2D gel spot. Twelve different lysines or arginines were methylated in H2B from wild type or hda-1; only two were in the N-terminal tail. Arginines were modified by monomethylation, dimethylation or deimination. H2B from wild type and hda-1 ensembles may thus differ by acetylation at multiple sites, and by additional modifications. Combined with asymmetry-generated diversity in H2B structural states in nucleosome core particles, the extensive modifications identified here can create substantial histone-generated structural diversity in nucleosome core particles. PMID:20462202

  3. Ubinuclein-1 confers histone H3.3-specific-binding by the HIRA histone chaperone complex

    PubMed Central

    Daniel Ricketts, M; Frederick, Brian; Hoff, Henry; Tang, Yong; Schultz, David C.; Singh Rai, Taranjit; Grazia Vizioli, Maria; Adams, Peter D.; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    Histone chaperones bind specific histones to mediate their storage, eviction or deposition from/or into chromatin. The HIRA histone chaperone complex, composed of HIRA, ubinuclein-1 (UBN1) and CABIN1, cooperates with the histone chaperone ASF1a to mediate H3.3-specific binding and chromatin deposition. Here we demonstrate that the conserved UBN1 Hpc2-related domain (HRD) is a novel H3.3-specific-binding domain. Biochemical and biophysical studies show the UBN1-HRD preferentially binds H3.3/H4 over H3.1/H4. X-ray crystallographic and mutational studies reveal that conserved residues within the UBN1-HRD and H3.3 G90 as key determinants of UBN1–H3.3-binding specificity. Comparison of the structure with the unrelated H3.3-specific chaperone DAXX reveals nearly identical points of contact between the chaperone and histone in the proximity of H3.3 G90, although the mechanism for H3.3 G90 recognition appears to be distinct. This study points to UBN1 as the determinant of H3.3-specific binding and deposition by the HIRA complex. PMID:26159857

  4. Advances in the development of histone lysine demethylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Maes, Tamara; Carceller, Elena; Salas, Jordi; Ortega, Alberto; Buesa, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The covalent modification of histones is closely associated with regulation of gene transcription. Chromatin modifications have been suggested to represent an epigenetic code that is dynamically 'written' and 'erased' by specialized proteins, and 'read', or interpreted, by proteins that translate the code into gene expression changes. Initially thought to be an irreversible process, histone methylation is now known to be reversed by demethylases, FAD dependent amineoxidases and by iron(II)-alpha-ketoglutarate dependent deoxygenases of the Jumonji family. Altered histone demethylase activities have been associated with human disease, including cancer. The first wave of novel investigational drugs directed against KDM1A has recently entered the clinic, and the first specific inhibitor targeting a Jumonji KDM is advancing in preclinical regulatory studies. PMID:26057211

  5. Elucidating Internucleosome Interactions and the Roles of Histone Tails

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Steven C.; Andresen, Kurt; Jimenez-Useche, Isabel; Yuan, Chongli; Qiu, Xiangyun

    2013-01-01

    The nucleosome is the first level of genome organization and regulation in eukaryotes where negatively charged DNA is wrapped around largely positively charged histone proteins. Interaction between nucleosomes is dominated by electrostatics at long range and guided by specific contacts at short range, particularly involving their flexible histone tails. We have thus quantified how internucleosome interactions are modulated by salts (KCl, MgCl2) and histone tail deletions (H3, H4 N-terminal), using small-angle x-ray scattering and theoretical modeling. We found that measured effective charges at low salts are ∼1/5th of the theoretically predicted renormalized charges and that H4 tail deletion suppresses the attraction at high salts to a larger extent than H3 tail deletion. PMID:23823239

  6. Treatment of chronic kidney diseases with histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhuang, Shougang

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) induce deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins and play a critical role in the modulation of physiological and pathological gene expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC has been reported to attenuate progression of renal fibrogenesis in obstructed kidney and reduce cyst formation in polycystic kidney disease. HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) are also able to ameliorate renal lesions in diabetes nephropathy, lupus nephritis, aristolochic acid nephropathy, and transplant nephropathy. The beneficial effects of HDACis are associated with their anti-fibrosis, anti-inflammation, and immunosuppressant effects. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases with HDACis in pre-clinical models. PMID:25972812

  7. The relationship between gene transcription and combinations of histone modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiangjun; Li, Hong; Luo, Liaofu

    2012-09-01

    Histone modification is an important subject of epigenetics which plays an intrinsic role in transcriptional regulation. It is known that multiple histone modifications act in a combinatorial fashion. In this study, we demonstrated that the pathways within constructed Bayesian networks can give an indication for the combinations among 12 histone modifications which have been studied in the TSS+1kb region in S. cerevisiae. After Bayesian networks for the genes with high transcript levels (H-network) and low transcript levels (L-network) were constructed, the combinations of modifications within the two networks were analyzed from the view of transcript level. The results showed that different combinations played dissimilar roles in the regulation of gene transcription when there exist differences for gene expression at transcription level.

  8. The many faces of histone H3K79 methylation

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Zeenat; Banday, Shahid; Pandita, Tej K.; Altaf, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Dot1/DOT1L (disruptor of telomeric silencing-1) is an evolutionarily conserved histone methyltransferase that methylates lysine 79 located within the globular domain of histone H3. Dot1 was initially identified by a genetic screen as a disruptor of telomeric silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; further, it is the only known non-SET domain containing histone methyltransferase. Methylation of H3K79 is involved in the regulation of telomeric silencing, cellular development, cell-cycle checkpoint, DNA repair, and regulation of transcription. hDot1L-mediated H3K79 methylation appears to have a crucial role in transformation as well as disease progression in leukemias involving several oncogenic fusion proteins. This review summarizes the multiple functions of Dot1/hDOT1L in a range of cellular processes. PMID:27234562

  9. Unusual variants of mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Abeldaño, Alejandra; Arias, Mariana; Benedetti, Adriana; Ochoa, Karina; Maskin, Matías; Pellerano, Graciela; Kien, María Cristina; Chouela, Edgardo

    2011-01-01

    Unusual variants of mycosis fungoides (MF) differ substantially from the classical presentation, and most of them resemble other dermatologic diseases. The authors reviewed files of patients with MF who consulted our clinic between November 1995 and June 2010 to evaluate the relative frequency and clinical behavior of these variants. Among 98 patients with MF, 32 (32.65%) had unusual variants. The most common types included follicular MF (31.25%), hypopigmented MF (18.75%), poiquilodermic MF (15.6%), and erythrodermic MF (12.5%). Less common variants included unilesional MF, bullosa MF, ichthyosiform MF, granulomatous slack skin, and pigmented purpura-like MF. Progressive disease and MF-related death were most commonly associated with follicular MF, bullosa MF, and erythrodermic MF. PMID:21980706

  10. Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... a decreased risk for addiction to heroin or cocaine. The other linked variants in two genes— OPRM1 , ...

  11. Post-Translational Modifications of Histones in Human Sperm.

    PubMed

    Krejčí, Jana; Stixová, Lenka; Pagáčová, Eva; Legartová, Soňa; Kozubek, Stanislav; Lochmanová, Gabriela; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Sehnalová, Petra; Dabravolski, Siarhei; Hejátko, Jan; Bártová, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined the levels and distribution of post-translationally modified histones and protamines in human sperm. Using western blot immunoassay, immunofluorescence, mass spectrometry (MS), and FLIM-FRET approaches, we analyzed the status of histone modifications and the protamine P2. Among individual samples, we observed variability in the levels of H3K9me1, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, and H3K79me1, but the level of acetylated (ac) histones H4 was relatively stable in the sperm head fractions, as demonstrated by western blot analysis. Sperm heads with lower levels of P2 exhibited lower levels of H3K9ac, H3K9me1, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, and H3K79me1. A very strong correlation was observed between the levels of P2 and H3K9me2. FLIM-FRET analysis additionally revealed that acetylated histones H4 are not only parts of sperm chromatin but also appear in a non-integrated form. Intriguingly, H4ac and H3K27me3 were detected in sperm tail fractions via western blot analysis. An appearance of specific histone H3 and H4 acetylation and H3 methylation in sperm tail fractions was also confirmed by both LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Taken together, these data indicate that particular post-translational modifications of histones are uniquely distributed in human sperm, and this distribution varies among individuals and among the sperm of a single individual. PMID:25808548

  12. Inhibitors of Histone Deacetylases Attenuate Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Hill, Kayla; Sha, Su-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Loss of auditory sensory hair cells is the major pathological feature of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Currently, no established clinical therapies for prevention or amelioration of NIHL are available. The absence of treatments is due to our lack of a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying noise-induced damage. Our previous study indicates that epigenetic modification of histones alters hair cell survival. In this study, we investigated the effect of noise exposure on histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) in the inner ear of adult CBA/J mice and determined if inhibition of histone deacetylases by systemic administration of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) could attenuate NIHL. Our results showed that H3K9ac was decreased in the nuclei of outer hair cells (OHCs) and marginal cells of the stria vascularis in the basal region after exposure to a traumatic noise paradigm known to induce permanent threshold shifts (PTS). Consistent with these results, levels of histone deacetylases 1, 2, and 3 (HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3) were increased predominately in the nuclei of cochlear cells. Silencing of HDAC1, HDAC2, or HDAC3 with siRNA reduced the expression of the target HDAC in OHCs, but did not attenuate noise-induced PTS, whereas treatment with the pan-HDAC inhibitor SAHA, also named vorinostat, reduced OHC loss, and attenuated PTS. These findings suggest that histone acetylation is involved in the pathogenesis of noise-induced OHC death and hearing loss. Pharmacological targeting of histone deacetylases may afford a strategy for protection against NIHL. PMID:27095478

  13. Identification and characterization of histone deacetylases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linmao; Lu, Jingxia; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Pei-Ying; Yang, Songguang; Wu, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene activity. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of histone deacetylation/acetylation on genome stability, transcriptional regulation, development and response to stress in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of HDACs in tomato have not been investigated previously. Fifteen HDACs identified from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can be grouped into RPD3/HDA1, SIR2 and HD2 families based on phylogenetic analysis. Meanwhile, 10 members of the RPD3/HDA1 family can be further subdivided into four groups, namely Class I, Class II, Class III, and Class IV. High similarities of protein sequences and conserved domains were identified among SlHDACs and their homologs in Arabidopsis. Most SlHDACs were expressed in all tissues examined with different transcript abundance. Transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlHDA8, SlHDA1, SlHDA5, SlSRT1 and members of the HD2 family were localized to the nucleus, whereas SlHDA3 and SlHDA4 were localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The difference in the expression patterns and subcellular localization of SlHDACs suggest that they may play distinct functions in tomato. Furthermore, we found that three members of the RPD3/HDA1 family, SlHDA1, SIHDA3 and SlHDA4, interacted with TAG1 (TOMATO AGAMOUS1) and TM29 (TOMATO MADS BOX29), two MADS-box proteins associated with tomato reproductive development, indicating that these HDACs may be involved in gene regulation in reproductive development. PMID:25610445

  14. Large changes in the structure of the major histone H1 subtype result in small effects on quantitative traits in legumes.

    PubMed

    Berdnikov, Vladimir A; Bogdanova, Vera S; Gorel, Faina L; Kosterin, Oleg E; Trusov, Yurii A

    2003-10-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of the most abundant subtype of histone H1 (H1-1) of 301 accessions of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) and 575 accessions of lentil (Lens culinaris) revealed allelic variants which most probably arose due to recent mutations. In each species, a single heterozygote for a mutation was taken for construction of isogenic lines carrying different H1-1 variants. Sequencing of alleles encoding H1-1 in lentil, grasspea, pea and Lathyrus aphaca showed the presence of an extended region in C-terminal tail which we termed 'regular zone' (RZ). It consists of 14 6-amino-acid units of which 12 (pea and Lathyrus species) or 13 (lentil) are represented by an AKPAAK sequence. The structure of the hypervariable unit 8 is species-specific. At the DNA level most AKPAAK units differ in the third codon positions, implying the action of natural selection preserving the RZ organization. In lentil, the fast variant lost two units (including unit 8), while one AKPAAK repeat of the slow variant is transformed into an anomalous SMPAAK. The mutant variant of the grasspea H1-1 differs from the standard one by duplication of an 11-amino-acid segment in N-terminal tail. The isogenic lines of lentil and grasspea were compared for a number of quantitative traits, some of them showing small (1-8%) significant differences. PMID:14620956

  15. Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-11-01

    The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to β - α determined by the isoscaling (α (β) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

  16. Inhibition of histone deacetylases in cancer therapy: lessons from leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Ceccacci, Elena; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a key component of the epigenetic machinery regulating gene expression, and behave as oncogenes in several cancer types, spurring the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as anticancer drugs. This review discusses new results regarding the role of HDACs in cancer and the effect of HDACi on tumour cells, focusing on haematological malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia. Histone deacetylases may have opposite roles at different stages of tumour progression and in different tumour cell sub-populations (cancer stem cells), highlighting the importance of investigating these aspects for further improving the clinical use of HDACi in treating cancer. PMID:26908329

  17. DNA methylation pathways and their crosstalk with histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiamu; Johnson, Lianna M.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    Methylation of DNA and of histone 3 at Lys 9 (H3K9) are highly correlated with gene silencing in eukaryotes from fungi to humans. Both of these epigenetic marks need to be established at specific regions of the genome and then maintained at these sites through cell division. Protein structural domains that specifically recognize methylated DNA and methylated histones are key for targeting enzymes that catalyse these marks to appropriate genome sites. Genetic, genomic, structural and biochemical data reveal connections between these two epigenetic marks, and these domains mediate much of the crosstalk. PMID:26296162

  18. Reversible histone methylation regulates brain gene expression and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Andreassi, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic chromatin remodeling, including reversible histone methylation, regulates gene transcription in brain development and synaptic plasticity. Aberrant chromatin modifications due to mutant chromatin enzymes or chemical exposures have been associated with neurological or psychiatric disorders such as mental retardation, schizophrenia, depression, and drug addiction. Some chromatin enzymes, such as histone demethylases JARID1C and UTX, are coded by X-linked genes which are not X-inactivated in females. The higher expression of JARID1C and UTX in females could contribute to sex differences in brain development and behavior. PMID:20816965

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as potential treatment for spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Jafar; Zabidi-Hussin, Z.A.M.H.; Sasongko, Teguh Haryo

    2013-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays an important role in regulation of transcription in eukaryotic cells by promoting a more relaxed chromatin structure necessary for transcriptional activation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups and suppress gene expression. HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) are a group of small molecules that promote gene transcription by chromatin remodeling and have been extensively studied as potential drugs for treating of spinal muscular atrophy. Various drugs in this class have been studied with regard to their efficacy in increasing the expression of survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. In this review, we discuss the current literature on this topic and summarize the findings of the main studies in this field. PMID:24130434

  20. Histone H3 Mutations in Pediatric Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyang; McEachron, Troy A.; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Wu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, mutations in histones had not been described in any human disease. However, genome-wide sequencing of pediatric high-grade gliomas revealed somatic heterozygous mutations in the genes encoding histones H3.1 and H3.3, as well as mutations in the chromatin modifiers ATRX and DAXX. The functional significance and mechanistic details of how these mutations affect the tumors is currently under intensive investigation. The information gained from these studies will shed new light on normal brain development as well as increase our understanding of the tumorigenic processes that drive pediatric high-grade gliomas. PMID:24691963

  1. Heterochromatin, histone modifications, and nuclear architecture in disease vectors

    PubMed Central

    Sharakhov, Igor V.; Sharakhova, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between a pathogen and a vector are plastic and dynamic. Such interactions can be more rapidly accommodated by epigenetic changes than by genetic mutations. Gene expression can be affected by the proximity to the heterochromatin, by local histone modifications, and by the three-dimensional position within the nucleus. Recent studies of disease vectors indicate that gene regulation by these factors can be important for susceptibility to pathogens, reproduction, immunity, development, and longevity. Knowledge about heterochromatin, histone modifications, and nuclear architecture will help our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms that control gene function at traits related to vectorial capacity. PMID:26097808

  2. Histone acetylation: a switch between repressive and permissive chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Eberharter, Anton; Becker, Peter B.

    2002-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic chromatin has a major impact on all nuclear processes involving DNA substrates. Gene expression is affected by the positioning of individual nucleosomes relative to regulatory sequence elements, by the folding of the nucleosomal fiber into higher-order structures and by the compartmentalization of functional domains within the nucleus. Because site-specific acetylation of nucleosomal histones influences all three aspects of chromatin organization, it is central to the switch between permissive and repressive chromatin structure. The targeting of enzymes that modulate the histone acetylation status of chromatin, in synergy with the effects mediated by other chromatin remodeling factors, is central to gene regulation. PMID:11882541

  3. Inhibition of histone deacetylases in cancer therapy: lessons from leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Ceccacci, Elena; Minucci, Saverio

    2016-03-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a key component of the epigenetic machinery regulating gene expression, and behave as oncogenes in several cancer types, spurring the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) as anticancer drugs. This review discusses new results regarding the role of HDACs in cancer and the effect of HDACi on tumour cells, focusing on haematological malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukaemia. Histone deacetylases may have opposite roles at different stages of tumour progression and in different tumour cell sub-populations (cancer stem cells), highlighting the importance of investigating these aspects for further improving the clinical use of HDACi in treating cancer. PMID:26908329

  4. Developing a DNA variant database.

    PubMed

    Fung, David C Y

    2008-01-01

    Disease- and locus-specific variant databases have been a valuable resource to clinical and research geneticists. With the recent rapid developments in technologies, the number of DNA variants detected in a typical molecular genetics laboratory easily exceeds 1,000. To keep track of the growing inventory of DNA variants, many laboratories employ information technology to store the data as well as distributing the data and its associated information to clinicians and researchers via the Web. While it is a valuable resource, the hosting of a web-accessible database requires collaboration between bioinformaticians and biologists and careful planning to ensure its usability and availability. In this chapter, a series of tutorials on building a local DNA variant database out of a sample dataset will be provided. However, this tutorial will not include programming details on building a web interface and on constructing the web application necessary for web hosting. Instead, an introduction to the two commonly used methods for hosting web-accessible variant databases will be described. Apart from the tutorials, this chapter will also consider the resources and planning required for making a variant database project successful. PMID:18453092

  5. Alternative Splicing of NURF301 Generates Distinct NURF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes with Altered Modified Histone Binding Specificities

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, So Yeon; Xiao, Hua; Wu, Carl; Badenhorst, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila NURF is an ISWI–containing chromatin remodeling complex that catalyzes ATP–dependent nucleosome sliding. By sliding nucleosomes, NURF can alter chromatin structure and regulate transcription. NURF301/BPTF is the only NURF–specific subunit of NURF and is instrumental in recruiting the complex to target genes. Here we demonstrate that three NURF301 isoforms are expressed and that these encode functionally distinct NURF chromatin remodeling complexes. Full-length NURF301 contains a C-terminal bromodomain and juxtaposed PHD finger that bind histone H3 trimethylated at Lys4 (H3K4me3) and histone H4 acetylated at Lys16 (H4K16Ac) respectively. However, a NURF301 isoform that lacks these C-terminal domains is also detected. This truncated NURF301 isoform assembles a complex containing ISWI, NURF55, and NURF38, indicating that a second class of NURF remodeling complex, deficient in H3K4me3 and H4K16Ac recognition, exists. By comparing microarray expression profiles and phenotypes of null Nurf301 mutants with mutants that remove the C-terminal PHD fingers and bromodomain, we show that full-length NURF301 is not essential for correct expression of the majority of NURF gene targets in larvae. However, full-length NURF301 is required for spermatogenesis. Mutants that lack full-length NURF exhibit a spermatocyte arrest phenotype and fail to express a subset of spermatid differentiation genes. Our data reveal that variants of the NURF ATP–dependent chromatin remodeling complex that recognize post-translational histone modifications are important regulators of primary spermatocyte differentiation in Drosophila. PMID:19629165

  6. Quantification of SAHA-Dependent Changes in Histone Modifications Using Data-Independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Krautkramer, Kimberly A.; Reiter, Lukas; Denu, John M.; Dowell, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important regulators of chromatin structure and gene expression. Quantitative analysis of histone PTMs by mass spectrometry remains extremely challenging due to the complex and combinatorial nature of histone PTMs. The most commonly used mass spectrometry-based method for high-throughput histone PTM analysis is data-dependent acquisition (DDA). However, stochastic precursor selection and dependence on MS1 ions for quantification impede comprehensive interrogation of histone PTM states using DDA methods. To overcome these limitations, we utilized a data-independent acquisition (DIA) workflow that provides superior run-to-run consistency and post-acquisition flexibility in comparison to DDA methods. In addition, we developed a novel DIA-based methodology to quantify isobaric, co-eluting histone peptides that lack unique MS2 transitions. Our method enabled deconvolution and quantification of histone PTMs that are otherwise refractory to quantitation, including the heavily acetylated tail of histone H4. Using this workflow, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) on the global histone PTM state of human breast cancer MCF7 cells. A total of 62 unique histone PTMs were quantified, revealing novel SAHA-induced changes in acetylation and methylation of histones H3 and H4. PMID:26120868

  7. Neutrophil Extracellular Trap-Related Extracellular Histones Cause Vascular Necrosis in Severe GN.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santhosh V R; Kulkarni, Onkar P; Mulay, Shrikant R; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Romoli, Simone; Thomasova, Dana; Scherbaum, Christina R; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian; Müller, Susanna; Liapis, Helen; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2015-10-01

    Severe GN involves local neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We hypothesized a local cytotoxic effect of NET-related histone release in necrotizing GN. In vitro, histones from calf thymus or histones released by neutrophils undergoing NETosis killed glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and parietal epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Histone-neutralizing agents such as antihistone IgG, activated protein C, or heparin prevented this effect. Histone toxicity on glomeruli ex vivo was Toll-like receptor 2/4 dependent, and lack of TLR2/4 attenuated histone-induced renal thrombotic microangiopathy and glomerular necrosis in mice. Anti-glomerular basement membrane GN involved NET formation and vascular necrosis, whereas blocking NET formation by peptidylarginine inhibition or preemptive anti-histone IgG injection significantly reduced all aspects of GN (i.e., vascular necrosis, podocyte loss, albuminuria, cytokine induction, recruitment or activation of glomerular leukocytes, and glomerular crescent formation). To evaluate histones as a therapeutic target, mice with established GN were treated with three different histone-neutralizing agents. Anti-histone IgG, recombinant activated protein C, and heparin were equally effective in abrogating severe GN, whereas combination therapy had no additive effects. Together, these results indicate that NET-related histone release during GN elicits cytotoxic and immunostimulatory effects. Furthermore, neutralizing extracellular histones is still therapeutic when initiated in established GN. PMID:25644111

  8. Patterns and Mechanisms of Ancestral Histone Protein Inheritance in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    van Welsem, Tibor; Friedman, Nir; Rando, Oliver J.; van Leeuwen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Replicating chromatin involves disruption of histone-DNA contacts and subsequent reassembly of maternal histones on the new daughter genomes. In bulk, maternal histones are randomly segregated to the two daughters, but little is known about the fine details of this process: do maternal histones re-assemble at preferred locations or close to their original loci? Here, we use a recently developed method for swapping epitope tags to measure the disposition of ancestral histone H3 across the yeast genome over six generations. We find that ancestral H3 is preferentially retained at the 5′ ends of most genes, with strongest retention at long, poorly transcribed genes. We recapitulate these observations with a quantitative model in which the majority of maternal histones are reincorporated within 400 bp of their pre-replication locus during replication, with replication-independent replacement and transcription-related retrograde nucleosome movement shaping the resulting distributions of ancestral histones. We find a key role for Topoisomerase I in retrograde histone movement during transcription, and we find that loss of Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 affects replication-independent turnover. Together, these results show that specific loci are enriched for histone proteins first synthesized several generations beforehand, and that maternal histones re-associate close to their original locations on daughter genomes after replication. Our findings further suggest that accumulation of ancestral histones could play a role in shaping histone modification patterns. PMID:21666805

  9. Histone H3 Lysine Methylation in Cognition and Intellectual Disability Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkel, Sven; Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P.; Barco, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Recent research indicates that epigenetic mechanisms and, in particular, the post-translational modification (PTM) of histones may contribute to memory encoding and storage. Among the dozens of possible histone PTMs, the methylation/demethylation of lysines in the N-terminal tail of histone H3 exhibits particularly strong links with cognitive…

  10. Quantification of SAHA-Dependent Changes in Histone Modifications Using Data-Independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Krautkramer, Kimberly A; Reiter, Lukas; Denu, John M; Dowell, James A

    2015-08-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important regulators of chromatin structure and gene expression. Quantitative analysis of histone PTMs by mass spectrometry remains extremely challenging due to the complex and combinatorial nature of histone PTMs. The most commonly used mass spectrometry-based method for high-throughput histone PTM analysis is data-dependent acquisition (DDA). However, stochastic precursor selection and dependence on MS1 ions for quantification impede comprehensive interrogation of histone PTM states using DDA methods. To overcome these limitations, we utilized a data-independent acquisition (DIA) workflow that provides superior run-to-run consistency and postacquisition flexibility in comparison to DDA methods. In addition, we developed a novel DIA-based methodology to quantify isobaric, co-eluting histone peptides that lack unique MS2 transitions. Our method enabled deconvolution and quantification of histone PTMs that are otherwise refractory to quantitation, including the heavily acetylated tail of histone H4. Using this workflow, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) on the global histone PTM state of human breast cancer MCF7 cells. A total of 62 unique histone PTMs were quantified, revealing novel SAHA-induced changes in acetylation and methylation of histones H3 and H4. PMID:26120868

  11. Snf2h-mediated chromatin organization and histone H1 dynamics govern cerebellar morphogenesis and neural maturation

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Saavedra, Matías; De Repentigny, Yves; Lagali, Pamela S.; Raghu Ram, Edupuganti V. S.; Yan, Keqin; Hashem, Emile; Ivanochko, Danton; Huh, Michael S.; Yang, Doo; Mears, Alan J.; Todd, Matthew A. M.; Corcoran, Chelsea P.; Bassett, Erin A.; Tokarew, Nicholas J. A.; Kokavec, Juraj; Majumder, Romit; Ioshikhes, Ilya; Wallace, Valerie A.; Kothary, Rashmi; Meshorer, Eran; Stopka, Tomas; Skoultchi, Arthur I.; Picketts, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin compaction mediates progenitor to post-mitotic cell transitions and modulates gene expression programs, yet the mechanisms are poorly defined. Snf2h and Snf2l are ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling proteins that assemble, reposition and space nucleosomes, and are robustly expressed in the brain. Here we show that mice conditionally inactivated for Snf2h in neural progenitors have reduced levels of histone H1 and H2A variants that compromise chromatin fluidity and transcriptional programs within the developing cerebellum. Disorganized chromatin limits Purkinje and granule neuron progenitor expansion, resulting in abnormal post-natal foliation, while deregulated transcriptional programs contribute to altered neural maturation, motor dysfunction and death. However, mice survive to young adulthood, in part from Snf2l compensation that restores Engrailed-1 expression. Similarly, Purkinje-specific Snf2h ablation affects chromatin ultrastructure and dendritic arborization, but alters cognitive skills rather than motor control. Our studies reveal that Snf2h controls chromatin organization and histone H1 dynamics for the establishment of gene expression programs underlying cerebellar morphogenesis and neural maturation. PMID:24946904

  12. Mis16 and Mis18 are required for CENP-A loading and histone deacetylation at centromeres.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Fujita, Yohta; Iwasaki, Osamu; Adachi, Yoh; Takahashi, Kohta; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2004-09-17

    Centromeres contain specialized chromatin that includes the centromere-specific histone H3 variant, spCENP-A/Cnp1. Here we report identification of five fission yeast centromere proteins, Mis14-18. Mis14 is recruited to kinetochores independently of CENP-A, and, conversely, CENP-A does not require Mis14 to associate with centromeres. In contrast, Mis15, Mis16 (strong similarity with human RbAp48 and RbAp46), Mis17, and Mis18 are all part of the CENP-A recruitment pathway. Mis15 and Mis17 form an evolutionarily conserved complex that also includes Mis6. Mis16 and Mis18 form a complex and maintain the deacetylated state of histones specifically in the central core of centromeres. Mis16 and Mis18 are the most upstream factors in kinetochore assembly as they can associate with kinetochores in all kinetochore mutants except for mis18 and mis16, respectively. RNAi knockdown in human cells shows that Mis16 function is conserved as RbAp48 and RbAp46 are both required for localization of human CENP-A. PMID:15369671

  13. Calcium-Dependent Dephosphorylation of the Histone Chaperone DAXX Regulates H3.3 Loading and Transcription upon Neuronal Activation

    PubMed Central

    Michod, David; Bartesaghi, Stefano; Khelifi, Amel; Bellodi, Cristian; Berliocchi, Laura; Nicotera, Pierluigi; Salomoni, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Activity-dependent modifications of chromatin are believed to contribute to dramatic changes in neuronal circuitry. The mechanisms underlying these modifications are not fully understood. The histone variant H3.3 is incorporated in a replication-independent manner into different regions of the genome, including gene regulatory elements. It is presently unknown whether H3.3 deposition is involved in neuronal activity-dependent events. Here, we analyze the role of the histone chaperone DAXX in the regulation of H3.3 incorporation at activity-dependent gene loci. DAXX is found to be associated with regulatory regions of selected activity-regulated genes, where it promotes H3.3 loading upon membrane depolarization. DAXX loss not only affects H3.3 deposition but also impairs transcriptional induction of these genes. Calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation of DAXX is a key molecular switch controlling its function upon neuronal activation. Overall, these findings implicate the H3.3 chaperone DAXX in the regulation of activity-dependent events, thus revealing a new mechanism underlying epigenetic modifications in neurons. PMID:22500635

  14. The C Terminus of the Histone Chaperone Asf1 Cross-Links to Histone H3 in Yeast and Promotes Interaction with Histones H3 and H4

    PubMed Central

    Dennehey, Briana K.; Noone, Seth; Liu, Wallace H.; Smith, Luke

    2013-01-01

    The central histone H3/H4 chaperone Asf1 comprises a highly conserved globular core and a divergent C-terminal tail. While the function and structure of the Asf1 core are well known, the function of the tail is less well understood. Here, we have explored the role of the yeast (yAsf1) and human (hAsf1a and hAsf1b) Asf1 tails in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show, using a photoreactive, unnatural amino acid, that Asf1 tail residue 210 cross-links to histone H3 in vivo and, further, that loss of C-terminal tail residues 211 to 279 weakens yAsf1-histone binding affinity in vitro nearly 200-fold. Via several yAsf1 C-terminal truncations and yeast-human chimeric proteins, we found that truncations at residue 210 increase transcriptional silencing and that the hAsf1a tail partially substitutes for full-length yAsf1 with respect to silencing but that full-length hAsf1b is a better overall substitute for full-length yAsf1. In addition, we show that the C-terminal tail of Asf1 is phosphorylated at T270 in yeast. Loss of this phosphorylation site does not prevent coimmunoprecipitation of yAsf1 and Rad53 from yeast extracts, whereas amino acid residue substitutions at the Asf1-histone H3/H4 interface do. Finally, we show that residue substitutions in yAsf1 near the CAF-1/HIRA interface also influence yAsf1's function in silencing. PMID:23184661

  15. Structural insights into Paf1 complex assembly and histone binding.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xinlei; Qin, Xiaohong; Xu, Huisha; Li, Lei; Wang, Zheng; Li, Fengzhi; Xie, Xingqiao; Zhou, Hao; Shen, Yuequan; Long, Jiafu

    2013-12-01

    The highly conserved Paf1 complex (PAF1C) plays critical roles in RNA polymerase II transcription elongation and in the regulation of histone modifications. It has also been implicated in other diverse cellular activities, including posttranscriptional events, embryonic development and cell survival and maintenance of embryonic stem cell identity. Here, we report the structure of the human Paf1/Leo1 subcomplex within PAF1C. The overall structure reveals that the Paf1 and Leo1 subunits form a tightly associated heterodimer through antiparallel beta-sheet interactions. Detailed biochemical experiments indicate that Leo1 binds to PAF1C through Paf1 and that the Ctr9 subunit is the key scaffold protein in assembling PAF1C. Furthermore, we show that the Paf1/Leo1 heterodimer is necessary for its binding to histone H3, the histone octamer, and nucleosome in vitro. Our results shed light on the PAF1C assembly process and substrate recognition during various PAF1C-coordinated histone modifications. PMID:24038468

  16. Chromatin signature discovery via histone modification profile alignments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianrong; Lunyak, Victoria V.; Jordan, I. King

    2012-01-01

    We report on the development of an unsupervised algorithm for the genome-wide discovery and analysis of chromatin signatures. Our Chromatin-profile Alignment followed by Tree-clustering algorithm (ChAT) employs dynamic programming of combinatorial histone modification profiles to identify locally similar chromatin sub-regions and provides complementary utility with respect to existing methods. We applied ChAT to genomic maps of 39 histone modifications in human CD4+ T cells to identify both known and novel chromatin signatures. ChAT was able to detect chromatin signatures previously associated with transcription start sites and enhancers as well as novel signatures associated with a variety of regulatory elements. Promoter-associated signatures discovered with ChAT indicate that complex chromatin signatures, made up of numerous co-located histone modifications, facilitate cell-type specific gene expression. The discovery of novel L1 retrotransposon-associated bivalent chromatin signatures suggests that these elements influence the mono-allelic expression of human genes by shaping the chromatin environment of imprinted genomic regions. Analysis of long gene-associated chromatin signatures point to a role for the H4K20me1 and H3K79me3 histone modifications in transcriptional pause release. The novel chromatin signatures and functional associations uncovered by ChAT underscore the ability of the algorithm to yield novel insight on chromatin-based regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22989711

  17. Chromatin dynamics: Interplay between remodeling enzymes and histone modifications

    PubMed Central

    Swygert, Sarah G.; Peterson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin dynamics play an essential role in regulating the accessibility of genomic DNA for a variety of nuclear processes, including gene transcription and DNA repair. The posttranslational modification of the core histones and the action of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes represent two primary mechanisms by which chromatin dynamics are controlled and linked to nuclear events. Although there are examples in which a histone modification or a remodeling enzyme may be sufficient to drive a chromatin transition, these mechanisms typically work in concert to integrate regulatory inputs, leading to a coordinated alteration in chromatin structure and function. Indeed, site-specific histone modifications can facilitate the recruitment of chromatin remodeling enzymes to particular genomic regions, or they can regulate the efficiency or the outcome of a chromatin remodeling reaction. Conversely, chromatin remodeling enzymes can also influence, and sometimes directly modulate, the modification state of histones. These functional interactions are generally complex, frequently transient, and often require the association of myriad additional factors. PMID:24583555

  18. Selectively Targeting Prostate Cancer with Antiandrogen Equipped Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gryder, Berkley E.; Akbashev, Michelle J.; Rood, Michael K.; Raftery, Eric D.; Meyers, Warren M.; Dillard, Paulette; Khan, Shafiq; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2013-01-01

    Diverse cellular processes relevant to cancer progression are regulated by the acetylation status of proteins. Among such processes is chromatin remodeling via histone proteins, controlled by opposing histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) show great promise in preclinical cancer models, but clinical trials treating solid tumors have failed to improve patient survival. This is due in part to an inability of HDACi to effectively accumulate in cancerous cells. To address this problem we designed HDACi with secondary pharmacophores to facilitate selective accumulation in malignant cells. We present the first example of HDACi compounds targeted to prostate tumors by equipping them with the additional ability to bind the androgen receptor (AR) with non-steroidal antiandrogen moieties. Leads among these new dual-acting molecules bind to the AR and halt AR transcriptional activity at lower concentrations than clinical antiandrogens. They inhibit key isoforms of HDAC with low nanomolar potency. Fluorescent microscopy reveals varying degrees of AR nuclear localization in response to these compounds that correlates with their HDAC activity. These biological properties translate into potent anticancer activity against hormone dependent (AR+) LNCaP and to a lesser extent against hormone independent (AR−) DU145 prostate cancer, while having greatly reduced toxicity in non-cancerous cells. This illustrates that engaging multiple biological targets with a single chemical probe can achieve both potent and cell-type selective responses. PMID:24004176

  19. Suppression of inflammation by a synthetic histone mimic.

    PubMed

    Nicodeme, Edwige; Jeffrey, Kate L; Schaefer, Uwe; Beinke, Soren; Dewell, Scott; Chung, Chun-Wa; Chandwani, Rohit; Marazzi, Ivan; Wilson, Paul; Coste, Hervé; White, Julia; Kirilovsky, Jorge; Rice, Charles M; Lora, Jose M; Prinjha, Rab K; Lee, Kevin; Tarakhovsky, Alexander

    2010-12-23

    Interaction of pathogens with cells of the immune system results in activation of inflammatory gene expression. This response, although vital for immune defence, is frequently deleterious to the host due to the exaggerated production of inflammatory proteins. The scope of inflammatory responses reflects the activation state of signalling proteins upstream of inflammatory genes as well as signal-induced assembly of nuclear chromatin complexes that support mRNA expression. Recognition of post-translationally modified histones by nuclear proteins that initiate mRNA transcription and support mRNA elongation is a critical step in the regulation of gene expression. Here we present a novel pharmacological approach that targets inflammatory gene expression by interfering with the recognition of acetylated histones by the bromodomain and extra terminal domain (BET) family of proteins. We describe a synthetic compound (I-BET) that by 'mimicking' acetylated histones disrupts chromatin complexes responsible for the expression of key inflammatory genes in activated macrophages, and confers protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock and bacteria-induced sepsis. Our findings suggest that synthetic compounds specifically targeting proteins that recognize post-translationally modified histones can serve as a new generation of immunomodulatory drugs. PMID:21068722

  20. Undetectable histone O-GlcNAcylation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Jessica; Daou, Salima; Zamorano, Natalia; Iannantuono, Nicholas V G; Hammond-Martel, Ian; Mashtalir, Nazar; Bonneil, Eric; Wurtele, Hugo; Thibault, Pierre; Affar, El Bachir

    2015-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by the O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) and reversed by O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Numerous transcriptional regulators, including chromatin modifying enzymes, transcription factors, and co-factors, are targeted by O-GlcNAcylation, indicating that this modification is central for chromatin-associated processes. Recently, OGT-mediated O-GlcNAcylation was reported to be a novel histone modification, suggesting a potential role in directly coordinating chromatin structure and function. In contrast, using multiple biochemical approaches, we report here that histone O-GlcNAcylation is undetectable in mammalian cells. Conversely, O-GlcNAcylation of the transcription regulators Host Cell Factor-1 (HCF-1) and Ten-Eleven Translocation protein 2 (TET2) could be readily observed. Our study raises questions on the occurrence and abundance of O-GlcNAcylation as a histone modification in mammalian cells and reveals technical complications regarding the detection of genuine protein O-GlcNAcylation. Therefore, the identification of the specific contexts in which histone O-GlcNAcylation might occur is still to be established. PMID:26075789

  1. Evaluation of histone-modifying enzymes in stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Stalker, Leanne; Wynder, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The histone demethylases are a relatively novel family of histone-modifying enzymes. Their gene expression suggests that each of the subfamily members may have a discrete role in cell function. The KDM5 family of H3K4 histone demethylases has four members. Each family member has a distinct cellular role, including KDM5a, which is a tumor suppressor (Christensen et al. Cell 128: 1063-1076, 2007); KDM5b, which is an oncogene (Dey et al. Mol Cell Biol 17: 5312-5327, 2008); and KDM5c (Iwase et al. Cell 128: 1077-1088, 2007), which is expressed in terminally differentiated populations. To properly analyze how these enzymes are regulated, we interrogate their bioactivity in ES cells (ESCs) and during neural differentiation of ESCs. We evaluate the bioactivity from both affinity-purified complexes and reconstituted complexes and directly in the cell. These assays have allowed us to define a set of factors that regulate the KDM5 family of histone demethylases. PMID:22113291

  2. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase as antitumor agents: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Manal, Mohammed; Chandrasekar, M J N; Gomathi Priya, Jeyapal; Nanjan, M J

    2016-08-01

    Histone deacetylase (EC 3.5.1.98 - HDAC) is an amidohydrolase involved in deacetylating the histone lysine residues for chromatin remodeling and thus plays a vital role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Due to its aberrant activity and over expression in several forms of cancer, HDAC is considered as a potential anticancer drug target. HDAC inhibitors alter the acetylation status of histone and non-histone proteins to regulate various cellular events such as cell survival, differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells and thus exhibit anticancer activity. Till date, four drugs, namely Vorinostat (SAHA), Romidepsin (FK-228), Belinostat (PXD-101) and Panobinostat (LBH-589) have been granted FDA approval for cancer and several HDAC inhibitors are currently in various phases of clinical trials, either as monotherapy and/or in combination with existing/novel anticancer agents. Regardless of this, today scientific efforts have fortified the quest for newer and novel HDAC inhibitors that show isoform selectivity. This review focuses on the chemistry of the molecules of two classes of HDAC inhibitors, namely short chain fatty acids and hydroxamic acids, investigated so far as novel therapeutic agents for cancer. PMID:27239721

  3. REPLACEMENT HISTONES: A ROLE IN DESICCATION TOLERANCE IN MOSS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of an expressed sequence tag (EST) cDNA library from the desiccation-tolerant moss, Tortula ruralis, identified a clone, RNP49, with strong sequence similarity to genes encoding histone, H3, a component of the core nucleosome in all eukaryotes. The RNP49 cDNA clone was produced using mRNA ...

  4. Targeting Histone Deacetylases: A Novel Approach in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of movement disorders is increasing day by day. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder. In general, the clinical manifestations of PD result from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. Although the exact underlying mechanisms leading to neural cell death in this disease remains unknown, the genetic causes are often established. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that chromatin acetylation status can be impaired during the neurological disease conditions. The acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins are carried out by opposing actions of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. In the recent past, studies with HDAC inhibitors result in beneficial effects in both in vivo and in vitro models of PD. Various clinical trials have also been initiated to investigate the possible therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors in patients suffering from PD. The possible mechanisms assigned for these neuroprotective actions of HDAC inhibitors involve transcriptional activation of neuronal survival genes and maintenance of histone acetylation homeostasis, both of which have been shown to be dysregulated in PD. In this review, the authors have discussed the putative role of HDAC inhibitors in PD and associated abnormalities and suggest new directions for future research in PD. PMID:25694842

  5. Histone deacetylases in fungi: novel members, new facts.

    PubMed

    Trojer, Patrick; Brandtner, Eva M; Brosch, Gerald; Loidl, Peter; Galehr, Johannes; Linzmaier, Roland; Haas, Hubertus; Mair, Karin; Tribus, Martin; Graessle, Stefan

    2003-07-15

    Acetylation is the most prominent modification on core histones that strongly affects nuclear processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair and transcription. Enzymes responsible for the dynamic equilibrium of histone acetylation are histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In this paper we describe the identification of novel HDACs from the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and the maize pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum. Two of the enzymes are homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOS3, an enzyme that has not been identified outside of the established yeast systems until now. One of these homologs, HosB, showed intrinsic HDAC activity and remarkable resistance against HDAC inhibitors like trichostatin A (TSA) when recombinant expressed in an Escherichia coli host system. Phylo genetic analysis revealed that HosB, together with other fungal HOS3 orthologs, is a member of a separate group within the classical HDACs. Immunological investigations with partially purified HDAC activities of Aspergillus showed that all classical enzymes are part of high molecular weight complexes and that a TSA sensitive class 2 HDAC constitutes the major part of total HDAC activity of the fungus. However, further biochemical analysis also revealed an NAD(+)-dependent activity that could be separated from the other activities by different types of chromatography and obviously represents an enzyme of the sirtuin class. PMID:12853613

  6. Small molecule modulators of histone acetyltransferase p300.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanyam, Karanam; Swaminathan, V; Ranganathan, Anupama; Kundu, Tapas K

    2003-05-23

    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are a group of enzymes that play a significant role in the regulation of gene expression. These enzymes covalently modify the N-terminal lysine residues of histones by the addition of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA. Dysfunction of these enzymes is often associated with the manifestation of several diseases, predominantly cancer. Here we report that anacardic acid from cashew nut shell liquid is a potent inhibitor of p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor histone acetyltranferase activities. Although it does not affect DNA transcription, HAT-dependent transcription from a chromatin template was strongly inhibited by anacardic acid. Furthermore, we describe the design and synthesis of an amide derivative N-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-ethoxy-6-pentadecyl-benzamide (CTPB) using anacardic acid as a synthon, which remarkably activates p300 HAT activity but not that of p300/CBP-associated factor. Although CTPB does not affect DNA transcription, it enhances the p300 HAT-dependent transcriptional activation from in vitro assembled chromatin template. However, it has no effect on histone deacetylase activity. These compounds would be useful as biological switching molecules for probing into the role of p300 in transcriptional studies and may also be useful as new chemical entities for the development of anticancer drugs. PMID:12624111

  7. Sepsis and ARDS: The Dark Side of Histones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiheng; Huang, Yongbo; Mao, Pu; Zhang, Jianrong; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in management over the last several decades, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) still remain major clinical challenges and the leading causes of death for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) due to insufficient understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases. However, recent studies have shown that histones, also known as chromatin-basic structure proteins, could be released into the extracellular space during severe stress and physical challenges to the body (e.g., sepsis and ARDS). Due to their cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, extracellular histones can lead to excessive and overwhelming cell damage and death, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of both sepsis and ARDS. In addition, antihistone-based treatments (e.g., neutralizing antibodies, activated protein C, and heparin) have shown protective effects and have significantly improved the outcomes of mice suffering from sepsis and ARDS. Here, we review researches related to the pathological role of histone in context of sepsis and ARDS and evaluate the potential value of histones as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of these diseases. PMID:26609197

  8. Properly reading the histone code by MS-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sidoli, Simone; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2015-09-01

    Histone proteins are essential elements for DNA packaging. Their PTMs contribute in modeling chromatin structure and recruiting enzymes involved in gene regulation, DNA repair, and chromosome condensation. This fundamental aspect, together with the fact that histone PTMs can be epigenetically inherited through cell generations, enlightens their importance in chromatin biology, and the consequent necessity of having biochemical techniques for their characterization. Nanoflow LC coupled to MS (nanoLC-MS) is the strategy of choice for protein PTM accurate quantification. However, histones require adjustments to the digestion protocol such as lysine derivatization to obtain suitable peptides for the analysis. nanoLC-MS has numerous advantages, spanning from high confidence identification to possibility of high throughput analyses, but the peculiarity of the histone preparation protocol requires continuous monitoring with the most modern available technologies to question its reliability. The work of Meert et al. (Proteomics 2015, 15, 2966-2971) establishes which protocols lead to either incomplete derivatization or derivatization of undesired amino acid residues using a combination of high resolution MS and bioinformatics tools for the alignment and the characterization of nanoLC-MS runs. As well, they identify a number of side reactions that could be potentially misinterpreted as biological PTMs. PMID:26223514

  9. Cell shape regulates global histone acetylation in human mammaryepithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Le Beyec, Johanne; Xu, Ren; Lee, Sun-Young; Nelson, Celeste M.; Rizki, Aylin; Alcaraz, Jordi; Bissell, Mina J.

    2007-02-28

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell morphology and gene expression in vivo; these relationships are maintained in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mammary epithelial cells. In the presence of laminin-rich ECM (lrECM), mammary epithelial cells round up and undergo global histone deacetylation, a process critical for their functional differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether lrECM-dependent cell rounding and global histone deacetylation are indeed part of a common physical-biochemical pathway. Using 3D cultures as well as nonadhesive and micropatterned substrata, here we showed that the cell 'rounding' caused by lrECM was sufficient to induce deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the absence of biochemical cues. Microarray and confocal analysis demonstrated that this deacetylation in 3D culture is associated with a global increase in chromatin condensation and a reduction in gene expression. Whereas cells cultured on plastic substrata formed prominent stress fibers, cells grown in 3D lrECM or on micropatterns lacked these structures. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D phenocopied the lrECM-induced cell rounding and histone deacetylation. These results reveal a novel link between ECM-controlled cell shape and chromatin structure, and suggest that this link is mediated by changes in the actin cytoskeleton.

  10. Interactions of Hsp90 with histones and related peptides.

    PubMed

    Schnaider, T; Oikarinen, J; Ishiwatari-Hayasaka, H; Yahara, I; Csermely, P

    1999-01-01

    The 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) induces the condensation of the chromatin structure [Csermely, P., Kajtár, J., Hollósi, M., Oikarinen, J., and Somogyi, J. (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 202, 1657-1663]. In our present studies we used surface plasmon resonance measurements to demonstrate that Hsp90 binds histones H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 with high affinity having dissociation constants in the submicromolar range. Strong binding of the C-terminal peptide of histone H1 containing the SPKK-motif and a pentaeicosa-peptide including the Hsp90 bipartite nuclear localization signal sequence was also observed. However, a lysine/arginine-rich peptide of casein, and the lysine-rich platelet factor 4 did not display a significant interaction with Hsp90. Histones and positively charged peptides modulated the Hsp90-associated kinase activity. Interactions between Hsp90, histones, and high mobility group (HMG) protein-derived peptides raise the possibility of the involvement of Hsp90 in chromatin reorganization during steroid action, mitosis, or after cellular stress. PMID:10597896

  11. Functional dissection of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase reveals its role as a genetic hub and that Eaf1 is essential for complex integrity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Leslie; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Gerdes, Maria; Al-Madhoun, Ashraf S; Skerjanc, Ilona S; Figeys, Daniel; Baetz, Kristin

    2008-04-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex catalyzes the acetylation of histone H4 and the histone variant Htz1 to regulate key cellular events, including transcription, DNA repair, and faithful chromosome segregation. To further investigate the cellular processes impacted by NuA4, we exploited the nonessential subunits of the complex to build an extensive NuA4 genetic-interaction network map. The map reveals that NuA4 is a genetic hub whose function buffers a diverse range of cellular processes, many not previously linked to the complex, including Golgi complex-to-vacuole vesicle-mediated transport. Further, we probe the role that nonessential subunits play in NuA4 complex integrity. We find that most nonessential subunits have little impact on NuA4 complex integrity and display between 12 and 42 genetic interactions. In contrast, the deletion of EAF1 causes the collapse of the NuA4 complex and displays 148 genetic interactions. Our study indicates that Eaf1 plays a crucial function in NuA4 complex integrity. Further, we determine that Eaf5 and Eaf7 form a subcomplex, which reflects their similar genetic interaction profiles and phenotypes. Our integrative study demonstrates that genetic interaction maps are valuable in dissecting complex structure and provides insight into why the human NuA4 complex, Tip60, has been associated with a diverse range of pathologies. PMID:18212056

  12. HJURP uses distinct CENP-A surfaces to recognize and to stabilize CENP-A/histone H4 for centromere assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Emily A.; DeNizio, Jamie; Barnhart-Dailey, Meghan C.; Panchenko, Tanya; Sekulic, Nikolina; Rogers, Danielle J.; Foltz, Daniel R.; Black, Ben E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Centromeres are defined by the presence of chromatin containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A, whose assembly into nucleosomes requires the chromatin assembly factor HJURP. We find that while surface-exposed residues in the CENP-A targeting domain (CATD) are the primary sequence determinants for HJURP recognition, buried CATD residues that generate rigidity with H4 are also required for efficient incorporation into centromeres. HJURP contact points adjacent to the CATD on the CENP-A surface are not used for binding specificity but rather to transmit stability broadly throughout the histone fold domains of both CENP-A and H4. Further, an intact CENP-A/CENP-A interface is a requirement for stable chromatin incorporation immediately upon HJURP-mediated assembly. These data offer insight into the mechanism by which HJURP discriminates CENP-A from bulk histone complexes and chaperones CENP-A/H4 for a substantial portion of the cell cycle prior to mediating chromatin assembly at the centromere. PMID:22406139

  13. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) interacts with the histone chaperone HIRA complex and regulates nucleosome assembly and cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-06-01

    The histone chaperone HIRA complex, consisting of histone cell cycle regulator (HIRA), Ubinuclein1 (UBN1), and calcineurin binding protein 1 (CABIN1), deposits histone variant H3.3 to genic regions and regulates gene expression in various cellular processes, including cellular senescence. How HIRA-mediated nucleosome assembly of H3.3-H4 is regulated remains not well understood. Here, we show that O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (OGT), an enzyme that catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation of serine or threonine residues, interacts with UBN1, modifies HIRA, and promotes nucleosome assembly of H3.3. Depletion of OGT or expression of the HIRA S231A O-GlcNAcylation-deficient mutant compromises formation of the HIRA-H3.3 complex and H3.3 nucleosome assembly. Importantly, OGT depletion or expression of the HIRA S231A mutant delays premature cellular senescence in primary human fibroblasts, whereas overexpression of OGT accelerates senescence. Taken together, these results support a model in which OGT modifies HIRA to regulate HIRA-H3.3 complex formation and H3.3 nucleosome assembly and reveal the mechanism by which OGT functions in cellular senescence. PMID:27217568

  14. Astrocyte Reactivity Following Blast Exposure Involves Aberrant Histone Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Zachary S.; Grinter, Michael B.; VandeVord, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a prevalent injury within military and civilian populations. The injury is characterized by persistent inflammation at the cellular level which manifests as a multitude of cognitive and functional impairments. Epigenetic regulation of transcription offers an important control mechanism for gene expression and cellular function which may underlie chronic inflammation and result in neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that altered histone acetylation patterns may be involved in blast induced inflammation and the chronic activation of glial cells. This study aimed to elucidate changes to histone acetylation occurring following injury and the roles these changes may have within the pathology. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to either a 10 or 17 psi blast overpressure within an Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS). Sham animals underwent the same procedures without blast exposure. Memory impairments were measured using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) test at 2 and 7 days post-injury. Tissues were collected at 7 days for Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Sham animals showed intact memory at each time point. The novel object discrimination decreased significantly between two and 7 days for each injury group (p < 0.05). This is indicative of the onset of memory impairment. Western blot analysis showed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a known marker of activated astrocytes, was elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) following blast exposure for both injury groups. Analysis of histone protein extract showed no changes in the level of any total histone proteins within the PFC. However, acetylation levels of histone H2b, H3, and H4 were decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). Co-localization immunofluorescence was used to further investigate any potential correlation between decreased histone acetylation and astrocyte activation. These experiments showed a similar decrease in H3 acetylation in astrocytes exposed to a 17

  15. Evolutionary correlation between linker histones and microtubular structures.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowski, S; Jerzmanowski, A

    2001-07-01

    Histones of the H1 group (linker histones) are abundant components of chromatin in eukaryotes, occurring on average at one molecule per nucleosome. The recent reports on the lack of a clear phenotypic effect of knock-out mutations as well as overexpression of histone H1 genes in different organisms have seriously undermined the long-held view that linker histones are essential for the basic functions of eukaryotic cells. In an attempt to resolve the paradox of an abundant conserved protein without a clear function, we re-examined the molecular and phylogenetic data on linker histones to see if they could reveal any correlation between the features of H1 and the functional or morphological characteristics of cells or organisms. Because of an earlier demonstration that in sea urchin the chromatin-type histone H1 is also found in the flagellar microtubules (Multigner et al. 1992), we focused on the correlation between the features of H1 and those of microtubular structures. A phylogenetic tree based on multiple alignment of over 100 available HI sequences suggests that the first divergence of the globular domain of H1 (GH1) resulted in branching into separate types characteristic for plants/Dictyostelium and for animals/ascomycetes, respectively. The GH1s of these two types differ by a short region (usually 5 amino acids) placed at a specific location within the C-terminal wing subdomain of GH1. Evolutionary analysis of the diversification of H1 mRNA into cell-cycle-dependent (polyA-) and independent (polyA+) forms showed a mosaic occurrence of these two forms in plants and animals, despite the fact that the H1 proteins of plants and animals belong to two well-distinguished groups. However, among organisms from both animal and plant kingdom, only those with H1 mRNA of a polyA- type have flagellated gametes. This correlation as well as the demonstration that in Volvox carteri the accumulation of polyA- mRNA of H1 occurs concurrently with the production of new flagella

  16. Rare loss-of-function variants in SETD1A are associated with schizophrenia and developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tarjinder; Kurki, Mitja I; Curtis, David; Purcell, Shaun M; Crooks, Lucy; McRae, Jeremy; Suvisaari, Jaana; Chheda, Himanshu; Blackwood, Douglas; Breen, Gerome; Pietiläinen, Olli; Gerety, Sebastian S; Ayub, Muhammad; Blyth, Moira; Cole, Trevor; Collier, David; Coomber, Eve L; Craddock, Nick; Daly, Mark J; Danesh, John; DiForti, Marta; Foster, Alison; Freimer, Nelson B; Geschwind, Daniel; Johnstone, Mandy; Joss, Shelagh; Kirov, Georg; Körkkö, Jarmo; Kuismin, Outi; Holmans, Peter; Hultman, Christina M; Iyegbe, Conrad; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Männikkö, Minna; McCarroll, Steve A; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew M; McQuillin, Andrew; Moilanen, Jukka S; Moore, Carmel; Murray, Robin M; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Ouwehand, Willem; Paunio, Tiina; Prigmore, Elena; Rees, Elliott; Roberts, David; Sambrook, Jennifer; Sklar, Pamela; Clair, David St; Veijola, Juha; Walters, James T R; Williams, Hywel; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hurles, Matthew E; O'Donovan, Michael C; Palotie, Aarno; Owen, Michael J; Barrett, Jeffrey C

    2016-04-01

    By analyzing the whole-exome sequences of 4,264 schizophrenia cases, 9,343 controls and 1,077 trios, we identified a genome-wide significant association between rare loss-of-function (LoF) variants in SETD1A and risk for schizophrenia (P = 3.3 × 10(-9)). We found only two heterozygous LoF variants in 45,376 exomes from individuals without a neuropsychiatric diagnosis, indicating that SETD1A is substantially depleted of LoF variants in the general population. Seven of the ten individuals with schizophrenia carrying SETD1A LoF variants also had learning difficulties. We further identified four SETD1A LoF carriers among 4,281 children with severe developmental disorders and two more carriers in an independent sample of 5,720 Finnish exomes, both with notable neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Together, our observations indicate that LoF variants in SETD1A cause a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia. Combining these data with previous common variant evidence, we suggest that epigenetic dysregulation, specifically in the histone H3K4 methylation pathway, is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. PMID:26974950

  17. Identification of a Potential Regulatory Variant for Colorectal Cancer Risk Mapping to 3p21.31 in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Juntao; Lou, Jiao; Zhong, Rong; Chen, Xueqin; Li, Jiaoyuan; Liu, Cheng; Gong, Yajie; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Chang, Jiang; Gong, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have established chromosome 3p21.31 as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer (CRC) that lacks replication and exploration in the Chinese population. We searched potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) block of 3p21.31 with chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data of histone modification, and tested their association with CRC via a case-control study involving 767 cases and 1397 controls in stage 1 and 528 cases and 678 controls in stage 2. In addition to the tag SNP rs8180040 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.875, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.793−0.966, P = 0.008, P-FDR (false discovery rate) = 0.040), rs1076394 presented consistently significant associations with CRC risk at both stages with OR = 0.850 (95% CI = 0.771−0.938, P = 0.001, P-FDR = 0.005) under the additive model in combined analyses. Supported by the analyses of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), it was suggested that rs1076394 served as an expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) for gene CCDC12 and NME6, while NME6’s expression was obviously higher in CRC tissues. Using biofeature information such as ChIP-seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data might help researchers to interpret GWAS results and locate functional variants for diseases in the post-GWAS era. PMID:27120998

  18. Identification of a Potential Regulatory Variant for Colorectal Cancer Risk Mapping to 3p21.31 in Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Ke, Juntao; Lou, Jiao; Zhong, Rong; Chen, Xueqin; Li, Jiaoyuan; Liu, Cheng; Gong, Yajie; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Chang, Jiang; Gong, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have established chromosome 3p21.31 as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer (CRC) that lacks replication and exploration in the Chinese population. We searched potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) block of 3p21.31 with chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data of histone modification, and tested their association with CRC via a case-control study involving 767 cases and 1397 controls in stage 1 and 528 cases and 678 controls in stage 2. In addition to the tag SNP rs8180040 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.875, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.793-0.966, P = 0.008, P-FDR (false discovery rate) = 0.040), rs1076394 presented consistently significant associations with CRC risk at both stages with OR = 0.850 (95% CI = 0.771-0.938, P = 0.001, P-FDR = 0.005) under the additive model in combined analyses. Supported by the analyses of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), it was suggested that rs1076394 served as an expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) for gene CCDC12 and NME6, while NME6's expression was obviously higher in CRC tissues. Using biofeature information such as ChIP-seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data might help researchers to interpret GWAS results and locate functional variants for diseases in the post-GWAS era. PMID:27120998

  19. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Set7, a putative histone methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Mevius, Damiaan E H F; Shen, Yunpeng; Morishita, Masayo; di Luccio, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunction of histone-modifying enzymes affects chromatin regulation and is involved in carcinogenesis, tumour progression and other diseases. Histone methyltransferases are a family of key histone-modifying enzymes, but their structures, functions and mechanisms are incompletely understood, thus constraining drug-design efforts. Here, preliminary steps towards structure-function studies of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Set7, a putative histone methyltransferase and the first yeast full-length SET-domain-containing protein to be studied using X-ray crystallography, are reported. The methods from cloning to X-ray diffraction and phasing are discussed and the results will aid in prospective studies of histone-modifying enzymes. PMID:27050258

  20. Automethylation activities within the mixed lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) core complex reveal evidence supporting a "two-active site" model for multiple histone H3 lysine 4 methylation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anamika; Vought, Valarie E; Swatkoski, Stephen; Viggiano, Susan; Howard, Benny; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Monteith, Kelsey E; Kupakuwana, Gillian; Namitz, Kevin E; Shinsky, Stephen A; Cotter, Robert J; Cosgrove, Michael S

    2014-01-10

    The mixed lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) core complex predominantly catalyzes mono- and dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4) and is frequently altered in aggressive acute leukemias. The molecular mechanisms that account for conversion of mono- to dimethyl H3K4 (H3K4me1,2) are not well understood. In this investigation, we report that the suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zeste, trithorax (SET) domains from human MLL1 and Drosophila Trithorax undergo robust intramolecular automethylation reactions at an evolutionarily conserved cysteine residue in the active site, which is inhibited by unmodified histone H3. The location of the automethylation in the SET-I subdomain indicates that the MLL1 SET domain possesses significantly more conformational plasticity in solution than suggested by its crystal structure. We also report that MLL1 methylates Ash2L in the absence of histone H3, but only when assembled within a complex with WDR5 and RbBP5, suggesting a restraint for the architectural arrangement of subunits within the complex. Using MLL1 and Ash2L automethylation reactions as probes for histone binding, we observed that both automethylation reactions are significantly inhibited by stoichiometric amounts of unmethylated histone H3, but not by histones previously mono-, di-, or trimethylated at H3K4. These results suggest that the H3K4me1 intermediate does not significantly bind to the MLL1 SET domain during the dimethylation reaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that the MLL1 core complex assembled with a catalytically inactive SET domain variant preferentially catalyzes H3K4 dimethylation using the H3K4me1 substrate. Taken together, these results are consistent with a "two-active site" model for multiple H3K4 methylation by the MLL1 core complex. PMID:24235145

  1. Automethylation Activities within the Mixed Lineage Leukemia-1 (MLL1) Core Complex Reveal Evidence Supporting a “Two-active Site” Model for Multiple Histone H3 Lysine 4 Methylation*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anamika; Vought, Valarie E.; Swatkoski, Stephen; Viggiano, Susan; Howard, Benny; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Monteith, Kelsey E.; Kupakuwana, Gillian; Namitz, Kevin E.; Shinsky, Stephen A.; Cotter, Robert J.; Cosgrove, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The mixed lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) core complex predominantly catalyzes mono- and dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4) and is frequently altered in aggressive acute leukemias. The molecular mechanisms that account for conversion of mono- to dimethyl H3K4 (H3K4me1,2) are not well understood. In this investigation, we report that the suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zeste, trithorax (SET) domains from human MLL1 and Drosophila Trithorax undergo robust intramolecular automethylation reactions at an evolutionarily conserved cysteine residue in the active site, which is inhibited by unmodified histone H3. The location of the automethylation in the SET-I subdomain indicates that the MLL1 SET domain possesses significantly more conformational plasticity in solution than suggested by its crystal structure. We also report that MLL1 methylates Ash2L in the absence of histone H3, but only when assembled within a complex with WDR5 and RbBP5, suggesting a restraint for the architectural arrangement of subunits within the complex. Using MLL1 and Ash2L automethylation reactions as probes for histone binding, we observed that both automethylation reactions are significantly inhibited by stoichiometric amounts of unmethylated histone H3, but not by histones previously mono-, di-, or trimethylated at H3K4. These results suggest that the H3K4me1 intermediate does not significantly bind to the MLL1 SET domain during the dimethylation reaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that the MLL1 core complex assembled with a catalytically inactive SET domain variant preferentially catalyzes H3K4 dimethylation using the H3K4me1 substrate. Taken together, these results are consistent with a “two-active site” model for multiple H3K4 methylation by the MLL1 core complex. PMID:24235145

  2. Loss-of-function variants of SETD5 cause intellectual disability and the core phenotype of microdeletion 3p25.3 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuechler, Alma; Zink, Alexander M; Wieland, Thomas; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Cremer, Kirsten; Salviati, Leonardo; Magini, Pamela; Najafi, Kimia; Zweier, Christiane; Czeschik, Johanna Christina; Aretz, Stefan; Endele, Sabine; Tamburrino, Federica; Pinato, Claudia; Clementi, Maurizio; Gundlach, Jasmin; Maylahn, Carina; Mazzanti, Laura; Wohlleber, Eva; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Kariminejad, Roxana; Schlessinger, Avner; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Strom, Tim M; Novarino, Gaia; Engels, Hartmut

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) has an estimated prevalence of 2-3%. Due to its extreme heterogeneity, the genetic basis of ID remains elusive in many cases. Recently, whole exome sequencing (WES) studies revealed that a large proportion of sporadic cases are caused by de novo gene variants. To identify further genes involved in ID, we performed WES in 250 patients with unexplained ID and their unaffected parents and included exomes of 51 previously sequenced child-parents trios in the analysis. Exome analysis revealed de novo intragenic variants in SET domain-containing 5 (SETD5) in two patients. One patient carried a nonsense variant, and the other an 81 bp deletion located across a splice-donor site. Chromosomal microarray diagnostics further identified four de novo non-recurrent microdeletions encompassing SETD5. CRISPR/Cas9 mutation modelling of the two intragenic variants demonstrated nonsense-mediated decay of the resulting transcripts, pointing to a loss-of-function (LoF) and haploinsufficiency as the common disease-causing mechanism of intragenic SETD5 sequence variants and SETD5-containing microdeletions. In silico domain prediction of SETD5, a predicted SET domain-containing histone methyltransferase (HMT), substantiated the presence of a SET domain and identified a novel putative PHD domain, strengthening a functional link to well-known histone-modifying ID genes. All six patients presented with ID and certain facial dysmorphisms, suggesting that SETD5 sequence variants contribute substantially to the microdeletion 3p25.3 phenotype. The present report of two SETD5 LoF variants in 301 patients demonstrates a prevalence of 0.7% and thus SETD5 variants as a relatively frequent cause of ID. PMID:25138099

  3. Loss-of-function variants of SETD5 cause intellectual disability and the core phenotype of microdeletion 3p25.3 syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kuechler, Alma; Zink, Alexander M; Wieland, Thomas; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Cremer, Kirsten; Salviati, Leonardo; Magini, Pamela; Najafi, Kimia; Zweier, Christiane; Czeschik, Johanna Christina; Aretz, Stefan; Endele, Sabine; Tamburrino, Federica; Pinato, Claudia; Clementi, Maurizio; Gundlach, Jasmin; Maylahn, Carina; Mazzanti, Laura; Wohlleber, Eva; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Kariminejad, Roxana; Schlessinger, Avner; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Strom, Tim M; Novarino, Gaia; Engels, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) has an estimated prevalence of 2–3%. Due to its extreme heterogeneity, the genetic basis of ID remains elusive in many cases. Recently, whole exome sequencing (WES) studies revealed that a large proportion of sporadic cases are caused by de novo gene variants. To identify further genes involved in ID, we performed WES in 250 patients with unexplained ID and their unaffected parents and included exomes of 51 previously sequenced child–parents trios in the analysis. Exome analysis revealed de novo intragenic variants in SET domain-containing 5 (SETD5) in two patients. One patient carried a nonsense variant, and the other an 81 bp deletion located across a splice-donor site. Chromosomal microarray diagnostics further identified four de novo non-recurrent microdeletions encompassing SETD5. CRISPR/Cas9 mutation modelling of the two intragenic variants demonstrated nonsense-mediated decay of the resulting transcripts, pointing to a loss-of-function (LoF) and haploinsufficiency as the common disease-causing mechanism of intragenic SETD5 sequence variants and SETD5-containing microdeletions. In silico domain prediction of SETD5, a predicted SET domain-containing histone methyltransferase (HMT), substantiated the presence of a SET domain and identified a novel putative PHD domain, strengthening a functional link to well-known histone-modifying ID genes. All six patients presented with ID and certain facial dysmorphisms, suggesting that SETD5 sequence variants contribute substantially to the microdeletion 3p25.3 phenotype. The present report of two SETD5 LoF variants in 301 patients demonstrates a prevalence of 0.7% and thus SETD5 variants as a relatively frequent cause of ID. PMID:25138099

  4. A Simple Histone Code Opens Many Paths to Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Sneppen, Kim; Dodd, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleosomes can be covalently modified by addition of various chemical groups on several of their exposed histone amino acids. These modifications are added and removed by enzymes (writers) and can be recognized by nucleosome-binding proteins (readers). Linking a reader domain and a writer domain that recognize and create the same modification state should allow nucleosomes in a particular modification state to recruit enzymes that create that modification state on nearby nucleosomes. This positive feedback has the potential to provide the alternative stable and heritable states required for epigenetic memory. However, analysis of simple histone codes involving interconversions between only two or three types of modified nucleosomes has revealed only a few circuit designs that allow heritable bistability. Here we show by computer simulations that a histone code involving alternative modifications at two histone positions, producing four modification states, combined with reader-writer proteins able to distinguish these states, allows for hundreds of different circuits capable of heritable bistability. These expanded possibilities result from multiple ways of generating two-step cooperativity in the positive feedback - through alternative pathways and an additional, novel cooperativity motif. Our analysis reveals other properties of such epigenetic circuits. They are most robust when the dominant nucleosome types are different at both modification positions and are not the type inserted after DNA replication. The dominant nucleosome types often recruit enzymes that create their own type or destroy the opposing type, but never catalyze their own destruction. The circuits appear to be evolutionary accessible; most circuits can be changed stepwise into almost any other circuit without losing heritable bistability. Thus, our analysis indicates that systems that utilize an expanded histone code have huge potential for generating stable and heritable nucleosome

  5. A simple histone code opens many paths to epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Sneppen, Kim; Dodd, Ian B

    2012-01-01

    Nucleosomes can be covalently modified by addition of various chemical groups on several of their exposed histone amino acids. These modifications are added and removed by enzymes (writers) and can be recognized by nucleosome-binding proteins (readers). Linking a reader domain and a writer domain that recognize and create the same modification state should allow nucleosomes in a particular modification state to recruit enzymes that create that modification state on nearby nucleosomes. This positive feedback has the potential to provide the alternative stable and heritable states required for epigenetic memory. However, analysis of simple histone codes involving interconversions between only two or three types of modified nucleosomes has revealed only a few circuit designs that allow heritable bistability. Here we show by computer simulations that a histone code involving alternative modifications at two histone positions, producing four modification states, combined with reader-writer proteins able to distinguish these states, allows for hundreds of different circuits capable of heritable bistability. These expanded possibilities result from multiple ways of generating two-step cooperativity in the positive feedback--through alternative pathways and an additional, novel cooperativity motif. Our analysis reveals other properties of such epigenetic circuits. They are most robust when the dominant nucleosome types are different at both modification positions and are not the type inserted after DNA replication. The dominant nucleosome types often recruit enzymes that create their own type or destroy the opposing type, but never catalyze their own destruction. The circuits appear to be evolutionary accessible; most circuits can be changed stepwise into almost any other circuit without losing heritable bistability. Thus, our analysis indicates that systems that utilize an expanded histone code have huge potential for generating stable and heritable nucleosome

  6. A novel mammalian flavin-dependent histone demethylase.

    PubMed

    Karytinos, Aristotele; Forneris, Federico; Profumo, Antonella; Ciossani, Giuseppe; Battaglioli, Elena; Binda, Claudia; Mattevi, Andrea

    2009-06-26

    Methylation of Lys residues on histone proteins is a well known and extensively characterized epigenetic mark. The recent discovery of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) demonstrated that lysine methylation can be dynamically controlled. Among the histone demethylases so far identified, LSD1 has the unique feature of functioning through a flavin-dependent amine oxidation reaction. Data base analysis reveals that mammalian genomes contain a gene (AOF1, for amine-oxidase flavin-containing domain 1) that is homologous to the LSD1-coding gene. Here, we demonstrate that the protein encoded by AOF1 represents a second mammalian flavin-dependent histone demethylase, named LSD2. The new demethylase is strictly specific for mono- and dimethylated Lys4 of histone H3, recognizes a long stretch of the H3 N-terminal tail, senses the presence of additional epigenetic marks on the histone substrate, and is covalently inhibited by tranylcypromine. As opposed to LSD1, LSD2 does not form a biochemically stable complex with the C-terminal domain of the corepressor protein CoREST. Furthermore, LSD2 contains a CW-type zinc finger motif with potential zinc-binding sites that are not present in LSD1. We conclude that mammalian LSD2 represents a new flavin-dependent H3-Lys4 demethylase that features substrate specificity properties highly similar to those of LSD1 but is very likely to be part of chromatin-remodeling complexes that are distinct from those involving LSD1. PMID:19407342

  7. The N-terminus of histone H2B, but not that of histone H3 or its phosphorylation, is essential for chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    de la Barre, Anne-Elisabeth; Angelov, Dimitri; Molla, Annie; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the role of individual histone N-termini and the phosphorylation of histone H3 in chromosome condensation. Nucleosomes, reconstituted with histone octamers containing different combinations of recombinant full-length and tailless histones, were used as competitors for chromosome assembly in Xenopus egg extracts. Nucleosomes reconstituted with intact octamers inhibited chromosome condensation as efficiently as the native ones, while tailless nucleosomes were unable to affect this process. Importantly, the addition to the extract of particles containing only intact histone H2B strongly interfered with chromosome formation while such an effect was not observed with particles lacking the N-terminal tail of H2B. This demonstrates that the inhibition effect observed in the presence of competitor nucleosomes is mainly due to the N-terminus of this histone, which, therefore, is essential for chromosome condensation. Nucleosomes in which all histones but H3 were tailless did not impede chromosome formation. In addition, when competitor nucleosome particles were reconstituted with full-length H2A, H2B and H4 and histone H3 mutated at the phosphorylable serine 10 or serine 28, their inhibiting efficiency was identical to that of the native particles. Hence, the tail of H3, whether intact or phosphorylated, is not important for chromosome condensation. A novel hypothesis, termed ‘the ready production label’ was suggested to explain the role of histone H3 phosphorylation during cell division. PMID:11707409

  8. The Oncogenic Polycomb Histone Methyltransferase EZH2 Methylates Lysine 120 on Histone H2B and Competes Ubiquitination12

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, Masaharu; Takawa, Masashi; Saloura, Vassiliki; Sone, Kenbun; Piao, Lianhua; Ueda, Koji; Ibrahim, Reem; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Sugiyama, Masanori; Atomi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    The histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) is known to be a polycomb protein homologous to Drosophila enhancer of zeste and catalyzes the addition of methyl groups to histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27). We previously reported that EZH2 was overexpressed in various types of cancer and plays a crucial role in the cell cycle regulation of cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that EZH2 has the function to monomethylate lysine 120 on histone H2B (H2BK120). EZH2-dependent H2BK120 methylation in cancer cells was confirmed with an H2BK120 methylation-specific antibody. Overexpression of EZH2 significantly attenuated the ubiquitination of H2BK120, a key posttranslational modification of histones for transcriptional regulation. Concordantly, knockdown of EZH2 increased the ubiquitination level of H2BK120, suggesting that the methylation of H2BK120 by EZH2 may competitively inhibit the ubiquitination of H2BK120. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq and microarray analyses identified downstream candidate genes regulated by EZH2 through the methylation of H2BK120. This is the first report to describe a novel substrate of EZH2, H2BK120, unveiling a new aspect of EZH2 functions in human carcinogenesis. PMID:24339737

  9. Biological function and regulation of histone and non-histone lysine methylation in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongcan; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2016-07-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) signaling network is initiated to protect cells from various exogenous and endogenous damage resources. Timely and accurate regulation of DDR proteins is required for distinct DNA damage repair pathways. Post-translational modifications of histone and non-histone proteins play a vital role in the DDR factor foci formation and signaling pathway. Phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, neddylation, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, acetylation, and methylation are all involved in the spatial-temporal regulation of DDR, among which phosphorylation and ubiquitylation are well studied. Studies in the past decade also revealed extensive roles of lysine methylation in response to DNA damage. Lysine methylation is finely regulated by plenty of lysine methyltransferases, lysine demethylases, and can be recognized by proteins with chromodomain, plant homeodomain, Tudor domain, malignant brain tumor domain, or proline-tryptophan-tryptophan-proline domain. In this review, we outline the dynamics and regulation of histone lysine methylation at canonical (H3K4, H3K9, H3K27, H3K36, H3K79, and H4K20) and non-canonical sites after DNA damage, and discuss their context-specific functions in DDR protein recruitment or extraction, chromatin environment establishment, and transcriptional regulation. We also present the emerging advances of lysine methylation in non-histone proteins during DDR. PMID:27217472

  10. Histone and Ribosomal RNA Repetitive Gene Clusters of the Boll Weevil are Linked in a Tandem Array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and ...

  11. Nucleosomal structure at hyperacetylated loci probed in nuclei by DNA-histone crosslinking.

    PubMed Central

    Ebralidse, K K; Hebbes, T R; Clayton, A L; Thorne, A W; Crane-Robinson, C

    1993-01-01

    Chemically induced histone-DNA crosslinking in nuclei is used to monitor structural changes in chromosomal domains containing hyperacetylated histones. Core particles harbouring the crosslinks are immunofractionated with antibodies specific for acetylated histones. Crosslinking is revealed by gel separation of tryptic peptides from core histones that carry 32P-labelled residual nucleotide. The large number of DNA-histone crosslinks retained indicates that acetylated core histone tails are not totally displaced from the DNA. Changes in the patterns of crosslinked peptides imply a restructuring of hyperacetylated histone-DNA interactions at several points within the nucleosome. This demonstrates that a distinct conformational state is adopted in acetylated nucleosomes, known to be concentrated at transcriptionally active loci. Images PMID:8233821

  12. Nanoparticle formulations of histone deacetylase inhibitors for effective chemoradiotherapy in solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Edina C.; Min, Yuanzeng; Palm, Robert C.; Fiordalisi, James J.; Wagner, Kyle T.; Hyder, Nabeel; Cox, Adrienne D.; Caster, Joseph; Tian, Xi; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) represent a class of promising agents that can improve radiotherapy in cancer treatment. However, the full therapeutic potential of HDACIs as radiosensitizers has been restricted by limited efficacy in solid malignancies. In this study, we report the development of nanoparticle (NP) formulations of HDACIs that overcome these limitations, illustrating their utility to improve the therapeutic ratio of the clinically established first generation HDACI vorinostat and a novel second generation HDACI quisinostat. We demonstrate that NP HDACIs are potent radiosensitizers in vitro and are more effective as radiosensitizers than small molecule HDACIs in vivo using mouse xenograft models of colorectal and prostate carcinomas. We found that NP HDACIs enhance the response of tumor cells to radiation through the prolongation of γ-H2AX foci. Our work illustrates an effective method for improving cancer radiotherapy treatment. PMID:25771011

  13. Histone acetyltransferase p300 mediates histone acetylation of PS1 and BACE1 in a cellular model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Deng, Yushuang; Yu, Daohai; Cao, Huiming; Wang, Li; Liu, Li; Yu, Caijia; Zhang, Yuping; Guo, Xiuming; Yu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, particularly histone acetylation, have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). While previous studies have suggested that histone hypoacetylation may regulate the expression of genes associated with memory and learning in AD, little is known about histone regulation of AD-related genes such as Presenilin 1(PS1) and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1(BACE1). By utilizing neuroblastoma N2a cells transfected with Swedish mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APP) (N2a/APPswe) and wild-type APP (N2a/APPwt) as cellular models of AD, we examined the alterations of histone acetylation at the promoter regions of PS1 and BACE1 in these cells. Our results revealed that histone H3 acetylation in PS1 and BACE1 promoters is markedly increased in N2a/APPswe cells when compared to N2a/APPwt cells and control cells (vector-transfected), respectively, causing the elevated expression of PS1 and BACE1. In addition, expression of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) adenoviral E1A-associated 300-kDa protein (p300) is dramatically enhanced in N2a/APPswe cells compared to N2a/APPwt and control cells. We have further demonstrated the direct binding of p300 protein to the PS1 and BACE1 promoters in N2a/APPswe cells. The expression levels of H3 acetylation of the PS1 and BACE1 promoters and p300 protein, however, were found to be not significantly different in N2a/APPwt cells when compared to controls in our studies. Furthermore, curcumin, a natural selective inhibitor of p300 in HATs, significantly suppressed the expression of PS1 and BACE1 through inhibition of H3 acetylation in their promoter regions in N2a/APPswe cells. These findings indicated that histone acetyltransferase p300 plays a critical role in controlling the expression of AD-related genes through regulating the acetylation of their promoter regions, suggesting that p300 may represent a novel potential therapeutic target for AD. PMID:25051175

  14. Double-strand DNA breaks recruit the centromeric histone CENP-A

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Samantha G.; Baker, Norman M.; Chapados, Brian R.; Soutoglou, Evi; Wang, Jean Y. J.; Berns, Michael W.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    The histone H3 variant CENP-A is required for epigenetic specification of centromere identity through a loading mechanism independent of DNA sequence. Using multiphoton absorption and DNA cleavage at unique sites by I-SceI endonuclease, we demonstrate that CENP-A is rapidly recruited to double-strand breaks in DNA, along with three components (CENP-N, CENP-T, and CENP-U) associated with CENP-A at centromeres. The centromere-targeting domain of CENP-A is both necessary and sufficient for recruitment to double-strand breaks. CENP-A accumulation at DNA breaks is enhanced by active non-homologous end-joining but does not require DNA-PKcs or Ligase IV, and is independent of H2AX. Thus, induction of a double-strand break is sufficient to recruit CENP-A in human and mouse cells. Finally, since cell survival after radiation-induced DNA damage correlates with CENP-A expression level, we propose that CENP-A may have a function in DNA repair. PMID:19717431

  15. The PML-Interacting Protein DAXX: Histone Loading Gets into the Picture

    PubMed Central

    Salomoni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein has been implicated in regulation of multiple key cellular functions, from transcription to calcium homeostasis. PML pleiotropic role is in part related to its ability to localize to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. In the nucleus, PML is known to regulate gene transcription, a role linked to its ability to associate with transcription factors as well as chromatin-remodelers. A new twist came from the discovery that the PML-interacting protein death-associated protein 6 (DAXX) acts as chaperone for the histone H3.3 variant. H3.3 is found enriched at active genes, centromeric heterochromatin, and telomeres, and has been proposed to act as important carrier of epigenetic information. Our recent work has implicated DAXX in regulation of H3.3 loading and transcription in the central nervous system (CNS). Remarkably, driver mutations in H3.3 and/or its loading machinery have been identified in brain cancer, thus suggesting a role for altered H3.3 function/deposition in CNS tumorigenesis. Aberrant H3.3 deposition may also play a role in leukemia pathogenesis, given DAXX role in PML-RARα-driven transformation and the identification of a DAXX missense mutation in acute myeloid leukemia. This review aims to critically discuss the existing literature and propose new avenues for investigation. PMID:23760585

  16. Constitutive turnover of histone H2A.Z at yeast promoters requires the preinitiation complex

    PubMed Central

    Tramantano, Michael; Sun, Lu; Au, Christy; Labuz, Daniel; Liu, Zhimin; Chou, Mindy; Shen, Chen; Luk, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of the preinitiation complex (PIC) occurs upstream of the +1 nucleosome which, in yeast, obstructs the transcription start site and is frequently assembled with the histone variant H2A.Z. To understand the contribution of the transcription machinery in the disassembly of the +1 H2A.Z nucleosome, conditional mutants were used to block PIC assembly. A quantitative ChIP-seq approach, which allows detection of global occupancy change, was employed to measure H2A.Z occupancy. Blocking PIC assembly resulted in promoter-specific H2A.Z accumulation, indicating that the PIC is required to evict H2A.Z. By contrast, H2A.Z eviction was unaffected upon depletion of INO80, a remodeler previously reported to displace nucleosomal H2A.Z. Robust PIC-dependent H2A.Z eviction was observed at active and infrequently transcribed genes, indicating that constitutive H2A.Z turnover is a general phenomenon. Finally, sites with strong H2A.Z turnover precisely mark transcript starts, providing a new metric for identifying cryptic and alternative sites of initiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14243.001 PMID:27438412

  17. The histone H3.3K36M mutation reprograms the epigenome of chondroblastomas.

    PubMed

    Fang, Dong; Gan, Haiyun; Lee, Jeong-Heon; Han, Jing; Wang, Zhiquan; Riester, Scott M; Jin, Long; Chen, Jianji; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Jinglong; Zhang, Honglian; Yang, Na; Bradley, Elizabeth W; Ho, Thai H; Rubin, Brian P; Bridge, Julia A; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Ordog, Tamas; Chen, Yue; van Wijnen, Andre J; Oliveira, Andre M; Xu, Rui-Ming; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-06-10

    More than 90% of chondroblastomas contain a heterozygous mutation replacing lysine-36 with methionine-36 (K36M) in the histone H3 variant H3.3. Here we show that H3K36 methylation is reduced globally in human chondroblastomas and in chondrocytes harboring the same genetic mutation, due to inhibition of at least two H3K36 methyltransferases, MMSET and SETD2, by the H3.3K36M mutant proteins. Genes with altered expression as well as H3K36 di- and trimethylation in H3.3K36M cells are enriched in cancer pathways. In addition, H3.3K36M chondrocytes exhibit several hallmarks of cancer cells, including increased ability to form colonies, resistance to apoptosis, and defects in differentiation. Thus, H3.3K36M proteins reprogram the H3K36 methylation landscape and contribute to tumorigenesis, in part through altering the expression of cancer-associated genes. PMID:27229140

  18. Mutations in KAT6B, Encoding a Histone Acetyltransferase, Cause Genitopatellar Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Campeau, Philippe M.; Kim, Jaeseung C.; Lu, James T.; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A.; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A.; Schlaubitz, Silke; Murdock, David M.; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lammer, Edward J.; Enns, Gregory M.; Rhead, William J.; Rowland, Jon; Robertson, Stephen P.; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Gibbs, Richard A.; Rosenblatt, David S.; Majewski, Jacek; Lee, Brendan H.

    2012-01-01

    Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) is a skeletal dysplasia with cerebral and genital anomalies for which the molecular basis has not yet been determined. By exome sequencing, we found de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B, formerly known as MYST4 and MORF) in three subjects; then by Sanger sequencing of KAT6B, we found similar mutations in three additional subjects. The mutant transcripts do not undergo nonsense-mediated decay in cells from subjects with GPS. In addition, human pathological analyses and mouse expression studies point to systemic roles of KAT6B in controlling organismal growth and development. Myst4 (the mouse orthologous gene) is expressed in mouse tissues corresponding to those affected by GPS. Phenotypic differences and similarities between GPS, the Say-Barber-Biesecker variant of Ohdo syndrome (caused by different mutations of KAT6B), and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (caused by mutations in other histone acetyltransferases) are discussed. Together, the data support an epigenetic dysregulation of the limb, brain, and genital developmental programs. PMID:22265014

  19. RNase P protein subunit Rpp29 represses histone H3.3 nucleosome deposition

    PubMed Central

    Newhart, Alyshia; Powers, Sara Lawrence; Shastrula, Prashanth Krishna; Sierra, Isabel; Joo, Lucy M.; Hayden, James E.; Cohen, Andrew R.; Janicki, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, histone H3.3 is a critical regulator of transcription state change and heritability at both euchromatin and heterochromatin. The H3.3-specific chaperone, DAXX, together with the chromatin-remodeling factor, ATRX, regulates H3.3 deposition and transcriptional silencing at repetitive DNA, including pericentromeres and telomeres. However, the events that precede H3.3 nucleosome incorporation have not been fully elucidated. We previously showed that the DAXX-ATRX-H3.3 pathway regulates a multi-copy array of an inducible transgene that can be visualized in single living cells. When this pathway is impaired, the array can be robustly activated. H3.3 is strongly recruited to the site during activation where it accumulates in a complex with transcribed sense and antisense RNA, which is distinct from the DNA/chromatin. This suggests that transcriptional events regulate H3.3 recruited to its incorporation sites. Here we report that the nucleolar RNA proteins Rpp29, fibrillarin, and RPL23a are also components of this H3.3/RNA complex. Rpp29 is a protein subunit of RNase P. Of the other subunits, POP1 and Rpp21 are similarly recruited suggesting that a variant of RNase P regulates H3.3 chromatin assembly. Rpp29 knockdown increases H3.3 chromatin incorporation, which suggests that Rpp29 represses H3.3 nucleosome deposition, a finding with implications for epigenetic regulation. PMID:26842893

  20. Mutations in KAT6B, encoding a histone acetyltransferase, cause Genitopatellar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Philippe M; Kim, Jaeseung C; Lu, James T; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Schlaubitz, Silke; Murdock, David M; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Lammer, Edward J; Enns, Gregory M; Rhead, William J; Rowland, Jon; Robertson, Stephen P; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Gibbs, Richard A; Rosenblatt, David S; Majewski, Jacek; Lee, Brendan H

    2012-02-10

    Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) is a skeletal dysplasia with cerebral and genital anomalies for which the molecular basis has not yet been determined. By exome sequencing, we found de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B, formerly known as MYST4 and MORF) in three subjects; then by Sanger sequencing of KAT6B, we found similar mutations in three additional subjects. The mutant transcripts do not undergo nonsense-mediated decay in cells from subjects with GPS. In addition, human pathological analyses and mouse expression studies point to systemic roles of KAT6B in controlling organismal growth and development. Myst4 (the mouse orthologous gene) is expressed in mouse tissues corresponding to those affected by GPS. Phenotypic differences and similarities between GPS, the Say-Barber-Biesecker variant of Ohdo syndrome (caused by different mutations of KAT6B), and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (caused by mutations in other histone acetyltransferases) are discussed. Together, the data support an epigenetic dysregulation of the limb, brain, and genital developmental programs. PMID:22265014

  1. Histone H3K36 mutations promote sarcomagenesis through altered histone methylation landscape.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Jain, Siddhant U; Hoelper, Dominik; Bechet, Denise; Molden, Rosalynn C; Ran, Leili; Murphy, Devan; Venneti, Sriram; Hameed, Meera; Pawel, Bruce R; Wunder, Jay S; Dickson, Brendan C; Lundgren, Stefan M; Jani, Krupa S; De Jay, Nicolas; Papillon-Cavanagh, Simon; Andrulis, Irene L; Sawyer, Sarah L; Grynspan, David; Turcotte, Robert E; Nadaf, Javad; Fahiminiyah, Somayyeh; Muir, Tom W; Majewski, Jacek; Thompson, Craig B; Chi, Ping; Garcia, Benjamin A; Allis, C David; Jabado, Nada; Lewis, Peter W

    2016-05-13

    Several types of pediatric cancers reportedly contain high-frequency missense mutations in histone H3, yet the underlying oncogenic mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here we report that the H3 lysine 36-to-methionine (H3K36M) mutation impairs the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells and generates undifferentiated sarcoma in vivo. H3K36M mutant nucleosomes inhibit the enzymatic activities of several H3K36 methyltransferases. Depleting H3K36 methyltransferases, or expressing an H3K36I mutant that similarly inhibits H3K36 methylation, is sufficient to phenocopy the H3K36M mutation. After the loss of H3K36 methylation, a genome-wide gain in H3K27 methylation leads to a redistribution of polycomb repressive complex 1 and de-repression of its target genes known to block mesenchymal differentiation. Our findings are mirrored in human undifferentiated sarcomas in which novel K36M/I mutations in H3.1 are identified. PMID:27174990

  2. Histone H3K36 mutations promote sarcomagenesis through altered histone methylation landscape

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chao; Jain, Siddhant U.; Hoelper, Dominik; Bechet, Denise; Molden, Rosalynn C.; Ran, Leili; Murphy, Devan; Venneti, Sriram; Hameed, Meera; Pawel, Bruce R.; Wunder, Jay S.; Dickson, Brendan C.; Lundgren, Stefan M.; Jani, Krupa S.; De Jay, Nicolas; Papillon-Cavanagh, Simon; Andrulis, Irene L.; Sawyer, Sarah L.; Grynspan, David; Turcotte, Robert E.; Nadaf, Javad; Fahiminiyah, Somayyeh; Muir, Tom W.; Majewski, Jacek; Thompson, Craig B.; Chi, Ping; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Allis, C. David; Jabado, Nada; Lewis, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Several types of pediatric cancers reportedly contain high frequency missense mutations in histone H3, yet the underlying oncogenic mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here, we report that the H3 lysine 36 to methionine (H3K36M) mutation impairs the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells and generates undifferentiated sarcoma in vivo. H3K36M mutant nucleosomes inhibit the enzymatic activities of several H3K36 methyltransferases. Depleting H3K36 methyltransferases, or expressing an H3K36I mutant that similarly inhibits H3K36 methylation, is sufficient to phenocopy the H3K36M mutation. Following the loss of H3K36 methylation, a genome-wide gain in H3K27 methylation leads to a redistribution of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 and de-repression of its target genes known to block mesenchymal differentiation. Our findings are mirrored in human undifferentiated sarcomas where novel K36M/I mutations in H3.1 are identified. PMID:27174990

  3. TARV: Tree-based Analysis of Rare Variants Identifying Risk Modifying Variants in CTNNA2 and CNTNAP2 for Alcohol Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, researchers have been extending their efforts on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from common variants to rare variants to find the missing inheritance. Although various statistical methods have been proposed to analyze rare variants data, they generally face difficulties for complex disease models involving multiple genes. In this paper, we propose a Tree-based Analysis of Rare Variants (TARV) that adopts a non-parametric disease model and is capable of exploring gene-gene interactions. We found that TARV outperforms the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) in most of our simulation scenarios, and by notable margins in some cases. By applying TARV to the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) data, we successfully detected gene CTNNA2 and its 43 specific variants that increase the risk of alcoholism in women, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.94. This gene has not been detected in the SAGE data. Post hoc literature search also supports the role of CTNNA2 as a likely risk gene for alcohol addiction. In addition, we also detected a plausible protective gene CNTNAP2, whose 97 rare variants can reduce the risk of alcoholism in women, with an OR of 0.55. These findings suggest that TARV can be effective in dissecting genetic variants for complex diseases using rare variants data. PMID:25041903

  4. Separation of rat tissue histone H1 subtypes by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. Identification and assignment to a standard H1 nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Lindner, H; Helliger, W; Puschendorf, B

    1990-07-15

    H1 histones from rat liver and rat testis were separated by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. Within 40 min six subfractions (H1(0), H1b, H1a, H1d, H1e + H1c and H1c) and seven subfractions (H1(0), H1b, H1a, H1d, H1e + H1c, H1c and H1t) respectively were isolated by using a linear acetonitrile gradient. Each individual H1 subtype was identified either by comparing the H1 variants (contained in both tissues but in different quantities) or by SDS/PAGE and acetic acid/urea/PAGE. Moreover, all H1 variants were characterized by amino acid analyses. The amino acid compositions of rat histone subfractions H1(0), H1b and H1e were determined for the first time. It was possible to classify unambiguously the H1 subfractions obtained by h.p.l.c. by following the standardized H1 nomenclature for electrophoretic systems recommended by Lennox, Oshima & Cohen [(1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 5183-5189]. Incorrect assignments that have been made in various publications are discussed. PMID:2386482

  5. Classifying MLH1 and MSH2 variants using bioinformatic prediction, splicing assays, segregation, and tumor characteristics.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Sven; Buchanan, Daniel D; Barker, Melissa; Jaskowski, Lesley; Walsh, Michael D; Birney, Genevieve; Woods, Michael O; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Brown, Melissa A; Tavtigian, Sean V; Goldgar, David E; Young, Joanne P; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2009-05-01

    Reliable methods for predicting functional consequences of variants in disease genes would be beneficial in the clinical setting. This study was undertaken to predict, and confirm in vitro, splicing aberrations associated with mismatch repair (MMR) variants identified in familial colon cancer patients. Six programs were used to predict the effect of 13 MLH1 and 6 MSH2 gene variants on pre-mRNA splicing. mRNA from cycloheximide-treated lymphoblastoid cell lines of variant carriers was screened for splicing aberrations. Tumors of variant carriers were tested for microsatellite instability and MMR protein expression. Variant segregation in families was assessed using Bayes factor causality analysis. Amino acid alterations were examined for evolutionary conservation and physicochemical properties. Splicing aberrations were detected for 10 variants, including a frameshift as a minor cDNA product, and altered ratio of known alternate splice products. Loss of splice sites was well predicted by splice-site prediction programs SpliceSiteFinder (90%) and NNSPLICE (90%), but consequence of splice site loss was less accurately predicted. No aberrations correlated with ESE predictions for the nine exonic variants studied. Seven of eight missense variants had normal splicing (88%), but only one was a substitution considered neutral from evolutionary/physicochemical analysis. Combined with information from tumor and segregation analysis, and literature review, 16 of 19 variants were considered clinically relevant. Bioinformatic tools for prediction of splicing aberrations need improvement before use without supporting studies to assess variant pathogenicity. Classification of mismatch repair gene variants is assisted by a comprehensive approach that includes in vitro, tumor pathology, clinical, and evolutionary conservation data. PMID:19267393

  6. Classifying MLH1 and MSH2 variants using bioinformatic prediction, splicing assays, segregation and tumor characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sven; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Barker, Melissa; Jaskowski, Lesley; Walsh, Michael D.; Birney, Genevieve; Woods, Michael O.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Brown, Melissa A.; Tavtigian, Sean V.; Goldgar, David E.; Young, Joanne P.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable methods for predicting functional consequences of variants in disease genes would be beneficial in the clinical setting. This study was undertaken to predict, and confirm in vitro, splicing aberrations associated with mismatch repair (MMR) variants identified in familial colon cancer patients. Six programs were used to predict the effect of 13 MLH1 and 6 MSH2 gene variants on pre-mRNA splicing. mRNA from cycloheximide-treated lymphoblastoid cell lines of variant carriers was screened for splicing aberrations. Tumors of variant carriers were tested for microsatellite instability and MMR protein expression. Variant segregation in families was assessed using Bayes factor causality analysis. Amino acid alterations were examined for evolutionary conservation and physicochemical properties. Splicing aberrations were detected for ten variants, including a frameshift as a minor cDNA product, and altered ratio of known alternate splice products. Loss of splice sites was well predicted by splice site prediction programs SpliceSiteFinder (90%) and NNSPLICE (90%), but consequence of splice site loss was less accurately predicted. No aberrations correlated with ESE predictions for the nine exonic variants studied. Seven of eight missense variants had normal splicing (88%), but only one was a substitution considered neutral from evolutionary/physicochemical analysis. Combined with information from tumor and segregation analysis, and literature review, 16/19 variants were considered clinically relevant. Bioinformatic tools for prediction of splicing aberrations need improvement before use without supporting studies to assess variant pathogenicity. Classification of mismatch repair gene variants is assisted by a comprehensive approach which includes in vitro, tumor pathology, clinical, and evolutionary conservation data. PMID:19267393

  7. Common and Rare Variants in SCN10A Modulate the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Javad; Olesen, Morten S.; Yuan, Lei; Nielsen, Jonas B.; Liang, Bo; Macri, Vincenzo; Christophersen, Ingrid E.; Nielsen, Nikolaj; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Grunnet, Morten; Haunsø, Stig; Holst, Anders G.; Svendsen, Jesper H.; Jespersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that the common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6800541 located in SCN10A, encoding the voltage-gated Nav1.8 sodium channel, is associated with PR–interval prolongation and atrial fibrillation (AF). SNP rs6800541 is in high linkage disequilibrium with the non-synonymous variant in SCN10A, rs6795970 (V1073A, r2=0.933). We therefore sought to determine whether common and rare SCN10A variants are associated with early onset AF. Methods and Results SCN10A was sequenced in 225 AF patients in whom there was no evidence of other cardiovascular disease or dysfunction (lone AF). In an association study of the rs6795970 SNP variant, we included 515 AF patients, and two control cohorts of 730 individuals free of AF and 6,161 randomly sampled individuals. Functional characterization of SCN10A variants was performed by whole-cell patch-clamping. In the lone AF cohort, nine rare missense variants and one splice site donor variant were detected. Interestingly, AF patients were found to have higher G allele frequency of rs6795970 which encodes the alanine variant at position 1073 (described from here on as A1073, odds ratio = 1.35 [1.16–1.54]; p=2.3×10−05). Both of the common variants, A1073 andP1092, induced a gain-of-channel function, while the rare missense variants, V94G and R1588Q, resulted in a loss-of-channel function. Conclusions The common variant A1073 is associated with increased susceptibility to AF. Both rare and common variants have impact on the function of the channel, indicating that these variants influence susceptibility to AF. Hence, our study suggests that SCN10A variations are involved in the genesis of AF. PMID:25691686

  8. Molecular functions of the histone acetyltransferase chaperone complex Rtt109-Vps75

    SciTech Connect

    Berndsen, Christopher E; Tsubota, Toshiaki; Lindner, Scott E; Lee, Susan; Holton, James M; Kaufman, Paul D; Keck, James L; Denu, John M

    2010-01-12

    Histone acetylation and nucleosome remodeling regulate DNA damage repair, replication and transcription. Rtt109, a recently discovered histone acetyltransferase (HAT) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, functions with the histone chaperone Asf1 to acetylate lysine K56 on histone H3 (H3K56), a modification associated with newly synthesized histones. In vitro analysis of Rtt109 revealed that Vps75, a Nap1 family histone chaperone, could also stimulate Rtt109-dependent acetylation of H3K56. However, the molecular function of the Rtt109-Vps75 complex remains elusive. Here we have probed the molecular functions of Vps75 and the Rtt109-Vps75 complex through biochemical, structural and genetic means. We find that Vps75 stimulates the kcat of histone acetylation by {approx}100-fold relative to Rtt109 alone and enhances acetylation of K9 in the H3 histone tail. Consistent with the in vitro evidence, cells lacking Vps75 showed a substantial reduction (60%) in H3K9 acetylation during S phase. X-ray structural, biochemical and genetic analyses of Vps75 indicate a unique, structurally dynamic Nap1-like fold that suggests a potential mechanism of Vps75-dependent activation of Rtt109. Together, these data provide evidence for a multifunctional HAT-chaperone complex that acetylates histone H3 and deposits H3-H4 onto DNA, linking histone modification and nucleosome assembly.

  9. Early stress evokes dysregulation of histone modifiers in the medial prefrontal cortex across the life span.

    PubMed

    Pusalkar, Madhavi; Suri, Deepika; Kelkar, Ashwin; Bhattacharya, Amrita; Galande, Sanjeev; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2016-03-01

    Early stress has been hypothesized to recruit epigenetic mechanisms to mediate persistent molecular, cellular, and behavioral changes. Here, we have examined the consequence of the early life stress of maternal separation (ES) on the gene expression of several histone modifiers that regulate histone acetylation and methylation within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a key limbic brain region that regulates stress responses and mood-related behavior. ES animals exhibit gene regulation of both writer (histone acetyltransferases and histone methyltransferases) and eraser (histone deacetylases and histone lysine demethylases) classes of histone modifiers. While specific histone modifiers (Kat2a, Smyd3, and Suv420h1) and the sirtuin, Sirt4 were downregulated across life within the mPFC of ES animals, namely at postnatal Day 21, 2 months, and 15 months of age, we also observed gene regulation restricted to these specific time points. Despite the decline noted in expression of several histone modifiers within the mPFC following ES, this was not accompanied by any change in global or residue-specific H3 acetylation and methylation. Our findings indicate that ES results in the regulation of several histone modifiers within the mPFC across life, and suggest that such perturbations may contribute to the altered prefrontal structural and functional plasticity observed following early adversity. PMID:26395029

  10. Antigenicity of the Leishmania infantum histones H2B and H4 during canine viscerocutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, M; Requena, J M; Quijada, L; Perez, M J; Nieto, C G; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E; Alonso, C

    1999-01-01

    In this study we show that sera from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum contain antibodies that specifically react against the parasite H2B and H4 histones. The Leishmania H2B and the amino-terminal region of the histone H4, expressed as fusion proteins, when confronted with sera from canine viscerocutaneous leishmaniasis (VCL) dogs, were recognized by 63% and 47%, respectively. No reactivity was detected when sera from dogs naturally infected with pathogens other than Leishmania were used. Using a collection of synthetic peptides covering the complete sequence of both proteins, we have determined that the main linear antigenic determinants are located in the amino-terminal domains of these histones. The humoral response against histones H2B and H4 induced during canine leishmaniasis was found to be specific for Leishmania histones, since no cross-reactivity of the VCL sera with mammal histones was observed. Also, a comparative study of the prevalence of antibodies among VCL sera against the four core histones of L. infantum was performed. Although a large heterogeneity of the humoral responses against these proteins was found, histones H2A and H3 seem to be more prevalent immunogens than histones H2B and H4 during canine natural leishmaniasis. The origin of the anti-histone humoral response and its possible implications in the pathogenesis of Leishmania infection are discussed. PMID:9933463

  11. Actin and DNA Protect Histones from Degradation by Bacterial Proteases but Inhibit Their Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sol, Asaf; Skvirsky, Yaniv; Blotnick, Edna; Bachrach, Gilad; Muhlrad, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins located in the cell nucleus. Together, DNA and histones are integral constituents of the nucleosomes. Upon apoptosis, necrosis, and infection – induced cell death, histones are released from the cell. The extracellular histones have strong antimicrobial activity but are also cytotoxic and thought as mediators of cell death in sepsis. The antimicrobial activity of the cationic extracellular histones is inhibited by the polyanionic DNA and F-actin, which also become extracellular upon cell death. DNA and F-actin protect histones from degradation by the proteases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Porphyromonas gingivalis. However, though the integrity of the histones is protected, the activity of histones as antibacterial agents is lost. The inhibition of the histone’s antibacterial activity and their protection from proteolysis by DNA and F-actin indicate a tight electrostatic interaction between the positively charged histones and negatively charged DNA and F-actin, which may have physiological significance in maintaining the equilibrium between the beneficial antimicrobial activity of extracellular histones and their cytotoxic effects. PMID:27555840

  12. Natural variation of histone modification and its impact on gene expression in the rat genome

    PubMed Central

    Rintisch, Carola; Heinig, Matthias; Bauerfeind, Anja; Schafer, Sebastian; Mieth, Christin; Patone, Giannino; Hummel, Oliver; Chen, Wei; Cook, Stuart; Cuppen, Edwin; Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Johannes, Frank; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Neil, Helen; Werner, Michel; Pravenec, Michal; Vingron, Martin; Hubner, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Histone modifications are epigenetic marks that play fundamental roles in many biological processes including the control of chromatin-mediated regulation of gene expression. Little is known about interindividual variability of histone modification levels across the genome and to what extent they are influenced by genetic variation. We annotated the rat genome with histone modification maps, identified differences in histone trimethyl-lysine levels among strains, and described their underlying genetic basis at the genome-wide scale using ChIP-seq in heart and liver tissues in a panel of rat recombinant inbred and their progenitor strains. We identified extensive variation of histone methylation levels among individuals and mapped hundreds of underlying cis- and trans-acting loci throughout the genome that regulate histone methylation levels in an allele-specific manner. Interestingly, most histone methylation level variation was trans-linked and the most prominent QTL identified influenced H3K4me3 levels at 899 putative promoters throughout the genome in the heart. Cis- acting variation was enriched in binding sites of distinct transcription factors in heart and liver. The integrated analysis of DNA variation together with histone methylation and gene expression levels showed that histoneQTLs are an important predictor of gene expression and that a joint analysis significantly enhanced the prediction of gene expression traits (eQTLs). Our data suggest that genetic variation has a widespread impact on histone trimethylation marks that may help to uncover novel genotype–phenotype relationships. PMID:24793478

  13. Natural variation of histone modification and its impact on gene expression in the rat genome.

    PubMed

    Rintisch, Carola; Heinig, Matthias; Bauerfeind, Anja; Schafer, Sebastian; Mieth, Christin; Patone, Giannino; Hummel, Oliver; Chen, Wei; Cook, Stuart; Cuppen, Edwin; Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Johannes, Frank; Jansen, Ritsert C; Neil, Helen; Werner, Michel; Pravenec, Michal; Vingron, Martin; Hubner, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    Histone modifications are epigenetic marks that play fundamental roles in many biological processes including the control of chromatin-mediated regulation of gene expression. Little is known about interindividual variability of histone modification levels across the genome and to what extent they are influenced by genetic variation. We annotated the rat genome with histone modification maps, identified differences in histone trimethyl-lysine levels among strains, and described their underlying genetic basis at the genome-wide scale using ChIP-seq in heart and liver tissues in a panel of rat recombinant inbred and their progenitor strains. We identified extensive variation of histone methylation levels among individuals and mapped hundreds of underlying cis- and trans-acting loci throughout the genome that regulate histone methylation levels in an allele-specific manner. Interestingly, most histone methylation level variation was trans-linked and the most prominent QTL identified influenced H3K4me3 levels at 899 putative promoters throughout the genome in the heart. Cis- acting variation was enriched in binding sites of distinct transcription factors in heart and liver. The integrated analysis of DNA variation together with histone methylation and gene expression levels showed that histoneQTLs are an important predictor of gene expression and that a joint analysis significantly enhanced the prediction of gene expression traits (eQTLs). Our data suggest that genetic variation has a widespread impact on histone trimethylation marks that may help to uncover novel genotype-phenotype relationships. PMID:24793478

  14. Genetically encoded molecular biosensors to image histone methylation in living animals.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Thillai V; Foygel, Kira; Gelovani, Juri G; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2015-01-20

    Post-translational addition of methyl groups to the amino terminal tails of histone proteins regulates cellular gene expression at various stages of development and the pathogenesis of cellular diseases, including cancer. Several enzymes that modulate these post-translational modifications of histones are promising targets for development of small molecule drugs. However, there is no promising real-time histone methylation detection tool currently available to screen and validate potential small molecule histone methylation modulators in small animal models. With this in mind, we developed genetically encoded molecular biosensors based on the split-enzyme complementation approach for in vitro and in vivo imaging of lysine 9 (H3-K9 sensor) and lysine 27 (H3-K27 sensor) methylation marks of histone 3. These methylation sensors were validated in vitro in HEK293T, HepG2, and HeLa cells. The efficiency of the histone methylation sensor was assessed by employing methyltransferase inhibitors (Bix01294 and UNC0638), demethylase inhibitor (JIB-04), and siRNA silencing at the endogenous histone K9-methyltransferase enzyme level. Furthermore, noninvasive bioluminescence imaging of histone methylation sensors confirmed the potential of these sensors in monitoring histone methylation status in response to histone methyltransferase inhibitors in living animals. Experimental results confirmed that the developed H3-K9 and H3-K27 sensors are specific and sensitive to image the drug-induced histone methylation changes in living animals. These novel histone methylation sensors can facilitate the in vitro screening and in vivo characterization of new histone methyltransferase inhibitors and accelerate the pace of introduction of epigenetic therapies into the clinic. PMID:25506787

  15. Histone H3 acetylation in the postmortem Parkinson's disease primary motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Kibrom G; Rademacher, David J

    2016-08-01

    Although the role of epigenetics in Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been extensively studied, α-synuclein, the main component of Lewy bodies, decreased histone H3 acetylation. Here, we determined if there were histone acetylation changes in the primary motor cortex which, according to the Braak model, is one of the last brain regions affected in PD. Net histone H3 acetylation, histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14), histone H3 lysine 18 (H3K18), and histone H3 lysine 23 (H3K23) acetylation was assessed in the primary motor cortex of those affected and unaffected by PD. There was net increase in histone H3 acetylation due to increased H3K14 and H3K18 acetylation. There was a decrease in H3K9 acetylation. No between-groups difference was detected in H3K23 acetylation. Relationships between Unified Lewy Body Staging scores and histone H3 acetylation and substantia nigra depigmentation scores and histone H3 acetylation were observed. No relationships were detected between postmortem interval and histone H3 acetylation and expired age and histone H3 acetylation. These correlational data support the notion that the histone H3 acetylation changes observed here are not due to the postmortem interval or aging. Instead, they are due to PD and/or factors that covary with PD. The data suggest enhanced gene transcription in the primary motor cortex of the PD brain due to increase H3K14 and H3K18 acetylation. This effect is partially offset by a decreased H3K9 acetylation, which might repress gene transcription. PMID:27241718

  16. The chromatin regulatory code: Beyond a histone code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, A.

    2006-03-01

    In this commentary on the contribution by Arndt Benecke in this issue, I discuss why the notion of “chromatin code” introduced and elaborated in this paper is to be preferred to that of “histone code”. Speaking of a code as regards nucleosome conformation and histone tail post-translational modifications only makes sense within the chromatin fiber, where their physico-chemical features can be translated into regulatory programs at the genome level, by means of a complex, multi-level interplay with the fiber architecture and dynamics settled in the course of Evolution. In particular, this chromatin code presumably exploits allosteric transitions of the chromatin fiber. The chromatin structure dependence of its translation suggests two alternative modes of transcription initiation regulation, also proposed in the paper by A. Benecke in this issue for interpreting strikingly bimodal micro-array data.

  17. Dynamic regulation and function of histone monoubiquitination in plants

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jing; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Polyubiquitin chain deposition on a target protein frequently leads to proteasome-mediated degradation whereas monoubiquitination modifies target protein property and function independent of proteolysis. Histone monoubiquitination occurs in chromatin and is in nowadays recognized as one critical type of epigenetic marks in eukaryotes. While H2A monoubiquitination (H2Aub1) is generally associated with transcription repression mediated by the Polycomb pathway, H2Bub1 is involved in transcription activation. H2Aub1 and H2Bub1 levels are dynamically regulated via deposition and removal by specific enzymes. We review knows and unknowns of dynamic regulation of H2Aub1 and H2Bub1 deposition and removal in plants and highlight the underlying crucial functions in gene transcription, cell proliferation/differentiation, and plant growth and development. We also discuss crosstalks existing between H2Aub1 or H2Bub1 and different histone methylations for an ample mechanistic understanding. PMID:24659991

  18. The oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate inhibits histone lysine demethylases

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Yeoh, Kar Kheng; Tian, Ya-Min; Hillringhaus, Lars; Bagg, Eleanor A; Rose, Nathan R; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Li, Xuan S; Woon, Esther C Y; Yang, Ming; McDonough, Michael A; King, Oliver N; Clifton, Ian J; Klose, Robert J; Claridge, Timothy D W; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Schofield, Christopher J; Kawamura, Akane

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) have a gain-of-function effect leading to R(−)-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) accumulation. By using biochemical, structural and cellular assays, we show that either or both R- and S-2HG inhibit 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases with varying potencies. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for the R-form of 2HG varied from approximately 25 μM for the histone Nɛ-lysine demethylase JMJD2A to more than 5 mM for the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase. The results indicate that candidate oncogenic pathways in IDH-associated malignancy should include those that are regulated by other 2OG oxygenases than HIF hydroxylases, in particular those involving the regulation of histone methylation. PMID:21460794

  19. Chemical tools for probing histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity.

    PubMed

    Minoshima, Masafumi; Kikuchi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) enzymes are responsible for removing epigenetic markers on histone proteins, which results in chromatin inactivation and gene repression. An evaluation of HDAC activity is essential for not only determining the physiological function of HDACs, but also for developing HDAC-targeting drugs. This review focuses on the chemical tools used to detect HDAC activity. We highlight activity-based probes and positron emission tomography probes based on the chemical structure of the inhibitors. We also summarize fluorogenic probes used in single-step methods for HDAC detection. These fluorogenic probes are designed based on the nucleophilicity of the amino group, aggregation via electrostatic interactions, and changes in the DNA binding properties. These fluorogenic systems may enable facile and rapid screening to evaluate HDAC inhibitors, which will contribute to the development of epigenetic drugs. PMID:25864671

  20. The MOZ histone acetyltransferase in epigenetic signaling and disease.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Samuel; Glass, Karen C

    2014-11-01

    The monocytic leukemic zinc finger (MOZ) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) plays a role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It functions as a quaternary complex with the bromodomain PHD finger protein 1 (BRPF1), the human Esa1-associated factor 6 homolog (hEAF6), and the inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5). Each of these subunits contain chromatin reader domains that recognize specific post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone tails, and this recognition directs the MOZ HAT complex to specific chromatin substrates. The structure and function of these epigenetic reader modules has now been elucidated, and a model describing how the cooperative action of these domains regulates HAT activity in response to the epigenetic landscape is proposed. The emerging role of epigenetic reader domains in disease, and their therapeutic potential for many types of cancer is also highlighted. PMID:24633655

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: possible implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Hahnen, Eric; Hauke, Jan; Tränkle, Christian; Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y; Wirth, Brunhilde; Blümcke, Ingmar

    2008-02-01

    During the past six years numerous studies identified histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as candidate drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Two major neuroprotective mechanisms of HDAC inhibitors have been identified, namely the transcriptional activation of disease-modifying genes and the correction of perturbations in histone acetylation homeostasis, which have been shown to be intimately involved in the neurodegenerative pathomechanisms of Huntington's, Parkinson's and Kennedy disease, amyotropic lateral sclerosis, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome as well as stroke. Based on the promising in vitro and in vivo analyses, clinical trials have been initiated to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of devastating diseases such as Huntington's disease, amyotropic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. Here, the authors summarize and discuss the findings on the emerging field of epigenetic therapy strategies in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:18230051

  2. Targeted resequencing of regulatory regions at schizophrenia risk loci: Role of rare functional variants at chromatin repressive states.

    PubMed

    González-Peñas, Javier; Amigo, Jorge; Santomé, Luis; Sobrino, Beatriz; Brenlla, Julio; Agra, Santiago; Paz, Eduardo; Páramo, Mario; Carracedo, Ángel; Arrojo, Manuel; Costas, Javier

    2016-07-01

    There is mounting evidence that regulatory variation plays an important role in genetic risk for schizophrenia. Here, we specifically search for regulatory variants at risk by sequencing promoter regions of twenty-three genes implied in schizophrenia by copy number variant or genome-wide association studies. After strict quality control, a total of 55,206bp per sample were analyzed in 526 schizophrenia cases and 516 controls from Galicia, NW Spain, using the Applied Biosystems SOLiD System. Variants were filtered based on frequency from public databases, chromatin states from the RoadMap Epigenomics Consortium at tissues relevant for schizophrenia, such as fetal brain, mid-frontal lobe, and angular gyrus, and prediction of functionality from RegulomeDB. The proportion of rare variants at polycomb repressive chromatin state at relevant tissues was higher in cases than in controls. The proportion of rare variants with predicted regulatory role was significantly higher in cases than in controls (P=0.0028, OR=1.93, 95% C.I.=1.23-3.04). Combination of information from both sources led to the identification of an excess of carriers of rare variants with predicted regulatory role located at polycomb repressive chromatin state at relevant tissues in cases versus controls (P=0.0016, OR=19.34, 95% C.I.=2.45-2495.26). The variants are located at two genes affected by the 17q12 copy number variant, LHX1 and HNF1B. These data strongly suggest that a specific epigenetic mechanism, chromatin remodeling by histone modification during early development, may be impaired in a subset of schizophrenia patients, in agreement with previous data. PMID:27066855

  3. MicroRNA variants as genetic determinants of bone mass.

    PubMed

    Dole, Neha S; Delany, Anne M

    2016-03-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant genetic variants that contribute to the heritability of bone mass. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are key post-transcriptional regulators that modulate the differentiation and function of skeletal cells by targeting multiple genes in the same or distinct signaling pathways. SNPs in miRNA genes and miRNA binding sites can alter miRNA abundance and mRNA targeting. This review describes the potential impact of miRNA-related SNPs on skeletal phenotype. Although many associations between SNPs and bone mass have been described, this review is limited to gene variants for which a function has been experimentally validated. SNPs in miRNA genes (miR-SNPs) that impair miRNA processing and alter the abundance of mature miRNA are discussed for miR-146a, miR-125a, miR-196a, miR-149 and miR-27a. SNPs in miRNA targeting sites (miR-TS-SNPs) that alter miRNA binding are described for the bone remodeling genes bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1 (Bmpr1), fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2), osteonectin (Sparc) and histone deacetylase 5 (Hdac5). The review highlights two aspects of miRNA-associated SNPs: the mechanism for altering miRNA mediated gene regulation and the potential of miR-associated SNPs to alter osteoblast, osteoclast or chondrocyte differentiation and function. Given the polygenic nature of skeletal diseases like osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, validating the function of additional miRNA-associated SNPs has the potential to enhance our understanding of the genetic determinants of bone mass and predisposition to selected skeletal diseases. PMID:26723575

  4. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  5. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Humans Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses Interim Guidance for Clinicians on Human Infections Background, Risk Assessment & Reporting Reported Infections with Variant Influenza Viruses in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment ...

  6. Histone modifications: Targeting head and neck cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Le, John M; Squarize, Cristiane H; Castilho, Rogerio M

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and is responsible for a quarter of a million deaths annually. The survival rate for HNSCC patients is poor, showing only minor improvement in the last three decades. Despite new surgical techniques and chemotherapy protocols, tumor resistance to chemotherapy remains a significant challenge for HNSCC patients. Numerous mechanisms underlie chemoresistance, including genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells that may be acquired during treatment and activation of mitogenic signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer-of activated B cell, that cause reduced apoptosis. In addition to dysfunctional molecular signaling, emerging evidence reveals involvement of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumor development and in tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These observations have sparked interest in understanding the mechanisms involved in the control of CSC function and fate. Post-translational modifications of histones dynamically influence gene expression independent of alterations to the DNA sequence. Recent findings from our group have shown that pharmacological induction of post-translational modifications of tumor histones dynamically modulates CSC plasticity. These findings suggest that a better understanding of the biology of CSCs in response to epigenetic switches and pharmacological inhibitors of histone function may directly translate to the development of a mechanism-based strategy to disrupt CSCs. In this review, we present and discuss current knowledge on epigenetic modifications of HNSCC and CSC response to DNA methylation and histone modifications. In addition, we discuss chromatin modifications and their role in tumor resistance to therapy. PMID:25426249

  7. Histone arginine methylation in cocaine action in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Damez-Werno, Diane M; Sun, HaoSheng; Scobie, Kimberly N; Shao, Ningyi; Rabkin, Jaclyn; Dias, Caroline; Calipari, Erin S; Maze, Ian; Pena, Catherine J; Walker, Deena M; Cahill, Michael E; Chandra, Ramesh; Gancarz, Amy; Mouzon, Ezekiell; Landry, Joseph A; Cates, Hannah; Lobo, Mary-Kay; Dietz, David; Allis, C David; Guccione, Ernesto; Turecki, Gustavo; Defilippi, Paola; Neve, Rachael L; Hurd, Yasmin L; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-08-23

    Repeated cocaine exposure regulates transcriptional regulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and epigenetic mechanisms-such as histone acetylation and methylation on Lys residues-have been linked to these lasting actions of cocaine. In contrast to Lys methylation, the role of histone Arg (R) methylation remains underexplored in addiction models. Here we show that protein-R-methyltransferase-6 (PRMT6) and its associated histone mark, asymmetric dimethylation of R2 on histone H3 (H3R2me2a), are decreased in the NAc of mice and rats after repeated cocaine exposure, including self-administration, and in the NAc of cocaine-addicted humans. Such PRMT6 down-regulation occurs selectively in NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2-MSNs), with opposite regulation occurring in D1-MSNs, and serves to protect against cocaine-induced addictive-like behavioral abnormalities. Using ChIP-seq, we identified Src kinase signaling inhibitor 1 (Srcin1; also referred to as p140Cap) as a key gene target for reduced H3R2me2a binding, and found that consequent Srcin1 induction in the NAc decreases Src signaling, cocaine reward, and the motivation to self-administer cocaine. Taken together, these findings suggest that suppression of Src signaling in NAc D2-MSNs, via PRMT6 and H3R2me2a down-regulation, functions as a homeostatic brake to restrain cocaine action, and provide novel candidates for the development of treatments for cocaine addiction. PMID:27506785

  8. Histone demethylase JMJD5 is essential for embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sangphil; Janknecht, Ralf

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histone demethylase JMJD5 is essential for embryogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transcription of tumor suppressor p53 is upregulated in JMJD5 knockout embryos. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JMJD5 may antagonize p53-dependent growth inhibition and apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JMJD5 is overexpressed in leukemias and breast cancer. -- Abstract: Histone lysine methylation is pivotal in regulating chromatin structure and thus profoundly affects the transcriptome. JMJD5 (jumonji C domain-containing 5) is a histone demethylase that specifically removes methyl moieties from dimethylated lysine 36 on histone H3 and exerts a pro-proliferative effect on breast cancer cells. Here, we generated JMJD5 knockout mice in order to study the physiological significance of this enzyme. Whereas heterozygous knockout mice displayed no overt phenotype, homozygous JMJD5 knockouts died around day 10 of embryonal development. JMJD5{sup -/-} embryos showed delayed development already at E8.5 and were actively resorbed at E10.5. While strong JMJD5 expression was observed only in the yolk sac at E8.5, JMJD5 was robustly expressed in E10.5 embryos at several sites, including the heart and eye. Lack of JMJD5 resulted in transcriptional upregulation of the tumor suppressor p53. Concurrently, the cell cycle inhibitor p21 and the pro-apoptotic molecule Noxa, both of which are prominent p53 target genes, became strongly upregulated in JMJD5{sup -/-} embryos. Collectively, our data indicate that JMJD5 is essential during embryonal development and a repressor of p53 expression. The latter suggests that JMJD5 has oncogenic activity and accordingly JMJD5 is upregulated in leukemias and breast cancer.

  9. Functional characterization of Candida albicans Hos2 histone deacetylase

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, G; Paul-Satyaseela, Maneesh; Dhatchana Moorthy, Nachiappan; Gopalaswamy, Radha; Narayanan, Shridhar

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a mucosal commensal organism capable of causing superficial (oral and vaginal thrush) infections in immune normal hosts, but is a major pathogen causing systemic and mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Azoles have been very effective anti-fungal agents and the mainstay in treating opportunistic mold and yeast infections. Azole resistant strains have emerged compromising the utility of this class of drugs. It has been shown that azole resistance can be reversed by the co-administration of a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suggesting that resistance is mediated by epigenetic mechanisms possibly involving Hos2, a fungal deacetylase. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of  HOS2 (High Osmolarity  Sensitive) , a gene coding for fungal histone deacetylase from  C. albicans. Inhibition studies showed that Hos2 is susceptible to pan inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), but is not inhibited by class I inhibitors such as MS-275. This  in  vitro enzymatic assay, which is amenable to high throughput could be used for screening potent fungal Hos2 inhibitors that could be a potential anti-fungal adjuvant. Purified Hos2 protein consistently deacetylated tubulins, rather than histones from TSA-treated cells. Hos2 has been reported to be a putative NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase, a feature of sirtuins. We assayed for sirtuin activation with resveratrol and purified Hos2 protein and did not find any sirtuin activity. PMID:25110576

  10. Combined Analyses of 20 Common Obesity Susceptibility Variants

    PubMed Central

    Sandholt, Camilla Helene; Sparsø, Thomas; Grarup, Niels; Albrechtsen, Anders; Almind, Katrine; Hansen, Lars; Toft, Ulla; Jørgensen, Torben; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Genome-wide association studies and linkage studies have identified 20 validated genetic variants associated with obesity and/or related phenotypes. The variants are common, and they individually exhibit small-to-modest effect sizes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this study we investigate the combined effect of these variants and their ability to discriminate between normal weight and overweight/obese individuals. We applied receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, and estimated the area under the ROC curve (AUC) as a measure of the discriminatory ability. The analyses were performed cross-sectionally in the population-based Inter99 cohort where 1,725 normal weight, 1,519 overweight, and 681 obese individuals were successfully genotyped for all 20 variants. RESULTS When combining all variants, the 10% of the study participants who carried more than 22 risk-alleles showed a significant increase in probability of being both overweight with an odds ratio of 2.00 (1.47–2.72), P = 4.0 × 10−5, and obese with an OR of 2.62 (1.76–3.92), P = 6.4 × 10−7, compared with the 10% of the study participants who carried less than 14 risk-alleles. Discrimination ability for overweight and obesity, using the 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), was determined to AUCs of 0.53 and 0.58, respectively. When combining SNP data with conventional nongenetic risk factors of obesity, the discrimination ability increased to 0.64 for overweight and 0.69 for obesity. The latter is significantly higher (P < 0.001) than for the nongenetic factors alone (AUC = 0.67). CONCLUSIONS The discriminative value of the 20 validated common obesity variants is at present time sparse and too weak for clinical utility, however, they add to increase the discrimination ability of conventional nongenetic risk factors. PMID:20110568

  11. Insights into neuroepigenetics through human histone deacetylase PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Gilbert, Tonya M; Zürcher, Nicole R; She, Angela; Bhanot, Anisha; Taillon, Brendan D; Schroeder, Fredrick A; Wang, Changing; Haggarty, Stephen J; Hooker, Jacob M

    2016-08-10

    Epigenetic dysfunction is implicated in many neurological and psychiatric diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Consequently, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are being aggressively pursued as therapeutic targets. However, a fundamental knowledge gap exists regarding the expression and distribution of HDACs in healthy individuals for comparison to disease states. Here, we report the first-in-human evaluation of neuroepigenetic regulation in vivo. Using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]Martinostat, an imaging probe selective for class I HDACs (isoforms 1, 2, and 3), we found that HDAC expression is higher in cortical gray matter than in white matter, with conserved regional distribution patterns within and between healthy individuals. Among gray matter regions, HDAC expression was lowest in the hippocampus and amygdala. Through biochemical profiling of postmortem human brain tissue, we confirmed that [(11)C]Martinostat selectively binds HDAC isoforms 1, 2, and 3, the HDAC subtypes most implicated in regulating neuroplasticity and cognitive function. In human stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells, pharmacologic-level doses of Martinostat induced changes in genes closely associated with synaptic plasticity, including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and SYP (synaptophysin), as well as genes implicated in neurodegeneration, including GRN (progranulin), at the transcript level, in concert with increased acetylation at both histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H4 lysine 12. This study quantifies HDAC expression in the living human brain and provides the foundation for gaining unprecedented in vivo epigenetic information in health and disease. PMID:27510902

  12. Evolution of histone 2A for chromatin compaction in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Macadangdang, Benjamin R; Oberai, Amit; Spektor, Tanya; Campos, Oscar A; Sheng, Fang; Carey, Michael F; Vogelauer, Maria; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2014-01-01

    During eukaryotic evolution, genome size has increased disproportionately to nuclear volume, necessitating greater degrees of chromatin compaction in higher eukaryotes, which have evolved several mechanisms for genome compaction. However, it is unknown whether histones themselves have evolved to regulate chromatin compaction. Analysis of histone sequences from 160 eukaryotes revealed that the H2A N-terminus has systematically acquired arginines as genomes expanded. Insertion of arginines into their evolutionarily conserved position in H2A of a small-genome organism increased linear compaction by as much as 40%, while their absence markedly diminished compaction in cells with large genomes. This effect was recapitulated in vitro with nucleosomal arrays using unmodified histones, indicating that the H2A N-terminus directly modulates the chromatin fiber likely through intra- and inter-nucleosomal arginine–DNA contacts to enable tighter nucleosomal packing. Our findings reveal a novel evolutionary mechanism for regulation of chromatin compaction and may explain the frequent mutations of the H2A N-terminus in cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02792.001 PMID:24939988

  13. Current evidence for histone deacetylase inhibitors in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koutsounas, Ioannis; Giaginis, Constantinos; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human cancers, with more than 200 000 deaths worldwide every year. Despite recent efforts, conventional treatment approaches, such as surgery and classic chemotherapy, have only slightly improved patient outcomes. More effective and well-tolerated therapies are required to reverse the current poor prognosis of this type of neoplasm. Among new agents, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are now being tested. HDACIs have multiple biological effects related to acetylation of histones and many non-histone proteins that are involved in regulation of gene expression, apoptosis, cell cycle progression and angiogenesis. HDACIs induce cell cycle arrest and can activate the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis in different cancer cell lines. In the present review, the main mechanisms by which HDACIs act in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro, as well as their antiproliferative effects in animal models are presented. HDACIs constitute a promising treatment for pancreatic cancer with encouraging anti-tumor effects, at well-tolerated doses. PMID:23430136